Methanol: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Drug Costs: The amount that a health care institution or organization pays for its drugs. It is one component of the final price that is charged to the consumer (FEES, PHARMACEUTICAL or PRESCRIPTION FEES).Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Toxicity Tests: An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.Cost Control: The containment, regulation, or restraint of costs. Costs are said to be contained when the value of resources committed to an activity is not considered excessive. This determination is frequently subjective and dependent upon the specific geographic area of the activity being measured. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Toxicity Tests, Acute: Experiments designed to determine the potential toxic effects of one-time, short-term exposure to a chemical or chemicals.Direct Service Costs: Costs which are directly identifiable with a particular service.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Cost Sharing: Provisions of an insurance policy that require the insured to pay some portion of covered expenses. Several forms of sharing are in use, e.g., deductibles, coinsurance, and copayments. Cost sharing does not refer to or include amounts paid in premiums for the coverage. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Alcohol Oxidoreductases: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).Cost Allocation: The assignment, to each of several particular cost-centers, of an equitable proportion of the costs of activities that serve all of them. Cost-center usually refers to institutional departments or services.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Formates: Derivatives of formic acids. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are formed with a single carbon carboxy group.Methylobacterium extorquens: A species of METHYLOBACTERIUM which can utilize acetate, ethanol, or methylamine as a sole carbon source. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Pichia: Yeast-like ascomycetous fungi of the family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES isolated from exuded tree sap.Lethal Dose 50: The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Methylococcaceae: A family of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria utilizing only one-carbon organic compounds and isolated from in soil and water.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Euryarchaeota: A phylum of ARCHAEA comprising at least seven classes: Methanobacteria, Methanococci, Halobacteria (extreme halophiles), Archaeoglobi (sulfate-reducing species), Methanopyri, and the thermophiles: Thermoplasmata, and Thermococci.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Chloroform: A commonly used laboratory solvent. It was previously used as an anesthetic, but was banned from use in the U.S. due to its suspected carcinogenicity.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Models, Economic: Statistical models of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, as well as of financial considerations. For the application of statistics to the testing and quantifying of economic theories MODELS, ECONOMETRIC is available.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Formaldehyde: A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.PQQ Cofactor: A pyrrolo-quinoline having two adjacent keto-groups at the 4 and 5 positions and three acidic carboxyl groups. It is a coenzyme of some DEHYDROGENASES.Toxicity Tests, Chronic: Experiments designed to determine the potential toxic effects of a long-term exposure to a chemical or chemicals.Plant Bark: The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)1-Propanol: A colorless liquid made by oxidation of aliphatic hydrocarbons that is used as a solvent and chemical intermediate.Employer Health Costs: That portion of total HEALTH CARE COSTS borne by an individual's or group's employing organization.Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria: A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.Quality-Adjusted Life Years: A measurement index derived from a modification of standard life-table procedures and designed to take account of the quality as well as the duration of survival. This index can be used in assessing the outcome of health care procedures or services. (BIOETHICS Thesaurus, 1994)PicratesMolecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.United StatesNeoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Aldehyde-Ketone Transferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of aldehyde or ketone residues. EC 2.2.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Acetonitriles: Compounds in which a methyl group is attached to the cyano moiety.MethylaminesPlant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Methylobacterium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, facultatively methylotrophic rods occurring singly or occasionally in rosettes. Members of this genus are usually motile and are isolated from soil, dust, fresh water, lake sediments, leaf surfaces, rice, air, and hospital environments. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Fluorouracil: A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level: The highest dosage administered that does not produce toxic effects.2-Propanol: An isomer of 1-PROPANOL. It is a colorless liquid having disinfectant properties. It is used in the manufacture of acetone and its derivatives and as a solvent. Topically, it is used as an antiseptic.Maximum Tolerated Dose: The highest dose of a biologically active agent given during a chronic study that will not reduce longevity from effects other than carcinogenicity. (from Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)Poisoning: A condition or physical state produced by the ingestion, injection, inhalation of or exposure to a deleterious agent.