Cotinine: The N-glucuronide conjugate of cotinine is a major urinary metabolite of NICOTINE. It thus serves as a biomarker of exposure to tobacco SMOKING. It has CNS stimulating properties.Tobacco Smoke Pollution: Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.Nicotine: Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Saliva: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.Pyrrolidinones: A group of compounds that are derivatives of oxo-pyrrolidines. A member of this group is 2-oxo pyrrolidine, which is an intermediate in the manufacture of polyvinylpyrrolidone. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Nitrosamines: A class of compounds that contain a -NH2 and a -NO radical. Many members of this group have carcinogenic and mutagenic properties.Ganglionic Stimulants: Agents that mimic neural transmission by stimulation of the nicotinic receptors on postganglionic autonomic neurons. Drugs that indirectly augment ganglionic transmission by increasing the release or slowing the breakdown of acetylcholine or by non-nicotinic effects on postganglionic neurons are not included here nor are the nonspecific cholinergic agonists.Nicotinic Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC). Nicotinic agonists act at postganglionic nicotinic receptors, at neuroeffector junctions in the peripheral nervous system, and at nicotinic receptors in the central nervous system. Agents that function as neuromuscular depolarizing blocking agents are included here because they activate nicotinic receptors, although they are used clinically to block nicotinic transmission.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Tars: Viscous materials composed of complex, high-molecular-weight compounds derived from the distillation of petroleum or the destructive distillation of wood or coal. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Tobacco Use Disorder: Tobacco used to the detriment of a person's health or social functioning. Tobacco dependence is included.Smoking Cessation: Discontinuation of the habit of smoking, the inhaling and exhaling of tobacco smoke.Self Disclosure: A willingness to reveal information about oneself to others.Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases: A large group of cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) monooxygenases that complex with NAD(P)H-FLAVIN OXIDOREDUCTASE in numerous mixed-function oxidations of aromatic compounds. They catalyze hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of substrates and are important in the metabolism of steroids, drugs, and toxins such as PHENOBARBITAL, carcinogens, and insecticides.Anabasine: A piperidine botanical insecticide.Carbon Monoxide: Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Glucuronides: Glycosides of GLUCURONIC ACID formed by the reaction of URIDINE DIPHOSPHATE GLUCURONIC ACID with certain endogenous and exogenous substances. Their formation is important for the detoxification of drugs, steroid excretion and BILIRUBIN metabolism to a more water-soluble compound that can be eliminated in the URINE and BILE.Maternal Exposure: Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.Meconium: The thick green-to-black mucilaginous material found in the intestines of a full-term fetus. It consists of secretions of the INTESTINAL GLANDS; BILE PIGMENTS; FATTY ACIDS; AMNIOTIC FLUID; and intrauterine debris. It constitutes the first stools passed by a newborn.Tobacco Use Cessation Products: Items used to aid in ending a TOBACCO habit.Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.Chromatography, Liquid: Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.Glucuronates: Derivatives of GLUCURONIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the 6-carboxy glucose structure.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.BooksPublishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Thromboxane B2: A stable, physiologically active compound formed in vivo from the prostaglandin endoperoxides. It is important in the platelet-release reaction (release of ADP and serotonin).Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Tobacco Products: Substances and products derived from NICOTIANA TABACUM.Tobacco, Smokeless: Powdered or cut pieces of leaves of NICOTIANA TABACUM which are inhaled through the nose, chewed, or stored in cheek pouches. It includes any product of tobacco that is not smoked.Social Desirability: A personality trait rendering the individual acceptable in social or interpersonal relations. It is related to social acceptance, social approval, popularity, social status, leadership qualities, or any quality making him a socially desirable companion.Dried Blood Spot Testing: Techniques for using whole blood samples collected on filter paper for a variety of clinical laboratory tests.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Nutrition Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.Orofaciodigital Syndromes: Two syndromes of oral, facial, and digital malformations. Type I (Papillon-Leage and Psaume syndrome, Gorlin-Psaume syndrome) is inherited as an X-linked dominant trait and is found only in females and XXY males. Type II (Mohr syndrome) is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Human Body: The human being as a non-anatomical and non-zoological entity. The emphasis is on the philosophical or artistic treatment of the human being, and includes lay and social attitudes toward the body in history. (From J. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Laboratories: Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.West VirginiaTennesseeSensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Virginia

(S)-(-)-Cotinine, the major brain metabolite of nicotine, stimulates nicotinic receptors to evoke [3H]dopamine release from rat striatal slices in a calcium-dependent manner. (1/809)

Cotinine, a major peripheral metabolite of nicotine, has recently been shown to be the most abundant metabolite in rat brain after peripheral nicotine administration. However, little attention has been focused on the contribution of cotinine to the pharmacological effects of nicotine exposure in either animals or humans. The present study determined the concentration-response relationship for (S)-(-)-cotinine-evoked 3H overflow from superfused rat striatal slices preloaded with [3H]dopamine ([3H]DA) and whether this response was mediated by nicotinic receptor stimulation. (S)-(-)-Cotinine (1 microM to 3 mM) evoked 3H overflow from [3H]DA-preloaded rat striatal slices in a concentration-dependent manner with an EC50 value of 30 microM, indicating a lower potency than either (S)-(-)-nicotine or the active nicotine metabolite, (S)-(-)-nornicotine. As reported for (S)-(-)-nicotine and (S)-(-)-nornicotine, desensitization to the effect of (S)-(-)-cotinine was observed. The classic nicotinic receptor antagonists mecamylamine and dihydro-beta-erythroidine inhibited the response to (S)-(-)-cotinine (1-100 microM). Additionally, 3H overflow evoked by (S)-(-)-cotinine (10-1000 microM) was inhibited by superfusion with a low calcium buffer. Interestingly, over the same concentration range, (S)-(-)-cotinine did not inhibit [3H]DA uptake into striatal synaptosomes. These results demonstrate that (S)-(-)-cotinine, a constituent of tobacco products and the major metabolite of nicotine, stimulates nicotinic receptors to evoke the release of DA in a calcium-dependent manner from superfused rat striatal slices. Thus, (S)-(-)-cotinine likely contributes to the neuropharmacological effects of nicotine and tobacco use.  (+info)

The effect of cotinine or cigarette smoke co-administration on the formation of O6-methylguanine adducts in the lung and liver of A/J mice treated with 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) (2/809)

4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), a tobacco-specific nitrosamine, induces lung adenomas in A/J mice, following a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. However, inhalation of tobacco smoke has not induced or promoted tumors in these mice. NNK-induced lung tumorigenesis is thought to involve O6-methylguanine (O6MeG) formation, leading to GC-->AT transitional mispairing and an activation of the K-ras proto-oncogene in the A/J mouse. NNK can be metabolized by several different cytochromes P450, resulting in a number of metabolites. Formation of the promutagenic DNA adduct O6MeG is believed to require metabolic activation of NNK by cytochrome P450-mediated alpha-hydroxylation of the methylene group adjacent to the N-nitroso nitrogen to yield the unstable intermediate, methanediazohydroxide. Nicotine, cotinine (the major metabolite of nicotine), and aqueous cigarette tar extract (ACTE) have all been shown to effectively inhibit metabolic activation of NNK to its mutagenic form, most likely due to competitive inhibition of the cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in alpha-hydroxylation of NNK. The objective of the current study was to monitor the effects of cotinine and cigarette smoke (CS) on the formation of O6MeG in target tissues of mice during the acute phase of NNK treatment. To test the effect of cotinine, mature female A/J mice received a single intraperitoneal injection of NNK (0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, or 10 mumole/mouse) with cotinine administered at a total dose of 50 mumole/mouse in 3 separate i.p. injections, administered 30 min before, immediately after, and 30 min after NNK treatment. To test the effect of whole smoke exposure on NNK-related O6MeG formation, mice were exposed to smoke generated from Kentucky 1R4F reference cigarettes at 0, 0.4, 0.6, or 0.8 mg wet total particulate matter/liter (WTPM/L) for 2 h, with a single i.p. injection of NNK (0, 3.75, or 7.5 mumole/mouse) midway through the exposure. Cigarette smoke alone failed to yield detectable levels of O6MeG. The number of O6MeG adducts following i.p. injection of NNK was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in both lung and liver by cotinine and by cigarette smoke exposure. Our results demonstrate that NNK-induced O6MeG DNA adducts in A/J mice are significantly reduced when NNK is administered together with either cotinine, the major metabolite of nicotine, or the parental complex mixture, cigarette smoke.  (+info)

Detection of benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide-DNA adducts in embryos from smoking couples: evidence for transmission by spermatozoa. (3/809)

Tobacco smoking is deleterious to reproduction. Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a potent carcinogen in cigarette smoke. Its reactive metabolite induces DNA-adducts, which can cause mutations. We investigated whether B[a]P diol epoxide (BPDE) DNA adducts are detectable in preimplantation embryos in relation to parental smoking. A total of 17 couples were classified by their smoking habits: (i) both partners smoke; (ii) wife non-smoker, husband smokes; and (iii) both partners were non-smokers. Their 27 embryos were exposed to an anti-BPDE monoclonal antibody that recognizes BPDE-DNA adducts. Immunostaining was assessed in each embryo and an intensity score was calculated for embryos in each smoking group. The proportion of blastomeres which stained was higher for embryos of smokers than for non-smokers (0.723 versus 0.310). The mean intensity score was also higher for embryos of smokers (1.40+/-0.28) than for non-smokers (0.38+/-0.14; P = 0.015), but was similar for both types of smoking couples. The mean intensity score was positively correlated with the number of cigarettes smoked by fathers (P = 0.02). Increased mean immunostaining in embryos from smokers, relative to non-smokers, indicates a relationship with parental smoking. The similar levels of immunostaining in embryos from both types of smoking couples suggest that transmission of modified DNA is mainly through spermatozoa. We confirmed paternal transmission of modified DNA by detection of DNA adducts in spermatozoa of a smoker father and his embryo.  (+info)

Metabolites of a tobacco-specific carcinogen in urine from newborns. (4/809)

BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking during pregnancy can result in fetal exposure to carcinogens that are transferred from the mother via the placenta, but little information is available on fetal uptake of such compounds. We analyzed samples of the first urine from newborns whose mothers did or did not smoke cigarettes for the presence of metabolites of the potent tobacco-specific transplacental carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). METHODS: The urine was collected and analyzed for two metabolites of NNK, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and its glucuronide (NNAL-Gluc). Gas chromatography and nitrosamine-selective detection, with confirmation by mass spectrometry, were used in the analyses, which were performed without knowledge of the origin of the urine samples. RESULTS: NNAL-Gluc was detected in 22 (71%) of 31 urine samples from newborns of mothers who smoked; NNAL was detected in four of these 31 urine samples. Neither compound was detected in the 17 urine samples from newborns of mothers who did not smoke. The arithmetic mean level of NNAL plus NNAL-Gluc in the 27 newborns of smokers for which both analytes were quantified was 0.14 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.083-0.200) pmol/mL. The levels of NNAL plus NNAL-Gluc in the urine from these babies were statistically significantly higher than those in the urine from newborns of nonsmoking mothers (geometric means = 0.062 [95% CI = 0.035-0.110] and 0.010 [considered as not detected; no confidence interval], respectively; two-sided P<.001). NNAL plus NNAL-Gluc levels in the 18 positive urine samples in which both analytes were quantified ranged from 0.045 to 0.400 pmol/mL, with an arithmetic mean level of 0.20 (95% CI = 0.14-0.26) pmol/mL, about 5%-10% of the levels of these compounds detected in the urine from adult smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Two metabolites of the tobacco-specific transplacental carcinogen NNK can be detected in the urine from newborns of mothers who smoked cigarettes during pregnancy.  (+info)

Urinary cotinine and exposure to parental smoking in a population of children with asthma. (5/809)

BACKGROUND: Studies of the effects of tobacco smoke often rely on reported exposure to cigarette smoke, a measure that is subject to bias. We describe here the relationship between parental smoking exposure as assessed by urinary cotinine excretion and lung function in children with asthma. METHODS: We studied 90 children 4-14 years of age, who reported a confirmed diagnosis or symptoms of asthma. In each child, we assessed baseline pulmonary function (spirometry) and bronchial responsiveness to carbachol stimulation. Urinary cotinine was measured by HPLC with ultraviolet detection. RESULTS: Urinary cotinine concentrations in the children were significantly correlated (P <0.001) with the number of cigarettes the parents, especially the mothers, smoked. Bronchial responsiveness to carbachol (but not spirometry test results) was correlated (P <0.03) with urinary cotinine in the children. CONCLUSION: Passive smoke exposure increases the bronchial responsiveness to carbachol in asthmatic children.  (+info)

Tobacco smoke exposure at one month of age and subsequent risk of SIDS--a prospective study. (6/809)

