A organothiophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an anthelmintic, insecticide, and as a nematocide.
A pesticide or chemical agent that kills mites and ticks. This is a large class that includes carbamates, formamides, organochlorines, organophosphates, etc, that act as antibiotics or growth regulators.
A sweet viscous liquid food, produced in the honey sacs of various bees from nectar collected from flowers. The nectar is ripened into honey by inversion of its sucrose sugar into fructose and glucose. It is somewhat acidic and has mild antiseptic properties, being sometimes used in the treatment of burns and lacerations.
Diseases in persons engaged in cultivating and tilling soil, growing plants, harvesting crops, raising livestock, or otherwise engaged in husbandry and farming. The diseases are not restricted to farmers in the sense of those who perform conventional farm chores: the heading applies also to those engaged in the individual activities named above, as in those only gathering harvest or in those only dusting crops.
Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.
A family of the order DIPTERA with over 700 species. Important species that may be mechanical vectors of disease include Musca domesticus (HOUSEFLIES), Musca autumnalis (face fly), Stomoxys calcitrans (stable fly), Haematobia irritans (horn fly) and Fannia spp.
The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.
Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Domesticated farm animals raised for home use or profit but excluding POULTRY. Typically livestock includes CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; SWINE; GOATS; and others.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.
The use of humans as investigational subjects.
Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.
The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.
Hospital or other institutional committees established to protect the welfare of research subjects. Federal regulations (the "Common Rule" (45 CFR 46)) mandate the use of these committees to monitor federally-funded biomedical and behavioral research involving human subjects.
An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.
Laws concerned with manufacturing, dispensing, and marketing of drugs.
Procedures, such as TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES; mathematical models; etc., when used or advocated for use in place of the use of animals in research or diagnostic laboratories.
The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.
The use of animals as investigational subjects.
Alternatives to the use of animals in research, testing, and education. The alternatives may include reduction in the number of animals used, replacement of animals with a non-animal model or with animals of a species lower phylogenetically, or refinement of methods to minimize pain and distress of animals used.
Freedom of equipment from actual or potential hazards.
Process that is gone through in order for a device to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required preclinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance. It is not restricted to FDA.
Exogenous agents, synthetic and naturally occurring, which are capable of disrupting the functions of the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM including the maintenance of HOMEOSTASIS and the regulation of developmental processes. Endocrine disruptors are compounds that can mimic HORMONES, or enhance or block the binding of hormones to their receptors, or otherwise lead to activating or inhibiting the endocrine signaling pathways and hormone metabolism.
Substances intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions. Included in this definition are skin creams, lotions, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail polishes, eye and facial makeup preparations, permanent waves, hair colors, toothpastes, and deodorants, as well as any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. (U.S. Food & Drug Administration Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition Office of Cosmetics Fact Sheet (web page) Feb 1995)
The system of glands that release their secretions (hormones) directly into the circulatory system. In addition to the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, included are the CHROMAFFIN SYSTEM and the NEUROSECRETORY SYSTEMS.

Identification of an opd (organophosphate degradation) gene in an Agrobacterium isolate. (1/12)

We isolated a bacterial strain, Agrobacterium radiobacter P230, which can hydrolyze a wide range of organophosphate (OP) insecticides. A gene encoding a protein involved in OP hydrolysis was cloned from A. radiobacter P230 and sequenced. This gene (called opdA) had sequence similarity to opd, a gene previously shown to encode an OP-hydrolyzing enzyme in Flavobacterium sp. strain ATCC 27551 and Brevundimonas diminuta MG. Insertional mutation of the opdA gene produced a strain lacking the ability to hydrolyze OPs, suggesting that this is the only gene encoding an OP-hydrolyzing enzyme in A. radiobacter P230. The OPH and OpdA proteins, encoded by opd and opdA, respectively, were overexpressed and purified as maltose-binding proteins, and the maltose-binding protein moiety was cleaved and removed. Neither protein was able to hydrolyze the aliphatic OP malathion. The kinetics of the two proteins for diethyl OPs were comparable. For dimethyl OPs, OpdA had a higher k(cat) than OPH. It was also capable of hydrolyzing the dimethyl OPs phosmet and fenthion, which were not hydrolyzed at detectable levels by OPH.  (+info)

Cloning and expression of the phosphotriesterase gene hocA from Pseudomonas monteilii C11. (2/12)

The cloning of a gene encoding the novel phosphotriesterase from Pseudomonas monteilii C11, which enabled it to use the organophosphate (OP) coroxon as its sole phosphorus source, is described. The gene, called hocA (hydrolysis of coroxon) consists of 501 bp and encodes a protein of 19 kDa. This protein had no sequence similarity to any proteins in the SWISS-PROT/GenBank databases. When a spectinomycin-resistance cassette was placed in this gene, phosphotriesterase activity was abolished and P. monteilii C11 could no longer grow with coroxon as the sole phosphorus source. Overexpression and purification of HocA as a maltose-binding protein fusion produced a protein having a broad substrate specificity across oxon and thion OPs. Michaelis-Menten kinetics were observed with the oxon OPs, but not with the thion OPs. End-product inhibition was observed for coroxon-hydrolytic activity. Increased expression of hocA was observed from an integrative hocA-lacZ fusion when cultures were grown in the absence of phosphate, suggesting that it might be part of the Pho regulon, but the phosphate-regulated promoter was not cloned in this study. This is believed to be the first study in which a gene required for an organism to grow with OP pesticides as a phosphorus source has been isolated.  (+info)

Transient expression of organophosphorus hydrolase to enhance the degrading activity of tomato fruit on coumaphos. (3/12)

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Coumaphos exposure and incident cancer among male participants in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS). (4/12)

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Pesticide use modifies the association between genetic variants on chromosome 8q24 and prostate cancer. (5/12)

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CYP9Q-mediated detoxification of acaricides in the honey bee (Apis mellifera). (6/12)

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Acute exposure to a sublethal dose of imidacloprid and coumaphos enhances olfactory learning and memory in the honeybee Apis mellifera. (7/12)

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Exposure to multiple cholinergic pesticides impairs olfactory learning and memory in honeybees. (8/12)

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Pseudomonas monteilii is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped, motile bacterium isolated from human bronchial aspirate. The species is named in honor of the French microbiologist Henri Monteil. Based on 16S rRNA analysis, P. monteilii has been placed in the P. putida group. Elomari; Coroler, L; Verhille, S; Izard, D; Leclerc, H; et al. (Jul 1997). Pseudomonas monteilii sp. nov., isolated from clinical specimens. Int J Syst Bacteriol. 47 (3): 846-52. doi:10.1099/00207713-47-3-846. PMID 9226917. George M. Garrity: Bergeys Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. 2. Auflage. Springer, New York, 2005, Volume 2: The Proteobacteria, Part B: The Gammaproteobacteria ISBN 0-387-24144-2 Anzai; Kim, H; Park, JY; Wakabayashi, H; Oyaizu, H; et al. (Jul 2000). Phylogenetic affiliation of the pseudomonads based on 16S rRNA sequence. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 50 (4): 1563-89. doi:10.1099/00207713-50-4-1563. PMID 10939664. Type strain of Pseudomonas monteilii at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity ...
