Agricultural Workers' Diseases
Identification of an opd (organophosphate degradation) gene in an Agrobacterium isolate. (1/12)We isolated a bacterial strain, Agrobacterium radiobacter P230, which can hydrolyze a wide range of organophosphate (OP) insecticides. A gene encoding a protein involved in OP hydrolysis was cloned from A. radiobacter P230 and sequenced. This gene (called opdA) had sequence similarity to opd, a gene previously shown to encode an OP-hydrolyzing enzyme in Flavobacterium sp. strain ATCC 27551 and Brevundimonas diminuta MG. Insertional mutation of the opdA gene produced a strain lacking the ability to hydrolyze OPs, suggesting that this is the only gene encoding an OP-hydrolyzing enzyme in A. radiobacter P230. The OPH and OpdA proteins, encoded by opd and opdA, respectively, were overexpressed and purified as maltose-binding proteins, and the maltose-binding protein moiety was cleaved and removed. Neither protein was able to hydrolyze the aliphatic OP malathion. The kinetics of the two proteins for diethyl OPs were comparable. For dimethyl OPs, OpdA had a higher k(cat) than OPH. It was also capable of hydrolyzing the dimethyl OPs phosmet and fenthion, which were not hydrolyzed at detectable levels by OPH. (+info)
Cloning and expression of the phosphotriesterase gene hocA from Pseudomonas monteilii C11. (2/12)The cloning of a gene encoding the novel phosphotriesterase from Pseudomonas monteilii C11, which enabled it to use the organophosphate (OP) coroxon as its sole phosphorus source, is described. The gene, called hocA (hydrolysis of coroxon) consists of 501 bp and encodes a protein of 19 kDa. This protein had no sequence similarity to any proteins in the SWISS-PROT/GenBank databases. When a spectinomycin-resistance cassette was placed in this gene, phosphotriesterase activity was abolished and P. monteilii C11 could no longer grow with coroxon as the sole phosphorus source. Overexpression and purification of HocA as a maltose-binding protein fusion produced a protein having a broad substrate specificity across oxon and thion OPs. Michaelis-Menten kinetics were observed with the oxon OPs, but not with the thion OPs. End-product inhibition was observed for coroxon-hydrolytic activity. Increased expression of hocA was observed from an integrative hocA-lacZ fusion when cultures were grown in the absence of phosphate, suggesting that it might be part of the Pho regulon, but the phosphate-regulated promoter was not cloned in this study. This is believed to be the first study in which a gene required for an organism to grow with OP pesticides as a phosphorus source has been isolated. (+info)
Transient expression of organophosphorus hydrolase to enhance the degrading activity of tomato fruit on coumaphos. (3/12)(+info)
Coumaphos exposure and incident cancer among male participants in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS). (4/12)(+info)
Pesticide use modifies the association between genetic variants on chromosome 8q24 and prostate cancer. (5/12)(+info)
CYP9Q-mediated detoxification of acaricides in the honey bee (Apis mellifera). (6/12)(+info)
Acute exposure to a sublethal dose of imidacloprid and coumaphos enhances olfactory learning and memory in the honeybee Apis mellifera. (7/12)(+info)
Exposure to multiple cholinergic pesticides impairs olfactory learning and memory in honeybees. (8/12)(+info)
1. Pesticide poisoning: Agricultural workers who handle or apply pesticides may be at risk for poisoning, which can cause a range of symptoms including headaches, dizziness, and nausea. Prolonged exposure to pesticides has also been linked to an increased risk of cancer.
2. Lung disease: Agricultural workers who work with dusty crops or in confined spaces may be at risk for lung diseases such as bronchitis, emphysema, and asthma.
3. Heat stress: Agricultural workers who work outdoors during hot weather may be at risk for heat stress, which can lead to symptoms such as dizziness, nausea, and fatigue. In severe cases, heat stress can be fatal.
4. Noise-induced hearing loss: Agricultural workers who are exposed to loud noises, such as tractors or other machinery, may be at risk for noise-induced hearing loss.
5. Musculoskeletal disorders: Agricultural workers may be at risk for musculoskeletal disorders such as back pain, joint pain, and repetitive strain injuries due to the physical demands of their work.
6. Skin diseases: Agricultural workers who handle animals or are exposed to chemicals may be at risk for skin diseases such as allergic contact dermatitis or fungal infections.
7. Eye diseases: Agricultural workers who work with pesticides or other chemicals may be at risk for eye diseases such as conjunctivitis or cataracts.
8. Respiratory diseases: Agricultural workers who handle grain or other dusty materials may be at risk for respiratory diseases such as hypersensitivity pneumonitis or farmer's lung.
9. Infectious diseases: Agricultural workers may be at risk for infectious diseases such as Q fever, which is caused by a bacteria that can be found in the intestines of some animals.
10. Mental health disorders: The stress and isolation of agricultural work may contribute to mental health disorders such as depression, anxiety, or substance abuse.
It's important for agricultural workers to take precautions to protect their health and safety on the job, such as wearing personal protective equipment, following proper handling and application procedures for chemicals, and taking regular breaks to rest and stretch. Additionally, employers should provide a safe work environment and training on safe work practices to help prevent injuries and illnesses.