The aim of this investigation was to identify the sources of postnatal exposure to tobacco smoke at 1 month of age and to examine their relation to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). The Tasmanian Infant Health Survey was a prospective cohort study undertaken from 1988 to 1995. It involved 9,826 infants (89% of eligible infants) at higher risk of SIDS. Subsequently 53 eligible infants died of SIDS. Hospital interviews were available on 51 and home interviews on 35 SIDS infants. Urinary cotinine assays were conducted using gas-liquid chromatography (n = 100). Within a predictive model that explained 63% of urinary cotinine variance, the strongest predictor of cotinine and also of SIDS was maternal smoking, though the effects of prenatal and postnatal smoking could not be separated. However, for particular smoking-related behaviors, there was a discordance between prediction of cotinine concentration and prediction of risk of SIDS. If smoking mothers did not smoke in the room with the baby, the cotinine level in the infant's urine was reduced by a little more than a half (p = 0.009), but this was not associated with a reduction in SIDS risk (odds ratio = 1.09, 95% confidence interval 0.47-2.55). Similarly, the presence of other adult resident smokers was associated with a 63% increase in urinary cotinine (p = 0.047) but not with increased SIDS risk (odds ratio = 0.69, 95% confidence interval 0.34-1.40). However, the study lacked the power to detect modest effects, that is, those altering risk less than twofold.  (+info)

Minor tobacco alkaloids as biomarkers for tobacco use: comparison of users of cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, cigars, and pipes. (7/809)

OBJECTIVES: This study (1) determined levels of various tobacco alkaloids in commercial tobacco products. (2) determined urinary concentrations, urinary excretion, and half-lives of the alkaloids in humans; and (3) examined the possibility that urine concentrations of nicotine-related alkaloids can be used as biomarkers of tobacco use. METHODS: Nicotine intake from various tobacco products was determined through pharmacokinetic techniques. Correlations of nicotine intake with urinary excretion and concentrations of anabasine, anatabine, nornicotine, nicotine, and cotinine were examined. By using urinary excretion data, elimination half-lives of the alkaloids were calculated. RESULTS: Alkaloid levels in commercial tobacco products, in milligrams per gram, were as follows: nicotine, 6.5 to 17.5; nornicotine, 0.14 to 0.66; anabasine, 0.008 to 0.030; and anatabine, 0.065 to 0.27. Measurable concentrations of all alkaloids were excreted in the urine of most subjects smoking cigarettes, cigars, and pipes and using smokeless tobacco. Correlations between nicotine intake and alkaloid concentrations were good to excellent. CONCLUSIONS: Anabasine and anatabine, which are present in tobacco but not in nicotine medications, can be used to assess tobacco use in persons undergoing nicotine replacement therapy.  (+info)

Advising parents of asthmatic children on passive smoking: randomised controlled trial. (8/809)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether parents of asthmatic children would stop smoking or alter their smoking habits to protect their children from environmental tobacco smoke. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Tayside and Fife, Scotland. PARTICIPANTS: 501 families with an asthmatic child aged 2-12 years living with a parent who smoked. INTERVENTION: Parents were told about the impact of passive smoking on asthma and were advised to stop smoking or change their smoking habits to protect their child's health. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Salivary cotinine concentrations in children, and changes in reported smoking habits of the parents 1 year after the intervention. RESULTS: At the second visit, about 1 year after the baseline visit, a small decrease in salivary cotinine concentrations was found in both groups of children: the mean decrease in the intervention group (0.70 ng/ml) was slightly smaller than that of the control group (0.88 ng/ml), but the net difference of 0.19 ng/ml had a wide 95% confidence interval (-0.86 to 0.48). Overall, 98% of parents in both groups still smoked at follow up. However, there was a non-significant tendency for parents in the intervention group to report smoking more at follow up and to having a reduced desire to stop smoking. CONCLUSIONS: A brief intervention to advise parents of asthmatic children about the risks from passive smoking was ineffective in reducing their children's exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. The intervention may have made some parents less inclined to stop smoking. If a clinician believes that a child's health is being affected by parental smoking, the parent's smoking needs to be addressed as a separate issue from the child's health.  (+info)

*Cotinine

Salivary cotinine concentrations are highly correlated to blood cotinine concentrations, and can detect cotinine in a low range ... At steady state, plasma cotinine levels are determined by the amount of cotinine formation and the rate of cotinine removal, ... Cotinine is an alkaloid found in tobacco and is also the predominant metabolite of nicotine. Cotinine is used as a biomarker ... Cotinine was developed as an antidepressant as a fumaric acid salt, cotinine fumarate, to be sold under the brand name Scotine ...

*Nicotine

Cotinine is an active metabolite of nicotine that remains in the blood with a half-life of 18-20 hours, making it easier to ... Urinary or salivary cotinine concentrations are frequently measured for the purposes of pre-employment and health insurance ... Bhalala, Oneil (Spring 2003). "Detection of Cotinine in Blood Plasma by HPLC MS/MS". MIT Undergraduate Research Journal. 8: 45- ... Grizzell, JA; Echeverria, V (Jun 2014). "New insights into the mechanisms of action of cotinine and its distinctive effects ...

*Electronic cigarette aerosol and liquid

Serum cotinine levels (a metabolite of nicotine) have been found to be similar in bystanders exposed to either e-cigarette ... Marsot, A; Simon, N (March 2016). "Nicotine and Cotinine Levels With Electronic Cigarette: A Review". International journal of ... aerosol produced by a machine and pumped into a room were found to have detectable levels of the nicotine metabolite cotinine ...

*Evolutionary models of human drug use

Dempsey, Delia; Jacob, Peyton; Benowitz, Neal L. (2002-05-01). "Accelerated metabolism of nicotine and cotinine in pregnant ... load among Aka hunter-gatherers that treatment with commercial anthelmintics was associated with a decrease in cotinine ...

*Safety of electronic cigarettes

Serum cotinine levels are comparable to that of traditional cigarettes, but are inharmonious and rely upon the user and the ... Marsot, A.; Simon, N. (March 2016). "Nicotine and Cotinine Levels With Electronic Cigarette: A Review". International Journal ... Since nicotine-containing e-liquids are made from tobacco they may contain impurities like cotinine, anabasine, anatabine, ...

*Youth smoking

"Time to first cigarette after waking predicts cotinine levels". Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Biomarkers. 18 (12): 3415- ...

*Passive smoking

However, cotinine levels found in the urine reflect exposure only over the preceding 48 hours. Cotinine levels of the skin, ... Cotinine, the metabolite of nicotine, is a biomarker of second-hand smoke exposure. Typically, cotinine is measured in the ... Urinary cotinine levels have been a reliable biomarker of tobacco exposure and have been used as a reference in many ... Cotinine accumulates in hair during hair growth, which results in a measure of long-term, cumulative exposure to tobacco smoke ...

*Smoking cessation

Cotinine: A metabolite of nicotine, cotinine is present in smokers. Like carbon monoxide, a cotinine test can serve as a ... Cotinine levels can be tested through urine, saliva, blood, or hair samples, with one of the main concerns of cotinine testing ... As an example, breath CO monitoring is non-invasive, while cotinine testing relies on a bodily fluid. These two methods can be ...

*Smoking and pregnancy

"Nicotine and cotinine in infants dying from sudden infant death syndrome". International Journal of Legal Medicine. 122 (1): 23 ...

*UGT1A4

Nakajima M, Tanaka E, Kwon JT, Yokoi T (2003). "Characterization of nicotine and cotinine N-glucuronidations in human liver ... Kuehl GE, Murphy SE (2004). "N-glucuronidation of nicotine and cotinine by human liver microsomes and heterologously expressed ...

*Tobacco smoke

The metabolites include isomethylnicotinium ion, nornicotine, cotinine, and nicotine-1-N-oxide. Nicotine passes into breast ... cotinine, and 2,3'-bipyridyl. The nicotine molecule contains two nitrogen atoms with basic properties. The nicotine molecule ...

*Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health

Sodium, potassium, iodine and cotinine will be assessed in the urine samples. This sub-study is supported by an agreement with ...

*CYP2A6

... is the primary enzyme responsible for the oxidation of nicotine and cotinine. It is also involved in the metabolism of ...

*Nico-N

Cotinine, a nontoxic metabolite of nicotine, could be removed from the body in urine. Increase of the cotinine production from ... Urine analysis showed that cotinine concentration of smokers treated with Nico-N increased dose dependently compared to the non ...

*Dipping tobacco

... and nicotine and cotinine levels in professional baseball players". American Journal of Public Health. 82 (3): 417-21. doi: ...

*Nicotine poisoning

Cotinine is an active metabolite of nicotine that remains in the blood for 18-20 hours, making it easier to analyze due to its ... Increased nicotine or cotinine (the nicotine metabolite) is detected in urine or blood, or serum nicotine concentrations ... Bhalala, Oneil (Spring 2003). "Detection of Cotinine in Blood Plasma by HPLC MS/MS". MIT Undergraduate Research Journal. 8: 45- ...

*Nicotiana tabacum

Pyridyl functional groups present in minute amounts include anabasine, myosmine, cotinine and 2, 3′-bipyridyl. The tobacco ...

*Hydrology of Fishing Creek (North Branch Susquehanna River)

The concentration of cotinine in the waters of Fishing Creek was measured eight times in 2008 and 2009. All of these times, the ...

*UGT2B10

2007). "Glucuronidation of nicotine and cotinine by UGT2B10: loss of function by the UGT2B10 Codon 67 (Asp>Tyr) polymorphism". ...

*2-Pyrrolidone

A variety of pharmaceutical drugs are 2-pyrrolidone derivatives including: Cotinine Doxapram Piracetam Povidone Ethosuximide 2- ...

*Sidestream smoke

One study found that higher levels of cotinine in children were correlated with a decreased ability to perform in reading and ... and cotinine in the blood. When comparing sidestream and mainstream condensate, side stream has 2-6 times more condensate per ...

*List of MeSH codes (D03)

... cotinine MeSH D03.383.773.812.226 --- doxapram MeSH D03.383.773.812.498 --- oxotremorine MeSH D03.383.773.812.555 --- piracetam ...

*C10H12N2O

The molecular formula C10H12N2O (molar mass 176.22 g/mol, exact mass : 176.094963) may refer to: Cotinine, a substance found in ...

*Health effects of tobacco

Recent studies have shown a positive relationship between psychological distress and salivary cotinine levels in smoking and ...

