Hydroxycinnamic acid and its derivatives. Act as activators of the indoleacetic acid oxidizing system, thereby producing a decrease in the endogenous level of bound indoleacetic acid in plants.
A class of phenolic acids related to chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, vanillic acid, etc., which are found in plant tissues. It is involved in plant growth regulation.
A plant family of the order Lamiales. It is characterized by simple leaves in opposite pairs, cystoliths (enlarged cells containing crystals of calcium carbonate), and bilaterally symmetrical and bisexual flowers that are usually crowded together. The common name for Ruellia of wild petunia is easily confused with PETUNIA.
The above-ground plant without the roots.
Occasions to commemorate an event or occasions designated for a specific purpose.
Mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components.
Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
Mixture of 2- and 3-tert-butyl-4-methoxyphenols that is used as an antioxidant in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals.
A pyrazine compound inhibiting SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS. This inhibition creates a negative potential in the luminal membranes of principal cells, located in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Negative potential reduces secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Amiloride is used in conjunction with DIURETICS to spare POTASSIUM loss. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p705)
A plasma membrane exchange glycoprotein transporter that functions in intracellular pH regulation, cell volume regulation, and cellular response to many different hormones and mitogens.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.

Coupling of the peroxidase and cyclooxygenase reactions of prostaglandin H synthase. (1/535)

Interrelations between peroxidase and cyclooxygenase reactions catalyzed by prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase (prostaglandin H synthase) were analyzed in terms of the mutual influence of these reactions. The original branched-chain mechanism predicts competition between these two reactions for enzyme, so that peroxidase cosubstrate should inhibit the cyclooxygenase reaction and the cyclooxygenase substrate is expected to inhibit the peroxidase reaction. In stark contrast, the peroxidase reducing substrate is well known to strongly stimulate the cyclooxygenase reaction. In the present work the opposite effect, the influence of the cyclooxygenase substrate on the peroxidase reaction was studied. Experiments were conducted on the effect of arachidonic acid on the consumption of p-coumaric acid by prostaglandin H synthase and 5-phenyl-4-pentenyl-1-hydroperoxide. Neither the steady-state rates nor the total extent of p-coumaric acid consumption was affected by the addition of arachidonic acid. This suggests that the cyclooxygenase substrate does not influence observable velocities of the peroxidase reaction, namely oxidation and regeneration of the resting enzyme. The data support coupling of the cyclooxygenase and peroxidase reactions. A combination of the branched-chain and tightly coupled mechanisms is proposed, which includes a tyrosyl radical active enzyme intermediate regenerated through the peroxidase cycle. Numerical integration of the proposed reaction scheme agrees with the observed relations between peroxidase and cyclooxygenase reactions in the steady state.  (+info)

Genetic analysis of a chromosomal region containing vanA and vanB, genes required for conversion of either ferulate or vanillate to protocatechuate in Acinetobacter. (2/535)

VanA and VanB form an oxygenative demethylase that converts vanillate to protocatechuate in microorganisms. Ferulate, an abundant phytochemical, had been shown to be metabolized through a vanillate intermediate in several Pseudomonas isolates, and biochemical evidence had indicated that vanillate also is an intermediate in ferulate catabolism by Acinetobacter. Genetic evidence supporting this conclusion was obtained by characterization of mutant Acinetobacter strains blocked in catabolism of both ferulate and vanillate. Cloned Acinetobacter vanA and vanB were shown to be members of a chromosomal segment remote from a supraoperonic cluster containing other genes required for completion of the catabolism of ferulate and its structural analogs, caffeate and coumarate, through protocatechuate. The nucleotide sequence of DNA containing vanA and vanB demonstrated the presence of genes that, on the basis of nucleotide sequence similarity, appeared to be associated with transport of aromatic compounds, metabolism of such compounds, or iron scavenging. Spontaneous deletion of 100 kb of DNA containing this segment does not impede the growth of cells with simple carbon sources other than vanillate or ferulate. Additional spontaneous mutations blocking vanA and vanB expression were shown to be mediated by IS1236, including insertion of the newly discovered composite transposon Tn5613. On the whole, vanA and vanB appear to be located within a nonessential genetic region that exhibits considerable genetic malleability in Acinetobacter. The overall organization of genes neighboring Acinetobacter vanA and vanB, including a putative transcriptional regulatory gene that is convergently transcribed and overlaps vanB, is conserved in Pseudomonas aeruginosa but has undergone radical rearrangement in other Pseudomonas species.  (+info)

Bacterial photoreceptor with similarity to photoactive yellow protein and plant phytochromes. (3/535)

A phytochrome-like protein called Ppr was discovered in the purple photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum centenum. Ppr has a photoactive yellow protein (PYP) amino-terminal domain, a central domain with similarity to phytochrome, and a carboxyl-terminal histidine kinase domain. Reconstitution experiments demonstrate that Ppr covalently attaches the blue light-absorbing chromophore p-hydroxycinnamic acid and that it has a photocycle that is spectrally similar to, but kinetically slower than, that of PYP. Ppr also regulates chalcone synthase gene expression in response to blue light with autophosphorylation inhibited in vitro by blue light. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrates that R. centenum Ppr may be ancestral to cyanobacterial and plant phytochromes.  (+info)

Mitochondrial metabolism of pyruvate is required for its enhancement of cardiac function and energetics. (4/535)

Pyruvate augmentation of contractile function and cytosolic free energy of ATP hydrolysis in myocardium could result from pyruvate catabolism in the mitochondria or from increased ratio of the cytosolic NAD-/NADH redox couple via the lactate dehydrogenase equilibrium. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that cytosolic oxidation by pyruvate is sufficient to increase cardiac function and energetics. METHODS: Isolated working guinea-pig hearts received 0.2 mM octanoate +/- 2.5 mM pyruvate as fuels. alpha-Cyano-3-hydroxycinnamate (COHC, 0.6 mM) was administered to selectively inhibit mitochondrial pyruvate uptake without inhibiting pyruvate's cytosolic redox effects or octanoate oxidation. The effects of pyruvate and COHC on sarcoplasmic reticular- Ca2+ handling were examined in 45Ca-loaded hearts. RESULTS: Pyruvate increased left ventricular stroke work and power 40%, mechanical efficiency 29%, and cytosolic ATP phosphorylation potential nearly fourfold. 14CO2 formation from [1-14C]pyruvate was inhibited 65% by COHC, and octanoate oxidation, i.e. 14CO2 formation from [1-14C]octanoate, concomitantly increased threefold. COHC prevented pyruvate enhancement of left ventricular function, mechanical efficiency and cytosolic phosphorylation potential, but did not alter respective levels in pyruvate-free control hearts and augmented cytosolic oxidation by pyruvate. Pyruvate increased sarcoplasmic reticular Ca2+ turnover, i.e. Ca2+ uptake and release, as indicated by 62% decrease in caffeine-induced 45Ca release following 40 min 45Ca washout (P < 0.01). In presence of COHC, pyruvate did not lower caffeine-induced 45Ca release; thus. COHC abrogated pyruvate enhancement of Ca2+ turnover (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Pyruvate oxidation of cytosolic redox state is not sufficient to increase cardiac function, cytosolic energetics and sarcoplasmic reticular Ca2+ turnover when mitochondrial pyruvate transport is disabled; thus, mitochondrial metabolism of pyruvate is essential for its metabolic inotropism.  (+info)

Theoretical elucidation of activity differences of five phenolic antioxidants. (5/535)

AIM: To verify the effectiveness of structure-activity relationship (SAR) and theoretical calculation methods for antioxidants. METHODS: Preliminary elucidation on the differences of activities of 5 antioxidants was performed by SAR. Then semiempirical quantum chemistry method AM1 was employed to calculate the delta HOF value, the difference between the heat of formation of antioxidant and its free radical, which was used as a theoretical parameter to elucidate the differences of activities of the antioxidants thoroughly. RESULTS: delta HOF values of antioxidants were obtained as follows: ferulic acid, 150.58 kJ.mol-1; anion of ferulic acid, 122.64 kJ.mol-1; modified ferulic acid, 137.70 kJ.mol-1; anion of modified ferulic acid, 118.99 kJ.mol-1; salvianic acid, 134.17 kJ.mol-1; rutin, 137.83 kJ.mol-1, L-EGCG, 124.39 kJ.mol-1; paeonol, 176.79 kJ.mol-1. The differences of the antioxidant activities were elucidated, and how to further enhance the antioxidant activity was investigated as well. CONCLUSION: The SAR and calculation methods are rather effective to elucidate the differences of antioxidant activities, and present some new clues for structural modification of antioxidants to increase their activities.  (+info)

An early salicylic acid-, pathogen- and elicitor-inducible tobacco glucosyltransferase: role in compartmentalization of phenolics and H2O2 metabolism. (6/535)

