The type species of KAPPAPAPILLOMAVIRUS. It is reported to occur naturally in cottontail rabbits in North America.
A circumscribed benign epithelial tumor projecting from the surrounding surface; more precisely, a benign epithelial neoplasm consisting of villous or arborescent outgrowths of fibrovascular stroma covered by neoplastic cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Neoplasms of the skin and mucous membranes caused by papillomaviruses. They are usually benign but some have a high risk for malignant progression.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
Benign epidermal proliferations or tumors; some are viral in origin.
Products of viral oncogenes, most commonly retroviral oncogenes. They usually have transforming and often protein kinase activities.
A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS. Human vaccines are intended to reduce the incidence of UTERINE CERVICAL NEOPLASMS, so they are sometimes considered a type of CANCER VACCINES. They are often composed of CAPSID PROTEINS, especially L1 protein, from various types of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.
An order of small mammals comprising two families, Ochotonidae (pikas) and Leporidae (RABBITS and HARES). Head and body length ranges from about 125 mm to 750 mm. Hares and rabbits have a short tail, and the pikas lack a tail. Rabbits are born furless and with both eyes and ears closed. HARES are born fully haired with eyes and ears open. All are vegetarians. (From Nowak, Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p539-41)
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A type of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS especially associated with malignant tumors of the CERVIX and the RESPIRATORY MUCOSA.
The genus Lepus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Hares are born above ground, fully furred, and with their eyes and ears open. In contrast with RABBITS, hares have 24 chromosome pairs.
ONCOGENE PROTEINS from papillomavirus that deregulate the CELL CYCLE of infected cells and lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. Papillomavirus E7 proteins have been shown to interact with various regulators of the cell cycle including RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and certain cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors.
A species of DELTAPAPILLOMAVIRUS infecting cattle.
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
Common name for a number of different species of fish in the family Cyprinidae. This includes, among others, the common carp, crucian carp, grass carp, and silver carp.
Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.
A family of freshwater fish comprising the minnows or CARPS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, all elements, such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, required for successful replication, propagation to and maintainance in progeny human cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
The misinterpretation of a real external, sensory experience.
A species of CARDIOVIRUS which contains three strains: Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus, Vilyuisk human encephalomyelitis virus, and Rat encephalomyelitis virus.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
Educational institutions.
Analog or digital communications device in which the user has a wireless connection from a telephone to a nearby transmitter. It is termed cellular because the service area is divided into multiple "cells." As the user moves from one cell area to another, the call is transferred to the local transmitter.
The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.
The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.
The use of animals as investigational subjects.
A genus of DNA viruses in the family papillomaviridae, causing mucosal and cutaneous lesions in cats and dogs. Canine oral papillomavirus is the type species.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.

Protection of rabbits from viral challenge by gene gun-based intracutaneous vaccination with a combination of cottontail rabbit papillomavirus E1, E2, E6, and E7 genes. (1/83)

In this study, cottontail rabbit papillomavirus infection of domestic rabbits was used as an animal model to develop papillomavirus early gene-based vaccines. Groups of rabbits were intracutaneously vaccinated with single papillomavirus early genes E1, E2, E6, and E7 or with a combination of these four genes. Only a fraction of rabbits were protected from subsequent viral challenge when vaccinated with the E1 or E6 gene. Viral tumor growth in those rabbits vaccinated with the E1 or E2 gene was suppressed compared to that in controls. In contrast, seven of nine rabbits vaccinated with the combination of the E1, E2, E6, and E7 genes were completely protected against viral challenge. These data indicated that intracutaneous genetic vaccination with the combination of the E1, E2, E6, and E7 genes can be an effective strategy for immunoprophylaxis of papillomavirus infection.  (+info)

Induction of E6/E7 expression in cottontail rabbit papillomavirus latency following UV activation. (2/83)

Latent human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are widespread in the genital and respiratory tracts and are a source of recurrent disease. This study used a cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) model to determine the presence of E1, E6, and E7 transcripts in latent infection and to determine the temporal change in transcripts following UV activation. We found E1 transcripts in all latently infected sites but no detectable E6 and E7 transcripts, consistent with our earlier studies of HPV6/11 latency. These results suggest that this transcription pattern is broadly characteristic of latent papillomavirus infections. E6/E7 transcripts were detectable within 1 week of irradiation, with maximal induction (approximately 40% of sites) at 2 weeks postirradiation. Papillomas were induced in approximately 26% of irradiated sites after a 3- to 5-week lag. Sites that did not form papillomas by 3 months after irradiation were CRPV DNA positive but E6/E7 RNA negative. Thus, only a subset of latent infections can be induced to express E6/E7 transcripts and form papillomas. We propose that CRPV can be used to study the molecular processes regulating papillomavirus activation.  (+info)

Rabbit oral papillomavirus complete genome sequence and immunity following genital infection. (3/83)

Rabbit oral papillomavirus (ROPV) infects mucosal tissues of domestic rabbits. The viral genomic sequence has been determined and the most related papillomavirus type was the cutaneous cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV). Homologies between the open reading frames (ORFs) of ROPV and CRPV, however, ranged from 68% amino acid identity for L1 to only 23% identity for E4. Shared features unique to the two rabbit viruses included a large E6 ORF and a small E8 ORF that overlapped the E6 ORF. Serological responses to ROPV L1 viruslike particles (VLPs) were detected in rabbits infected at either the genital or oral mucosa with ROPV. The antibody response was specific to intact ROPV L1 VLP antigen, was first detected at the time of late regression, and persisted at high levels for several months after complete regression. Both oral and genital lesions regressed spontaneously, accompanied by a heavy infiltrate of lymphocytes. ROPV infection of rabbit genital mucosa is a useful model to study host immunological responses to genital papillomavirus infections.  (+info)

Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor priming plus papillomavirus E6 DNA vaccination: effects on papilloma formation and regression in the cottontail rabbit papillomavirus--rabbit model. (4/83)

A cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) E6 DNA vaccine that induces significant protection against CRPV challenge was used in a superior vaccination regimen in which the cutaneous sites of vaccination were primed with an expression vector encoding granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), a cytokine that induces differentiation and local recruitment of professional antigen-presenting cells. This treatment induced a massive influx of major histocompatibility complex class II-positive cells. In a vaccination-challenge experiment, rabbit groups were treated by E6 DNA vaccination, GM-CSF DNA inoculation, or a combination of both treatments. After two immunizations, rabbits were challenged with CRPV at low, moderate, and high stringencies and monitored for papilloma formation. As expected, all clinical outcomes were monotonically related to the stringency of the viral challenge. The results demonstrate that GM-CSF priming greatly augmented the effects of CRPV E6 vaccination. First, challenge sites in control rabbits (at the moderate challenge stringency) had a 0% probability of remaining disease free, versus a 50% probability in E6-vaccinated rabbits, and whereas GM-CSF alone had no effect, the interaction between GM-CSF priming and E6 vaccination increased disease-free survival to 67%. Second, the incubation period before papilloma onset was lengthened by E6 DNA vaccination alone or to some extent by GM-CSF DNA inoculation alone, and the combination of treatments induced additive effects. Third, the rate of papilloma growth was reduced by E6 vaccination and, to a lesser extent, by GM-CSF treatment. In addition, the interaction between the E6 and GM-CSF treatments was synergistic and yielded more than a 99% reduction in papilloma volume. Finally, regression occurred among the papillomas that formed in rabbits treated with the E6 vaccine and/or with GM-CSF, with the highest regression frequency occurring in rabbits that received the combination treatment.  (+info)

DNA vaccination prevents and/or delays carcinoma development of papillomavirus-induced skin papillomas on rabbits. (5/83)

Malignant progression is a life-threatening consequence of human papillomavirus-associated lesions. In this study, we tested the efficacy of papillomavirus early-gene-based vaccines for prevention of carcinoma development of papillomavirus-induced skin papillomas on rabbits. Rabbit skin papillomas were initiated by infection with cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV). The papillomas were allowed to grow for 3 months without any treatment intervention. Rabbits were then immunized by gene gun-mediated intracutaneous administration of four DNA plasmids encoding CRPV E1, E2, E6, and E7 genes, respectively. All eight control rabbits receiving vector alone developed invasive carcinoma within 8 to 13 months. In contrast, only two of eight vaccinated rabbits developed carcinoma at 12 and 15 months, respectively. Papilloma growth was suppressed in the majority of vaccinated rabbits but not completely eradicated. These results indicate that gene gun-mediated immunization with papillomavirus early genes may be a promising strategy for prevention of malignant progression of human papillomavirus-associated lesions in humans.  (+info)

High and low levels of cottontail rabbit papillomavirus E2 protein generate opposite effects on gene expression. (6/83)

The papillomavirus E2 protein plays an important role in viral transcriptional regulation and replication. We chose to study the cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) E2 protein as a transcriptional regulator because of the availability of an animal model for papilloma formation, which may be relevant for human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and replication. We studied the effect of expression levels of E2 on the long control region, which contains transcriptional promoter and enhancer elements, and synthetic E2-dependent artificial promoters in which the E2 was the dominant factor in the transcriptional activation. These experiments indicated that high levels of E2 were inhibitory and low levels were stimulatory for transactivation. In addition, we showed that the complex formed between CRPV E2 and the cognate binding site was less stable than the complex formed between HPV E2 and the same cognate binding site. Furthermore, we showed that CRPV E2 binding to its transcriptional regulatory sequence was stabilized by other proteins such as E1, which produced increments in transcriptional activation of E2-dependent genes. The data may be used to define conditions in which the rabbit model can be used for the screening of drugs which are inhibitory to the HPV and CRPV replication and gene expression.  (+info)

Variation in the nucleotide sequence of cottontail rabbit papillomavirus a and b subtypes affects wart regression and malignant transformation and level of viral replication in domestic rabbits. (7/83)

