Coupling of the peroxidase and cyclooxygenase reactions of prostaglandin H synthase. (1/535)Interrelations between peroxidase and cyclooxygenase reactions catalyzed by prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase (prostaglandin H synthase) were analyzed in terms of the mutual influence of these reactions. The original branched-chain mechanism predicts competition between these two reactions for enzyme, so that peroxidase cosubstrate should inhibit the cyclooxygenase reaction and the cyclooxygenase substrate is expected to inhibit the peroxidase reaction. In stark contrast, the peroxidase reducing substrate is well known to strongly stimulate the cyclooxygenase reaction. In the present work the opposite effect, the influence of the cyclooxygenase substrate on the peroxidase reaction was studied. Experiments were conducted on the effect of arachidonic acid on the consumption of p-coumaric acid by prostaglandin H synthase and 5-phenyl-4-pentenyl-1-hydroperoxide. Neither the steady-state rates nor the total extent of p-coumaric acid consumption was affected by the addition of arachidonic acid. This suggests that the cyclooxygenase substrate does not influence observable velocities of the peroxidase reaction, namely oxidation and regeneration of the resting enzyme. The data support coupling of the cyclooxygenase and peroxidase reactions. A combination of the branched-chain and tightly coupled mechanisms is proposed, which includes a tyrosyl radical active enzyme intermediate regenerated through the peroxidase cycle. Numerical integration of the proposed reaction scheme agrees with the observed relations between peroxidase and cyclooxygenase reactions in the steady state. (+info)
Genetic analysis of a chromosomal region containing vanA and vanB, genes required for conversion of either ferulate or vanillate to protocatechuate in Acinetobacter. (2/535)VanA and VanB form an oxygenative demethylase that converts vanillate to protocatechuate in microorganisms. Ferulate, an abundant phytochemical, had been shown to be metabolized through a vanillate intermediate in several Pseudomonas isolates, and biochemical evidence had indicated that vanillate also is an intermediate in ferulate catabolism by Acinetobacter. Genetic evidence supporting this conclusion was obtained by characterization of mutant Acinetobacter strains blocked in catabolism of both ferulate and vanillate. Cloned Acinetobacter vanA and vanB were shown to be members of a chromosomal segment remote from a supraoperonic cluster containing other genes required for completion of the catabolism of ferulate and its structural analogs, caffeate and coumarate, through protocatechuate. The nucleotide sequence of DNA containing vanA and vanB demonstrated the presence of genes that, on the basis of nucleotide sequence similarity, appeared to be associated with transport of aromatic compounds, metabolism of such compounds, or iron scavenging. Spontaneous deletion of 100 kb of DNA containing this segment does not impede the growth of cells with simple carbon sources other than vanillate or ferulate. Additional spontaneous mutations blocking vanA and vanB expression were shown to be mediated by IS1236, including insertion of the newly discovered composite transposon Tn5613. On the whole, vanA and vanB appear to be located within a nonessential genetic region that exhibits considerable genetic malleability in Acinetobacter. The overall organization of genes neighboring Acinetobacter vanA and vanB, including a putative transcriptional regulatory gene that is convergently transcribed and overlaps vanB, is conserved in Pseudomonas aeruginosa but has undergone radical rearrangement in other Pseudomonas species. (+info)
Bacterial photoreceptor with similarity to photoactive yellow protein and plant phytochromes. (3/535)A phytochrome-like protein called Ppr was discovered in the purple photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum centenum. Ppr has a photoactive yellow protein (PYP) amino-terminal domain, a central domain with similarity to phytochrome, and a carboxyl-terminal histidine kinase domain. Reconstitution experiments demonstrate that Ppr covalently attaches the blue light-absorbing chromophore p-hydroxycinnamic acid and that it has a photocycle that is spectrally similar to, but kinetically slower than, that of PYP. Ppr also regulates chalcone synthase gene expression in response to blue light with autophosphorylation inhibited in vitro by blue light. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrates that R. centenum Ppr may be ancestral to cyanobacterial and plant phytochromes. (+info)
