Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Drug Costs: The amount that a health care institution or organization pays for its drugs. It is one component of the final price that is charged to the consumer (FEES, PHARMACEUTICAL or PRESCRIPTION FEES).Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Cost Control: The containment, regulation, or restraint of costs. Costs are said to be contained when the value of resources committed to an activity is not considered excessive. This determination is frequently subjective and dependent upon the specific geographic area of the activity being measured. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Direct Service Costs: Costs which are directly identifiable with a particular service.Cost Sharing: Provisions of an insurance policy that require the insured to pay some portion of covered expenses. Several forms of sharing are in use, e.g., deductibles, coinsurance, and copayments. Cost sharing does not refer to or include amounts paid in premiums for the coverage. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Cost Control: The containment, regulation, or restraint of costs. Costs are said to be contained when the value of resources committed to an activity is not considered excessive. This determination is frequently subjective and dependent upon the specific geographic area of the activity being measured. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Models, Economic: Statistical models of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, as well as of financial considerations. For the application of statistics to the testing and quantifying of economic theories MODELS, ECONOMETRIC is available.Employer Health Costs: That portion of total HEALTH CARE COSTS borne by an individual's or group's employing organization.Quality-Adjusted Life Years: A measurement index derived from a modification of standard life-table procedures and designed to take account of the quality as well as the duration of survival. This index can be used in assessing the outcome of health care procedures or services. (BIOETHICS Thesaurus, 1994)United StatesHealth Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Managed Care Programs: Health insurance plans intended to reduce unnecessary health care costs through a variety of mechanisms, including: economic incentives for physicians and patients to select less costly forms of care; programs for reviewing the medical necessity of specific services; increased beneficiary cost sharing; controls on inpatient admissions and lengths of stay; the establishment of cost-sharing incentives for outpatient surgery; selective contracting with health care providers; and the intensive management of high-cost health care cases. The programs may be provided in a variety of settings, such as HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS and PREFERRED PROVIDER ORGANIZATIONS.Efficiency: Ratio of output to effort, or the ratio of effort produced to energy expended.Length of Stay: The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.Insurance Claim Review: Review of claims by insurance companies to determine liability and amount of payment for various services. The review may also include determination of eligibility of the claimant or beneficiary or of the provider of the benefit; determination that the benefit is covered or not payable under another policy; or determination that the service was necessary and of reasonable cost and quality.Markov Chains: A stochastic process such that the conditional probability distribution for a state at any future instant, given the present state, is unaffected by any additional knowledge of the past history of the system.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Ambulatory Care: Health care services provided to patients on an ambulatory basis, rather than by admission to a hospital or other health care facility. The services may be a part of a hospital, augmenting its inpatient services, or may be provided at a free-standing facility.Decision Trees: A graphic device used in decision analysis, series of decision options are represented as branches (hierarchical).Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Budgets: Detailed financial plans for carrying out specific activities for a certain period of time. They include proposed income and expenditures.Fees, Pharmaceutical: Amounts charged to the patient or third-party payer for medication. It includes the pharmacist's professional fee and cost of ingredients, containers, etc.Financing, Personal: Payment by individuals or their family for health care services which are not covered by a third-party payer, either insurance or medical assistance.Decision Support Techniques: Mathematical or statistical procedures used as aids in making a decision. They are frequently used in medical decision-making.Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Insurance, Pharmaceutical Services: Insurance providing for payment of services rendered by the pharmacist. Services include the preparation and distribution of medical products.Economics, Hospital: Economic aspects related to the management and operation of a hospital.Accounting: System of recording financial transactions.Great BritainEconomics, Pharmaceutical: Economic aspects of the fields of pharmacy and pharmacology as they apply to the development and study of medical economics in rational drug therapy and the impact of pharmaceuticals on the cost of medical care. Pharmaceutical economics also includes the economic considerations of the pharmaceutical care delivery system and in drug prescribing, particularly of cost-benefit values. (From J Res Pharm Econ 1989;1(1); PharmacoEcon 1992;1(1))Economics, Medical: Economic aspects of the field of medicine, the medical profession, and health care. It includes the economic and financial impact of disease in general on the patient, the physician, society, or government.Fees and Charges: Amounts charged to the patient as payer for health care services.State Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.Capital Expenditures: Those funds disbursed for facilities and equipment, particularly those related to the delivery of health care.Medicaid: Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XIX, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, administered by the states, that provides health care benefits to indigent and medically indigent persons.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Drugs, Generic: Drugs whose drug name is not protected by a trademark. They may be manufactured by several companies.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Fees, Medical: Amounts charged to the patient as payer for medical services.Salaries and Fringe Benefits: The remuneration paid or benefits granted to an employee.Health Benefit Plans, Employee: Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.Absidia: A genus of zygomycetous fungi, family Mucoraceae, order MUCORALES, which sometimes causes infection in humans.Efficiency, Organizational: The capacity of an organization, institution, or business to produce desired results with a minimum expenditure of energy, time, money, personnel, materiel, etc.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.EnglandFormularies, DentalHealth Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Financial Audit: An examination, review and verification of all financial accounts.Home Care Services: Community health and NURSING SERVICES providing coordinated multiple services to the patient at the patient's homes. These home-care services are provided by a visiting nurse, home health agencies, HOSPITALS, or organized community groups using professional staff for care delivery. It differs from HOME NURSING which is provided by non-professionals.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Drug Utilization Review: Formal programs for assessing drug prescription against some standard. Drug utilization review may consider clinical appropriateness, cost effectiveness, and, in some cases, outcomes. Review is usually retrospective, but some analysis may be done before drugs are dispensed (as in computer systems which advise physicians when prescriptions are entered). Drug utilization review is mandated for Medicaid programs beginning in 1993.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Disposable Equipment: Apparatus, devices, or supplies intended for one-time or temporary use.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Drug Prescriptions: Directions written for the obtaining and use of DRUGS.Episode of Care: An interval of care by a health care facility or provider for a specific medical problem or condition. It may be continuous or it may consist of a series of intervals marked by one or more brief separations from care, and can also identify the sequence of care (e.g., emergency, inpatient, outpatient), thus serving as one measure of health care provided.Economics, Nursing: Economic aspects of the nursing profession.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Drug Utilization: The utilization of drugs as reported in individual hospital studies, FDA studies, marketing, or consumption, etc. This includes drug stockpiling, and patient drug profiles.Life Expectancy: Based on known statistical data, the number of years which any person of a given age may reasonably expected to live.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Pharmaceutical Services: Total pharmaceutical services provided by qualified PHARMACISTS. In addition to the preparation and distribution of medical products, they may include consultative services provided to agencies and institutions which do not have a qualified pharmacist.Investments: Use for articles on the investing of funds for income or profit.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Deductibles and Coinsurance: Cost-sharing mechanisms that provide for payment by the insured of some portion of covered expenses. Deductibles are the amounts paid by the insured under a health insurance contract before benefits become payable; coinsurance is the provision under which the insured pays part of the medical bill, usually according to a fixed percentage, when benefits become payable.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Insurance Coverage: Generally refers to the amount of protection available and the kind of loss which would be paid for under an insurance contract with an insurer. (Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed)Long-Term Care: Care over an extended period, usually for a chronic condition or disability, requiring periodic, intermittent, or continuous care.CaliforniaTechnology Assessment, Biomedical: Evaluation of biomedical technology in relation to cost, efficacy, utilization, etc., and its future impact on social, ethical, and legal systems.Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Ratibida: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain sesquiterpene lactones.GermanyFee-for-Service Plans: Method of charging whereby a physician or other practitioner bills for each encounter or service rendered. In addition to physicians, other health care professionals are reimbursed via this mechanism. Fee-for-service plans contrast with salary, per capita, and prepayment systems, where the payment does not change with the number of services actually used or if none are used. (From Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Private Sector: That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Economic Competition: The effort of two or more parties to secure the business of a third party by offering, usually under fair or equitable rules of business practice, the most favorable terms.Insurance Claim Reporting: The design, completion, and filing of forms with the insurer.Inflation, Economic: An increase in the volume of money and credit relative to available goods resulting in a substantial and continuing rise in the general price level.Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care): Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Hospitals, University: Hospitals maintained by a university for the teaching of medical students, postgraduate training programs, and clinical research.Public Sector: The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.Drug Therapy: The use of DRUGS to treat a DISEASE or its symptoms. One example is the use of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to treat CANCER.Disease Management: A broad approach to appropriate coordination of the entire disease treatment process that often involves shifting away from more expensive inpatient and acute care to areas such as preventive medicine, patient counseling and education, and outpatient care. This concept includes implications of appropriate versus inappropriate therapy on the overall cost and clinical outcome of a particular disease. (From Hosp Pharm 1995 Jul;30(7):596)Utilization Review: An organized procedure carried out through committees to review admissions, duration of stay, professional services furnished, and to evaluate the medical necessity of those services and promote their most efficient use.Inpatients: Persons admitted to health facilities which provide board and room, for the purpose of observation, care, diagnosis or treatment.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Delivery of Health Care, Integrated: A health care system which combines physicians, hospitals, and other medical services with a health plan to provide the complete spectrum of medical care for its customers. In a fully integrated system, the three key elements - physicians, hospital, and health plan membership - are in balance in terms of matching medical resources with the needs of purchasers and patients. (Coddington et al., Integrated Health Care: Reorganizing the Physician, Hospital and Health Plan Relationship, 1994, p7)Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Income: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Health Care Rationing: Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.Models, Organizational: Theoretical representations and constructs that describe or explain the structure and hierarchy of relationships and interactions within or between formal organizational entities or informal social groups.Resource Allocation: Societal or individual decisions about the equitable distribution of available resources.Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Hospitals, Public: Hospitals controlled by various types of government, i.e., city, county, district, state or federal.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Emergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Medical Indigency: The condition in which individuals are financially unable to access adequate medical care without depriving themselves and their dependents of food, clothing, shelter, and other essentials of living.Diagnostic Services: Organized services for the purpose of providing diagnosis to promote and maintain health.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.France: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.Referral and Consultation: The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Financial Management: The obtaining and management of funds for institutional needs and responsibility for fiscal affairs.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Hospitals, Teaching: Hospitals engaged in educational and research programs, as well as providing medical care to the patients.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Hospital Bed Capacity, 500 and overPreventive Health Services: Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.Health Services for the Aged: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the aged and the maintenance of health in the elderly.Office Visits: Visits made by patients to health service providers' offices for diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Patient Readmission: Subsequent admissions of a patient to a hospital or other health care institution for treatment.Nursing Homes: Facilities which provide nursing supervision and limited medical care to persons who do not require hospitalization.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Clinical Protocols: Precise and detailed plans for the study of a medical or biomedical problem and/or plans for a regimen of therapy.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Diagnostic Tests, Routine: Diagnostic procedures, such as laboratory tests and x-rays, routinely performed on all individuals or specified categories of individuals in a specified situation, e.g., patients being admitted to the hospital. These include routine tests administered to neonates.IndiaOutpatients: Persons who receive ambulatory care at an outpatient department or clinic without room and board being provided.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.SwitzerlandMonte Carlo Method: In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Hospitals, Community: Institutions with permanent facilities and organized medical staff which provide the full range of hospital services primarily to a neighborhood area.MassachusettsOperating Rooms: Facilities equipped for performing surgery.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Sick Leave: An absence from work permitted because of illness or the number of days per year for which an employer agrees to pay employees who are sick. (Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Insurance Carriers: Organizations which assume the financial responsibility for the risks of policyholders.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Workers' Compensation: Insurance coverage providing compensation and medical benefits to individuals because of work-connected injuries or disease.Physicians' Offices: The room or rooms in which the physician and staff provide patient care. The offices include all rooms in the physician's office suite.MichiganSpain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Genetic Fitness: The capability of an organism to survive and reproduce. The phenotypic expression of the genotype in a particular environment determines how genetically fit an organism will be.Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Contract Services: Outside services provided to an institution under a formal financial agreement.Medication Adherence: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in taking drugs or medicine as prescribed. This includes timing, dosage, and frequency.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Home Nursing: Nursing care given to an individual in the home. The care may be provided by a family member or a friend. Home nursing as care by a non-professional is differentiated from HOME CARE SERVICES provided by professionals: visiting nurse, home health agencies, hospital, or other organized community group.Risk Sharing, Financial: Any system which allows payors to share some of the financial risk associated with a particular patient population with providers. Providers agree to adhere to fixed fee schedules in exchange for an increase in their payor base and a chance to benefit from cost containment measures. Common risk-sharing methods are prospective payment schedules (PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEM), capitation (CAPITATION FEES), diagnosis-related fees (DIAGNOSIS-RELATED GROUPS), and pre-negotiated fees.Prospective Payment System: A system wherein reimbursement rates are set, for a given period of time, prior to the circumstances giving rise to actual reimbursement claims.Ownership: The legal relation between an entity (individual, group, corporation, or-profit, secular, government) and an object. The object may be corporeal, such as equipment, or completely a creature of law, such as a patent; it may be movable, such as an animal, or immovable, such as a building.Patient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Clinical Laboratory Techniques: Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Pharmacies: Facilities for the preparation and dispensing of drugs.Medicare Part D: A stand-alone drug plan offered by insurers and other private companies to beneficiaries that receive their Medicare Part A and/or B benefits through the Original Medicare Plan. It includes Medicare Private Fee-for-Service Plans that do not offer prescription drug coverage and Medicare Cost Plans offering Medicare prescription drug coverage. The plan was enacted as the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement and Modernization Act of 2003 with coverage beginning January 1, 2006.Patient Discharge: The administrative process of discharging the patient, alive or dead, from hospitals or other health facilities.Hospitals: Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.Employment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Outpatient Clinics, Hospital: Organized services in a hospital which provide medical care on an outpatient basis.Health Services Misuse: Excessive, under or unnecessary utilization of health services by patients or physicians.Databases as Topic: Organized collections of computer records, standardized in format and content, that are stored in any of a variety of computer-readable modes. They are the basic sets of data from which computer-readable files are created. (from ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Hospital Departments: Major administrative divisions of the hospital.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.

