Coturnix: A genus of BIRDS in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES, containing the common European and other Old World QUAIL.Quail: Common name for two distinct groups of BIRDS in the order GALLIFORMES: the New World or American quails of the family Odontophoridae and the Old World quails in the genus COTURNIX, family Phasianidae.Cloaca: A dilated cavity extended caudally from the hindgut. In adult birds, reptiles, amphibians, and many fishes but few mammals, cloaca is a common chamber into which the digestive, urinary and reproductive tracts discharge their contents. In most mammals, cloaca gives rise to LARGE INTESTINE; URINARY BLADDER; and GENITALIA.Bird Diseases: Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.Rete Testis: The network of channels formed at the termination of the straight SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES in the mediastinum testis. Rete testis channels drain into the efferent ductules that pass into the caput EPIDIDYMIS.Vitelline Membrane: The plasma membrane of the egg.Egg Shell: A hard or leathery calciferous exterior covering of an egg.Hemorrhagic Septicemia: Any of several bacterial diseases, usually caused by PASTEURELLA MULTOCIDA, marked by the presence of hemorrhagic areas in the subcutaneous tissues, serous membranes, muscles, lymph glands, and throughout the internal organs. The diseases primarily affect animals and rarely humans.Galliformes: An order of heavy-bodied, largely terrestrial BIRDS including pheasants, TURKEYS, grouse, QUAIL, and CHICKENS.Oviducts: Ducts that serve exclusively for the passage of eggs from the ovaries to the exterior of the body. In non-mammals, they are termed oviducts. In mammals, they are highly specialized and known as FALLOPIAN TUBES.Oviposition: The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Ethionine: 2-Amino-4-(ethylthio)butyric acid. An antimetabolite and methionine antagonist that interferes with amino acid incorporation into proteins and with cellular ATP utilization. It also produces liver neoplasms.5-Hydroxytryptophan: The immediate precursor in the biosynthesis of SEROTONIN from tryptophan. It is used as an antiepileptic and antidepressant.Avian Proteins: Proteins obtained from species of BIRDS.CresolsEgg Proteins: Proteins which are found in eggs (OVA) from any species.Decapodiformes: A superorder of CEPHALOPODS comprised of squid, cuttlefish, and their relatives. Their distinguishing feature is the modification of their fourth pair of arms into tentacles, resulting in 10 limbs.Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.French Guiana: A French overseas department on the northeast coast of South America. Its capital is Cayenne. It was first settled by the French in 1604. Early development was hindered because of the presence of a penal colony. The name of the country and the capital are variants of Guyana, possibly from the native Indian Guarani guai (born) + ana (kin), implying a united and interrelated race of people. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p418 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p195)Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Ethology: The discipline pertaining to the study of animal behavior.Imprinting (Psychology): A particular kind of learning characterized by occurrence in very early life, rapidity of acquisition, and relative insusceptibility to forgetting or extinction. Imprinted behavior includes most (or all) behavior commonly called instinctive, but imprinting is used purely descriptively.Genomic Imprinting: The variable phenotypic expression of a GENE depending on whether it is of paternal or maternal origin, which is a function of the DNA METHYLATION pattern. Imprinted regions are observed to be more methylated and less transcriptionally active. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Flame Retardants: Materials applied to fabrics, bedding, furniture, plastics, etc. to retard their burning; many may leach out and cause allergies or other harm.Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers: Compounds that contain two halogenated benzene rings linked via an OXYGEN atom. Many polybrominated diphenyl ethers are used as FLAME RETARDANTS.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone: A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Fungicides, Industrial: Chemicals that kill or inhibit the growth of fungi in agricultural applications, on wood, plastics, or other materials, in swimming pools, etc.

Apolipoprotein A-I of hyperlipidemia atherosclerosis prone (LAP) quail: cDNA sequence and tissue expression. (1/926)

Apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) has an important role in the transport of cholesterol. This study describes the complete nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence for apo A-I of LAP quail. A full length apo A-I cDNA clone for hyperlipidemia atherosclerosis prone (LAP) quail was isolated from a lambda gt10 liver cDNA library. The DNA sequence of LAP apo A-I cDNA was similar to that of normal Japanese quail. The deduced amino acid sequence of LAP apo A-I was hence identical to that of normal Japanese quail. LAP apo A-I mRNA is about 1.4 kilobases in length and expressed in a variety of tissues including small intestine, liver, lung, breast muscle, testis, and heart. Although the tissue distribution of apo A-I was similar between strains, LAP quail expressed more apo A-I mRNA than normal Japanese quail in all tissues examined. This tendency was pronounced with the small intestine. Although the concentration of serum apo A-I did not correlate with the tissue expression of mRNA, the observation may suggest that the increased apo A-I expression in LAP strain had some relevance to the susceptibility of this strain to the experimental atherosclerosis.  (+info)