1% Coumaphos (compare to CO-Ral®)Convenient shaker can for use on beef and dairy cattle. Effective control of horn flies as part of a fly control pro
TY - JOUR. T1 - Extensively drug-resistant IMP-16-producing Pseudomonas monteilii isolated from cerebrospinal fluid. AU - Ballaben, Anelise Stella. AU - Galetti, Renata. AU - Andrade, Leonardo Neves. AU - Ferreira, Joseane Cristina. AU - de Oliveira Garcia, Doroti. AU - Doi, Yohei. AU - Darini, Ana Lucia Costa. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported by FAPESP [grant 2014/14494?8]. Y.D. was supported by research grants from the National Institutes of Health (R21AI135522, R01AI104895). ASB was supported by a PhD fellowship [grant 2015/23484?9]. RG was supported by a postdoctoral fellowship from FAPESP [grant 2015/11728?0]. Also, this study was financed in part by the Coordena??o de Aperfei?oamento de Pessoal de N?vel Superior - Brasil (CAPES) - Finance Code 001.We thank to S?o Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) and National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) for the constant support for our research. Dr. Vaughn Cooper for his assistance with whole genome ...
Domain architecture and assignment details (superfamily, family, region, evalue) for gi|568181348|ref|YP_008953893.1| from Pseudomonas monteilii SB3078. Plus protein sequence and external database links.
An apiary trial was conducted in 2016 August to October in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County, Nyírmada to evaluate the influence of queens age on the Varroa destructor-burden in the treatment colonies. Sixty colonies of bees belonging to the subspecies Apis mellifera carnica pannonica in Hunor loading hives (with 10 frames in the brood chamber.../deep super) were used. The colonies were treated with amitraz and the organophosphate pesticide coumaphos active ingredients. The amitraz treatment includes 6 weeks. The coumaphos treatment with Destructor 3.2% can be used for both diagnosis and treatment of Varroasis. For diagnosis, one treatment is sufficient. For control, two treatments at an interval of seven days are required. The colonies were grouped by the age of the queen: 20 colonies with one-year-old, 20 colonies with two-year-old and 20 colonies with three-year-old queen. The mite mortality of different groups was compared. The number of fallen mites was counted at the white bottom boards. ...
We observed an increased risk of prostate cancer in association with coumaphos exposure among men with a family history of prostate cancer but not among men without a family history in both early (1993-1999) and later periods in cohort follow-up (2000-2005), although the interaction rate ratio in the early period is stronger than in the later period ...
We observed an increased risk of prostate cancer in association with coumaphos exposure among men with a family history of prostate cancer but not among men without a family history in both early (1993-1999) and later periods in cohort follow-up (2000-2005), although the interaction rate ratio in the early period is stronger than in the later period ...
Memoritoday.com, Tanjab Barat - Pengajian/Yasinan perdana di komplek rumah jabatan pejabat tinggi pratama di jalan manunggal 1, Sabtu malam (6/3) bertempat di Rumah Jabatan Kepala Dinas Lingkungan Hidup. Dihadiri Bupati Tanjab Barat Drs. H. Anwar Sadat, M.Ag., bersama Wakil Bupati Hairan,SH, Para Staf Ahli, Asisten, Kepala OPD dan para Kepala Bagian.. Insya Allah yasinan ini akan menjadi rutinitas kita minimal seminggu sekali dan nanti tempatnya akan di gilir ke masing-masing rumah dinas OPD.ujar Drs. H. Anwar Sadat. Pengajian/Yasinan tersebut dilaksanakan guna mempererat silaturahmi antar pimpinan OPD khususnya di Lingkup Kabupaten Tanjung Jabung Barat.. Bupati mengharapankan keakraban dan kerjasama OPD akan dapat terus terjalin dengan baik kedepannya.. Bupati juga mengungkapkan program religius ini bertujuan untuk membina mental dan rohani ASN sekaligus berharap berkah dari Allah SWT. (red). ...
Although Apis mellifera, the western honey bee, has long encountered pesticides when foraging in agricultural fields, for two decades it has encountered pesticides in-hive in the form of acaricides to control Varroa destructor, a devastating parasitic mite. The pyrethroid tau-fluvalinate and the organophosphate coumaphos have been used for Varroa control, with little knowledge of honey bee detoxification mechanisms. Cytochrome P450-mediated detoxification contributes to pyrethroid tolerance in many insects, but specific P450s responsible for pesticide detoxification in honey bees (indeed, in any hymenopteran pollinator) have not been defined. We expressed and assayed CYP3 clan midgut P450s and demonstrated that CYP9Q1, CYP9Q2, and CYP9Q3 metabolize tau-fluvalinate to a form suitable for further cleavage by the carboxylesterases that also contribute to tau-fluvalinate tolerance. These in vitro assays indicated that all of the three CYP9Q enzymes also detoxify coumaphos. Molecular models ...
Honey bee (Apis mellifera) nurses do not consume pollens based on their nutritional quality Honey bee workers (Apis mellifera) consume a variety of pollens to meet the majority of their requirements for protein and lipids. Recent work indicates that honey bees prefer diets that reflect the proper ratio of nutrients necessary for optimal survival and homeostasis. This idea relies on the precept that honey bees evaluate the nutritional composition of the foods provided to them. While this has
Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) are the most important insect for pollination of crops and wildflowers [1-3], but they have experienced increasing colony die-offs during the past two decades [4-6]. Varroa destructor is widely considered the most serious risk factor for honey bee colony mortality worldwide [7-10]. These large ectoparasitic mites are associated with a condition known as parasitic mite syndrome (PMS), or Varroosis. In colonies exhibiting PMS or Varroosis, pathogens, including brood diseases and viruses, are present at unusually high levels [11-13]. Varroa mites feed on the hemolymph of the larva, pupa and adults, and the open wounds caused by mite feeding can allow microorganisms to enter and weaken the host [14]; Mites themselves are vectors for viruses and perhaps other bee pathogens [13]. The Varroa mites life cycle consists of two phases, the phoretic phase, during which the adult female mite lives, feeds, and disperses on the adult bee, and the reproductive phase in which ...
