Hydroxycinnamic acid and its derivatives. Act as activators of the indoleacetic acid oxidizing system, thereby producing a decrease in the endogenous level of bound indoleacetic acid in plants.
A class of phenolic acids related to chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, vanillic acid, etc., which are found in plant tissues. It is involved in plant growth regulation.
A plant family of the order Lamiales. It is characterized by simple leaves in opposite pairs, cystoliths (enlarged cells containing crystals of calcium carbonate), and bilaterally symmetrical and bisexual flowers that are usually crowded together. The common name for Ruellia of wild petunia is easily confused with PETUNIA.
The above-ground plant without the roots.
Cinnamates are organic compounds that contain a cinnamic acid moiety, widely used in pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries as esters, with various applications ranging from UV absorbers to local anesthetics and antimicrobial agents.

Coupling of the peroxidase and cyclooxygenase reactions of prostaglandin H synthase. (1/535)

Interrelations between peroxidase and cyclooxygenase reactions catalyzed by prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase (prostaglandin H synthase) were analyzed in terms of the mutual influence of these reactions. The original branched-chain mechanism predicts competition between these two reactions for enzyme, so that peroxidase cosubstrate should inhibit the cyclooxygenase reaction and the cyclooxygenase substrate is expected to inhibit the peroxidase reaction. In stark contrast, the peroxidase reducing substrate is well known to strongly stimulate the cyclooxygenase reaction. In the present work the opposite effect, the influence of the cyclooxygenase substrate on the peroxidase reaction was studied. Experiments were conducted on the effect of arachidonic acid on the consumption of p-coumaric acid by prostaglandin H synthase and 5-phenyl-4-pentenyl-1-hydroperoxide. Neither the steady-state rates nor the total extent of p-coumaric acid consumption was affected by the addition of arachidonic acid. This suggests that the cyclooxygenase substrate does not influence observable velocities of the peroxidase reaction, namely oxidation and regeneration of the resting enzyme. The data support coupling of the cyclooxygenase and peroxidase reactions. A combination of the branched-chain and tightly coupled mechanisms is proposed, which includes a tyrosyl radical active enzyme intermediate regenerated through the peroxidase cycle. Numerical integration of the proposed reaction scheme agrees with the observed relations between peroxidase and cyclooxygenase reactions in the steady state.  (+info)

Genetic analysis of a chromosomal region containing vanA and vanB, genes required for conversion of either ferulate or vanillate to protocatechuate in Acinetobacter. (2/535)

VanA and VanB form an oxygenative demethylase that converts vanillate to protocatechuate in microorganisms. Ferulate, an abundant phytochemical, had been shown to be metabolized through a vanillate intermediate in several Pseudomonas isolates, and biochemical evidence had indicated that vanillate also is an intermediate in ferulate catabolism by Acinetobacter. Genetic evidence supporting this conclusion was obtained by characterization of mutant Acinetobacter strains blocked in catabolism of both ferulate and vanillate. Cloned Acinetobacter vanA and vanB were shown to be members of a chromosomal segment remote from a supraoperonic cluster containing other genes required for completion of the catabolism of ferulate and its structural analogs, caffeate and coumarate, through protocatechuate. The nucleotide sequence of DNA containing vanA and vanB demonstrated the presence of genes that, on the basis of nucleotide sequence similarity, appeared to be associated with transport of aromatic compounds, metabolism of such compounds, or iron scavenging. Spontaneous deletion of 100 kb of DNA containing this segment does not impede the growth of cells with simple carbon sources other than vanillate or ferulate. Additional spontaneous mutations blocking vanA and vanB expression were shown to be mediated by IS1236, including insertion of the newly discovered composite transposon Tn5613. On the whole, vanA and vanB appear to be located within a nonessential genetic region that exhibits considerable genetic malleability in Acinetobacter. The overall organization of genes neighboring Acinetobacter vanA and vanB, including a putative transcriptional regulatory gene that is convergently transcribed and overlaps vanB, is conserved in Pseudomonas aeruginosa but has undergone radical rearrangement in other Pseudomonas species.  (+info)

Bacterial photoreceptor with similarity to photoactive yellow protein and plant phytochromes. (3/535)

A phytochrome-like protein called Ppr was discovered in the purple photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum centenum. Ppr has a photoactive yellow protein (PYP) amino-terminal domain, a central domain with similarity to phytochrome, and a carboxyl-terminal histidine kinase domain. Reconstitution experiments demonstrate that Ppr covalently attaches the blue light-absorbing chromophore p-hydroxycinnamic acid and that it has a photocycle that is spectrally similar to, but kinetically slower than, that of PYP. Ppr also regulates chalcone synthase gene expression in response to blue light with autophosphorylation inhibited in vitro by blue light. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrates that R. centenum Ppr may be ancestral to cyanobacterial and plant phytochromes.  (+info)

Mitochondrial metabolism of pyruvate is required for its enhancement of cardiac function and energetics. (4/535)

Pyruvate augmentation of contractile function and cytosolic free energy of ATP hydrolysis in myocardium could result from pyruvate catabolism in the mitochondria or from increased ratio of the cytosolic NAD-/NADH redox couple via the lactate dehydrogenase equilibrium. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that cytosolic oxidation by pyruvate is sufficient to increase cardiac function and energetics. METHODS: Isolated working guinea-pig hearts received 0.2 mM octanoate +/- 2.5 mM pyruvate as fuels. alpha-Cyano-3-hydroxycinnamate (COHC, 0.6 mM) was administered to selectively inhibit mitochondrial pyruvate uptake without inhibiting pyruvate's cytosolic redox effects or octanoate oxidation. The effects of pyruvate and COHC on sarcoplasmic reticular- Ca2+ handling were examined in 45Ca-loaded hearts. RESULTS: Pyruvate increased left ventricular stroke work and power 40%, mechanical efficiency 29%, and cytosolic ATP phosphorylation potential nearly fourfold. 14CO2 formation from [1-14C]pyruvate was inhibited 65% by COHC, and octanoate oxidation, i.e. 14CO2 formation from [1-14C]octanoate, concomitantly increased threefold. COHC prevented pyruvate enhancement of left ventricular function, mechanical efficiency and cytosolic phosphorylation potential, but did not alter respective levels in pyruvate-free control hearts and augmented cytosolic oxidation by pyruvate. Pyruvate increased sarcoplasmic reticular Ca2+ turnover, i.e. Ca2+ uptake and release, as indicated by 62% decrease in caffeine-induced 45Ca release following 40 min 45Ca washout (P < 0.01). In presence of COHC, pyruvate did not lower caffeine-induced 45Ca release; thus. COHC abrogated pyruvate enhancement of Ca2+ turnover (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Pyruvate oxidation of cytosolic redox state is not sufficient to increase cardiac function, cytosolic energetics and sarcoplasmic reticular Ca2+ turnover when mitochondrial pyruvate transport is disabled; thus, mitochondrial metabolism of pyruvate is essential for its metabolic inotropism.  (+info)

