Coumaphos: A organothiophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an anthelmintic, insecticide, and as a nematocide.Acaricides: A pesticide or chemical agent that kills mites and ticks. This is a large class that includes carbamates, formamides, organochlorines, organophosphates, etc, that act as antibiotics or growth regulators.Honey: A sweet viscous liquid food, produced in the honey sacs of various bees from nectar collected from flowers. The nectar is ripened into honey by inversion of its sucrose sugar into fructose and glucose. It is somewhat acidic and has mild antiseptic properties, being sometimes used in the treatment of burns and lacerations.Agricultural Workers' Diseases: Diseases in persons engaged in cultivating and tilling soil, growing plants, harvesting crops, raising livestock, or otherwise engaged in husbandry and farming. The diseases are not restricted to farmers in the sense of those who perform conventional farm chores: the heading applies also to those engaged in the individual activities named above, as in those only gathering harvest or in those only dusting crops.IowaBees: Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Pesticides: Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.Air Pollution, RadioactivePlant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Toxicity Tests: An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Power Plants: Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.Human Experimentation: The use of humans as investigational subjects.Government Regulation: Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.Federal Government: The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.Ethics Committees, Research: Hospital or other institutional committees established to protect the welfare of research subjects. Federal regulations (the "Common Rule" (45 CFR 46)) mandate the use of these committees to monitor federally-funded biomedical and behavioral research involving human subjects.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Legislation, Drug: Laws concerned with manufacturing, dispensing, and marketing of drugs.United StatesDust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Livestock: Domesticated farm animals raised for home use or profit but excluding POULTRY. Typically livestock includes CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; SWINE; GOATS; and others.Animal Testing Alternatives: Procedures, such as TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES; mathematical models; etc., when used or advocated for use in place of the use of animals in research or diagnostic laboratories.Animal Welfare: The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.Animal Experimentation: The use of animals as investigational subjects.Animals, LaboratoryAnimal Use Alternatives: Alternatives to the use of animals in research, testing, and education. The alternatives may include reduction in the number of animals used, replacement of animals with a non-animal model or with animals of a species lower phylogenetically, or refinement of methods to minimize pain and distress of animals used.Equipment Safety: Freedom of equipment from actual or potential hazards.Device Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a device to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required preclinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance. It is not restricted to FDA.Endocrine Disruptors: Exogenous agents, synthetic and naturally occurring, which are capable of disrupting the functions of the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM including the maintenance of HOMEOSTASIS and the regulation of developmental processes. Endocrine disruptors are compounds that can mimic HORMONES, or enhance or block the binding of hormones to their receptors, or otherwise lead to activating or inhibiting the endocrine signaling pathways and hormone metabolism.Cosmetics: Substances intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions. Included in this definition are skin creams, lotions, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail polishes, eye and facial makeup preparations, permanent waves, hair colors, toothpastes, and deodorants, as well as any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. (U.S. Food & Drug Administration Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition Office of Cosmetics Fact Sheet (web page) Feb 1995)Endocrine System: The system of glands that release their secretions (hormones) directly into the circulatory system. In addition to the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, included are the CHROMAFFIN SYSTEM and the NEUROSECRETORY SYSTEMS.Polyvinyl Chloride: A polyvinyl resin used extensively in the manufacture of plastics, including medical devices, tubing, and other packaging. It is also used as a rubber substitute.Acrylonitrile: A highly poisonous compound used widely in the manufacture of plastics, adhesives and synthetic rubber.AcetalsAnimal Identification Systems: Procedures for recognizing individual animals and certain identifiable characteristics pertaining to them; includes computerized methods, ear tags, etc.Polyvinyl Alcohol: A polymer prepared from polyvinyl acetates by replacement of the acetate groups with hydroxyl groups. It is used as a pharmaceutic aid and ophthalmic lubricant as well as in the manufacture of surface coatings artificial sponges, cosmetics, and other products.PolyvinylsEncyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Antipruritics: Agents, usually topical, that relieve itching (pruritus).Administration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Dermatology: A medical specialty concerned with the skin, its structure, functions, diseases, and treatment.Pruritus: An intense itching sensation that produces the urge to rub or scratch the skin to obtain relief.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Databases, Pharmaceutical: Databases devoted to knowledge about PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Pesticide Residues: Pesticides or their breakdown products remaining in the environment following their normal use or accidental contamination.Hazardous Substances: Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Pest Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous plants, insects, or other animals. This includes control of plants that serve as habitats or food sources for animal pests.

Identification of an opd (organophosphate degradation) gene in an Agrobacterium isolate. (1/12)

We isolated a bacterial strain, Agrobacterium radiobacter P230, which can hydrolyze a wide range of organophosphate (OP) insecticides. A gene encoding a protein involved in OP hydrolysis was cloned from A. radiobacter P230 and sequenced. This gene (called opdA) had sequence similarity to opd, a gene previously shown to encode an OP-hydrolyzing enzyme in Flavobacterium sp. strain ATCC 27551 and Brevundimonas diminuta MG. Insertional mutation of the opdA gene produced a strain lacking the ability to hydrolyze OPs, suggesting that this is the only gene encoding an OP-hydrolyzing enzyme in A. radiobacter P230. The OPH and OpdA proteins, encoded by opd and opdA, respectively, were overexpressed and purified as maltose-binding proteins, and the maltose-binding protein moiety was cleaved and removed. Neither protein was able to hydrolyze the aliphatic OP malathion. The kinetics of the two proteins for diethyl OPs were comparable. For dimethyl OPs, OpdA had a higher k(cat) than OPH. It was also capable of hydrolyzing the dimethyl OPs phosmet and fenthion, which were not hydrolyzed at detectable levels by OPH.  (+info)

Cloning and expression of the phosphotriesterase gene hocA from Pseudomonas monteilii C11. (2/12)

The cloning of a gene encoding the novel phosphotriesterase from Pseudomonas monteilii C11, which enabled it to use the organophosphate (OP) coroxon as its sole phosphorus source, is described. The gene, called hocA (hydrolysis of coroxon) consists of 501 bp and encodes a protein of 19 kDa. This protein had no sequence similarity to any proteins in the SWISS-PROT/GenBank databases. When a spectinomycin-resistance cassette was placed in this gene, phosphotriesterase activity was abolished and P. monteilii C11 could no longer grow with coroxon as the sole phosphorus source. Overexpression and purification of HocA as a maltose-binding protein fusion produced a protein having a broad substrate specificity across oxon and thion OPs. Michaelis-Menten kinetics were observed with the oxon OPs, but not with the thion OPs. End-product inhibition was observed for coroxon-hydrolytic activity. Increased expression of hocA was observed from an integrative hocA-lacZ fusion when cultures were grown in the absence of phosphate, suggesting that it might be part of the Pho regulon, but the phosphate-regulated promoter was not cloned in this study. This is believed to be the first study in which a gene required for an organism to grow with OP pesticides as a phosphorus source has been isolated.  (+info)

Transient expression of organophosphorus hydrolase to enhance the degrading activity of tomato fruit on coumaphos. (3/12)

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Coumaphos exposure and incident cancer among male participants in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS). (4/12)

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Pesticide use modifies the association between genetic variants on chromosome 8q24 and prostate cancer. (5/12)

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CYP9Q-mediated detoxification of acaricides in the honey bee (Apis mellifera). (6/12)

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Acute exposure to a sublethal dose of imidacloprid and coumaphos enhances olfactory learning and memory in the honeybee Apis mellifera. (7/12)

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Exposure to multiple cholinergic pesticides impairs olfactory learning and memory in honeybees. (8/12)

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Pseudomonas monteilii is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped, motile bacterium isolated from human bronchial aspirate. The species is named in honor of the French microbiologist Henri Monteil. Based on 16S rRNA analysis, P. monteilii has been placed in the P. putida group. Elomari; Coroler, L; Verhille, S; Izard, D; Leclerc, H; et al. (Jul 1997). "Pseudomonas monteilii sp. nov., isolated from clinical specimens". Int J Syst Bacteriol. 47 (3): 846-52. doi:10.1099/00207713-47-3-846. PMID 9226917. George M. Garrity: Bergeys Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. 2. Auflage. Springer, New York, 2005, Volume 2: The Proteobacteria, Part B: The Gammaproteobacteria ISBN 0-387-24144-2 Anzai; Kim, H; Park, JY; Wakabayashi, H; Oyaizu, H; et al. (Jul 2000). "Phylogenetic affiliation of the pseudomonads based on 16S rRNA sequence". Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 50 (4): 1563-89. doi:10.1099/00207713-50-4-1563. PMID 10939664. Type strain of Pseudomonas monteilii at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity ...