*Anti-tobacco movement in Nazi Germany

... transfer of nicotine and cotinine into human milk", Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 74 (6): 516-524, doi:10.1016/j.clpt. ...
BACKGROUND: No prospective studies are available on serum cotinine level as a marker of lung cancer risk. METHODS: We analyzed serum cotinine level among 1,741 individuals enrolled since the 1970s in a prospective study of Norwegian volunteers who developed lung cancer during the follow-up and 1,741 matched controls free from lung cancer. Serum cotinine was measured with a competitive immunoassay. Regression dilution was corrected for based on repeated measures on samples from 747 subjects. RESULTS: Mean serum cotinine level was higher in cases than in controls. Compared with subjects with a cotinine level of | or = 5 ng/mL, the odds ratio of lung cancer was increasing linearly, reaching 55.1 (95% confidence interval, 35.7-85.0) among individuals with a serum cotinine level of | 378 ng/mL. There was no clear suggestion of a plateau in risk at high exposure levels. Odds ratios were very similar in men and women. We found no association between serum cotinine level (range, 0.1-9.9 ng/mL) and lung cancer
For example, lets say that the child lives with parent 1, who also provides regular medical care to the child. If the child keeps getting respiratory illnesses after spending weekends with parent 2, then it would be reasonable to wonder if the child is exposed to something, such as second-hand smoke, at parent 2s home. This would be detrimental to the childs health, not to mention be very aggravating for the parent 1, who has to take care of the sick child during the week, only to have the child become ill again in the same pattern. In this example, if cotinine levels are to be used, then a combination approach may be useful. Parent 1 should document by testing that his or her cotinine level is 0 by serum and urine tests the day that the child goes to parent 2. The childs urine cotinine level, by serum and urine tests, should be measure on the same day. Ideally, the cotinine levels of parent 2 and the child would be measured, although I have never seen a parent 2 cooperate. On the day the ...
NHANES III was conducted in two phases: October 1988--September 1991 and October 1991--September 1994. Additional information is available at http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes.htm. Cotinine is a metabolite only of nicotine. Among nonsmokers, the presence of cotinine in serum indicates exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke. From 1988--1991 through 2001--2002, median serum cotinine levels decreased by 74% in children aged 4--11 years, 79% in persons aged 12--19 years, and 83% in persons aged ,20 years, suggesting a substantial reduction in the exposure of the U.S. population to secondhand tobacco smoke. SOURCE: Pirkle JL, Bernert JT, Caudill SP, Sosnoff CS, Pechacek TF. Trends in the exposure of nonsmokers in the U.S. population to secondhand smoke: 1988--2002. Environ Health Perspect 2006;114:853--8. ...
Background. Few studies have shown that self-reported secondhand smoke exposure in never smokers is associated with high blood pressure. However, there are no studies investigating the relationship between secondhand smoke exposure, measured objectively by serum cotinine levels, and high blood pressure in never smokers. Methods. We examined never smokers (.. = 2027) from the National Health and Nu
Kim, I., Wtsadik, A., Choo, R., Jones, H., & Huestis, M. (2005). Usefulness of salivary trans-3 Hydroxycotinine concentration and trans-3 Hydroxycotinine / cotinine ratio as biomarkers of cigarette smoke in pregnant women. Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 29, 689 - 695 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Did smokefree legislation in England reduce exposure to secondhand smoke among nonsmoking adults? Cotinine analysis from the health survey for England. AU - Sims, Michelle. AU - Mindell, Jennifer S.. AU - Jarvis, Martin J.. AU - Feyerabend, Colin. AU - Wardle, Heather. AU - Gilmore, Anna. PY - 2012/3. Y1 - 2012/3. N2 - Background: On 1 July 2007, smokefree legislation was implemented in England, which made virtually all enclosed public places and workplaces smokefree. Objectives: We examined trends in and predictors of secondhand smoke exposure among nonsmoking adults to determine whether exposure changed after the introduction of smokefree legislation and whether these changes varied by socioeconomic status (SES) and by household smoking status. Methods: We analyzed salivary cotinine data from the Health Survey for England that were collected in 7 of 11 annual surveys undertaken between 1998 and 2008. We conducted multivariate regression analyses to examine secondhand smoke ...
Bernert, J. T., Jacob, P., Holiday, D., Benowitz, N. L., Sosnoff, C. S., Doig, M. V., ... Langman, L. J. (2009). Interlaboratory comparability of serum cotinine measurements at smoker and nonsmoker concentration levels: A round-robin study. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 11(12), 1458-1466 ...
A nationally representative survey of the US population used 85.2 nmol/l (15 ng/ml) serum cotinine as a cut off for distinguishing smokers from non-smokers.17 Heavy exposure to secondhand smoke, however, may produce saliva concentrations as high as 177.8 nmol/l (31.3 ng/ml).10 Given the high exposures in bar workers,9 10 and as salivary concentrations are 25% higher than serum concentrations,18 we defined non-smokers as those who reported being former smokers or who had never smoked and had salivary cotinine concentration , 113.6 nmol/l (20 ng/ml). We excluded people who claimed to be non-smokers but had salivary cotinine concentration ≥113.6 nmol/l as we considered them to be active smokers.. To measure any changes, we analysed symptoms individually, grouped into two dichotomous variables (any respiratory symptoms and any sensory symptoms), and as two symptom scores (total number of respiratory symptoms and total number of sensory symptoms reported by each individual).. Analyses (changes ...
To the Editor:. We read with interest the well-written article by Alshaarawy et al1 that investigated the association of hypertension with secondhand smoke in 2889 never smokers from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Authors demonstrated that serum cotinine was positively associated with both systolic blood pressure (BP) and prevalence of hypertension. Although the determinant as depicted by serum cotinine levels-at first sight-seems appropriate to evaluate the exposure of participants to passive smoke, there are some obscured points that need to be clarified.. It is not reported whether cotinine assessment was performed on the same day of BP measurements. We should acknowledge that beyond BP variability evaluation2 completely lacking in the present study, there might also be variability in cotinine levels.3 This latter phenomenon could not be ruled out by the design of the present study,1 as exposure was not evaluated by structured questionnaires examining the periodicity of ...
Title:Neuroinflammation: A Therapeutic Target of Cotinine for the Treatment of Psychiatric Disorders?. VOLUME: 22 ISSUE: 10. Author(s):Valentina Echeverria, J. Alex Grizzell and George E. Barreto. Affiliation:10,000 Bay Pines Blvd, Bay Pines, FL 33744, USA.. Keywords:Neuroinflammation, Major depression, cotinine, Post-traumatic stress disorder, Bipolar disorder, suicide, anxiety.. Abstract:Neuroinflammation is a common characteristic of several mental health conditions such as major depression, bipolar disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and schizophrenia (SCHZ). Inflammatory processes trigger and/or further deteriorate mental functions and are regarded as targets for therapeutic drug development. Cotinine is an alkaloid present in tobacco leaves and the main metabolite of nicotine. Cotinine is safe, non-addictive and has pharmacokinetic properties adequate for therapeutic use. Research has shown that cotinine has antipsychotic, anxiolytic, and antidepressant properties and modulates ...
Cigarette smoke is a complex mixture containing, among other chemicals, pyridine alkaloids and N-nitrosamines. Carcinogenic tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), are both activated by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2E1 in rats. Previous reports indicate that nicotine and the main nicotine metabolite, cotinine, reduce the mutagenicity of both NNK and NDMA in Salmonella typhimurium. To study the mechanism of this effect, we examined inhibition of CYP 2E1 activity, as assessed by p-nitrophenol (pNP) hydroxylation, by nicotine, cotinine, and an aqueous cigarette tar extract (ACTE) in human 2E1-expressing microsomes. At all substrate concentrations (0-1.25 mM) nicotine was a significantly more potent inhibitor of CYP 2E1 activity compared to cotinine. Estimated Ki values for nicotine and cotinine (both at 10 mM) were 13 mM (2 mg/ml) and 308 mM (54 mg/ml) respectively. The Ki for ACTE was 0.2 mg/ml at a concentration of 0.32 mg/ml.
Methods This study used a pre/postintervention experimental design. The setting was bars in 12 Michigan counties. Subjects were bar employees, recruited through flyers and individual discussions with local health department staff. Participants completed a screening questionnaire to determine eligibility. A total of 40 eligible employees completed a demographic survey, provided urine samples for analysis of cotinine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and completed questionnaires on respiratory and general health status 6 weeks before and 6-10 weeks after the law went into effect. The main outcome measures were urine samples for total cotinine and total NNAL and data from a self-administered respiratory and general health status questionnaire collected during the pre-law and post-law study periods. ...
Nicotine and cotinine in hair are good biomarkers for assessing long-term exposure to smoking. However, analytical devices such as GC/MS are associated with high cost and are not widely used. HPLC/UV is used widely in laboratories, but is unsuitable for measurement of minor constituents, except when using the column-switching method. Thus, we aimed to establish a simple, inexpensive and sensitive method based on HPLC/UV with column switching for measuring nicotine and cotinine in hair. First, we compared the presence and absence of a column selection unit. We then measured amounts of nicotine and cotinine in hair samples collected from the general population, and compared both the corresponding levels and the detection limits with those in previous studies. Finally, initial and running costs of HPLC/UV were compared with other analytical methods. As one of the results, the areas of nicotine and cotinine measured by HPLC/UV with column-switching method were 12.9 and 16.9 times greater,
In this study, we evaluated the associations of smoking and alcohol intake, both independently and collectively, with sodium intake in Korean men. Subjects (6340 men) were from the fifth Korean National Health Examination Survey (2010-2012). Smoking-related factors included smoking status, urinary cotinine level, and pack-years of smoking. Food intake was assessed using a 24-h recall. The odds of excessive sodium intake were estimated using survey logistic regression analysis. The smoking rate was 44.1%. The geometric mean of the urinary cotinine level was 0.05 µg/mL, and the median (min-max) pack-years of smoking was 13.2 (0-180). When adjusted for related factors, the odds (95% confidence interval) of excessive sodium intake were 1.54 (1.00, 2.37), 1.55 (1.23, 1.94), 1.44 (1.07, 1.95), and 1.37 (1.11, 1.68) times higher in the group exposed to smoking and drinking than in the group that never smoked nor drank, the group that never smoked and drank <5 times per month, the group that did not
In this issue of Thorax a further paper from Dundee is published which explores a group of 438 children aged 2-12 years with asthma. In their first paper1 the authors investigated passive smoke exposure, as measured by salivary cotinine levels, and found that exposure to tobacco smoke was highest where housing conditions were crowded and where several heavy smokers smoked in the same room as the child. In a second paper2the authors reported that the intervention of asking the parents to reduce the exposure of their asthmatic children to tobacco smoke was ineffective.. The latest paper by Crombie et al 3 on page 9 investigates how often the 438 asthmatic children were taken to their family practitioners (GPs), either for asthma or non-asthma problems, and relates this to their smoke exposure. Smoke exposure was assessed both by salivary cotinine levels and also by the history of intensity of exposure as judged by the number of parents who smoked, how many cigarettes they smoked, and whether the ...
OBJECTIVES:. The primary objective of this study is to determine if providing urine cotinine feedback to caregivers in conjunction with standard education will be more effective than education alone in reducing patient SHS exposure.. The secondary objectives of this study are:. To determine whether urine cotinine feedback in conjunction with education provided to the caregiver is more effective in changing parental smoking behavior compared to education alone.. As an exploratory measure we will collect history and physical exam data to follow patients clinical complications during the study to determine if patients with a decrease in SHS exposure also have a decrease in clinical complications. ...
When and how often laboratory tests are done may depend on many factors. The timing of laboratory tests may rely on the results or completion of other tests, procedures, or treatments. Lab tests may be performed immediately in an emergency, or tests may be delayed as a condition is treated or monitored. A test may be suggested or become necessary when certain signs or symptoms appear. Due to changes in the way your body naturally functions through the course of a day, lab tests may need to be performed at a certain time of day. If you have prepared for a test by changing your food or fluid intake, lab tests may be timed in accordance with those changes. Timing of tests may be based on increased and decreased levels of medications, drugs or other substances in the body. The age or gender of the person being tested may affect when and how often a lab test is required. Chronic or progressive conditions may need ongoing monitoring through the use of lab tests. Conditions that worsen and improve may ...
Previous studies report that low levels cognitive function and history of smoking are associated with increased mortality risk. Elderly smokers may have increased risk of dementia, but risk in former smokers is unclear. We tested the hypotheses that the harmful effect of impaired cognitive function as related to mortality is greater in persons smoking at baseline than in others. Further, we used serum cotinine levels to assess recall bias of smoking history by cognitive function level. Data were analyzed from a longitudinal mortality follow-up study of 4,916 American men and women aged 60 years and over, examined in 1988-1994 with complete data followed an average 8.5 years. Measurements at baseline included smoking history, a short index of cognitive function (SICF), serum cotinine and socio-demographics. Death during follow-up occurred in 1,919 persons. In proportional hazards regression analysis, a significant interaction of current smoking with cognitive function was not found; but there was a
Cotinine is a metabolite (byproduct) of nicotine as it is processed by the human body. Cotinine is an indicator that nicotine has been inhaled or otherwi...
Cotinine: The N-glucuronide conjugate of cotinine is a major urinary metabolite of NICOTINE. It thus serves as a biomarker of exposure to tobacco SMOKING. It has CNS stimulating properties.
The iScreen OFD Cotinine Saliva Test detects the presence of cotinine (the main metabolite in nicotine) for up to 1-2 days after use. Limited quantity! Offer Expires: 5/31/2020
Fu M, Martínez-Sánchez JM, Agudo A, Pascual JA, Borràs JM, Samet JM, et al. Association Between Time to First Cigarette After Waking Up and Salivary Cotinine Concentration. Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. 2011;13(3):168-72. Abstract ...
Fu M, Martínez-Sánchez JM, Agudo A, Pascual JA, Ariza C, Moncada A, et al. Nicotine depedence and salivary cotinine concentration in daily smokers. European journal of cancer prevention : the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP). 2012;21(1):96-102. Abstract ...
How the study was done. The study subjects were 16,046 people who had participated in the third National Health and Nutrition Survey in 1988-1994, and for whom demographic, smoke exposure, and serum TSH, antithyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) antibody, and antithyroglobulin (anti-Tg) antibody results were available. Smoking or smoke exposure was determined by measuring serum cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine; people with concentrations ,15 ng/ml were designated as active smokers, and those with concentrations ≤15 ng/ml as nonsmokers.. The results of the study. There were 5134 active smokers (32 percent) and 10,912 nonsmokers (68 percent). More men than women were active smokers. Fewer active smokers than nonsmokers had high (,4.5 mU/L) serum TSH concentrations (2.6 vs. 5.4 percent). Serum TSH concentrations were low (,0.1 mU/L) in 0.6 percent of active smokers and 0.3 percent of nonsmokers, and the concentrations were slightly low (0.1 to 0.4 mU/L) in 2.2 and 1.2 percent, respectively. Fewer ...
The researchers in this study defined living a healthy lifestyle as meeting four parameters: being sufficiently active (150 mins of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity each week), eating a healthy diet (based on a 24-hour recall), being a nonsmoker (serum cotinine level) and having a recommended body-fat percentage (5%-20% for men, and 8%-30% for women). Researchers then examined the association between having different combinations of these characteristics and several biomarkers for cardiovascular disease. The results from the study came from a survey of 4,745 adults ...
