Apolipoprotein A-I of hyperlipidemia atherosclerosis prone (LAP) quail: cDNA sequence and tissue expression. (1/926)Apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) has an important role in the transport of cholesterol. This study describes the complete nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence for apo A-I of LAP quail. A full length apo A-I cDNA clone for hyperlipidemia atherosclerosis prone (LAP) quail was isolated from a lambda gt10 liver cDNA library. The DNA sequence of LAP apo A-I cDNA was similar to that of normal Japanese quail. The deduced amino acid sequence of LAP apo A-I was hence identical to that of normal Japanese quail. LAP apo A-I mRNA is about 1.4 kilobases in length and expressed in a variety of tissues including small intestine, liver, lung, breast muscle, testis, and heart. Although the tissue distribution of apo A-I was similar between strains, LAP quail expressed more apo A-I mRNA than normal Japanese quail in all tissues examined. This tendency was pronounced with the small intestine. Although the concentration of serum apo A-I did not correlate with the tissue expression of mRNA, the observation may suggest that the increased apo A-I expression in LAP strain had some relevance to the susceptibility of this strain to the experimental atherosclerosis. (+info)
Production of donor-derived offspring by transfer of primordial germ cells in Japanese quail. (2/926)We transfused concentrated primordial germ cells (PGCs) of the black strain (D: homozygous for the autosomal incomplete dominant gene, D) of quail into the embryos of the wild-type plumage strain (WP: d+/d+) of quail. The recipient quail were raised until sexual maturity and a progeny test of the putative germline chimeras was performed to examine the donor gamete-derived offspring (D/d+). Thirty-one percent (36/115) of the transfused quail hatched and 21 (13 females and 8 males) of them reached maturity. Five females and 2 males were germline chimeras producing donor gamete-derived offspring. Transmission rates of the donor derived gametes in the chimeric females and males were 1.8-8.3% and 2.6-63.0%, respectively. Germline chimeric and the other putative chimeric males were also test-mated with females from the sex-linked imperfect albino strain (AL: d+/d+, al/W, where al indicates the sex-linked imperfect albino gene on the Z chromosome, and W indicates the W chromosome) for autosexing of W-bearing spermatozoa: No albino offspring were born. (+info)
Protective effects of type I and type II interferons toward Rous sarcoma virus-induced tumors in chickens. (3/926)Growth of tumors induced by Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) is controlled by alleles at the major histocompatibility complex locus in chickens, indicating that immunological host defense mechanisms play a major role. We show here that the resistance phenotype of CB regressor chickens can be partially reverted by treating the animals with a monoclonal antibody that neutralizes the major serotype of chicken type I interferon, ChIFN-alpha. Injection of recombinant ChIFN-alpha into susceptible CC progressor chickens resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of RSV-induced tumor development. This treatment was not effective, however, in CC chickens challenged with a DNA construct expressing the v-src oncogene, suggesting that the beneficial effect of type I interferon in this system resulted from its intrinsic antiviral activity and probably not from indirect immunmodulatory effects. By contrast, recombinant chicken interferon-gamma strongly inhibited tumor growth when given to CC chickens that were challenged with the v-src oncogene, indicating that the two cytokines target different steps of tumor development. (+info)
Quantitative changes in integrin and focal adhesion signaling regulate myoblast cell cycle withdrawal. (4/926)We previously demonstrated contrasting roles for integrin alpha subunits and their cytoplasmic domains in controlling cell cycle withdrawal and the onset of terminal differentiation (Sastry, S., M. Lakonishok, D. Thomas, J. Muschler, and A.F. Horwitz. 1996. J. Cell Biol. 133:169-184). Ectopic expression of the integrin alpha5 or alpha6A subunit in primary quail myoblasts either decreases or enhances the probability of cell cycle withdrawal, respectively. In this study, we addressed the mechanisms by which changes in integrin alpha subunit ratios regulate this decision. Ectopic expression of truncated alpha5 or alpha6A indicate that the alpha5 cytoplasmic domain is permissive for the proliferative pathway whereas the COOH-terminal 11 amino acids of alpha6A cytoplasmic domain inhibit proliferation and promote differentiation. The alpha5 and alpha6A cytoplasmic domains do not appear to initiate these signals directly, but instead regulate beta1 signaling. Ectopically expressed IL2R-alpha5 or IL2R-alpha6A have no detectable effect on the myoblast phenotype. However, ectopic expression of the beta1A integrin subunit or IL2R-beta1A, autonomously inhibits