We observed an increased risk of prostate cancer in association with coumaphos exposure among men with a family history of prostate cancer but not among men without a family history in both early (1993-1999) and later periods in cohort follow-up (2000-2005), although the interaction rate ratio in the early period is stronger than in the later period ...
We observed an increased risk of prostate cancer in association with coumaphos exposure among men with a family history of prostate cancer but not among men without a family history in both early (1993-1999) and later periods in cohort follow-up (2000-2005), although the interaction rate ratio in the early period is stronger than in the later period ...
... uality Honey bee workers (Apis mellifera) consume a variety of pollens to meet the majority of their requirements for protein and lipids. Recent work indicates that honey bees prefer diets that reflect the proper ratio of nutrients necessary for optimal survival and homeostasis. This idea relies on the precept that honey bees evaluate the nutritional composition of the foods provided to them. While this has
Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) are the most important insect for pollination of crops and wildflowers [1-3], but they have experienced increasing colony die-offs during the past two decades [4-6]. Varroa destructor is widely considered the most serious risk factor for honey bee colony mortality worldwide [7-10]. These large ectoparasitic mites are associated with a condition known as parasitic mite syndrome (PMS), or "Varroosis". In colonies exhibiting PMS or "Varroosis", pathogens, including brood diseases and viruses, are present at unusually high levels [11-13]. Varroa mites feed on the hemolymph of the larva, pupa and adults, and the open wounds caused by mite feeding can allow microorganisms to enter and weaken the host [14]; Mites themselves are vectors for viruses and perhaps other bee pathogens [13]. The Varroa mites life cycle consists of two phases, the phoretic phase, during which the adult female mite lives, feeds, and disperses on the adult bee, and the reproductive phase in which ...
Currently, tau-fluvalinate impregnated into plastic strips (Apistan®) is available for use, but sprayable formulations are not. Tua-fluvalinate is a pyrethroid neurotoxin and nearly all pyrethroids are highly toxic to bees. Additionally, little is known about the sub-lethal effects on bees. Amitraz had a short life as a control measure for Varroa because bee keepers reported significant colony losses after treatment and it was withdrawn from the market. This pesticide acts as a signaling chemical between nerves and mimics a compound found in high amounts in the honey bee brain. As such, it is likely that the compound has significant effects on behavior of bees and, even at sub-lethal amounts, may cause changes in worker behavior. Coumaphos is currently available for use against both Varroa and small hive beetles (Checkmite+®) and like the above pesticides is a neurotoxin. Although bees are able to detoxify doses of coumaphos used to control mites, coumaphos has been shown to have effects on ...
A sublethal concentration of imidacloprid can cause chronic toxicity in bees and can impact the behavior of honey bees. The nectar- and water-collecting, and climbing abilities of bees are crucial to the survival of the bees and the execution of responsibilities in bee colonies. Besides behavioral impact, data on the molecular mechanisms underlying the toxicity of imidacloprid, especially by the way of RNA-seq at the transcriptomic level, are limited. We treated Apis mellifera L. with sublethal concentrations of imidacloprid (0.1, 1 and 10 ppb) and determined the effect on behaviors and the transcriptomic changes. The sublethal concentrations of imidacloprid had a limited impact on the survival and syrup consumption of bees, but caused a significant increase in water consumption. Moreover, the climbing ability was significantly impaired by 10 ppb imidacloprid at 8 d. In the RNA-seq analysis, gene ontology (GO) term enrichment indicated a significant down-regulation of muscle-related genes, which might
In the Western honey bee, Apis mellifera, queens and workers have different longevity although they share the same genome. Queens consume royal jelly (RJ) as the main food throughout their life, including as adults, but workers only eat worker jelly when they are larvae less than 3 days old. In order to explore the effect of RJ and the components affecting longevity of worker honey bees, we first determined the optimal dose for prolonging longevity of workers as 4% RJ in 50% sucrose solution, and developed a method of obtaining long lived workers. We then compared the effects of longevity extension by RJ 4% with bee-collected pollen from rapeseed (Brassica napus). Lastly, we determined that a water soluble RJ protein obtained by precipitation with 60% ammonium sulfate (RJP60) contained the main component for longevity extension after comparing the effects of RJ crude protein extract (RJCP), RJP30 (obtained by precipitation with 30% ammonium sulfate), and RJ ethanol extract (RJEE). Understanding what
... Honey Bee (Apis mellifera mellifera) Beekeeping activities, especially queen trading, have shaped the distribution of honey bee (Apis mellifera) subspecies in Europe, and have resulted in extensive introductions of two eastern European C-lineage subspecies (A. m. ligustica and A. m. carnica) into the native range of the M-lineage A. m. mellifera subspecies in Western Europe. As a consequence, replacement and
In both cell lines PNGase F reduced JAC binding, most clearly in An. gambiae 55 cell line glycoproteins. This suggests that oligosaccharides were present with either GalNAcβ1-3Gal or Galβ1-3GalNAc residues were N-linked to the protein. Similar oligosaccharide structures have been detected previously in the venom of the honey bee Apis mellifera [37]. PNGase F reduced JAC binding to An. stephensi 43 cell line glycoproteins suggesting some residues recognised by JAC were O-linked e.g. GalNAc linked directly to the protein. Binding of PNA was abolished by O-glycanase suggesting that Galβ1-3GalNAc was linked directly to the protein on the An. stephensi 43 cell line 87 kDa glycoprotein. Binding of DBA to An. gambiae 55 cell line proteins suggested the presence of GalNAc residues O-linked directly to the protein.. Treatments with PNGase F and β-galactosidase prior to RCAII lectin binding indicated the presence of N-linked complex or hybrid oligosaccharides with terminal Galβ1-4GlcNAc on an An. ...
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The Mammalian Phenotype (MP) Ontology is a community effort to provide standard terms for annotating phenotypic data. You can use this browser to view terms, definitions, and term relationships in a hierarchical display. Links to summary annotated phenotype data at MGI are provided in Term Detail reports.
The European honey bee (Apis mellifera) is of global importance as a pollinator. Over the past 30 years an increase in colonies lost during winter has occurred, particularly in the northern hemisphere. These losses are attributed to the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor that acts as a vector of RNA viruses, most notably Deformed wing virus (DWV). Three master variants of the DWV have been discovered; Type-A, B, and C. The increase in overwinter colony losses are closely linked to DWV. At the same time DWV may also offer protection to colonies via superinfection exclusion (SIE), which may be linked to Varroa-tolerant colonies. However, the role of each DWV variant in colony survivorship and mite-tolerance is limited, so the main thrust of the thesis is to address this issue ...