Production of donor-derived offspring by transfer of primordial germ cells in Japanese quail. (2/926)

We transfused concentrated primordial germ cells (PGCs) of the black strain (D: homozygous for the autosomal incomplete dominant gene, D) of quail into the embryos of the wild-type plumage strain (WP: d+/d+) of quail. The recipient quail were raised until sexual maturity and a progeny test of the putative germline chimeras was performed to examine the donor gamete-derived offspring (D/d+). Thirty-one percent (36/115) of the transfused quail hatched and 21 (13 females and 8 males) of them reached maturity. Five females and 2 males were germline chimeras producing donor gamete-derived offspring. Transmission rates of the donor derived gametes in the chimeric females and males were 1.8-8.3% and 2.6-63.0%, respectively. Germline chimeric and the other putative chimeric males were also test-mated with females from the sex-linked imperfect albino strain (AL: d+/d+, al/W, where al indicates the sex-linked imperfect albino gene on the Z chromosome, and W indicates the W chromosome) for autosexing of W-bearing spermatozoa: No albino offspring were born.  (+info)

Protective effects of type I and type II interferons toward Rous sarcoma virus-induced tumors in chickens. (3/926)

Growth of tumors induced by Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) is controlled by alleles at the major histocompatibility complex locus in chickens, indicating that immunological host defense mechanisms play a major role. We show here that the resistance phenotype of CB regressor chickens can be partially reverted by treating the animals with a monoclonal antibody that neutralizes the major serotype of chicken type I interferon, ChIFN-alpha. Injection of recombinant ChIFN-alpha into susceptible CC progressor chickens resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of RSV-induced tumor development. This treatment was not effective, however, in CC chickens challenged with a DNA construct expressing the v-src oncogene, suggesting that the beneficial effect of type I interferon in this system resulted from its intrinsic antiviral activity and probably not from indirect immunmodulatory effects. By contrast, recombinant chicken interferon-gamma strongly inhibited tumor growth when given to CC chickens that were challenged with the v-src oncogene, indicating that the two cytokines target different steps of tumor development.  (+info)

Quantitative changes in integrin and focal adhesion signaling regulate myoblast cell cycle withdrawal. (4/926)

We previously demonstrated contrasting roles for integrin alpha subunits and their cytoplasmic domains in controlling cell cycle withdrawal and the onset of terminal differentiation (Sastry, S., M. Lakonishok, D. Thomas, J. Muschler, and A.F. Horwitz. 1996. J. Cell Biol. 133:169-184). Ectopic expression of the integrin alpha5 or alpha6A subunit in primary quail myoblasts either decreases or enhances the probability of cell cycle withdrawal, respectively. In this study, we addressed the mechanisms by which changes in integrin alpha subunit ratios regulate this decision. Ectopic expression of truncated alpha5 or alpha6A indicate that the alpha5 cytoplasmic domain is permissive for the proliferative pathway whereas the COOH-terminal 11 amino acids of alpha6A cytoplasmic domain inhibit proliferation and promote differentiation. The alpha5 and alpha6A cytoplasmic domains do not appear to initiate these signals directly, but instead regulate beta1 signaling. Ectopically expressed IL2R-alpha5 or IL2R-alpha6A have no detectable effect on the myoblast phenotype. However, ectopic expression of the beta1A integrin subunit or IL2R-beta1A, autonomously inhibits differentiation and maintains a proliferative state. Perturbing alpha5 or alpha6A ratios also significantly affects activation of beta1 integrin signaling pathways. Ectopic alpha5 expression enhances expression and activation of paxillin as well as mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase with little effect on focal adhesion kinase (FAK). In contrast, ectopic alpha6A expression suppresses FAK and MAP kinase activation with a lesser effect on paxillin. Ectopic expression of wild-type and mutant forms of FAK, paxillin, and MAP/erk kinase (MEK) confirm these correlations. These data demonstrate that (a) proliferative signaling (i.e., inhibition of cell cycle withdrawal and the onset of terminal differentiation) occurs through the beta1A subunit and is modulated by the alpha subunit cytoplasmic domains; (b) perturbing alpha subunit ratios alters paxillin expression and phosphorylation and FAK and MAP kinase activation; (c) quantitative changes in the level of adhesive signaling through integrins and focal adhesion components regulate the decision of myoblasts to withdraw from the cell cycle, in part via MAP kinase.  (+info)

Myotube heterogeneity in developing chick craniofacial skeletal muscles. (5/926)