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Antidotes: Agents counteracting or neutralizing the action of POISONS.Methylophilus methylotrophus: A species of METHYLOPHILUS which is motile by single flagella. In addition to growth on methanol as a sole carbon source, growth also occurs on glucose. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Doxorubicin: Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Ethylene Glycol: A colorless, odorless, viscous dihydroxy alcohol. It has a sweet taste, but is poisonous if ingested. Ethylene glycol is the most important glycol commercially available and is manufactured on a large scale in the United States. It is used as an antifreeze and coolant, in hydraulic fluids, and in the manufacture of low-freezing dynamites and resins.Hexanes: Six-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives. Various polyneuropathies are caused by hexane poisoning.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Health Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions: Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.Toxicology: The science concerned with the detection, chemical composition, and biological action of toxic substances or poisons and the treatment and prevention of toxic manifestations.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.DeoxycytidineMethylophilaceae: A family of gram-negative bacteria in the order Methylophilales.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Drug Evaluation: Any process by which toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, preferred route of administration, safe dosage range, etc., for a drug or group of drugs is determined through clinical assessment in humans or veterinary animals.Plant Components, Aerial: The above-ground plant without the roots.Acetone: A colorless liquid used as a solvent and an antiseptic. It is one of the ketone bodies produced during ketoacidosis.Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Methylene Chloride: A chlorinated hydrocarbon that has been used as an inhalation anesthetic and acts as a narcotic in high concentrations. Its primary use is as a solvent in manufacturing and food technology.Apocynaceae: The dogbane family of the order Gentianales. Members of the family have milky, often poisonous juice, smooth-margined leaves, and flowers in clusters. Asclepiadacea (formerly the milkweed family) has been included since 1999 and before 1810.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)LeukopeniaEthylene Glycols: An ethylene compound with two hydroxy groups (-OH) located on adjacent carbons. They are viscous and colorless liquids. Some are used as anesthetics or hypnotics. However, the class is best known for their use as a coolant or antifreeze.
... more so than methanol. Butanol's only major disadvantages are its high flashpoint (35 °C or 95 °F), toxicity (note that ... Diesel may cost more or less than gasoline, but generally costs less to produce because the extraction processes used are ... Methanol[edit]. Main article: Methanol fuel. Methanol is the lightest and simplest alcohol, produced from the natural gas ... Methanol is also called methyl alcohol or wood alcohol, the latter because it was formerly produced from the distillation of ...
... non-toxicity and energy efficient properties. However, due to cost reasons, attention must be focused on the non-edible sources ... ethanol being one of the most used for its low cost. However, greater conversions into biodiesel can be reached using methanol ... Residual methanol is typically recovered by distillation and reused. Soaps can be removed or converted into acids. Residual ... However, if methyl acetate is used instead of methanol, the lipase is not in-activated and can be used for several batches, ...
... more so than methanol. Butanol's only major disadvantages are its high flashpoint (35 °C or 95 °F), toxicity (note that ... Diesel may cost more or less than gasoline, but generally costs less to produce because the extraction processes used are ... Methanol-based fuels are used in some race cars and model airplanes. Methanol is also called methyl alcohol or wood alcohol, ... Ethanol and methanol are the most common, being sufficiently inexpensive to be useful. Methanol is the lightest and simplest ...
Taken by mouth or injected into a vein it is used to treat methanol or ethylene glycol toxicity when fomepizole is not ... The wholesale cost in the developing world is about 1.80 to 9.50 USD per litre of 70% denatured ethanol. In the United Kingdom ... Ethanol, when used for toxicity, competes with other alcohols for the alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme, lessening metabolism into ... "American Academy of Clinical Toxicology practice guidelines on the treatment of methanol poisoning". J. Toxicol. Clin. Toxicol ...
Application in direct methanol fuel cells may be also of interest because of a better selectivity water/methanol compared to ... Besides, PBI fiber avoids the chronic toxicity problems associated with asbestos because it processes on standard textile and ... a safety garment manufacturer reported that gloves containing PBI outlasted asbestos two to nine times with an effective cost. ... PBI/H3PO4 is conductive even in low relative humidity and it allows less crossover of the methanol at the same time. These ...