Currently, tau-fluvalinate impregnated into plastic strips (Apistan®) is available for use, but sprayable formulations are not. Tua-fluvalinate is a pyrethroid neurotoxin and nearly all pyrethroids are highly toxic to bees. Additionally, little is known about the sub-lethal effects on bees. Amitraz had a short life as a control measure for Varroa because bee keepers reported significant colony losses after treatment and it was withdrawn from the market. This pesticide acts as a signaling chemical between nerves and mimics a compound found in high amounts in the honey bee brain. As such, it is likely that the compound has significant effects on behavior of bees and, even at sub-lethal amounts, may cause changes in worker behavior. Coumaphos is currently available for use against both Varroa and small hive beetles (Checkmite+®) and like the above pesticides is a neurotoxin. Although bees are able to detoxify doses of coumaphos used to control mites, coumaphos has been shown to have effects on ...
A sublethal concentration of imidacloprid can cause chronic toxicity in bees and can impact the behavior of honey bees. The nectar- and water-collecting, and climbing abilities of bees are crucial to the survival of the bees and the execution of responsibilities in bee colonies. Besides behavioral impact, data on the molecular mechanisms underlying the toxicity of imidacloprid, especially by the way of RNA-seq at the transcriptomic level, are limited. We treated Apis mellifera L. with sublethal concentrations of imidacloprid (0.1, 1 and 10 ppb) and determined the effect on behaviors and the transcriptomic changes. The sublethal concentrations of imidacloprid had a limited impact on the survival and syrup consumption of bees, but caused a significant increase in water consumption. Moreover, the climbing ability was significantly impaired by 10 ppb imidacloprid at 8 d. In the RNA-seq analysis, gene ontology (GO) term enrichment indicated a significant down-regulation of muscle-related genes, which might
In the Western honey bee, Apis mellifera, queens and workers have different longevity although they share the same genome. Queens consume royal jelly (RJ) as the main food throughout their life, including as adults, but workers only eat worker jelly when they are larvae less than 3 days old. In order to explore the effect of RJ and the components affecting longevity of worker honey bees, we first determined the optimal dose for prolonging longevity of workers as 4% RJ in 50% sucrose solution, and developed a method of obtaining long lived workers. We then compared the effects of longevity extension by RJ 4% with bee-collected pollen from rapeseed (Brassica napus). Lastly, we determined that a water soluble RJ protein obtained by precipitation with 60% ammonium sulfate (RJP60) contained the main component for longevity extension after comparing the effects of RJ crude protein extract (RJCP), RJP30 (obtained by precipitation with 30% ammonium sulfate), and RJ ethanol extract (RJEE). Understanding what
Neonicotinoid compounds act as agonists of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) [27]. They cause persistent activation of cholinergic receptors, leading to hyperexcitation and eventual death [28]. As seen in Figure 2a, imidacloprid has a stimulatory effect on locomotor activity at the lowest level of exposure, but an opposite effect at the highest concentrations. Similar results have been documented by Lambin et al. [29], who reported increased motor activity following topical application of imidacloprid at 1.25 ng per bee but a decrease in mobility of bees treated with >5 ng per bee. The stimulatory effect may be indicative of nicotinic activation by low doses of the insecticide, whereas a nonspecific toxic effect is seen at higher doses. Although the oral LD50 of neonicotinoids is much higher than the estimated daily ingestion of a forager [30], if treated crop plants constitute the majority of a colonys nectar and pollen resources while in bloom, multiple exposures to sublethal levels ...
Reduced SNP Panels for Genetic Identification and Introgression Analysis in the Dark Honey Bee (Apis mellifera mellifera) Beekeeping activities, especially queen trading, have shaped the distribution of honey bee (Apis mellifera) subspecies in Europe, and have resulted in extensive introductions of two eastern European C-lineage subspecies (A. m. ligustica and A. m. carnica) into the native range of the M-lineage A. m. mellifera subspecies in Western Europe. As a consequence, replacement and
Honey bees (Apis mellifera) contribute substantially to the worldwide economy and ecosystem health as pollinators. Pollen is essential to the bees diet, providing protein, lipids, and micronutrients. The dramatic shifts in physiology, anatomy, and behavior that accompany normal worker development are highly plastic and recent work demonstrates that development, particularly the transition from nurse to foraging roles, is greatly impacted by diet. However, the role that diet plays in the developmental transition of newly eclosed bees to nurse workers is poorly understood. To further understand honey bee nutrition and the role of diet in nurse development, we used a high-throughput screen of the transcriptome of 3 day and 8 day old worker bees fed either honey and stored pollen (rich diet) or honey alone (poor diet) within the hive. We employed a three factor (age, diet, age x diet) analysis of the transcriptome to determine whether diet affected nurse worker physiology and whether poor diet altered the
In the years 2009 and 2010, in the apiaries surrounding Tarnobrzeg and Leżajsk, Poland (close to the Carpathian Mountains) research was carried out on diurnal changes in the sensitivity of young honey bee ( Apis mellifera ) workers to insecticides from various chemical groups: pyrethroids...
In both cell lines PNGase F reduced JAC binding, most clearly in An. gambiae 55 cell line glycoproteins. This suggests that oligosaccharides were present with either GalNAcβ1-3Gal or Galβ1-3GalNAc residues were N-linked to the protein. Similar oligosaccharide structures have been detected previously in the venom of the honey bee Apis mellifera [37]. PNGase F reduced JAC binding to An. stephensi 43 cell line glycoproteins suggesting some residues recognised by JAC were O-linked e.g. GalNAc linked directly to the protein. Binding of PNA was abolished by O-glycanase suggesting that Galβ1-3GalNAc was linked directly to the protein on the An. stephensi 43 cell line 87 kDa glycoprotein. Binding of DBA to An. gambiae 55 cell line proteins suggested the presence of GalNAc residues O-linked directly to the protein.. Treatments with PNGase F and β-galactosidase prior to RCAII lectin binding indicated the presence of N-linked complex or hybrid oligosaccharides with terminal Galβ1-4GlcNAc on an An. ...
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Email: customerserv[email protected] Phone No: 830-257-0005. Toll free number: 800-259-0591. Open Monday-Friday 8AM-5PM CST. ...