Financial incentives and drug spending in managed care. (1/393)

This study estimates the impact of patient financial incentives on the use and cost of prescription drugs in the context of differing physician payment mechanisms. A large data set was developed that covers persons in managed care who pay varying levels of cost sharing and whose physicians are compensated under two different models: independent practice association (IPA)-model and network-model health maintenance organizations (HMOs). Our results indicate that higher patient copayments for prescription drugs are associated with lower drug spending in IPA models (in which physicians are not at risk for drug costs) but have little effect in network models (in which physicians bear financial risk for all prescribing behavior).  (+info)

Who bears the burden of Medicaid drug copayment policies? (2/393)

This DataWatch examines the impact of Medicaid prescription drug copayment policies in thirty-eight states using survey data from the 1992 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey. Findings indicate that elderly and disabled Medicaid recipients who reside in states with copay provisions have significantly lower rates of drug use than their counterparts in states without copayments. After controlling for other factors, we find that the primary effect of copayments is to reduce the likelihood that Medicaid recipients fill any prescription during the year. This burden falls disproportionately on recipients in poor health.  (+info)

User charges in government health facilities in Kenya: effect on attendance and revenue. (3/393)

In this paper we study demand effects of user charges in a district health care system using cross-sectional data from household and facility surveys. The effects are examined in public as well as in private health facilities. We also look briefly at the impact of fees on revenue and service quality in government facilities. During the period of cost-sharing in public clinics, attendance dropped by about 50%. This drop prompted the government to suspend the fees for approximately 20 months. Over the 7 months after suspension of fees, attendance at government health centres increased by 41%. The suspension further caused a notable movement of patients from the private sector to government health facilities. The revenue generated by user fees covered 2.4% of the recurrent health budget. Some 40% of the facilities did not spend the fee revenue they collected, mainly due to cumbersome procedures of expenditure approvals. The paper concludes with lessons from Kenya's experience with user charges.  (+info)

The impact of alternative cost recovery schemes on access and equity in Niger. (4/393)

The authors examine accessibility and the sustainability of quality health care in a rural setting under two alternative cost recovery methods, a fee-for-service method and a type of social financing (risk-sharing) strategy based on an annual tax+fee-for-service. Both methods were accompanied by similar interventions aimed at improving the quality of primary health services. Based on pilot tests of cost recovery in the non-hospital sector in Niger, the article presents results from baseline and final survey data, as well as from facility utilization, cost, and revenue data collected in two test districts and a control district. Cost recovery accompanied by quality improvements increases equity and access to health care and the type of cost recovery method used can make a difference. In Niger, higher access for women, children, and the poor resulted from the tax+fee method, than from the pure fee-for-service method. Moreover, revenue generation per capita under the tax+fee method was two times higher than under the fee-for-service method, suggesting that the prospects of sustainability were better under the social financing strategy. However, sustainability under cost recovery and improved quality depends as much on policy measures aimed at cost containment, particularly for drugs, as on specific cost recovery methods.  (+info)

Protecting the poor under cost recovery: the role of means testing. (5/393)

In African health sectors, the importance of protecting the very poor has been underscored by increased reliance on user fees to help finance services. This paper presents a conceptual framework for understanding the role means testing can play in promoting equity under health care cost recovery. Means testing is placed in the broader context of targeting and contrasted with other mechanisms. Criteria for evaluating outcomes are established and used to analyze previous means testing experience in Africa. A survey of experience finds a general pattern of informal, low-accuracy, low-cost means testing in Africa. Detailed household data from a recent cost recovery experiment in Niger, West Africa, provides an unusual opportunity to observe outcomes of a characteristically informal means testing system. Findings from Niger suggest that achieving both the revenue raising and equity potential of cost recovery in sub-Saharan Africa will require finding ways to improve informal means testing processes.  (+info)

Improving quality through cost recovery in Niger. (6/393)

New evidence on the quality of health care from public services in Niger is discussed in terms of the relationships between quality, costs, cost-effectiveness and financing. Although structural attributes of quality appeared to improve with the pilot project in Niger, significant gaps in the implementation of diagnostic and treatment protocols were observed, particularly in monitoring vital signs, diagnostic examination and provider-patient communications. Quality improvements required significant investments in both fixed and variable costs; however, many of these costs were basic input requirements for operation. It is likely that optimal cost-effectiveness of services was not achieved because of the noted deficiencies in quality. In the test district of Boboye, the revenues from the copayments alone covered about 34% of the costs of medicines or about 20% of costs of drugs and administration. In Say, user fees covered about 50-55% of the costs of medicines or 35-40% of the amount spent on medicines and cost-recovery administration. In Boboye, taxes plus the additional copayments covered 120-180% of the cost of medicines, or 75-105% of the cost of medicines plus administration of cost recovery. Decentralized management and legal conditions in the pilot districts appeared to provide the necessary structure to ensure that the revenues and taxes collected would be channelled to pay for quality improvements.  (+info)

R(7/393)

esearch note: does cost recovery for curative care affect preventive care utilization?  (+info)

Research note: price uncertainty and the demand for health care.(8/393)

 (+info)

*Cost sharing

... can be audited and must be allowable under cost principles and verifiable to records. A cost-sharing mechanism is ... In health care, cost sharing occurs when patients pay for a portion of health care costs not covered by health insurance. The " ... In accounting, cost sharing or matching means that portion of project or program costs not borne by the funding agency. It ... If the award is federal, only acceptable non-federal costs qualify as cost sharing and must conform to other necessary and ...

*Cost-sharing mechanism

Cost(Alice), Cost(Both)/2, Cost(Both)-Cost(George)], Payment(George,Both) = median[Cost(George), Cost(Both)/2, Cost(Both)-Cost( ... Cost(Both)+Cost(Alice)-Cost(George)]/2, Payment(George,Both) = [Cost(Both)+Cost(George)-Cost(Alice)]/2. The egalitarian ... Cost(Q) = the cost of producing Q units of the product. A solution to a cost-sharing problem is defined by a payment Pay ( i ... Cost-sharing becomes more interesting when the marginal cost is not constant. With increasing marginal costs, the agents impose ...

*Cost sharing reductions subsidy

The cost sharing reductions (CSR) subsidy is the smaller of two subsidies paid under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care ... Kaiser Family Foundation-The Effects of Ending the Affordable Care Act's Cost-Sharing Reduction Payments-April 25, 2017 Thomas ... "CBO: The Effects of Terminating Payments for Cost-Sharing Reductions"-August 15, 2017 "CBO says Trump's Obamacare sabotage ... Commonwealth Fund-Essential Facts about Health Reform Alternatives: Eliminating Cost-Sharing Reductions-Retrieved October 21, ...

*Restoration Cost-sharing Agreements

In the United States, Restoration Cost-sharing Agreements are an enrollment option of less than 30 years under the Wetland ...

*Shared-cost service

... revenue share not allowed. International shared-cost service is known as ISCS or UISCN (Universal International Shared Cost ... Shared-cost service is an intermediate level of telephone call billing where the charge for calling a particular international ... As of 2006, countries with shared-cost service include France, Germany (0180x number series), Switzerland. Portugal (808 number ... As of 2007, a newer non-geographic series of 03 codes is available for the same cost as calling 01 and 02 numbers, ...