Because of high doses necessary for androgenic effects, cost and inconvenience meant that quinbolone never proved to be ... Reaction with 1,1-dimethoxycyclopentane followed by heating to eliminate methanol gives quinbolone. Boldenone undecylenate ... developed by Parke-Davis in an attempt to create a viable orally-administered anabolic steroid with little or no liver toxicity ...
... versus having to pay for the cost of fuel, whereas fuel cost can account for as much as 45 percent of the cost to produce ... In the United States, and perhaps in other countries as well, the law requires that the ash be tested for toxicity before ... Syngas is converted to methanol and formaldehyde. Incineration Waste management#Incineration The ABC of Integrated Waste ... Waste-to-energy plants may have a significant cost advantage over traditional power options, as the waste-to-energy operator ...
Toxicity[edit]. Main article: Methanol Toxicity. Methanol occurs naturally in the human body and in some fruits, but is ... If approved by the government it will cut monthly fuel costs by 10%. In India ethanol costs Rs 42 a litre, while the price of ... While methanol offers somewhat different toxicity exposure pathways, the effective toxicity is no worse than those of benzene ... Methanol is also used in Monster Truck racing. Safety in automotive fuels[edit]. Pure methanol has been used in open wheel auto ...
MTBE is manufactured via the chemical reaction of methanol and isobutylene. Methanol is derived from natural gas, and ... In one case, the cost to oil companies to clean up the MTBE in wells belonging to Santa Monica is estimated to exceed $200 ... MCLs are determined by the EPA using toxicity data. A study revealed that exposure to MTBE has significant effect on the ... Its performance as an additive is similar to MTBE, but due to the higher price of ethanol compared to methanol, it is more ...
The wholesale cost in the developing world is about 0.09 to 2.58 USD per 10 ml of 8.4% solution. In the United Kingdom this ... Other uses include high blood potassium, tricyclic antidepressant overdose, and cocaine toxicity as well as a number of other ... tricyclic antidepressant overdose or methanol poisoning. In addition, sodium bicarbonate is indicated in severe diarrhea, where ... amount costs the NHS about 11.10 pounds. Intravenous sodium bicarbonate is indicated in the treatment of metabolic acidosis, ...
It has low toxicity, facility of storage, handling and primarily high energy density. such advantages are favored for potential ... Chen, C.Y.; Liu, D.H.; Huang, C.L.; Chang, C.L. (2007). "Portable DMFC system with methanol sensor-less control". Journal of ... and low cost compared to Ru. Activated carbon has many advantages, such as resistance to acidic or basic media, stable at high ... S. S. Dipti; U.C. Chung; W.S. Chung (2009). "Carbon supported Pt-Ni nanoparticles as catalysts in direct methanol fuel cells". ...
Metal Toxicity: Tattoos: Safe Symbols?, Environmental Health Perspectives, retrieved 19 October 2009 Tattoo Ink Chemistry, ... The most typical solvent is ethyl alcohol or water, but denatured alcohols, methanol, rubbing alcohol, propylene glycol, and ... to reduce production costs. A carrier acts as a solvent for the pigment, to "carry" the pigment from the point of needle trauma ...
As the diester of methanol and sulfuric acid, its formula is often written as (CH3)2SO4 or even Me2SO4, where CH3 or Me is ... In general, the toxicity of methylating agents is correlated with their efficiency as methyl transfer reagents.[citation needed ... Compared to other methylating agents, dimethyl sulfate is preferred by the industry because of its low cost and high reactivity ... Dimethyl carbonate, which is less reactive, has far lower toxicity compared to both dimethyl sulfate and methyl iodide and can ...
The toxicity of raw castor beans is due to the presence of ricin. Although the lethal dose in adults is considered to be four ... It does not mix well with petroleum products, particularly at low temperatures, but mixes better with the methanol based fuels ... Because castor seeds are attractively patterned, they are popular in low-cost personal adornments, such as non-durable ... Irwin R (March 1982). "NTP technical report on the toxicity studies of Castor Oil (CAS No. 8001-79-4) In F344/N Rats And B6C3F1 ...