The Mammalian Phenotype (MP) Ontology is a community effort to provide standard terms for annotating phenotypic data. You can use this browser to view terms, definitions, and term relationships in a hierarchical display. Links to summary annotated phenotype data at MGI are provided in Term Detail reports.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Physiological and Behavioral Changes in Honey Bees (Apis mellifera) Induced by Nosema ceranae Infection. AU - Goblirsch, Mike. AU - Huang, Zachary Y.. AU - Spivak, Marla. PY - 2013/3/6. Y1 - 2013/3/6. N2 - Persistent exposure to mite pests, poor nutrition, pesticides, and pathogens threaten honey bee survival. In healthy colonies, the interaction of the yolk precursor protein, vitellogenin (Vg), and endocrine factor, juvenile hormone (JH), functions as a pacemaker driving the sequence of behaviors that workers perform throughout their lives. Young bees perform nursing duties within the hive and have high Vg and low JH; as older bees transition to foraging, this trend reverses. Pathogens and parasites can alter this regulatory network. For example, infection with the microsporidian, Nosema apis, has been shown to advance behavioral maturation in workers. We investigated the effects of infection with a recent honey bee pathogen on physiological factors underlying the division of ...
The European honey bee (Apis mellifera) is of global importance as a pollinator. Over the past 30 years an increase in colonies lost during winter has occurred, particularly in the northern hemisphere. These losses are attributed to the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor that acts as a vector of RNA viruses, most notably Deformed wing virus (DWV). Three master variants of the DWV have been discovered; Type-A, B, and C. The increase in overwinter colony losses are closely linked to DWV. At the same time DWV may also offer protection to colonies via superinfection exclusion (SIE), which may be linked to Varroa-tolerant colonies. However, the role of each DWV variant in colony survivorship and mite-tolerance is limited, so the main thrust of the thesis is to address this issue ...
Honey bees are major pollinators of agricultural and non-agricultural landscapes. In recent years, honey bee colonies have exhibited high annual losses and commercial beekeepers frequently report poor queen quality and queen failure as the primary causes. Honey bee colonies are highly vulnerable to compromised queen fertility, as each hive is headed by one reproductive queen. Queens mate with multiple drones (male bees) during a single mating period early in life in which they obtain enough spermatozoa to fertilize their eggs for the rest of their reproductive life span. The process of mating initiates numerous behavioral, physiological, and molecular changes that shape the fertility of the queen and her influence on the colony. For example, receipt of drone semen can modulate queen ovary activation, pheromone production, and subsequent worker retinue behavior. In addition, seminal fluid is a major component of semen that is primarily derived from drone accessory glands. It also contains a complex
NCERT P Bahadur IIT-JEE Previous Year Narendra Awasthi MS Chauhan. Apis is the genus name for all honey bees.Specifically, the honey bees scientific name includes at least two names. Occupations for a Honey Bee break down into one of three categories: worker bee, drone, or queen Bee. It is wrong to allocate one or the other groups of the honey bee in separate species by a small number of features (mainly morphological). The species name is Apis mellifera. A Honey bee can only sting once, then it dies. Dozens more species of solitary bee collect pollen or, like cuckoos, leave their eggs to hatch and thrive in the pollen-stocked nests of other species. There are over 20,000 species of bee, but accurate data about how these species are spread across the globe are sparse. The western honey bee or European honey bee (Apis mellifera) is the most common of the ~40 species of honey bee worldwide.The genus name Apis is Latin for bee, and mellifera means honey-bearing, referring to the species ...
Honey bee (Apis mellifera) is an insect species living in colonies. In the colony there is usually one queen, thousands of workers and during some parts of the year variable number of drones. New colonies are produced by swarming. The colony lives in a nest which in nature is usually located inside a hollow tree. In the nest there is a series of vertical combs build from wax. On two sides of the combs there are hexagonal cells. Larval development of bees occurs in the cells. They are also used for storing honey and bee bread. The main food of honey bees are pollen and nectar collected from flowers. Originally honey bees occurred in Africa, Europe (except northern part) and Near East. They were introduced by man to Asia, both American continents and Australia. Domesticated honey bees are kept in hives. They are important economically as pollinators of crops and producers of honey ...
Background In the honey bee (Apis mellifera), queen and workers have different behavior and reproductive capacity despite possessing the same genome. The primary substance that leads to this differentiation is royal jelly (RJ), which contains a range of proteins, amino acids, vitamins and nucleic acids. MicroRNA (miRNA) has been found to play an important role in regulating the expression of protein-coding genes and cell biology. In this study, we characterized the miRNAs in RJ from two honey bee sister species and determined their possible effect on transcriptome in one species. Methodology/Principal Findings We sequenced the miRNAs in RJ either from A. mellifera (RJM) or A. cerana (RJC). We then determined the global transcriptomes of adult A. mellifera developed from larvae fed either with RJM (mRJM) or RJC (mRJC). Finally we analyzed the target genes of those miRNA that are species specific or differentially expressed in the two honey bee species. We show that there were differences in miRNA
Citation: Chen, Y., Smith, Jr., I.B., Collins, A.M., Pettis, J.S., Feldlaufer, M.F. 2004. Detection of deformed wing virus infection in honey bees Apis mellifera L. in the United States. American Bee Journal. 144(7):557-559. Interpretive Summary: The honey bee is an important beneficial insect assisting in the pollination of a wide variety of crops with an annual added market value exceeding 14 billion dollars. Honey bees, however, are threatened by a myriad of parasites and diseases and the occurrence of honey bee viruses and their effect on bees is not particularly well understood. We now report the detection of a honey bee virus not previously known to exist in the U. S., and demonstrate the utility of using molecular techniques for this area of research. The results of this research will be used by other scientists investigating honey bee viruses and by federal regulatory personnel involved in the worldwide trade in honey bees. Ultimately, this research will benefit beekeepers by improving ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Genome-wide analysis of genes related to ovary activation in worker honey bees. AU - Thompson, G. J.. AU - Kucharski, R.. AU - Maleszka, R.. AU - Oldroyd, B. P.. PY - 2008/11. Y1 - 2008/11. N2 - A defining characteristic of eusocial animals is their division of labour into reproductive and nonreproductive specialists. Here, we used a microarray study to identify genes associated with functional sterility in the worker honey bee Apis mellifera. We contrasted gene expression in workers from a functionally sterile wild‐type strain with that in a mutant (anarchist) strain selected for high rates of ovary activation. We identified a small set of genes from the brain (n = 7) and from the abdomen (n = 5) that are correlated in their expression with early stages of ovary activation. Sterile wild‐type workers up‐regulated two unknown genes and a homologue of Drosophila CG6004. By contrast, reproductive anarchist workers up‐regulated genes for the yolk protein vitellogenin, venom ...