Treatment of tobacco cell suspension cultures with a fungal elicitor of defense responses resulted in an early accumulation of the phenylpropanoid glucosyltransferase TOGT, along with the rapid synthesis and secretion of scopolin, the glucoside of scopoletin. Elicitor-triggered extracellular accumulation of the aglycone scopoletin and of free caffeic and ferulic acids could only be revealed in the presence of diphenylene iodonium, an inhibitor of extracellular H2O2 production. Our results strongly support a role for TOGT in the elicitor-stimulated production of transportable phenylpropanoid glucosides, followed by the release of free antioxidant phenolics into the extracellular medium and subsequent H2O2 scavenging.  (+info)

The small intestine can both absorb and glucuronidate luminal flavonoids. (7/535)

We have studied the perfusion of the jejunum and ileum in an isolated rat intestine model with flavonoids and hydroxycinnamates and the influence of glycosylation on the subsequent metabolism. Flavone and flavonol glucosides and their corresponding aglycones are glucuronidated during transfer across the rat jejunum and ileum and this glucuronidation occurs without the need for gut microflora. Furthermore, this suggests the presence of glycosidases as well as UDP-glucuronyl transferase in the jejunum. In contrast, quercetin-3-glucoside and rutin are mainly absorbed unmetabolised. The results suggest that the more highly reducing phenolics are absorbed predominantly as glucuronides (96.5%+/-4.6) of the amount absorbed, whereas monophenolic hydroxycinnamates and monophenolic B-ring flavonoids are less predisposed to glucuronidation and higher levels of aglycone (88.1%+/-10.1) are detected on absorption through both the jejunum and ileum.  (+info)

Biochemical characterization of the suberization-associated anionic peroxidase of potato. (8/535)

The anionic peroxidase associated with the suberization response in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers during wound healing has been purified and partially characterized at the biochemical level. It is a 45-kD, class III (plant secretory) peroxidase that is localized to suberizing tissues and shows a preference for feruloyl (o-methoxyphenol)-substituted substrates (order of substrate preference: feruloyl > caffeoyl > p-coumaryl approximately syringyl) such as those that accumulate in tubers during wound healing. There was little influence on oxidation by side chain derivatization, although hydroxycinnamates were preferred over the corresponding hydroxycinnamyl alcohols. The substrate specificity pattern is consistent with the natural substrate incorporation into potato wound suberin. In contrast, the cationic peroxidase(s) induced in response to wound healing in potato tubers is present in both suberizing and nonsuberizing tissues and does not discriminate between hydroxycinnamates and hydroxycinnamyl alcohols. A synthetic polymer prepared using E-[8-(13)C]ferulic acid, H(2)O(2), and the purified anionic enzyme contained a significant amount of cross-linking through C-8, albeit with retention of unsaturation.  (+info)