Background In the honey bee (Apis mellifera), queen and workers have different behavior and reproductive capacity despite possessing the same genome. The primary substance that leads to this differentiation is royal jelly (RJ), which contains a range of proteins, amino acids, vitamins and nucleic acids. MicroRNA (miRNA) has been found to play an important role in regulating the expression of protein-coding genes and cell biology. In this study, we characterized the miRNAs in RJ from two honey bee sister species and determined their possible effect on transcriptome in one species. Methodology/Principal Findings We sequenced the miRNAs in RJ either from A. mellifera (RJM) or A. cerana (RJC). We then determined the global transcriptomes of adult A. mellifera developed from larvae fed either with RJM (mRJM) or RJC (mRJC). Finally we analyzed the target genes of those miRNA that are species specific or differentially expressed in the two honey bee species. We show that there were differences in miRNA
Citation: Chen, Y., Smith, Jr., I.B., Collins, A.M., Pettis, J.S., Feldlaufer, M.F. 2004. Detection of deformed wing virus infection in honey bees Apis mellifera L. in the United States. American Bee Journal. 144(7):557-559. Interpretive Summary: The honey bee is an important beneficial insect assisting in the pollination of a wide variety of crops with an annual added market value exceeding 14 billion dollars. Honey bees, however, are threatened by a myriad of parasites and diseases and the occurrence of honey bee viruses and their effect on bees is not particularly well understood. We now report the detection of a honey bee virus not previously known to exist in the U. S., and demonstrate the utility of using molecular techniques for this area of research. The results of this research will be used by other scientists investigating honey bee viruses and by federal regulatory personnel involved in the worldwide trade in honey bees. Ultimately, this research will benefit beekeepers by improving ...
Are Western Honey Bees Apis mellifera really the worlds most important pollinator? This is the claim made in a recently published paper in the proceedings of the Royal Society of Biological Sciences 10th January 2018. The authors claims are based upon existing published datasets consisting of observations of bees on flowering plants in natural environments around the globe and based upon the abundance of Honey bees recorded during the study have come to the conclusion that they are therefore the most important pollinator in the world.. The claim that a single species can be solely relied upon or referred to as the most important pollinator in the world has been widely criticised by academics who have been quick to point out that many other recent studies show that wild bees are responsible for a greater proportion of the pollination service previously attributed to domesticated honey bees and that in addition there are many crop plants that can only be pollinated by a restricted number of ...
Di, N., K. R. Hladun, K. Zhang, T.-X. Liu, and J. T. Trumble. 2016. Laboratory bioassays on the impact of cadmium, copper and lead on the development and survival of honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) larvae and foragers. Chemosphere 152: 530-538.. Prager, S. M., G. Kund and J.T. Trumble. 2016. Low input, low cost IPM program helps manage potato psyllid. California Agriculture 70 (2): 89-95.. Pennington, M.J., S.M. Prager, W.E. Walton, and J.T. Trumble. 2016. (Culex quinquefasciatus) larval microbiomes vary with instar and exposure to common wastewater contaminants. Nature Scientific Reports 6:21969 , DOI: 10.1038/srep21969.. Burden, C. M., C. Elmore, K. R. Hladun, J. T. Trumble, and B. H. Smith. 2016. Acute exposure to selenium disrupts associative conditioning and long-term memory recall in honey bees (Apis mellifera L.). Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 127: 71-79.. Hladun, K.R., N. Di, T.-X. Liu, and J.T. Trumble. 2016. Metal contaminant accumulation in the hive: consequences for whole ...
Neuronal plasticity allows an animal to respond to environmental changes by modulating its response to stimuli. In the honey bee ( Apis mellifera), the biogenic amine octopamine plays a crucial role...
Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) are more efficient at removing worker brood artificially infested with the parasitic mite Varroa jacobsoni Oudemans than are Italian bees or Italian/Africanized hybrids ...
Samples were collected during spring and summer of 2013, from 5 provinces in the middle delta of Egypt. LC/MS-MS was used to identify and quantify individual OPs by use of a modified Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged Safe (QuEChERS) method. Pesticides were detected more frequently in samples collected during summer. Pollen contained the greatest concentrations of OPs. Profenofos, chlorpyrifos, malation and diazinon were the most frequently detected OPs. In contrast, ethoprop, phorate, coumaphos and chlorpyrifos-oxon were not detected. A toxic units approach, with lethality as the endpoint was used in an additive model to assess the cumulative potential for adverse effects posed by OPs ...
The Hadza consume honey and larvae of both stingless bees and stinging bees, including the African killer bee (Apis mellifera). The Hadza locate the hives with the assistance of a wild African bird, the aptly named honey guide (Indicator indicator). The honey guide bird and the Hadza honey hunter communicate back and forth through a series of whistles and the bird guides the honey hunter, tree by tree, to the bee hive. Once the honey hunter has located the hive, he pounds wooden pegs ito the trunk of the tree, climbs to the top where the hive is located, chops into the tree to expose the hive, and smokes it out by placing burning brush into the opening. Smoking the hive acts to pacify the bees by dulling the senses of the guard bees who protect the opening of the hive. The bees see the smoke as a habitat threat and focus on collecting enough honey to rebuild their hive elsewhere. This allows the hunter to collect the honeycomb without being stung by the killer bees. The honey guide bird ...
Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Honey bee head (Apis mellifera). Wikipedia reference: The western honey bee or European honey bee (Apis mellifera) is a species of honey bee. It has a defined social caste system and complex communication behaviours, such as intricate dance routines to indicate food availability. It is frequently maintained by beekeepers for its honey product. This species is widely distributed and an important pollinator for agriculture, though it is currently threatened by colony collapse disorder. It is also an important organism for scientific studies on social insects, especially as it now has a fully sequenced genome. Magnification: x5 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image C032/3783
We present a comprehensive transcriptome analysis of the fungus Ascosphaera apis, an economically important pathogen of the Western honey bee (Apis mellifera) that causes chalkbrood disease. Our goals were to further annotate the A. apis reference genome and to identify genes that are candidates for being differentially expressed during host infection versus axenic culture. We compared A. apis transcriptome sequence from mycelia grown on liquid or solid media with that dissected from host-infected tissue. 454 pyrosequencing provided 252 Mb of filtered sequence reads from both culture types that were assembled into 10,087 contigs. Transcript contigs, protein sequences from multiple fungal species, and ab initio gene predictions were included as evidence sources in the Maker gene prediction pipeline, resulting in 6,992 consensus gene models. A phylogeny based on 12 of these protein-coding loci further supported the taxonomic placement of Ascosphaera as sister to the core Onygenales. Several common protein
Explosives detection using bees. Researchers working with security guards at an airport, using honey bees (Apis mellifera) to detect chemical explosives. Honey bees are sensitive to the smell of flower nectar and pollen, but here have been trained to detect the smells from chemical explosives. Sniffer tubes are exposing the bees (in the blue box) to chemicals on the baggage, and their response is observed on a computer monitor (lower right). This work is being carried out by the UK research company Insense. Photographed at Charles de Gaulle airport, Paris, France. - Stock Image C002/6645
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Over a decade, declines in honey bee colonies have raised worldwide concerns. Several potentially contributing factors have been investigated, e.g. parasites, diseases, and pesticides. Neonicotinoid pesticides have received much attention due to their intensive use in crop protection, and their adverse effects on many levels of honey bee physiology led the European Union to ban these compounds. Due to their neuronal target, a receptor expressed throughout the insect nervous system, studies have focused mainly on neuroscience and behaviour. Through the Geometric Framework of nutrition, we investigated effects of the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam on survival, food consumption and sucrose sensitivity of honey bees (Apis mellifera). Thiamethoxam did not affect protein and carbohydrate intake, but decreased responses to high concentrations of sucrose. Interestingly, when bees ate fixed unbalanced diets, dietary protein facilitated better sucrose detection. Both thiamethoxam and dietary protein influenced
In the last years, particular interest has been given to investigations concerning natural, effective and nontoxic compounds with radioprotective capacity in concert with increasing utilization of different types of ionizing radiation for various applications. Among them, propolis, a resinous mixture of substances collected by honey bees (Apis mellifera) has been considered promising since it presents several advantageous characteristics, i.e., anti-inflamatory, anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial and free-radical scavenging action. It is, therefore, a direct antioxidant that protects cells and organisms from the adverse effects of ionizing radiation. These relevant biological activities are mainly mediated by the flavonoids, present at relatively high concentrations in the propolis. Considering that the chemical composition and, consequently, the biological activity of propolis is variable according to the environmental plant ecology, the present study was conducted in order to evaluate the ...