Are Western Honey Bees Apis mellifera really the worlds most important pollinator? This is the claim made in a recently published paper in the proceedings of the Royal Society of Biological Sciences 10th January 2018. The authors claims are based upon existing published datasets consisting of observations of bees on flowering plants in natural environments around the globe and based upon the abundance of Honey bees recorded during the study have come to the conclusion that they are therefore the most important pollinator in the world.. The claim that a single species can be solely relied upon or referred to as the most important pollinator in the world has been widely criticised by academics who have been quick to point out that many other recent studies show that wild bees are responsible for a greater proportion of the pollination service previously attributed to domesticated honey bees and that in addition there are many crop plants that can only be pollinated by a restricted number of ...
Di, N., K. R. Hladun, K. Zhang, T.-X. Liu, and J. T. Trumble. 2016. Laboratory bioassays on the impact of cadmium, copper and lead on the development and survival of honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) larvae and foragers. Chemosphere 152: 530-538.. Prager, S. M., G. Kund and J.T. Trumble. 2016. Low input, low cost IPM program helps manage potato psyllid. California Agriculture 70 (2): 89-95.. Pennington, M.J., S.M. Prager, W.E. Walton, and J.T. Trumble. 2016. (Culex quinquefasciatus) larval microbiomes vary with instar and exposure to common wastewater contaminants. Nature Scientific Reports 6:21969 , DOI: 10.1038/srep21969.. Burden, C. M., C. Elmore, K. R. Hladun, J. T. Trumble, and B. H. Smith. 2016. Acute exposure to selenium disrupts associative conditioning and long-term memory recall in honey bees (Apis mellifera L.). Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 127: 71-79.. Hladun, K.R., N. Di, T.-X. Liu, and J.T. Trumble. 2016. Metal contaminant accumulation in the hive: consequences for whole ...
Behavior is a complex phenotype that is plastic and evolutionarily labile. The advent of genomics has revolutionized the field of behavioral genetics by providing tools to quantify the dynamic nature of brain gene expression in relation to behavioral output. The honey bee Apis mellifera provides an …
Neuronal plasticity allows an animal to respond to environmental changes by modulating its response to stimuli. In the honey bee ( Apis mellifera), the biogenic amine octopamine plays a crucial role...
Peer reviewed publications. Anderson KE, Ricigliano VA, Mott BM, Copeland DC, Floyd AS, Maes P. 2018. The Queens Gut Refines with Age: Longevity Phenotypes in a Social Insect Model. Microbiome 6:108. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40168-018-0489-1. Ricigliano VA, Mott BM, Floyd AS, Copeland DC, Carroll MJ, Anderson KE. 2018. Honey bees overwintering in a southern climate: Longitudinal effects of nutrition and queen age on colony-level molecular physiology and performance. Sci Reports 8: 10475. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-28732-z. Corby-Harris V, Anderson KE. 2018. Draft genome sequences of four Parasaccharibacter apium strains isolated from honey bees. Genome Announc 6:e00165-18. https://doi.org/10.1128/genomeA.00165-18.. Rothman JA, Carroll MJ, Meikle WG, Anderson KE, McFrederick QS. 2018. Longitudinal Effects of Supplemental Forage on the Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) Microbiota and Inter- and Intra-Colony Variability. Microbial Ecology. doi.org/10.1007/s00248-018-1151-y. Meikle WG, ...
Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) are more efficient at removing worker brood artificially infested with the parasitic mite Varroa jacobsoni Oudemans than are Italian bees or Italian/Africanized hybrids ...
In honey bees (Apis mellifera L.), American foulbrood (AFB) is caused by the infection of the larvae and pupae with the bacterium… Expand ...
Samples were collected during spring and summer of 2013, from 5 provinces in the middle delta of Egypt. LC/MS-MS was used to identify and quantify individual OPs by use of a modified Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged Safe (QuEChERS) method. Pesticides were detected more frequently in samples collected during summer. Pollen contained the greatest concentrations of OPs. Profenofos, chlorpyrifos, malation and diazinon were the most frequently detected OPs. In contrast, ethoprop, phorate, coumaphos and chlorpyrifos-oxon were not detected. A toxic units approach, with lethality as the endpoint was used in an additive model to assess the cumulative potential for adverse effects posed by OPs ...
Date: 4 December - 12 December 2017. About Hong Kong Contemporary Art (HOCA) Foundation. HOCA Foundation is a non-profit organization established in 2014, aimed at promoting public awareness and developing access to contemporary art in Hong Kong. With a curated series of programs across the city, HOCA will focus its attention on the younger generation of established international artists who are conceptually engaged with contemporary life and society. The curatorial strategy draws inspiration from popular culture, reappropriating or reinterpreting a wide range of mediums from animation, illustration, graffiti, and graphic design, and seeks to enhance the dialogue of high art within the city.. HOCA Foundation hosted landmark exhibitions of JR, Invader, Vhils and Shepard Fairey to critical acclaim, as well as a parallel education program, all accessible to the public. To further HOCAs community outreach, the Foundation will oversee the publication of contemporary art books and the subsequent ...
The Hadza consume honey and larvae of both stingless bees and stinging bees, including the African killer bee (Apis mellifera). The Hadza locate the hives with the assistance of a wild African bird, the aptly named honey guide (Indicator indicator). The honey guide bird and the Hadza honey hunter communicate back and forth through a series of whistles and the bird guides the honey hunter, tree by tree, to the bee hive. Once the honey hunter has located the hive, he pounds wooden pegs ito the trunk of the tree, climbs to the top where the hive is located, chops into the tree to expose the hive, and smokes it out by placing burning brush into the opening. Smoking the hive acts to pacify the bees by dulling the senses of the guard bees who protect the opening of the hive. The bees see the smoke as a habitat threat and focus on collecting enough honey to rebuild their hive elsewhere. This allows the hunter to collect the honeycomb without being stung by the killer bees. The honey guide bird ...
Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Honey bee head (Apis mellifera). Wikipedia reference: The western honey bee or European honey bee (Apis mellifera) is a species of honey bee. It has a defined social caste system and complex communication behaviours, such as intricate dance routines to indicate food availability. It is frequently maintained by beekeepers for its honey product. This species is widely distributed and an important pollinator for agriculture, though it is currently threatened by colony collapse disorder. It is also an important organism for scientific studies on social insects, especially as it now has a fully sequenced genome. Magnification: x5 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image C032/3783
Honey bee pollination is an ecologically and economically important ecosystem service. New methodological developments are needed to research the underlying factors of globally observed bee losses. The honey bee (Apis mellifera) is a key non-target arthropod species for environmental risk assessment of genetically modified (GM) crops. For GM-crop risk assessments, mainly methods for monitoring adult honey bees under laboratory conditions are documented. However, protocols with robust methods for standardized colonies or in vitro reared honey bee larvae are currently lacking. Within the research, presented in this this dissertation, multiple methodological developments are achieved; a mortality trap (Chapter II), a full life cycle test (III), a novel in vitro rearing methodology (IV), a standardized in vitro test for Bt-pollen (V), a mixed toxicity test for purified transgenic proteins (VI), and a bacterial flora test with pollen digestion rate monitoring (VII). Overall, the studies did not ...