In the present study we try to investigate the effect of Sodium Ferulate (SF) on Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) induced IL-8 expression in ..
|i|Background and Objective|/i|. It has been reported that sodium ferulate (SF) has hematopoietic function against anemia and immune regulation, inflammatory reaction inhibition, inhibition of tumor cell proliferation, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular protection, and other functions. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the effects of SF on angiotensin II- (AngII-) induced cardiac hypertrophy in mice through the MAPK/ERK and JNK signaling pathways.|i| Methods|/i|. Seventy-two male C57BL/6J mice were selected and divided into 6 groups: control group, PBS group, model group (AngII), model + low-dose SF group (AngII + 10 mg/kg SF), model + high-dose SF group (AngII + 40 mg/kg SF), and model + high-dose SF + agonist group (AngII + 40 mg/kg SCU + 10 mg/kg TBHQ). After 7 d/14 d/28 days of treatments, the changes of blood pressure and heart rates of mice were compared. The morphology of myocardial tissue and the apoptosis rate of myocardial cells were observed. The mRNA and protein expressions of atrial
TY - JOUR. T1 - The purification and characterization of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic (ferulic) acid esterase from Streptomyces olivochromogenes. AU - Faulds, C. B.. AU - Williamson, G.. PY - 1991/1/1. Y1 - 1991/1/1. N2 - A 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid (ferulic acid) esterase has been purified from the extracellular broth of cultures of Streptomyces olivochromogenes after growth on oat spelt xylan. The purification procedure utilizes ion exchange on DEAE-BioGel A, anion exchange on Mono Q, gel filtration and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The purified enzyme appeared as a single band on SDS-PAGE, with an apparent M(r) of 29000. Two bands, at pI 7.9 and 8.5, were observed on isoelectric focusing. With methyl ferulate as substrate, the pH and temperature optima were 5.5 and 30°C respectively, with a K(m) of 1.86 mM and V(maX) of 0.3 μmol min-1 mg-1. The purified enzyme released ferulic acid from de-starched wheat bran only in the presence of xylanase.. AB - A ...
CHCA MALDI Matrix 25 mg $22.00 - α-Cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA) is a commonly used MALDI-MS reagent. CHCA is a good first choice for MALDI- MS with proteins and peptides less than 10 kDa. -
Enzyme-catalyzed synthesis has been widely studied with lipases (EC, but feruloyl esterases (FAEs; EC may provide advantages such as higher substrate affinity and regioselectivity in the synthesis of hydroxycinnamate saccharide esters. These compounds are interesting because of their amphiphilicity and antioxidative potential. Synthetic reactions using mono- or disaccharides as one of the substrates may moreover direct new routes for biomass upgrading in the biorefinery. The paper reviews the available data for enzymatic hydroxycinnamate saccharide ester synthesis in organic solvent systems as well as other enzymatic hydroxycinnamate acylations in ionic liquid systems. The choice of solvent system is highly decisive for enzyme stability, selectivity, and reaction yields in these synthesis reactions. To increase the understanding of the reaction environment and to facilitate solvent screening as a crucial part of the reaction design, the review explores the use of activity ...
Ferulic acid (4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid) (FA) is a ubiquitous health beneficial phenolic acid. Although FA has shown a diversity of biological activities including anti-inflammatory, antihypercholesterolemic and anticancer bioactivities, studies revealing its adverse effects are accumulating. Recently, 3D-cultures are shown to exhibit uniquely biological behaviors different from that of 2D cultures. To understand whether the cytotoxicity of FA against the T24 cell line (a bladder cancer cell line) in 2D-culture could consistently retain similar bioactivity if cultured in the 3D-systems, we conducted this experiment with 2 mM FA. Much higher cytotoxicity was found for 3D- than 2D-culture, showing (2D vs. 3D): apoptotic rates, 64% and 76%; cell killing rates, |svg style=vertical-align:-0.1638pt;width:68.662498px; id=M1 height=15.9 version=1.1 viewBox=0 0 68.662498 15.9 width=68.662498 xmlns:xlink=http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink xmlns=http://www.w3.org/2000/svg||g transform
Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) is a powerful surface-sensitive technique to study the vibrational properties of analytes at very low levels of concentration. In particular, detection of bioactive molecules, specifically antioxidants, is an area of interest to gain insights into the reproducible and quantitative SERS-determination. In this study, SERS measurements were systematically evaluated for ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid and sinapic acid. The study objective in this research was to: 1) prepare and characterize SERS-active silver colloids; 2) cluster the as-obtained colloids through Principal Component Analysis on the basis of concentration and nanoparticle size; and 3) develop a highly sensitive SERS-based method for phenolic antioxidant detection. The reliability of the proposed method was demonstrated through detection of the phenolic antioxidants evaluated at low levels of concentration. In particular, sinapic acid was evaluated for the first time, with a limit ...
Catalyzes the insertion of one atom of molecular oxygen into position 2 of the phenyl ring of 3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)propionate (3-HPP) and hydroxycinnamic acid (3HCI).
Lignans are mainly dimers of 4-hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) and reduced analogs thereof which are produced in Nature through phenol oxidative coupling (POC) as the primary C-C or C-O bond-forming reaction under the action of the enzymes peroxidases and laccases. They present a large structural variety and particularly interesting biological activities, therefore, significant efforts has been devoted to the development of efficient methodologies for the synthesis of lignans isolated from natural sources, analogs and hybrids with other biologically interesting small molecules. We summarize in the present review those methods which mimic Nature for the assembly of the most common lignan skeleta by using either enzymes or one-electron inorganic oxidants to effect POC of HCAs and derivatives, such as esters and amides, or cross-POC of pairs of HCAs or HCAs with 4-hydrocycinnamyl alcohols. We, furthermore, provide outlines of mechanistic schemes accounting for the formation of the coupled products and, where
Objective(s): Stroke poses a crucial risk for mortality and morbidity. Our study aimed to investigate the effect of p-coumaric acid on focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Material and Methods: Rats were randomly divided into four groups, namely Group I (control rats), Group II (ischemia rats), Group III (6 hr ischemia + p-coumaric acid rats) and Group IV (24 hr ischemia + p-coumaric acid rats). Cerebral ischemia was induced via intraluminal monofilament occlusion model. In all groups, the brain was removed after the procedure and rats were sacrificed. Malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase and nuclear respiratory factor-1 were measured in the ischemic hemisphere. The histopathological changes were observed in the right hemisphere within the samples. Functional assessment was performed for neurological deficit scores. Results: Following the treatment, biochemical factors changed significantly. Histopathologically, it was shown that p-coumaric acid decreased the oxidative damage. The neurological deficit
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Purchase online CAS Number 530-59-6 - TRC - Sinapic Acid. High Quality CRMs, Reference Materials, Proficiency Testing & More at LGC Standards
Authors: A.HAKAN AKTAŞ, GÜLSÜM YAŞAR, GÜLEREN ÖZKAN ALSANCAK, ŞAHİNDE DEMİRCİ Abstract: In this study, four hydroxycinnamic acids, namely 3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid, 4-hydroxycinnamic acid, 4-hydroxy --3- methoxycinnamic acid and 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxycinnamic acid, were titrated conductimetrically and potentiometrically using triethylamine and tetrabutylammonium hydroxide in acetonitrile, 2-propanol, and pyridine solvents under a nitrogen atmosphere at 25 ^oC. In conductimetric titration with tetrabutylammonium hydroxide all of the compounds exhibited conventional stoichiometric titration curves in 2-propanol . As is evident from the titration curves, all these compounds gave two well-defined end points. The first end point corresponds to exactly one equivalent and the second one to the two equivalents of the base. In conductimetric titration with tetrabutylammonium hydroxide, all of the acids (except caffeic acid) show two end points in pyridine solvent. These compounds were ...
Ferulic acid is a highly abundant phenolic phytochemical which is present in plant cell walls. Ferulic acid is a phenolic acid that can be absorbed by the small intestine and excreted through the urine. It is one of the most abundant phenolic acids in plants, varying from 5 g/kg in wheat bran to 9 g/kg in sugar-beet pulp and 50 g/kg in corn kernel. It occurs primarily in seeds and leaves both in its free form (albeit rarely) and covalently linked to lignin and other biopolymers. It is usually found as ester cross-links with polysaccharides in the cell wall, such as arabinoxylans in grasses, pectin in spinach and sugar beet, and xyloglucans in bamboo. It also can cross-link with proteins. Due to its phenolic nucleus and an extended side chain conjugation (carbohydrates and proteins), it readily forms a resonance-stabilized phenoxy radical which accounts for its potent antioxidant potential. Food supplementation with curcumin and ferulic acid is considered a nutritional approach to reducing ...
A molecularly imprinted polymer was synthesized for the purpose of sinapic acid isolation from Egyptian nutraceutical Botrytis italica, L. (broccoli) due to its prominent medicinal and wide pharmacological activities. A computational study was first developed to determine the optimal template to functional monomer molar ratio. Based on the computational results, five polymers were synthesized using a bulk polymerization method with sinapic acid as the template molecule. Evaluation of the synthesized polymers binding performance was carried out using batch rebinding assay, which revealed that the molecularly imprinted polymer of molar ratio (1:4:20), template to functional monomer (4-vinyl pyridine) to crosslinker (ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) was of optimum performance, thus, this polymer was applied for sinapic acid isolation from closely related analogues ...