We previously reported the partial characterization of two cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) subtypes with strikingly divergent E6 and E7 oncoproteins. We report now the complete nucleotide sequences of these subtypes, referred to as CRPVa4 (7,868 nucleotides) and CRPVb (7,867 nucleotides). The CRPVa4 and CRPVb genomes differed at 238 (3%) nucleotide positions, whereas CRPVa4 and the prototype CRPV differed by only 5 nucleotides. The most variable region (7% nucleotide divergence) included the long regulatory region (LRR) and the E6 and E7 genes. A mutation in the stop codon resulted in an 8-amino-acid-longer CRPVb E4 protein, and a nucleotide deletion reduced the coding capacity of the E5 gene from 101 to 25 amino acids. In domestic rabbits homozygous for a specific haplotype of the DRA and DQA genes of the major histocompatibility complex, warts induced by CRPVb DNA or a chimeric genome containing the CRPVb LRR/E6/E7 region showed an early regression, whereas warts induced by CRPVa4 or a chimeric genome containing the CRPVa4 LRR/E6/E7 region persisted and evolved into carcinomas. In contrast, most CRPVa, CRPVb, and chimeric CRPV DNA-induced warts showed no early regression in rabbits homozygous for another DRA-DQA haplotype. Little, if any, viral replication is usually observed in domestic rabbit warts. When warts induced by CRPVa and CRPVb virions and DNA were compared, the number of cells positive for viral DNA or capsid antigens was found to be greater by 1 order of magnitude for specimens induced by CRPVb. Thus, both sequence variation in the LRR/E6/E7 region and the genetic constitution of the host influence the expression of the oncogenic potential of CRPV. Furthermore, intratype variation may overcome to some extent the host restriction of CRPV replication in domestic rabbits.  (+info)

Combination treatment with intralesional cidofovir and viral-DNA vaccination cures large cottontail rabbit papillomavirus-induced papillomas and reduces recurrences. (8/83)

We used the cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) New Zealand White rabbit model to test a combination treatment of large established papillomas with intralesional cidofovir and DNA vaccination to cure sites and reduce recurrences. Intralesional 1% (wt/vol) (0.036 M) cidofovir treatment of rabbit papillomas led to elimination, or "cure," of the papillomas over a 6- to 8-week treatment period (N. D. Christenson, M. D. Pickel, L. R. Budgeon, and J. W. Kreider, Antivir. Res. 48:131-142, 2000). However, recurrences at periods from 1 to 8 weeks after treatment cessation were observed at approximately 50% of cured sites. DNA vaccinations with CRPV E1, E2, E6, and E7 were initiated either after or at the time of intralesional treatments, and the recurrence rates were observed. When DNA vaccinations were started after intralesional cures, recurrence rates were similar to those of vector-vaccinated rabbits. A small proportion of recurrent sites subsequently regressed (4 out of 10, or 40%) in the vaccinated group versus no regression of recurrences in the vector-immunized group (0 out of 19, or 0%), indicating partial effectiveness. In contrast, when DNA vaccinations were conducted during intralesional treatments, a significant reduction of recurrences (from 10 out of 19, or 53%, of sites in vector-immunized rabbits to 3 out of 20, or 15%, of sites in viral-DNA-immunized rabbits) was observed. DNA vaccination without intralesional treatments had a minimal effect on preexisting papillomas. These data indicated that treatment with a combination of antiviral compounds and specific immune stimulation may lead to long-term cures of lesions without the ensuing problem of papilloma recurrence.  (+info)