Theoretical elucidation of activity differences of five phenolic antioxidants. (5/535)

AIM: To verify the effectiveness of structure-activity relationship (SAR) and theoretical calculation methods for antioxidants. METHODS: Preliminary elucidation on the differences of activities of 5 antioxidants was performed by SAR. Then semiempirical quantum chemistry method AM1 was employed to calculate the delta HOF value, the difference between the heat of formation of antioxidant and its free radical, which was used as a theoretical parameter to elucidate the differences of activities of the antioxidants thoroughly. RESULTS: delta HOF values of antioxidants were obtained as follows: ferulic acid, 150.58 kJ.mol-1; anion of ferulic acid, 122.64 kJ.mol-1; modified ferulic acid, 137.70 kJ.mol-1; anion of modified ferulic acid, 118.99 kJ.mol-1; salvianic acid, 134.17 kJ.mol-1; rutin, 137.83 kJ.mol-1, L-EGCG, 124.39 kJ.mol-1; paeonol, 176.79 kJ.mol-1. The differences of the antioxidant activities were elucidated, and how to further enhance the antioxidant activity was investigated as well. CONCLUSION: The SAR and calculation methods are rather effective to elucidate the differences of antioxidant activities, and present some new clues for structural modification of antioxidants to increase their activities.  (+info)

An early salicylic acid-, pathogen- and elicitor-inducible tobacco glucosyltransferase: role in compartmentalization of phenolics and H2O2 metabolism. (6/535)

Treatment of tobacco cell suspension cultures with a fungal elicitor of defense responses resulted in an early accumulation of the phenylpropanoid glucosyltransferase TOGT, along with the rapid synthesis and secretion of scopolin, the glucoside of scopoletin. Elicitor-triggered extracellular accumulation of the aglycone scopoletin and of free caffeic and ferulic acids could only be revealed in the presence of diphenylene iodonium, an inhibitor of extracellular H2O2 production. Our results strongly support a role for TOGT in the elicitor-stimulated production of transportable phenylpropanoid glucosides, followed by the release of free antioxidant phenolics into the extracellular medium and subsequent H2O2 scavenging.  (+info)

The small intestine can both absorb and glucuronidate luminal flavonoids. (7/535)

We have studied the perfusion of the jejunum and ileum in an isolated rat intestine model with flavonoids and hydroxycinnamates and the influence of glycosylation on the subsequent metabolism. Flavone and flavonol glucosides and their corresponding aglycones are glucuronidated during transfer across the rat jejunum and ileum and this glucuronidation occurs without the need for gut microflora. Furthermore, this suggests the presence of glycosidases as well as UDP-glucuronyl transferase in the jejunum. In contrast, quercetin-3-glucoside and rutin are mainly absorbed unmetabolised. The results suggest that the more highly reducing phenolics are absorbed predominantly as glucuronides (96.5%+/-4.6) of the amount absorbed, whereas monophenolic hydroxycinnamates and monophenolic B-ring flavonoids are less predisposed to glucuronidation and higher levels of aglycone (88.1%+/-10.1) are detected on absorption through both the jejunum and ileum.  (+info)

Biochemical characterization of the suberization-associated anionic peroxidase of potato. (8/535)

The anionic peroxidase associated with the suberization response in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers during wound healing has been purified and partially characterized at the biochemical level. It is a 45-kD, class III (plant secretory) peroxidase that is localized to suberizing tissues and shows a preference for feruloyl (o-methoxyphenol)-substituted substrates (order of substrate preference: feruloyl > caffeoyl > p-coumaryl approximately syringyl) such as those that accumulate in tubers during wound healing. There was little influence on oxidation by side chain derivatization, although hydroxycinnamates were preferred over the corresponding hydroxycinnamyl alcohols. The substrate specificity pattern is consistent with the natural substrate incorporation into potato wound suberin. In contrast, the cationic peroxidase(s) induced in response to wound healing in potato tubers is present in both suberizing and nonsuberizing tissues and does not discriminate between hydroxycinnamates and hydroxycinnamyl alcohols. A synthetic polymer prepared using E-[8-(13)C]ferulic acid, H(2)O(2), and the purified anionic enzyme contained a significant amount of cross-linking through C-8, albeit with retention of unsaturation.  (+info)

Coumaric acids are a type of phenolic acid that are widely distributed in plants. They are found in various foods such as fruits, vegetables, and grains. The most common forms of coumaric acids are p-coumaric acid, o-coumaric acid, and m-coumaric acid.

Coumaric acids have been studied for their potential health benefits, including their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial properties. They may also play a role in preventing chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential health benefits of coumaric acids.

It's worth noting that coumaric acids are not to be confused with warfarin (also known as Coumadin), a medication used as an anticoagulant. While both coumaric acids and warfarin contain a similar chemical structure, they have different effects on the body.

Caffeic acids are a type of phenolic compounds that contain a catechol structure and a carboxylic acid group. They are found in various plants, including coffee, tea, fruits, and vegetables. The most common caffeic acid is caffeic acid itself, which is abundant in coffee. Caffeic acids have been studied for their potential health benefits, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities. However, more research is needed to fully understand their effects on human health.

Acanthaceae is a family of flowering plants that includes around 2,500 species distributed across 220-400 genera. These plants are primarily found in tropical and subtropical regions, with some extending into temperate zones. The family is characterized by the presence of stiff, spiny bracts, which are often colorful and modified to attract pollinators.