*Hervé Moulin

Moulin is also known for his seminal work in cost sharing and assignment problems. In particular, jointly with Anna Bogomolnaia ... Brenner, Janina; Schäfer, Guido (July 2008). "Group-strategyproof Cost Sharing mechanisms for Makespan and other Scheduling ... doi:10.1016/S0022-0531(05)80044-4. Moulin, Hervé; Shenker, Scott (September 1992). "Serial Cost Sharing". Econometrica. 60 (5 ... ISBN 978-0-444-89427-4. Roughgarden, Tim; Sundararajan, Mukund (1 June 2009). "Quantifying Inefficiency in Cost-sharing ...

*Managed care

... increased beneficiary cost sharing; controls on inpatient admissions and lengths of stay; the establishment of cost-sharing ... Basic protection deals with costs of a hospital room, hospital services, care and supplies, cost of surgery in or out of ... which has a copayment cost share feature (a nominal payment generally paid at the time of service), a PPO generally does not ... Health Care Costs: A Primer Archived 2007-11-27 at the Wayback Machine., Kaiser Family Foundation Health Care Marketplace ...

*Health care sharing ministry

5000A(d)(2)(b)(ii) Christian Medical Cost Sharing. "No Penalties for M.C.S Members". Christian Medical Cost Sharing. Retrieved ... A health care sharing ministry is an organization that facilitates sharing of health care costs among individual members, in ... "Christian Health Care". Christian Medical Cost Sharing. Retrieved May 19, 2015. "Resources". Altrua Health Share. Retrieved May ... "Health care sharing ministry members share their experiences". selfpaypatient.com. Retrieved May 19, 2015. "Healthcare Sharing ...

*Fair river sharing

In addition to sharing river water, which are an economic good, it is often required to share river pollution (or the cost of ... Ni and Wang studied river-pollution from a cost sharing perspective. In their model, each agent i {\displaystyle i} has an ... The ATS doctrine implies the Local Responsibility Sharing method, which holds each agent responsible for the costs on its own ... "Cooperation and equity in the river-sharing problem" (PDF). Ambec, Stefan; Sprumont, Yves (2002). "Sharing a River". Journal of ...

*The American Journal of Managed Care

"Pan 2017 Cost-Sharing Roundtable". AJMC. Retrieved 2017-03-14 - via Eventbrite. Official website. ...

*Pascaline Dupas

Cohen, J., Dupas, P. (2010). Free Distribution or Cost-Sharing? Evidence from a Randomized Malaria Prevention Experiment. ...

*MyHSR Corp

18 April 2015 - Cost-sharing likely for HSR. 20 April 2015 - MyHSR Corp to oversee high-speed project. 24 April 2015 - Malaysia ... "Cost-sharing likely for HSR". thestar.com.my. "MyHSR Corp to oversee high speed project". railwaygazette.com. "Malaysia ...

*Canada Health Act

This shared the costs of covering hospital services. By the start date (July 1, 1958) five provinces-Newfoundland, Manitoba, ... Under this new arrangement, cost sharing was no more. Provinces/territories now had more flexibility, as long as the federal ... "A Brief History of the Health and Social Transfers". Federal provincial cost sharing programs. Canada. Archived from the ... the federal government combined the EPF transfers with another cost-shared program, the Canada Assistance Plan (CAP), to form ...

*Center for Research Libraries

"Member Cost Shares". Center for Research Libraries. Retrieved 2016-11-13. "About ICON". Center for Research Libraries. ... It also gathers and analyzes data pertaining to the preservation of physical and digital resources, and fosters the sharing of ... The CRL was originally built to manage a shared collection that no one university could maintain, and contents included foreign ... 230-235 Rutledge, John; Swindler, Luke; "Evaluating membership in a resource-sharing program: the center for research libraries ...

*Pilot licensing in the United Kingdom

"Guidance on cost sharing and introductory flights". UK CAA. 2015. Retrieved 25 May 2016. "EASA Part-FCL Pilot Licence (PPL)". ... a PPL holder may carry passengers who make a remunerative contribution toward the direct cost of the flights. A Flying ...

*Consumer-driven healthcare

They found wide variations in cost sharing. Pregnant women could face exposure to high out-of-pocket costs under consumer- ... with no cost-sharing (copays, co-insurance, or deductibles) to the patient. This system is referred to as "consumer-driven ... reported that visits to doctors and hospitals decline with higher cost sharing, "although for low income families such cutbacks ... would cost $287,000. Under some consumer-directed health plans, the cost to the family would be $6,000, less than some ...

*Service Improvement Plan

Cost sharing was a feature of the program. The benefitting customer paid a portion of the charges, usually the first $1,000 of ... If the cost exceeded $25,000 to serve a customer, the customer was usually responsible to pay $1,000 plus any cost that ... Such high cost was rare, and usually only occurred where the telephone company needed to install new microwave relay towers to ... The original planned cost was $76 million. The CRTC cut the program to $67 million, eliminating a plan for local dial-up ...

*D. Bruce Johnstone

Johnstone, D.B. (1986). Sharing the costs of higher education: Student financial assistance in the United Kingdom, the Federal ... Texeira, P., Johnstone, B., Rosa, M.J., & Vossensteyn, H. (Eds.), (2006). Cost-sharing and accessibility in Western higher ... Johnstone, D.B. (2006). Financing higher education: Cost-sharing in international perspective. Boston, MA: Boston College ... The Project examines the worldwide responsibility change in higher education costs from taxpayers and governments to students ...

*Interstate 495 (Capital Beltway)

subscription required) "Cost Sharing Urged for Ring Route". The Washington Post. February 20, 1952. ISSN 0190-8286. ( ... Cost Is Big Problem". The Washington Post. p. 17. ISSN 0190-8286. (subscription required) Shaffer, Ron (June 25, 2006). "After ...

*Avalere Health

report to the Council for Affordable Health Coverage) Mendelson, Dan (June 27, 2011). "Establishing Sensible Cost Sharing for ... "Concern Over Drug Costs". The New York Times. September 17, 2013. "What You Need To Know For Medicare Open Enrollment". NPR. ... cost management, quality improvement, and managed care as well as business intelligence and corporate communication strategies ...

*Mark McClellan

Conversely, retrospective cost sharing allows for possible supply induced demand, minimizing the hospital's incentive to ... Lower costs equaled lower reimbursement; however, higher costs led to higher reimbursements only if the costs were driven by a ... McClellan suggests that PPS may not optimally incentivize cost sharing among insurers and health providers due to the income ... The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act continues to drive home the message of cost sharing by reducing reimbursements ...

*National Organic Program

The NOP administers an Organic Certification Cost Share Program to help defray the costs to organic producers and processors of ... "Organic Certification Cost Share Programs , Agricultural Marketing Service". www.ams.usda.gov. Retrieved 2016-04-23. Jaenicke, ... and National Organic Certification Cost Share Program (NOCCSP) which provides over $10 million and is available to all ... a Federal Advisory Committee Oversee the Organic Certification Cost Share programs to support certified organic operators ...

*Telephone numbers in Latvia

810xxxxx-shared-cost services. 88xx, 89xx, 82xxx, 90x0xxxx-premium-rate services. "Elektronisko sakaru likums" [Electronic ...

*Economic policy of Donald Trump

"The Effects of Terminating Payments for Cost-Sharing Reductions". CBO.gov. August 15, 2017. Retrieved December 24, 2017. "The ... The share of income going to the top 1% has doubled, from 10% to 20%, since the pre-1980 period, while the share of wealth ... the cost-sharing reduction (CSR) subsidies. This controversial decision significantly raised premiums on the ACA exchanges (as ... specifically non-enforcement of the individual mandate and not funding cost sharing reduction subsidies, as contributing 20-30 ...

*Profit extraction mechanism

The profit extractor mechanism is a special case of a cost sharing mechanism. It was adapted from the cost-sharing literature ... ISBN 978-3-540-44180-9. Moulin, Hervé; Shenker, Scott (2001). "Strategyproof sharing of submodular costs:budget balance versus ... In particular, it can be used in a double auction where several sellers sell a single unit of some item (with different costs) ... low-cost sellers sell an item at price s k {\displaystyle s_{k}} . The mechanism is truthful - this can be proved using a ...