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Dual function of a bee (Apis cerana) inhibitor cysteine knot peptide that acts as an antifungal peptide and insecticidal venom toxin. Park HG, Kyung SS, Lee KS, Kim BY, Choi YS, Yoon HJ, Kwon HW, Je YH, Jin BR., Dev. Comp. Immunol., 2014, 47, 247-53. Inhibitor... ...
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Abstract. The microsporidia Nosema apis (Zander) and Nosema ceranae (Fries) are common intestinal parasites in honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies. Though globally prevalent, there are mixed reports of Nosema infection costs, with some regions reporting high parasite virulence and colony losses, while others report high Nosema prevalence but few costs. Basic and applied studies are urgently needed to help beekeepers effectively manage Nosema spp., ideally through an integrated pest management approach that allows beekeepers to deploy multiple strategies to control Nosema when Nosema is likely to cause damage to the colonies, rather than using prophylactic treatments. Beekeepers need practical and affordable technologies that facilitate disease diagnosis and science-backed guidelines that recommend when, if at all, to treat infections. In addition, new treatment methods are needed, as there are several problems associated with the chemical use of fumagillin (the only currently extensively ...
The relatively simple communication, breeding and egg-making systems that govern reproduction in female Drosophila retain homology to eusocial species in which these same systems are modified to the social condition. Despite having no parental care, division of labour or subfertile caste, Drosophila may nonetheless offer a living test of certain sociobiological hypotheses framed around gene function. In this review, we make this case, and do so around the recent discovery that the non-social fly, Drosophila melanogaster, can respond to the ovary-suppressing queen pheromone of the honey bee Apis meliffera. Here, we first explain the sociobiological imperative to reconcile kin theory with molecular biology, and qualify a potential role for Drosophila. Then, we offer three applications for the fly-pheromone assay. First, the availability and accessibility of massive mutant libraries makes immediately feasible any number of open or targeted gene screens against the ovary-inhibiting response. The sheer
Learn about Y-Tex OPtimizer Insecticide Cattle Ear Tags for animal usage including: active ingredients, directions for use, precautions, and storage information.
Shop Jeffers Livestock wide selection of cattle identification equipment such as cattle ear tags, cattle branding tools, marking pens, tattoo supplies, and more.
Finally, stop stalling and take responsibility for your own job duties. You need to be calm and sure of yourself when handling animals (and believe me, it is DAMN hard to remain calm when one is currently biting the hell out of your finger). If youre tense and nervous, they will pick up on that. When you are running a procedure, YOU are the one responsible for doing it properly. You arent doing your subjects a favor by being squeamish about ear tags, etc., and deflecting things by having someone else do it is a cop-out. You dont have to like it, but you do have to do it properly. Methods are designed and tested to provide the most benefit with the least distress. When you are afraid to clamp the ear tag on, youre making it take longer, and that increases the pain and distress. Tissue collection itself isnt so bad, aside from the inevitable blood. When you collect tissue, youre going to CO2 or overdose the animal and collect it. Make sure the animal is out, thats all you have to do. After ...
想知道關於什麼的眼睛常識呢?. 歡迎留言或是寫信到[email protected]》. 我們會定期撰寫相關的眼科衛教喔(. 眼睛有任何不適3請儘速就醫3本部落格文章無法取代醫師的專業診療》. ...
CyLence Ultra ear tags contain 8% Beta-Cyfluthrin & 20% Piperonyl Butoxide. For use on beef & dairy cattle including lactating dairy cows & calves over 3 months of age. 20-pack.
When I reviewed the original HiFiMAN HE1000 Planar Magnetic Headphones about two years ago, I was pretty much bowled over by their performance, looks and sound quality. They were, at the time, the best pair of headphones that I had ever heard and still remain amongst a handful of reference headphones that I would consider as my all-time favorites. Ever the busy little bees that they are, the engineers at HiFiMAN have not seen fit to leave well-enough alone and recently released the HE1000 V2. The updated model is said to incorporate several modifications gleaned from customer feedback along with HiFiMANs general desire to keep refining their designs. ...
The honey bee Apis mellifera plays an important role for the pollination of fruit and vegetable plants, besides its significance for the production of honey and wax. Losses of entire bee colonies during winter have economic and - in particular - ecological consequences as pollinators are missing in spring during blossom. Apiculture in North America and Europe is especially affected by partly massive losses. Only during the winter months of 2014/2015, up to fifty per cent of all bee colonies in some Austrian regions collapsed.. The main trigger of this bee mortality does not seem to be the use of pesticides in modern agriculture. Many studies have shown that the survival of bee colonies strongly depends on the infestation with Varroa mites, widespread blood-sucking parasites, and the transmission of deformed wing virus by these mites. A research group from the Institute of Virology at the University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna has developed a new laboratory system, which enabled them to make ...
Beyond Pesticides, March 30, 2010) Searching for clues to the mysterious disappearance of bees, known as "colony collapse disorder"(CCD), Penn State University researchers have identified widespread pesticide contamination of beehives. The study, "High Levels of Miticides and Agrochemicals in North American Apiaries: Implications for Honey Bee Health," was published March 19, 2010 in the scientific journal Public Library of Science (PLOS).. The study finds 121 different types of pesticides within 887 wax, pollen, bee and hive samples from 23 states. The top 10 most frequently detected pesticides are fluvalinate, coumaphos, chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, amitraz, pendamethalin, endosulfan, fenpropathrin, esfenvalerate and atrazine. Miticides are the most common contaminant in the wax and bees, and fungicides are the most common contaminant of pollen. For the full results of the study, including several tables of wax, pollen and bee sample data, download the study from the PLOS website.. "The ...
Imidacloprid is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Imidacloprid is available on the Drugs.com website.
manufacturers and suppliers of cylinders opd from around the world. Panjiva uses over 30 international data sources to help you find qualified vendors of cylinders opd.
Holstein UK has entered into an agreement with a third party supplier ("Tag Supplier") whereby the Tag Supplier will supply tissue or regular ear tags for cattle (comprising females, males and calves) for registered Holstein UK members as well as farmers associated or otherwise with other cattle breeder clubs, which supply tagging arrangements will be subject to the terms as set out below:. ...
Deformed wing virus (DWV) in association with Varroa destructor is currently attributed to being responsible for colony collapse in the western honey bee (Apis mellifera). The appearance of deformed individuals within an infested colony has long been associated with colony losses. However, it is unknown why only a fraction of DWV positive bees develop deformed wings. This study concerns two small studies comparing deformed and non-deformed bees. In Brazil, asymptomatic bees (no wing deformity) that had been parasitised by Varroa as pupae had higher DWV loads than non-parasitised bees. However, we found no greater bilateral asymmetry in wing morphology due to DWV titres or parasitisation. As expected, using RT-qPCR, deformed bees were found to contain the highest viral loads. In a separate study, next generation sequencing (NGS) was applied to compare the entire DWV genomes from paired symptomatic and asymptomatic bees from three colonies on two different Hawaiian islands. This revealed no ...
    Varroa mites are widely considered the biggest honey bee health problem worldwide [1-4]. Until recently, Varroa jacobsoni has been found to live and reproduce only in Asian honey bee (Apis cerana) colonies, while V. destructor successfully reproduces in both A. cerana and A. mellifera colonies. However, we have identified an island population of V. jacobsoni that is highly destructive to A. mellifera, the primary species used for pollination...
Corathon® cattle insecticide ear tags from Bayer control horn flies, face flies, Gulf Coast ticks & more on beef & non-lactating dairy cattle. Learn more.
Buy Y-TEX® Warrior™ Insecticide Cattle Ear Tags with Diazinon and Chlorpyrifos, C16403 at Nasco. You will find a unique blend of products for Arts & Crafts, Education, Healthcare, Agriculture, and more!