Mitochondrial metabolism of pyruvate is required for its enhancement of cardiac function and energetics. (4/535)Pyruvate augmentation of contractile function and cytosolic free energy of ATP hydrolysis in myocardium could result from pyruvate catabolism in the mitochondria or from increased ratio of the cytosolic NAD-/NADH redox couple via the lactate dehydrogenase equilibrium. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that cytosolic oxidation by pyruvate is sufficient to increase cardiac function and energetics. METHODS: Isolated working guinea-pig hearts received 0.2 mM octanoate +/- 2.5 mM pyruvate as fuels. alpha-Cyano-3-hydroxycinnamate (COHC, 0.6 mM) was administered to selectively inhibit mitochondrial pyruvate uptake without inhibiting pyruvate's cytosolic redox effects or octanoate oxidation. The effects of pyruvate and COHC on sarcoplasmic reticular- Ca2+ handling were examined in 45Ca-loaded hearts. RESULTS: Pyruvate increased left ventricular stroke work and power 40%, mechanical efficiency 29%, and cytosolic ATP phosphorylation potential nearly fourfold. 14CO2 formation from [1-14C]pyruvate was inhibited 65% by COHC, and octanoate oxidation, i.e. 14CO2 formation from [1-14C]octanoate, concomitantly increased threefold. COHC prevented pyruvate enhancement of left ventricular function, mechanical efficiency and cytosolic phosphorylation potential, but did not alter respective levels in pyruvate-free control hearts and augmented cytosolic oxidation by pyruvate. Pyruvate increased sarcoplasmic reticular Ca2+ turnover, i.e. Ca2+ uptake and release, as indicated by 62% decrease in caffeine-induced 45Ca release following 40 min 45Ca washout (P < 0.01). In presence of COHC, pyruvate did not lower caffeine-induced 45Ca release; thus. COHC abrogated pyruvate enhancement of Ca2+ turnover (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Pyruvate oxidation of cytosolic redox state is not sufficient to increase cardiac function, cytosolic energetics and sarcoplasmic reticular Ca2+ turnover when mitochondrial pyruvate transport is disabled; thus, mitochondrial metabolism of pyruvate is essential for its metabolic inotropism. (+info)
Theoretical elucidation of activity differences of five phenolic antioxidants. (5/535)AIM: To verify the effectiveness of structure-activity relationship (SAR) and theoretical calculation methods for antioxidants. METHODS: Preliminary elucidation on the differences of activities of 5 antioxidants was performed by SAR. Then semiempirical quantum chemistry method AM1 was employed to calculate the delta HOF value, the difference between the heat of formation of antioxidant and its free radical, which was used as a theoretical parameter to elucidate the differences of activities of the antioxidants thoroughly. RESULTS: delta HOF values of antioxidants were obtained as follows: ferulic acid, 150.58 kJ.mol-1; anion of ferulic acid, 122.64 kJ.mol-1; modified ferulic acid, 137.70 kJ.mol-1; anion of modified ferulic acid, 118.99 kJ.mol-1; salvianic acid, 134.17 kJ.mol-1; rutin, 137.83 kJ.mol-1, L-EGCG, 124.39 kJ.mol-1; paeonol, 176.79 kJ.mol-1. The differences of the antioxidant activities were elucidated, and how to further enhance the antioxidant activity was investigated as well. CONCLUSION: The SAR and calculation methods are rather effective to elucidate the differences of antioxidant activities, and present some new clues for structural modification of antioxidants to increase their activities. (+info)
An early salicylic acid-, pathogen- and elicitor-inducible tobacco glucosyltransferase: role in compartmentalization of phenolics and H2O2 metabolism. (6/535)Treatment of tobacco cell suspension cultures with a fungal elicitor of defense responses resulted in an early accumulation of the phenylpropanoid glucosyltransferase TOGT, along with the rapid synthesis and secretion of scopolin, the glucoside of scopoletin. Elicitor-triggered extracellular accumulation of the aglycone scopoletin and of free caffeic and ferulic acids could only be revealed in the presence of diphenylene iodonium, an inhibitor of extracellular H2O2 production. Our results strongly support a role for TOGT in the elicitor-stimulated production of transportable phenylpropanoid glucosides, followed by the release of free antioxidant phenolics into the extracellular medium and subsequent H2O2 scavenging. (+info)