The mean age±standard deviation (range) of the subjects was 42.8±6.2 (33-58). Subjects at a workplace with a current history of treatment for diabetes and/or subjects whose fasting plasma glucose level was ≥140 mg/dL were excluded from the analysis. Sampling of saliva was conducted using Salisoft® (Assist Co. Ltd., Tokyo). The analyses were performed by high-performance liquid chromatography using "CAPCELL PAK MG II C18" (Shiseido Co. Ltd., Tokyo) columns under the 195temperature of 50℃ and wavelength of 262 nm. The detection limits for nicotine and cotinine were 5 ng/mL and 10 ng/mL, respectively. As an indicator of insulin resistance, the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)5 was calculated as follows: HOMA-IR=(Fasting plasma glucose×Fasting serum insulin)/405. Units of glucose and insulin used for the calculation of HOMA-R were mg/dL and µIU/mL, respectively. Bernert et al.6 reported a regression line of salivary cotinine against the serum cotinine as Log10 ...
In most heavy smokers, cotinine levels fall below the detectable range after two weeks of abstinence, according to Mayo Clinic. This means that the laboratory test will show a value of less than 2...
In testing that included more than 1,200 children, researchers found that up to 15 percent of them had levels of cotinine, a byproduct of the bodys breakdown of nicotine, comparable with what would be found in an adult smoker.. Overall, about 63 percent of the babies and young children in the study had discernible levels of cotinine, evidence of significant exposure to second- and third-hand smoke, according to the study, published last week in the journal Nicotine & Tobacco Research. Previous similar research, focused on older children, detected cotinine in less than half of the children studied or did not document levels of cotinine, Medical Xpress reported.. For those who remain skeptical about the bodys susceptibility to passive smoke exposure, the study may serve as a wake-up call.. Were finding (as much as) 15 percent of the babies have levels as if they were smokers themselves, said Clancy Blair, senior study author and a professor of cognitive psychology at New York ...
Smoking and using tobacco products can be a difficult habit to qualm. Learn about nicotine drug testing, the difference between nicotine and cotinine, and more.
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The N-glucuronide conjugate of cotinine is a major urinary metabolite of NICOTINE. It thus serves as a biomarker of exposure to tobacco SMOKING. It has CNS stimulating properties ...
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The Healthy Babies Project is an effectiveness trial designed to determine the effects of clinic-based behavioral counseling on environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure among low-SES infants of smoking mothers, as measured by parent reports and babies urine cotinine values. One hundred and fifty women with children age three and younger have been recruited from two community clinic populations receiving well-baby care. Mothers were randomly assigned to a usual-treatment control group or to an experimental/counseling group which receives seven counseling sessions over six months. Counseling is administered by trained clinic staff. Mothers are assisted in setting personal goals for reducing their infants ETS exposure. Contingency contracting, shaping, and stimulus control are incorporated into individualized sessions which encourage mothers to decrease their babies exposure to ETS. All participants are interviewed at baseline, 3-months (mid-intervention), 6-months (post-intervention), and ...
Using data from the 1999-2012 National Health Nutrition and Examination Survey (NHANES), the researchers analyzed 25,522 individuals for the presence of five substances in the blood or urine that indicate tobacco exposure.. Three of these substances - lead, cadmium and arsenic - can be found in environmental sources, as well as tobacco. The other two substances - cotinine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) - are only found in tobacco.. Results of the analysis revealed that, compared with non-smokers, cigar smokers had much higher concentrations of cotinine and cadmium in their blood and NNAL in their urine. This result remained even after the team accounted for current cigarette smoking status.. Cotinine - an anagram of nicotine - is a compound produced after nicotine enters the body and is classed as the most reliable measurement of tobacco exposure. Cadmium is an element that has been linked to a number of health conditions in humans - such as kidney disease, inflammation ...
Some large ecological studies have noted a significant association of testicular cancer (TC) with maternal smoking during pregnancy, while several more controlled studies have been negative. It has been difficult to obtain reliable data on exposure because of the long lag time to cancer diagnosis. We performed a case-control study nested within Finnish, Swedish and Icelandic maternity cohorts exploiting early pregnancy serum samples to evaluate the role of maternal smoking in the risk of TC in the offspring. After reviewing the literature, we also performed a meta-analysis of published studies. For each index mother of the TC patient, three to nine matched control mothers with a cancer-free son born at the same time as the TC case were identified within each cohort. First trimester sera were retrieved from the 70 index mothers and 519 control mothers and were tested for cotinine level by a novel HPLC-MS-MS method developed. No statistically significant association between maternal cotinine level ...
Methods A case-control study was nested in four Nordic serum banks containing serum samples from approximately 1 000 000 women. Linkage to cancer registries resulted to 604 ICC cases diagnosed after serum sampling. Five controls were matched to bank, age at sampling and storage time. IgG antibodies specific for HPV types, C trachomatis and HSV-2 were determined, and tobacco smoke exposure measured by serum cotinine, and HPV DNA in cancer tissue PCR-tested. ORs were estimated by conditional logistic regression, and adjusted for cotinine and for HPV16, HPV18 and C trachomatis, when applicable. ...
CINCINNATI (TDB) -- Researchers studying the harmful health effects of tobacco report that black children exposed to secondhand smoke "have significantly higher toxin levels when compared to their Caucasian counterparts." The study of 220 children with asthma found that the African- American youngsters had higher levels of cotinine, a product of nicotine metabolism in the human body. The presence cotinine means a human was exposed to tobacco smoke, which is the only known source of the chemical marker. All of the youngsters, between ages 5 and 12, lived in homes with smokers who lit up at least 5 times a day ...
The first step will be to unfreeze the blood samples the children come from a 15-year longitudinal database kept by Dr. Frank Treiber, MCG vice president for research and a GPI child psychologist. Then Drs. Yanbin Dong and Haidong Zhu, MCG molecular geneticists, will perform the genotyping looking for children with variations in the identified genes. Dr. Gaston Kapuku, a GPI cardiologist, will help interpret the cardiovascular measures. The blood samples will then be sent to Advanced Bioanalytical Service Laboratories in London for analysis of cotinine levels, a metabolized version of nicotine and a reliable indicator of secondhand smoke exposure ...
Among persons aged 12 to 39 in 1988 to 1994, smoking, adiposity, and an elevated HbA1c level were associated with an overall increased risk for death before age 55, and elevated blood pressure was associated with an increased risk for death from endogenous causes. Although the strength of the relationship between the various risk factors and risk for early death was reduced when we adjusted for study subjects history of chronic diseases, this reduction was not surprising, given that diabetes is defined largely on the basis of elevated HbA1c levels and heart disease is associated with elevated blood pressure. Of the 4 factors we found to be associated with risk of dying before age 55, cotinine concentration and WHR had the strongest and most consistent associations, whereas only very high blood pressure and HbA1c levels were significantly associated with an increased risk. These findings underscore the importance of obesity prevention and tobacco control interventions for adolescents and young ...
The Nicotine (COT) Test is for the detection of Cotinine in human urine. Cotinine is a residual of Nicotine which remains in the body of habitual tobacco users. The test is intended to determine tobacco or nicotine use. ...
Scientists have isolated two chemicals that can cause cancer and may enable doctors to identify, which smoker will develop cancer, study reported. Smokers which have the high concentration of nicotine by-products "NNAL" and "cotinine" have the higher risk of developing lung cancer than the smoker with low concentration of NNAL and cotinine in their urine. Read more ...
... : MSIT Experiment-Control;without cotinine as covariate (red), and with cotinine as covariate (green) - yellow indicates the areas where they overlap ...
Smoking addiction subsides after finding unusual habit;. two months with no need for a cigarette;. you are urged to (1) consult The Gold Standard EFT Tapping.. Price Of Generic Lexapro At Walmart 1 cost of 30 10 mg lexapro. 1 how to wean off 20mg of lexapro After the treatment,. few months to change the 20/40 eye to 20/20.buspar to quit smoking. my anxiety was from trying to take a tbreak after months of very. on quitting smoking.Hi Deborah.I`m on Buspar for anxiety.. One months notice or One months notice How does that work then? The second is correct. If you use one month then its adverbial (no apostrophe);.I recently came back to pokefarmer after quitting pokemon go for approximately 3 months. Results 1 to 1 of 1 Thread:. I recently came back to pokefarmer after.how long does cotinine stay in blood and urine after. I need to past this blood test within a month and I am. Will I pass after quitting for 1 week along.. . manufacturer Hitachi Zosen never for a moment considered quitting,. After ...
Pharmacotherapy provision based on Nicotine Metabolite Ratio (NMR) status (slow/normal metabolism) may improve smoking cessation rates. However, it is unclear whether NMR status is consistent across patient characteristics and current treatment choice. Data come from 1,826 participants attending Stop Smoking Services (SSS) across England in 2012/13. Sociodemographic, mental/physical health, smoking and treatment characteristics (nicotine replacement therapy vs. other pharmacotherapy; group vs. one-to-one behavioural support) were assessed. Salivary nicotine metabolites were measured and NMR (3-hydroxycotinine/cotinine) computed, characterising smokers as slow (NMR,0.31) or normal (NMR≥0.31) metabolisers. Normal metabolisers were older than slow metabolisers (Odds Ratio (OR) =1.49, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) =1.32-1.69) but no other characteristics were associated with NMR status. Overall, predictors accounted for only 7.3% of NMR variance. In adjusted analysis, pharmacotherapy type was not ...
Author(s): Benowitz, NL | Abstract: Biomarkers are desirable for quantitating human exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and for predicting potential health risks for exposed individuals. A number of biomarkers of ETS have been proposed. At present cotinine, measured in blood, saliva, or urine, appears to be the most specific and the most sensitive biomarker. In nonsmokers with significant exposure to ETS, cotinine levels in the body are derived primarily from tobacco smoke, can be measured with extremely high sensitivity, and reflect exposure to a variety of types of cigarettes independent of machine-determined yield. Under conditions of sustained exposure to ETS (i.e., over hours or days), cotinine levels reflect exposure to other components of ETS. Supporting the validity of cotinine as a biomarker, cotinine levels have been positively correlated to the risks of some ETS-related health complications in children who are not cigarette smokers.
We describe a simple, sensitive, and specific high-performance liquid-chromatographic method with ultraviolet detection (256 nm) for the simultaneous analysis of nicotine and cotinine in urine of passive smokers. The analytes are extracted and purified from the complex and impure matrix in two stages; first, by liquid-liquid extraction and followed by solid-phase extraction (C2 column). We used a "DB" C8 5-microns-particle column (25 x 0.46 cm) and a mobile phase of phosphate-citrate buffer and acetonitrile (91:9 by vol) containing 5 mL of triethylamine and 600 mg of heptanesulfonate per liter, adjusted to pH 4.4, to separate the compounds. Two internal standards (2-phenylimidazole and N-ethylnorcotinine) were used. The detection limit of the HPLC assay was less than 1 microgram/L for both analytes. The average interassay CV for nicotine was 7.6%, for cotinine 6.5%, in the concentration range 0-60 micrograms/L. The mean analytical recovery of nicotine with respect to the internal standard ...
Involuntary (or passive) smoking is the exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS) which is a mixture of exhaled mainstream smoke and side stream smoke released from a smouldering cigarette or other smoking device (cigar, pipe, bidi, etc.) and diluted with ambient air. Second-hand tobacco smoke is also referred to as "environmental" tobacco smoke (ETS). Involuntary smoking involves inhaling carcinogens and other toxic components that are present in second-hand tobacco smoke.. Article 8 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, adopted by all WHO Member States in May 2003, reads:. ...
Results of this study show that measurement of cotinine levels was useful not only for quantifying ETS exposure but also for categorizing the children exposed to smoking, and non-smoking mothers (categorized further in exposed to other smokers, and non-exposed). Furthermore, as a whole, a decrease in the percentage of non exposed children to tobacco smoke and an increase in the percentage of children with a small-medium ETS exposure have been documented during the 4-year follow-up period. Conversely, the very high exposure found at birth (measuring cotinine in cord blood) and coming from the direct feto-placental passage of high amount of tobacco smoke from heavy smoker mothers disappeared.. The moderate linear relationship between results of maternal self-reporting and urinary cotinine in the 4 year olds was useful to distinguish between the presence or absence of smoking mothers, in agreement with other studies [15-17, 24]. On the basis of these results, different authors [25, 26] have ...
Learn about secondhand tobacco smoke, which can raise your risk of lung cancer. Secondhand tobacco smoke is the combination of the smoke given off by a burning tobacco product and the smoke exhaled by a smoker. Also called environmental tobacco smoke, involuntary smoke, and passive smoke.
Despite improvements in recent years, exposure to SHS remains a significant health risk and public health concern (6). Earlier NHANES evaluations have measured serum cotinine as an index of SHS exposure in the U.S. population and have documented the widespread nature of these exposures. When a cigarette burns, the tobacco-specific nitrosamines partition into mainstream and sidestream smoke and can be measured in the resulting SHS. Thus, nonsmokers are also exposed to tobacco-specific nitrosamines. Consequently, beginning with NHANES 2007 to 2008, we began measuring total urinary NNAL in all participants with the age of ≥6 years. Although concentrations of this carcinogenic metabolite of the tobacco-specific contaminant NNK were much lower than the levels of serum cotinine, we measured total urinary NNAL at or above its detection limit in 41% of nonsmokers, including many young children. In a subgrouping of nonsmokers with elevated levels of serum cotinine indicating relatively substantial ...
BACKGROUND:. Secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure increases asthma morbidity in children. Efforts to reduce exposure have had mixed results. This study is a randomized controlled trial of an exposure reduction intervention, with objective feedback to parents on the childs exposure based on urine cotinine measurement, and counseling tailored to the childs specific exposure sources/locations and parental readiness to take specific actions to reduce exposure from each source/location. This trial involves 350 SHS-exposed children with persistent asthma, 3-12 years of age, receiving care from the Kaiser Health Care Program in Northern California. Primary outcomes over the 18 months of follow-up will be asthma acute care utilization and urine cotinine/creatine ratio. Changes in controller medication adherence will be evaluated using a pharmacy-based dispensing index.. DESIGN NARRATIVE:. Primary objective: To evaluate the efficacy of a behaviorally-based, cotinine-feedback-and-monitoring program ...
This investigation was initiated as a result of proposals in the literature that dietary nicotine intake could contribute to the level of nicotine metabolites in biological fluids such as salivary cotinine concentration. Nicotine concentration was determined in several frequently consumed vegetables …