Avian skeletal muscles consist of myotubes that can be categorized according to contraction and fatigue properties, which are based largely on the types of myosins and metabolic enzymes present in the cells. Most mature muscles in the head are mixed, but they display a variety of ratios and distributions of fast and slow muscle cells. We examine the development of all head muscles in chick and quail embryos, using immunohistochemical assays that distinguish between fast and slow myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms. Some muscles exhibit the mature spatial organization from the onset of primary myotube differentiation (e.g., jaw adductor complex). Many other muscles undergo substantial transformation during the transition from primary to secondary myogenesis, becoming mixed after having started as exclusively slow (e.g., oculorotatory, neck muscles) or fast (e.g., mandibular depressor) myotube populations. A few muscles are comprised exclusively of fast myotubes throughout their development and in the adult (e.g., the quail quadratus and pyramidalis muscles, chick stylohyoideus muscles). Most developing quail and chick head muscles exhibit identical fiber type composition; exceptions include the genioglossal (chick: initially slow, quail: mixed), quadratus and pyramidalis (chick: mixed, quail: fast), and stylohyoid (chick: fast, quail: mixed). The great diversity of spatial and temporal scenarios during myogenesis of head muscles exceeds that observed in the limbs and trunk, and these observations, coupled with the results of precursor mapping studies, make it unlikely that a lineage based model, in which individual myoblasts are restricted to fast or slow fates, is in operation. More likely, spatiotemporal patterning of muscle fiber types is coupled with the interactions that direct the movements of muscle precursors and subsequent segregation of individual muscles from common myogenic condensations. In the head, most of these events are facilitated by connective tissue precursors derived from the neural crest. Whether these influences act upon uncommitted, or biased but not restricted, myogenic mesenchymal cells remains to be tested.  (+info)

Retinal TUNEL-positive cells and high glutamate levels in vitreous humor of mutant quail with a glaucoma-like disorder. (6/926)

PURPOSE: To investigate whether retinal cell death observed in an avian glaucoma-like disorder occurs by apoptosis and whether an increase in excitotoxic amino acid concentration in the vitreous humor is associated temporally with cell death in the retina. METHODS: Presumptive retinal apoptotic nuclei were identified by histochemical detection of DNA fragmentation (by TdT-dUTP terminal nick-end labeling [TUNEL]), and vitreal concentrations of glutamate and several other amino acids were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography with fluorometric detection in the al mutant quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) in which a glaucoma-like disorder develops spontaneously. RESULTS: TUNEL-labeled nuclei were located mostly in the ganglion cell layer (GCL) in the retina of mutant quails 3 months after hatching. However, labeled nuclei were also observed in the inner and outer nuclear layers. At 7 months, most TUNEL-positive nuclei were detected in the inner nuclear layer, whereas labeled cells in the GCL were reduced in number. No TUNEL-labeled nuclei were detected in the retina of control quails at any age. Vitreal concentrations of glutamate and aspartate were significantly increased in 1-month-old mutant quails compared with control animals. Concentrations decreased at 3 months, and no significant differences were observed between strains at 7 months. CONCLUSIONS: Presumptive apoptotic cell death is detected from 3 months after hatching in mutant quails and is not restricted to retinal ganglion cells. Cell death appears just after a significant increase in excitotoxic amino acid concentrations in the vitreous humor, suggesting a correlation between both events.  (+info)

Connexin 43 expression reflects neural crest patterns during cardiovascular development. (7/926)

We used transgenic mice in which the promoter sequence for connexin 43 linked to a lacZ reporter was expressed in neural crest but not myocardial cells to document the pattern of cardiac neural crest cells in the caudal pharyngeal arches and cardiac outflow tract. Expression of lacZ was strikingly similar to that of cardiac neural crest cells in quail-chick chimeras. By using this transgenic mouse line to compare cardiac neural crest involvement in cardiac outflow septation and aortic arch artery development in mouse and chick, we were able to note differences and similarities in their cardiovascular development. Similar to neural crest cells in the chick, lacZ-positive cells formed a sheath around the persisting aortic arch arteries, comprised the aorticopulmonary septation complex, were located at the site of final fusion of the conal cushions, and populated the cardiac ganglia. In quail-chick chimeras generated for this study, neural crest cells entered the outflow tract by two pathways, submyocardially and subendocardially. In the mouse only the subendocardial population of lacZ-positive cells could be seen as the cells entered the outflow tract. In addition lacZ-positive cells completely surrounded the aortic sac prior to septation, while in the chick, neural crest cells were scattered around the aortic sac with the bulk of cells distributed in the bridging portion of the aorticopulmonary septation complex. In the chick, submyocardial populations of neural crest cells assembled on opposite sides of the aortic sac and entered the conotruncal ridges. Even though the aortic sac in the mouse was initially surrounded by lacZ-positive cells, the two outflow vessels that resulted from its septation showed differential lacZ expression. The ascending aorta was invested by lacZ-positive cells while the pulmonary trunk was devoid of lacZ staining. In the chick, both of these vessels were invested by neural crest cells, but the cells arrived secondarily by displacement from the aortic arch arteries during vessel elongation. This may indicate a difference in derivation of the pulmonary trunk in the mouse or a difference in distribution of cardiac neural crest cells. An independent mouse neural crest marker is needed to confirm whether the differences are indeed due to species differences in cardiovascular and/or neural crest development. Nevertheless, with the differences noted, we believe that this mouse model faithfully represents the location of cardiac neural crest cells. The similarities in location of lacZ-expressing cells in the mouse to that of cardiac neural crest cells in the chick suggest that this mouse is a good model for studying mammalian cardiac neural crest and that the mammalian cardiac neural crest performs functions similar to those shown for chick.  (+info)