The plants in Acanthaceae can vary widely in form, from herbaceous annuals and perennials to shrubs and trees. They have simple or opposite leaves that may be entire or lobed. The flowers are typically bisexual, with a two-lipped calyx and corolla, and four stamens.

Some well-known members of Acanthaceae include the garden plants Shrimp Plant (Justicia brandegeeana) and Whorled Tubelet (Lepidagathis formosa), as well as the medicinal plant Indian Snakeroot (Rauvolfia serpentina).

In a medical context, some species of Acanthaceae have been used in traditional medicine for various purposes, such as treating skin conditions, fevers, and gastrointestinal disorders. However, it is important to note that the use of these plants should be done with caution and under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional, as they can also contain toxic compounds.

Aerial parts of plants refer to the above-ground portions of a plant, including leaves, stems, flowers, and fruits. These parts are often used in medicine, either in their entirety or as isolated extracts, to take advantage of their medicinal properties. The specific components of aerial parts that are used in medicine can vary depending on the plant species and the desired therapeutic effects. For example, the leaves of some plants may contain active compounds that have anti-inflammatory or analgesic properties, while the flowers of others may be rich in antioxidants or compounds with sedative effects. In general, aerial parts of plants are used in herbal medicine to treat a wide range of conditions, including respiratory, digestive, and nervous system disorders, as well as skin conditions and infections.

Cinnamates are organic compounds that are derived from cinnamic acid. They contain a carbon ring with a double bond and a carboxylic acid group, making them aromatic acids. Cinnamates are widely used in the perfume industry due to their pleasant odor, and they also have various applications in the pharmaceutical and chemical industries.

In a medical context, cinnamates may be used as topical medications for the treatment of skin conditions such as fungal infections or inflammation. For example, cinnamate esters such as cinoxacin and ciclopirox are commonly used as antifungal agents in creams, lotions, and shampoos. These compounds work by disrupting the cell membranes of fungi, leading to their death.

Cinnamates may also have potential therapeutic benefits for other medical conditions. For instance, some studies suggest that cinnamate derivatives may have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and neuroprotective properties, making them promising candidates for the development of new drugs to treat diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. However, more research is needed to confirm these effects and determine their safety and efficacy in humans.