... at the cost of cryoprotectant toxicity and side effects of dehydration of tissue due to the blood-brain barrier. Although not a ... independently reported in the same year that toxic effects of methanol, ethanol, and ammonium acetate in the frozen state are ... It costs less; neuropatients are easier to transport in case of legal, social, or physical problems; it is possible to do a ... "Cryoprotectant toxicity neutralization". Cryobiology. 60 (3): S45-S53. doi:10.1016/j.cryobiol.2009.05.005. ISSN 0011-2240. In ...
In the United States each vial costs about 1000 USD. Fomepizole is used in ethylene glycol and methanol toxic ingestion and ... However, these lower doses may therefore produce less chronic toxicity and provide a harm minimization approach to chronic ... Methanol is first metabolized to formaldehyde by alcohol dehydrogenase. It then undergoes subsequent oxidation via formaldehyde ... This enzyme plays a key role in the metabolism of ethylene glycol and methanol. Ethylene glycol is first metabolized to ...
It was never as popular as other agents due to its high cost and toxicity. Bromomethane was used from the 1920s to the 1960s, ... It is manufactured for agricultural and industrial use by reacting methanol with hydrogen bromide: CH3OH + HBr → CH3Br + H2O In ... 1945]. This may be a conservative value due to the lack of relevant acute toxicity data for workers exposed to concentrations ... Expression of toxicity following exposure may involve a latent period of several hours, followed by signs such as nausea, ...
Their efficacy as preservatives, in combination with their low cost, the long history of their use, and the inefficacy of some ... They are produced by the esterification of para-hydroxybenzoic acid with the appropriate alcohol, such as methanol, ethanol, or ... Terasaki M., Makino M., Tatarazako N. (2009) Acute toxicity of parabens and their chlorinated by-products with Daphnia magna ... In Daphnia magna, general toxicity conferred by chlorinated parabens occurs through non-specific disruption of cell membrane ...
The methanol oxidation reaction occurs at the anode in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). Platinum is the most promising ... Last is the developmental toxicity that can occur as an organism grows. Developmental toxicity looks at the impact the ... In order to meet cost reductions of this magnitude, the Pt catalyst loading must be decreased. Two strategies have been ... Both types of experiments are needed for a complete understanding of nanoparticle toxicity, especially human toxicity, since no ...
In the United Kingdom it costs the NHS about 4.62 pounds per 30 mg vial. Folinic acid is given following methotrexate as part ... Fluorouracil: Folinic acid may increase the toxicity associated with fluorouracil if the two are administered together. Some ... and methanol poisoning. It is taken by mouth, injection into a muscle, or injection into a vein. Side effects may include ...
The hypergolic rocket motor had the advantage of fast climb and quick-hitting tactics at the cost of being very volatile and ... The Komet had a HWK 109-509A rocket motor which consumed methanol/hydrazine as fuel and high test peroxide as oxidizer. ... The corrosivity, toxicity, and carcinogeneity of traditional hypergolics necessitate expensive safety precautions. Aerozine 50 ... Although commonly used hypergolic propellants are difficult to handle because of their extreme toxicity and/or corrosiveness, ...
However, due to concerns of toxicity of alkanes in SCP and pressured by the environmentalist movements, the government decided ... Microorganisms can utilize a broad spectrum of raw materials as carbon sources including alkanes, methanol, methane, ethanol ... The problem with extracting single-cell proteins from the wastes is the dilution and cost. They are found in very low ...
... cost about $12 for a daily dose, which is 24% less than Invirase and 33% less than Norvir.[14] Because the company ... However, it failed safety assessments because of its toxicity.[11] Seeing that the research on their drug was heading in the ... It is very soluble in water and methanol. Each capsule contains sulfate salt in addition to anhydrous lactose and magnesium ... In response to this hefty price, Merck stated that it cost a lot to research and develop the drug, and they did not have enough ...