differentiation and maintains a proliferative state. Perturbing alpha5 or alpha6A ratios also significantly affects activation of beta1 integrin signaling pathways. Ectopic alpha5 expression enhances expression and activation of paxillin as well as mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase with little effect on focal adhesion kinase (FAK). In contrast, ectopic alpha6A expression suppresses FAK and MAP kinase activation with a lesser effect on paxillin. Ectopic expression of wild-type and mutant forms of FAK, paxillin, and MAP/erk kinase (MEK) confirm these correlations. These data demonstrate that (a) proliferative signaling (i.e., inhibition of cell cycle withdrawal and the onset of terminal differentiation) occurs through the beta1A subunit and is modulated by the alpha subunit cytoplasmic domains; (b) perturbing alpha subunit ratios alters paxillin expression and phosphorylation and FAK and MAP kinase activation; (c) quantitative changes in the level of adhesive signaling through integrins and focal adhesion components regulate the decision of myoblasts to withdraw from the cell cycle, in part via MAP kinase. (+info)
Myotube heterogeneity in developing chick craniofacial skeletal muscles. (5/926)Avian skeletal muscles consist of myotubes that can be categorized according to contraction and fatigue properties, which are based largely on the types of myosins and metabolic enzymes present in the cells. Most mature muscles in the head are mixed, but they display a variety of ratios and distributions of fast and slow muscle cells. We examine the development of all head muscles in chick and quail embryos, using immunohistochemical assays that distinguish between fast and slow myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms. Some muscles exhibit the mature spatial organization from the onset of primary myotube differentiation (e.g., jaw adductor complex). Many other muscles undergo substantial transformation during the transition from primary to secondary myogenesis, becoming mixed after having started as exclusively slow (e.g., oculorotatory, neck muscles) or fast (e.g., mandibular depressor) myotube populations. A few muscles are comprised exclusively of fast myotubes throughout their development and in the adult (e.g., the quail quadratus and pyramidalis muscles, chick stylohyoideus muscles). Most developing quail and chick head muscles exhibit identical fiber type composition; exceptions include the genioglossal (chick: initially slow, quail: mixed), quadratus and pyramidalis (chick: mixed, quail: fast), and stylohyoid (chick: fast, quail: mixed). The great diversity of spatial and temporal scenarios during myogenesis of head muscles exceeds that observed in the limbs and trunk, and these observations, coupled with the results of precursor mapping studies, make it unlikely that a lineage based model, in which individual myoblasts are restricted to fast or slow fates, is in operation. More likely, spatiotemporal patterning of muscle fiber types is coupled with the interactions that direct the movements of muscle precursors and subsequent segregation of individual muscles from common myogenic condensations. In the head, most of these events are facilitated by connective tissue precursors derived from the neural crest. Whether these influences act upon uncommitted, or biased but not restricted, myogenic mesenchymal cells remains to be tested. (+info)
Retinal TUNEL-positive cells and high glutamate levels in vitreous humor of mutant quail with a glaucoma-like disorder. (6/926)PURPOSE: To investigate whether retinal cell death observed in an avian glaucoma-like disorder occurs by apoptosis and whether an increase in excitotoxic amino acid concentration in the vitreous humor is associated temporally with cell death in the retina. METHODS: Presumptive retinal apoptotic nuclei were identified by histochemical detection of DNA fragmentation (by TdT-dUTP terminal nick-end labeling [TUNEL]), and vitreal concentrations of glutamate and several other amino acids were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography with fluorometric detection in the al mutant quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) in which a glaucoma-like disorder develops spontaneously. RESULTS: TUNEL-labeled nuclei were located mostly in the ganglion cell layer (GCL) in the retina of mutant quails 3 months after hatching. However, labeled nuclei were also observed in the inner and outer nuclear layers. At 7 months, most TUNEL-positive nuclei were detected in the inner nuclear layer, whereas labeled cells in the GCL were reduced in number. No TUNEL-labeled nuclei were detected in the retina of control quails at any age. Vitreal concentrations of glutamate and aspartate were significantly increased in 1-month-old mutant quails compared with control animals. Concentrations decreased at 3 months, and no significant differences were observed between strains at 7 months. CONCLUSIONS: Presumptive apoptotic cell death is detected from 3 months after hatching in mutant quails and is not restricted to retinal ganglion cells. Cell death appears just after a significant increase in excitotoxic amino acid concentrations in the vitreous humor, suggesting a correlation between both events. (+info)