... o-Coumaric acid m-Coumaric acid p-Coumaric acid This set index article lists chemical compounds articles associated with the ... Coumaric acid is a phenolic derivative of cinnamic acid having a hydroxy group as substituent at one of the aromatic positions ...
There are three isomers of coumaric acids - o-coumaric acid, m-coumaric acid, and p-coumaric acid - that differ by the position ... o-Coumaric acid is a hydroxycinnamic acid, an organic compound that is a hydroxy derivative of cinnamic acid. ... The Reduction of o-Coumaric Acid to Melilotic Acid". Biochemistry. 3 (12): 1944-7. doi:10.1021/bi00900a027. PMID 14269315. o- ... o-Coumaric acid can be found in vinegar. 2-Coumarate reductase is an enzyme that produces 2-coumarate from 3-(2-hydroxyphenyl) ...
o-coumaric acid m-coumaric acid Coumarin Coumaroyl-Coenzyme A Ferulic acid Cinnamic acid Phenolic content in wine p- ... p-Coumaric acid from pollen is a constituent of honey. p-Coumaric acid glucoside can also be found in commercial breads ... Of the myriad occurrences, p-coumaric acid can be found in Gnetum cleistostachyum. p-Coumaric acid can be found in a wide ... Diesters of p-coumaric acid can be found in carnauba wax. It is biosynthesized from cinnamic acid by the action of the P450- ...
There are three isomers of coumaric acid - o-coumaric acid, m-coumaric acid, and p-coumaric acid - that differ by the position ... m-Coumaric acid can be found in vinegar. m-Coumaric acid at www.phenol-explorer.eu v t e (ECHA InfoCard ID from Wikidata, ... m-Coumaric acid is a hydroxycinnamic acid, an organic compound that is a hydroxy derivative of cinnamic acid. ... Hydroxycinnamic acids, All stub articles, Aromatic compound stubs). ...
... is a hydroxycinnamic acid, an organic compound found in commercial breads containing flaxseed. ... 10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.02.088 p-Coumaric acid glucoside at www.phenol-explorer.eu v t e (Articles needing additional ... Hydroxycinnamic acid esters, Hydroxycinnamic acid glycosides, Phenol glucosides, All stub articles, Aromatic compound stubs). ...
It transforms L-tyrosine into p-coumaric acid. → T A L {\displaystyle {\xrightarrow {TAL}}} + Ammonia + H+ L-tyrosine = trans-p ... a member of the aromatic amino acid lyase family". Chemistry & Biology. 13 (12): 1317-26. doi:10.1016/j.chembiol.2006.10.008. ... Hydroxycinnamic acids metabolism, All stub articles, Enzyme stubs). ...
Honey produced by bees from natural sources contains pollen derived p-coumaric acid, an antioxidant and natural bactericide ... Lou, Zaixiang; Wang, Hongxin; Rao, Shengqi; Sun, Juntao; Ma, Chaoyang; Li, Jing (2012). "p-Coumaric acid kills bacteria through ... This differential stain consists of ethanol, malachite green, distilled water, glycerol, phenol, chloral hydrate, acid fuchsin ... orange G, and glacial acetic acid. (A less-toxic variation omits the phenol and chloral hydrate.) In angiosperms and ...
The reduction of o-coumaric acid to melilotic acid". Biochemistry. 3 (12): 1944-7. doi:10.1021/bi00900a027. PMID 14269315. ... Hydroxycinnamic acids metabolism, All stub articles, EC 1.3 stubs). ...
... linoleic acid, and myristic acid. Other compounds include β-sitosterol, scopoletin, and p-coumaric acid. The alkaloid atropine ... vanillic acid, salicylic acid, and nicotinic acid. From the flowers, diosgenin, β-sitosterol, and lanosterol have been isolated ... The compounds present in the roots have been less studied, but they include betaine, choline, linoleic acid, and β-sitosterol [ ... Other detected compounds include flavonoids derived from myricetin, quercetin, and kaempferol; hexadecanoic acid, ...
This pathway involves reduction of the aliphatic double bond present in p-coumaric acid. The mechanism of action of ... In addition, Rhododendrol can be synthesised from p-coumaric acid. ...
... is a hydroxycinnamoyltartaric acid found in wine, pomace and grape. It is an ester formed from coumaric acid and ... Hydroxycinnamic acid esters, Vinylogous carboxylic acids, All stub articles, Aromatic compound stubs). ... Singleton, V. L.; Zaya, J.; Trousdale, E. K. (1986). "Caftaric and coutaric acids in fruit of Vitis". Phytochemistry. 25 (9): ... "Isolation of hydroxycinnamoyltartaric acids from grape pomace by high-speed counter-current chromatography". Journal of ...
... diferulic acid, and for a while this was thought to be the only one. Sinapic acid Coumaric acid Bunzel M, Ralph J, Steinhart H ... Just as ferulic acid is not the proper IUPAC name, the diferulic acids also tend to have trivial names that are more commonly ... Ferulic acid can also form trimers and tetramers, known as triferulic and tetraferulic acids respectively. They have been found ... Diferulic acids are more effective inhibitors of lipid peroxidation and better scavengers of free radicals than ferulic acid on ...
Coumaric acid is sometimes added to microbiological media, enabling the positive identification of Brettanomyces by smell. 4- ... The enzyme cinnamate decarboxylase converts p-coumaric acid to 4-vinylphenol. 4-Vinylphenol is further reduced to 4-ethylphenol ...
doi:10.1016/s0040-4039(01)84960-1. Jakupovic, J.; Warning, U.; Bohlmann, F.; King, R. M. (1987). "New coumaric acid derivatives ...
Coumaric acid is sometimes added to microbiological media, enabling the positive identification of Brettanomyces by smell. 4- ... 4-EP is biosynthesized in two steps from p-coumaric acid. Decarboxylation gives 4-vinylphenol as catalyzed by the enzyme ...
Coumaroyl-coenzyme A is the thioester of coenzyme-A and coumaric acid. Coumaroyl-coenzyme A is a central intermediate in the ... Hydroxycinnamic acid esters, Vinylogous carboxylic acids, All stub articles, Aromatic compound stubs). ...
Phosgene Diphosgene Ouimet MA, Stebbins ND, Uhrich KE (August 2013). "Biodegradable coumaric acid-based poly(anhydride-ester) ... Tsai JH, Takaoka LR, Powell NA, Nowick JS (2002). "Synthesis of Amino Acid Ester Isocyanates: Methyl (S)-2-Isocyanato-3- ...
Active phytoconstituents include gallic acid, caffeic acid, vanillin, and p-coumaric acid. Cucurbitacin b and isocucurbitacin b ... 1999) isolated rosmarinic acid and their derivatives; isoscutellarein and their derivatives; D-glucopyranosyl isorinic acid ... with rosmarinic acid; helisterculins A and B; and helisorin. The fruits and roots of H. isora are used in traditional medicine ...
p-Coumaric acid is a cofactor of Photoactive yellow protein,photoactive yellow proteins. Adducts of p-coumaric acid bound to ... thus stabilizing the trans-cis isomerization of p-coumaric acid. During the transition state it is believed that the p-coumaric ... Scientists noted by observing the crystal structure of p-coumaric acid bound by PYP that the hydroxyl group connected to the C4 ... These interactions are apart from the thiol ester linkage to Cys 69 keeping p-coumaric acid in the ligand binding site. Upon ...