PMID: Front Pharmacol. 2019 ;10:27. Epub 2019 Feb 5. PMID: 30804780 Abstract Title: Ferulic Acid Protects Hyperglycemia-Induced Kidney Damage by Regulating Oxidative Insult, Inflammation and Autophagy. Abstract: Oxidative insult, inflammation, apoptosis and autophagy play a pivotal role in the etiology of diabetic nephropathy, a global health concern. Ferulic acid, a phytochemical, is reported to protect against varied diseased conditions. However, the ameliorative role and mechanisms of ferulic acid in averting STZ-mediated nephrotoxicity largely remains unknown. Forstudy, a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg kgbody wt.) was administered in experimental rats to induce diabetes. The diabetic rats exhibited a rise in blood glucose level as well as kidney to body weight ratio, a decrease in serum insulin level, severe kidney tissue damage and dysfunction. Elevation of intracellular ROS level, altered mitochondrial membrane potential and cellular redox balance impairment ...
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
trans-3-coumaric acid 14755-02-3 NMR spectrum, trans-3-coumaric acid H-NMR spectral analysis, trans-3-coumaric acid C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Ferulic Acid Induces Th1 Responses by Modulating the Function of Dendritic Cells and Ameliorates Th2-Mediated Allergic Airway Inflammation in Mice. AU - Lee, Chen Chen. AU - Wang, Ching Chiung. AU - Huang, Huei Mei. AU - Lin, Chu Lun. AU - Leu, Sy Jye. AU - Lee, Yueh Lun. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. N2 - This study investigated the immunomodulatory effects of ferulic acid (FA) on antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro and its antiallergic effects against ovalbumin- (OVA-) induced Th2-mediated allergic asthma in mice. The activation of FA-treated bone marrow-derived DCs by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation induced a high level of interleukin- (IL-) 12 but reduced the expression levels of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α. Compared to control-treated DCs, FA significantly enhanced the expressions of Notch ligand Delta-like 4 (Dll4), MHC class II, and CD40 molecules by these DCs. Furthermore, these FA-treated DCs enhanced T-cell ...
Summer heat can make you more tired. Ferulic acid pregnancy case youre delicate to sure foods, be careful about what you eat. Omega- three Fatty Acids: Pregnant ladies pregnamcy to watch out for the mercury content material in most fish, but in small quantities it funneling of the cervix late in pregnancy protected to get your fatty acids from fish comparable to, salmon, catfish, or canned gentle tuna. Me and my dada is feerulic a withdrawal methodology. Thank God in ferulif lives. Anyone with chickenpox should keep away from others till at the very least 5 days after the onset of the aciid (when all the blisters have crusted). Every of acud developments signals an amazing physiological process taking place inside your physique as it prepares to supply milk. Thanks, child. Oregnancy than 600 Google web fonts to select from and tons of premium-ish options. Plenty of liquids will help you avoid constipation ferulic acid pregnancy piles. Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist protocols for ...
The Golm Metabolome Database (GMD) facilitates the search for and dissemination of mass spectra from biologically active metabolites quantified using GC-MS.
Phenolic acids are secondary plant compounds widespread in nature, which have potentially anticarcinogenic properties. In this study, the effect of ferulic acid (FA), which is the most common hydroxycinnamic acid in grain, on the mechanisms of colon carcinogenesis and tumor progression was investigated in a human colon carcinoma cell culture model (HT29 clone 19A). Antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects of FA were analysed. By means of proteome analysis (2D-PAGE, 2D-DIGE, LC-ESI-MS/MS) the influence of FA on the protein expression was investigated. It could be shown, that FA caused cytotoxic effects and significantly induced apoptosis only at high concentrations (> 3 mM). Simultaneously, the changes at the proteome level after FA-treatment were relatively small. Only at non-physiological concentrations did FA influence the processes of growth in HT29 clone 19A cells. « ...
Published in: Proceedings: 2nd Specialized Conference on Pretreatment of Industrial Wastewaters, October 16-18, 1996, Athens, Greece, p. 257-263 ...
Rapid Resolution HPLC/DAD method, on a 1.8 µm, 4.6×50 mm column, was developed to enable a rapid separation of a mixture of 17 compounds, which consisted of hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavones, flavonols, flavanone, flavonol-glycoside and antraquinone, in a single run, within 22 minutes. The developed method is precise, accurate and sensitive enough for simultaneous quantitative evaluation of major compounds in crude and hydrolyzed extracts of parsley, buckthorn, mint, caraway and birch. In order to overcome the inability to quantify all the phenolic compounds present in the samples caused by lack of external standards, HPLC approaches for the total phenolic content estimation based on sum of all integrated peak areas were made. These results were compared with the total phenolic content determined by Folin-Cioacalteu method. Although the correlation between the series of data was not significant (pHPLC was not high in the case of parsley, buckthorn and mint extract. ...
Rapid Resolution HPLC/DAD method, on a 1.8 µm, 4.6×50 mm column, was developed to enable a rapid separation of a mixture of 17 compounds, which consisted of hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavones, flavonols, flavanone, flavonol-glycoside and antraquinone, in a single run, within 22 minutes. The developed method is precise, accurate and sensitive enough for simultaneous quantitative evaluation of major compounds in crude and hydrolyzed extracts of parsley, buckthorn, mint, caraway and birch. In order to overcome the inability to quantify all the phenolic compounds present in the samples caused by lack of external standards, HPLC approaches for the total phenolic content estimation based on sum of all integrated peak areas were made. These results were compared with the total phenolic content determined by Folin-Cioacalteu method. Although the correlation between the series of data was not significant (pHPLC was not high in the case of parsley, buckthorn and mint extract. ...
A high potency Antioxidant combination that delivers advanced environmental protection against photo aging by neutralizing free radicals that cause accelerated signs of aging. Tetrahexyldecyl Ascorbate stimulates collagen production, increasing firmness and replenishes lipids to visibly reduce wrinkles. Ferulic Ester, a powerful plant-derived Antioxidant works with Vitamin C and E to increase their potency. Increases firmness and replenishes lipids to visibly reduce wrinkles. Ferulic Acid is widely used in Japanese culture as a natural sunscreen derived from plants.. Ingredients: Ascorbyl Linoleate, Retinyl Linoleate, Lysophosphatidic Acid, Myristol Pentapeptide-17, Vitamin K, Cholecalciferol, Ferulic Acid, Tocopherol Linoleate/Oleate. ...
What is ferulic acid? What are the benefits of using it? Get the lowdown on this antioxidant, said to help protect skin and manage blood pressure.
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Feel the difference with Kakadu C™ Intensive Peel Pads. Each pad features peel plus soothing actives in one for the appearance of brighter, smoother, firmer, and more even skin. Each pad delivers a powerful punch of kakadu plum, one of the richest natural vitamin C sources known on Earth. The intensive formulation features seven sources of AHA and BHA, plus ferulic acid. Antioxidant boosters, like Australian lime caviar, help protect against free radical damage. The formula is balanced with a calming complex that leaves skin feeling hydrated and luminous ...
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Epidermally located UV-B absorbing hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids serve as a screen against potentially damaging UV-B (280-315 nm) radiation in higher plants. We investigated the effect of low temperature on epidermal screening as assessed by a chlorophyll fluorescence technique. The epiderm
Fási Laura, Di Meo Florent, Kuo Ching-Ying, Stojkovic Buric Sonja, Martins Ana, Kúsz Norbert, Béni Zoltán, Dékány Miklós, Balogh György T., Pesic Milica, Wang Hui-Chun, Trouillas Patrick, Hunyadi Attila: Antioxidant-inspired drug discovery: antitumor metabolite is formed in situ from a hydroxycinnamic acid derivative upon free radical scavenging, JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY 62: (3) pp. 1657-1668 ...
88133-19-1 - KIGWLQJAJQIKNY-PLCQNAAUSA-N - alpha-Cyano-9,10-didehydro-6-methyl-ergoline-8-propanamide, (8beta)- - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
The phenolic compound used in this study is p-coumaric acid, which is the derivative of phenolic acid playing a role in giving color, odor and taste to the plants. The p-coumaric acid is an organic compound derived from ...
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Sel surya silikon amorf dengan struktur p-i-n telah berhasil difabrikasi diatas permukaan kaca yang terlapisi oleh ITO dengan ukuran 10 cm2. Proses fabrikasi menggunakan Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) pada frekuensi 13,56 MHz. Aliran gas hidrogen pada proses deposisi diketahui sebagai faktor pasifasi kecacatan pada ikatan atom Silikon. Dalam penyusunan sel surya p-i-n, faktor celah pita energi sangat menentukan peforma sel surya dalam mengabsorpsi energi foton sinar matahari. Pada proses deposisi lapisan intrinsik, kelajuan gas SiH4 diatur tetap pada 2,5 sccm sedangkan variasi dilakukan pada parameter pelarutan gas hidrogen 0 sccm - 90 sccm untuk memperoleh celah pita energi yang tepat serta peforma sel surya yang stabil. Celah pita energi yang dimiliki oleh lapisan tipe-p dan tipe-n adalah 2,0 eV dan 2,2 eV pada ketebalan berturut-turut 64 nm dan 36 nm. Optimasi dilakukan pada lapisan intrinsik dengan variasi celah pita energi 1,4 eV, 1,6 eV, dan 1,9 eV pada ketebalan 400 nm. ...
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Diskolorasi gigi telah menjadi masalah estetik bagi banyak orang. Diskolorasi gigi dapat disebabkan oleh banyak faktor seperti penggunaan tembakau, minuman dan makanan berwarna, maupun trauma pada gigi. Perawatan bleaching merupakan salah satu solusi yang dapat mengatasi masalah diskolorasi pada gigi. Perawatan bleaching dibagi dua, yaitu bleaching ekstrakorona untuk diskolorasi pada gigi vital dan bleaching intrakorona untuk diskolorasi pada gigi nonvital. Bleaching ekstrakorona memiliki berbagai efek samping yang dapat terjadi pada jaringan keras gigi, mukosa mulut, dan restorasi gigi , akan tetapi masalah yang sering dikeluhkan oleh pasien dalam perawatan ekstrakorona bleaching, yaitu hipersensitivitas gigi. Hipersensitivitas pada bleaching ektrakorona dipengaruhi banyak faktor, yaitu pasien yang memiliki riwayat hipersensitivitas, konsentrasi bahan bleaching, lamanya terpapar bahan bleaching, dan kondisi gigi pasien seperti erosi servikal, restorasi besar, dan retak pada email. Teknik in-office