Pesticide toxicity to bees
Colony collapse disorder
Small hive beetle
List of diseases of the honey bee
List of MeSH codes (D03)
List of MeSH codes (D02)
EPA list of extremely hazardous substances
Coumaphos exposure and incident cancer among male participants in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) - PubMed
Biomonitoring Summary | CDC
Coumaphos (56-72-4) | Chemical Effects in Biological Systems
Coumaphos: Target Organs and Levels of Evidence for TR-096
EVIDENCE FOR THE SAFETY OF COUMAPHOS, DIAZINON AND MALATHION RESIDUES IN HONEY | Documentos - Universidade de Santiago de...
In California, Fish and Drinking Water Poisoned with Rotenone - Beyond Pesticides Daily News Blog
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Ethoprophos in the United States: Harmful Health Effects and Widespread Use - Earthjustice
NIOSHTIC-2 Search Results - Full View
Prostate cancer risk by occupation in the Occupational Disease Surveillance System ODSS) in Ontario, Canada - Canada.ca
EU sees increase in non-compliant pesticide in food samples | Food Safety News
Pesticide Use and Incident Hypothyroidism in Pesticide Applicators in the Agricultural Health Study - PubMed
WHO EMRO | Repellency effect of flumethrin pour-on formulation against vectors of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever | Volume 24,...
Health- "How Pesticides Inactivate Bees' Brains - Are We Next?"- Aroma Health Texas
MESH TREE NUMBER CHANGES - 2013 MeSH. August 27, 2012
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Code System Concept
Exposure to coumaphos2
- Organophosphates, such as coumaphos , causes epileptic activity in bees' brains before it shuts down their learning abilities. (aromahealthtexas.com)
- This study aimed to analyze the resistance status of 2 populations of R. microplus from northeastern Mexico to the organochlorine (OC) lindane, organophosphates (OP) coumaphos, chlorfenvinphos, diazinon, and chlorpyrifos, and the synthetic pyrethroids (SPs) flumethrin, deltamethrin, and cypermethrin. (bvsalud.org)
- The susceptibility to the organophosphates such as coumaphos and chlorfenvinphos of R. microplus from northeastern Mexico should be noted. (bvsalud.org)
- At high doses, coumaphos and other organophosphorus insecticides share a mechanism of toxicity:inhibition of the activity of acetylcholinesterase enzymes in the nervous system, resulting in excess acetylcholine at nerve terminals, and producing acute symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, cholinergic effects, weakness, paralysis, and seizures. (cdc.gov)
- She also noted that study results in laboratory animals found that organophosphate insecticides, such as coumaphos and parathion, may contribute to increased airway reactivity. (nih.gov)
- Urine was collected for measurement of a possible urinary biomarker of coumaphos, 3-chloro-4-methyl coumarin (chlorferon), at the same times. (cdc.gov)
- Coumaphos is an organophosphate livestock insecticide. (nih.gov)
- First registered in 1958, coumaphos is an organophosphorus insecticide that is used to control ticks, lice, mites, and arthropod pests on beef cattle, dairy cows, swine, and certain other farm animals. (cdc.gov)
- Once absorbed, phosphorothioates such as coumaphos are metabolically activated to the "oxon" form which has greater toxicity than the parent insecticide. (cdc.gov)
- Coumaphos is considered to be an organophosphorus insecticide of moderate-to-high acute toxicity in animal studies. (cdc.gov)
- except for coumaphos at 225.3 ppb, levels were generally lower in organically managed hives and the highest concentration of insecticide detected in wax from conventionally managed hives was fluvalinate at 251.5 ppb. (lupinepublishers.com)
- Participants reported mixing coumaphos 8.5 days per month and spraying or dipping livestock 11 days per month, on average. (cdc.gov)
- Blood was collected by venipuncture for laboratory cholinesterase measurements using the Ellman method, and by fingerstick for cholinesterase measurements by field test kit at the start of the workday (prior to use of coumaphos) and again at the end of the workday. (cdc.gov)
- Coumaphos is highly toxic to birds and aquatic invertebrates and moderately toxic to fish. (cdc.gov)
- Human health effects from coumaphos at low environmental doses or at biomonitored levels from low environmental exposures are unknown. (cdc.gov)
- Biomonitoring studies of 3-chloro-7-hydroxy-4-methyl-2H-chromen-2-one/ol provide physicians and public health officials with reference values so that they can determine whether people have been exposed to higher levels of coumaphos than are found in the general population. (cdc.gov)
- Three reported being removed from working with coumaphos (one time each) in the past year due to low cholinesterase levels. (cdc.gov)
- Coumaphos is generally immobile in soils and can persist for up to a year in some types of soils. (cdc.gov)
- Previous research in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) cohort observed a positive association between coumaphos and prostate cancer in men with a family history of prostate cancer. (nih.gov)
- This study was performed to determine the association between coumaphos and other major cancer sites and to explore the consistency of the association with prostate cancer early (1993-1999) and later (2000-2005) in AHS follow-up. (nih.gov)
- An overview of Genetic Toxicology Mammalian Cell Mutagenicity study conclusions related to Coumaphos (56-72-4). (nih.gov)
- Coumaphos may enter the environment from spillage of animal dipping and spraying solutions (U.S.EPA, 2000). (cdc.gov)