In samples from controlled randomized clinical trials, a smokers rate of nicotine metabolism, measured by the 3-hydroxycotinine to cotinine ratio (NMR), predicts response to transdermal nicotine. Replication of this relationship in community-based samples of treatment-seeking smokers may help guide the implementation of the NMR for personalized treatment for nicotine dependence. Data from a community-based sample of treatment seeking smokers (N = 499) who received 8 weeks of transdermal nicotine and 4 behavioral counseling sessions were used to evaluate associations between the NMR and smoking cessation. Secondary outcomes included withdrawal and craving, depression and anxiety, side effects, and treatment adherence. ...
Health, ...A new study shows that exposure to secondhand smoke at home or in the ...The study published in the journal Pediatrics raises the poss...To determine tobacco exposure the researchers at Cincinnati Children... The ability to measure serum and salivary cotinine levels presents th...,Secondhand,smoke,exposure,increases,odds,of,hospital,asthma,readmission,for,children,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
As Drs. Ted Wagener and Belinda Borrelli and I argue in an article in the journal Addiction: "an often unconsidered advantage of e-cigarettes is that they do not require combustion and therefore produce no second-hand smoke exposure (SHSe) to the user or to individuals in the smokers environment. Second-hand smoke, especially in homes with children, poses a serious public health risk increasing the incidence of sudden infant death syndrome, respiratory illness, middle-ear disease and asthma. Children aged between 3 and 11 years have the highest levels of SHSe, probably because they spend a majority of their time in close proximity to a caregiver who smokes. Despite the strong national effort of introducing smoking bans in public spaces, children living with smokers have not experienced any reduction in their SHSe, as evidenced by serum cotinine levels. Furthermore, clinical interventions aimed at reducing childrens SHSe by targeting caregiver smoking behavior (i.e. cessation and/or smoking ...
As Drs. Ted Wagener and Belinda Borrelli and I argue in an article in the journal Addiction: "an often unconsidered advantage of e-cigarettes is that they do not require combustion and therefore produce no second-hand smoke exposure (SHSe) to the user or to individuals in the smokers environment. Second-hand smoke, especially in homes with children, poses a serious public health risk increasing the incidence of sudden infant death syndrome, respiratory illness, middle-ear disease and asthma. Children aged between 3 and 11 years have the highest levels of SHSe, probably because they spend a majority of their time in close proximity to a caregiver who smokes. Despite the strong national effort of introducing smoking bans in public spaces, children living with smokers have not experienced any reduction in their SHSe, as evidenced by serum cotinine levels. Furthermore, clinical interventions aimed at reducing childrens SHSe by targeting caregiver smoking behavior (i.e. cessation and/or smoking ...
As Drs. Ted Wagener and Belinda Borrelli and I argue in an article in the journal Addiction: "an often unconsidered advantage of e-cigarettes is that they do not require combustion and therefore produce no second-hand smoke exposure (SHSe) to the user or to individuals in the smokers environment. Second-hand smoke, especially in homes with children, poses a serious public health risk increasing the incidence of sudden infant death syndrome, respiratory illness, middle-ear disease and asthma. Children aged between 3 and 11 years have the highest levels of SHSe, probably because they spend a majority of their time in close proximity to a caregiver who smokes. Despite the strong national effort of introducing smoking bans in public spaces, children living with smokers have not experienced any reduction in their SHSe, as evidenced by serum cotinine levels. Furthermore, clinical interventions aimed at reducing childrens SHSe by targeting caregiver smoking behavior (i.e. cessation and/or smoking ...
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This summary outlines the evidence base for using a genetically informed biomarker to tailor smoking cessation treatment. This marker represents the rate of CYP2A6-mediated nicotine clearance, and is measured using the ratio of the nicotine metabolites derived from nicotine from smoking (3hydroxycotinine [3HC]/cotinine), referred to as the nicotine metabolite ratio or NMR. The NMR has been associated retrospectively with the ability to quit smoking and differential response to nicotine dependence therapy in multiple independent clinical trials. We first examined the NMR in an open label trial of transdermal nicotine patch versus nicotine nasal spray. In the patch condition, slow metabolizers (the lowest quartile of the NMR) had significantly higher quit rates than normal metabolizers (2nd to 4th quartiles of the NMR) at the end of 8 weeks of treatment and at 6-month follow up, even after controlling for baseline cigarettes per day and level of nicotine dependence. No such relationship was ...
In this study, we have analyzed important tobacco-related biomarkers for over 23,000 NHANES participants from 1999 to 2012. To our knowledge, this work provides the first estimates from a large, nationally representative U.S. health survey population that compare cotinine and NNAL concentrations for smokeless tobacco and cigarette users and presents trends in NNAL concentrations over time. We have found higher cotinine concentrations and much higher NNAL concentrations for smokeless tobacco users compared with cigarette smokers as well as higher NNAL concentrations for dual users compared with smokers. We have also found evidence that NNAL concentrations among smokeless tobacco users are declining over time, although the sample sizes for this analysis were limited due to the introduction of analysis of NNAL with the 2007 to 2008 NHANES cycle. We also found that smokeless tobacco users have higher concentrations of lead, but not cadmium, mercury, arsenic, or CYMA, compared with nontobacco ...
A nicotine metabolite shows promise for improving memory and protecting brain cells from diseases such as Alzheimers and Parkinsons without addiction and other side effects of nicotine, says a Medical College of Georgia researcher.
A nicotine test done with the subjects urine sample will detect the concentration of cotinine. Cotinine is a by-product of nicotine that appears in the urine after the chemicals are processed in the body. The concentration of cotinine will be higher in urine than in blood or saliva, and will appear in a urine test approximately four days after the subjects last consumption of nicotine. ...
NicAlert nicotine test instantly screens for cotinine, the primary metabolite in nicotine. Test using saliva or urine. Ideal for smoking cessation progr
The researchers found that Scottish children who have either of the two defects in the GST genes are more susceptible to asthma associated with environmental tobacco smoke exposure than those with more intact GST status.. The researchers also found that teenagers with asthma had 15% lower peak flows if they had one of the GST gene defects and were exposed to tobacco smoke, compared to asthmatic teenagers with intact gene status.. "There is a risk that these children and teenagers, naturally unaware of their susceptible status resulting from this gene defect, could be undergoing a silent, long-standing decline in lung function over the years," said Dr Mukhopadhyay.. "This can lead to greater risk of chronic obstructive lung disease, or COPD, in later life.". Scotland has the highest prevalence of teenage asthma in the world. Scots also have the highest death rate in the UK for COPD, a disease that results in numerous hospital admissions and one death every two hours in the Scottish ...
Exposure to respirable suspended particles RSP, environmental tobacco smoke ETS particles, nicotine, and 3-ethenylpyridine 3-EP was assessed in Paris for 222 subjects during March and April 1995. Personal monitors were worn over a 24-h period, each subject providing a saliva sample for cotinine analysis both prior to and following the...
Fort Lauderdale, Florida Passive exposure test. Test your children for passive exposure to dangerous illegal drugs. Contact ARCpoint Labs of Fort Lauderdale South (954) 963-7763.
Using AGM as a model, we found that long-term, in vivo nicotine treatment significantly decreases in vitro nicotine metabolism by approximately 40% and the expression of a CYP2A6-like protein in AGM liver by approximately 60%. Because nicotine metabolism is dose-independent at the levels of nicotine self-administered by smokers (Benowitz and Jacob, 1993), changes in CYP2A6 protein would be expected to alter nicotine metabolism. Experiments using anti-CYP2A6 inhibitory antibodies strongly suggest that the decrease in nicotine metabolism after long-term nicotine administration is mediated by the decrease observed in the CYP2A6agm-mediated portion of the total NCO (40%), similar to the reduction observed in CYP2A6agm protein (60%). This is quantitatively similar to the decreases in nicotine clearance observed during smoking compared with nonsmoking (27-34%; Lee et al., 1987;Benowitz and Jacob, 1993). Our observation that CYP2A6agm protein and nicotine metabolism is reduced in AGM that underwent ...
The Second National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals includes measurements of cotinine, as did the first report. This is included as a marker of exposure to tobacco smoke, both first and second hand, and is not a chemical associated with industrial pollution. CDCs biomonitoring results for tobacco smoke are available at http://www.cdc.gov/exposurereport/tobacco/default.htm. COTININE ...
Methods A secondary data analysis of two analogous randomised trials of treatment seeking, adult daily smokers (n=112) who were instructed to smoke VLNC cigarettes for 6 weeks and then make a quit attempt. Controlling for baseline demographic and smoking features, the association between reductions in nicotine exposure during the 6-week trial, assessed by urinary total cotinine and biomarker-confirmed smoking abstinence 1 month later, was tested. Subsequent analyses controlled for the effects of the frequency of VLNC and normal nicotine content cigarette use and the nicotine yield of the VLNC cigarette (0.05 vs 0.09 mg). ...
Maternal smoking while pregnant is a plausible risk factor for childhood cancers because many seem to initiate in utero and tobacco-specific carcinogens cross the placenta. Social desirability bias may affect maternal report of smoking in case-contro
People have long understood that secondhand smoke exposure can cause cancer, emphysema and heart disease, and a new study shows that the exposure to other peoples tobacco exhalations can also increase a persons risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and eventual kidney failure.
Mothers who smoked during pregnancy more than twice as likely to have a baby with a cleft lip or palate. Babies whose mothers smoked during pregnancy were more than twice as likely to have a cleft palate or lip as those whose mothers didnt, according to research results released today.. Although the study confirms earlier findings, it is unique because it did not rely on womens self-reported smoking habits during pregnancy. Instead, researchers used the more reliable method of measuring the levels of cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, in the blood from about 500 pregnant women.. "This research is the first time weve been able to measure something "" in this case cotinine "" and determine the risk of smoking during pregnancy for oral-facial birth defects," Gary M. Shaw, PhD, research director and senior epidemiologist of the March of Dimes California Research Division, Childrens Hospital Oakland Research Institute in Oakland, Calif.. Nearly 7,000 babies are born annually with an oral-facial ...
Tobacco Induced Diseases, the worldwide official journal Society for the Prevention of Tobacco Induced Diseases, is an open access journal that encompasses all
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Based on the concept of caloric density, which states that some foods have few calories in proportion to their size (say, a lettuce), while others have lots of calories packed in small portions (a regular chocolate chip cookie comes to mind), Volumetrics divides foods into 4 categories based on their calorie/volume ratio, and is perfect for people looking to binge on some foods while still shedding pounds. However, as with the calorie counting approach, Volumetrics does not take into account the quality of the calories, prioritizing quantity instead. The app Noom and Weight Watchers (both reviewed above) share similarities with this diet theory ...
Background: Smoking is an important modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease, with limited research having been done in Africans. We aimed to determine the association between smoking and measurements of vascular function in Africans and Caucasians. Methods: We determined anthropometric and cardiovascular variables, serum cotinine and C-reactive protein (CRP) in African and Caucasian participants from South Africa (n = 630). Results: Africans had significantly lower body mass index (BMI), higher blood pressure and lower socio-economic status (SES) than Caucasians. Only African smokers showed increased arterial stiffness and a significant correlation between smoking and arterial stiffness. African smokers had increased and Caucasian smokers decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) than the non-smokers. After adjusting for confounders, smoking showed few correlations, mainly with heart rate and CRP. In Africans, smoking also correlated positively with HDL-C, with the ...
A positive attitude with regard to smoking cessation (OR 11.8; 95% CI: 1.7-81.5) and the cotinine level at baseline (OR 2.1; 95% CI: 1.08-3.93) were independent predictors of continuous abstinence for the LMIS. For the SST subjects no independent significant predictor for continuous abstinence remained. It can be concluded that the LMIS is only suitable for COPD patients with a strong positive attitude regarding smoking cessation at baseline. The SST can be seen as an alternative for patients not possessing such baseline characteristic. This stepwise approach may be useful in clinical practice and will lead to increased efficiency by matching the interventions to the patients needs ...
Li YF, Gililand FD, Berhane K, McConnell R, Gaudermann WJ, Rappaport EB, Peters JM. Effects of in utero and environmental tobacco smoke exposure on lung function in boys and girls with and without asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care med 2000; 162 (6):2097-104 ...
Li YF, Gililand FD, Berhane K, McConnell R, Gaudermann WJ, Rappaport EB, Peters JM. Effects of in utero and environmental tobacco smoke exposure on lung function in boys and girls with and without asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care med 2000; 162 (6):2097-104 ...
Nonsmoking women who breathe secondhand tobacco smoke during pregnancy increase their risk of stillbirth, birth defects, and other harms to their babies, according to a meta-analysis.
The accurate determination of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is notoriously difficult. There have been to date two approaches to determining this exposure in the study of association of passive smoking and lung cancer: the biochemical approach, using cotinine in the main as a marker, and the epidemiological approach. Typically results...
More than 4 decades have passed since the first population studies showed that exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) harmed the health of children. Since then, an
When you smoke a cigarette, nicotine circulating in the bloodstream gives a kind of high. On an average 6-8 hours is how long the nicotine from a single cigarette lasts. Most of that nicotine will get eliminated in the urine. 48-72 hours is how long it can take for most of the stored nicotine to be metabolized and leave your body. 20-30 days is how long the nicotine by-product cotinine can continue to circulate in the bloodstream ...
Nicotine leaves the body in 1 to 3 days but cotinine, the byproduct which shows up on tests, remains in the body for up to 10 days. ✓ Learn more today!
Of course just because a 4% false positive rate for the cotinine test could explain all the apparent misreporting and the entire headline-generating result does not mean that it actually does explain it all. Undoubtedly a few smokers really did say they were nonsmokers, and I would not be surprised if this were a bit higher for those who were pregnant. But there is no doubt that errors in the data explain some of the claimed result, and it seems quite plausible that those errors explain most of it. After all, lets stop and think for a few seconds more than those reporting the story did: Why, exactly, would someone volunteer to do an anonymous survey and then choose lie on it? It is not as if the data collectors are going to nag them to stop smoking. Too bad the researchers did not think about that and look for an alternative explanation for their results (yes, perhaps they did figure it out and just hid it, but experience tells me that they just did not understand what they were doing ...
HUMASIS strives to develop, manufacture, and market IVD for the detection of cardiac marker, fertility hormone, infectious disease, tumor marker, and cotinine in rapid tests for home and laboratory use. New quantitative POCTs including h-FABP, D-dimer, hs-CRP, G6PD, and Vitamin-D are regularly introduced to cover the constantly expanding range of applications. HUMASIS has reached more than 45 countries worldwide and mainly targeting the US market to become a global company.. ...
At Whitemill Medical Centre our enhanced range of services include Insurance Examinations which can be tailored for all risks and includes phlebotomy, cotinine, drugs & alcohol, treadmill ECG etc.. Telephone Whitemill Medical Centre for further information on. 053 914 0000 or complete the On-line Contact Form. ...