Page contains details about p-coumaric acid-loaded Ni-carbonate nanovalve . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
Samples can be run by staff, or by researchers under the open access scheme. To use the open access scheme, users need to contact Dr. Sherman and then arrange training with Dr. Shannon or Park.. Users are expected to provide their own sample plate and supplies (sinapinic acid and cyanohydroxycinnamic acid matrices are provided by facility).. The facility is usually open 8:30 a.m. to 5 p.m.. ...
Perdarahan intraserebral traumatik (PIST) terjadi pada sekitar 13-15% pasien setelah cedera otak traumatik (COT). Peningkatan volume PIST merupakan fenomena yang dipelajari secara luas yang memiliki dampak langsung pada prognosis pasien. Beberapa penulis telah melaporkan bahwa peningkatan ukuran PIST terjadi pada sekitar 38-59% kasus dan terutama terjadi dalam beberapa jam pertama setelah trauma kepala. Sementara sebagian besar PIST yang meningkatkan volume tidak memerlukan intervensi bedah. Ada beberapa kasus dimana perkembangan lesi dapat menyebabkan kerusakan neurologis pasien atau tanda-tanda refrakter meningkatkan tekanan intracranial (ICP) atau efek massa pada yang dihitung pemindai tomografi (CT), yang semuanya memerlukan evakuasi bedah. Dalam beberapa penelitian tentang COT, PIST adalah alasan untuk operasi pada hingga 20% pasien. Hal ini menekankan pentingnya mampu mengidentifikasi kelompok pasien yang akan mengalami peningkatan signifikan volume lesi intraparenchymal traumatis (Cepeda, ...
Apply a small amount to face in the PM. Do not use with other retinoid treatments.. Caution: Retinol can cause significant irritation, redness and peeling, especially around the eyes and mouth, in the early stages of treatment while skin builds tolerance. If you have not used high-strength retinol formulas in the past, we strongly recommend that you start your retinol regimen with lower strengths as your skin builds tolerance. Retinol can make the skin more sensitive to UV radiation. Sun protection is particularly important when using this product.. ...
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The consumption of p-coumaric acid, a chemical found in honey and pollen, may help set a female honeybee on its course to becoming a worker instead of a queen.. 1 Comment. ...
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... myocardial infarct size in experimentally induced myocardial ... Substances : P-Coumaric Acid : CK(2) : AC(2). Diseases : Lipid Peroxidation : CK(1632) : AC(631), Myocardial Infarction : CK( ... Male albino Wistar rats were pretreated with p-coumaric acid (8 mg/kg body weight) daily for a period of 7 days after which ... The present study was designed to evaluate the preventive effects of p-coumaric acid on lysosomal dysfunction and myocardial ...
... anxiolytic in vivo. ... p-Coumaric acid activates the GABA-A receptor in vitro and is orally anxiolytic in vivo. - GreenMedInfo Summary ... Given that p-coumaric acid is reasonably well absorbed following oral consumption in man and is relatively nontoxic, it may be ... p-Coumaric acid activates the GABA-A receptor in vitro and is orally anxiolytic in vivo. ...
Details of p-coumaric acid,O,O-TBS product1. rotate: click+drag; translate: alt. +click+drag; zoom: mousewheel; save: mol ... Reference spectra of p-coumaric acid,O,O-TBS product1. replica. entry date. detection. method. species. ... Metabolite mapped to p-coumaric acid,O,O-TBS product1. metabolite. stereoisomer. isotopomer. ... Synonyms of p-coumaric acid,O,O-TBS product1. property. value. synonym. p-coumaric acid,O,O-TBS product1. ...
trans-p-Hydroxycinnamic acid. Empirical formula C9H8O3. Molar mass (M) 164,16 g/mol. Melting point (mp) 220 °C. WGK 1. CAS No ...
p-Coumaric acid is derived from aromatic amino acids and, besides being a valuable chemical building block, it serves as ... The highest titer of p-coumaric acid of 1.93±0.26gL-1 was obtained, when overexpressing tyrosine ammonia-lyase TAL from ... The developed S. cerevisiae strain represents an attractive platform host for production of p-coumaric-acid derived secondary ... Here we developed a p-coumaric acid-overproducing Saccharomyces cerevisiae platform strain. First, we reduced by-product ...
m-Coumaric acid-[13C3] View Details * Preview Catalog: 13218 CAS: 1261394-62-0 Efavirenz-[13C6] ...
... coumaric acid and chlorogenic acid. These two compounds have been found to block the effects of the most potent carcinogens in ... coumaric acid and chlorogenic acid. These two compounds have been found to block the effects of the most potent carcinogens in ...
All three vegetable extracts contained vanillin, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid. There was an increase in the ... Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity were studied using DPPH and reducing power assays, aβ-carotene linoleic acid ...
Soy miso is an important source of phytonutrient antioxidants, including phenolic acids such as ferulic, coumaric, syringic, ... Kombucha is packed with active enzymes, amino acids, and antioxidants. The drink can help improve digestion, detoxify the liver ... vanillic, and kojic acid. Use it in these Healthy and Vegan Yam Noodles with Miso Sauce and these Miso Roasted Pumpkin and ...
Simultaneous analysis of bile acids using LCMSMS. InertSustain C18. LL031. Analysis of Coumaric acid and Ferulic acid. Inertsil ... Analysis of branched-chain keto acids derivatized with o-phenylenediamine (OPD). Inertsil ODS-4V. ...
4-(E)-coumaric_acid. *(2E)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)prop-2-enoic_acid ...
The fruit has several antioxidants such as P-coumaric acid, Gallic acid, Salicylic acid, and Caffeic acid, which help in ...
The most abundant phenolic acids in corn are trans-ferulic and p-coumaric acids, both present in soluble form and bound to cell ... The content of trans-ferulic and p-coumaric acids varied between 200 and 900 µg/g DW and 40 and 250 µg/g DW in the collection, ... Phenolic acids were extracted using an improved microscale method that was previously described and were quantified using an ... The goals of this research are to: 1) identify and quantify phenolic acids in a unique collection that includes 100 accessions ...
Mycelial exudates have within them p-coumaric acids which activate the cytochrome p450 detoxification pathways, turning on the ...
Two new diprenylated coumaric acid isomers (1a and 1b) and two known congeners, capillartemisin A (2) and B (3), were isolated ... Prenylated Coumaric Acids from Artemisia scoparia Beneficially Modulate Adipogenesis Access: 10.1021/acs.jnatprod.0c01149. ...
Two new diprenylated coumaric acid isomers (1a and 1b) and two known congeners, capillartemisin A (2) and B (3), were isolated ... Prenylated Coumaric Acids from Artemisia scoparia Beneficially Modulate Adipogenesis Access: 10.1021/acs.jnatprod.0c01149. ...
The Occurrence of p-coumaric Acid and Ferulic Acid in Fossil Plant Materials and their Use as UV-proxy.. Blokker, P., Boelen, P ...
... which is the anhydrid of ortho-coumaric acid (C6H4OH.CHCHCOOH). The latter, and hydrocoumaric (melilotic) acid (C6H4OH.CH2CH2 ... Hot alkalies convert it into ortho-coumaric acid.. Ɣ Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.-Melilotus (species), placed between ... Coumarin was first observed in Tonka beans, in 1820, by Vogel, who held it to be benzoic acid. Guibourt soon afterward declared ... Coumarin is soluble in ether, volatile and fatty oils, in acetic and tartaric acids, also soluble in boiling alcohol, and ...
Quinic acids and derivatives Alternative Parents. *Coumaric acids and derivatives *Cinnamic acid esters ... Cis-5-Caffeoylquinic acid. Description. Cis-5-Caffeoylquinic acid, also known as cis-5-O-caffeoylquinate or cis-chlorogenic ... Quinic acids and derivatives are compounds containing a quinic acid moiety (or a derivative thereof), which is a cyclitol made ... Quinic acids and derivatives are compounds containing a quinic acid moiety (or a derivative thereof), which is a cyclitol made ...
phloretic_acid. *dihydro-4-coumaric_acid. *3-(p-hydroxyphenyl)propaonate. *p-hydroxyphenylpropionic_acid ...
possible substructure [-Coumaric acid (1TMS),-C12H15O3Si]. synonym. possible substructure [-Quinic acid (4TMS),-C19H43O6Si4]. ...
antioxidants; ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid and kaempferol. *flavonoids, limonene, caffeic acid and alkaloids *may lower the ...
Coumaric acid Coumaric acid is an acid with a brute or molecular formula: C9H8O3. Coumaric acid together with ferulic acid, ... Properties and uses of coumaric acid, Propiedades y usos del ácido cumarico, Proprietà ed usi dellacido cumarico ...
... coumaric, ferulic, gallic and sinapic acids); phytoalexins (glyceollin I, glyceollin II, and glyceollin III); phytosterols ( ... In addition, tofu is a good source of selenium, omega-3 fatty acids, phosphorus, copper, and magnesium. Tempeh is a very... ... Examples are flavonoids and isoflavonoids (daidzein,genistein, malonylgenistin, and malonyldaidzin); phenolic acids (caffeic, ...
... cinnamic acid and 4 of its derivatives, such as chlorogenic, p-coumaric, ferulic and sinapic acid in the samples 2 - 5. Our ... CINNAMIC ACID AND ITS DERIVATIVES IN THE HERBAL MIXTURES AND THEIR ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY. ALONA SAVYCH 1*, SVITLANA MARCHYSHYN ... Cinnamic acid and its derivatives deserve a particular attention due to their antidiabetic and antioxidant properties. We ... Using HPLC analysis we evaluated the content of 4 derivatives of cinnamic acid, namely chlorogenic, caffeic, ferulic and ...
36) Garcıa-Sanchez, F.; Carnero, C.; Heredis, A. Fluorometric determination of p-coumaric acid in beer. J. Agric. Food Chem. ... Total, soluble, and insoluble dietary fibers, total phenols, epicatechin, gallic and p-coumaric acids, and concentrations of Na ... Inhibition of human low-density lipoprotein oxidation by caffeic acid and other hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. Free Radical ... Gallic and pcoumaric acids and epicatechin in whole persimmons, their pulps, and peels were significantly higher than in whole ...
Phenolic antioxidant compounds (chlorogenic, caffeic, feluric, and p-coumaric acid).. *Caffeine, which reduces fatigue and ... al., published in the journal PLoS One, they found that chlorogenic acid delays glucose intestinal absorption. It does this ... On the other hand, chlorogenic acid (the second major component in coffee), quinidines, and magnesium have been shown to affect ... Ong KW., Hsu A., Tan BKH., Chlorogenic acid stimulates glucose transport in skeletal muscle via AMPK activation: a contributor ...
Besides, the antioxidant properties in coffee include, chlorogenic ferulic and N-coumaric acids. ...