A mixture of methanol extract and methyl salicylate creates a very effective natural pesticide against weevils and other ... This discovery provides some small-scale farmers in Africa with a low cost, natural alternative to synthetic pesticides. In ... "Bisdesmosidic Saponins FromRoots: Evaluation of Deterrency and Toxicity to Coleopteran Storage Pests." Journal of Agricultural ... A combination of both the methanol extract and the methyl salicylate component from the roots of the plant create a poison that ...
Toxicity[edit]. The safety data sheet for a 2003 Texan unleaded gasoline shows at least 15 hazardous chemicals occurring in ... Iso-octane in the early development stage cost $30 a gallon and even by 1934 it was still $2 a gallon compared to $0.18 for ... The most popular additives include aromatic hydrocarbons, ethers and alcohol (usually ethanol or methanol). For technical ... The Defense Supplies Corporation would buy, transport and store all aviation gasoline for the Army and Navy at cost plus a ...
This carbon is a special product costing more than US$4.00 per kg.[citation needed] ... methanol, ethanol or ethylene glycol.[6] Activated carbon will not prevent these chemicals from being absorbed into the human ... Because of its high cost, the so-called GAC rule encountered strong opposition across the country from the water supply ... In vapour phase systems this needs to be considered against pressure drop, which will affect energy cost. Careful consideration ...
The present paper reports the phyto-chemistry, the anti-plasmodial and anti-malarial activity, as well as the toxicity of H. ... The acute oral and sub-chronic toxicity of the ethanol extract were evaluated in both male and female mice. Plumieride was ... No significant changes were observed in the in vivo toxicity studies. The ethanol extract of H. articulatus proved to be ... promising as anti-malarial medicine and showed low toxicity. ... methanol fraction obtained from ethanol extract of Himatanthus ...
Methanol is the poisonous alcohol to be avoided at all costs.. Drug Abuse Among Youth is on the Rise in Maldives. The Maldives ... Drug Toxicity. Drug toxicity is an adverse reaction of the body towards a drug that results as a side effect of a drug, ...
Because of its toxicity, methanol is sometimes added to ethanol products with industrial uses, such as solvents, to rule out ... manufacturers can avoid the taxes associated with alcoholic beverages and sell their products at lower costs. ... Methanol, the chemical at the heart of the Czech liquors menace, is a commonly synthesized alcohol found in antifreeze and ... The metabolism of methanol, however, doesnt go off as smoothly. The chemical depresses the central nervous system in the same ...
Due to the cost and potential toxicity of methanol, ethanol has been utilized. In addition to being safe for consumption, 95% ... Low molecular weight alcohols, such as methanol or ethanol, are capable, with efficient mixing, of extracting sufficient ...
I dealt with the common criticisms about methanol - toxicity, corrosion, energy density - and I argued that methanol … [Read ... What is meant by "externalized costs"? Externalized costs are real costs that are not quantified within the levelized cost ... These costs are directly or indirectly paid by various sectors of the economy in forms such as pollution-related health costs, ... Roger Arnold on Flat Investment Levels: End to RE Cost Reductions?. *Joe Deely on Flat Investment Levels: End to RE Cost ...
Methanol is a monohydric alcohol [2]. It melts at -97.8°C and boils at 67°C. It reacts with certain acids to form methyl esters ... methanol, methyl alcohol [1], or wood alcohol, CH3OH, a colorless, flammable liquid that is miscible with water in all ... Since methanol vehicles cost only marginally more than gasoline-only vehicles, and the combustion of M85 produces less smog- ... There have also been concerns about the toxicity of any spilled MTBE that may get into the water supply. ...
Note that Behkol contains NO methanol!. One last point - the ethyl acetate is rated as very low toxicity, whereas the methyl ... Ethyl acetate is used primarily as a solvent and diluent, being favored because of its low cost, low toxicity, and agreeable ... Methanol - 45-50%. Methyl Isobutyl Ketone - 1-4%. I was surprised to see methanol at such a high percentage, as Im sure a much ... Methanol - 45-50%. Methyl Isobutyl Ketone - 1-4%. ….. I am very surprised at that.. I dont think de-natured alcohol in Europe ...