The small intestine can both absorb and glucuronidate luminal flavonoids. (7/535)We have studied the perfusion of the jejunum and ileum in an isolated rat intestine model with flavonoids and hydroxycinnamates and the influence of glycosylation on the subsequent metabolism. Flavone and flavonol glucosides and their corresponding aglycones are glucuronidated during transfer across the rat jejunum and ileum and this glucuronidation occurs without the need for gut microflora. Furthermore, this suggests the presence of glycosidases as well as UDP-glucuronyl transferase in the jejunum. In contrast, quercetin-3-glucoside and rutin are mainly absorbed unmetabolised. The results suggest that the more highly reducing phenolics are absorbed predominantly as glucuronides (96.5%+/-4.6) of the amount absorbed, whereas monophenolic hydroxycinnamates and monophenolic B-ring flavonoids are less predisposed to glucuronidation and higher levels of aglycone (88.1%+/-10.1) are detected on absorption through both the jejunum and ileum. (+info)
Biochemical characterization of the suberization-associated anionic peroxidase of potato. (8/535)The anionic peroxidase associated with the suberization response in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers during wound healing has been purified and partially characterized at the biochemical level. It is a 45-kD, class III (plant secretory) peroxidase that is localized to suberizing tissues and shows a preference for feruloyl (o-methoxyphenol)-substituted substrates (order of substrate preference: feruloyl > caffeoyl > p-coumaryl approximately syringyl) such as those that accumulate in tubers during wound healing. There was little influence on oxidation by side chain derivatization, although hydroxycinnamates were preferred over the corresponding hydroxycinnamyl alcohols. The substrate specificity pattern is consistent with the natural substrate incorporation into potato wound suberin. In contrast, the cationic peroxidase(s) induced in response to wound healing in potato tubers is present in both suberizing and nonsuberizing tissues and does not discriminate between hydroxycinnamates and hydroxycinnamyl alcohols. A synthetic polymer prepared using E-[8-(13)C]ferulic acid, H(2)O(2), and the purified anionic enzyme contained a significant amount of cross-linking through C-8, albeit with retention of unsaturation. (+info)
Coumaric acids are a type of phenolic acid that are widely distributed in plants. They are found in various foods such as fruits, vegetables, and grains. The most common forms of coumaric acids are p-coumaric acid, o-coumaric acid, and m-coumaric acid.
Coumaric acids have been studied for their potential health benefits, including their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial properties. They may also play a role in preventing chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential health benefits of coumaric acids.
It's worth noting that coumaric acids are not to be confused with warfarin (also known as Coumadin), a medication used as an anticoagulant. While both coumaric acids and warfarin contain a similar chemical structure, they have different effects on the body.
Caffeic acids are a type of phenolic compounds that contain a catechol structure and a carboxylic acid group. They are found in various plants, including coffee, tea, fruits, and vegetables. The most common caffeic acid is caffeic acid itself, which is abundant in coffee. Caffeic acids have been studied for their potential health benefits, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities. However, more research is needed to fully understand their effects on human health.
Acanthaceae is a family of flowering plants that includes around 2,500 species distributed across 220-400 genera. These plants are primarily found in tropical and subtropical regions, with some extending into temperate zones. The family is characterized by the presence of stiff, spiny bracts, which are often colorful and modified to attract pollinators.
The plants in Acanthaceae can vary widely in form, from herbaceous annuals and perennials to shrubs and trees. They have simple or opposite leaves that may be entire or lobed. The flowers are typically bisexual, with a two-lipped calyx and corolla, and four stamens.
Some well-known members of Acanthaceae include the garden plants Shrimp Plant (Justicia brandegeeana) and Whorled Tubelet (Lepidagathis formosa), as well as the medicinal plant Indian Snakeroot (Rauvolfia serpentina).
In a medical context, some species of Acanthaceae have been used in traditional medicine for various purposes, such as treating skin conditions, fevers, and gastrointestinal disorders. However, it is important to note that the use of these plants should be done with caution and under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional, as they can also contain toxic compounds.