*David F. Swensen

... invest in low-cost index funds and exchange-traded funds. The investor should be very watchful of costs as some indices are ... "Yale's Money Guru Shares Wisdom with Masses" National Public Radio: "Yale Money Whiz Shares Tips on Growing a Nest Egg (4/3/08 ... long-term gains it may have produced for colleges and universities in the past must now be weighed more fully against its costs ...
Take a patient who has diabetes. If a health plan implements a value-based insurance design (VBID), the employers health plan will cover certain diabetes drugs for a reduced copayment. As a result of that reduced copayment, the patient continues to to use his diabetes drug, and therefore the condition is managed better. The employer and health plan see lower overall health care costs because of reduced complications.. Avalere Health, a consulting company, taking a page from the private insurer playbook, says that Medicare could immediately modernize its benefit structure by incorporating VBID because VBID tailors cost-sharing so that the beneficiary pays less for a needed medication or therapy, making him more likely to use it. The employer and health plan benefit because the patient has fewer costly complications.. The report, Value-Based Insurance Design in the Medicare Prescription Drug Benefit: An Analysis of Policy Options, points out that Medicare Part D, with its 26 million enrollees, is ...
Value-based insurance design bases cost sharing on a medications clinical value, not its price. This study shows the effectiveness of value-based insurance design.
In an effort to alleviate their rising health care costs, employers have sought to share more of these expenses with their workers. To assess the impact of changes in employee cost-sharing on the use, cost, and quality of preventive and therapeutic care, the project investigators will examine medical claims and personnel data at two or three St. Louis firms for up to 70,000 employees and dependents. The analysis will include a special focus on workers earning low to moderate wages. If this work proceeds satisfactorily, a second phase will be proposed to assess the effect of cost-sharing on emergency room visits, inpatient hospitalization, and mortality. Study findings will inform policymakers and employers about the personal health and financial implications of imposing higher levels of cost-sharing. Cofunders are being sought for this project.. ...
Background: Previous research has shown that patient cost-sharing leads to a reduction in overall health resource utilization. However, in Canada, where health care is provided free of charge except for prescription drugs, the converse may be true. We investigated the effect of prescription drug cost-sharing on overall health care utilization among elderly patients with rheumatoid arthritis.. Methods: Elderly patients (≥ 65 years) were selected from a population-based cohort with rheumatoid arthritis. Those who had paid the maximum amount of dispensing fees ($200) for the calendar year (from 1997 to 2000) were included in the analysis for that year. We defined the period during which the annual maximum co-payment had not been reached as the "cost-sharing period" and the one beyond which the annual maximum co-papyment had been reached as the "free period." We compared health services utilization patterns between these periods during the 4 study years, including the number of hospital ...
This paper develops a model of health insurance that incorporates behavioral biases. In the traditional model, people who are insured overuse low value medical care because of moral hazard. There is ample evidence, though, of a different inefficiency: people underuse high value medical care because they make mistakes. Such "behavioral hazard" changes the fundamental tradeoff between insurance and incentives. With only moral hazard, raising copays increases the efficiency of demand by ameliorating overuse. With the addition of behavioral hazard, raising copays may reduce efficiency by exaggerating underuse. This means that estimating the demand response is no longer enough for setting optimal copays; the health response needs to be considered as well. This provides a theoretical foundation for value-based insurance design: for some high value treatments, for example, copays should be zero (or even negative). Empirically, this reinterpretation of demand proves important, since high value care is ...
In light of the varied requirements and flexibilities pertaining to the design of benefit packages and to cost-sharing amounts in Medicaid and the Marketplace, and to illustrate the impact of different state policy choices on working people with disabilities, this issue brief considers the rules as they might affect representative individuals in different situations. The rest of this paper presents three profiles of hypothetical working people with disabilities and examines how their benefits and cost-sharing obligations may differ as they move between Medicaid state plan and new adult ABP coverage and between Medicaid and Marketplace QHPs. The analysis focuses on selected categories of benefits that are important to many people with disabilities, including mental health and substance use treatment services, prescription drugs, rehabilitative and habilitative services and devices, and LTSS.. The analysis considers the benefits and cost-sharing rules that apply to newly eligible adults in ...
PERRY COUNTY - The Perry County Soil and Water Conservation District has received a Clean Water Indiana Grant to be used for a cost-sharing program for pasture and land used for hay production. The purpose of this cost-share program is to provide technical and financial assistance to Perry County landowners for pasture and hay land planting this fall. The program is open to all Perry County landowners and offers a cost-share payment of 50 percent of the actual cost for a pasture-hay land planting, not to exceed $150 per acre with a cap of $750 per landowner.
DOWNERS GROVE - The Downers Grove Village Council voted unanimously Tuesday to expand the cost-share program to help churches make capital improvements that would reduce their stormwater fees.
Owen County farmers will soon be able to pick up applications for the new Phase I cost-share program. The program applications will be available for pick-up at the extension office Monday. The deadline for completing the applications and turning them in is Sept. 9.
The Houston-Galveston Area Council has been collecting aerial imagery for the Houston-Galveston metropolitan region since 2000. Imagery is flown by highly qualified orthoimagery companies, and delivered to cost-share participants within 6-8 months of flight times.. ...
Background: Treatment for metastatic breast cancer (MBC) that is not concordant with the NCCN Guidelines for Breast Cancer has been associated with higher healthcare utilization and payer costs. However, a significant knowledge gap exists regarding the impact of guideline-discordant care on patient cost responsibility. This study examined this question among patients with MBC in the year postdiagnosis. Methods: This retrospective cohort study used data from the SEER-Medicare linked database from 2000 through 2013. Guideline discordance, defined by year-specific NCCN Guidelines, was assessed for first-line antineoplastic treatment and grouped into discrete categories. Patient cost responsibility (deductibles, coinsurance, copayments) in women with MBC were summed for all medical care received in the year postdiagnosis. The difference in patient cost responsibility by guideline discordance status was estimated using linear mixed-effect models. Results: Of 3,709 patients with MBC surviving at least ...
In recent weeks, the market has been inundated with evaluations of value-based insurance design (VBID) so its no surprise that I was asked to comment on a recent study of VBID published in American Health and Drug Benefits. For one large employer, asthma patients who volunteered to participate in a care management program that included…
H.R. 1995. To amend title XVIII of the Social Security Act to provide for national testing of a model of Medicare Advantage value-based insurance design to meet the needs of chronically ill Medicare Advantage enrollees. In GovTrack.us, a database of bills in the U.S. Congress.
This brief discusses how coverage, federal spending and private premiums could change if the federal government stopped reimbursing insurers for the ACAs cost-sharing reductions.
A continually popular question that I receive is how high can specialty copays be set before patients stop taking their medication? Unfortunately, empirical data to guide the answer to this question is fairly limited. Four studies of elasticity of specialty medications have been published, most examining data from the early to mid-2000s. The first…
It is often argued that cost-sharing -- charging a subsidized, positive price -- or a health product is necessary to avoid wasting resources on those who will not use or do not need the product. We explore this argument through a field experiment in Kenya, in which we randomized the price at which prenatal clinics could sell long lasting anti-malarial insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) to pregnant women. We find no evidence that cost-sharing reduces wastage on those that will not use the product: women who received free ITNs are not less likely to use them than those who paid subsidized positive prices. We also find no evidence that cost-sharing induces selection of women who need the net more: those who pay higher prices appear no sicker than the average prenatal client in the area in terms ...
Free Online Library: WTO patient costs poverty report. by International News Services.com; News, opinion and commentary General interest Poverty Economic aspects Reports
CHICAGO - New research suggests giving patients easier-to-take medicine and no-copay medical visits can help drive down high blood pressure, a major contributor to poor health and untimely deaths nationwide.
After mentioning it for months, President Donald Trump has officially decided to stop paying the cost-sharing reduction subsidies that help insurers keep premiums down for lower-income Americans.
Copayments, rather than coinsurance, apply to the majority of workers covered by health plans that have three or more drug tiers, according to a recent Kaiser Family Foundation report. Percentages vary slightly across drug types, mostly because some plans have copayments for some drug tiers and coinsurance for others.. For members in plans with three or more tiers of cost sharing, average copayments in 2011 were consistent with the amounts reported in 2010, says the report. The 2011 averages were $10, $29, $49, and $91.. Coinsurance levels can be described in a similar way.. Members in plans with three, four, or more tiers of cost sharing for prescription drugs who pay coinsurance rather than copayments face coinsurance levels that average 18 percent for first-tier drugs, 25 percent for second-tier drugs, and 39 percent for third-tier drugs - similar to the percentages reported last year.. The report says 14 percent of covered workers are in a plan that has four or more tiers of cost sharing for ...
Of the many factors that contribute to poor medication adherence among the chronically ill, the portion of drug costs borne by patients appears to be central. Pitney Bowes is one of a handful of large employers and insurers that have begun experimenting with reduced copays for essential medications. In 2007, the company reduced or eliminated cost-sharing for medications used to treat coronary artery disease and osteoporosis, with the goal of improving employees medication adherence and health outcomes. This project will examine Pitney Bowes claims data to determine the impact that reduced copayments have had on medication adherence, clinical outcomes, health care utilization, and costs. The findings will aid employers, private insurers, the Medicare program, and policymakers in crafting changes to the structure of health benefits that lead to increased use of prescription drugs known to be effective for managing chronic disease.. ...
Why Certify?. Organic certification allows a farm or processing facility to sell, label, and represent their products as organic in the marketplace. Certification by USDA-accredited agents often adds significant value to products, helping to increase farmer revenues, and also helps to ensure that all organic products meet or exceed national organic standards.. The process of transitioning to organic requires significant time and resources for inspection, licensing, certification, and proper bookkeeping. By certifying and applying to the cost-share program, farmers can significantly reduce some of their financial resource burden.. Cost Share Funding - Authorization and Appropriations. Support for the cost-share program pulls from funds authorized in the 2014 Farm Bill, which increased funding for NOCCSP and kept AMA funding unchanged from the 2008 Farm Bill.. While full mandatory funding was available for both programs in FY 2016, Congressional appropriators are still in the process of ...
Coinsurance and Insurance Plans - Coinsurance and insurance plans come with a wide range of options. Learn about coinsurance and insurance plans and find out how indemnity insurance works.
o assess the potential financial impact of increased patient cost sharing, HSC used actuarial models to estimate patients expected average annual out-of-pocket costs under a range of benefit structures for single coverage (see Data Source). Benefit Option 1 serves as the baseline, with patient cost sharing of $10 for primary care and specialist visits and no deductible (see Table 1). Option 2, which doubles physician visit copayments and includes a $150 copayment for emergency department visits and a $250 per day inpatient hospital copayment, represents typical copayment increases. Next, out-of-pocket costs for benefit structures with successively higher levels of deductibles and coinsurance (Options 3, 4, 5 and 6) are estimated for up to a $2,500 deductible with 30 percent coinsurance for in-network care and 50 percent coinsurance for out-of-network care.. Patients total out-of-pocket costs typically are capped by maximum out-ofpocket limits. In 2002, 41 percent of people in preferred provider ...
OKLAHOMA CONSERVATION COMMISSION CONSERVATION COST-SHARE PROGRAM Locally Led - Program Year 12 Allocation Period: December 7, 2009 - June 30, 2010 Program Year Completed: June 30, 2011 PREPARED BY OKLAHOMA CONSERVATION COMMISSION CONSERVATION PROGRAMS DIVISION This publication is issued by the Oklahoma Conservation Commission as authorized by Mike Thralls, executive director. Copies have not been printed but are available through the agency website, http:/conservation.ok.gov. BY AREA AREA I AMOUNT AMOUNT UNOBLIGATED ALLOCATED OBLIGATED AMOUNT DISTRICT PY 12 PY 12 PY 12 Alfalfa $ 20,500.00 $ 13,174.03 $ 7,325.97 Beaver $ 20,500.00 $ 20,683.96 $ (183.96) Blaine $ 12,300.00 $ 12,241.25 $ 58.75 Central North Canadian River $ 10,250.00 $ 10,000.00 $ 250.00 Cimarron County $ 12,300.00 $ 9,305.00 $ 2,995.00 Cimarron Valley $ 16,400.00 $ 4,755.00 $ 11,645.00 Dewey $ 20,500.00 $ 20,500.00 $ - East Canadian $ 12,300.00 $ 12,036.09 $ 263.91 East Woods $ 12,300.00 $ 9,730.00 $ 2,570.00 Ellis $ 20,500.00 $ ...
Organic Producers and Handlers May Apply for Certification Cost Share Reimbursements; Expanded Eligibility for Transition and State Certification Cost WASHINGTON, Dec. 21, 2016 - The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) today announced that starting March 20, 2017, organic producers and handlers will be able to visit over 2,100 USDA Farm Service Agency (FSA) offices to apply for federal reimbursement to assist with the cost of receiving and maintaining organic or transitional certification. "USDA reimburses organic producers up to 75 percent of the cost of organic certification, but only about half of the nations organic operations currently participate in the program," said FSA Administrator Val Dolcini. "Starting March 20, USDA will provide a uniform, streamlined process for organic producers and handlers to apply for organic cost share assistance either by mail or in person at USDA offices located in almost every rural county in the country." USDA is making changes to increase participation ...
Health, ...New York NY November 2 2010An initiative by the U. S. technology co...The study led by Niteesh K. Choudhry at Brigham and Womens Hospital...Pitney Bowes also lowered copayments for all employees and beneficiari...According to the authors the findings are significant because this is...,Eliminating,or,reducing,cost-sharing,for,high-value,prescription,drugs,improves,medication,use,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
New research suggests that parents in low-income families were less likely to delay asthma care for their children if they had lower levels of health insurance cost-sharing.
The Trump administration is discontinuing cost-sharing reduction payments to health insurance companies, according to a statement released by HHS Acting Secretary Eric Hargan and CMS Administrator Seema Verma.
President Donald Trump plans to end the cost-sharing subsidies that have helped some lower-income Americans purchase health insurance on the Obamacare marketplace.
President Donald Trump plans to end the cost-sharing subsidies that have helped some lower-income Americans purchase health insurance on the Obamacare marketplace.
Trump boxed in on health subsidies after states legal win. The Washington Post: Jonathan Adler, the Johan Verheij Memorial Professor of Law, weighed in on whether President Donald Trump has the authority to cut cost-sharing reduction payments through the Affordable Care Act after a group of states were granted the right to defend the subsidies.. ...
The waiver of coinsurance and deductibles owed by patients treated by physicians and other health care providers has come under increased scrutiny recently. Although there are no clear legal prohibitions, commercial health insurers have aggressively pursued out-of-network provides who fail to collect or waive amounts owed by their insureds under different statutory regulations.