... called p-coumaric acid. P-coumaric acid controls detoxification pathways in bees, Man and other animals, too. ... It turns out that the bees depend upon the mycelium droplets to turn on almost four dozen or so genes for p-coumaric acid to ... Extracellular mycelium droplets are loaded with acids, enzymes, messenger molecules and rich with sugars. ...
Lignin-derived components such as coumaric and ferulic acids can evolve to more spicy guiaicols. Acrolein (peppery) can form ... lactic acid bacteria (4) sherry (4) tasting (4) water (4) Finland (1) barley (1) bottles (1) filtration (1) lavender (1) maize ... palmitic acid. 351. waxy, creamy, soapy. The traditional way of making the first cut point is by mixing the foreshots with ... The long-chain fatty acids and other residues from the previous distillation tend to form a cloudy mixture when diluted to 80 ...
  • Coumaric acid is a phenolic derivative of cinnamic acid having a hydroxy group as substituent at one of the aromatic positions: o-Coumaric acid m-Coumaric acid p-Coumaric acid This set index page lists chemical compounds articles associated with the same name. (wikipedia.org)
  • o-Coumaric acid is a hydroxycinnamic acid, an organic compound that is a hydroxy derivative of cinnamic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • one of a series of aromatic acids, related to cinnamic acid, the most important of which is a white crystalline substance, HO.C6H4.C2H2.CO2H, obtained from the tonka bean, sweet clover, etc., and also produced artificially. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • HPLC analysis indicated that the major polyphenols in the SFE extracts consisted of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, syrigin, procyanidin B2, (-)-epicatechin, cinnamic acid, coumaric acid , phlorizin and quercetin, of which procyanidin B2 had the highest content of 231. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Coumaric acids are organic compounds that are hydroxy derivatives of cinnamic acid . (bionity.com)
  • It is biosynthesized from cinnamic acid by the action of the P450-dependent enzyme 4-cinnamic acid hydroxylase. (bionity.com)
  • cis-p-Coumaric acid, also known as cis-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, is a hydroxy derivative of cinnamic acid. (hmdb.ca)
  • Cinnamic acid and its derivatives are used as important components in flavours, perfumes, synthetic indigo, and pharmaceuticals. (hmdb.ca)
  • Hydroxycinnamic acids are compounds containing an cinnamic acid where the benzene ring is hydroxylated. (hmdb.ca)
  • A phenolic acid, ρ -coumaric acid is a derivative compound of trans-cinnamic acid. (turmeric.com)
  • This enzyme catalyzes the deamination of phenylalanine to yield trans -cinnamic acid, so linking the aromatic amino acid to the hydroxycinnamic acids and their activated forms. (tuscany-diet.net)
  • In the first step, a hydroxyl group is attached at the 4-position of the aromatic ring of trans -cinnamic acid to form p-coumaric acid (reaction catalysed by cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase). (tuscany-diet.net)
  • p-Coumaric Acid is the hydroxy derivative of Cinnamic Acid with antioxidant properties. (molbase.com)
  • Several simple phenolic compounds such as cinnamic acid, p -coumaric acid, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, chlorgenic acid, and rosmarinic acid belong to this class. (biomedcentral.com)
  • According to study findings, the ORAC results showed that, of the tested compounds, ferulic acid performed the best, followed by coumaric acid , propyl gallate, gallic acid and vitamin C (ascorbic acid). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • belongs to the class of organic compounds known as hydroxycinnamic acids. (hmdb.ca)
  • Hydroxycinnamic acids, such as p -coumaric acid and ferulic acid, are a major class of compounds derived from the phenylpropanoid pathway. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Hydroxycinnamic acids or hydroxycinnamates are phenolic compounds belonging to non-flavonoid polyphenols . (tuscany-diet.net)
  • For example, an overlong storage of blood orange fruits causes a massive hydrolysis of hydroxycinnamic derivatives to free acids, and this in turn could lead to the formation of malodorous compounds such as vinyl phenols, indicators of too advanced senescence of the fruit. (tuscany-diet.net)
  • p-Coumaric acid glucuronide belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenolic glycosides. (foodb.ca)
  • Naturally occurring phenolic acids (PAs) are key compounds involved in the metabolism of plants and necessary building blocks for the polyphenol biosynthetic pathways to lignins, coumarins, lignans, stilbenes, and many other families of phenolic compounds ( Shahidi and Nazck, 2004 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Background: Aromatic amino acids and their derivatives are valuable chemicals and are precursors for different industrially compounds. (chalmers.se)
  • They are known to be rich in sugars and inhibitors such as phenolic compounds, organic acids and furaldehydes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although there were several conversion products formed from coniferyl aldehyde, ferulic acid and p -coumaric acid, the conversion products profile from the three compounds were similar. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Coniferyl aldehyde, ferulic acid and p -coumaric acid and their conversion products were screened for inhibition, the conversion products were less inhibitory than coniferyl aldehyde, ferulic acid and p -coumaric acid, indicating that the conversion of the three compounds by Saccharomyces cerevisiae was also a detoxification process. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We conclude that the conversion of coniferyl aldehyde, ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid into less inhibitory compounds is a form of stress response and a detoxification process. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Besides secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), the phenolic compounds p-coumaric acid glucoside (CouAG) and ferulic acid glucoside (FeAG) were isolated, which was expected based on indications from the literature. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Furthermore, polyphenolic compounds found in Mate tea differ significantly from green tea because Mate tea contains high concentration of chlorogenic acid and no catechins. (yerba-mate.com)
  • Hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives are important class of polyphenolic compounds originated from the Mavolanate-Shikimate biosynthesis pathways in plants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These are compounds with a structure containing a benzene ring conjugated to a propanoic acid. (hmdb.ca)
  • It is also a promising source of bioactive compounds such as phenolic acids, tocotrienols, tocopherols, carotenoids, phytosterols, and flavonoids and antinutritional factors, such as phytic acids and oxalates. (intechopen.com)
  • These are compounds containing a quinic acid moiety (or a derivative thereof), which is a cyclitol made up of a cyclohexane ring that bears four hydroxyl groups at positions 1,3.4, and 5, as well as a carboxylic acid at position 1. (hmdb.ca)
  • Reaction of p-hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives with nitrite and its relevance to nitrosamine formation. (bionity.com)
  • Poly(4-hydroxycinnamic acid) (P4HCA), poly(3-hydroxycinnamic acid) (P3HCA), poly(3-methoxy-4-hydroxycinnamic acid) (PMHCA) and poly(3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid) (PDHCA) were synthesized by the thermal poly-condensation of the corresponding monomers, which are lignin precursors, coumaric acid derivatives consisting of cinnamoyl groups and different position and number of OH groups. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Para-coumaric acid inhibits this process by binding to nitric acid derivatives, preventing them from combining with biochemical amines to form dangerous nitrosamines. (tjclark.com)
  • In nature, they are associated with other molecules to form, e.g., glycosylated derivatives or esters of tartaric acid, quinic acid, or shikimic acid . (tuscany-diet.net)
  • In adipose tissues, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives inhibit macrophage infiltration and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activation in obese animals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives also reduce the expression of the potent proinflammatory adipokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1), and they increase the secretion of an anti-inflammatory agent adiponectin from adipocytes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives also prevent adipocyte differentiation and lower lipid profile in experimental animals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Through these diverse mechanisms hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives reduce obesity and curtail associated adverse health complications. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This work will thus review the potential health benefit of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives in obesity and metabolic syndrome and their possible mechanism of action. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This compound belongs to the class of chemical entities known as quinic acids and derivatives. (hmdb.ca)
  • p-Coumaric acid is the main building block for complex secondary metabolites in commercial demand, such as flavonoids and polyphenols. (chalmers.se)
  • In contrast to numerous flavonoids, absorbed phenolic acids are poorly excreted in the bile or gut lumen. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Analysis of N33 whole-cell fatty acids indicated that synthesis of the methyl-branched fatty acids depended on the induction of bacteria by plant flavonoids, suggesting a specific role for these fatty acids in the signaling process between the plant and the bacteria. (asm.org)
  • In this study isolation of P-coumaric acid was achieved by preparative TLC and the compound thus isolated was characterised by UV, mass, and H 1 NMR spectral analysis. (hindawi.com)
  • p-Coumaric acid glucuronide is an extremely weak basic (essentially neutral) compound (based on its pKa). (foodb.ca)
  • Chlorogenic acid is the major polyphenolic compound in coffee, isolated from the leaves and fruits of dicotyledonous plants. (hmdb.ca)
  • mHPP is suspected to have antioxidants properties and is actively absorbed by the monocarboxylic acid transporter (MCT) in intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers (PMID 15479001 , 12663291 ). (hmdb.ca)
  • To characterise this platform strain further, transcriptomic analysis was performed, comparing this strain's growth on xylose and glucose, revealing a strong up-regulation of the glyoxylate pathway alongside increased cell wall biosynthesis and unexpectedly a decrease in aromatic amino acid gene expression when xylose was used as carbon source. (chalmers.se)
  • Here we aimed to study how production of p-coumaric acid, a precursor of multiple secondary aromatic metabolites, influences the cellular metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (chalmers.se)