Aerial parts of plants refer to the above-ground portions of a plant, including leaves, stems, flowers, and fruits. These parts are often used in medicine, either in their entirety or as isolated extracts, to take advantage of their medicinal properties. The specific components of aerial parts that are used in medicine can vary depending on the plant species and the desired therapeutic effects. For example, the leaves of some plants may contain active compounds that have anti-inflammatory or analgesic properties, while the flowers of others may be rich in antioxidants or compounds with sedative effects. In general, aerial parts of plants are used in herbal medicine to treat a wide range of conditions, including respiratory, digestive, and nervous system disorders, as well as skin conditions and infections.
Cinnamates are organic compounds that are derived from cinnamic acid. They contain a carbon ring with a double bond and a carboxylic acid group, making them aromatic acids. Cinnamates are widely used in the perfume industry due to their pleasant odor, and they also have various applications in the pharmaceutical and chemical industries.
In a medical context, cinnamates may be used as topical medications for the treatment of skin conditions such as fungal infections or inflammation. For example, cinnamate esters such as cinoxacin and ciclopirox are commonly used as antifungal agents in creams, lotions, and shampoos. These compounds work by disrupting the cell membranes of fungi, leading to their death.
Cinnamates may also have potential therapeutic benefits for other medical conditions. For instance, some studies suggest that cinnamate derivatives may have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and neuroprotective properties, making them promising candidates for the development of new drugs to treat diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. However, more research is needed to confirm these effects and determine their safety and efficacy in humans.
P-Coumaric acid glucoside
Photoactive yellow protein
Coniferous resin salve
Coumaric acid - Wikipedia
p-Coumaric acid, trans
p-Coumaric acid-[13C3] | CAS 1261170-80-2 | P212121 Store
p-Coumaric acid Mass Spectrum
Concentration data for m-Coumaric acid in Olive [Green], raw - Phenol-Explorer
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Publication : USDA ARS
Publication : USDA ARS
- In an approach to engineer a S. cerevisiae strain with higher tolerance to phenolic inhibitors, we selectively investigated the metabolic conversion and physiological effects of coniferyl aldehyde, ferulic acid, and p-coumaric acid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (chalmers.se)
- Result: Coniferyl aldehyde was rapidly converted within the first 24 h, while ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid were more slowly converted over a period of 72 h. (chalmers.se)
- Although there were several conversion products formed from coniferyl aldehyde, ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid, the conversion products profile from the three compounds were similar. (chalmers.se)
- On the physiology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the maximum specific growth rates of the yeast was not affected in the presence of coniferyl aldehyde or ferulic acid, but it was significantly reduced in the presence of p-coumaric acid. (chalmers.se)
- The biomass yields on glucose were reduced to 73 and 54 % of the control in the presence of coniferyl aldehyde and ferulic acid, respectively, biomass yield increased to 127 % of the control in the presence of p-coumaric acid. (chalmers.se)
- Coniferyl aldehyde, ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid and their conversion products were screened for inhibition, the conversion products were less inhibitory than coniferyl aldehyde, ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid, indicating that the conversion of the three compounds by Saccharomyces cerevisiae was also a detoxification process. (chalmers.se)
- Conclusion: We conclude that the conversion of coniferyl aldehyde, ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid into less inhibitory compounds is a form of stress response and a detoxification process. (chalmers.se)
- p-coumaric acid, caffeic and ferulic acids. (florahealth.com)
- Other phenolic acids in coffee beans are: ferulic and p-coumaric. (springer.com)
- The pure CFG prepared by this process was hydrolyzed with 1.5 N methanolic KOH at 70 °C for one hour to release hydroxycinnamic acids (p-coumaric and ferulic) and lipids. (usda.gov)
- Gallic acid, 3,4-di-hydroxybenzoic acid, sinapic acid, ferulic acid, coumaric acid, and rutin were identified by UPLC-MS/MS and were the main compounds detected in mustard extracts. (unboundmedicine.com)