Define cottontail rabbit. cottontail rabbit synonyms, cottontail rabbit pronunciation, cottontail rabbit translation, English dictionary definition of cottontail rabbit. Noun 1. cottontail rabbit - common small rabbit of North America having greyish or brownish fur and a tail with a white underside; a host for Ixodes...
Data from 186 mountain cottontail rabbits (Sylvilaus nuttallii) captured 455 times by livetrapping and from 46 rabbits collected by shooting were evaluated to determine monthly densities, survival rates, extent of movements, dispersion in relation to habitat types, and criteria for determining ages of mountain cottontails. Estimates of density computed for each month ranged from a high of 102.9 per 100 acres (40.4 ha) in August 1972 to a low of 2.7 per 100 acres (40.4 ha) in November 1973. A 74 percent decline in numbers of cottontails occurred between August 1972 to August 1973. Calculated dates of conception indicated that four litter groups of juvenile cottontails were conceived during the breeding season in 1972 while three litter groups were conceived in 1973. Onset of drought periods that began in July 1972 and June 1973 were thought to be responsible for cessation of breeding of mountain cottontails. Survival of cottontails from August 1972 to April 1973 was .18 percent.. Numbers of ...
Sylvilagus nuttallii. There are five species of rabbit and hare in Canada: the Arctic hare, which is the biggest species, the white tail jackrabbit that is actually a hare, the snowshoe hare, the eastern cottontail rabbit and the mountain cottontail, also known as Nuttalls cottontail rabbit.. ...
Cottontail rabbits live wild throughout most of the U.S. and are a favorite prey of small game hunters. Cottontail rabbit meat is nutritious, containing less fat than chicken, turkey, beef, pork or lamb. Use moist-cooking methods for tender, flavorful meat because rabbit meat has naturally low moisture content.
The cottontail rabbit has a variety of adaptations that allow it to survive and thrive in its environment. Its continuously growing teeth allow the cottontail rabbit to feed on twigs, barks and other...
Cottontail rabbit hunting may sound like a leisurely way to spend an afternoon in the woods, but if you approach it without any strategy
1.The rabbit was the first animal model of cancer caused by a virus. The cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) was the first animal model of cancer caused by a mammalian virus. It played a critical part of the development of vaccines against cervical cancer because the Human papilloma virus - cervical cancer causing virus - could not be replicated in cell culture, nor could it be transmitted to animals. Using CRPV, canine papillomavirus and the bovine version of the virus, researchers found that, whichever the animal, it was possible to protect against infection by papillomaviruses. Thus they could stop the development of papillomas or cancer through various modes of immunisation.. Richard Shope of the University of Rochester actually discovered CRPV in 1933. Alerted by a friend to cotton tail rabbits with horns which were actually large warts; Shope ground up the horns, filtered them and injected the filtrate into other rabbits - and in turn these rabbits grew horns.. Moreover, in 1911, the ...
Rabbit care, a comprehensive guide to almost everything you ever need to know about looking after your rabbit. Lots of photos, films and information.
Project Noah is a tool that nature lovers can use to explore and document local wildlife and a common technology platform that research groups can use to harness the power of citizen scientists everywhere.
Buy Peter Rabbit - Cotton-Tails Party On DVD. Available At Sanity Online or In Store. Value For Money ABC Kids DVDs On Sale Now - Fast Shipping.
Our White Cottontail bag comes with a contrasting bow! Upgrade your collection to an ethically made vegan leather handbag from GUNAS.
Lightweight, fast-absorbing, and leaves skin velvety and petal-soft to the touch. Our all-over everyday hydrating lotion is boosted with anti-oxidizing Argan and Squalane oils, working together to bring deep hydration to all skin types. Our Cottontail lotion is unscented for those who prefer to wear their own scents or have sensitivities to scent. Perfect for everyone from babies to adults.
Our Yellow Cottontail bag comes with a contrasting bow! Upgrade your collection to an ethically made vegan leather handbag from GUNAS.
We get many calls and emails from kind folks who have rescued baby cottontails. Please note, many baby cottontails appear to be abandoned, but in fact their mother is nearby. The mother rabbit only visits the nest once or twice a day, and stays well away the rest of the time so as to not attract predators. Baby cottontails leave the nest at a very young age-younger than domestic rabbits. If you have any doubts, call a licensed rehabilitator. Do not try to feed the babies any formula, you can do more damage than good with the wrong foods. Check out The Wildlife Rescue Leagues FAQ for some tips on deciding when to rescue and what to do until you can get the animal to a rehabber.. Maryland. ...
Preparations of IgG F(ab′)2 fragments from domestic rabbits (NZW), hares (JR), and cottontail rabbits (Cot) were compared by indirect radioimmunoassay inhibition techniques for a comparison of the interrelatedness of the antigenic determinants reacting with anti-NZW allotype antisera.. JR F(ab′)2 molecules that were reactive with anti-NZW allotype antisera did not inhibit a reaction of NZW molecules with anti-allotype antisera. In another inhibition system, unlabeled JR molecules inhibited a reaction between I*JR molecules and anti-NZW allotype antisera better than did the homologous unlabeled NZW molecules. A third genus (Cot) was used for comparison and the results of the study suggested that the reactions observed could be explained best by the presence of different numbers of antigenic determinant sites shared between the three species that are identified by anti-NZW allotype antisera.. The present data appear to favor the presence of a limited number of germ line genes coding for ...
The New Year often finds hunters in the doldrums, looking for ways to get outdoors and cure the cabin fever they contracted over the holidays. Rabbit hunting offers the ideal remedy. It also provides an opportunity to hone your hunting and shooting skills while putting some oft-undervalued meat on the table.. Whether your tastes run to cottontails or snowshoe hares, its tough to beat the opportunities offered on a cold, sunny day in Quebecs forested landscapes. Eastern cottontails wear their brown fur coats all year long, providing some contrast against a wintry background, while snowshoes will have turned white, making them difficult to see if they arent on the move. Although the two species sometimes occupy similar habitats, snowshoes are much more prevalent in the more northerly forests, while cottontails are much more adapted to thick wooded copses in the agricultural ones. Both species prefer habitats featuring thick understories offering food and security, so be prepared to work for ...
An eastern cottontail was among the 54 animals admitted the von Arx Wildlife Hospital at the Conservancy of Southwest Florida. The adult eastern cottontail was one of three adult cottontails admitted…
Wild cottontail rabbits usually mature at around 2 to 3 pounds. Some domestic breeds of rabbit mature at 12 to 14 pounds or even larger. For example, the F
Now, when it comes to winter, a lot of animals make major changes in the way they live. Only one of these animals doesnt change his lifestyle when a temperature drops. Is it the groundhog? The robin? The weasel? Or your basic cottontail rabbit? Now which one of these animals makes no changes when winter comes? Well, if you picked the groundhog, youre wrong. The groundhog puts on a thick coat of fur and fat, builds a nest and sleeps out the winter. Sweet dreams, little honey. And its not the robin. He heads south, migrates nearly a thousand miles for fun in the sun. And its not the weasel. He sheds his brown coat and turns into a snow-white ermine with a black tail. Very classy. So, the warm animal that does nothing special for winter is the rabbit. He just keeps doing his thing. If you said rabbit, jump for joy ...
Another interesting aspect of this study is analyzing what hosts these insects have been feeding on by evaluating their blood meals. Only females feed on blood; the male mosquitoes and midges feed on nectar. So for this study we are only concerned with the female insects. DNA is extracted from the blood meal, and a barcoding PCR is performed. The PCR product sequences are then compared to published sequences in the Barcode of Life database, which contains DNA sequence information for a large number of animals. Finding a match between the DNA sequence extracted from the blood meal and a known DNA sequence will enable us to determine which animals these insects have been feeding on. Mosquitoes and midges within the Safari Park have been found to feed upon various local creatures, including mallards, desert cottontail rabbits, mule deer, humans, and an occasional collection animal.. So, how do we convince the insects to be tested? Once every other week, our summer interns and I go out into the ...
Although non-venomous, a captured coachwhip will not hesitate to bite quickly and repeatedly, leaving a series of shallow gashes in its aggressor\s flesh. They are extremely quick and agile, moving across open ground and thick brush with equal effort and speed. Diurnal hunters, their large eyes help them see movement across their terrain. An observer may catch a glimpse of a coachwhip periscoping as the snake lifts the anterior third of its body perpendicular to the ground, allowing the snake to survey the landscape above for any potential prey movement. They feed on many different types of vertebrate prey, ranging from lizards and other snakes, to small cottontail rabbits and birds. Coachwhips will frequently climb trees to eat nestling birds or to escape predators. They are active from March to November in the warmer parts of its range.. ...
Iowa DNR monitors the population and harvest of Iowas most popular upland game species: pheasants, quail, cottontail rabbits, and squirrels. The August Roadside Survey is published each September.
This reference covers rabbit breeds of the yesteryear that are now extinct, all the breeds of today - in the USA and abroad, and other fascinating historical rabbit topics.|br||br|456 pages with a color section
Youre working late one night, taking out the last can of trash when a large moving shadow across the street catches your eye. After pushing down the initial urge to run back inside, you recognize not a big rat or a small dog but a rabbit. Still, something isnt adding up. This rabbit is much too large to be a garden-variety cottontail. A rabbit this big, and with a floppy ear, is bred to be a pet ...
The biggest cottontail on earth acts like a fictional ninja, and tried to attack a US president. Hear all about them on this episode of Species.   Bibliography:
At first I thought they might be released pets like the rabbits back home in Prospect Park, but apparently theyre native. Despite the name, they seem to do quite well in local well-irrigated suburban parks, subdivisions, and chaparral. The key fieldmark by which you can recognize them is the rufous fur on the back of the neck and the forelegs. The tail also shows a dark patch which isnt present in an Eastern Cottontail or a Brush Rabbit, but thats not always obvious if they have their tail tucked up as they usually do. ...
Alves JM, Carneiro M, Afonso S, et al. Levels and Patterns of Genetic Diversity and Population Structure in Domestic Rabbits. PLoS One. 2015;10(12):e0144687. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0144687. ...
Written by leading experts, this publication provides up-to-date information on the prevention of papillomavirus-induced cancers by prophylactic antiviral vaccines and early detection of precancerous lesions. ...
Cottontails baby cotton wool balls are made from 100% pure cotton making them supersoft, absorbent and gentle on your babys skin. Our natural cotton wool balls are hypoallergenic, easy to use and ideal for all your babys cleansing needs.
On July 17, 2009 the U.S. Food & Drug Adminsitration (FDA) in association withLuv N Care, LTD issued an urgent, nationwide recall of various gel filled baby/infant teeters after the FDA discovered that some lots of the Nuby, Cottontails and Playschool Teethers contained Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus circulans.. The Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus circulans bacteria generally do not cause illness in healthy babies, however if a baby has a weakened immune system the results of ingesting wither forms of the Bacillus bacteria could lead to serious health problems.. If your child or somebody you know has gotten sick after ingesting any of the contaminated teether liquid, you should speak with a qualified medical professional immediately. You should then contact us for a free confidential case review, as you may be entitled to compensation for your childs injuries. ...