Using statistical analysis drawing on new data sources, this research project empirically analyzes the impact of deposit insurance on banks, on the stability of the banking system, and on the way a countrys financial system evolves. Our ultimate purpose is to turn the considerable amount of theoretical work on financial regulation in developed countries into a tested body of theory that can support reliable policy recommendations about how to tailor deposit insurance design to the particular environments of developing countries. Policy advice given by Bank economists on deposit insurance design must be sensitive to variations in institutional starting points and transition costs. There is no one-size-fits-all solution to individual country problems of financial reform and development. We expect the results to significantly enhance our understanding of issues in deposit insurance design and improve Banks policy advice in this area ...
Based on surveys of the individual and small-group insurance market, examines the distribution of purchasers of each type of coverage among various deductibles. Outlines median coinsurances, annual out-of-pocket maximums, and copayments for each level.
Anderson County farmers can sign up beginning Feb. 1 for the state cost share program. Sign-ups will continue through Feb. 28 at Anderson County Conservation District, 145 W. Woodford St., Lawrenceburg. Hours are Tuesdays, Wednesdays and Thursdays from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. For details, call 839-5567.
By the early 1960s, it was glaringly obvious that the private insurance sector was incapable of funneling elderly, poor, and disabled patients into the health care system. The fact that these companies business model was incompatible with supporting those who most needed it ought to have been a decisive repudiation against private insurers right to be doing this in the first place.. Instead, the US government enacted Medicare and Medicaid in 1965, shifting the care of vulnerable populations to the public sector and leaving the easiest and cheapest patients in the same private market whose failures the government had just stepped in to alleviate. Even worse, these new federal programs eventually adapted one of the private sectors cost-reduction tricks: the copayment.. The cliched justification for charging copays is to relieve doctors offices of the burden of patients showing up at the first sign of a sniffle. (Never mind that we observe no such behavior among the wealthy, for whom copays are ...
IEHP DualChoice Cal MediConnect Plan (Medicare-Medicaid Plan) is a Health Plan that contracts with both Medicare and Medi-Cal to provide benefits of both programs to enrollees. This is not a complete list. The benefit information is a brief summary, not a complete description of benefits. Limitations, copays, and restrictions may apply. Copays for prescription drugs may vary based on the level of Extra Help you receive. Benefits and copayments may change on January 1 of each year. The List of Covered Drugs and pharmacy and provider networks may change throughout the year. We will send you a notice before we make a change that affects you. For more information, call IEHP DualChoice Member Services or read the IEHP DualChoice Member Handbook. Information on this page is current as of September 30, ...
New health insurance policies beginning on or after Sept. 23 must cover _ without charge _ preventive care thats backed up by the best scientific evidence. Most people will see this benefit, part of the Obama administrations health care overhaul, starting Jan. 1.
I know bisqueing about copays when many dont even have insurance seems bisque-y, but they add up! On top of medications, those $30-50 visits are tough when there are multiples and then copays for tests too. Id need about $450 to do all the things Im supposed to do (including endoscopy with anesthesia). But when everything is just in a mountain of small bills, they wont work with you. All my physical therapy bills are under $100 and each visit is a new account number, so they wont even do a payment plan ...
Hamilton County Property Assessor Marty Haynes wants to set the record straight about sharing reappraisal costs with the countys 10 cities.
A new study by researchers at RTI International has found that cancer patients faced with increased Medicaid copayments are less likely to comply with their prescription drug treatments.
Christine Roberts has been publishing a blog about ERISA matters titled "E is for ERISA" since 2011. Read more about Christine and her blog here: http://eforerisa.wordpress.com/about/. See Christines latest postings the blogs main page here: http://eforerisa.wordpress.com/ ...
Now that Trump wants to take away birth control funding, you could have to pay on average $600 more per year in copays. And if you want to get an IUD, it could cost you up to $1,100 - it basically amounts to a woman tax. But dont fret: This brillian…
espondents agreed that CalPERS size and leverage in California health care markets were important to carrying out the reference pricing program, but some believed other California purchasers with less leverage still have an opportunity to do this by closely following CalPERSs lead and directing their enrollees to CalPERS-designated hospitals.. As one health plan respondent explained, "Small employers shouldnt expect that hospitals not on the [designated] list would be motivated to modify their prices [to accommodate that employers reference pricing program] since their employees represent such a small fraction of [the hospitals] book of business. But, the employers will benefit from savings if they can steer their members to the lower-price hospitals." Similarly, in markets outside of California, purchasers could likely establish a reference pricing program by steering members to low-price providers through cost-sharing incentives. However, without a large number of enrollees in a ...
PS. A grand a year on GP copayments would pinch us, but not cripple us. But an awful lot of chronic patients are seriously poor, and I dont see why they should be punished for needing a new prescription. ...
This week, the top managed care articles included a report from the Congressional Budget Office on the impact of eliminating the cost-sharing reduction payments; a decision from CMS to eliminate 2 mandatory bundled payment programs; and a new value-based alliance that called for ending use of a test for diagnosing heart attacks.
Trump announced that the Administration would stop making the cost-sharing reduction payments to insurance carriers selling health plans through ACA Exchanges.
Before scheduling an appointment, we strongly recommend you contact your health plan to verify that the location or provider you plan to visit is included in your network. Your health plan will also be able to inform you of any co-payments, co-insurances, or deductibles that will be your responsibility ...
Hey everyone. Im Samantha. I havent been officially diagnosed yet because I ran out of money for copays and blood tests before I reached that point,
The Discovery Health 2018 Priority Series consists of two plans. Just take note of the numerous co-payments and limited above threshold benefits.
If your doctor isnt available, this guide will help you decide your best and most convenient option for care, based on your symptoms. These choices might save you money, too, if youre responsible for copayments and deductibles.
significant amounts of coinsurance are not collectable today and that collection costs can range from $12.00-$18.00 a claim when considering the cost to produce the bill and duplicate bills, provide postage, track the bills, and utilize a collection agency for uncollected payments. The cost of collection is staggering when considering that coinsurance on Medicare Part B laboratory services will require laboratories to generate at least 200 million bills annually to beneficiaries.. The cost to our health care system of collecting the laboratory coinsurance far exceeds any savings members of Congress or the Administration believes can be achieved and places the burden of this cost largely on Americas laboratories. At the very least, an adjustment to the Medicare laboratory fee schedule to sustain this increased cost for doing business would be necessary, further increasing health care spending. Otherwise, this situation would be intolerable, particularly for small laboratory businesses, causing ...
A deductible is a fixed dollar amount youll have to pay out of pocket before your health insurance can cover eligible health service expenses.. A copayment is similar to a deductible. It is usually a fixed amount of money you have to pay each time your need to use your health insurance. However, copays tend to be significantly smaller in cost and are paid per visit.. Coinsurance is usually a percentage of the cost you are responsible to pay out of pocket for medical services while your insurance pays for the rest. For example, if you have 80/20 coinsurance then your insurance will pay for 80% of the cost while you are responsible for 20% of the total. Deductibles tend to be used alongside coinsurance, which the insured pays the deductible and will then pay the leftover coinsurance amount once their policy kicks in. ...
Health AffairsVol. 29, No. 11November 2010Maciejewski, M.L., et al. pp. 2002-2008A large value-based insurance design program offered by Blue Cross Blue Shield of North Carolina eliminated generic medication copayments and reduced copayments for
Patients worried about rising health care costs are increasingly citing higher prescription drug copay charges. Consumers responding to an online survey by Weiss Ratings ranked rising Rx copays as the biggest change in their health insurance expenses last year. According to the researchers, better than 1 in 3 Americans now considers higher drug copays as the most burdensome increase in health expenses. Those findings are not surprising in view of the results of a separate study of consumers with prescription drug insurance by the Kaiser Family Foundation. That research found that over the past 4 years copayments for generic drugs have increased by an average of more than 50%, while brand-name drug copays have jumped between 50% and 90%. Mr. Rankin is a freelance medical writer. ...
Your deductible is the amount of spending required before your insurer begins to pay for any covered services. For example, if your policy has a $1,000 deductible, you will not have your medical bills covered by your insurance until after you have spent $1,000 total on healthcare that your insurer counts toward your deductible. If you underwent a $1,500 elective cosmetic surgery, the surgery would not count toward your deductible because it wouldnt be covered by your insurer -- but if you spent $1,500 on a surgery that your insurer covers, the insurance provider would begin to cover the costs of the other care you need going forward. Your deductible resets each year, either at the anniversary date of when you got the policy or at the start of the calendar year. You may have different deductibles for different kinds of services, such as a separate deductible for prescription medications. If you met your $1,000 deductible by paying for a covered surgery but you had a separate $500 deductible for ...
Coinsurance is also called a copayment. It is a provision by which the insured individual shares in the cost of certain expenses.. Tags: C, Cancer Dictionary, Uncategorized. ...
UBS released its 2018 Large Employer Health Benefits Survey and the results are encouraging. Premium equivalents for this largely self-insured study group are expected to rise 6.1% on average from 2017. Interestingly, the shift to high-deductible plans and the increase in non-premium cost-sharing are expected to stabilize. Makes sense - the economy is improving and employees are… [Read More]. ...
Get 2012 Medicare Prescription Drug plan benefit details for any plan in any state, including premiums, deductibles, Rx cost-sharing and health benefits/cost-sharing. Sign-up for our free Medicare Part D Newsletter, Use the Online Calculators, FAQs or contact us through our Helpdesk -- Powered by Q1Group LLC
Get 2018 Medicare Prescription Drug plan benefit details for any plan in any state, including premiums, deductibles, Rx cost-sharing and health benefits/cost-sharing. Sign-up for our free Medicare Part D Newsletter, Use the Online Calculators, FAQs or contact us through our Helpdesk -- Powered by Q1Group LLC
Join Valley Food and Farm, a program of Vital Communities, to learn about. USDAs Natural Resources Conservation Service in. A Panel Discussion with NRCS Staff and local farmers. Tuesday, October 16th6pm-8pm. Cobb Hill Common House, Linden Road, Hartland, VT. (Arrive at 5pm for an optional tour of Cobb Hill Cohousing). Jason Fleury, VT Soil Conservationist and Beth Ann Finlay, NH District Conservationist, will highlight NRCS programs and practices that agricultural producers can access to address natural resource concerns. Emphasis will be on how NRCS has assisted fellow grassland, dairy and cropland producers with cost-share practices.. Cedar Mountain Farm and Patridge Farm will speak about their experiences working with NRCS on technical and financial assistance programs. Projects protect water and pasture quality through manure management, fencing improvements and other methods.. Stay for a mixer and refreshments after the panel! Contact Valley Food and Farm for questions: ...
However, the minimum coverage people will be required to buy starting in 2014 will have much higher cost-sharing than typical employer-based coverage and than the average purchased now in the non-group market. With standard 20 percent coinsurance, a bronze plan would have an estimated deductible of $4,375 for a single individual and double that for a family. This compares with an average single deductible of $2,498 in 2010 in the non-group market and an average of $675 in employer-sponsored PPO plans with deductibles in 2011. Deductibles in employer plans paired with tax-preferred savings accounts averaged $1,908 in 2011 ...
Producers and handlers who incur expenses for obtaining or renewing their organic certification between October 1, 2013 and September 30, 2014 are eligible for reimbursement. Payments will be up to 75 percent of an individual producers certification costs, with a maximum of $750 per certification scope (crops, livestock, handling, wildcrops ...
Savings Accounts News. Find breaking news, commentary, and archival information about Savings Accounts From The tribunedigital-sunsentinel
FederalGrants.com opportunity listing for the BLM Nevada 2016 Challenge Cost Share Program All projects federal grant. Includes information on eligibility, deadlines, requirements, and guidelines.
The Carroll County Conservation District is now accepting Kentucky Soil Erosion and Water Quality Cost Share applications on a continuous basis. This continual sign-up is designed to make the program more
Downloadable! We study the implications of extending public-insurance coverage to an existing medical market in Salops spatial model of imperfect competition. In this setup a public insurer sets a price to medical providers, which must maintain their reservation pro.t from selling on the spot market directly to consumers. We show that the public insurer can manipulate this reservation profit by setting the coinsurance rate, and that setting the coinsurance rate properly yields the market first best product diversification. The results survive generalizations including moral hazard and incomplete coverage. When adding quality choice to the analysis, a minimum quality standard that is combined with a proper coinsurance rate can still support market efficiency.
All treatment is the financial obligation of the patient, or his/her accompanying guardian. Insurance is filed as a courtesy whenever possible.. Patients without insurance may contact the office for an estimate of any pre-treatment fees to be paid.. Patients without insurance may contact the office for special cash discount consideration.. CPENT endeavors to verify patient insurance whenever possible. When all necessary insurance information is provided, including Coordination of Benefits information, CPENT will file and accept most insurance payments. Please be aware that many insurance companies consider any treatment beyond the physician exam and consultation as a procedure. Some insurance policies that require a copay, include procedures under the copay. Some policies apply these charges to a deductible and co-insurance. Please familiarize yourself with your plan so that you are prepared for any financial obligation you may incur. Copays, deductibles, and coinsurance should be paid at the ...
The Center for Medicare Advocacy, is a national nonprofit, nonpartisan law organization that provides education, advocacy and legal assistance to help older people and people with disabilities obtain fair access to Medicare and quality health care.
As policymakers in the United States weigh options for reform to the nations health care system, the level of cost sharing that consumers face when they receive services covered by their health plans is a major consideration, especially for those with serious health conditions.. This background brief authored by Kaiser Family Foundation researchers examines how three European countries - France, Germany, and Switzerland - have dealt with cost sharing in their health systems. While cost sharing is required in each of these countries, each has a number of specific policies to limit the impact on people and families with significant health care needs and low incomes. The brief provides an overview of each countrys health care system, its cost-sharing policies, and the cost-sharing exemptions and limits that help protect people with low incomes, certain medical conditions or high medical costs, and other characteristics from burdensome, excessive costs.. Issue Brief (.pdf). ...
I have written before about the use of premiums in Medicaid programs across the United States. But a new study in Pediatrics collects the evidence, and its worth a look. Medicaid and CHIP Premiums and Access to Care: A Systematic Review. Go read my latest post over at the AcademyHealth blog! @aaronecarroll
Aussie savings accounts may be feeling the strain as the country has some of the fastest-rising food prices in the world, according to a new report