- They analysed the profile differences for the content of flavonols (kaempferol-3- O -rutinoside, rutin, and quercetin), flavanones (naringenin and naringenin-7- O -glucoside), flavones (apigenin-7- O -glucoside), and hydroxycinnamic acids (ferulic, p -coumaric, caffeic, and chlorogenic acids. (foodnavigator.com)
- The main groups of CGA found in green coffee beans include caffeoylquinic acids, dicaffeoylquinic acids, feruloylquinic acids, p-coumaroylquinic acids and mixed diesters of caffeic and ferulic acids with quinic acid, each group with at least three isomers. (scielo.br)
- The influence of some hydroxycinnamic acids on colour as well as the influence of selective fining on flavonoid development in wine made from Vitis vinifera L. ca. (lincoln.ac.nz)
- Coumaric acids and flavonoids play pivotal roles in protecting plants against ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure. (rsc.org)
- Furthermore, organic coffee beans showed higher content of bioactive compounds (total phenolic, phenolic acids and flavonoids) than conventional coffee beans. (springer.com)
- Production of flavonoids and stilbenoids in S. cerevisiae is challenging, partially due to carbon loss towards phloretic acid by the action of an unknown endogenous reductase. (ruc.dk)
- These include the phenolic acids, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid and ellagic acid as well as many flavonoids. (ndtv.com)
- Coumaric acid is a phenolic derivative of cinnamic acid having a hydroxy group as substituent at one of the aromatic positions: o-Coumaric acid m-Coumaric acid p-Coumaric acid This set index article lists chemical compounds articles associated with the same name. (wikipedia.org)
- Phenylalanine is first converted to cinnamic acid by deamination. (kegg.jp)
- Chlorogenic acids (CGA) and related compounds are the main components of the phenolic fraction of green coffee beans, reaching levels up to 14 % (dry matter basis). (scielo.br)
- They are known to be rich in sugars and inhibitors such as phenolic compounds, organic acids and furaldehydes. (chalmers.se)
- During 12 months storage a decrease in polyphenolic compounds is observed and it is connected with the degradation of chlorogenic acid, which influences total bioactivity. (springer.com)
- The coffee beverage is a rich source of bioactive compounds especially polyphenols, such as phenolic acids, mostly chlorogenic (in green beans) and caffeic (occurring after roasting). (springer.com)
- During the roasting process, a decrease in polyphenolic compounds is observed and it is connected with the degradation of chlorogenic, malic and citric acid, which influences the total antioxidant activity. (springer.com)
- Wounding and UVB Light Synergistically Induce the Biosynthesis of Phenolic Compounds and Ascorbic Acid in Red Prickly Pears ( Opuntia ficus-indica cv. (mdpi.com)
- The pain-relieving properties are likely due to the presence of the anti-inflammatory compounds eugenol, myricetin and salicylic acid in the flowers. (skininc.com)
Sustained antioxidant activity1
- P-coumaric acid (pCA) has been intercalated in zinc basic salt (ZBS) to design an organic-inorganic nanohybrid material with controlled release and sustained antioxidant activity. (elsevierpure.com)
- In red clover leaves, the oxidation of abundant o-diphenol caffeic acid derivatives by the enzyme polyphenol oxidase (PPO) prevents post-harvest protein loss, enhancing the quality of this forage when it is preserved by ensiling. (usda.gov)
- In this work, we focus our photoprotection studies on p -coumaric acid and the flavonoid naringenin chalcone. (rsc.org)
- Herein, we employ transient absorption spectroscopy together with steady-state irradiation studies to unravel the photoprotection mechanism of a solution of p -coumaric acid and naringenin chalcone. (rsc.org)
- This finding concurs with quenching of the p -coumaric acid fluorescence with increasing concentration of naringenin chalcone. (rsc.org)
- We propose a Förster energy transfer mechanism is operative via the formation of dipole-dipole interactions between p -coumaric acid and naringenin chalcone. (rsc.org)
- The nutritional value of quinoa seeds is in particular related to the high protein content (with all essential amino acids), unsaturated fatty acids, and fiber, although the content of vitamins, minerals, and other phytochemicals and the gluten-free nature of these products should also be mentioned [ 2 - 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Salicylic acid also has demonstrated activity against eczema. (skininc.com)
- The released phenolic acids and lipids were identified and quantified using HPLC with detection by both UV and evaporative light-scattering detection (ELSD). (usda.gov)