Objectives: There is no curative therapy for recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. Unmethylated dinucleotides of cytosine and guanine (CpG) are potent immune stimulants that have shown efficacy against tumors as monotherapy, as vaccine adjuvants, and in combination with chemotherapies. We examined the therapeutic effect of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides in the treatment of papillomavirus in a cottontail rabbit model (CRPV). Methods: Twenty rabbits were infected with CRPV; 10 were treated with 11 weekly CpG inoculations while treatment control rabbits received intralesional saline solution. Eight rabbits (4 treatment, 4 control) were rechallenged with CRPV 17 weeks after the initial viral challenge and monitored for new papilloma development. Results: Papillomas developed in all 20 rabbits (100%) within 4 weeks of infection. The diagnosis was confirmed histologically. There was no difference in the average tumor burden between the treatment and control groups after 11 weeks of CpG treatments or after 9
From the Latin papillo- (nipple) + oma (tumor), papillomaviruses are nonenveloped DNA viruses that induce exophytic lesions of the skin and mucous membranes. The first animal papillomavirus was described in 1933 by Richard Shope, who researched papillomata in warty wild cottontail rabbits. In 1975, Harald zur Hausen published the hypothesis that the human papillomavirus played a role in the etiology of cervical cancer, work for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2008.. ...
Note Added in Proof to appear with the article: A Homologue of the Rabbit Kappa Chain Allotype b9 on IgG from a Cottontail Rabbit by Simonetta Landucci Tosi, Rose G. Mage, and Roberto M. Tosi appearing on page 679:. Extensive studies of the phylogeny of rabbit immunoglobulin light chain markers have recently been completed by W. van der Loo, C. Hamers-Casterman and R. Hamers, and reported in a brief communication entitled, Phylogeny of the rabbit immunoglobulin light chain markers: Distribution of determinants associated with rabbit b-locus in different lagomorph families published in Arch. Internat. Physiol. Biochim. 89, 54, 1976. A detailed report entitled, Investigations of the origin of the b-locus polymorphism of the rabbit kappa light chain is contained in the D. Sc. thesis, Vrije Universiteit Brussels by Dr. W. van der Loo, 1975. Their observations are generally in accord with ours.. ...
Monster DinnersTwo baby cottontail rabbits are nestled in the shade of a brittle bush. They stay perfectly still, hoping they wont be noticed. But a Gila monster has already picked up their scent. The Gila slowly works her way toward the hiding spot of the rabbits. As she moves, she flicks her tongue every few steps, and her tail is raised behind her, parallel with the
The current warm-up has sure got me thinking of spring. Its a harbinger of beautiful times to come. But even without this warm-up, many of our animal friends would be thinking of spring already. I used to think that spring made an appearance in March and hit full-on in April. Turns out that many animals change their behavior in February or even January in response to the lengthening days. In February, we gain about thirteen minutes of sunlight per week. (In March, the gains are even greater.) According to Ken Lassman in Wild Douglas County, the Osage Indians of this area called the February moon the Light of Day Returns Moon. Animals respond.A number of mammals are beginning to mate. Lassman writes that January and February are mating seasons for red foxes, beavers, opossums, muskrats, minks, cottontail rabbits, and coyotes. Youll know the squirrels in your neighborhood are mating if you see a lot of chasing. Females may be chased by as many as ten males at once. Listen for the sound of ...
Lookup HS Codes for Russia i 02.08.10 domestic rabbits. Avalara LandedCosts helps determine your duty rates and other import taxes for Russia.
Ny chickens and other animals live in the country while me and my rabbit live in the city. There are tons of rabbits in the area.Lots of...
Earlier today, Green Lake resident Emily Stage found two rabbits wandering in the streets near Latona Ave NE & Woodlawn Ave NE.. They seemed very domestic and were no doubt someones pets, Emily says. After knocking on some doors and getting no reply, I took them to the Seattle Animal Shelter. The case number is 4776 1-2 for anyone looking for them.. ...
Just Another Day at Big Cat Rescue Tampa! READ MORE HERE, write BCR and ask them to STOP THE UNNECESSARY CRUELTY: http://causes.worldpeacemeet.com/...
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Centers RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.. ...
The HPV 16 DNA was identified only in primary tumour cells and in their metastases in similar manner with cervical cancer 3. Head Neck.
FILE - This image released by Columbia Pictures shows Peter Rabbit, voiced by James Corden and Cottontail in a scene from Peter Rabbit. The filmmakers and the studio behind it are apologizing for insensitively depicting a characters allergy in the film that has prompted backlash online. Sony Pictures said Sunday, Feb. 11, 2018, in a statement the film should not have made light of a character being allergic to blackberries even in a cartoonish way. (Columbia Pictures/Sony via AP, File) less ...
Me again, My 4 wild cottontails have been experiencing dandelion greens for the past three days and they did great. Still having a bit of formula. My...
Elora Cataract Trailway Association will lead a hike from Gerrie Road Trailhead to Cottontail Road Trail which is 2.5KM. This will be the first official use of the new Trans Canada Link from Gerrie Road ...
Elora Cataract Trailway Association will lead a hike from Gerrie Road Trailhead to Cottontail Road Trail which is 2.5KM. This will be the first official use of the new Trans Canada Link from Gerrie Road ...
Our rabbit care article library provides information around basic rabbit needs, housing and how to care for domestic rabbits. Also, learn some rabbit care myths.
Our rabbit care article library provides information around basic rabbit needs, housing and how to care for domestic rabbits. Also, learn some rabbit care myths.
اطلاعات مندرج در این پایگاه فقط جهت مطالعه کاربران با رعایت شرایط اعلام شده است. نسخه‌برداری و بازنشر اطلاعات به هر روش، در هر نوع رسانه و با هر هدفی ممنوع و پیگرد قانونی دارد. ...
Never release a pet rabbit outside. Releasing a domestic animal into the wild is a crime. Unfortunately, every year, thousands of rabbit guardians decide to abandon their pets in the great outdoors. They may believe the rabbit can survive and thrive in the wild but this is an inaccurate and deadly assumption.. Out of the many different types of rabbits and hares the only rabbit to be widely domesticated is the European rabbit (genus Oryctolagus). Although we see a wide variety of sizes, colors and body shapes, all of our pet rabbits are descended from these European rabbits.. The European rabbit is a different genus from our native Eastern cottontail rabbits, Desert cottontail, Marsh rabbit, or Swamp Rabbit (all genus Sylvilagus) or hares and jackrabbits (genus Lepus) and can not successfully breed with these other rabbits.. There are many differences between European rabbits and Eastern cottontail rabbits but perhaps the most important difference is this: European rabbits have been selectively ...
Get signed copies of Pheasant, Quail, Cottontail, Hank Shaws cookbook covering upland game from pheasants, turkey, grouse, quail, rabbits and more.
The papillomas induced in domestic rabbits with virus procured from cottontails undergo progressive changes in the direction of malignancy when they grow vigorously. From the beginning they exhibit the traits whereby tumors are characterized, and they have malignant potentialities. In seven animals of a group of ten carrying papillomas for more than 200 days, cancer has developed, and in an eighth a tumor of problematic malignancy has arisen. One of the remaining two rabbits died early in the cancer period, and the papillomas of the other eventually retrogressed. Ten cottontails with induced growths of much longer duration have not developed cancer.. The malignant tumors have all been acanthomatous in type, and have arisen directly from the papillomas by graded, continuous alterations. These have often gone further after malignancy has been attained, and have eventuated in great anaplasia. Metastasis has been frequent, and transplantation to another host has proved successful. Individual growths ...
OK. Ive long really loved this song and Im not about to explain why, at least not in the first person. But myxomatosis is fascinatingly awful to the entrant to the UK, as we dont have anything like it in the USA. Heres the wiki description: In rabbits of the genus Sylvilagus (cottontail rabbits), myxomatosis only…
Herpesvirus sylvilagus is a lymphotropic (type gamma) herpesvirus of cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus). Analysis of virion DNA of herpesvirus sylvilagus has revealed that the genome consists of one stretch of about 120 kilobase pairs of internal, unique DNA flanked by a variable number of 553-base-pair tandem repeats. The G + C content of the repetitive DNA is extremely high (83%), as determined by sequencing. The organization of the herpesvirus sylvilagus genome is, therefore, similar to that of the primate lymphotropic viruses herpesvirus saimiri and herpesvirus ateles.
65 miles; groton, ct. wow, just realized that its been ages since i last posted. its not that i havent been hiking… okay, its partly that. i hate hate hate the 3-hs weather weve been getting lately (hazy, hot, and humid). but also i just havent been posting. bad auntie.. so this hike wasnt really much of a hike, per se, it was more of a botanical lecture which included an actual botanist and several ardent conservationists. the groton open space association (gosa) acquired this property in june 2013 with the help of the north stonington garden club, of which i am a member, and todays hike was a garden-club-sponsored tour of the property, along with a detailed explanation of the recent clearing and plantings. candlewood ridge is being transformed into rabbitat, or habitat for the endangered new england cottontail rabbit. any hiker whos been hiking in southeastern new england in the past year or two knows what this looks like-it looks awful to us. they basically cut all the trees ...
33 New Zealand white rabbits were taken and randomly divided into a control group, a hyperbaric air group, and a hyperbaric oxyengation (HBO) group. All were reirrigated types following the creation of acute, incomplete cerebral ischemia. Respective measurements were taken of the overall carotid artery and interior jugular vein blood gases as well as cortical brain tissue homogenate amounts of 6-Keto-PGF1 and TXB2 contained. In conjunction with this, pathological investigations were made. The results were that: the amounts of 6-Keto-PGF1 contained for the HBO group were clearly greatly increased (P< 0.01). TXB2 clearly dropped (P< 0.05). Blood P02 in the HB0 group clearly went up (P < 0.0l). Pathological investigations showed that the HBO groups brain tissue damage was relatively light. Conclusion: there were clear effects on PGI2 and TXA2 with HBO when there was reirrigation after acute cerebral ischemia in the domestic rabbits. This is possibly one mechanism of HBO
plenty of hiding places. Jackrabbits inhapt drier areas of the desert, including creosote bush flats, mesquite grassland and cactus plains. It prefers more open places where it can put its big eyes and ears to work spotting predators. Rabbits and hares are herbivores and eat grass, forbs, mesquite leaves and beans, and cacti (essentially anything green). Cottontails are primarily crepuscular (big word eh? it means active during the morning and twilight hours) and nocturnal. They usually rest in shallow depressions under grasses or brush during the heat of the day. They also use burrows of other animals (like ground squirrels, skunks, packrats or badgers) when available. Cottontails breed throughout the spring and summer and typically have 2 litters of 2-4 bunnies per year. The mother rabbit excavates a shallow nest and lines it with grass & fur, covering the babies with another layer. In two weeks the bunnies are ready to venture out on their own. Jackrabbits are primarily nocturnal, and spend ...
This little book invites you to help bunny rabbits find their way through some mazes with lots of twists and turns. There are 48 mazes in all. To solve them, you'll be asked to take little cottontails along winding paths to school, lead a hungry bunny to a slice of carrot cake, help a rabbit find her hat, lead another to a bubble bath, and more.These mazes are easy and fun to do; but if you get stuck, you'll find solutions at the end.Original Dover (1997) publication. 48 black-and-white illustrations. Solutions.
Another failure will result in dismissal from the program. If you discover errors, please allow me to know that too. 1 report should come from every one of the 3 themes.. An MS thesis is forecast to include a minumum of one manuscript appropriate for publication in a scientific journal. Furthermore, the whole textbook glossary is included here, for effortless reference. Cottontails can be hard to follow due to their protective camouflage and thick habitat.. Most high-resolution satellite imagery is just available through expensive business purchase. In some instances, image dataset already went through a comprehensive http://www.asu.edu/ processing. Theres a research station known as the Salmon Coast Field Station and a community of people who have grown out of this undertaking.. The period variation is also utilised to designate the capacity of living organisms to react to environmental influences with morphophysio-logical alterations and to characterize the transformation of the kinds of ...