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Het Centrum voor Landbouw en Milieu (CLM) in Utrecht heeft milieu-effectenkaarten gemaakt voor agrariërs waarmee op eenvoudige wijze de milieubelasting van verschillende bestrijdingsmiddelen kan worden vergeleken, op basis van gegevens van het College voor de Toelating van Gewasbeschermingsmiddelen en Biociden (CTGB). Het wordt aanbevolen bij voorkeur groene middelen (middelen met een laag aantal milieubelastingspunten) te gebruiken (oranje en rode middelen zijn schadelijker). Het voor bijen zeer giftige insecticide imidacloprid krijgt op de milieu-effecten kaarten voor de boomteelt de kleur oranje voor de mate waarin de stof kan uitspoelen naar het grondwater, en de kleur groen voor de giftigheid van de stof voor organismen in de bodem en in het oppervlaktewater. Ook de milieu-effectenkaart voor appel en peer geeft de kleur groen aan de giftigheid van imidacloprid voor organismen in het oppervlaktewater. Feit is echter dat het gebruik van imidacloprid in de boom- en fruitteelt extreme ...
DuFlex sheep and goat ear tags are molded from a patented flexible polyurethane for rugged, lightweight tags in bright, fade-resistant colors ...
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When diagnostic treatment can be as expensive as the actual treatment it is best to take a health policy which will cover OPD as well as treatment under hospitalization.
Over the past few years, the Express has published several reports noting that OPD has repeatedly failed to emphasize basic investigative police work, and that...
; Dicrotophos; Monocrotophos; Phorate; Dimethoate; Simazine; Atrazine; Dioxathion; Terbufos; Diazinon; Disulfoton; Phosphamidon; Parathion-methyl; Fenitrothion; Malathion; Fenthion; Parathion; Trichloronate; Chlorfenvinphos; Crotoxyphos; Fensulfothion; Ethion; Famphur; Carbophenothion; Phosmet; Leptophos; Coumaphos
A second species, Nosema ceranae, a natural associate of the eastern honey bee Apis cerana, has emerged in recent years as a problem in Europe, mainly Spain, where it is suspected of causing large-scale colony deaths. N. ceranae is known to occur in the US as well, and it probably contributes to similar occurrences of colony morbidity. It is nearly impossible to discriminate N. apis from N. ceranae without molecular techniques. Being a non-natural parasite on A. mellifera, there is concern that N. ceranae may have higher virulence toward the western honey bee - a pattern typical with many non-natural parasite relationships. However, studies from Canada and the US have failed to firmly associate Nosema disease with wide-scale colony deaths in the mid-to-late 2000s, sometimes called Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD).. There are no IPM approaches specifically targeted against Nosema disease, and its management centers on the maintenance of robust colonies and biennial application of the antibiotic ...
1. Sheep serum in doses below 0.3 cc. intravenously produces no pulmonary vasoconstriction in the guinea pig. Guinea pigs have consequently been sensitized with this substance and anaphylactic shock produced by doses of O.1 and 0.2 cc.. 2. Pressure in the pulmonary artery has been measured by the method of Drinker and Went (2) and recorded photographically in a new and convenient manner.. 3. At a very early stage in anaphylactic shock the pulmonary arterial pressure falls markedly and this fall seems to precede the appearance of bronchiolar obstruction.. 4. The fall in pulmonary blood pressure in anaphylactic shock is in marked contrast to the rise in pressure resulting from intravenous injection of toxic foreign protein, such as horse serum.. ...
We use the same ear tag method for all hoofstock," she said. "When we have our hands on most hoofstock, we give them a tag because its an easy way to identify. The ear tag location is sex-dependent - females in the left ear and males in the right. Neonates also get a microchip subcutaneously at the base of their left ear that we read with a wand as a second ID method.". The toolbox she referenced is essentially a neonate kit, and every member of the hoofstock staff has one.. "There are various tag colors based on the year of the calf crop," Haefele said. "For example, this year sable are white and last year they were blue. Addax are the exception, since they are always green and their numbers come in sequential order.. "We are on 761 right now, so more than 600 have been born here so far. The toolboxes also have tubes to collect blood and serum, microchips and forms we fill out for each calf.. "Our hoofstock staffers dont always have to have vet staff there when they do a neonate exam, but we ...
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Arsenic atom in PDB 2o4m: Structure of Phosphotriesterase Mutant I106G/F132G/H257Y
Fluvalinate was followed by coumaphos. Varroa mites can be treated with commercially available miticides. Miticides must be ... Synthetic chemicals Pyrethroid insecticide (Fluvalinate) as strips Organophosphate insecticide (Coumaphos or Check-mite) as ...
chlorpyrifos coumaphos Archived February 5, 2005, at the Wayback Machine. demeton diazinon dicrotophos Clinch, P. G.; Palmer- ...
Among those acaricides used are acrinathrin, amitraz, bromopropylate, chlordimeform, coumaphos, flumethrin, and fluvalinate. ...
Organophosphorus insecticides like coumaphos, dichlofenthion, and fenchlorphos can be applied to wounds with fly larvae. These ... nagasunt and coumaphos. When trying to prevent infestation of livestock and other animals, proper spraying and dipping with ...
Pesticides such as amitraz, coumaphos, and fenthion can be used in hay bedding for prevention. The term nit has given rise to ...
Coumaphos bee strips (Bayer Corporation) have been approved for use in hives for the control of small hive beetles in some ...
Colchicine Coumaphos Cresol, -o Crimidine Crotonaldehyde Crotonaldehyde, (E)- Cyanide Cyanogen bromide Cyanogen iodide ...
... coumaphos MeSH D03.438.150.446.912.531 --- hymecromone MeSH D03.438.150.446.912.850 --- scopoletin MeSH D03.438.150.455 --- ... coumaphos MeSH D03.830.219.446.912.531 --- hymecromone MeSH D03.830.219.446.912.850 --- scopoletin MeSH D03.830.219.455 --- ...
... coumaphos MeSH D02.705.539.208 --- cystaphos MeSH D02.705.539.220 --- diazinon MeSH D02.705.539.245 --- dimethoate MeSH D02.705 ... coumaphos MeSH D02.886.309.208 --- cystaphos MeSH D02.886.309.220 --- diazinon MeSH D02.886.309.245 --- dimethoate MeSH D02.886 ...
... coumaphos, and dichlorvos primarily by daily or every-other-day coat sprays. Workers, particularly in stanchion barns, may be ...
... is a nonvolatile, fat-soluble phosphorothioate with ectoparasiticide properties: it kills insects and mites. It is ... http://www.apvma.gov.au/chemrev/coumaphos.shtml Archived August 29, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/ ...
The biological mechanism for the thinning is not entirely known, but it is believed that p,p'-DDE impairs the shell gland's ability to excrete calcium carbonate onto the developing egg.[7][9][10][11][12] Multiple mechanisms may be at work, or different mechanisms may operate in different species.[7] Some studies have shown that although DDE levels have fallen dramatically, eggshell thickness remains 10-12 percent thinner than before DDT was first used.[13]. Some studies have indicated that DDE is an endocrine disruptor[14] and contributes to breast cancer, but more recent studies provide strong evidence that there is no relationship between DDE exposure and breast cancer.[15] What is more clear is that DDE is a weak androgen receptor antagonist and can produce male genital tract abnormalities.[16][17]. Animal studies show that organochlorine pesticides-such as DDE-are neurotoxic, cause oxidative stress, and damage the brain's dopaminergic system.[18]. ...
... (DDD) is an organochlorine insecticide that is slightly irritating to the skin.[1] DDD is a metabolite of DDT.[2] DDD is colorless and crystalline;[3] it is closely related chemically and is similar in properties to DDT, but it is considered to be less toxic to animals than DDT.[4] The molecular formula for DDD is (ClC6H4)2CHCHCl2 or C14H10Cl4, whereas the formula for DDT is (ClC6H4)2CHCCl3 or C14H9Cl5. DDD is in the "Group B2" classification, meaning that it is a probable human carcinogen. This is based on an increased incidence of lung tumors in male and female mice, liver tumors in male mice, and thyroid tumors in male rats. Further basis is that DDD is so similar to and is a metabolite of DDT, another probable human carcinogen.[2] DDD is no longer registered for agricultural use in the United States, but the general population continues to be exposed to it due to its long persistence time. The primary source of exposure is oral ingestion of food.[5] 1946 is the ...