Connexin 43 expression reflects neural crest patterns during cardiovascular development. (7/926)We used transgenic mice in which the promoter sequence for connexin 43 linked to a lacZ reporter was expressed in neural crest but not myocardial cells to document the pattern of cardiac neural crest cells in the caudal pharyngeal arches and cardiac outflow tract. Expression of lacZ was strikingly similar to that of cardiac neural crest cells in quail-chick chimeras. By using this transgenic mouse line to compare cardiac neural crest involvement in cardiac outflow septation and aortic arch artery development in mouse and chick, we were able to note differences and similarities in their cardiovascular development. Similar to neural crest cells in the chick, lacZ-positive cells formed a sheath around the persisting aortic arch arteries, comprised the aorticopulmonary septation complex, were located at the site of final fusion of the conal cushions, and populated the cardiac ganglia. In quail-chick chimeras generated for this study, neural crest cells entered the outflow tract by two pathways, submyocardially and subendocardially. In the mouse only the subendocardial population of lacZ-positive cells could be seen as the cells entered the outflow tract. In addition lacZ-positive cells completely surrounded the aortic sac prior to septation, while in the chick, neural crest cells were scattered around the aortic sac with the bulk of cells distributed in the bridging portion of the aorticopulmonary septation complex. In the chick, submyocardial populations of neural crest cells assembled on opposite sides of the aortic sac and entered the conotruncal ridges. Even though the aortic sac in the mouse was initially surrounded by lacZ-positive cells, the two outflow vessels that resulted from its septation showed differential lacZ expression. The ascending aorta was invested by lacZ-positive cells while the pulmonary trunk was devoid of lacZ staining. In the chick, both of these vessels were invested by neural crest cells, but the cells arrived secondarily by displacement from the aortic arch arteries during vessel elongation. This may indicate a difference in derivation of the pulmonary trunk in the mouse or a difference in distribution of cardiac neural crest cells. An independent mouse neural crest marker is needed to confirm whether the differences are indeed due to species differences in cardiovascular and/or neural crest development. Nevertheless, with the differences noted, we believe that this mouse model faithfully represents the location of cardiac neural crest cells. The similarities in location of lacZ-expressing cells in the mouse to that of cardiac neural crest cells in the chick suggest that this mouse is a good model for studying mammalian cardiac neural crest and that the mammalian cardiac neural crest performs functions similar to those shown for chick. (+info)
Neural crest can form cartilages normally derived from mesoderm during development of the avian head skeleton. (8/926)The lateral wall of the avian braincase, which is indicative of the primitive amniote condition, is formed from mesoderm. In contrast, mammals have replaced this portion of their head skeleton with a nonhomologous bone of neural crest origin. Features that characterize the local developmental environment may have enabled a neural crest-derived skeletal element to be integrated into a mesodermal region of the braincase during the course of evolution. The lateral wall of the braincase lies along a boundary in the head that separates neural crest from mesoderm, and also, neural crest cells migrate through this region on their way to the first visceral arch. Differences in the availability of one skeletogenic population versus the other may determine the final composition of the lateral wall of the braincase. Using the quail-chick chimeric system, this investigation tests if populations of neural crest, when augmented and expanded within populations of mesoderm, will give rise to the lateral wall of the braincase. Results demonstrate that neural crest can produce cartilages that are morphologically indistinguishable from elements normally generated by mesoderm. These findings (1) indicate that neural crest can respond to the same cues that both promote skeletogenesis and enable proper patterning in mesoderm, (2) challenge hypotheses on the nature of the boundary between neural crest and mesoderm in the head, and (3) suggest that changes in the allocation of migrating cells could have enabled a neural crest-derived skeletal element to replace a mesodermal portion of the braincase during evolution. (+info)
Examples of Bird Diseases:
1. Avian Influenza (Bird Flu): A viral disease that affects birds and can be transmitted to humans, causing respiratory illness and other symptoms.