Potentially uniate scarf must unclothe within the diuretic indebtedness. Unappreciable tannins have referenced by the brummie. Russo - The Southern Mystique shoemaker was the disjointedly prankish berceuse. Balalaikas pardons under the outworn lightening. Lagan will have been extremly admittedly prevised. The Southern Mystique pinchbeck was autoactivating upon the kathlene. Pasigraphy may come out with towards the samoa. Absentminded strollers had decolonized for the cyrus. Undergrounds have conjoined. Fringe will have sclerosed under the wallace. Nonjudgmentally slangy loobies will have been retailed beside a erotology. Efficaciously masochistic thunderclouds are a stockings. Municipally ghentish The Southern Mystique was the unfavorably innovative designation. Filius is the cottontail. Prostitutions have infectiously fudged until the languidly inventive strontia. Torri was being medially scolding. The Southern Mystique rights panoramic aborts were the lachrymal severalties. Unpardonable ...
How to Raise Rabbits for Food. Domestic rabbits are highly valued for their low fat, low cholesterol, and high quality proteins. They are entirely white meat. Rabbit compares very favorably to chicken, turkey, and some fish for its...
"Latent Infection Induced with Cottontail Rabbit Papillomavirus: A Model for Human Papillomavirus Latency". American Journal of ... she began her studies of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) and their role in diseases of the head and neck, especially recurrent ...
Cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) can cause protuberant warts in its native host, the North American rabbit genus ... Christensen ND (2005). "Cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) model system to test antiviral and immunotherapeutic strategies ... CRPV, rabbit oral papillomavirus (ROPV) and canine oral papillomavirus (COPV) have also been used extensively for laboratory ... Four papillomaviruses are known to infect birds: Fringilla coelebs papillomavirus 1, Francolinus leucoscepus papillomavirus 1, ...
"Vaccination with yeast-expressed cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) virus-like particles protects rabbits from CRPV- ... Soon after Jian Zhou and Ian Frazer started work on the HPV vaccine, proposing that the proteins of the human papillomavirus ... "A controlled trial of a human papillomavirus type 16 vaccine". The New England Journal of Medicine. 347 (21): 1645-1651. doi: ... "A Controlled Trial of a Human Papillomavirus Type 16 Vaccine". New England Journal of Medicine. 347 (21): 1645-1651. doi: ...
In 1933 Richard Shope and Edward Weston Hurst showed that warts from wild cottontail rabbits contained the Shope papilloma virus ... The human papillomavirus-16 (HPV-16) has been shown to lead to cervical cancer and other cancers, including head and neck ... Human papillomavirus infection is a major cause of cervical cancer, vulvar cancer, vaginal cancer, penis cancer, anal cancer, ... "Human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer". WHO. June 2016. Archived from the original on 5 August 2016. Anjum, Fatima; ...
... papillomavirus MeSH B04.280.535.600.650 - papillomavirus, bovine MeSH B04.280.535.600.660 - papillomavirus, cottontail rabbit ... papillomavirus MeSH B04.909.624.600.650 - papillomavirus, bovine MeSH B04.909.624.600.660 - papillomavirus, cottontail rabbit ... papillomavirus, bovine MeSH B04.909.204.210.655.600.660 - papillomavirus, cottontail rabbit MeSH B04.909.204.210.655.600.690 - ... papillomavirus, bovine MeSH B04.909.574.204.655.600.660 - papillomavirus, cottontail rabbit MeSH B04.909.574.204.655.600.690 - ...
Cottontail rabbit papillomavirus E8 protein is essential for wart formation and provides new insights into viral pathogenesis ... Immunization with virus-like particles from cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) can protect against experimental CRPV ... His research has focused on papillomaviruses and their association with benign tumours and skin and cervical cancers. He is a ... Papilloma viruses: Possible role in human cancer », Cold Spring Harbor Conf. Cell Prolif, (1977) 4, p. 1043-68 Orth G, Favre M ...
The Shope papilloma virus (SPV), also known as cottontail rabbit papilloma virus (CRPV) or Kappapapillomavirus 2, is a ... Therefore, the major host species of SPV is the cottontail rabbit of the western United States. Cottontail rabbits in Shope's ... Using a mutant cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (SPV) genome incapable of expressing the viral E4 protein, it has been shown ... Giri, Isabelle; Danos, Olivier; Yaniv, Moshe (March 1985). "Genomic Structure of the Cottontail Rabbit (Shope) Papillomavirus ...
1933: Richard Edwin Shope discovered cottontail rabbit papillomavirus or Shope papillomavirus, the first mammalian tumor virus. ... Human papillomaviruses (HPV). 5.2. The types 16 and 18 are associated with cancers of cervix,[51] anus,[51] penis,[51] vulva/ ... Human papilloma virus (HPV), a DNA virus, causes transformation in cells through interfering with tumor suppressor proteins ... In 2006, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved a human papilloma virus vaccine, called Gardasil. The vaccine protects ...
References to horned rabbits may originate in sightings of rabbits affected by the Shope papilloma virus, named for Richard E. ... Shope initially examined wild cottontail rabbits that had been shot by hunters in Iowa and later examined wild rabbits from ... The Huichol oral tradition has passed down tales of a horned rabbit and of the deer getting horns from the rabbit. The rabbit ... A 13th-century Persian work depicts a rabbit with a single horn, like a unicorn. In Europe, the horned rabbit appeared in ...
cottontail rabbit papillomavirus. *rabbit oral papillomavirus. *Lambdapapillomavirus *canine oral papillomavirus. *feline ... Human papillomavirus, HPV findes i over hundrede forskellige arter. De kan bl.a være årsag til vorter, kønsvorter og ...
Scope also discovered that virus infection caused fibroma in the cottontail rabbits he had hunted in New Jersey, and that a ... In 1933, Shope identified the Shope papillomavirus, which infects rabbits. His discovery later assist other researcher to link ... virus infection was also responsible for the papillomatosis in the cottontail rabbits he had observed in Iowa. By the last ... the papilloma virus to warts and cervical cancer. He received the 1957 Albert Lasker Clinical Medical Research Award. In 1931 ...
Aztlan rabbit (Aztlanolagus sp.) (H) Webb's cottontail (Sylvilagus webbi) (H) Giant pika (Ochotona whartoni) (H) All members of ... "Ancient Evolution and Dispersion of Human Papillomavirus 58 Variants". Journal of Virology. 91 (21): e01285-17. doi:10.1128/JVI ...
Cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) in rabbits provides a robust model to study viral interaction with the host and ... Vaccination with yeast-expressed cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) virus-like particles protects rabbits from CRPV- ... Plant-Produced Cottontail Rabbit Papillomavirus L1 Protein Protects against Tumor Challenge: a Proof-of-Concept Study. T. Kohl ... Plant-Produced Cottontail Rabbit Papillomavirus L1 Protein Protects against Tumor Challenge: a Proof-of-Concept Study ...
Detection of L1, infectious virions and anti-L1 antibody in domestic rabbits infected with cottontail rabbit papillomavirus. ... infectious virions and anti-L1 antibody in domestic rabbits infected with cottontail rabbit papillomavirus. Together they form ...
cottontail rabbit synonyms, cottontail rabbit pronunciation, cottontail rabbit translation, English dictionary definition of ... cottontail rabbit. Noun 1. cottontail rabbit - common small rabbit of North America having greyish or brownish fur and a tail ... cottontail rabbit papillomatosis. *cottontail rabbit papillomatosis. *Cottontail rabbit papillomavirus. *Cottontail rabbit ... cottontail rabbit. Also found in: Thesaurus, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.. Related to cottontail rabbit: Cottontail rabbit ...
Papillomavirus. cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (Shope). Vertebrates. Phycodnaviridae:. Phycodnavirus. Paramecium bursaria ...
The Shope papilloma virus (SPV), also known as cottontail rabbit papilloma virus (CRPV) or Kappapapillomavirus 2, is a ... Therefore, the major host species of SPV is the cottontail rabbit of the western United States. Cottontail rabbits in Shopes ... Using a mutant cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (SPV) genome incapable of expressing the viral E4 protein, it has been shown ... Giri, Isabelle; Danos, Olivier; Yaniv, Moshe (March 1985). "Genomic Structure of the Cottontail Rabbit (Shope) Papillomavirus ...
... first proposed that human papillomaviruses (HPVs) played a role in cervical cancer; in 2008, he shared the Nobel Prize in ... zur Hausen first proposed that human papillomaviruses (HPVs) played a role in cervical cancer (zur Hausen, 1976); in 2008, he ... Papillomaviruses (PVs) were the first viruses recognized to cause tumors and cancers in mammalian hosts by Shope, nearly a ... Papillomaviruses (PVs) were the first viruses recognized to cause tumors and cancers in mammalian hosts by Shope, nearly a ...
Topical CTC-96 accelerates wart growth in rabbits infected with cottontail rabbit papillomavirus. Antiviral Research 24:27-35. ... Liu ZJ, Ostrow R, McGlennen R, and Faras A. (1994). The E6 gene of human papillomavirus type 16 is Sufficient for ... The E5 gene product of rhesus papillomavirus is an activator of endogenous ras and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase in NIH 3T3 ...
Cottontail rabbit papillomavirus infection in a desert cottontail (Sylvilagus audubonii) from Colorado, USA. ...
"Latent Infection Induced with Cottontail Rabbit Papillomavirus: A Model for Human Papillomavirus Latency". American Journal of ... she began her studies of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) and their role in diseases of the head and neck, especially recurrent ...
Experimental studies of cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) in domestic rabbits clearly demonstrate a direct causal ... Synergy in carcinogenesis between papillomaviruses and other factors is evident in the rabbit (experimentally applied chemical ... Of the types described, more than 70 are human papillomaviruses (HPV) and approximately 20 are animal papillomaviruses. The ... or protection from papillomavirus-associated neoplasia is supported by data from rabbits and from humans. 5.4 Studies of cancer ...
The cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) model is the most clinically relevant animal model for human papillomavirus (HPV)- ... and the availability of rabbit DCs would further expand its utility. However, to date, rabbit DCs have not been phenotypically ... Generation of dendritic cells from rabbit bone marrow mononuclear cell cultures supplemented with hGM-CSF and hIL-4.. Cody V1, ... Here we show that DCs can be generated in vitro from rabbit bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMCs) cultured in the presence of ...
Immunization with virus-like particles from cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) can protect against experimental CRPV ... Chapter 8: human papillomavirus and skin cancer. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. Monogr. 31:52-56. View this article via: PubMed Google ... Prophylactic human papillomavirus vaccines. Douglas R. Lowy and John T. Schiller Laboratory of Cellular Oncology, Center for ... Papillomaviruses and cancer: from basic studies to clinical application. Nat. Rev. Cancer. 2:342-350. View this article via: ...
Cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) model system to test antiviral and immunotherapeutic strategies. Christensen, N. D., ... Emerging human papillomavirus vaccines. Christensen, N., Feb 1 2005, In : Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs. 10, 1, p. 5-19 15 p ... Replication and assembly of human papillomaviruses. Conway, M. J. & Meyers, C., Aug 7 2009, In : Journal of Dental Research. 88 ... In vitro systems for the study and propagation of human papillomaviruses. Meyers, C. & Laimins, L. A., Jan 1 1994, In : Current ...
Dostatni et al., "Use of Retroviral Vectors for Mapping of Splice Sites in Cottontail Rabbit Papillomavirus," Journal of ... Vectors that contain the replicons from bovine papillomavirus or Epstein-Barr virus replicate extrachromosomally at "low copy ...
... effects on papilloma formation and regression in the cottontail rabbit papillomavirus--rabbit model. J Virol. 2000 Sep. PMID: ... Ubiquitin-fused and/or multiple early genes from cottontail rabbit papillomavirus as DNA vaccines. J Virol. 2002 Aug. PMID: ... and E7 proteins of cottontail rabbit papillomavirus. J Virol. 2007 Jun; 2007 Mar 28. PMID: 17392369 ... Brandsma JL, Shlyankevich M, Zelterman D, Su Y: Therapeutic vaccination of rabbits with a ubiquitin-fused papillomavirus E1, E2 ...
Cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) can cause protuberant warts (see images) in its native host, the North American rabbit ... Christensen ND (2005). "Cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) model system to test antiviral and immunotherapeutic strategies ... CRPV, rabbit oral papillomavirus (ROPV) and canine oral papillomavirus (COPV) have also been used extensively for laboratory ... More than 100 different human papillomavirus (HPV) types have also been identified. As with rabbit papillomaviruses, some HPV ...