Paying the price - While the battery life for the VivoWatch is far greater than that of the ZenWatch, it does come at a price, as the new wearbale will be more like a fitness tracker than a full-on smartwatch. This could be an issue for some consumers, although at least that means ASUS is offering its customers a choice, seeing as though the ZenWatch is not that old and will cotinine to be sold.. We said earlier that not much is known about the new VivoWatch, although recent rumors suggest that it will come with an IP67 rating, meaning it will be dust and water resistant. This means you will have a greater peace of mind, especially as this will be marketed as a fitness device. ...
Introduction: Tobacco smoke exposure (TSE) in public multi-unit housing (MUH) is of concern. However, the validity of self-reports for determining TSE among non-smoking residents in such housing is unclear. Methods: We analyzed data from 285 non-smoking public MUH residents living in non-smoking households in the Boston area. Participants were interviewed about personal TSE in various locations in the past 7 days and completed a diary of home TSE for 7 days. Self-reported TSE was validated against measurable saliva cotinine (lower limit of detection (LOD) 0.02 ng/ml) and airborne apartment nicotine (LOD 5 ng). Correlations, estimates of inter-measure agreement, and logistic regression assessed associations between self-reported TSE items and measurable cotinine and nicotine. Results: Cotinine and nicotine levels were low in this sample (median = 0.026 ng/ml and 0.022 μg/m3, respectively). Prevalence of detectable personal TSE was 66.3% via self-report and 57.0% via measurable cotinine (median ...
Exposure to tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is recognized to play an important role in the development of oral/head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC). We recently reported higher levels of TSNA-associated DNA adducts in the oral cells of smokers with HNSCC as compared with cancer-free smokers. In this study, we further investigated the tobacco constituent exposures in the same smokers to better understand the potential causes for the elevated oral DNA damage in smokers with HNSCC. Subjects included cigarette smokers with HNSCC (cases, n = 30) and cancer-free smokers (controls, n = 35). At recruitment, tobacco/alcohol use questionnaires were completed, and urine and oral cell samples were obtained. Analysis of urinary 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and N-Nitrosonornicotine (NNN; TSNA biomarkers), 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HOP, a PAH), cotinine, 3′-hydroxycotinine, and the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR) were performed. Cases ...
Cotinine as a biomarker of systemic nicotine exposure in spit tobacco users. The potential impact of a low-nitrosamine smokeless tobacco product on cigarette smoking in the United States: estimates of a panel of experts
Adverse health effects in children caused by environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) are well known. Children are primarily exposed by their parents smoking in their homes. A comprehensive evidence base shows that parental smoking during pregnancy and ETS exposure in early childhood are associated with an increased risk for a range of adverse health problems. Child Health Care nurses, who meet nearly all families in Sweden with children aged 0-6 years, have thus an important role in tobacco preventive work in order to support parents in their ambitions to protect their children from ETS exposure.. The overall aim of this thesis was to develop, test and evaluate a new model for tobacco preventive work in Child Health Care (CHC) with special focus on areas with a high prevalence of parental smoking. In a first step CHC nurses and parents views on tobacco preventive work were analysed in two studies based on questionnaires.. The intervention was performed during the second step, based on the results ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Korea National Survey for Environmental Pollutants in the human body 2008. T2 - 1-hydroxypyrene, 2-naphthol, and cotinine in urine of the Korean population. AU - Sul, Dong Geun. AU - Ahn, Ryoungme. AU - Im, Hosub. AU - Oh, Eunha. AU - Kim, Jae Hyoun. AU - Kim, Jin Gyoung. AU - Kim, PanGyi. AU - Kim, Hyoung Ah. AU - Park, Won Yeul. AU - Son, Bu Soon. AU - Shin, Daeyewn. AU - Shim, Ae Sug. AU - Yang, Wonho. AU - Yu, Seung Do. AU - Lee, Kyoung Ho. AU - Lee, Kee Jae. AU - Lee, Sun dong. AU - Lee, Jong Wha. AU - Lee, Chae Kwan. AU - Jang, Bong Ki. AU - Choi, Kyungho. AU - Han, Don Hee. AU - Hwang, Moon Young. AU - Lee, Jin Heon. PY - 2012/10/1. Y1 - 2012/10/1. N2 - The Korea National Survey for Environmental Pollutants in the human body conducts representative Korean population studies, which were first initiated in 2005 in Korea. This study was conducted from 2008 to 2009 to determine the exposure levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nicotine in the Korean general ...
Causal associations have been clearly established between active smoking and adverse reproductive outcomes and numerous non-neoplastic diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cardiovascular diseases.. Tobacco smoking is addictive, and nicotine has been established as the major addictive constituent of tobacco products. Measurement of the nicotine metabolite, cotinine, in human blood, urine or saliva provides a specific and sensitive test for exposure to tobacco smoke and can be used to distinguish active and passive smokers from nonsmokers.. Active smoking raises the concentrations of carbon monoxide, benzene and volatile organic compounds in exhaled air. The concentrations of urinary metabolites of some important tobacco smoke carcinogens and related compounds are consistently higher in smokers than in nonsmokers. These include metabolites of benzene, a known carcinogen in humans, as well as metabolites of several carcinogens that cause lung tumours in rodents. Covalent ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Heart rate variability in preterm infants and maternal smoking during pregnancy. AU - Thiriez, Gérard. AU - Bouhaddi, Malika. AU - Mourot, Laurent. AU - Nobili, François. AU - Fortrat, Jacques Olivier. AU - Menget, Alain. AU - Franco, Patricia. AU - Regnard, Jacques. PY - 2009/6/1. Y1 - 2009/6/1. N2 - Objective: Tobacco smoke exposure increases the risk of premature birth and of dying of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Prematurity significantly increases the risk of dying of SIDS, but mechanisms underlying this epidemiological finding are unclear. The cumulated effect of both prematurity and prenatal exposure to nicotine on autonomic heart rate control has not been studied. Methods: Using coarse-graining spectral analysis, we compared heart rate variability (HRV) indices of preterm newborns at 33-34 weeks post-conceptional age from smoking (n = 19) and non-smoking (n = 21) mothers. Assessment of tobacco exposure relied on maternal reports and newborns cotinine analysis. We ...
April 28, 2017 KCAS Bioanalytical and Biomarker Services, a leading functional service contract research organization (CRO) has validated a 0.2 ng/mL lower limit (LLOQ) assay for nicotine and two key metabolites cotinine and trans-3-hydroxycotinine in plasma. Previously having validated a 0.5 ng/mL LLOQ assay, the ultra-low trace nicotine assay meets additional needs of tobacco industry that need to detect trace levels to evaluate risk of tobacco products in development.. Sample contamination from the environment presents a major concern since nicotine is ubiquitous. To be able to accomplish the assay sensitivity, KCAS customized a secondary location lab space on a smoke-free campus approximately 15 minutes from our Headquarters. This permits lowering the background levels of nicotine to trace levels. "The ability to quickly respond to industrys growing needs for this service is further evidence of KCAS commitment to investment in capabilities and expertise," stated John Bucksath CEO. "Our ...
This is very misleading, because it suggests that there is no way to avoid exposure to secondhand smoke. It seems to me that this is a dangerous message, because it tells the public that it is futile to even try to avoid exposure to secondhand smoke. The truth is that the public should be warned to try to avoid secondhand smoke exposure. And it is largely possible to avoid such exposure, especially when workplaces are smoke-free. While it is true that the vapor phase of secondhand smoke is not visible, I find that it is usually quite easy to smell secondhand smoke and know that it is there. In fact, I can usually detect the instant a smoker lights up in an environment, even if that person is located in a remote area of a room, far away from me. I dont see the point in trying to make people believe that it is pointless to even try to avoid secondhand smoke exposure ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Environmental tobacco smoke. T2 - Experimental facts and societal issues. AU - Witschi, H.. AU - Pinkerton, Kent E. AU - Coggins, R. E.. AU - Penn, A.. AU - Gori, G. B.. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - Involuntary exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in public or in working places is considered to be a serious risk to human health. This symposium addressed several issues of toxicological interest that are associated with exposure to ETS. Epidemiologic evidence obtained in human studies suggests that passive smoking increases the risk of developing lung cancer in nonsmokers and favors the development of respiratory tract infections in children. Comparatively few data are available from animal studies that provide experimental support of the observations. Exposure of pregnant or neonate rats to cigarette sidestream smoke (SS) affects developmental patterns of drug metabolizing enzymes that may persist up to 90 days. In young roosters, SS accelerates the development of ...
Background: Biomarkers of tobacco exposure have a central role in studies of tobacco use and nicotine intake. The most significant exposure markers are nicotine itself and its metabolites in urine. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the performance of laboratories conducting these biomarker measurements.Methods: This report presents the results from a method performance study involving 11 laboratories from 6 countries that are currently active in this area. Each laboratory assayed blind replicates of seven human urine pools at various concentrations on three separate days. The samples included five pools blended from smoker and nonsmoker urine sources, and two additional blank urine samples fortified with pure nicotine, cotinine, and hydroxycotinine standards. All laboratories used their own methods, and all were based on some form of liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.Results: Overall, good agreement was found among the laboratories in this study. Intralaboratory precision was ...
Carbon monoxide (CO) is produced by the incomplete combustion of carbon-containing material, notably tobacco, biomass fuel and fossil fuel. The carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) level in the blood (half-life 2 -6 hours) after inhalation of CO will depend on concentrations of inspired CO, duration of exposure, pulmonary ventilation and the COHb level before the inhalation.4 COHb is a sensitive specific physiological marker of atmospheric CO exposure from both indoor and outdoor sources.. In water-pipe smokers expired CO was reported to increase by 300% after an hour of smoking, while in cigarette smokers it only increased by 60%.5 During a single water-pipe smoking session a smoker may produce a 24-hour urinary cotinine level that is equivalent to smoking 10 cigarettes a day (95% confidence interval (CI) 7 -13 cigarettes a day).6 Contrary to popular belief, noxious substances such as nicotine, tar and heavy metals (chromium, arsenic, lead) are found in the smoke of water-pipes.7 Although water-pipe ...
Smoking is a significant public health problem, and there is a great need for research to improve smoking cessation treatment outcomes. The goal of the Pharmacogenetics of Nicotine Addiction Treatment (PNAT) research program is to generate the evidence base to optimize treatment decisions for Individuals who want to quit smoking. During the past 4 years of PNAT1, we have characterized genetic variants altering nicotine pharmacokinetics as well as pharmacodynamic genetic variants influencing response to pharmacotherapies for smoking cessation treatment. We have shown that the CYP2A6 enzyme is critical in the metabolic inactivation of nicotine, and inherited variation in nicotine clearance influences smoking behavior and cessation. With a vision toward translation of our research to practice, we have characterized a genetically-informed biomarker of CYP2A6 activity, specifically the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR;3hydroxycotinine/cotinine), which reflects both genetic and environmental influences ...
The tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) is one of the most abundant carcinogens in smokeless tobacco products. NNK uptake by measurement of the urinary metabolites 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol and its glucuronides (total NNAL) has been reported in many studies, but there are no data in the literature on the percentage of the NNK dose that is converted to NNAL in smokeless tobacco users. In this study, 15 male subjects abstained from tobacco use for 3 weeks before placing 2 g smokeless tobacco between their cheeks and gums for 30 min. They then continued abstinence and collected three consecutive 24-h urine samples. The amount of NNK in the tobacco before and after use was determined along with the amount in expectorated saliva. The NNK dose thus calculated was compared with the amount of total NNAL excreted in the next 72 h. These data, taken together with previous pharmacokinetic data, show that the percent conversion of NNK to total NNAL
Research funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) suggests that secondhand smoke from marijuana could be at least as harmful to individuals cardiovascular health as secondhand tobacco smoke, and perhaps more so.. Published in the Journal of the American Heart Association, the pre-clinical study using rats found that one minute of exposure to secondhand marijuana smoke generated levels of impairment in flow-mediated dilation (FMD) similar to those from secondhand tobacco smoke. FMD refers to the extent to which arteries enlarge in response to increased blood flow.. However, the study also found that FMD remained impaired for at least 90 minutes after a minute of exposure to secondhand marijuana smoke, whereas impairment following secondhand tobacco smoke is generally resolved within 30 minutes.. The background section of the studys abstract states, "Lack of evidence for marijuana [secondhand smoke] causing acute cardiovascular harm is frequently mistaken for evidence that it is ...
It is widely accepted that nicotine replacement therapy can help patients to quit smoking. Recent approval by the US Food and Drug Administration of a nicotine nasal spray gives clinicians greater flexibility in choosing the best replacement therapy for a particular patient. Four types of smoking cessation therapy are currently available (gum, patch, nasal spray, and bupropion). These differ with respect to their onset and duration of action, adverse effects, and cost. This article focuses on which patients may benefit most from the use of nicotine nasal spray. Instructions for proper administration and dosing of the nicotine nasal spray are discussed as well as how to taper it appropriately, and how to avoid--and manage--adverse effects. Additionally, the cost of the nicotine nasal spray is reviewed and compared with over-the-counter products and bupropion. Resources for behavioral support are provided as well. ...
The phenomenon of light smoking is not entirely understood," Ahluwalia said. "For some, light smoking is a transitional state leading to heavier smoking or cessation. For others, light smoking is a pattern of low cigarette use that is maintained for years.". Approximately 50 percent of African American smokers are light smokers. By contrast, Ahluwalia notes that African Americans experience a disproportionate share of tobacco-related illnesses, including higher rate of death. African Americans tend to smoke mentholated, higher tar and nicotine cigarettes. They also have a slower rate of nicotine metabolism; higher levels, per cigarette smoked, of cotinine, a compound present in those exposed to tobacco; and, greater difficulty quitting smoking compared to other ethnic groups, which may be contributing factors to the higher smoking-related illness and death rate.. The 26-week study focused on the effects of nicotine gum and counseling among African American light smokers, defined as people who ...
The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of a prolonged cessation from tobacco and nicotine on maximal aerobic power and energy metabolism during submaximal exercise in regular snuff users.. Methods. 23 snuff users (18 men, 5 women) were investigated before and after a ,6 week snuff cessation period (SCP). Participants performed a submaximal graded exercise test on cycle ergometer, a maximal running test and a prolonged aerobic endurance test consisting of 60 minutes cycling on 50 % of VO2max. Measurements of oxygen uptake (VO2), ventilation (VE), rate of perceived exertion on Borg´s RPE-scale (RPE), heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were obtained. Blood samples were drawn for analysis of cotinine, lactate [HLa], blood glucose, and free fatty acids (FFA) at rest and during exercise.. Results. Submaximal VO2 and energy expenditure were not affected by ,6 weeks of withdrawal from snus. VE, respiratory exchange ratio (RER), blood glucose and RPE during submaximal graded ...