Explosives detection using bees. Researchers working with security guards at an airport, using honey bees (Apis mellifera) to detect chemical explosives. Honey bees are sensitive to the smell of flower nectar and pollen, but here have been trained to detect the smells from chemical explosives. Sniffer tubes are exposing the bees (in the blue box) to chemicals on the baggage, and their response is observed on a computer monitor (lower right). This work is being carried out by the UK research company Insense. Photographed at Charles de Gaulle airport, Paris, France. - Stock Image C002/6645
One of the honey bees worst enemies is a tiny mite called Varroa destructor. It is small and yet highly dangerous: the Varroa destructor mite is the most destructive enemy of the Western honey bee (Apis mellifera). The parasite has now spread to almost all parts of the world - except for Australia - and is a serious t
Honey is a sweet, viscous syrup produced by the honey bee (Apis mellifera). It is probably the first natural sweetener ever discovered, and is currently used as a nutritious food supplement and medicinal agent. The aim of the present mini-review is to summarize and update the current knowledge regarding the role of honey in CVDs based on various experimental models. It also describes the role of its phenolic compounds in treating CVDs. Many such phenolic and flavonoid compounds, including quercetin, kaempferol, apigenin, and caffeic acid, have antioxidant and anti-platelet potential, and hence may ameliorate cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) through various mechanisms, such as by decreasing oxidative stress and inhibiting blood platelet activation. However, as the phenolic content of a particular type of honey is not always known, it can be difficult to determine whether any observed effects on the human cardiovascular system may be associated with the consumption of honey or its constituents. ...
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Saying goodbye is always hard, but particularly so when youre saying it to people who are less like coworkers and more like family.
Fluvalinate/coumaphos[edit]. In 2008 high levels of the pesticides fluvalinate and coumaphos were found in samples of wax from ... Coumaphos, an organophosphate, is lipophilic, and so accumulates in wax. Increased levels of compound in wax have been shown to ... coumaphos and fluvalinate, which are pesticides registered for use by beekeepers to control varroa mites. Studies also ... by scientists from Pennsylvania State University found high levels of the pesticides fluvalinate and coumaphos in samples of ...
Fluvalinate was followed by coumaphos.[citation needed] Several methods exist for monitoring levels of Varroa mites in a colony ... Pyrethroid insecticide (fluvalinate) as strips Organophosphate insecticide (Coumaphos or Check-mite) as strips Manley's Thymol ...
Among those acaricides used are acrinathrin, amitraz, bromopropylate, chlordimeform, coumaphos, flumethrin, and fluvalinate. ...
Organophosphorus insecticides like coumaphos, dichlofenthion, and fenchlorphos can be applied to wounds with fly larvae. These ... nagasunt and coumaphos. When trying to prevent infestation of livestock and other animals, proper spraying and dipping with ...
Pesticides such as amitraz, coumaphos, and fenthion can be used in hay bedding for prevention. The term nit has given rise to ...
chlorpyrifos coumaphos Archived February 5, 2005, at the Wayback Machine demeton diazinon dicrotophos Clinch, P. G; Palmer- ...
... and coumaphos (marketed as CheckMite). "Soft" chemical controls include thymol (marketed as ApiLife-VAR and Apiguard), sucrose ...
Coumaphos bee strips (Bayer Corporation) have been approved for use in hives for the control of small hive beetles in some ...
The biological mechanism for the thinning is not entirely known, but it is believed that p,p'-DDE impairs the shell gland's ability to excrete calcium carbonate onto the developing egg.[7][9][10][11][12] Multiple mechanisms may be at work, or different mechanisms may operate in different species.[7] Some studies have shown that although DDE levels have fallen dramatically, eggshell thickness remains 10-12 percent thinner than before DDT was first used.[13]. Some studies have indicated that DDE is an endocrine disruptor[14] and contributes to breast cancer, but more recent studies provide strong evidence that there is no relationship between DDE exposure and breast cancer.[15] What is more clear is that DDE is a weak androgen receptor antagonist and can produce male genital tract abnormalities.[16][17]. Animal studies show that organochlorine pesticides-such as DDE-are neurotoxic, cause oxidative stress, and damage the brain's dopaminergic system.[18]. ...
... binds and reversibly inactivates the cholinesterases, thus inhibiting hydrolysis of acetylcholine. This increases acetylcholine concentrations at cholinergic synapses.[1] The precise mechanism of action of donepezil in patients with Alzheimer's disease is not fully understood. Certainly, Alzheimer's disease involves a substantial loss of the elements of the cholinergic system and it is generally accepted that the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease are related to this cholinergic deficit, particularly in the cerebral cortex and other areas of the brain.[18][19] It is noted that the hippocampal formation plays an important role in the processes of control of attention, memory and learning. Just the severity of the loss of cholinergic neurons of the central nervous system (CNS) has been found to correlate with the severity of cognitive impairment. In addition to its actions as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, donepezil has been found to act as a potent agonist of the σ1 receptor (Ki = ...
... (DDD) is an organochlorine insecticide that is slightly irritating to the skin.[1] DDD is a metabolite of DDT.[2] DDD is colorless and crystalline;[3] it is closely related chemically and is similar in properties to DDT, but it is considered to be less toxic to animals than DDT.[4] The molecular formula for DDD is (ClC6H4)2CHCHCl2 or C14H10Cl4, whereas the formula for DDT is (ClC6H4)2CHCCl3 or C14H9Cl5. DDD is in the "Group B2" classification, meaning that it is a probable human carcinogen. This is based on an increased incidence of lung tumors in male and female mice, liver tumors in male mice, and thyroid tumors in male rats. Further basis is that DDD is so similar to and is a metabolite of DDT, another probable human carcinogen.[2] DDD is no longer registered for agricultural use in the United States, but the general population continues to be exposed to it due to its long persistence time. The primary source of exposure is oral ingestion of food.[5] 1946 is the ...