Thousands of Canadians received mailed warnings from the taxman this spring about overcontributions to their tax-free savings accounts, suggesting the rules remain unclear four years after the savings vehicles were first introduced.
NRO Savings Account Online from Axis Bank enables NRIs to park their income earned in India and manage it conveniently. Know more about its
NIST Cost Recovery (CR) is levied on all 1A, 1B, 3 and 5 submissions. IG G.16 allows laboratories the option to request an invoice while they are finalizing the report for submission to CMVP. Once the CR processes begins, changes to the overall security level and submission type will not be accepted. Only unpaid invoices can be cancelled. When the invoice is paid, there are no refunds.. If a report has not been received by 90 days after the invoice request was accepted, the module will be moved to On Hold and removed from the Implementation Under Test (IUT) list. The module can be automatically removed from On Hold and placed on the Modules In Process (MIP) list by sending the report. No additional fees are invoiced to remove the module from On Hold.. ...
Asthma is the most common chronic disease among children, affecting 8% to 12% or 6.1 to 8.9 million children in the United States and worldwide. Despite the hig
I agree with everyone. I think a health-care plan should include free, or very low-cost preventive services and education/information services for minor problems. I also think that there should be some sort of copay or deductible for accessing acute care services. In my experience with privately-insured patients who had copays, they tended to come in at more appropriate times, while medicaid patients (the health care plan for the poor in the US) who (at least in my state have no copay) or people with really expensive insurance with no copay, would come in for trivial matters, or worse from a system point of view, go to the ER for every little ache and pain. ERs cant provide continuity of care, preventive services or much education (aside from a tired, frustrated ER doc yelling at them about abusing the system, a less-than-ideal educational approach ...
Wording regarding the PPO Providers (when applicable) are the same as with individual Major Medical plans. As a rule, Provider-type plans are established the same for Group and Individual plans. Note the illustrated Schedule of Benefits on the first page shows a difference in approved and non-approved Providers in coinsurance percentages. Since some groups are multi-state, there can be special consideration given if there are employees in an area not served by participating Providers. Some plans allow a choice with higher co-payments or some other added cost if approved Providers are not used. Again, because the size of the group determines the type of plan and the benefits provided, there are more alternatives to this and other similar provisions than could be outlined in a text of this size and type ...
David Blumenthal and Sara R. Collins: House v. Burwell shows continued vulnerabilities of the health-care law as well as the stakes of the 2016 election.
Program income is any income directly generated by a project during the award period. Examples include conference fees, sale of assets purchased by project funds (e.g. livestock sales), fees for services when the project is providing the service and sale of items such as books, manuals, software or videos created with project funding (APM Section 45.13). Program income expenses carry the same allowability restrictions as the rest of the budgeted expenses. Any anticipated program income should ideally be estimated at the proposal stage, and shown as an offset to the sponsors portion of the project budget. Note that one of the possible options for the treatment of program income is to be used as part of any cost-share obligation.. ...
The APTC is the financial assistance received by Obamacare enrollees that helps to offset the cost of their premium payment. In order to qualify for this subsidy, an individual would need an income of between 100% of the federal poverty level and 400% of the FPL (i.e., between $11,670 and $46,680). Anything below 100% would be covered by Medicaid. Enrollees usually have two choices when it comes to receiving their APTC: They can either have payments prepaid to their insurer (which is what a vast majority of enrollees do), or they can take the lump-sum payment up front and use the money to pay for their health premiums on a monthly basis.. In addition to the APTC, individuals earning between 100% and 250% of the FPL may be eligible for cost-sharing reductions, or CSRs. On top of paying a monthly insurance premium, individuals may also be responsible for out-of-pocket fees associated with copays for visits, and deductibles for services rendered. CSRs are responsible for lowering the amount ...
Financial planning is a necessary thing for all people. Many people have a hard time knowing where to start, and having the right financial planning tools at your disposal is helpful. Here are some great financial planning tools to help you reach your financial goals.. The first financial planning tool is the most important. That is a good, workable budget. You cannot reach your financial goals if you do not have a plan to get there. A budget will help you to allocate your funds in such a way that will satisfy your debts and help you plan for the future.. The next weapon in your arsenal of financial planning tools is a savings account. Although you should have other investments, a savings account is a place to park your liquid cash so that you have easy access and are earning some interest at the same time. Check with your bank to find out what different levels of savings accounts are offered. Many are on a tiered scale, meaning that the more money you have in them, the more interest you earn. ...
Free Soil Testing Available Underwood Conservation District is offering free soil, manure, and compost testing to residents of western Klickitat and Skamania counties. Maintaining good soil fertility is crucial for growing quality crops. The testing program is designed for small … Continued. ...
The Will-South Cook Soil & Water Conservation District (SWCD) has announced the availability of funding to support agricultural and urban landowners interested in participating in the Illinois Nutrient Loss Reduction Strategy (NLRS).  Practices
Millennials may have a reputation for frivolous spending. But thats not the case with healthcare. Research has revealed nearly half of millennials have skipped or delayed care to save money. Become a trusted resource and advocate by making benefits easier to understand. Break healthcare benefits down into manageable chunks. Oh, be sure to ditch the industry jargon. These might be common terms to some, but it always helps to decipher things like coinsurance, copayment, or out-of-pocket maximum, providing real-world examples of how each of these will impact their wallets. Flexible spending accounts (FSAs) are another way to save on taxes. Money shifts into a special account before being paid. Explain the "use it or lose it" rules and why it requires some extra planning. Theres no "magic number" that works for all employees. Everyones needs are different. Ask these questions to guide them through the decision process: ...
How much are you spending each year on medical costs? If you dont have the right insurance plan, then you might be surprised to see how much you are paying for expenses, premiums, and copays. Learn how you may be able to cut your annual costs...
Removing economic barriers for the treatment of chronic conditionsencourages patients to remain on recommended therapies, according to astudy published today in the January/February 2008 issue of Health Affairs.
The family reaches the family deductible by any combination of family members. This is the same for reaching the out-of-pocket maximums. Once an individual family member reaches his or her out-of-pocket maximum, she or he doesnt pay any more toward covered expenses. Once the family has reached the family out-of-pocket maximum, then the family, as a whole, pays no more toward covered expenses for the remainder of the plan year.. Embedded deductible example: You have a $2,000 family deductible with a $1,000 member deductible. Once you reach your $1,000 deductible you get coverage, even if other family members dont. Once the family deductible has been met, all family members get benefit coverage.. Embedded out-of-pocket example: You have a $4,000 family out-of-pocket with a $2,000 individual out-of-pocket maximum. Once you reach your $2,000 individual out-of-pocket maximum, you dont have to pay any more for your covered health care needs. Once the family out-of-pocket has been met, the family ...
Rising healthcare expenses in developed nations have made it difficult for many people to seek the medical care they need. From 2011 to 2012, healthcare costs in the United States increased 3.7 percent, costing consumers $2.8 trillion, or $8,915 each person. Some analysts estimated the latest figures to be closer to $3.8 trillion with government spending at a whopping 17.9% of GDP. Australians spent $132.4 billion on healthcare, while people in the UK spent £24.85 billion. Government expenditure in both these countries sit at between 9-10% of GDP, which may seem more manageable compared to the US, however healthcare leaders in both these countries are taking a firm view of preventing any escalation of these percentages. With the high costs of health care around the world, many stakeholders wonder if introducing or adjusting copayments will produce better health outcomes. The topic is being hotly debated in Australia, where co-payments for General Practitioner visits have been proposed by the ...
Start saving with the Old Mutual Invest Flexible Plan in South Africa. Choose how much to invest, invest online & access your money when you want.
With Priority Health Medigap Plan D you get excellent customer service, no copays and help paying health care costs not covered by your basic Original Medicare benefits.
The CMS could ask insurers to return cost-sharing reduction payments they have already spent on low-income patients since the payments were cut off in October if Congress doesnt act on the issue, according to Standard and Poors analyst Deep Banerjee. The agency said in October that although insurers would be accountable if they received "overpayments" of CSRs for 2016, the CMS would not reimburse any shortfalls, and the same may be true for 2017, Banerjee said.. ...
When Diane Shore got a letter that her health policy would be canceled, the small premium increase for a new plan didnt bother her that much. What shes really
Paying it forward - a popular expression for extending generosity to others after someone has been generous to you - is a heartwarming concept, but it is less common than repaying greed with greed, according to new research ...
This means that you do not entertain to produce results any deductibles or co-payments for your medical supplies or equipment. When you estate your next fiat o
Opting for an early health plan renewal before Affordable Care Act (ACA) provisions take effect that could push rates higher is an idea that has some appeal. However, there are a few reasons why health plan sponsors should proceed with caution.
Title 10, §1076 FAMILY DEVELOPMENT ACCOUNT PROGRAM; There is established the family development account program to allow eligible persons to establish savings accounts to be used for
New guidance from the Department of Labor helps plan sponsors to offer ESG or environmental social and governance investing strategies to plan participants.
Ecological Consultations can be conducted year round but are best done from April through November.. The Ecological Consultation Program is a 50/50 cost-share program; the cost to the resident is $75.. Canopy & Subcanopy Tree Thinning Program - The intent of this program is to provide for the removal of selected canopy & subcanopy trees such as sugar maple and basswood in order to reduce shade levels and competition for desirable native species.. Invasive Shrub Removal Program - This program helps residents improve ecological health by removing invasive shrubs such as buckthorn and honeysuckle thereby increasing the opportunity for desirable native species.. Garlic Mustard Removal Program - This program encourages residents to remove invasive garlic mustard from their property to allow native woodland understory species to thrive.. Prescribed Burn Program - The Prescribed Burn Program provides a tool for residents with healthy woodlands and/or prairies to maintain these areas using fire. ...
A Real Solution or the Newest Fad. By T. S. Herbert, VII. You may have heard in the news recently about a new option in the ongoing effort to reduce health care costs - Health Savings Accounts (HSA). HSAs have been around since 1996 but under a different name, Medical Savings Accounts. In 2003, Congress updated and simplified the concept giving us the modern Health Savings Account. So while the concept is not new, President Bush, the insurance industry, and others have been trying to raise public awareness about HSAs as one method to control ever increasing health care costs.. So what is an HSA and how does it actually work? In the simplest terms, you buy a low cost high deductible health insurance plan and you can put money away tax free in a savings account. But to better understand it, we will need to break the concept down into its two component parts. The first involves mandatory enrollment in a low-cost high deductible health Plan (HDHP). The second is the actual Health Savings Account ...
An employer-provided retirement plan, whether a defined benefit pension or defined contribution 401(k) or 403(b) plan, can have hundreds if not many thousands of participants, many of whom are no longer employed by the retirement plan sponsor. This creates an ongoing challenge for HR benefit managers and plan administrators. As people move around, its easy to lose track of them.. When former employees dont provide retirement plan sponsors with updated contact information, finding those who are vested in a defined benefit pension plan or who still have assets in a defined contribution plan account can be a challenge. While Internet search engines and other online tools can help, tracking these people down can still be time-consuming.. A Fiduciary Duty. Yet plan sponsors have a responsibility to maintain current contact information for plan participants, particularly when they reach normal retirement age and become eligible to receive plan payouts. "It is the fiduciary duty of plan sponsors to ...
This year student health insurance cost will be increasing from $250 to $715 annually for undergraduate and from $361 to $1,033 for graduate students. The coverage being provided by the new student health insurance plan has been improved in keeping with the premium increase. The new policy will have a $50,000 per accident or illness policy limit with a $1,000 prescription drug benefit and $750 in wellness benefits. Students who have other coverage available will be able to waive out of the student health insurance plan.. New Jersey Statute 18A:62-15 provides in part that:. 1. Every student enrolled as a full-time student shall present evidence of the health insurance coverage required by subsection a. of this section to the institution at least annually.. 2. The State Department of Health shall require all public and private institutions of higher education in this State to offer health insurance coverage on a group or individual basis for purchase by students who are required to maintain the ...
Today we are here at Lowes Pharmacy which was the first pharmacy to sign on with the National Prescription Drug Plan to launch this new initiative, a partnership between public and private sector, so that individuals rather than receiving their medication or waiting in line at the PMH or even some of our public clinics can attend or visit the private sector and receive medicine at a participating pharmacy near to them. This is excellent in that we would no longer see the waiting lines that we see… so on behalf of the Government of The Bahamas I want to officially launch this National Prescription Drug Plan so that beneficiaries can now receive their medication at all the participating pharmacies," Dr. Minnis said ...
The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) are the agencies of the U.S. government that administer the Medicare program. Medicare provides health insurance coverage to citizens who are at least 65 years old. Specific criteria must be met for a person younger than 65 to be eligible for the CMS Medicare program. New CMS Medicare drug plans were made available to all Medicare members on January 1, 2006. These plans were made possible through insurance companies and private interest working with CMS Medicare. Discounts on drug prices are possible through this partnership. CMS Medicare members must research and choose a drug plan suitable to their situations.. These new drug plans are not free, like the CMS Medicare Part A plan. Members of the new CMS Medicare drug plan must pay a monthly fee and a fraction of their prescription drugs. This out-of-pocket fraction varies by drug plan.. Each new CMS Medicare drug plan must provide a minimum standard of coverage. Some of the ...
Morning Consult Poll Shows 85 percent of Part D Enrollees Believe Their Drug Plan Offers Good Value WASHINGTON - A nationwide survey of Americans 65 and older who are enrolled in Medicare Part D prescription drug plans shows that the program remains enormously popular. Among poll respondents, 87 percent said they were satisfied with their Medicare prescription drug coverage and 85 percent said that their Part D plan provided good value.. The survey of 2,000 seniors was performed by Morning Consult and commissioned by the Medicare Today coalition. Mary R. Grealy, president of the Healthcare Leadership Council and chair of Medicare Today, said the survey results underscore the importance of maintaining the fundamental structure of the Part D program.. "Over a decade ago, Congress fundamentally changed Medicare by adding prescription drug coverage and decided to utilize the power of competition and consumer choice to drive value and affordability. Time has proven that judgment to be the correct ...