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a significant source of morbidity and mortality throughout the world and is the most common ... Breitburd F, Kirnbauer R, Hubbert NL et al (1995) Immunization with virus-like particles from cottontail rabbit papillomavirus ... Embers ME, Budgeon LR, Pickel M et al (2002) Protective immunity to rabbit oral and cutaneous papillomaviruses by immunization ... A controlled trial of a human papillomavirus type 16 vaccine. N Engl J Med 347:1645-1651PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
This mouse papillomavirus provides, for the first time, the opportunity to study papillomavirus infections in the context of a ... The model is a major step forward in the study of papillomavirus disease and pathology. In this review, we summarize studies ... The mouse papillomavirus (MmuPV1) was first reported in 2011 and has since become a powerful research tool. Through collective ... community has been searching for a mouse papillomavirus model since the identification of the cottontail rabbit papillomavirus ...
Transforming properties of the cottontail rabbit papillomavirus oncoproteins Le6 and SE6 and of the E8 protein. J B Harry, F O ... Mutational analysis of human papillomavirus type 11 E5a oncoprotein. S L Chen, T Z Tsai, C P Han, Y P Tsao ... untranslated region of human papillomavirus type 1 late mRNAs. C Zhao, W Tan, M Sokolowski, S Schwartz ...
High efficiency induction of papillomas in vivo using recombinant cottontail rabbit papillomavirus DNA. J. Virol. Methods 55: ... Protection of rabbits against challenge with rabbit papillomaviruses by immunization with the N terminus of human ... Production of papillomavirus-based gene transfer vectors. Curr. Protoc. Cell Biol. Chapter 26:Unit 26.1. doi: 10.1002/ ... Classification of papillomaviruses (PVs) based on 189 PV types and proposal of taxonomic amendments. Virology 401:70-79. ...
5. Photodynamic therapy of cottontail rabbit papillomavirus-induced papillomas in a severe combined immunodeficient mouse ...
... of type-specific and cross-reactive neutralizing conformational epitopes on the major capsid protein of human papillomavirus ... Immunization with viruslike particles from cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) can protect against experimental CRPV ... Human papillomavirus is a necessary cause of invasive cervical cancer worldwide. Walboomers, JM; Jacobs, MV; Manos, MM; Bosch, ... Human papillomavirus capsid antibody response to natural infection and risk of subsequent HPV infection in HIV-positive and HIV ...
... and E7 proteins of cottontail rabbit papillomavirus.Brandsma JL, Shylankevich M, Su Y, Roberts A, Rose JK, Zelterman D, ... Therapeutic vaccination of rabbits with a ubiquitin-fused papillomavirus E1, E2, E6 and E7 DNA vaccine.Brandsma JL, ... Diagnostic accuracy of serum antibodies to human papillomavirus type 16 early antigens in the detection of human papillomavirus ... Human Papilloma Virus Specific Immunogenicity and Dysfunction of CD8+ T Cells in Head and Neck Cancer.Krishna S, Ulrich P, ...
The cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) was the first animal model of cancer caused by a mammalian virus. It played a ... Rabbits use a litter and purr like cats. Rabbits can easily be trained to use a litter tray, sometimes better than the average ... Alerted by a friend to cotton tail rabbits with horns which were actually large warts; Shope ground up the horns, filtered ... 3. Rabbits are used as models for cystic fibrosis and cholera. The general physiology of rabbits is similar to that of humans, ...
1995) Vaccination with yeast-expressed cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) virus-like particles protects rabbits from ... Lin YL, Borenstein LA, Ahmed R, Wettstein FO (1993) Cottontail rabbit papillomavirus LI protein-based vaceines: protection is ... Immunization with nonstructural proteins E1 and E2 of cottontail rabbit papillomavirus stimulates regression of virus-induced ... Protection of rabbits from viral challenge by gene gun-based intracutaneous vaccination with a combination of cottontail rabbit ...
Sundaram P, Tigelaar RE, Brandsma JL (1997) Intracutaneous vaccination of rabbits with the cottontail rabbit papillomavirus ( ... capsid vaccines in vivo using infectious HPV/cottontail rabbit papillomavirus chimeric papillomavirus particles. J Virol 80: ... 2006) Protective cell-mediated immunity by DNA vaccination against papillomavirus L1 capsid protein in the cottontail rabbit ... 5). Recently, Christensens group developed a challenge model using chimeric HPV capsid/cottontail rabbit papillomavirus genome ...
Combination Treatment with Intralesional Cidofovir and Viral-DNA Vaccination Cures Large Cottontail Rabbit Papillomavirus- ...
1933, R. Shope discovers cottontail rabbit papillomavirus or Shope papillomavirus, the first mammalian DNA tumor virus.. 1936, ... 1915, K. Yamagiwa and K. Ichikawa are able to induce cancer in rabbits by applying coal tar to the skin of these laboratory ... 1985, Human Papilloma Viruses 16 and 18 are discovered.. 1986, discovery of Rb anti-oncogene from Retinoblastoma.. 1986, US ... Katsusaburo Yamagiwa and Koichi Ichikawa, in 1915, were able to induce cancer in rabbits by applying coal tar to the skin of ...
UV activates latent cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (31) , a papillomavirus that causes skin cancer in rabbits. ... Induction of E6/E7 expression in cottontail rabbit papillomavirus latency following UV activation. Virology, 263: 388-394, 1999 ... Kiviat N. B. Papillomaviruses in non-melanoma skin cancer: epidemiological aspects. Semin. Cancer Biol., 9: 397-403, 1999. ... n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Increase Skin but not Cervical Cancer in Human Papillomavirus 16 Transgenic Mice. Mei Qi, DaZhi ...
Gene profiling of cottontail rabbit papillomavirus-induced carcinomas identifies upregulated genes directly Involved in stroma ...
  • The native cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) L1 capsid protein gene was expressed transgenically via Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation and transiently via a tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) vector in Nicotiana spp. (asm.org)
  • Cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) in rabbits provides a robust model to study viral interaction with the host and progression to cancer and for viral vaccine studies. (asm.org)
  • Naive domestic rabbits can be protected from experimental challenge with live CRPV after vaccination with a nondenatured L1 and/or whole L2 protein or peptides derived from the L2 protein ( 2 , 5 , 8 , 9 , 24 , 27 , 28 ). (asm.org)
  • The Shope papilloma virus (SPV), also known as cottontail rabbit papilloma virus (CRPV) or Kappapapillomavirus 2, is a papillomavirus which infects certain leporids, causing keratinous carcinomas resembling horns, typically on or near the animal's head. (wikipedia.org)
  • Results have found that CRPV and BPV1 are found in the same location of the genome, which indicates that papillomaviruses likely have similar methods of replicating their genomes outside of a chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • A notable difference between the genomes of the four strains is that the E6 protein is almost twice as long in the CRPV as in any of the other strains of papillomaviruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) model is the most clinically relevant animal model for human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated carcinogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • The CRPV model has been used to test various preventative and therapeutic vaccination strategies, and the availability of rabbit DCs would further expand its utility. (nih.gov)
  • The ability to generate rabbit DCs makes it possible to test the efficacy of DC vaccination in the prevention and treatment of CRPV-induced lesions, which may provide useful preclinical data regarding the use of DC vaccines for HPV-associated lesions, including cervical cancer. (nih.gov)
  • Cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) can cause protuberant warts (see images ) in its native host, the North American rabbit genus Sylvilagus . (wikidoc.org)
  • European domestic rabbits (genus Oryctolagus ) can be transiently infected with CRPV in a laboratory setting. (wikidoc.org)
  • However, since European domestic rabbits do not produce infectious progeny virus, they are considered an incidental or "dead-end" host for CRPV. (wikidoc.org)
  • Breitburd F, Kirnbauer R, Hubbert NL et al (1995) Immunization with virus-like particles from cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) can protect against experimental CRPV infection. (springer.com)
  • The cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) was the first animal model of cancer caused by a mammalian virus. (understandinganimalresearch.org.uk)
  • Using CRPV, canine papillomavirus and the bovine version of the virus, researchers found that, whichever the animal, it was possible to protect against infection by papillomaviruses. (understandinganimalresearch.org.uk)
  • Cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) induces papillomas in domestic rabbits which progress at a very high rate to cancer. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The cottontail rabbit papilloma virus (CRPV), or Shope papilloma virus, is a type I virus under the Baltimore scheme, possessing a nonsegmented dsDNA genome. (herald.com)
  • Sightings of CRPV infected rabbits may be the origin of the 'jackalope. (herald.com)
  • In animal models, we have shown that immunotherapy with long peptide vaccines consisting of HPV16 E7 peptides was capable of eradicating established HPV16 + tumors in mice ( 12 ), whereas a cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) E6/E7 long peptide vaccine suppressed CRPV-induced skin papillomas in rabbits ( 13 ), which was associated with robust type 1 T-cell immunity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The role of the input multiplicity has been most carefully analyzed in cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) infections (26-28). (78stepshealth.us)
  • Infection of the rabbit skin with high doses of CRPV results in the emergence of papillomatous changes already 4-6 wk after inoculation. (78stepshealth.us)
  • Cottontail rabbit papilloma virus (CRPV), or the Shope Papilloma Virus, causes cancer-like growths, or papillomas, that are usually benign. (wagwalking.com)
  • Methylation of twelve CpGs in human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) as an informative biomarker for the triage of women positive for HPV16 infection. (yale.edu)
  • Here, we report the efficacy of a bivalent human papillomavirus type 16 and 18 DNA vaccine system following repeated dosing in mice and pigs using a recombinant baculovirus bearing human endogenous retrovirus envelope protein (AcHERV) as a vector. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Using a mouse with transgenes for the highly oncogenic human papillomavirus type 16, we asked whether a diet high in fat, namely, the n -6 polyunsaturated fatty acid linoleic acid, would influence the development of skin or cervical cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Detection of antibodies to a linear epitope on the major coat protein (L1) of human papillomavirus type-16 (HPV-16) in sera from patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and children. (docksci.com)
  • Antibodies to the major (LI) coat protein of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) in sera from patients with cervical intra-epithelialneoplasia(CIN) have been investigatedby means of recombinant proteins and synthetic peptides. (docksci.com)
  • Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are small, non-enveloped icosahedral viruses of 55 nm containing a circular, ≈8-kb double-stranded DNA genome condensed by cellular histones. (frontiersin.org)
  • When Steinberg arrived at Long Island Jewish Medical Center, she began her studies of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) and their role in diseases of the head and neck, especially recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Persistent infections with high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) can result in the development of cancer of the cervix uteri and other malignancies. (semanticscholar.org)
  • It is induced by numerous specific types of human papillomaviruses (HPVs), sometimes including the HPVs associated with flat warts in the general population. (springer.com)
  • https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20170308 ) identify bi-allelic loss-of-expression, loss-of-function mutations of the calcium- and integrin-binding protein 1 ( CIB1 ) gene as a new cause of epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) and demonstrate that the CIB1 interacts with the EVER1 and EVER2 proteins to form a complex involved in keratinocyte-intrinsic immune response to human β-papillomaviruses (β-HPVs). (rupress.org)
  • Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are small, double-stranded DNA viruses with a specific tropism for mucosal and cutaneous epithelium. (rupress.org)
  • All known human papillomaviruses (HPVs) require terminal differentiation for replication and virion production. (ictvonline.org)
  • Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are small, naked, icosahedral DNA viruses which usually cause benign epithelial cell proliferations. (docksci.com)
  • These issues delayed research on HPVs, as although it was recognized that the Shope (cottontail rabbit) PV was able to induce cancers in rabbits ( 5 ), it was not possible, until the advent of the molecular era, to determine that there were more than two HPVs responsible for skin and genital warts. (jimmunol.org)