... is a widely used, broad-spectrum benzimidazole fungicide and a metabolite of benomyl. It is also employed as a casting worm control agent in amenity turf situations such as golf greens, tennis courts etc. and in some countries is licensed for that use only.[2] The fungicide is used to control plant diseases in cereals and fruits, including citrus, bananas, strawberries, pineapples, and pomes.[3] It is also controversially used in Queensland, Australia on macadamia plantations.[4] A 4.7% solution of carbendazim hydrochloride, sold as Eertavas, is marketed as a treatment for Dutch elm disease. Studies have found high doses of carbendazim cause infertility and destroy the testicles of laboratory animals.[5][6] Maximum pesticide residue limits (MRLs) have reduced since discovering its harmful effects. The MRLs for fresh produce in the EU are now between 0.1 and 0.7 mg/kg with the exception of loquat, which is 2 mg/kg.[7] The limits for more commonly consumed citrus and pome fruits are ...
While botulinum toxin is generally considered safe in a clinical setting, there can be serious side effects from its use. The use of botulinum toxin A in cerebral palsy children is safe in the upper and lower limb muscles.[5][6] Most commonly, botulinum toxin can be injected into the wrong muscle group or with time spread from the injection site, causing temporary paralysis of unintended muscles. Side effects from cosmetic use generally result from unintended paralysis of facial muscles. These include partial facial paralysis, muscle weakness, and trouble swallowing. Side effects are not limited to direct paralysis however, and can also include headaches, flu-like symptoms, and allergic reactions.[41] Just as cosmetic treatments only last a number of months, paralysis side-effects can have the same durations.[citation needed] At least in some cases, these effects are reported to dissipate in the weeks after treatment.[citation needed] Bruising at the site of injection is not a side effect of the ...
By 1974, a team of Rothamsted Research scientists had discovered three pyrethroids suitable for use in agriculture, namely permethrin, cypermethrin and deltamethrin.[10] These compounds were subsequently licensed by the NRDC, as NRDC 143, 149 and 161 respectively, to companies which could then develop them for sale in defined territories. Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI) obtained licenses to permethrin and cypermethrin but their agreement with the NRDC did not allow worldwide sales. Also, it was clear to ICI's own researchers at Jealott's Hill that future competition in the marketplace might be difficult owing to the greater potency of deltamethrin compared to the other compounds. For that reason, chemists there sought patentable analogues which might have advantages compared to the Rothamsted insecticides by having wider spectrum or greater cost-benefit . The first breakthrough was made when a trifluoromethyl group was used to replace one of the chlorines in cypermethrin, especially when the ...
... has little systemic absorption, and is considered safe for topical use in adults and children over the age of 2 months. The FDA has assigned it as pregnancy category B. Animal studies have shown no effects on fertility or teratogenicity, but studies in humans have not been performed. The excretion of permethrin in breastmilk is unknown, and breastfeeding is recommended to be temporarily discontinued during treatment.[11] According to the Connecticut Department of Public Health, permethrin "has low mammalian toxicity, is poorly absorbed through the skin, and is rapidly inactivated by the body. Skin reactions have been uncommon."[14] Excessive exposure to permethrin can cause nausea, headache, muscle weakness, excessive salivation, shortness of breath, and seizures. Worker exposure to the chemical can be monitored by measurement of the urinary metabolites, while severe overdose may be confirmed by measurement of permethrin in serum or blood plasma.[15] Permethrin does not present any ...
Human exposure to methoxychlor occurs via air, soil, and water,[7] primarily in people who work with the substance or who are exposed to air, soil, or water that has been contaminated. It is unknown how quickly and efficiently the substance is absorbed by humans who have been exposed to contaminated air or via skin contact.[7] In animal models, high doses can lead to neurotoxicity.[7] Some methoxychlor's metabolites have estrogenic effects in adult and developing animals before and after birth.[7] One studied metabolite is 2,2-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (HPTE) which shows reproductive toxicity in an animal model by reducing testosterone biosynthesis.[8][9] Such effects adversely affect both the male and female reproductive systems. It is expected that this "could occur in humans" but has not been proven.[7] While one study has linked methoxychlor to the development of leukemia in humans, most studies in animals and humans have been negative, thus the EPA has determined that it is ...
GV (IUPAC name: 2-(Dimethylamino)ethyl N,N-dimethylphosphoramidofluoridate) is an organophosphate nerve agent. GV is a part of a new series of nerve agents with properties similar to both the "G-series" and "V-series". It is a potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitor with properties similar to other nerve agents, being a highly poisonous vapour. Treatment for poisoning with GV involves drugs such as atropine, benactyzine, obidoxime, and HI-6.[1][2] ...
The four-membered ring in α-pinene 1 makes it a reactive hydrocarbon, prone to skeletal rearrangements such as the Wagner-Meerwein rearrangement. For example, attempts to perform hydration or hydrogen halide addition with the alkene functionality typically lead to rearranged products. With concentrated sulfuric acid and ethanol the major products are terpineol 2 and its ethyl ether 3, while glacial acetic acid gives the corresponding acetate ester 4. With dilute acids, terpin hydrate 5 becomes the major product. With one molar equivalent of anhydrous HCl, the simple addition product 6a can be formed at low temperature in the presence of ether, but it is very unstable. At normal temperatures, or if no ether is present, the major product is bornyl chloride 6b, along with a small amount of fenchyl chloride 6c.[5] For many years 6b (also called "artificial camphor") was referred to as "pinene hydrochloride", until it was confirmed as identical with bornyl chloride made from camphene. If more HCl is ...
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... is extracted from Huperzia serrata.[2] It is a reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor[6][7][8][9] and NMDA receptor antagonist[10] that crosses the blood-brain barrier.[11] Acetylcholinesterase is an enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and of some other choline esters that function as neurotransmitters. The structure of the complex of huperzine A with acetylcholinesterase has been determined by X-ray crystallography (PDB code: 1VOT; see the 3D structure).[12] For some years, huperzine A has been investigated as a possible treatment for diseases characterized by neurodegeneration, particularly Alzheimer's disease.[2][13] A 2013 meta-analysis found that huperzine A may be efficacious in improving cognitive function, global clinical status, and activities of daily living for individuals with Alzheimer's disease. However, due to the poor size and quality of the clinical trials reviewed, huperzine A should not be recommended as a treatment for ...