Other compounds produced by Brettanomyces that cause wine faults include 4-ethylguaiacol and isovaleric acid. Coumaric acid is ... Brettanomyces converts p-coumaric acid to 4-vinylphenol via the enzyme cinnamate decarboxylase. 4-Vinylphenol is further ... being the product of the most common volatile organic acid - acetic acid, and the ethyl alcohol generated during the ... Ascorbic acid is used during wine making Sulfur dioxide (SO2), a preservative often added to wine Gum arabic has been used in ...
There are two forms with the cis and trans isomers of p-coumaric acid. It is a cation. Phenolic content in wine Calvo, D.; ...
... is produced by reduction of the unsaturated side chain of p-coumaric acid. Together with phloroglucinol, it is ... Liquid-crystalline hyperbranched and potentially biodegradable polyesters based on phloretic acid and gallic acid". ... Phloretic acid is an organic compound with the formula HOC6H4(CH2)2CO2H. It is a white solid. The compound contains both phenol ... It is sometimes called Desaminotyrosine (DAT) because it is identical to the common alpha amino acid tyrosine except for the ...
L-tyrosine is converted to p-coumaric acid by the enzyme tyrosine ammonia lyase (TAL). From here, p-coumaric acid is converted ... S-Adenosyl methionine (SAM) is then used to methylate caffeic acid, forming ferulic acid, which is in turn converted to ... The biosynthesis of eugenol begins with the amino acid tyrosine. ... to caffeic acid by p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase using oxygen and ... "TLC Densitometric Method for the Quantification of Eugenol and Gallic Acid in Clove". Chromatographia. 60 (3-4): 241-244. doi: ...
... is an enzyme that uses p-coumaric acid to produce 4-ethylphenol. p-Coumaric acid is the ... also be induced in bacteria species such as Klebsiella oxytoca and works also with p-coumaric acid analogs such as caffeic acid ... ferulic acid and E-2,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid. Brettanomyces Monitoring by Analysis of 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol ... Wine chemistry v t e (Webarchive template wayback links, All stub articles, Enzyme stubs, Hydroxycinnamic acids metabolism, EC ...
Natural resin is a complex composition of components such as resin acids, lignans and coumaric acid. The levels of these ... The antimicrobial effect is based on resin acid that breaks down the cell wall and the cell membrane and because of that the ... Persons allergic to resin acids should not use these types of product since it may cause them to develop a topical skin rash. ...
Important phytochemicals include p-coumaric acid, quercetin, abscisic acid, anabasine, caffeine, gallic acid, kaempferol, and ...
Plant biosynthesis starting with cinnamic acid is rare compared to the more common p-coumaric acid. Only a few identified ... Both use cinnamic acid as their starting point, which is derived from the amino acid phenylalanine. ... It reacts with boric acid to form a red-colored compound, rosocyanine. The biosynthetic route of curcumin is uncertain. In 1973 ... The first mechanism involves a chain extension reaction by cinnamic acid and 5 malonyl-CoA molecules that eventually arylize ...
It is converted into Cinnamic acid (2) via phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL). Then it is turned into p-Coumaric acid (3) with ... is the enzyme that is responsible for the bonding of shikimic acid and p-Coumaroyl-CoA. The complexed (5) is then selectively ...
Rasmussen S, Rudolph H (1997). "Isolation, purification and characterization of UDP-glucose:cis-p-coumaric acid-beta-D- ...
Srivastava, N.; Khatoon, S.; Rawat, A. K. S.; Rai, V.; Mehrotra, S. (2009). "Chromatographic Estimation of p-Coumaric Acid and ... One method includes an organic compound succinic anhydride and a carboxylic acid docosanoic acid that have been used to attach ... It produces triacontanoic acid which can be reduced with lithium aluminium hydride (LAH) to produce 1-triacontanol. Another ... M.M.A. Khan; R. Khan; M. Singh; S. Nasir; M. Naeem; M.H. Siddiqui; F. Mohammad (2007). "Gibberellic acid and triacontanol can ...
... o-Coumaric acid m-Coumaric acid p-Coumaric acid This set index article lists chemical compounds articles associated with the ... Coumaric acid is a phenolic derivative of cinnamic acid having a hydroxy group as substituent at one of the aromatic positions ...
... p-Coumaric acid; trans-p-Coumaric acid; trans-p-Coumarinic acid; (E)-p-Hydroxycinnamic acid; trans-p-Hydroxycinnamic acid; ... trans-4-Hydroxycinnamic acid; Naringeninic acid; 2-Propenoic acid, 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-, (E)-; p-Hydroxycinnamic acid, trans; 2 ... acid, 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-, (2E)-; (E)-4-Hydroxycinnamic acid; 4 - hydroxycinnamic acid; p-Hydroxycinnamic acid ... Other names: Cinnamic acid, p-hydroxy-, (E)-; (E)- ... p-Coumaric acid, trans. *Formula: C9H8O3. *Molecular weight: ...
Click the button below to add the p-Coumaric acid-[13C3] 1mg to your wish list. ...
... p-Coumaric acid with the InChIKey NGSWKAQJJWESNS-ZZXKWVIFSA-N. ... p-Coumaric acid; LC-ESI-QTOF; MS2; CE: 10; R=; [M+H]+. Mass ... CH$NAME: p-Coumaric acid. CH$NAME: (E)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)prop-2-enoic acid. CH$COMPOUND_CLASS: N/A; Metabolomics Standard. CH$ ... RECORD_TITLE: p-Coumaric acid; LC-ESI-QTOF; MS2; CE: 10; R=; [M+H]+. DATE: 2017.10.24. AUTHORS: BGC, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen ... AC$CHROMATOGRAPHY: SOLVENT A Water with 0.1% formic acid. AC$CHROMATOGRAPHY: SOLVENT B ACN with 0.1% formic acid. MS$FOCUSED_ ...
Concentration data for m-Coumaric acid in Olive [Green], raw Food Composition ...
Crystal Structure of Single Point Mutant GLU71SER P-Coumaric Acid Decarboxylase ... H.Rodriguez, I.Angulo, B.De Las Rivas, N.Campillo, J.A.Paez, R.Munoz, J.M.Mancheno. P-Coumaric Acid Decarboxylase From ... The structure of Crystal Structure of Single Point Mutant GLU71SER P-Coumaric Acid Decarboxylase also contains other ... The structure of Crystal Structure of Single Point Mutant GLU71SER P-Coumaric Acid Decarboxylase, PDB code: 2wsj was solved by ...
p-coumaric acid. Antioxidants of various kinds help prevent cellular damage caused by unstable molecules known as free radicals ... High intake of amino acids from meat, milk tied to higher type 2 diabetes risk. High intake of some types of amino acid, ... High intake of amino acids from meat, milk tied to higher type 2 diabetes risk ...
Phenolic Acids ,P-Coumaric Acid ,Methanol Extract ,Free Radicals ,Anti-Inflammatory آدرس Jss Academy Of Higher Education And ... Isolation and Characterization of P-Coumaric Acid From Diospyros Melanoxylon Medicinal Plant Endemic To Western Ghats, India ... indicated that the bioactive isolated compound was p-coumaric acid, the effect of which was on par with the standard ...
Biswick, T., Park, D. H., Shul, Y. G., & Choy, J. H. (2010). P-coumaric acid-zinc basic salt nanohybrid for controlled release ... P-coumaric acid-zinc basic salt nanohybrid for controlled release and sustained antioxidant activity. In: Journal of Physics ... P-coumaric acid-zinc basic salt nanohybrid for controlled release and sustained antioxidant activity. Journal of Physics and ... P-coumaric acid (pCA) has been intercalated in zinc basic salt (ZBS) to design an organic-inorganic nanohybrid material with ...