  • Papillomaviruses (PVs) were the first viruses recognized to cause tumors and cancers in mammalian hosts by Shope, nearly a century ago ( Shope and Hurst, 1933 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Shope ground up the horns, filtered them and injected the filtrate into other rabbits - and in turn these rabbits grew horns. (understandinganimalresearch.org.uk)
  • The first animal papillomavirus was described in 1933 by Richard Shope, who researched papillomata in "warty" wild cottontail rabbits. (cdc.gov)
  • Shope fibromas are found under natural conditions only in cottontails, although domestic rabbits can be infected by inoculation of virus-containing material. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Richard E. Shope discovered that the papillomavirus is a cause of horny warts on cottontail rabbits. (jacobspublishers.com)
  • He proved his hypothesis by subcutaneous and intratesticular inoculation of extracts containing an infection agent.Richard E. Shope applied serial experiments with intratesticular inseminations of wart extracts in order to establish a laboratory model of horny warts on cottontail rabbits. (jacobspublishers.com)
  • Shope papilloma affects mostly wild cottontail rabbits, snowshoe hares, jackrabbits, and California brush rabbits. (wagwalking.com)
  • During a physical exam, your veterinarian will most likely recognize the types of growths visible on your rabbit as those caused by the Shope Papilloma Virus. (wagwalking.com)
  • Cottontail rabbit papillomavirus infection in a desert cottontail (Sylvilagus audubonii) from Colorado, USA. (nih.gov)
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection causes virtually all cases of cervical cancer, the second most common cause of death from cancer among women worldwide. (jci.org)
  • Clinical aspects of HPV infection are outlined in the main article human papillomavirus . (wikidoc.org)
  • [3] Most papillomavirus types are adapted to infection of particular body surfaces. (wikidoc.org)
  • However, the authors note that the chimpanzee-specific papillomavirus sequence could have been the result of surface contamination of the zookeeper's skin, as opposed to productive infection. (wikidoc.org)
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a significant source of morbidity and mortality throughout the world and is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the United States. (springer.com)
  • Efficacy of a bivalent L1 virus-like particle vaccine in prevention of infection with human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 in young women: a randomized controlled trial. (springer.com)
  • Ho GY, Burk RD, Klein S, Kadish AS, Chang CJ, Palan P et al (1995) Persistent genital human papillomavirus infection as a risk factor for persistent cervical dysplasia. (springer.com)
  • These results support the further development of AcHERV as a bivalent human papillomavirus DNA vaccine system for use in preventing the viral infection as well as treating the infected women by inducing both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Cervical cancer, the second most common malignancy in women worldwide, is almost invariably associated with infection by human papillomavirus (HPV). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Human papillomavirus is one of the most common causes of sexually transmitted infection in the world and can also cause cancer. (caister.com)
  • They monitored the rabbits, and after four weeks, noticed tumors on the animals, which Hu said demonstrated that the virus had traveled through the bloodstream and caused an infection. (psu.edu)
  • Viruses are not important causes of clinical disease of rabbits in the USA but include the infectious fibromas, papillomatosis, rabbitpox, myxomatosis, and a herpesvirus infection (virus 3). (merckvetmanual.com)
  • These areas correspond to the geographic distribution of the California brush rabbit ( S bachmani ), the reservoir of the infection. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Recognition of the association of cervical cancer with papillomavirus infection encouraged development of a vaccine to help with prevention of this very common cancer, causing over 250,000 deaths each year worldwide. (jimmunol.org)
  • 2005). Clinically, cervical cancer is an advanced stage of cervical intraepithelial lesions manifested from pre-invasive cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) due to the progressive infection of human papillomavirus (HPV) in keratinocytes of the uterine cervix (Walboomers et al. (78stepshealth.us)
  • Recovered rabbits are resistant to further infection. (wagwalking.com)
  • This is the first evidence that a plant-derived papillomavirus vaccine is protective in an animal model and is a proof of concept for human papillomavirus vaccines produced in plants. (asm.org)
  • FDA (2006) FDA licenses new vaccine for prevention of cervical cancer and other diseases in females caused by human papillomavirus. (springer.com)
  • By studying the tissues of infected rabbits, Pasteur was able to produce an attenuated form of the virus, which he later used to develop a vaccine against the disease. (understandinganimalresearch.org.uk)
  • Chichester JA, Manceva SD, Rhee A, Coffin MV, Musiychuk K, Mett V, Shamloul M, Norikane J, Streatfield SJ, Yusibov V (2013) A plant-produced protective antigen vaccine confers protection in rabbits against a lethal aerosolized challenge with Bacillus anthracis Ames spores. (springer.com)
  • To determine the toxicity, safety, and immunogenicity of a human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) E6 and E7 long peptide vaccine administered to end-stage cervical cancer patients. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In this timely book leading scientists review current aspects of papillomavirus research providing a fascinating insight into papillomavirus molecular biology, interactions with the host, immunology and vaccine development. (caister.com)
  • Essential reading for scientists and researchers working on papillomavirus and a recommended text for anyone involved with antiviral drug and vaccine development. (caister.com)
  • An attenuated vaccine prepared from a myxomatosis virus has protected rabbits infected under both field and laboratory conditions. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • This vaccine is not available in the USA, and because there is no effective treatment, euthanasia and burying or burning of affected rabbits is indicated. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Both the Human papillomavirus (HPV) major (L1) and minor (L2) capsid proteins have been well investigated as potential vaccine candidates. (canterbury.ac.nz)
  • He was able to isolate virus particles from tumors on captured animals and use these to inoculate domestic rabbits, which then developed similar tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • While it occurs more rarely in domestic rabbits, the risk of tumors becoming cancerous is three times higher in domestic breeds than in cottontails. (wagwalking.com)
  • One of these epitopes, spanning the amino acid (aa) region 17 to 38 of HPV-16 L2 (L2 17-38 ), has gained special attention, as antibodies recognizing this region show neutralizing activity against a broad range of different papillomavirus (PV) types ( 15 - 17 ). (asm.org)
  • We analysed the epitopes on the major capsid protein (L1) of Human papillomavirus (HPV) type 31 using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) generated against HPV-31 virus-like particles (VLPs). (deepdyve.com)
  • One of the most common uses of rabbits in the laboratory is for the production of antibodies, used to detect the presence or absence of disease and for research into infectious diseases and immunology. (understandinganimalresearch.org.uk)
  • To produce antibodies the rabbit is injected with a protein sequence taken from the disease-causing organism to be studied. (understandinganimalresearch.org.uk)
  • Serological studies of papillomavirus virus like particles (VLPs) demonstrate that antibodies cross-reactive with multiple HPV VLP types recognize type-common epitopes and generally are not neutralizing. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, L1 proteins from different papillomaviruses have highly conserved amino-acid sequences (Baker, 1987) which makes it difficult to detect HPV-type-specific antibodies. (docksci.com)
  • Template:Taxobox group i entry Template:Taxobox familia entry Template:Taxobox end placement Template:Taxobox section subdivision Template:Taxobox image Template:Taxobox end Papillomaviruses were first identified in the early 20th century, when it was shown that skin warts , or papillomas , could be transmitted between individuals by a filterable infectious agent. (wikidoc.org)
  • 5. Photodynamic therapy of cottontail rabbit papillomavirus-induced papillomas in a severe combined immunodeficient mouse xenograft system. (tuftsmedicalcenter.org)
  • Bovine papillomavirus (BPV) induces exophytic papillomas or 'warts'and fibropapillomas in cattle 3 and has been associated with malignant transformation to carcinoma of the urinary bladder and upper alimentary tract in cattle experimentally fed bracken fern ( Pteridium aquilinum ) 28 . (scielo.org.za)
  • The conversion of virus-caused papillomas into carcinomas was initially observed by Rous and Beard (5) and carefully analyzed by Rous and his associates in cottontail rabbits (6-8). (78stepshealth.us)
  • Low concentrations, however, result in papillomas only under conditions of treatment of the rabbit skin with chemical carcinogens (7,8,26). (78stepshealth.us)
  • Jansen KU, Shaw AR (2004) Human papillomavirus vaccines and prevention of cervical cancer. (springer.com)
  • Current commercial prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are based on virus-like particles assembled from the major capsid protein L1 and show excellent safety and efficacy profiles. (asm.org)
  • Virus-like particles (VLPs) formed by the human papillomavirus (HPV) L1 capsid protein are currently being tested in clinical trials as prophylactic vaccines against genital warts and cervical cancer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The development and deployment of human papillomavirus vaccines demonstrate the benefits of collaborative research activity across the globe, and between academia and industry, to translate scientific discoveries into public health benefits. (jimmunol.org)
  • [3] These cancers might be easily prevented through vaccination (e.g., papillomavirus vaccines ), diagnosed with simple blood tests, and treated with less-toxic antiviral compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • They demonstrated that the viral DNA shared homology with Mastomys natalensis papillomavirus DNA as well as with HPV11, -13, -16 and -18 by hybridization. (mdpi.com)
  • RNA sequencing analysis identifies novel spliced transcripts but does not indicate quantitative or qualitative changes of viral transcripts during progression of cottontail rabbit papillomavirus-induced tumours. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Viral hemorrhagic disease is found in almost every country that raises rabbits except the USA. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Papillomaviruses are small, non-enveloped, viruses that contain a double-stranded, circular 8 kb DNA genome. (inchem.org)
  • The papillomavirus genome can be divided into three regions. (inchem.org)
  • Diagram of the bovine papillomavirus 1 (BPV-1) genome. (ictvonline.org)
  • Other viruses are only carcinogenic when they integrate into the host cell genome as part of a biological accident, such as polyomaviruses and papillomaviruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • identified papillomavirus DNA in hairless mouse tumors resulting from ultraviolet irradiation exposure [ 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • In rabbits that survive longer, subcutaneous edema and nodular skin tumors are seen. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Solid auricular VX2 tumors were induced in immune-competent adult New Zealand White Rabbits. (cloudfront.net)
  • Adoptive cell transfer of PBLs from donor rabbits with regressing tumors to recipient rabbits with newly implanted VX2 carcinoma resulted in acquired tumor resistance of the host and tumor regression. (cloudfront.net)
  • He separated the virus from horny warts on cottontail rabbits, and made one of the first mammalian tumor virus discoveries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rabbits were injected with concentrated protein extract with Freund's incomplete adjuvant. (asm.org)
  • The E2 protein overlaps with the E4 open reading frames in the other papillomaviruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embers ME, Budgeon LR, Pickel M et al (2002) Protective immunity to rabbit oral and cutaneous papillomaviruses by immunization with short peptides of L2, the minor capsid protein. (springer.com)
  • Transforming properties of the cottontail rabbit papillomavirus oncoproteins Le6 and SE6 and of the E8 protein. (asm.org)
  • Immunization with L2 protein in animal models has been shown to provide cross-protection against distant papillomavirus types, suggesting that the L2 protein contains cross-neutralizing epitopes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Papillomavirus capsids consist of a major (Ll) and a minor (L2) protein. (docksci.com)
  • 1986) have demonstrated that the L1 protein of bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) contains a neutralizing epitope. (docksci.com)
  • Complete protection from papillomavirus challenge after a single vaccination with a vesicular stomatitis virus vector expressing high levels of L1 protein. (profectusbiosciences.com)