... is a widely used, broad-spectrum benzimidazole fungicide and a metabolite of benomyl. It is also employed as a casting worm control agent in amenity turf situations such as golf greens, tennis courts etc. and in some countries is licensed for that use only.[2] The fungicide is used to control plant diseases in cereals and fruits, including citrus, bananas, strawberries, pineapples, and pomes.[3] It is also controversially used in Queensland, Australia on macadamia plantations.[4] A 4.7% solution of carbendazim hydrochloride, sold as Eertavas, is marketed as a treatment for Dutch elm disease. Studies have found high doses of carbendazim cause infertility and destroy the testicles of laboratory animals.[5][6] Maximum pesticide residue limits (MRLs) have reduced since discovering its harmful effects. The MRLs for fresh produce in the EU are now between 0.1 and 0.7 mg/kg with the exception of loquat, which is 2 mg/kg.[7] The limits for more commonly consumed citrus and pome fruits are ...
... has little systemic absorption, and is considered safe for topical use in adults and children over the age of 2 months. The FDA has assigned it as pregnancy category B. Animal studies have shown no effects on fertility or teratogenicity, but studies in humans have not been performed. The excretion of permethrin in breastmilk is unknown, and breastfeeding is recommended to be temporarily discontinued during treatment.[11] According to the Connecticut Department of Public Health, permethrin "has low mammalian toxicity, is poorly absorbed through the skin, and is rapidly inactivated by the body. Skin reactions have been uncommon."[14] Excessive exposure to permethrin can cause nausea, headache, muscle weakness, excessive salivation, shortness of breath, and seizures. Worker exposure to the chemical can be monitored by measurement of the urinary metabolites, while severe overdose may be confirmed by measurement of permethrin in serum or blood plasma.[15] Permethrin does not present any ...
Human exposure to methoxychlor occurs via air, soil, and water,[7] primarily in people who work with the substance or who are exposed to air, soil, or water that has been contaminated. It is unknown how quickly and efficiently the substance is absorbed by humans who have been exposed to contaminated air or via skin contact.[7] In animal models, high doses can lead to neurotoxicity.[7] Some methoxychlor's metabolites have estrogenic effects in adult and developing animals before and after birth.[7] One studied metabolite is 2,2-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (HPTE) which shows reproductive toxicity in an animal model by reducing testosterone biosynthesis.[8][9] Such effects adversely affect both the male and female reproductive systems. It is expected that this "could occur in humans" but has not been proven.[7] While one study has linked methoxychlor to the development of leukemia in humans, most studies in animals and humans have been negative, thus the EPA has determined that it is ...
GV (IUPAC name: 2-(Dimethylamino)ethyl N,N-dimethylphosphoramidofluoridate) is an organophosphate nerve agent. GV is a part of a new series of nerve agents with properties similar to both the "G-series" and "V-series". It is a potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitor with properties similar to other nerve agents, being a highly poisonous vapour. Treatment for poisoning with GV involves drugs such as atropine, benactyzine, obidoxime, and HI-6.[1][2] ...
The four-membered ring in α-pinene 1 makes it a reactive hydrocarbon, prone to skeletal rearrangements such as the Wagner-Meerwein rearrangement. For example, attempts to perform hydration or hydrogen halide addition with the alkene functionality typically lead to rearranged products. With concentrated sulfuric acid and ethanol the major products are terpineol 2 and its ethyl ether 3, while glacial acetic acid gives the corresponding acetate ester 4. With dilute acids, terpin hydrate 5 becomes the major product. With one molar equivalent of anhydrous HCl, the simple addition product 6a can be formed at low temperature in the presence of ether, but it is very unstable. At normal temperatures, or if no ether is present, the major product is bornyl chloride 6b, along with a small amount of fenchyl chloride 6c.[5] For many years 6b (also called "artificial camphor") was referred to as "pinene hydrochloride", until it was confirmed as identical with bornyl chloride made from camphene. If more HCl is ...
While botulinum toxin is generally considered safe in a clinical setting, there can be serious side effects from its use. Most commonly, botulinum toxin can be injected into the wrong muscle group or spread from the injection site, causing paralysis of unintended muscles. Side effects from cosmetic use generally result from unintended paralysis of facial muscles. These include partial facial paralysis, muscle weakness, and trouble swallowing. Side effects are not limited to direct paralysis however, and can also include headaches, flu-like symptoms, and allergic reactions.[27] Just as cosmetic treatments only last a number of months, paralysis side-effects can have the same durations.[citation needed] At least in some cases, these effects are reported to dissipate in the weeks after treatment.[citation needed] Bruising at the site of injection is not a side effect of the toxin but rather of the mode of administration, and is reported as preventable if the clinician applies pressure to the ...
... is a poisonous diterpenoid found in the South American plant Ryania speciosa (Salicaceae). It was originally used as an insecticide.. The compound has extremely high affinity to the open-form ryanodine receptor, a group of calcium channels found in skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, and heart muscle cells.[1] It binds with such high affinity to the receptor that it was used as a label for the first purification of that class of ion channels and gave its name to it.. At nanomolar concentrations, ryanodine locks the receptor in a half-open state, whereas it fully closes them at micromolar concentration. The effect of the nanomolar-level binding is that ryanodine causes release of calcium from calcium stores as the sarcoplasmic reticulum in the cytoplasm, leading to massive muscular contractions. The effect of micromolar-level binding is paralysis. This is true for both mammals and insects.. ...
... is very toxic to cats which cannot tolerate the therapeutic doses for dogs.[7] This is associated with UGT1A6 deficiency in cats, the enzyme responsible for metabolizing cypermethrin. As a consequence, cypermethrin remains much longer in the cat's organs than in dogs or other mammals and can be fatal in large doses. In male rats cypermethrin was shown to exhibit a toxic effect on the reproductive system. After 15 days of continual dosing, both androgen receptor levels and serum testosterone levels were significantly reduced. These data suggested that cypermethrin can induce impairments of the structure of seminiferous tubules and spermatogenesis in male rats at high doses.[8] Long-term exposure to cypermethrin during adulthood is found to induce dopaminergic neurodegeneration in rats, and postnatal exposure enhances the susceptibility of animals to dopaminergic neurodegeneration if rechallenged during adulthood.[9] If exposed to cypermethrin during pregnancy, rats give birth to ...
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Before DDT, malaria was successfully eliminated or curtailed in several tropical areas by removing or poisoning mosquito breeding grounds and larva habitats, for example by eliminating standing water. These methods have seen little application in Africa for more than half a century.[137] According to CDC, such methods are not practical in Africa because "Anopheles gambiae, one of the primary vectors of malaria in Africa, breeds in numerous small pools of water that form due to rainfall ... It is difficult, if not impossible, to predict when and where the breeding sites will form, and to find and treat them before the adults emerge."[138] The relative effectiveness of IRS versus other malaria control techniques (e.g. bednets or prompt access to anti-malarial drugs) varies and is dependent on local conditions.[34] A WHO study released in January 2008 found that mass distribution of insecticide-treated mosquito nets and artemisinin-based drugs cut malaria deaths in half in malaria-burdened Rwanda ...
When used in the central nervous system to alleviate neurological symptoms, such as rivastigmine in Alzheimer's disease, all cholinesterase inhibitors require doses to be increased gradually over several weeks, and this is usually referred to as the titration phase. Many other types drug treatments may require a titration or stepping up phase. This strategy is used to build tolerance to adverse events or to reach a desired clinical effect.[12] This also prevents accidental overdose and is therefore recommended when initiating treatment with drugs that are extremely potent and/or toxic (drugs with a low therapeutic index). ...