- Caffeic and p-coumaric acid were added to musts of Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot noir prior to fermentation. (lincoln.ac.nz)
- Both acids produced significant hyperchromic shifts in absorbance maxima in both Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot noir post fermentation (49 days from addition of acids) compared to the untreated wine. (lincoln.ac.nz)
- the physicochemical and spectroscopic analyses (uv, ir, 1 h nmr, 13 c nmr, and ms) indicated that the bioactive isolated compound was p-coumaric acid, the effect of which was on par with the standard antioxidant, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory drugs. (isc.ac)
- There is likely overlap of enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of o-diphenol PPO substrates and other important phenols (e.g. monolignols, phytoalexins), so we are currently characterizing the expression patterns of these genes in red clover as they relate to the accumulation of caffeic acid derivatives. (usda.gov)
- Increasing of lignin in composite films, the acid to aldehyde ratios of vanillyl and syringyl phenols of the lignin declined from 1.18 to 1.17 (~0.76%) and 1.59-1.56 (~1.78%), respectively. (degruyter.com)
- These findings should be of great value for the industrial production of p-coumaric acid-derived molecules in S. cerevisiae. (ruc.dk)
- Thus, our results suggest that coumaric acid has a potential therapeutic effect against liver fibrosis . (bvsalud.org)
- The extraction of CFG with alkaline hydrogen peroxide was investigated using different combinations of alkali concentration and time to identify the optimum extraction condition to retain its functional groups (protein, lipids and phenolic acids). (usda.gov)
- The total polar lipids, phenolic acids and protein content in CFGs isolated with lower alkali concentration for a shorter time was comparatively higher than CFGs isolated with higher alkali concentration for a longer time. (usda.gov)
- Our results have also shown that "pure" CFG fractions often contain considerable amounts of associated lipids, phenolic acids and proteins which contribute to its emulsifying properties. (usda.gov)
- The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of drying temperature on the phenolic acids profile and antioxidant activity of sprouts and leaves red and white Chenopodium quinoa (RQ and WQ, respectively). (hindawi.com)
- Coffee is the main source of chlorogenic acid in human diet and has been cited as an efficient in vitro and ex vivo antioxidant [ 4 ]. (springer.com)
- In plants, caffeic acid and its derivatives are intermediates in the synthesis of monolignols, although in some plants like red clover these caffeic acid derivatives accumulate to relatively high levels in leaves. (usda.gov)
- Through the screening of 26 putative double bond reductase knockout strains we identified Tsc13 as the enzyme responsible for the reduction of p-coumaroyl-CoA to phloretic acid. (ruc.dk)
- The leaves do not differ too much in terms of the phenolic acids profile, whereas the differentiating factor is thermal processing. (hindawi.com)
- Genes from Arabidopsis thaliana, Gossypium hirsutum and Malus domestica were able to sustain cell progression while not resulting in p-coumaroyl-CoA reduction to phloretic acid. (ruc.dk)
- Reduction of the CoA-activated carboxyl groups of these acids results in the corresponding aldehydes and alcohols. (kegg.jp)
- The presence of these phenolic acids, lipids and protein in CFG may contribute to its excellent emulsifying properties and may combine to give other chemical, physical, and even nutritional properties. (usda.gov)
- Coumaric acid from M. polymorphum extracts reverses the activated state of hepatic stellate cells (GRX) and inhibits their proliferation by decreasing the p53/p21 pathway. (bvsalud.org)
- Treatment with coumaric acid was also able to revert the activated phenotype of GRX cells to their quiescent state . (bvsalud.org)
- Green natural rubber- g -modified starch (8), starch- g -acrylic acid (9), starch- g -poly (l-lactide) (10) and starch films plasticized with urea (11). (degruyter.com)
- Cell proliferation was assessed by the trypan blue exclusion technique and the cytotoxicity of coumaric acid was performed using an LDH assay. (bvsalud.org)
- The experiments performed showed that the treatment with coumaric acid was able to reduce cell proliferation without causing cell cytotoxicity or apoptosis . (bvsalud.org)
- Coumaric acid was able to inhibit the expression of cyclin D1 and CDK's (CDK2, CDK4, and CDK6), increasing p53 and p21, which could lead to cell cycle arrest . (bvsalud.org)
- Click the button below to add the p-Coumaric acid-[13C3] 1mg to your wish list. (p212121.com)