cost sharingcost sharing

Orbital ATK proposes NGL rocket for Air Forces cost-share launch services contracts. Posted By: Jane Edwardson: April 13, 2018 ...
more infohttp://blog.executivebiz.com/tag/cost-sharing/

Employee Cost-Sharing Up in Prescription Drug PlansEmployee Cost-Sharing Up in Prescription Drug Plans

The most common target cost-sharing range is 11 percent to 20 percent of claim costs (used by 39 percent of respondents). ... More U.S. employers are using employee cost sharing in their prescription drug programs, according to Buck Consultants ... Cost sharing is part of a consumer-directed approach that encourages plan participants to consider price when selecting among ... The survey reveals that 76 percent of respondents use employee cost sharing as a utilization management tool, up substantially ...
more infohttps://www.shrm.org/resourcesandtools/hr-topics/benefits/pages/drugcostsharing.aspx

ACAs Cost-Sharing Reductions Effect on Premiums, Coverage - RWJFACA's Cost-Sharing Reductions Effect on Premiums, Coverage - RWJF

... spending and private premiums could change if the federal government stopped reimbursing insurers for the ACAs cost-sharing ... Elimination of federal cost-sharing reductions could increase marketplace spending by 18 percent or increase the uninsured by ... The Affordable Care Act (ACA) requires insurers to provide cost-sharing reductions (CSRs) that lower deductibles, co-payments, ... and Private Premiums Change if the Federal Government Stopped Reimbursing Insurers for the ACAs Cost-Sharing Reductions?. * * ...
more infohttps://www.rwjf.org/en/library/research/2017/09/how-would-coverage-federal-spending-and-private-premiums-change.html

Nissan, Renault Raise Target for Joint Cost Sharing - WSJNissan, Renault Raise Target for Joint Cost Sharing - WSJ