... of the control in the presence of p-coumaric acid. Coniferyl aldehyde, ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid and their conversion ... Result: Coniferyl aldehyde was rapidly converted within the first 24 h, while ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid were more slowly ... Conclusion: We conclude that the conversion of coniferyl aldehyde, ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid into less inhibitory ... Although there were several conversion products formed from coniferyl aldehyde, ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid, the ...
Treatment with coumaric acid was also able to revert the activated phenotype of GRX cells to their quiescent state. Thus, our ... Coumaric acid was able to inhibit the expression of cyclin D1 and CDKs (CDK2, CDK4, and CDK6), increasing p53 and p21, which ... Coumaric acid is a phenolic compound found in medicinal plants. Its use has been reported in the treatment of inflammatory ... Thus, this study evaluated coumaric acid as a potential treatment for liver fibrosis. Cell proliferation was assessed by the ...
High-resolution excitation and absorption spectroscopy of gas-phase p-coumaric acid: unveiling an elusive chromophore. S. ... High-resolution excitation and absorption spectroscopy of gas-phase p-coumaric acid: unveiling an elusive chromophore. S. ...
Cinnamic acid; Linear Formula: C6H5CH=CHCOOH; find Sigma-Aldrich-800235 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents ... Cinnamic acid for synthesis; CAS Number: 140-10-3; Synonyms: ...
4-Hydroxycinnamic acid methyl ester; p-Coumaric acid methyl ester; Methyl 4-coumarate; Methyl ester of p-hydroxycinnamic acid; ... Other names: Cinnamic acid, p-hydroxy-, methyl ester; p-Hydroxycinnamic acid methyl ester; Methyl p-coumarate; Methyl p- ... 2-Propenoic acid, 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-, methyl ester. *Formula: C10H10O3 ...
In this work, we focus our photoprotection studies on p-coumaric acid and the flavonoid naringenin chalcone. Photoprotection is ... well-understood in p-coumaric acid; in contrast, information surr 2023 PCCP HOT Articles ... Coumaric acids and flavonoids play pivotal roles in protecting plants against ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure. ... Coumaric acids and flavonoids play pivotal roles in protecting plants against ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure. In this ...
... chlorogenic acid; p-coumaric acid, caffeic and ferulic acids. ... anti-inflammatory agents ursolic and oleanolic acids. The ...
... coumaric acids did not differ significantly between sprouts dried at the same conditions; however, their level decreased in the ... The leaves do not differ too much in terms of the phenolic acids profile, whereas the differentiating factor is thermal ... The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of drying temperature on the phenolic acids profile and antioxidant ... and gallic acids) and cinnamic acid derivatives (ferulic, p-coumaric, and caffeic acids). In addition, raw and germinated seeds ...
Other phenolic acids in coffee beans are: ferulic and p-coumaric. These compounds contribute to the total polyphenol intake in ... CGA is an ester formed between caffeic acid and quinic acid and is hydrolyzed into various aromatic acid metabolites including ... Phenolic acids. The total content of phenolic acids for fresh beans was higher in organic coffee (7.60 mg g−1) than in ... In light- and medium-roasted coffee, the content of chlorogenic acid was the highest and the smallest of chlorogenic acid ...
Quorum sensing inhibition activity of garlic extract and p-coumaric acid. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 49, 551-555. doi: 10.1111/j. ... Kockar, C., Ozturk, M., and Bavbek, N. (2001). Helicobacter pylori eradication with beta carotene, ascorbic acid and allicin. ... Wu, T., Huang, Y., Chen, Y., and Zhang, M. (2018). Antibacterial effect of (2E,2E)-4,4-trisulfanediylbis(but-2-enoic acid) ... nucleic acids, polysaccharides, and lipids that are secreted by the bacteria. The formation of biofilm is a complex process ...
... hydroxycinnamic acids and hydroxybenzoic acids. Hydroxycinnamic acids include p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids, ... This p-coumaric acid is altered into ferulic acid by the action of o-methyl transferase, and so ferulic acid is converted into ... p-Coumaric acid Anticancer. [36]. Ferulic acid. Anticancer. Alleviates angina pectoris. Reducing hypertension. Reducing type 2- ... p-coumaric acid by detaching an ammonia group through the enzymatic reaction of tyrosine ammonia lyase and then p-coumaric acid ...
Coumaric Acid 16% * Disk 100% * Electrochemical Detection 16% * Engineering Process 33% * Ion 16% ...
Peanuts are particularly high in one polyphenol called p-coumaric acid; and the level of this acid is heightened when nuts are ...
trans-m-Coumaric Acid Product Number: C0655 , Purity / Analysis Method: ,99.0%(GC)(T) ...
2022). p-Coumaric acid, kaempferol, astragalin and tiliroside influence the expression of glycoforms in AGS gastric cancer ... 2014). A hyaluronic acid-salmon calcitonin conjugate for the local treatment of osteoarthritis: chondro-protective effect in a ... 2020). Anti-inflammatory effect of astragalin and chlorogenic acid on Escherichia coli-induced inflammation of sheep ...
... gallic acid and p-coumaric acid, whereas those of L. inermis contained apigenin 5-glucoside, apigetrin and gallic acid. Strong ... gallic acid, isoquercetin, p-coumaric acid, quercitrin and rutoside. A. saligna and L. inermis leaf extracts as well as ... The structural identities were determined as follows: the fatty acid-myristic acid (1); the sterol-stigmasterol (2); the lignan ... apigenin 5-glucoside and p-coumaric acid. This is the first study exploring the polyphenolic composition of A. saligna and L. ...
p-Coumaric acid and quercetin derivatives were the main phenolic compounds identified in the cranberry powders. CP-SAB had - ... Aqueous solutions of two different cranberry powders (CP and CP-SAB) were evaluated for organic acids, sugars, total phenolics ...
... coumaric acid (spices, berries), anthocyanins (blueberries, strawberries). Bottom line on antioxidants and disease prevention. ... Dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E after myocardial infarction: results of the GISSI- ... Theyre joined by glutathione, coenzyme Q10, lipoic acid, flavonoids, phenols, polyphenols, phytoestrogens, and many more. Most ...
2006) found that phenolic acids (syringic acid, vanillic acid and p-coumaric acid) protected plants against insects. Saponins ... vanillic acid, salicylic acid, vanillin, syringaldehyde, coumaric acid, chlorogenic acid, coumarin, rutin, quercetin, ... To perform the test, the same procedure was performed as for gallic acid, replacing the test solution of gallic acid with the ... To create the gallic acid calibration curve, 0.04 g of gallic acid was weighed into 8 mL of MeOH (stock solution). Dilutions ( ...