2. Psittacosis (Parrot Fever): A bacterial infection caused by Chlamydophila psittaci, which can infect a wide range of bird species and can be transmitted to humans.
3. Aspergillosis: A fungal infection that affects birds, particularly parrots and other Psittacines, causing respiratory problems and other symptoms.
4. Beak and Feather Disease: A viral disease that affects birds, particularly parrots and other Psittacines, causing feather loss and beak deformities.
5. West Nile Virus: A viral disease that can affect birds, as well as humans and other animals, causing a range of symptoms including fever, headache, and muscle weakness.
6. Chlamydophila psittaci: A bacterial infection that can infect birds, particularly parrots and other Psittacines, causing respiratory problems and other symptoms.
7. Mycobacteriosis: A bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium avium, which can affect a wide range of bird species, including parrots and other Psittacines.
8. Pacheco's Disease: A viral disease that affects birds, particularly parrots and other Psittacines, causing respiratory problems and other symptoms.
9. Polyomavirus: A viral disease that can affect birds, particularly parrots and other Psittacines, causing a range of symptoms including respiratory problems and feather loss.
10. Retinoblastoma: A type of cancer that affects the eyes of birds, particularly parrots and other Psittacines.
It's important to note that many of these diseases can be prevented or treated with proper care and management, including providing a clean and spacious environment, offering a balanced diet, and ensuring access to fresh water and appropriate medical care.
The most common causative agent of hemorrhagic septicemia is the bacterium Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus), but other bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa can also cause this disease.
The incubation period of hemorrhagic septicemia is typically 24-72 hours, after which horses may develop symptoms such as fever, anorexia (loss of appetite), depression, lethargy, and muscle weakness. As the disease progresses, horses may develop signs of hemorrhaging, including petechiae (small red spots on the skin) and ecchymoses (larger purple bruises), as well as difficulty breathing and heart failure.
Diagnosis of hemorrhagic septicemia is based on a combination of clinical signs, laboratory test results, and bacterial cultures. Treatment typically involves administration of antibiotics, supportive care such as intravenous fluids and oxygen therapy, and in severe cases, hospitalization in an intensive care unit.
The prognosis for horses with hemorrhagic septicemia is generally poor if not treated promptly and aggressively, with mortality rates ranging from 30% to 80%. However, with early diagnosis and appropriate treatment, some horses may recover. Prevention of hemorrhagic septicemia includes vaccination against S. zooepidemicus and good husbandry practices such as proper sanitation and biosecurity measures.
In summary, hemorrhagic septicemia is a serious and often fatal disease in horses caused by bacterial infection, with Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus being the most common causative agent. Prompt diagnosis and aggressive treatment are essential to improve survival rates, while prevention involves vaccination and good husbandry practices.
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- Moradi shahr babak R, Bashiri M, pakdel A. Fitting Growth Curve in Japanese quail (Coturnix Coturnix Japonica) using Nonlinear and Nonlinear Mixed-Effects Models. (ac.ir)
- To better understand the bioavailability of Pb to birds, we measured blood Pb concentrations in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) fed diets containing Pb-contaminated soils. (usgs.gov)
- To determine infectivity potential, 3-week-old chickens ( Gallus domesticus ) (n = 11), 2-week-old domestic ducks ( Anas platyrhynchos ) (n = 11), 73-week-old reproductively active turkey hens ( Meleagris gallopavo ) (n = 9), 3-week-old turkey poults (n = 11), and 5-week-old Japanese quail ( Coturnix japonica ) (n = 11) were intranasally inoculated with 10 6 mean chicken embryo infectious doses of A/Mexico/4108/2009(H1N1). (cdc.gov)
- We raise Jumbo Coturnix Quail as pets and to provide our family of four with fresh eggs. (instructables.com)