Serum cotinine level as predictor of lung cancer risk. - Oxford Clinical Trial Service Unit & Epidemiological Studies Unit ...Serum cotinine level as predictor of lung cancer risk. - Oxford Clinical Trial Service Unit & Epidemiological Studies Unit ...

RESULTS: Mean serum cotinine level was higher in cases than in controls. Compared with subjects with a cotinine level of , or ... Serum cotinine level is a predictor of risk of lung cancer among smokers. The reported plateau in risk at high doses is likely ... Serum cotinine was measured with a competitive immunoassay. Regression dilution was corrected for based on repeated measures on ... We found no association between serum cotinine level (range, 0.1-9.9 ng/mL) and lung cancer risk among self-reported nonsmokers ...
more infohttps://www.ctsu.ox.ac.uk/publications/39963

Cotinine FactsheetCotinine Factsheet

Measuring cotinine is preferred to measuring nicotine because cotinine remains in the body longer. ... Levels of Cotinine in the Nonsmoking U.S. Population. In the Fourth National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental ... Cotinine is a product formed after the chemical nicotine enters the body. Nicotine is a chemical found in tobacco products, ... Measuring cotinine in peoples blood is the most reliable way to determine exposure to nicotine for both smokers and nonsmokers ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/biomonitoring/Cotinine_Factsheet.html

cotinine | Tobacco Controlcotinine | Tobacco Control

Secondhand smoke exposure and serum cotinine levels among current smokers in the USA Ryan P Lindsay, Janice Y Tsoh, Hai-Yen ... Salivary cotinine concentration and carbon monoxide levels in young adults smoking midwakh in comparison with cigarette smokers ... Active smoking, secondhand smoke exposure and serum cotinine levels among Cheyenne River Sioux communities in context of a ...
more infohttps://tobaccocontrol.bmj.com/keyword/cotinine

Nicotine   Cotinine | LabCorpNicotine Cotinine | LabCorp

Nicotine; Cotinine Why Get Tested?. To detect the presence of and/or measure the quantity of nicotine or cotinine in blood, ... Cotinine may also be measured in saliva and in hair, although hair testing is primarily used in a research setting, such as a ... Cotinine is usually the test of choice to evaluate tobacco use or exposure to tobacco smoke because it is stable and is only ... Cotinine has a half-life in the body of between 7 and 40 hours, while nicotine has a half-life of 1 to 4 hours. ...
more infohttps://www.labcorp.com/help/patient-test-info/nicotine--cotinine

Cotinine disposition and effects.  - PubMed - NCBICotinine disposition and effects. - PubMed - NCBI

Cotinine is the major metabolite of nicotine in man. We studied cotinine disposition kinetics in 28 healthy habitual cigarette ... Cotinine disposition and effects.. Benowitz NL, Kuyt F, Jacob P 3rd, Jones RT, Osman AL. ... Eight subjects received cotinine fumarate, 4 micrograms base/kg/min IV for 60 min. Mean (+/- SD) metabolic clearance was 60 ... The effect of urinary acidification and alkalinization on renal clearance of cotinine during cigarette smoking was studied in ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6627820?dopt=Abstract

Cotinine ≥98% | Sigma-AldrichCotinine ≥98% | Sigma-Aldrich

Cotinine for your research needs. Find product specific information including CAS, MSDS, protocols and references. ... Cotinine ≥98% Synonym: (S). -. 1-. Methyl-. 5-. (3-. pyridyl). -. 2-. pyrrolidinone, S(−)-1-Methyl-5-(3-pyridyl)-2-pyrrolidone ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/product/sigma/c5923?lang=en®ion=US

urine cotinine test / myLoturine cotinine test / myLot

I want to do a cotinine test in children under five of home based bidi making. I want to know more about the test and its cost ... I want to do a cotinine test in children under five of home based bidi making. I want to know more about the test and its cost ...
more infohttp://www.mylot.com/post/327342/urine-cotinine-test

Point of care cotinine testing in pregnancy | The BMJPoint of care cotinine testing in pregnancy | The BMJ

Point of care cotinine testing in pregnancy. Shipton et al (BMJ 29th October 2009) have once again highlighted the. problem of ... cotinine test into routine community care to reduce smoking in pregnancy -. a pilot study. Eur Conf Tob or Health, Basel, ... positive sample for cotinine turning shades of pink) was shown to the. smoker along with the quantitative result. This feedback ... cotinine monitoring, and on a urine sample that is routinely brought to. clinic and so removing further patient involvement. ...
more infohttps://www.bmj.com/rapid-response/2011/11/02/point-care-cotinine-testing-pregnancy

Cotinine
     Summary Report | CureHunterCotinine Summary Report | CureHunter

The N-glucuronide conjugate of cotinine is a major urinary metabolite of NICOTINE. It thus serves as a biomarker of exposure to ... Cotinine. Subscribe to New Research on Cotinine The N-glucuronide conjugate of cotinine is a major urinary metabolite of ... 12/01/2013 - "The goal of the study was to examine the association of cotinine and NNAL with asthma outcomes in the U.S. ". 07/ ... 03/01/2013 - "This study used salivary cotinine to assess the impact of change in smoking exposure on birth weight in full-term ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryD003367-Cotinine.do

NHANES 2005-2006:
						Cotinine - Serum Data Documentation, Codebook, and FrequenciesNHANES 2005-2006: Cotinine - Serum Data Documentation, Codebook, and Frequencies

LBXCOT - Cotinine (ng/mL). Variable Name: LBXCOT. SAS Label: Cotinine (ng/mL). English Text: Cotinine (ng/mL). Target: Both ... Cotinine concentrations are derived from the ratio of native to labeled cotinine in the sample by comparisons to a standard ... Cotinine may be measured in serum, urine or saliva - the half-life of cotinine in all three fluids is essentially the same. ... Cotinine is a major metabolite of nicotine that may be used as a marker for both active smoking, and as an index to ...
more infohttps://wwwn.cdc.gov/Nchs/Nhanes/2005-2006/COT_D.htm

NHANES 2003-2004:
						Cotinine - Serum Data Documentation, Codebook, and FrequenciesNHANES 2003-2004: Cotinine - Serum Data Documentation, Codebook, and Frequencies

LBXCOT - Cotinine (ng/mL). Variable Name: LBXCOT. SAS Label: Cotinine (ng/mL). English Text: Cotinine (ng/mL). Target: Both ... Cotinine concentrations are derived from the ratio of native to labeled cotinine in the sample by comparisons to a standard ... the half-life of nicotine is only 0.5-3 hrs.4-6 Cotinine may be measured in serum, urine or saliva - the half-life of cotinine ... Cotinine is a major metabolite of nicotine that may be used as a marker for both active smoking, and as an index to ...
more infohttps://wwwn.cdc.gov/Nchs/Nhanes/2003-2004/L06COT_C.htm

Cotinine in children admitted for asthma and readmission.  - PubMed - NCBICotinine in children admitted for asthma and readmission. - PubMed - NCBI

Of the children with reported exposure, 87.6% had detectable serum cotinine and 97.7% had detectable salivary cotinine. ... Cotinine in children admitted for asthma and readmission.. Howrylak JA1, Spanier AJ, Huang B, Peake RW, Kellogg MD, Sauers H, ... had detectable serum cotinine and 69.9% had detectable salivary cotinine. ... We measured serum and saliva cotinine levels with mass spectrometry. We used logistic regression to evaluate associations ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24446438

Cotinine: Cotinine test and cotinine levelCotinine: Cotinine test and cotinine level

Cotinine. Tweet. Share. Cotinine [COAT-e-neen] is a chemical that is made by the body from nicotine, which is found in ... Since cotinine can be made only from nicotine, and since nicotine enters the body with cigarette smoke, cotinine measurements ... Cotinine is a metabolic byproduct of nicotine. Nicotine replacement medications produce cotinine just as tobacco does. ... Cotinine levels ,10 ng/mL are considered to be consistent with no active smoking. Values of 10 ng/mL to 100 ng/mL are ...
more infohttp://www.depression-guide.com/cotinine.htm

Cotinine, Saliva - Clinical Reference LaboratoryCotinine, Saliva - Clinical Reference Laboratory

Amylase and HIV have the first and second, then cocaine is third, and cotinine is fourth. A minimum of 190 µL of sample is ...
more infohttps://www.crlcorp.com/product/cotinine-saliva/

How long is cotinine detectable in the blood? | Reference.comHow long is cotinine detectable in the blood? | Reference.com

... cotinine levels fall below the detectable range after two weeks of abstinence, according to Mayo Clinic. This means that the ... The average half-life of nicotine is two hours, while the half-life of cotinine is 15 hours. The range of cotinine in the blood ... Elevated levels of cotinine have been found in individuals exposed to second-hand smoking. Levels as high as 8 nanograms per ... In most heavy smokers, cotinine levels fall below the detectable range after two weeks of abstinence, according to Mayo Clinic. ...
more infohttps://www.reference.com/health/long-cotinine-detectable-blood-5f1a91bb936a2a4a

Cotinine - WikipediaCotinine - Wikipedia

Salivary cotinine concentrations are highly correlated to blood cotinine concentrations, and can detect cotinine in a low range ... At steady state, plasma cotinine levels are determined by the amount of cotinine formation and the rate of cotinine removal, ... Cotinine is an alkaloid found in tobacco and is also the predominant metabolite of nicotine. Cotinine is used as a biomarker ... Cotinine was developed as an antidepressant as a fumaric acid salt, cotinine fumarate, to be sold under the brand name Scotine ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cotinine

Nicotine Information | Cotinine Detection InfoNicotine Information | Cotinine Detection Info

Learn about nicotine drug testing, the difference between nicotine and cotinine, and more. ... Cotinine can also be easily detected with a cotinine saliva drug test such as our iScreen OFD Saliva Cotinine Test Kit, which ... What is cotinine?. Cotinine (COT) is a metabolite synthesized by the body as a byproduct of nicotine. Drug tests for nicotine ... Cotinine remains in the body for an extended period of time as a result of direct or secondhand smoke exposure. Cotinine drug ...
more infohttps://testcountry.com/pages/faq-nicotine-and-tobacco

Detection of cotinine in newborn dried blood spots.Detection of cotinine in newborn dried blood spots.