... can be broadly categorized as a cholinergic physiological antagonist, because it reduces the apparent activity of cholinergic neurons, but does not act at the postsynaptic ACh receptor. Vesamicol causes a non-competitive and reversible block of the intracellular transporter VAChT responsible for carrying newly synthesized ACh into secretory vesicles in the presynaptic nerve terminal. This transport process is driven by a proton gradient between cell organelles and the cytoplasm. Blocking of acetylcholine loading leads to empty vesicles fusing with neuron membranes, decreasing ACh release. ...
... s are a group of highly conserved G-protein coupled receptors from the adhesion G protein-coupled receptor family. These receptors were originally identified based on their ability to bind the spider venom alpha-latrotoxin.[1] This conserved family of membrane proteins has up to three homologues in chordate species, including humans.[2] The precise functions of latrophilins remain unknown.[2] Genetic defects in latrophilin genes have been associated with diseases such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and cancer.[3] ...
The majority of patch and hand wipe samples detected coumaphos. It is concluded that dermal exposure to coumaphos results in ... Evaluation of coumaphos exposure among tick eradication workers. Bibliographic information. Feb. 2010, Vol.52, No.2, p.131-136 ... coumaphos; exposure evaluation; agriculture. Descriptors (secondary). cholinesterase; skin absorption; determination in air; ... Airborne coumaphos was detected in only one sample, in a trace amount. ...
Coumaphos (FAO/PL:1968/M/9/1) Coumaphos (WHO Pesticide Residues Series 2) Coumaphos (WHO Pesticide Residues Series 5) Coumaphos ... Pesticide residues in food: 1978 evaluations) Coumaphos (Pesticide residues in food: 1980 evaluations) Coumaphos (Pesticide ... COUMAPHOS RESIDUES Explanation The Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues asked the Meeting to reconsider the definition of the ...
See Also: Toxicological Abbreviations Coumaphos (ICSC) Coumaphos (WHO Pesticide Residues Series 2) Coumaphos (WHO Pesticide ... Coumaphos (Pesticide residues in food: 1980 evaluations) Coumaphos (Pesticide residues in food: 1983 evaluations) Coumaphos ( ... 1968). They analysed for coumaphos, its oxygen analogue and Potasan(R) (dechlorinated coumaphos) with the flame-photometric ... ppm coumaphos in their feed, Potasan (R) was found at levels equal to four to seven per cent of the coumaphos present in the ...
Coumaphos is a nonvolatile, fat-soluble phosphorothioate with ectoparasiticide properties: it kills insects and mites. It is ... http://www.apvma.gov.au/chemrev/coumaphos.shtml Archived August 29, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/ ...
As a result, coumaphos was sensitively determined from the enhanced catalytic cycle of guanine-Ru(bpy)(3)(2+) by ... Attomolar determination of coumaphos by electrochemical displacement immunoassay coupled with oligonucleotide sensing.. [Zong ... Coumaphos, an organophosphorus pesticide (OP) used worldwide, has raised serious public concerns due to its positive ... Herein, a novel method for attomolar coumaphos detection was developed on the basis of an electrochemical displacement ...
Posted in Asthma, Chemicals, Coumaphos, DDT, Disease/Health Effects, EPTC, Lindane, Malathion, Parathion, Phorate , No Comments ... Coumaphos, EPTC, lindane, parathion, heptachlor, 2,4,5-TP, DDT, malathion, and phorate had the strongest effect. "This is the ... Posted in Agriculture, Chemicals, Chlorothalonil, Chlorpyrifos, Coumaphos, fluvalinate, Pesticide Regulation, Pollinators , 1 ... Posted in Agriculture, Atrazine, Chemicals, Chlorothalonil, Chlorpyrifos, Coumaphos, Endosulfan, esfenvalerate, fluvalinate, ...
Purchase online Coumaphos alcohol metabolite DRE-C11730030 - CAS Number 6174-86-3. High Quality CRMs, Reference Materials, ...
Coumaphos may enter the environment from spillage of animal dipping and spraying solutions (U.S.EPA, 2000). Coumaphos is ... The chemical 3-chloro-7-hydroxy-4-methyl-2H-chromen-2-one/ol is a metabolite of coumaphos. First registered in 1958, coumaphos ... Coumaphos is considered to be an organophosphorus insecticide of moderate-to-high acute toxicity in animal studies. At high ... Coumaphos is highly toxic to birds and aquatic invertebrates and moderately toxic to fish. ...
Mixture of coumaphos and imidacloprid reduced daily bee consumption of a control food patty to 10 mg from a coumaphos intake of ... We tested coumaphos at 92,600 ppb concentration, in combination with 5 and 20 ppb imidacloprid. Coumaphos induced significantly ... While coumaphos and imidacloprid mixtures induced down-regulation of antioxidant genes with noticeable midgut tissue damage, ... Newly emerged worker bees were exposed to organophosphate insecticide coumaphos, a neonicotinoid imidacloprid, and their ...
Through the Pesticide Registration Review program, EPA reviews all registered pesticides at least every 15 years, as mandated by the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act.. EPA always strives to base its decisions on the best available sound science. However, science is constantly evolving, and new scientific information can come to light at any time and change our understanding of potential risks from pesticides. The review of new data could potentially prolong the risk assessment and decision-making process and change this schedule.. The schedule below shows the status of pesticides undergoing registration review. This schedule is subject to change based on shifting priorities and is intended to be a rough timeline. We will update the schedule regularly to reflect any timeline changes and to include anticipated deliverables for later dates.. ...
56-72-4................................... Coumaphos. 57-24-9................................... Strychnine*. 57-57-8 ...
All compounds are listed alphabetically: in the JMPR report and evaluation column, clik on Report to download either the Toxicological Evaluation or the Residue Evaluation in the JMPR Report in the related year, and click on Evaluation to download the Residue Evaluation in the related year ...
coumaphos Mass :362.76630 Formula : C14H16ClO5PS cyanophos Mass :243.22040 Formula : C9H10NO3PS demeton-S-methyl Mass : ...
558.185 - Coumaphos. § 558.195 - Decoquinate. § 558.198 - Diclazuril. § 558.205 - Dichlorvos. § 558.235 - Efrotomycin. § ...
b) Tolerances. The tolerances for coumaphos (measured as coumaphos and its oxygen analog, O,O-diethyl O-3-chloro-4-methyl-2-oxo ...
Coumaphos washed off of wading treated livestock may be hazardous to aquatic organisms. Do not contaminate water when disposing ... Coumaphos. 0,0-Diethyl 0-(3-chloro-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-1-benzopyran-7-yl) phosphorothioate ...
Coumaphos. COU. 11.4. CH. 320. 377. 1. 74. .... 0.3. 320. o-Cresol. CRO. 12.0. CH. 265. 293. 1. 30. 1. 0.04. 280. ...
... coumaphos 20% - organophosphates, for the control of buffalo flies on Cattle, cow, calf, calves, bull, ox, heifer, veal, bovine ... Coumaphos is another veteran organophosphate pesticide introduced by BAYER in the 1950s as well. Both have a broad-spectrum of ... GENERIC BRANDS available? YES, perhaps not with the same diazinon + coumaphos combination, but with comparable organophosphates ... Suspected poisoning? Read the articles on diazinon safety and coumaphos safety in this site. ...
CIS 93-1801 Coumaphos International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; delayed effects; ...
Tau-fluvalinate and coumaphos. Resistance due to CYP9Q induction. [16]. Pollen beetle (Meligethes aeneus) ...
coumaphos (180.189) 07/01/69. crotoxyphos, see dimethyl phosphate of alpha-methylbenzyl 3-hydroxy-cis-crotonate (revoked) 12/31 ... 180.189 coumaphos 07/01/69. 180.190 diphenylamine 07/01/67. 180.191 folpet 07/01/67. 180.198 dimethyl (2,2,2-trichloro-1- ...