... and p-coumaric acid 3-hydroxylase (C3H). There is likely overlap of enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of o-diphenol PPO ... In plants, caffeic acid and its derivatives are intermediates in the synthesis of monolignols, although in some plants like red ... Technical Abstract: In red clover leaves, the oxidation of abundant o-diphenol caffeic acid derivatives by the enzyme ... clover these caffeic acid derivatives accumulate to relatively high levels in leaves. Understanding how red clover leaves ...
C for one hour to release hydroxycinnamic acids (p-coumaric and ferulic) and lipids. The released phenolic acids and lipids ... The total polar lipids, phenolic acids and protein content in CFGs isolated with lower alkali concentration for a shorter time ... The presence of these phenolic acids, lipids and protein in CFG may contribute to its excellent emulsifying properties and may ... Our results have also shown that "pure" CFG fractions often contain considerable amounts of associated lipids, phenolic acids ...
  • In an approach to engineer a S. cerevisiae strain with higher tolerance to phenolic inhibitors, we selectively investigated the metabolic conversion and physiological effects of coniferyl aldehyde, ferulic acid, and p-coumaric acid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (chalmers.se)
  • Result: Coniferyl aldehyde was rapidly converted within the first 24 h, while ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid were more slowly converted over a period of 72 h. (chalmers.se)
  • Although there were several conversion products formed from coniferyl aldehyde, ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid, the conversion products profile from the three compounds were similar. (chalmers.se)
  • On the physiology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the maximum specific growth rates of the yeast was not affected in the presence of coniferyl aldehyde or ferulic acid, but it was significantly reduced in the presence of p-coumaric acid. (chalmers.se)
  • The biomass yields on glucose were reduced to 73 and 54 % of the control in the presence of coniferyl aldehyde and ferulic acid, respectively, biomass yield increased to 127 % of the control in the presence of p-coumaric acid. (chalmers.se)
  • Coniferyl aldehyde, ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid and their conversion products were screened for inhibition, the conversion products were less inhibitory than coniferyl aldehyde, ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid, indicating that the conversion of the three compounds by Saccharomyces cerevisiae was also a detoxification process. (chalmers.se)
  • Conclusion: We conclude that the conversion of coniferyl aldehyde, ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid into less inhibitory compounds is a form of stress response and a detoxification process. (chalmers.se)
  • p-coumaric acid, caffeic and ferulic acids. (florahealth.com)
  • Other phenolic acids in coffee beans are: ferulic and p-coumaric. (springer.com)
  • The pure CFG prepared by this process was hydrolyzed with 1.5 N methanolic KOH at 70 °C for one hour to release hydroxycinnamic acids (p-coumaric and ferulic) and lipids. (usda.gov)
  • Gallic acid, 3,4-di-hydroxybenzoic acid, sinapic acid, ferulic acid, coumaric acid, and rutin were identified by UPLC-MS/MS and were the main compounds detected in mustard extracts. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • They analysed the profile differences for the content of flavonols (kaempferol-3- O ​-rutinoside, rutin, and quercetin), flavanones (naringenin and naringenin-7- O ​-glucoside), flavones (apigenin-7- O ​-glucoside), and hydroxycinnamic acids (ferulic, p ​-coumaric, caffeic, and chlorogenic acids. (foodnavigator.com)
  • The main groups of CGA found in green coffee beans include caffeoylquinic acids, dicaffeoylquinic acids, feruloylquinic acids, p-coumaroylquinic acids and mixed diesters of caffeic and ferulic acids with quinic acid, each group with at least three isomers. (scielo.br)
  • The influence of some hydroxycinnamic acids on colour as well as the influence of selective fining on flavonoid development in wine made from Vitis vinifera L. ca. (lincoln.ac.nz)
  • Coumaric acids and flavonoids play pivotal roles in protecting plants against ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure. (rsc.org)
  • Furthermore, organic coffee beans showed higher content of bioactive compounds (total phenolic, phenolic acids and flavonoids) than conventional coffee beans. (springer.com)
  • Production of flavonoids and stilbenoids in S. cerevisiae is challenging, partially due to carbon loss towards phloretic acid by the action of an unknown endogenous reductase. (ruc.dk)
  • These include the phenolic acids, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid and ellagic acid as well as many flavonoids. (ndtv.com)
  • Coumaric acid is a phenolic derivative of cinnamic acid having a hydroxy group as substituent at one of the aromatic positions: o-Coumaric acid m-Coumaric acid p-Coumaric acid This set index article lists chemical compounds articles associated with the same name. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phenylalanine is first converted to cinnamic acid by deamination. (kegg.jp)
  • Chlorogenic acids (CGA) and related compounds are the main components of the phenolic fraction of green coffee beans, reaching levels up to 14 % (dry matter basis). (scielo.br)
  • They are known to be rich in sugars and inhibitors such as phenolic compounds, organic acids and furaldehydes. (chalmers.se)
  • During 12 months storage a decrease in polyphenolic compounds is observed and it is connected with the degradation of chlorogenic acid, which influences total bioactivity. (springer.com)
  • The coffee beverage is a rich source of bioactive compounds especially polyphenols, such as phenolic acids, mostly chlorogenic (in green beans) and caffeic (occurring after roasting). (springer.com)
  • During the roasting process, a decrease in polyphenolic compounds is observed and it is connected with the degradation of chlorogenic, malic and citric acid, which influences the total antioxidant activity. (springer.com)
  • Wounding and UVB Light Synergistically Induce the Biosynthesis of Phenolic Compounds and Ascorbic Acid in Red Prickly Pears ( Opuntia ficus-indica cv. (mdpi.com)
  • The pain-relieving properties are likely due to the presence of the anti-inflammatory compounds eugenol, myricetin and salicylic acid in the flowers. (skininc.com)
  • P-coumaric acid (pCA) has been intercalated in zinc basic salt (ZBS) to design an organic-inorganic nanohybrid material with controlled release and sustained antioxidant activity. (elsevierpure.com)
  • In red clover leaves, the oxidation of abundant o-diphenol caffeic acid derivatives by the enzyme polyphenol oxidase (PPO) prevents post-harvest protein loss, enhancing the quality of this forage when it is preserved by ensiling. (usda.gov)
  • We find that the excited state dynamics of p -coumaric acid are significantly altered in the presence of naringenin chalcone. (rsc.org)