Cotinine / blood*. Female. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Maternal-Fetal Exchange. Neoplasms / etiology. Predictive Value of Tests. ... Mean cotinine was 29 ng/mL (SD, 7.5), 45 ng/mL (SD, 9.7), and 9 ng/mL (SD, 7.4), respectively, among infants of all smokers, ... 0/Biological Markers; 0/Tobacco Smoke Pollution; 486-56-6/Cotinine From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National ... As proof-of-principle, we examined cotinine in DBS of 20 infants enrolled in a pilot study of pregnancy among low-income women ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Detection-cotinine-in-newborn-dried/17855712.html

Cotinine and Blood Pressure Levels: Variability Omitted Once Again | HypertensionCotinine and Blood Pressure Levels: Variability Omitted Once Again | Hypertension

Cotinine and Blood Pressure Levels: Variability Omitted Once Again. Costas Thomopoulos, Carolina Lombardi, Gianfranco Parati ... Cotinine and Blood Pressure Levels: Variability Omitted Once Again. Costas Thomopoulos, Carolina Lombardi and Gianfranco Parati ... Cotinine and Blood Pressure Levels: Variability Omitted Once Again. Costas Thomopoulos, Carolina Lombardi and Gianfranco Parati ... Association of serum cotinine levels and hypertension in never smokers. Hypertension 2013;61:304-308. ...
more infohttp://hyper.ahajournals.org/content/61/4/e41

cotininecotinine

Filed Under: ADDICTION, ASTHMA Tagged With: children, cotinine, secondhand smoke, smoke exposure, toxins ...
more infohttp://battlingforhealth.com/tag/cotinine/

Cotinine Tests | Nicotine Exposure TestsCotinine Tests | Nicotine Exposure Tests

... detect exposure to cotinine; six levels of nicotine exposure; urine or saliva; smoking cessation; clinical trials and research ... Tobacco Tests from QuickMedical screen for cotinine, a nicotine metabolite, in either urine or saliva and can identify levels ...
more infohttps://www.quickmedical.com/tobacco-nicotine-cotinine-tests.html

Alere iScreen OFD Instant Cotinine Saliva Device - TestCountryAlere iScreen OFD Instant Cotinine Saliva Device - TestCountry

The iScreen OFD Cotinine Saliva Test detects the presence of cotinine (the main metabolite in nicotine) for up to 1-2 days ... What is cotinine? Cotinine is the main metabolite of nicotine and is used as a biomarker for exposure to tobacco - both through ... The iScreen Cotinine Test Kit provides results in as little as 10 minutes. Does this cotinine test device need special storage? ... What is cotinine? Cotinine is the main metabolite of nicotine and is used as a biomarker for exposure to tobacco - both through ...
more infohttps://testcountry.com/products/alere-iscreen-ofd-cotinine-saliva-test

COTININE-D3 | 110952-70-0COTININE-D3 | 110952-70-0

You can also browse global suppliers,vendor,prices,Price,manufacturers of (+/-)-COTININE-D3(110952-70-0). At last,(+/-)- ... COTININE-D3(110952-70-0) safety, risk, hazard and MSDS, CAS,cas number,Use,cas no may also be you need. ... COTININE-D3(110952-70-0) information like chemical properties,Structure,melting point,boiling point,density,molecular formula, ... COTININE-D3. Synonyms. (±)-Cotinine-d;rac Cotinine-d3 ;(+/-)-COTININE-D3;COTININE-D3 (N-METHYL-D3);(±)-cotinine-d3(methyl-d3); ...
more infohttps://www.chemicalbook.com/ChemicalProductProperty_EN_CB5292185.htm

Frontiers | Cotinine: Beyond that Expected, More than a Biomarker of Tobacco Consumption | PharmacologyFrontiers | Cotinine: Beyond that Expected, More than a Biomarker of Tobacco Consumption | Pharmacology

Some of the behavioral effects of cotinine compared to nicotine are discussed here. Cotinine, which accumulates in the body as ... Some of the behavioral effects of cotinine compared to nicotine are discussed here. Cotinine, which accumulates in the body as ... Cotinine has a longer plasma half-life than nicotine and showed no addictive or cardiovascular effects in humans. In addition, ... Cotinine has a longer plasma half-life than nicotine and showed no addictive or cardiovascular effects in humans. In addition, ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2012.00173/full

Cotinine ELISA - ELISA Kits, Chemiluminescent Immunoassays, Contract ManufacturingCotinine ELISA - ELISA Kits, Chemiluminescent Immunoassays, Contract Manufacturing

Cotinine in the samples competes with a Cotinine enzyme (HRP) conjugate for binding sites. Unbound Cotinine and Cotinine enzyme ... Cotinine ELISA Cotinine is a metabolite of nicotine and is the primary biomarker for the determination of tobacco exposure. The ... The Calbiotech Cotinine Direct ELISA Kit is designed for the detection of Cotinine in serum and urine. It can also be adapted ... Background on Cotinine. Exposure to tobacco smoke can be detected by measuring nicotine and its metabolites using a Cotinine ...
more infohttps://www.calbiotech.com/most-cited/104-cotinine
  • Measuring cotinine in people's blood is the most reliable way to determine exposure to nicotine for both smokers and nonsmokers exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). (cdc.gov)
  • Cotinine may also be measured in saliva and in hair, although hair testing is primarily used in a research setting, such as a study of non-smokers exposure to tobacco smoke. (labcorp.com)
  • We studied cotinine disposition kinetics in 28 healthy habitual cigarette smokers. (nih.gov)
  • We conclude that, at levels to which cigarette smokers are generally exposed, cotinine exerts no cardiovascular activity and weak, if any, psychologic activity. (nih.gov)
  • They used stored blood samples and measured serum cotinine to identify true smokers. (bmj.com)
  • African American smokers generally have higher plasma cotinine levels than Caucasian smokers. (wikipedia.org)
  • In most heavy smokers, cotinine levels fall below the detectable range after two weeks of abstinence, according to Mayo Clinic. (reference.com)
  • In fact, prolonged exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) may yield higher cotinine levels than would be present in firsthand smokers. (testcountry.com)
  • Mean cotinine was 29 ng/mL (SD, 7.5), 45 ng/mL (SD, 9.7), and 9 ng/mL (SD, 7.4), respectively, among infants of all smokers, infants of four women who acknowledged smoking at 7 months of gestation, and infants of nonsmokers. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Association of serum cotinine levels and hypertension in never smokers. (ahajournals.org)
  • It has been demonstrated that smokers who developed wound healing complications had higher levels of cotinine than those who did not when tested peri-operatively. (scielo.org.za)
  • Average cotinine level for adult non-smokers in the US: 0.1 ng/mL. (salimetrics.com)
  • Cotinine at a concentration of 10(-9) mol/L, a level seen among passive smokers, was a statistically significant stimulus for DNA synthesis in both minimum serum and serum-supplemented media. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Although the determinant as depicted by serum cotinine levels-at first sight-seems appropriate to evaluate the exposure of participants to passive smoke, there are some obscured points that need to be clarified. (ahajournals.org)
  • Some of the behavioral effects of cotinine compared to nicotine are discussed here. (frontiersin.org)
  • Altogether, the new evidence suggests that the pharmacological and behavioral effects of cotinine may play a key role in promoting tobacco smoking in individuals that suffer from psychiatric conditions and represents a new potential therapeutic agent against psychiatric conditions such as AD and PTSD. (frontiersin.org)
  • The rapid colorimetric test result (a positive sample for cotinine turning shades of pink) was shown to the smoker along with the quantitative result. (bmj.com)
  • Cotinine, which accumulates in the body as a result of tobacco exposure, crosses the blood-brain barrier and has different pharmacological properties compared with nicotine. (frontiersin.org)
  • Upon the addition of the substrate, the intensity of color is inversely proportional to the concentration of Cotinine in the samples obtained with the Cotinine blood test. (calbiotech.com)
  • A standard curve is prepared relating color intensity to the concentration of the Cotinine. (calbiotech.com)
  • Serum cotinine concentration and wound complication in head and neck reconstruction. (scielo.org.za)
  • A weak mitogenic effect was observed at a low serum concentration for cotinine but not nicotine. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Since 1988 these have incorporated measures of saliva cotinine concentration in a random half of the schools surveyed. (bmj.com)
  • Serum cotinine is measured by an isotope dilution-high performance liquid chromatography / atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ID HPLC-APCI MS/MS). Briefly, the serum sample is spiked with methyl-D3 cotinine as an internal standard, and after an equilibration period, the sample is applied to a basified solid-phase extraction column. (cdc.gov)
  • We measured serum and saliva cotinine levels with mass spectrometry. (nih.gov)
  • Blood samples obtained at enrollment were tested for total cotinine using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Eight subjects received cotinine fumarate, 4 micrograms base/kg/min IV for 60 min. (nih.gov)
  • Cotinine was developed as an antidepressant as a fumaric acid salt, cotinine fumarate, to be sold under the brand name Scotine but it was never marketed. (wikipedia.org)
  • A blood or urine nicotine test may be ordered by itself or along with cotinine if a health practitioner suspects that someone is experiencing a nicotine overdose. (labcorp.com)
  • The iScreen Cotinine Test Kit provides results in as little as 10 minutes. (testcountry.com)
  • The samples and Cotinine enzyme conjugate are added to the wells coated with anti-Cotinine antibody. (calbiotech.com)
  • Cotinine in the samples competes with a Cotinine enzyme (HRP) conjugate for binding sites. (calbiotech.com)
  • Unbound Cotinine and Cotinine enzyme conjugate is washed off by washing step. (calbiotech.com)
  • Biomonitoring studies of serum cotinine will help physicians and public health officials in monitoring population exposure to tobacco smoke and assessing the effectiveness of public health interventions to reduce smoking. (cdc.gov)
  • Cotinine and/or nicotine testing may be ordered whenever an evaluation of tobacco use status or tobacco smoke exposure is required. (labcorp.com)
  • The level of cotinine in the blood, saliva, and urine is proportionate to the amount of exposure to tobacco smoke, so it is a valuable indicator of tobacco smoke exposure, including secondary (passive) smoke. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, if the measurement of cotinine (plasma half-life of 19-24 hours) was performed on the first working day after a weekend in a subject exposed to secondhand smoke only at workplace, the measurement might be by far different of another performed in a midweek working day. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cotinine assays provide an objective quantitative measure that is more reliable than smoking histories or counting the number of cigarettes smoked per day. (depression-guide.com)
  • In the Fourth National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals (Fourth Report) , CDC scientists measured cotinine in the serum (a clear part of blood) of 6,320 nonsmoking participants aged three years and older who took part in CDC's National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) during 2003-2004. (cdc.gov)
  • The range of cotinine in the blood of active nicotine users is between 200 and 800 nanograms per milliliter. (reference.com)
  • Detection of cotinine in newborn dried blood spots. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Authors demonstrated that serum cotinine was positively associated with both systolic blood pressure (BP) and prevalence of hypertension. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cotinine in children admitted for asthma and readmission. (nih.gov)
  • Cotinine is a product formed after the chemical nicotine enters the body. (cdc.gov)
  • Since cotinine can be made only from nicotine, and since nicotine enters the body with cigarette smoke, cotinine measurements can show how much cigarette smoke enters your body. (depression-guide.com)
  • The rate at which nicotine is metabolized and cotinine is cleared from the body also varies from person to person due to some genetic differences. (labcorp.com)
  • The effect of urinary acidification and alkalinization on renal clearance of cotinine during cigarette smoking was studied in another group of eight subjects. (nih.gov)
  • Cotinine is currently being studied as a treatment for depression, PTSD, schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, at the preclinical level, cotinine facilitated the extinction of fear memory and anxiety after fear conditioning, improved working memory in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in a monkey model of schizophrenia. (frontiersin.org)
  • however, for studies requiring a quantitative assessment of exposure, plasma or serum is regarded as the fluid of choice.1 Therefore, serum was chosen for NHANES cotinine analyses. (cdc.gov)
  • It is not reported whether cotinine assessment was performed on the same day of BP measurements. (ahajournals.org)