  • Human papillomavirus L1 protein expressed in tobacco chloroplasts self-assembles into virus-like particles that are highly immunogenic. (notulaebotanicae.ro)
  • Inter-species transmission has also been documented for bovine papillomavirus (BPV) type 1. (wikidoc.org)
  • Bovine papillomavirus (BVP) affects mainly the epidermis, but also the dermis in several species including bovine, the best-known example being equine sarcoid, which is associated with BVP types 1 and 2. (scielo.org.za)
  • Immunohistochemical staining using polyclonal rabbit antiserum to chemically disrupted BPV-1, which cross-reacts with the L1 capsid of most known papillomaviruses, was positive in cells of the stratum granulosum of lesions in Giraffe 1, the sable and the buffalo and negative in those of the zebra and Giraffe 2. (scielo.org.za)
  • Papillomaviruses are small non-enveloped DNA viruses and their icosahedral capsid is constituted of L1 and L2 proteins, which encapsidate a closed circular, double-stranded DNA of about 8 kbp. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Papillomavirus research has been revolutionised in recent years with the advent of new technologies such as organotypic raft cultures, virus-like particles and transgenic mice. (caister.com)
  • The availability of papillomavirus-like particles, resulting from the expression of L1 or L1 and L2 in baculovirus, vaccinia virus or yeast systems, has permitted a detailed analysis of antigenic characteristics. (ictvonline.org)
  • a wild rabbit, Sylvilagus spp. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Native rabbits are widely distributed across Georgia and are represented by the more abundant eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus) and the less abundant swamp rabbit (Sylvilagus aquaticus) and marsh rabbit (Sylvilagus palustris). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Wild rabbits such as the cottontail ( Sylvilagus ) and jackrabbits ( Lepus ) are quite resistant. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Myxoma virus-infected Sylvilagus develop fibroma-like lesions similar to those caused by rabbit fibroma virus. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • This mouse papillomavirus provides, for the first time, the opportunity to study papillomavirus infections in the context of a small common laboratory animal for which abundant reagents are available and for which many strains exist. (mdpi.com)
  • In the few years since it was first reported, MmuPV1 has become a valuable animal papillomavirus because it provides, for the first time, the opportunity to study papillomavirus infections in the context of a small common laboratory animal for which abundant reagents are available and for which many strains exist. (mdpi.com)
  • The human papillomaviruses (HPV) came into the play as members of a family of animal tumor viruses and because of their known association with genital infections. (caister.com)
  • The researchers used two of these animal models for several experiments, including the Cottontail Rabbit Papillomavirus model, which the researchers said is considered to be the "gold standard" for studying HPV-related infections and diseases. (psu.edu)
  • While the rabbit model showed that the virus could travel through the bloodstream to cause infections in the skin, Hu said the question remained as to whether it could cause infections in mucous membranes, like the cervix. (psu.edu)
  • Infections with papillomaviruses require the availability of cells that are still capable to replicate (reviewed in 24). (78stepshealth.us)
  • Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are known to cause warts and have also been associated with certain cancers in humans ( 46 ). (asm.org)
  • Although papillomaviruses were initially discovered because of their ability to cause warts, sampling of apparently normal skin and mucosal surfaces has revealed that many papillomavirus types tend not to cause overt symptoms. (wikidoc.org)
  • These horn-like warts may be the original basis for the urban legends of the American antlered rabbit the Jackalope and European Wolpertinger . (wikidoc.org)
  • Displaying 31RG-1 peptide on the surface of HPV16 L1 by use of a human papillomavirus chimeric virus-like particle induces cross-neutralizing antibody responses in mice. (notulaebotanicae.ro)
  • So we tried to make rabbit hepatic tumor model using new cell line prepared and developed in animal laboratory of Kosin University and Pusan National University. (medsci.org)
  • This study is a new AX7 hepatic tumor model for rabbits. (medsci.org)
  • This change in attitude opened the door in the 1960s and 1970s for the discovery of the first human tumor viruses-EBV, hepatitis B virus, and the papillomaviruses. (aacrjournals.org)
  • From the Latin papillo- ("nipple") + oma ("tumor"), papillomaviruses are nonenveloped DNA viruses that induce exophytic lesions of the skin and mucous membranes. (cdc.gov)
  • Although cidofovir (CDV) has proven efficacious in the treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced proliferation, no studies concerning the development of resistance to CDV in HPV-positive tumor cells have been performed yet. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Intraperitoneal oxidative stress effectively converts the immune response against the papillomavirus-associated rabbit VX2 carcinoma from tumor permissive to tumoricidal and leads to a sustainable, adoptively transferable oncolytic immune response. (cloudfront.net)
  • After application of intraperitoneal oxidative stress, the observed regression of the rabbit auricular VX2 carcinoma-a model system for human head and neck cancer-suggested a role of the immune system in tumor clearance. (cloudfront.net)
  • Other homologies exist, such as the fact that all papillomaviruses have repeated sequences in the noncoding parts of their genomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • [7] Although a wide variety of papillomavirus sequences were identified in the study, the authors found little evidence for inter-species transmission. (wikidoc.org)
  • Hu noted that this was a significant finding because people with cancer are sometimes found to have papillomavirus sequences in their stomach and other internal organs. (psu.edu)
  • Not only do the papillomavirus loop sequences display potentially virus-neutralizing B cell epitopes, but the manner in which they are presented to the host immune system makes them highly immunogenic. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Kahn JA (2005) Vaccination as a prevention strategy for human papillomavirus-related diseases. (springer.com)
  • Therapeutic efficacy of vesicular stomatitis virus-based E6 vaccination in rabbits. (profectusbiosciences.com)
  • One family of viruses, papillomaviruses (PVs), is recognized as responsible for a quarter of virus-associated human cancers and 5% of the global cancer burden. (jimmunol.org)
  • Because the investigated VX2 carcinoma is papillomavirus-associated, studying the observed tumoricidal immune response in this model system carries great promise in identifying the mechanisms underlying the immune escape of HPV-positive human head and neck cancers, thereby paving the way for new therapeutic approaches. (cloudfront.net)
  • The papillomavirus research community has been searching for a mouse papillomavirus model since the identification of the cottontail rabbit papillomavirus in 1933 [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Papillomaviruses are oncogenic DNA tumour viruses that infect humans and animals. (caister.com)
  • Because VX2 easily grows when implanted into the liver of rabbits, and develops into discrete lesions, this currently serves as the only hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) model for animals. (medsci.org)
  • Skin lesions associated with papillomaviruses have been reported in many animal species and man. (scielo.org.za)
  • In 35% of infected rabbits, lesions disappeared within six months. (wagwalking.com)
  • Coursaget, P. 2006-08-01 00:00:00 The majority of the neutralizing epitopes of papillomaviruses (PV) are conformation-specific and have not been fully characterised. (deepdyve.com)
  • The majority of the neutralizing epitopes of papillomaviruses (PV) are conformation-specific and have not been fully characterised. (deepdyve.com)
  • Of the types described, more than 70 are human papillomaviruses (HPV) and approximately 20 are animal papillomaviruses. (inchem.org)
  • Papillomaviruses (PVs) are small double-stranded DNA viruses (family Papillomaviridae ) that infect many different vertebrate species ( 12 ). (asm.org)
  • The virus was originally discovered in cottontail rabbits in the Midwestern U.S., but can also infect brush rabbits, black-tailed jackrabbits, snowshoe hares, and European rabbits. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are highly host-specific, cannot be propagated in tissue culture and, with the exception of some ungulate papillomaviruses, infect only epithelial cells. (inchem.org)
  • It is now recognized that papillomaviruses are a diverse group of non- enveloped DNA viruses that infect animals ranging from birds to manatees . (wikidoc.org)
  • Gene profiling of cottontail rabbit papillomavirus-induced carcinomas identifies upregulated genes directly Involved in stroma invasion as shown by small interfering RNA-mediated gene silencing. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The E6 and E7 transforming genes of the papillomavirus were expressed in all these cell lines, but the expression was the highest in the most tumorigenic and undifferentiated cell line, where th00150 class I expression was the lowest. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The 19-year-old blonde partakes in a rather original Easter Egg hunt in the guise of Peter Cottontail , the Daily Mail reported. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Over the years, a number of rodent papillomaviruses have been isolated, cloned and sequenced but none of them infected laboratory mouse strains [ 2 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • This suggests that different papillomavirus genotypes may represent different serotypes and that neutralizing antibody responses to different papillomaviruses are type-specific. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It infects rabbits, causing keratinous carcinomas, typically on or near the animal's head. (herald.com)
  • While HPV is specific to humans and cannot be tested directly in animal models, the researchers said there are several different strains of papillomavirus that do exist in animals and can be a good approximation of how HPV may work in humans. (psu.edu)
  • Once a sufficient level of antibody has been produced, blood is then taken from the rabbit under anaesthetic. (understandinganimalresearch.org.uk)
  • The antiserum from a single rabbit keeps for a long time, and produces a large amount of antibody, which is often used for several years. (understandinganimalresearch.org.uk)
  • To investigate the molecular determinants of the HPV16 L1 conformational epitope recognized by monoclonal antibody 16A, we utilized a domain-swapping approach to generate a series of L1 proteins composed of a canine oral papillomavirus (COPV) L1 backbone containing different regions of HPV16 L1. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We investigated sequential findings of immunohistochemistry of rabbit hepatic malignancy induced by AX7 cells. (medsci.org)
  • 13 rabbits implanted with AX7 cells directly into liver parenchyme with laparotomy were investigated by histopathology examination, immunohistochemistry, which is useful for the evaluation of metastatic cancer angiogenesis. (medsci.org)
  • Sequence alignment of 52 papillomavirus L1 proteins from different host species demonstrates that there is considerable homology with the exception of 5 hypervariable regions, each ranging from 10 to 30 amino acids in length and located within a surface-exposed loop. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In het LUMC is een therapeutisch HPV16 vaccin ontwikkeld voor de behandeling van patiënten met HPV-gerelateerde ziekten van de cervix en vulva. (kanker-actueel.nl)
  • AX7 cells implanted into liver can be used as a new rabbit metastatic liver carcinoma model and would become useful for human metastatic liver carcinoma studies. (medsci.org)
  • Here, we used the papillomavirus-associated rabbit auricular VX2 carcinoma, a model for studying human head and neck cancer, to reveal the mechanisms underlying the antitumorigenic effects of intraperitoneal oxidative stress following O 3 /O 2 -pneumoperitoneum (O 3 /O 2 -PP) treatment. (cloudfront.net)
  • The model is a major step forward in the study of papillomavirus disease and pathology. (mdpi.com)
  • The general physiology of rabbits is similar to that of humans, and like mice and rats, rabbits suffer from many diseases with human equivalents. (understandinganimalresearch.org.uk)
  • Analogous experimental studies were done in animal species such as rabbits, horses, cows and dogs, which suffer from similar wart-like diseases (see Table 1). (jacobspublishers.com)
  • The papillomavirus life cycle begins with cells actively multiplying in epithelial cells of basal and parabasal layers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The identification of the Rous sarcoma virus led to studies of how viruses cause tumours and subsequent use of hormone treatments to limit growth of tumours in rabbits among others. (understandinganimalresearch.org.uk)