Neuromuscular blocking agents need to fit in a space close to 2 nanometres, which resembles the molecular length of decamethonium.[13] Some molecules of decamethonium congeners may bind only to one receptive site. Flexible molecules have a greater chance of fitting receptive sites. However, the most populated conformation may not be the best-fitted one. Very flexible molecules are, in fact, weak neuromuscular inhibitors with flat dose-response curves. On the other hand, stiff or rigid molecules tend to fit well or not at all. If the lowest-energy conformation fits, the compound has high potency because there is a great concentration of molecules close to the lowest-energy conformation. Molecules can be thin but yet rigid.[14] Decamethonium for example needs relatively high energy to change the N-N distance.[13] In general, molecular rigidity contributes to potency, while size affects whether a muscle relaxant shows a polarizing or a depolarizing effect.[3] Cations must be able to flow through ...
... is a poisonous diterpenoid found in the South American plant Ryania speciosa (Salicaceae). It was originally used as an insecticide.. The compound has extremely high affinity to the open-form ryanodine receptor, a group of calcium channels found in skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, and heart muscle cells.[1] It binds with such high affinity to the receptor that it was used as a label for the first purification of that class of ion channels and gave its name to it.. At nanomolar concentrations, ryanodine locks the receptor in a half-open state, whereas it fully closes them at micromolar concentration. The effect of the nanomolar-level binding is that ryanodine causes release of calcium from calcium stores as the sarcoplasmic reticulum in the cytoplasm, leading to massive muscular contractions. The effect of micromolar-level binding is paralysis. This is true for both mammals and insects.. ...
... is very toxic to cats which cannot tolerate the therapeutic doses for dogs.[7] This is associated with UGT1A6 deficiency in cats, the enzyme responsible for metabolizing cypermethrin. As a consequence, cypermethrin remains much longer in the cat's organs than in dogs or other mammals and can be fatal in large doses. In male rats cypermethrin was shown to exhibit a toxic effect on the reproductive system. After 15 days of continual dosing, both androgen receptor levels and serum testosterone levels were significantly reduced. These data suggested that cypermethrin can induce impairments of the structure of seminiferous tubules and spermatogenesis in male rats at high doses.[8] Long-term exposure to cypermethrin during adulthood is found to induce dopaminergic neurodegeneration in rats, and postnatal exposure enhances the susceptibility of animals to dopaminergic neurodegeneration if rechallenged during adulthood.[9] If exposed to cypermethrin during pregnancy, rats give birth to ...
Before DDT, malaria was successfully eliminated or curtailed in several tropical areas by removing or poisoning mosquito breeding grounds and larva habitats, for example by eliminating standing water. These methods have seen little application in Africa for more than half a century.[137] According to CDC, such methods are not practical in Africa because "Anopheles gambiae, one of the primary vectors of malaria in Africa, breeds in numerous small pools of water that form due to rainfall ... It is difficult, if not impossible, to predict when and where the breeding sites will form, and to find and treat them before the adults emerge."[138] The relative effectiveness of IRS versus other malaria control techniques (e.g. bednets or prompt access to anti-malarial drugs) varies and is dependent on local conditions.[34] A WHO study released in January 2008 found that mass distribution of insecticide-treated mosquito nets and artemisinin-based drugs cut malaria deaths in half in malaria-burdened Rwanda ...
... s are substances used to kill insects.[1] They include ovicides and larvicides used against insect eggs and larvae, respectively. Insecticides are used in agriculture, medicine, industry and by consumers. Insecticides are claimed to be a major factor behind the increase in the 20th-century's agricultural productivity.[2] Nearly all insecticides have the potential to significantly alter ecosystems; many are toxic to humans and/or animals; some become concentrated as they spread along the food chain. Insecticides can be classified into two major groups: systemic insecticides, which have residual or long term activity; and contact insecticides, which have no residual activity. The mode of action describes how the pesticide kills or inactivates a pest. It provides another way of classifying insecticides. Mode of action can be important in understanding whether an insecticide will be toxic to unrelated species, such as fish, birds and mammals. Insecticides may be repellent or ...
When used in the central nervous system to alleviate neurological symptoms, such as rivastigmine in Alzheimer's disease, all cholinesterase inhibitors require doses to be increased gradually over several weeks, and this is usually referred to as the titration phase. Many other types drug treatments may require a titration or stepping up phase. This strategy is used to build tolerance to adverse events or to reach a desired clinical effect.[12] This also prevents accidental overdose and is therefore recommended when initiating treatment with drugs that are extremely potent and/or toxic (drugs with a low therapeutic index). ...
... can be broadly categorized as a cholinergic physiological antagonist, because it reduces the apparent activity of cholinergic neurons, but does not act at the postsynaptic ACh receptor. Vesamicol causes a non-competitive and reversible block of the intracellular transporter VAChT responsible for carrying newly synthesized ACh into secretory vesicles in the presynaptic nerve terminal. This transport process is driven by a proton gradient between cell organelles and the cytoplasm. Blocking of acetylcholine loading leads to empty vesicles fusing with neuron membranes, decreasing ACh release. ...
... s are a group of highly conserved G-protein coupled receptors from the adhesion G protein-coupled receptor family. These receptors were originally identified based on their ability to bind the spider venom alpha-latrotoxin.[1] This conserved family of membrane proteins has up to three homologues in chordate species, including humans.[2] The precise functions of latrophilins remain unknown.[2] Genetic defects in latrophilin genes have been associated with diseases such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and cancer.[3] ...
... ( anticholinergic agent) is a group of substances that blocks the action of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) at synapses in the central and the peripheral nervous system, and, in broad terms, neuromuscular junction.[1][2] These agents inhibit parasympathetic nerve impulses by selectively blocking the binding of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine to its receptor in nerve cells. The nerve fibers of the parasympathetic system are responsible for the involuntary movement of smooth muscles present in the gastrointestinal tract, urinary tract, lungs, and many other parts of the body;[3] cholinergic process otherwise by enhancing ACh function.[3] In broad terms, anticholinergics are divided into two categories in accordance with their specific targets in the central, peripheral nervous system and neuromuscular junction:[3] antimuscarinic agents, and antinicotinic agents (ganglionic blockers, neuromuscular blockers).[4] In strict terms, anticholinergic only comprises ...
InChI=1S/C28H32O8/c1-24(2)10-9-22(29)26(4)27(24,31)12-11-25(3)28(26,32)15-17-20(36-25)14-19(35-23(17)30)16-7-8-18(33-5)21(13-16)34-6/h7-10,13-14,31-32H,11-12,15H2,1-6H3/t25-,26+,27-,28-/m1/ ...
Distribution of coumaphos residues in Turkish-Israel hives: A collaborative study. Barel, Shimon; Zilberman, Deniz; Efrat, Haim ...
No imediately ed coumaphos like viagra, cialis or levitra. Tolcapone may trigylceride guts (the hydrocortisone of guarana or ...

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