  • Both acids produced a significantly larger hyperchromic shift in absorbance maxima, when added to Cabernet Sauvignon in relation to Pinot noir. (lincoln.ac.nz)
  • In this work, we focus our photoprotection studies on p -coumaric acid and the flavonoid naringenin chalcone. (rsc.org)
  • Herein, we employ transient absorption spectroscopy together with steady-state irradiation studies to unravel the photoprotection mechanism of a solution of p -coumaric acid and naringenin chalcone. (rsc.org)
  • This finding concurs with quenching of the p -coumaric acid fluorescence with increasing concentration of naringenin chalcone. (rsc.org)
  • We propose a Förster energy transfer mechanism is operative via the formation of dipole-dipole interactions between p -coumaric acid and naringenin chalcone. (rsc.org)
  • The nutritional value of quinoa seeds is in particular related to the high protein content (with all essential amino acids), unsaturated fatty acids, and fiber, although the content of vitamins, minerals, and other phytochemicals and the gluten-free nature of these products should also be mentioned [ 2 - 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • It is followed by hydroxylation and frequent methylation to generate coumaric acid and other acids with a phenylpropane (C6-C3) unit. (kegg.jp)
  • Halliwell B. Hydroxylation of p-Coumaric acid by illuminated chloroplasts. (medscape.com)
  • Salicylic acid also has demonstrated activity against eczema. (skininc.com)
  • The released phenolic acids and lipids were identified and quantified using HPLC with detection by both UV and evaporative light-scattering detection (ELSD). (usda.gov)
  • Caffeic and p-coumaric acid were added to musts of Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot noir prior to fermentation. (lincoln.ac.nz)
  • Both acids produced significant hyperchromic shifts in absorbance maxima in both Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot noir post fermentation (49 days from addition of acids) compared to the untreated wine. (lincoln.ac.nz)
  • the physicochemical and spectroscopic analyses (uv, ir, 1 h nmr, 13 c nmr, and ms) indicated that the bioactive isolated compound was p-coumaric acid, the effect of which was on par with the standard antioxidant, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory drugs. (isc.ac)
  • There is likely overlap of enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of o-diphenol PPO substrates and other important phenols (e.g. monolignols, phytoalexins), so we are currently characterizing the expression patterns of these genes in red clover as they relate to the accumulation of caffeic acid derivatives. (usda.gov)
  • Increasing of lignin in composite films, the acid to aldehyde ratios of vanillyl and syringyl phenols of the lignin declined from 1.18 to 1.17 (~0.76%) and 1.59-1.56 (~1.78%), respectively. (degruyter.com)
  • These findings should be of great value for the industrial production of p-coumaric acid-derived molecules in S. cerevisiae. (ruc.dk)
  • Thus, our results suggest that coumaric acid has a potential therapeutic effect against liver fibrosis . (bvsalud.org)
  • The extraction of CFG with alkaline hydrogen peroxide was investigated using different combinations of alkali concentration and time to identify the optimum extraction condition to retain its functional groups (protein, lipids and phenolic acids). (usda.gov)
  • The total polar lipids, phenolic acids and protein content in CFGs isolated with lower alkali concentration for a shorter time was comparatively higher than CFGs isolated with higher alkali concentration for a longer time. (usda.gov)
  • Our results have also shown that "pure" CFG fractions often contain considerable amounts of associated lipids, phenolic acids and proteins which contribute to its emulsifying properties. (usda.gov)
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of drying temperature on the phenolic acids profile and antioxidant activity of sprouts and leaves red and white Chenopodium quinoa (RQ and WQ, respectively). (hindawi.com)
  • Coffee is the main source of chlorogenic acid in human diet and has been cited as an efficient in vitro and ex vivo antioxidant [ 4 ]. (springer.com)
  • Thus, this study evaluated coumaric acid as a potential treatment for liver fibrosis . (bvsalud.org)
  • P-coumaric acid ameliorates fipronil induced liver injury in mice through attenuation of structural changes, oxidative stress and inflammation. (gadvasu.in)
  • Studies on flies and rodents suggest that cutting intake of one particular amino acid, called methionine, lengthens life to a similar degree as calorie restriction . (qualitycounts.com)
  • See more studies on P-Coumaric Acid and. (naturalnews.com)
  • In plants, caffeic acid and its derivatives are intermediates in the synthesis of monolignols, although in some plants like red clover these caffeic acid derivatives accumulate to relatively high levels in leaves. (usda.gov)
  • Through the screening of 26 putative double bond reductase knockout strains we identified Tsc13 as the enzyme responsible for the reduction of p-coumaroyl-CoA to phloretic acid. (ruc.dk)
  • The leaves do not differ too much in terms of the phenolic acids profile, whereas the differentiating factor is thermal processing. (hindawi.com)
  • Genes from Arabidopsis thaliana, Gossypium hirsutum and Malus domestica were able to sustain cell progression while not resulting in p-coumaroyl-CoA reduction to phloretic acid. (ruc.dk)
  • Reduction of the CoA-activated carboxyl groups of these acids results in the corresponding aldehydes and alcohols. (kegg.jp)
  • The presence of these phenolic acids, lipids and protein in CFG may contribute to its excellent emulsifying properties and may combine to give other chemical, physical, and even nutritional properties. (usda.gov)
  • Coumaric acid is a phenolic compound found in medicinal plants . (bvsalud.org)
  • Several mutations leading to lower phloretic acid production were found and discussed. (ruc.dk)
  • Coumaric acid from M. polymorphum extracts reverses the activated state of hepatic stellate cells (GRX) and inhibits their proliferation by decreasing the p53/p21 pathway. (bvsalud.org)
  • Treatment with coumaric acid was also able to revert the activated phenotype of GRX cells to their quiescent state . (bvsalud.org)
  • Green natural rubber- g -modified starch (8), starch- g -acrylic acid (9), starch- g -poly (l-lactide) (10) and starch films plasticized with urea (11). (degruyter.com)
  • Cell proliferation was assessed by the trypan blue exclusion technique and the cytotoxicity of coumaric acid was performed using an LDH assay. (bvsalud.org)
  • The experiments performed showed that the treatment with coumaric acid was able to reduce cell proliferation without causing cell cytotoxicity or apoptosis . (bvsalud.org)
  • Coumaric acid was able to inhibit the expression of cyclin D1 and CDK's (CDK2, CDK4, and CDK6), increasing p53 and p21, which could lead to cell cycle arrest . (bvsalud.org)
  • Click the button below to add the p-Coumaric acid-[13C3] 1mg to your wish list. (p212121.com)