Iodinated solvents are excluded in consideration of toxicity, density, and cost. Also, halogenated solvents are not effective ... C.) and methanol (boiling point 64.6.degree. C.) are the preferred solvents.. For general removal of substituted and non- ... In addition to lower operating costs, the reduction of spent solvent generation per unit time allows smaller capital costs to ... Methanol and ethanol, as a consequence, are not recovered as efficiently as higher alcohols. Table 1 below illustrates the ...
Methanol can be made from biological sources, including wood. We would suggest not using it as a fuel because of its toxicity. ... the cost of syngas is closely related to the cost of the electricity used to make it. In 2010, when the low demand costs of ... 2015 Wind Technologies Market Report and Lazards Levelized Cost of Energy Analysis), and in low-demand times, the cost ... hydrogen can actually be produced at no marginal cost, or even negative cost. Burning hydrogen produces water, using the same ...
Advantages of the acetone pretreatment method include lower toxicity (vs. acetonitrile), lower cost (vs. SPE), and a lower ... 1% concentrated HCl in methanol (1 mL concentrated HCl in 100 mL volumetric flask, q.s. methanol). ... A144-500); Methanol (HPLC/GC, Honeywell B&J, Cat. #230-4); Water (HPLC Tedia Company, Inc., Cat. #WS2211-001); β. - ... Simplicity, low cost, low maintenance combined with high mean metabolite recovery (76-99%), specificity, accuracy (0-10% bias) ...
The preferred alcohols, however, are those which have the characteristics of low boiling point, low cost and low toxicity. ... Methyl alcohol (methanol) or an MEK-methanol azeotrope has been found to be an effective non-solvent for the PVC. When added so ... The PVC was precipitated out of solution by the addition of 450 ml methanol. Both the PVC solution and the methanol were at ... The filtrate, comprised mainly of MEK, methanol and plasticizer was subjected to heat and air to boil off the MEK and methanol ...
... more so than methanol. Butanols only major disadvantages are its high flashpoint (35 °C or 95 °F), toxicity (note that ... Diesel may cost more or less than gasoline, but generally costs less to produce because the extraction processes used are ... Methanol[edit]. Main article: Methanol fuel. Methanol is the lightest and simplest alcohol, produced from the natural gas ... Methanol is also called methyl alcohol or wood alcohol, the latter because it was formerly produced from the distillation of ...
... toxicity, non-biodegradability, and cost [106]. ... methanol, ethanol, and propanol or their mixtures [105]. The ... Polysaccharides are low-cost materials and have many applications mainly in the food industry. Some function as emulsifiers and ... Environmental and economic costs can be optimized through rational management of this effluent. Therefore, according to the ... The choice of treatment method depends on its efficiency and cost, the type of land where the distillery stillage will be used ...
... non-toxicity and energy efficient properties. However, due to cost reasons, attention must be focused on the non-edible sources ... ethanol being one of the most used for its low cost. However, greater conversions into biodiesel can be reached using methanol ... Residual methanol is typically recovered by distillation and reused. Soaps can be removed or converted into acids. Residual ... However, if methyl acetate is used instead of methanol, the lipase is not in-activated and can be used for several batches, ...
These include methanol, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol soluble fractions. Selection of Oxalis corniculata ... The maximum toxicity of plant against Ephestia cautella and Tribolium castaneum was recorded for the crud extract and ... The appearance of multidrug-resistant infectious microbes, high cost of synthetic compounds, and uninvited side effects of ... Taley et al., 2012 [15], investigated the methanol and aqueous extracts of O. corniculata leaves for antibacterial activities ...
Drinks adulterated with cheap spirit - which is often home-made - to cut costs and disguise diluted drinks have been a ... Pathology lecturer, Haralambos Gogos, was quoted as saying that most tampered drinks were spiked with methanol, known for its ... toxicity and ability to cause blindness when mixed with alcohol. "Its a substance normally used to make anti-freeze solvents ...
Direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) has attracted attention, since ethanol has no toxicity comparing to methanol and can be easily ... The interest in Pd not only is for the purpose to lower the cost of catalysts but pursuits an improved catalytic activity. One ... B. R. Tao, J. Zhang, S. C. Hui, X. J. Chen, and L. J. Wan, "An electrochemical methanol sensor based on a Pd-Ni/SiNWs catalytic ... J. Kim, T. Momma, and T. Osaka, "Cell performance of Pd-Sn catalyst in passive direct methanol alkaline fuel cell using anion ...
... more so than methanol. Butanols only major disadvantages are its high flashpoint (95 °F or 35 °C), toxicity (note that ... Diesel may cost more or less than gasoline, but generally costs less to produce because the extraction processes used are ... Ethanol and methanol are the most common, being sufficiently inexpensive to be useful.. Methanol. Methanol is the lightest and ... Methanol-based fuels are used in some race cars and model airplanes.. Methanol is also called methyl alcohol or wood alcohol, ...
Smith M. Solvent Toxicity: isopropanol, methanol and ethylene glycol. Ear, Nose and Throat 62:13-26, 1983. ... Shesser R, Smith M, Kline P, Rosenthal R, Turbiak T, Chen H. A cost-effective emergency medicine clerkship. J Med Educ 60:288- ... Seneff M, Scott J, Friedman B, Smith M. Acute theophylline toxicity and the use of esmolol to reverse cardiovascular ...
... general Epidemics Health aspects Research Ethylene glycols Methanol Poisoning Care and treatment Diagnosis Risk factors ... Ethylene glycol and methanol poisonings: case series and review.(Scientific Article, Report) by West Virginia Medical Journal ... 5) The renal toxicity of EG is thought to be due to a combination of hydronephrosis from calcium oxalate crystals and a direct ... 3) Because of its sweet taste, ability to intoxicate, and relatively low cost, it is often used as a substitute for ethanol. (3 ...
... due to its relatively low cost, toxicity, flammability and critical temperature. ... methanol and n-pentane; methanol and n-octane; methanol and hexane; methanol and cyclohexane; DMF (dimethyl formamide) and a ... The anti-solvent fluid may optionally contain one or more modifiers, for example water, methanol, ethanol, isopropanol or ... wherein the first vehicle is methanol and the second vehicle is a C5 or higher alkane. ...
... macerated to a fine powder and extracted separately using methanol in soxhlet apparatus. The extracts were screened for ... it is not greatly preferred due to concerns of environmental toxicity and the relatively high cost of the chemicals. Conversely ... it is not greatly preferred due to concerns of environmental toxicity and the relatively high cost of the chemicals. Conversely ... macerated to a fine powder and extracted separately using methanol in soxhlet apparatus. The extracts were screened for ...
We explore and discuss reports of methanol toxicity through ingestion and transdermal absorption. We discuss the WHO ... We wish to highlight the importance of those producing hand sanitisers to avoid methylated spirits containing methanol and to ... effective and relatively low cost alternative worldwide [1]. ... Methanol toxicity as a result of ingestion, as well as from ... there have been reports of methanol toxicity caused by ingestion of ABHRs as well as chronic methanol toxicity from transdermal ...
... have demonstrated that adding CO2 during the deconstruction phase of biofuel production successfully neutralizes the toxicity ... JBEI scientists use CO2 to control toxicity of ionic liquids in biomass pretreatment; lowering production costs 22 July 2016 ... And it costs less because now you can do everything in one reactor instead of three.. -Blake Simmons ... If you count the whole production cycle, pretreatment is second only to the cost of growing and obtaining the feedstock itself. ...
It is unstable in water, and, because it is shipped in 50% methanol, it is overly toxic and flammable. Many other antimicrobial ... There also exists a need for highly concentrated organosilane compositions which are essentially non-toxic or of low toxicity, ... durable and the process itself is effective and does not require additional manufacturing steps or increase manufacturing cost. ... The ether-silane mixtures often are less flammable than methanol mixtures and are easier to dissolve in water than many silanes ...
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