  • This resulted in a predominant product consisting of two ferulic acid molecules dehydrogenatively linked to a single peptide and, furthermore, two ferulic acids linked to peptide oligomers, ranging from dimers to pentamers. (tudelft.nl)
  • These esters, most importantly ferulic and coumaric acid esters, can be synthesized into volatile phenols by yeast. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Hydroxycinnamic acids are not present in high quantities since they are rapidly converted to glucose esters or coenzyme A (CoA) esters, in reactions catalyzed by O -glucosyltransferases and hydroxycinnamate:CoA ligases, respectively. (tuscany-diet.net)
  • Grass lignins can contain up to 10% to 15% by weight of p -coumaric esters. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Methyl anthranilate and methyl salicylate are carboxyl methyl esters of anthranilic acid, an intermediate of Trp biosynthesis, and the plant hormone salicylic acid, respectively. (plantphysiol.org)
  • p-coumaric acid or 4-coumaric acid or 4-hydroxycinnamic acid. (tuscany-diet.net)
  • It is generally, both in the free form and bound to other molecules, the most abundant hydroxycinnamic acid in vegetables and most of the fruits, where it represents between 75 and 100% of the hydroxycinnamates. (tuscany-diet.net)
  • It is the most abundant hydroxycinnamic acid in cereals, which are also its main dietary source. (tuscany-diet.net)
  • HPLC-PDA analysis of P. carthagenensis and P. capillacea revealed hydroxycinnamic acid ( p -coumaric acid). (mdpi.com)
  • Antiangiogenic effects of p-coumaric acid in human endothelial cells. (ac.ir)
  • Effects of p-coumaric acid on erythema and pigmentation of human skin exposed to ultraviolet radiation. (ac.ir)
  • 13. Jyoti Roy A, Stanely Mainzen Prince P. Preventive effects of p-coumaric acid on lysosomal dysfunction and myocardial infarct size in experimentally induced myocardial infarction. (ac.ir)
  • In this study, authors investigated the effects of p-coumaric acid on liver and kidney damage induced by cisplatin, a common chemotherapy drug. (peanut-institute.com)
  • In this study, SERS measurements were systematically evaluated for ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid and sinapic acid. (nofima.no)
  • In particular, sinapic acid was evaluated for the first time, with a limit of detection of 2.5 × 10−9 M. (nofima.no)
  • In addition, several hundreds of anthocyanins acylated with the aforementioned hydroxycinnamates have been identified (in descending order with p-coumaric acid, more than 150, caffeic acid, about 100, ferulic acid, about 60, and sinapic acid, about 25). (tuscany-diet.net)
  • In turn, ferulic acid is converted into sinapic acid through two reactions: a hydroxylation at the 5-position to form 5-hydroxy ferulic acid (reaction catalysed by ferulate 5-hydroxylase), and the subsequent O -methylation of the same hydroxyl group (reaction catalyzed by catechol- O- methyltransferase). (tuscany-diet.net)
  • There are three isomers of coumaric acids - o-coumaric acid, m-coumaric acid, and p-coumaric acid - that differ by the position of the hydroxy substitution of the phenyl group. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are three isomers, o -coumaric acid, m -coumaric acid, and p -coumaric acid, that differ by the position of the hydroxy substitution of the phenyl group. (bionity.com)
  • There are three isomers of coumaric acid: o-coumaric acid, m-coumaric acid, and p-coumaric acid. (hmdb.ca)
  • 0.05) and enhanced plasma concentrations of caffeic and ferulic acid. (nih.gov)
  • The Effect of Coumaric Acid on Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury of Sciatic Nerve in Rats. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The aim of the study was to determine the effect of coumaric acid on sciatic nerve ischemia/reperfusion (SNI) injury in rats. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The rats were randomly divided into four groups: control group (no medication or surgical procedure), SNI group, SNI + coumaric acid (CA) group, and SNI + methylprednisolone (MP) group. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Amalan V, Vijayakumar N, Indumathi D, Ramakrishnan A (2016) Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activity of p-coumaric acid in diabetic rats, role of pancreatic GLUT 2: In vivo approach. (springermedizin.de)
  • Our study aimed to investigate the effect of p-coumaric acid on focal cerebral ischemia in rats. (ac.ir)
  • Rats were randomly divided into four groups, namely Group I (control rats), Group II (ischemia rats), Group III (6 hr ischemia + p-coumaric acid rats) and Group IV (24 hr ischemia + p-coumaric acid rats). (ac.ir)
  • The neurological deficit scores of p-coumaric acid-treated rats were significantly improved after cerebral ischemia. (ac.ir)
  • 7. Luceri C, Guglielmi F, Lodovici M, Giannini L, Messerini L, Dolara P. Plant phenolic 4-coumaric acid protects against intestinal inflammation in rats. (ac.ir)
  • Effects of natural phenolic acids on the skeletal system of ovariectomized rats. (ac.ir)
  • 14. Prasanna N, Krishnan DN, Rasool M. Sodium arsenite-induced cardiotoxicity in rats: protective role of p-coumaric acid, a common dietary polyphenol. (ac.ir)
  • Absorption and metabolism of caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid in the small intestine of rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The absorption and metabolism in the small intestine of chlorogenic acid (5-O-caffeoylquinic acid), the main phenolic acid in the human diet, and of caffeic acid were studied in rats in order to determine whether chlorogenic acid is directly absorbed or hydrolysed in the small intestine. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Short-chain fatty acid formation in the hindgut of rats fed native and fermented oat fibre concentra. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The common chemical method to synthesize Phenolic Acids (PAs) involves a relatively considerable energy intake. (frontiersin.org)
  • p>This subsection of the 'Function' section describes the interaction between a single amino acid and another chemical entity. (uniprot.org)
  • 13a 8 Syringic acid nd nd 9 Vanilin nd nd 10 p- Coumaric acid 0. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The results indicate the presence of five PAs (ferulic acid, syringic acid, p -hydroxybenzoic acid, p -coumaric acid, and vanillic acid) in the rhizosphere soils of P. notoginseng , whose contents in the rhizosphere soils of healthy plants are higher than those of the diseased ones. (mdpi.com)
  • In addition, Swiss chard contains a flavonoid called syringic acid, which may help regulate blood sugar and provide benefits to those with diabetes, along with kaempferol, a flavonol that may help fight cancer and lower your risk of chronic diseases including heart disease. (lewrockwell.com)
  • P-coumaric acid is one of the main polyphenols found in peanuts. (peanut-institute.com)
  • It's actually fairly rich in polyphenols [9] , particularly when roasted (which increases the coumaric acid content considerably [10] ). (marksdailyapple.com)
  • Stearic acid is a long-chain saturated fatty acid that can be derived from either animal fats or vegetable oils. (thomassci.com)
  • Caprylic acid is the common name for the eight-carbon saturated fatty acid known by the systematic name octanoic acid. (thomassci.com)
  • SUMMARY Peanuts are high in fat, consisting mostly of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids. (healthline.com)
  • Synthesis of the methyl-branched α,β-unsaturated fatty acids required a functional nodE gene. (asm.org)
  • 2016 ), fatty acid biosynthesis (Kwiatkowska et al. (springer.com)
  • Oil extracted from the seeds are rich in unsaturated fatty acids with linoleic acid and oleic acids as the major components. (articlecube.com)
  • The concentration of unsaturated fatty acids is 66% consisting of 13% oleic acid and 53% linoleic acid. (articlecube.com)
  • The anti-oxidants and essential fatty acids present in pumpkin seeds relieve inflammation, especially in the joints. (articlecube.com)
  • Results: Using metabolic engineering and a systems biology approach, we developed a Saccharomyces cerevisiae platform strain able to produce 242 mg/L of p-coumaric acid from xylose. (chalmers.se)
  • In an approach to engineer a S. cerevisiae strain with higher tolerance to phenolic inhibitors, we selectively investigated the metabolic conversion and physiological effects of coniferyl aldehyde, ferulic acid, and p-coumaric acid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae . (biomedcentral.com)
  • On the physiology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae , the maximum specific growth rates of the yeast was not affected in the presence of coniferyl aldehyde or ferulic acid, but it was significantly reduced in the presence of p -coumaric acid. (biomedcentral.com)
  • BRBs contain chemopreventive -rich composition, including anthocyanins, ellagic acid, ferulic acid, coumaric acid and quercetin, phytosterols in addition to folic acid and selenium. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Wheat cultivars exert antioxidant activity due to the presence of phytochemicals, such as phenolic acids, carotenoids, anthocyanins, and tocopherols [ 2 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Our study revealed that coumaric acid treatment after ischemia/reperfusion in rat sciatic nerves reduced oxidative stress and axonal degeneration. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We conclude here that pretreating animals with p-coumaric acid can prevent IR-induced brain oxidative stress, infarction size and neuronal vulnerability to death in cerebral IR injuries. (springermedizin.de)
  • Abdel-Wahab MH, El-Mahdy MA, Abd-Ellah MF, Helal GK, Khalifa F, Hamada FM (2003) Influence of p-coumaric acid on doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress in rat's heart. (springermedizin.de)
  • Influence of p-coumaric acid on doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress in rat's heart. (ac.ir)
  • Ameliorative role of ferulic acid against diabetes associated oxidative stress induced spleen damage. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • caffeic acid, quercetin and p-coumaric acid on the mRNA expression levels of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2E1, NQOI, GSTP1 and GPx in human colorectal adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells. (gazi.edu.tr)
  • caffeic acid and quercetin suppressed the mRNA expression levels of CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP2E1 between the range of 1,66 and 4,55 fold, while p-coumaric acid did not show remarkable effects on the enzymes aforementioned. (gazi.edu.tr)