Neural crest can form cartilages normally derived from mesoderm during development of the avian head skeleton. (8/926)

The lateral wall of the avian braincase, which is indicative of the primitive amniote condition, is formed from mesoderm. In contrast, mammals have replaced this portion of their head skeleton with a nonhomologous bone of neural crest origin. Features that characterize the local developmental environment may have enabled a neural crest-derived skeletal element to be integrated into a mesodermal region of the braincase during the course of evolution. The lateral wall of the braincase lies along a boundary in the head that separates neural crest from mesoderm, and also, neural crest cells migrate through this region on their way to the first visceral arch. Differences in the availability of one skeletogenic population versus the other may determine the final composition of the lateral wall of the braincase. Using the quail-chick chimeric system, this investigation tests if populations of neural crest, when augmented and expanded within populations of mesoderm, will give rise to the lateral wall of the braincase. Results demonstrate that neural crest can produce cartilages that are morphologically indistinguishable from elements normally generated by mesoderm. These findings (1) indicate that neural crest can respond to the same cues that both promote skeletogenesis and enable proper patterning in mesoderm, (2) challenge hypotheses on the nature of the boundary between neural crest and mesoderm in the head, and (3) suggest that changes in the allocation of migrating cells could have enabled a neural crest-derived skeletal element to replace a mesodermal portion of the braincase during evolution.  (+info)

  • When mature male coturnix were exposed to short photoperiods (6L: 18D) a rapid testicular weight reduction was recorded (Follett & Farner, 1966). (
  • Reduction of testicular weight in the common coturnix, exposed to short days (8 h of light), was more rapid in a colder than in a warmer environment (Wilson et al. (
  • Small quail sometimes classified as Excalfactoria , rather than Coturnix , include the blue quail ( C. adamsoni ), only 13 cm (5 inches) long, of eastern Africa . (
  • Investigamos no presente trabalho o efeito da estimulação de receptor serotonérgico 5-HT1A no comportamento alimentar de codornas ( Coturnix japonica ). (
  • Pesquisas de taxonomia e biologia parasitárias em codornas (Coturnix japonica) são pouco realizadas no Brasil , sendo a maioria das informações disponíveis referentes a relatos de caso em achados de necropsia , portanto, em muitos aspectos a fauna parasitária de codornas é ainda desconhecida. (
  • F. M. R. Perrin, S. Stacey, A. M. C. Burgess, and U. Mittwoch, "A quantitative investigation of gonadal feminization by diethylstilboestrol of genetically male embryos of the quail Coturnix coturnix japonica ," Journal of Reproduction and Fertility , vol. 103, no. 2, pp. 223-226, 1995. (
  • The embryogenesis of the proctodeal gland and development of the connective tissue of the associated lamina propria in the dorsal wall of the proctodeum of Common Coturnix (Coturnix c. japonica) were studied on embryos collected at 12-hour intervals from day 7 of incubation through hatching. (
  • When mature male coturnix were exposed to short photoperiods (6L: 18D) a rapid testicular weight reduction was recorded (Follett & Farner, 1966). (
  • Reduction of testicular weight in the common coturnix, exposed to short days (8 h of light), was more rapid in a colder than in a warmer environment (Wilson et al. (
  • The involvement of central biogenic amines in the mechanisms controlling photoperiodically induced testicular development in Coturnix quail were studied employing pharmacological approaches. (
  • Background: The New Zealand quail, Coturnix novaezealandiae, was widespread throughout New Zealand until its rapid extinction in the 1870's. (
  • A series of 17 experiments was conducted to investigate the minimum vitamin requirement and vitamin interrelationship for growth of Coturnix coturnix japonica to two weeks of age using a glucose monohydrate-isolated soybean protein diet. (