  • To examine the effects of four common pesticides-fluvalinate, coumaphos, chlorothalonil and chlorpyrifos-on bee larvae, the researchers reared honeybee larvae in their laboratory. (cornucopia.org)
  • 1960). Administration of coumaphos to rats in combination with 12 other organo-phosphorus insecticides indicated that significant potentiation occurred only with malathion. (inchem.org)
  • In the case of malathion the LD 50 of an equitoxic mixture with coumaphos was 190 mg/kg as compared with a value of 455 mg/kg, which would be expected on the basis of strict additivity. (inchem.org)
  • First registered in 1958, coumaphos is an organophosphorus insecticide that is used to control ticks, lice, mites, and arthropod pests on beef cattle, dairy cows, swine, and certain other farm animals. (cdc.gov)
  • Although bees are able to detoxify doses of coumaphos used to control mites, coumaphos has been shown to have effects on queen size and longevity and to reduce the fertility of drones. (abfnet.org)
  • The organophosphate (OP) coumaphos is the approved acaricide for eradicating cattle fever tick outbreaks. (usda.gov)
  • Cattle fever tick outbreaks continue to occur along the Mexico-U.S. border even though the tick has been eradicated from the U.S. The organophosphate (OP) coumaphos targets the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and is the approved acaricide for eradicating cattle fever tick outbreaks. (usda.gov)
  • The organophosphate acaricide coumaphos is the only registered acaricide that can be used in dipping vats at USDA cattle importation facilities along the U.S.-Mexican border to eliminate the southern cattle tick, Boophilus microplus (Canestrini), from cattle that are for importation from Mexico to the U.S. The southern cattle tick in Mexico has developed resistance to almost all major classes of acaricides in recent years. (usda.gov)
  • The San Roman strain of the southern cattle tick, Boophilus microplus collected from Mexico had a high-level resistance to the organophosphate acaricide coumaphos. (usda.gov)
  • Urine was collected for measurement of a possible urinary biomarker of coumaphos, 3-chloro-4-methyl coumarin (chlorferon), at the same times. (cdc.gov)
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate both the cholinesterase monitoring programme and newer field methods of determining coumaphos exposure among tick eradication workers. (ilo.org)
  • Methods used consisted of measuring blood cholinesterase, evaluating field testing methods, testing urine for chlorferon pre- and post-shift, personal air sampling, patch sampling of clothing and wipe sampling of hands for coumaphos. (ilo.org)
  • 1959). Activation of coumaphos to the more potent cholinesterase inhibitor, the oxygen analogue, was demonstrated in vitro using rat-liver slices (Vickery and Arthur, 1960). (inchem.org)
  • Blood was collected by venipuncture for laboratory cholinesterase measurements using the Ellman method, and by fingerstick for cholinesterase measurements by field test kit at the start of the workday (prior to use of coumaphos) and again at the end of the workday. (cdc.gov)
  • Three reported being removed from working with coumaphos (one time each) in the past year due to low cholinesterase levels. (cdc.gov)
  • 1998).Coumaphos is not considered mutagenic and rated by the U.S.EPA as not likely to be carcinogenic in humans (U.S.EPA, 2000). (cdc.gov)
  • Coumaphos may enter the environment from spillage of animal dipping and spraying solutions (U.S.EPA, 2000). (cdc.gov)
  • Coumaphos is a nonvolatile, fat-soluble phosphorothioate with ectoparasiticide properties: it kills insects and mites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coumaphos, which is used to treat varroa mites in honeybees, also was found in higher levels in non-CCD colonies. (plantmanagementnetwork.org)
  • to provide beekeepers with safe, effective, reliable and affordable alternatives to Apistan and Coumaphos for control of parasitic mites. (ofrf.org)
  • Coumaphos induced significantly higher bee mortality, which was associated with down regulation of catalase compared to coumaphos and imidacloprid (5/20 ppb) mixtures, whereas, both imidacloprid concentrations independently had no effect on bee mortality. (usm.edu)
  • Effects of Coumaphos and Imidacloprid on Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apida" by Ales Gregorc, Mohamed Alburaki et al. (usm.edu)
  • We tested coumaphos at 92,600 ppb concentration, in combination with 5 and 20 ppb imidacloprid. (usm.edu)
  • Mixture of coumaphos and imidacloprid reduced daily bee consumption of a control food patty to 10 mg from a coumaphos intake of 14.3 mg and 18.4 and 13.7 mg for imidacloprid (5 and 20) ppb, respectively. (usm.edu)
  • While coumaphos and imidacloprid mixtures induced down-regulation of antioxidant genes with noticeable midgut tissue damage, imidacloprid induced intensive gene up-regulations with less midgut apoptosis. (usm.edu)
  • In addition, the larvae were sensitive to the combination of chlorothalonil with the miticide coumaphos. (cornucopia.org)
  • Our findings suggest that the common pesticides chlorothalonil, fluvalinate, coumaphos and chloropyrifos, individually or in mixtures, have statistically significant impacts on honeybee larval survivorship," Mullin said. (cornucopia.org)
  • Coumaphos exerts its anti-tick activity by inactivating a protein ensymatic activity known as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) that degrades the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. (usda.gov)
  • Coumaphos is currently available for use against both Varroa and small hive beetles (Checkmite+®) and like the above pesticides is a neurotoxin. (abfnet.org)
  • EVALUATION FOR ACCEPTABLE DAILY INTAKE Biochemical aspects After oral doses of 20 mg/kg body weight of 32 p-labelled coumaphos were administered to two steers, 38 per cent of the radioactivity was recorded in the urine and 35 per cent in the faeces during seven days following dosing. (inchem.org)
  • Human health effects from coumaphos at low environmental doses or at biomonitored levels from low environmental exposures are unknown. (cdc.gov)
  • 1958). When sheep were fed 30 mg/kg body weight of coumaphos orally, the mortality was 60 per cent (Radeleff et al. (inchem.org)
  • We also report AChE1 sequences of larval ticks from R. microplus strains having different sensitivities to coumaphos. (usda.gov)
  • Short-term studies Rat Four groups of rats (10 male and 10 female) were fed for 16 weeks on diets containing 0, 2, 5 or 10 ppm of coumaphos. (inchem.org)
  • We identified 72 different AChE1 sequence variants, 2 of which were common in the populations containing coumaphos resistant ticks. (usda.gov)
  • Coumaphos, effective against adults, did poorly against larvae. (ajtmh.org)
  • Coumaphos sprays are available for use on swine in the USA, but they are labeled only for control of lice. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Attomolar determination of coumaphos by electrochemical displacement immunoassay coupled with oligonucleotide sensing. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Biomonitoring studies of 3-chloro-7-hydroxy-4-methyl-2H-chromen-2-one/ol provide physicians and public health officials with reference values so that they can determine whether people have been exposed to higher levels of coumaphos than are found in the general population. (cdc.gov)
  • No potentiation was observed when coumaphos was administered in combination with three other anticholinesterase agents, carbaryl, dioxathion and ethion (DuBois, 1960). (inchem.org)
  • The primary OP used was coumaphos. (cdc.gov)
  • Technicians were asked about symptoms consistent with OP poisoning experienced within 6 hours of coumaphos use in the past 3 months. (cdc.gov)
  • Other information on identity and properties Coumaphos is a slightly brownish powder with a weak unpleasant odour. (inchem.org)
  • Herein, a novel method for attomolar coumaphos detection was developed on the basis of an electrochemical displacement immunoassay coupled with oligonucleotide sensing. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The majority of patch and hand wipe samples detected coumaphos. (ilo.org)
  • Reregistration eligibility decision (RED) addendum and FPQA tolerance reassessment progress report: Coumaphos. (cdc.gov)
  • Participants reported mixing coumaphos 8.5 days per month and spraying or dipping livestock 11 days per month, on average. (cdc.gov)