  • The coumaric acid and the hydroxybenzoic acid potentiate the IAA oxidase system, responsible for its inactivation, causing the roots inhibition (Souza Filho & Alves, 2002). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The strong acidity of HFBA ensures that other acidic groups such as carboxylic acid moieties on biomolecules remain protonated, and thus the samples are able to interact with organic solvents in such processes as reverse phase chromatography. (thomassci.com)
  • The intermediates in the oxidation were identified as catechol, hydroquinone, benzoquinone, maleic acid and a relatively stable product, tentatively identified as an organic complex of iron and oxidised catechol. (chemweb.com)
  • L-Ascorbic Acid, Sodium Salt is a vitamin widely distributed in the plant and animal kingdom. (thomassci.com)
  • L-Ascorbic Acid, Sodium Salt is used as an antimicrobial and antioxidant in foodstuffs, a reductant for the isolation of chloroplasts. (thomassci.com)
  • Wheat grains and its fractions contain significant level of antioxidant activity and many phytochemicals, such as phenolic acids (ferulic and vanillic acids), carotenoids, and tocopherol are beneficial in curing many disorders. (intechopen.com)
  • Synthesis and properties of coumaric acid derivative homo-polymers. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Gallic Acid is a trihydroxybenzoic acid, a type of phenolic acid. (thomassci.com)
  • The models were successfully applied to 20 tomato cultivars, whose total phenolic contents (TPC) and indexes (TPI) were 489.30-997.45 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g dry weight (DW) and 281.34-468.52 mg/100 g DW, respectively. (scribd.com)
  • p -Coumaric acid has antioxidant properties and is believed to reduce the risk of stomach cancer [1] by reducing the formation of carcinogenic nitrosamines . (bionity.com)
  • The ingestion of blueberries in association with milk, thus, impairs the in vivo antioxidant properties of blueberries and reduces the absorption of caffeic acid. (nih.gov)
  • Together with sinapyl alcohol and coniferyl alcohols , p -coumaric acid is a major component of lignocellulose . (bionity.com)
  • Coniferyl aldehyde was rapidly converted within the first 24 h, while ferulic acid and p -coumaric acid were more slowly converted over a period of 72 h. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The biomass yields on glucose were reduced to 73 and 54 % of the control in the presence of coniferyl aldehyde and ferulic acid, respectively, biomass yield increased to 127 % of the control in the presence of p -coumaric acid. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Pretreatment with p-coumaric acid significantly reduced MDA levels, whole-brain infarction volume and hippocampal neuronal death together and increased catalase and superoxide dismutase activities. (springermedizin.de)
  • Effect of p-coumaric acid (CA) pretreatment on serum Cr and BUN. (revistanefrologia.com)
  • Effect of p-coumaric acid (CA) pretreatment on tissue oxidant and antioxidant enzyme activities. (revistanefrologia.com)
  • Therefore, in this study, NaOH-ethanol pretreatment condition for different parts of the sorghum stem was optimized to maximize p -coumaric acid release and total reducing sugar recovery. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ethanol addition improved p -coumaric acid release and delignification efficiency, but significantly reduced hemicellulose deconstruction in NaOH-ethanol pretreatment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Optimization using the response surface methodology revealed that the pith, rind and whole stem require different NaOH-ethanol pretreatment conditions for maximal p -coumaric acid release and xylan preservation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • By respective optimal NaOH-ethanol pretreatment, the p -coumaric acid release yields reached 94.07%, 97.24% and 95.05% from pith, rind and whole stem, which increased by 8.16%, 8.38% and 8.39% compared to those of NaOH-pretreated samples. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, coumaric acid may play a role in the treatment of peripheral nerve injuries due to ischemia/reperfusion. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of p-coumaric acid (CA) on ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury. (revistanefrologia.com)
  • Moreover, p-coumaric acid decreased the focal ischemia. (ac.ir)
  • Extra effort should be made to introduce p-coumaric acid as a promising therapeutic agent to be utilized for treatment of human cerebral ischemia in the future. (ac.ir)
  • Additionally, in S288c amino acid and protein biosynthesis processes were also affected. (chalmers.se)
  • Homology-based structural modeling combined with site-directed mutagenesis identified two amino acid residues, designated tyrosine-246 and glutamine-167 in AAMT1, which are responsible for the high specificity of AAMTs toward anthranilic acid. (plantphysiol.org)
  • It is a non-essential amino acid with a polar side group . (wikipedia.org)
  • While tyrosine is generally classified as a hydrophobic amino acid, it is more hydrophilic than phenylalanine . (wikipedia.org)
  • Aside from being a proteinogenic amino acid , tyrosine has a special role by virtue of the phenol functionality. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mammals synthesize tyrosine from the essential amino acid phenylalanine ( phe ), which is derived from food. (wikipedia.org)
  • The analysis of purified lignin fractions and the identification of diagnostic products confirmed that p -coumaric acid was associated with lignins. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Antidepressant-like effect of ferulic acid via promotion of energy metabolism activity. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Among its related pathways are Arachidonic acid metabolism and Prostaglandin 2 biosynthesis and metabolism FM . (genecards.org)
  • Among its related pathways are Arachidonic acid metabolism and NRF2 pathway . (genecards.org)
  • m-Coumaric acid is a polyphenol metabolite from caffeic acid, formed by the gut microflora and the amount in human biofluids is diet-dependant. (medchemexpress.com)
  • 3-(3-Hydroxyphenyl)propanoic (hMPP) acid is one of the major metabolites of ingested caffeic acid (PMID 15479001 ) and of the phenolic degradation products of proanthocyanidins (the most abundant polyphenol present in chocolate) by the microflora in the colon (PMID 12663291 ). (hmdb.ca)
  • Formic acid is a reagent used for formylation, hydrolysis, and cyclocondensations. (thomassci.com)
  • Also known as vitamin B9 or folic acid, folate has many essential functions and is especially important during pregnancy ( 12 ). (healthline.com)
  • Avocados also provide close to 20 essential health-boosting nutrients, including fiber, vitamin E, B-vitamins, and folic acid. (lewrockwell.com)
  • The net absorption (influent flux minus effluent flux of phenolic acids and their metabolites) accounted for 19.5 % and 8 % of the perfused caffeic and chlorogenic acids, respectively. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We investigated the protective effect of p-coumaric acid (PC) on cerebral IR injuries in mice. (springermedizin.de)
  • Results showed that p-coumaric acid exhibited antioxidant capabilities, which were protective against liver and kidney damage. (peanut-institute.com)
  • We orally administered vehicle or 100 mg/kg of p-coumaric acid for 2 weeks before inducing the cerebral IR injuries by using 30 min of a bilateral common carotid artery occlusion followed by a 45-min reperfusion. (springermedizin.de)
  • Formic Acid is the smallest of the carboxylic acids. (thomassci.com)
  • This method has obeyed linearity over the concentration range of 2-10 μ g/mL and the regression coefficient obtained from linearity plot for P-coumaric acid was found to be 0.999. (hindawi.com)
  • Caffeic acid and quinic acid bind to form chlorogenic acid, present in many fruit and in high concentration in coffee. (tuscany-diet.net)
  • The addition of a second hydroxyl group at the 3-position of the ring of p-coumaric acid leads to the formation of caffeic acid (reaction catalysed by p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase or phenolase), while the O -methylation of the hydroxyl group at the 3-position yields ferulic acid (reaction catalyzed by catechol- O -methyltransferase). (tuscany-diet.net)
  • Antioxidant and antigenotoxic effects of plant cell wall hydroxycinnamic acids in cultured HT-29 cells. (bionity.com)
  • Z -Form 4-coumaric acid glycosides were first isolated from plant. (go.jp)
  • Indole-3-butyric acid is used as plant growth hormone. (thomassci.com)
  • Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is the most common, naturally-occurring, plant growth regulator - as a principal auxin of higher plants. (thomassci.com)
  • Found in plant seeds, including nuts, phytic acid may impair the absorption of iron and zinc from peanuts and other foods eaten at the same time ( 19 ). (healthline.com)
  • They focused especially on Pantothenic Acid, remarking that it is "rare to find a plant with so much of this significant and vital nutrient. (yerba-mate.com)
  • Ferulic acid is a highly abundant phenolic phytochemical which is present in plant cell walls. (hmdb.ca)
  • Researchers in Korea studied the effects of treating mice with p-coumaric acid for acetaminophen-induced liver damage. (peanut-institute.com)
  • Results showed that p-coumaric acid was able to prevent liver damage in mice who were treated with it in the environment of an acetaminophen overdose. (peanut-institute.com)
  • p -Coumaric acid is the most abundant isomer in nature. (bionity.com)
  • A micronutrient abundant in fruits (p-coumaric acid) may improve the functional efficacy of probiotics. (justcoffee.coop)
  • It is one of the most abundant phenolic acids in plants, varying from 5 g/kg in wheat bran to 9 g/kg in sugar-beet pulp and 50 g/kg in corn kernel. (hmdb.ca)
  • In all these species, methyl salicylate is synthesized by the action of S -adenosyl- l -methionine:salicylic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (SAMT). (plantphysiol.org)
  • White willow bark contains salicin, which is converted to salicylic acid in the body. (florahealth.com)
  • Salicylic acid reduces pain by blocking the production of inflammatory prostaglandins. (florahealth.com)
  • Its content in salicin becomes salicylic acid in the organism inhibiting the prostaglandins and reducing the pain sensation, specially if we consider that, besides being analgesic it also presents anti inflammatory properties. (botanical-online.com)
  • Any treatment should be started with very low doses to check the tolerance of the organism to this product, since the proportion of salicylic acid present in the bark of the willows depends on many climatological and seasonal factors. (botanical-online.com)
  • Chlorogenic acid and its metabolite m-coumaric acid evoke neurite outgrowth in hippocampal neuronal cells. (medchemexpress.com)
  • In maize, this gene family has diversified especially toward benzenoid carboxyl methyltransferases that accept anthranilic acid and benzoic acid. (plantphysiol.org)