Nissan, Renault Raise Target for Cost Savings Executives to Oversee Broader Range of Shared Activities at Auto Makers ... of Japan are accelerating efforts to wring costs out of their shared operations, installing a new management structure and ... increasing their target for cost savings by 2016.. Since 1999, when Renault came to then-struggling Nissans rescue, the two ...
more infohttps://www.wsj.com/articles/nissan-renault-raise-target-for-cost-savings-1391104006?tesla=y

Friend trip leads to cost-sharing dilemma | Edmonton SunFriend trip leads to cost-sharing dilemma | Edmonton Sun

Postmedia wants to improve your reading experience as well as share the best deals and promotions from our advertisers with you ... Postmedia wants to improve your reading experience as well as share the best deals and promotions from our advertisers with you ... I agreed to go to New York with the understanding that wed split costs. ... You can always change the information you share with us by editing your profile. ...
more infohttp://edmontonsun.com/2017/08/10/friend-trip-leads-to-cost-sharing-dilemma/wcm/17c985fc-f787-4789-9436-89857c35dfdc

Parliament to debate cost-sharing element of Digital Economy ActParliament to debate cost-sharing element of Digital Economy Act

Secondary legislation on sharing the costs of the Digital Economy Acts measures to tackle online copyright infringement has ... Secondary legislation on sharing the costs of the Digital Economy Acts measures to tackle online copyright infringement has ... The Statutory Instrument implementing the shared costs will be debated in both houses. ... Government moves to firm up cost structure for piracy... - MicroscopeUK * Copyright holders formulate ISP piracy website ... - ...
more infohttps://www.computerweekly.com/news/1280094906/Parliament-to-debate-cost-sharing-element-of-Digital-Economy-Act

Search | Cost Sharing | Search Results | The Henry J. Kaiser Family FoundationSearch | Cost Sharing | Search Results | The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation

... a large share of the public dont have the assets to cover the cost sharing in their health plan if they get sick. ... Share on Facebook. Opens in a new window. Share on Twitter. Opens in a new window. Email. Opens in a new window. ... Cost-Sharing for Plans Offered in the Federal Marketplace for 2018. This analysis documents average deductibles and out-of- ... Do Health Plan Enrollees have Enough Money to Pay Cost Sharing?. This brief looks at the extent to which people have enough ...
more infohttps://www.kff.org/tag/cost-sharing/?paged=3

Search | Cost Sharing | Search Results | The Henry J. Kaiser Family FoundationSearch | Cost Sharing | Search Results | The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation

Cost-Sharing for Plans Offered in the Federal Marketplace for 2018. This analysis documents average deductibles and out-of- ... Do Health Plan Enrollees have Enough Money to Pay Cost Sharing?. This brief looks at the extent to which people have enough ... A majority - across parties - also support a bipartisan compromise that includes Congress guaranteeing cost-sharing reduction ( ... As Senate Weighs Bipartisan Stabilization Bill with Cost-Sharing Reduction Funding, Current Marketplace Enrollees Face ...
more infohttps://www.kff.org/tag/cost-sharing/?orderby=date&layout=grid

2011 Medicare Cost Sharing Details || Center for Medicare Advocacy2011 Medicare Cost Sharing Details || Center for Medicare Advocacy

... of Medicare beneficiaries will not see an increase in their Part B premium because there will be no Social Security cost-of- ... for Medicare Advocacys National Medicare Advocates Alliance provides Medicare advocates with a collaborative network to share ...
more infohttp://www.medicareadvocacy.org/2011-medicare-cost-sharing-details/

2019 Medicare Cost-Sharing Announced || Center for Medicare Advocacy2019 Medicare Cost-Sharing Announced || Center for Medicare Advocacy

... for Medicare Advocacys National Medicare Advocates Alliance provides Medicare advocates with a collaborative network to share ...
more infohttps://www.medicareadvocacy.org/2019-medicare-cost-sharing-announced/

WREC Urban Cost-Share Program - January DeadlineWREC Urban Cost-Share Program - January Deadline

The Wabash River Enhancement Corporation continues to accept applications for our cost-share program. This cost-share program ... Urban Cost-Share Program. Urban landowners in our target area have a unique opportunity to improve water quality in the Wabash ... Agricultural Cost-Share Program. Agricultural landowners in our target area have a unique opportunity to improve water quality ... Learn more about our cost-share program online at www.wabashriver.net/costshare. ...
more infohttp://hosted.verticalresponse.com/961685/88a3784b4f/TEST/TEST/

Cost Sharing Problem | Zuse Institute Berlin (ZIB)Cost Sharing Problem | Zuse Institute Berlin (ZIB)

Cost Sharing Problem. The cost sharing problem is a kind of game, in which the costs of an common infrastructure among ... The cost sharing problem occurs also in voluntary form of cooperation, for example, if one wants to reduce the cost in ... The question of the project cost sharing is, how the common costs of a cooperation are allocated fairly to the members? ... The cost sharing problem is widespread, as well in the public sectors as within private enterprises. Manufactoring companies ...
more infohttp://www.zib.de/projects/cost-sharing-problem

AHA, others urge Congress to fund cost-sharing reductions | AHA NewsAHA, others urge Congress to fund cost-sharing reductions | AHA News

... support help with out-of-pocket health care costs, such as deductibles and copays, according to a recent survey. ... today urged Congress to fund the cost-sharing reduction program for certain individuals purchasing health coverage through the ... AHA, others urge Congress to fund cost-sharing reductions Apr 24, 2017 - 02:42 PM ... Eight organizations, including the AHA, today urged Congress to fund the cost-sharing reduction program for certain individuals ...
more infohttps://www.aha.org/news/headline/2017-04-24-aha-others-urge-congress-fund-cost-sharing-reductions

Cost-Sharing Subsidy Update | AHT...'Cost-Sharing' Subsidy Update | AHT...

Trump announced that the Administration would stop making the cost-sharing reduction payments to insurance carriers selling ... Cost-Sharing Subsidy Update. by Christoper E. Condeluci, Principal and sole shareholder of CC Law & Policy PLLC in Washington, ... Analysis: Look, I am by no means applauding the decision to cancel the cost-sharing subsidy payments. Due to the long-standing ... Speaking of the CBO report on cancelling the cost-sharing subsidies, back in August - when the CBO report was released - I ...
more infohttps://www.ahtins.com/1545-2/

Possible referendum costs shared in Edgerton | GazetteXtraPossible referendum costs shared in Edgerton | GazetteXtra

Costs for potential work could be spread out over 15 years at a cost of about $45 a year for a taxpayer with a $100,000 home, ... Additional technology upgrades could cost another $1 million.. For a taxpayer with a $100,000 home, that could mean a cost on a ... District officials and an ad-hoc panel of citizens are weighing how to present those possible costs in a community survey that ... The district and the board still have not determined what items the referendum could include or what its total cost could be. ...
more infohttp://www.gazettextra.com/news/2012/feb/15/possible-referendum-costs-shared-edgerton/

Trump wants to end cost-sharing-reduction payments, report says - Business InsiderTrump wants to end cost-sharing-reduction payments, report says - Business Insider

Trump reportedly told White House aides he wanted to end cost-sharing-reduction payments, which experts say would wreck ... Trump told White House aides in a Tuesday meeting that he wanted to end the cost-sharing-reduction payments that are part of ... The payments help to offset costs for insurers in exchange for offering more affordable coverage to low-income Americans. ...
more infohttp://www.businessinsider.com/trump-obamacare-cost-sharing-reduction-csr-2017-5?r=UK&IR=T

Stormwater Quality Cost Share Program | raleighnc.govStormwater Quality Cost Share Program | raleighnc.gov

Stormwater Quality Cost Share Program. An affordable way to make your home or business more sustainable and beautiful!. Last ... including City of Raleighs Stormwater Quality Cost Share Program. This is the third video in a three-part series. ... his congregation chose to install a stormwater device at the church and how the City of Raleighs Stormwater Quality Cost Share ... After a project is approved, participants are asked to share the final design of their project with Stormwater staff before it ...
more infohttp://www.raleighnc.gov/home/content/PWksStormwater/Articles/StormwaterQualityCostShareProgram.html

Cost sharing | Erasmus School of Health Policy & Management | Erasmus University RotterdamCost sharing | Erasmus School of Health Policy & Management | Erasmus University Rotterdam

Cost sharing *D. Cattel, R.C. van Kleef & R.C.J.A. van Vliet (2017). A method to simulate incentives for cost containment under ... various cost sharing designs: an application to a first-euro deductible and a doughnut hole. European Journal of Health ...
more infohttps://www.eur.nl/en/eshpm/research/research-groups/health-systems-and-insurance-hsi/themes/cost-sharing

Patient Cost-Sharing and Hospitalization Offsets in the Elderly | Harvard Kennedy SchoolPatient Cost-Sharing and Hospitalization Offsets in the Elderly | Harvard Kennedy School

We study a policy change that raised patient cost sharing for the supplemental insurer for retired public employees in ... increases in cost sharing by a supplemental insurer can exert financial externalities. ... The savings from increased cost sharing accrue mostly to the supplemental insurer, while the costs of increased hospitalization ... "Patient Cost-Sharing and Hospitalization Offsets in the Elderly." American Economic Review 100.1 (March 2010): 193-213. ...
more infohttps://www.hks.harvard.edu/publications/patient-cost-sharing-and-hospitalization-offsets-elderly

Why The House Lawsuit Over Cost Sharing Reductions Might Win But Wont Kill ObamacareWhy The House Lawsuit Over Cost Sharing Reductions Might Win But Won't Kill Obamacare

... cost sharing reductions in the ACA hope that success will kill Obamacare. Those who oppose the lawsuit say that, precisely ... average cost sharing. Well over half of Obamacare purchasers (about 57% in 2015) get at least some form of cost sharing ... average cost sharing. Well over half of Obamacare purchasers (about 57% in 2015) get at least some form of cost sharing ... But the cost sharing reduction program changes this. If, for example, the purchasers household income is 200% of the ...
more infohttps://www.forbes.com/sites/theapothecary/2016/01/14/why-the-house-lawsuit-over-cost-sharing-reductions-might-win-but-wont-kill-obamacare/

Farmers snap up conservation cost-shareFarmers snap up conservation cost-share

1.4 million in cost-share funds available to help farmers install new nutrient reduction practices ... It took just five days for the Iowa Department of Agriculture and Land Stewardship to obligate the $1.4 million in cost-share ...
more infohttps://www.iowafarmbureau.com/Article/Farmers-snap-up-conservation-costshare

Cost Share CSA | Ecology Action CentreCost Share CSA | Ecology Action Centre

Thank you for helping us make Nova Scotia more food secure by supporting the Cost Share CSA project. You can contribute any ...
more infohttps://ecologyaction.ca/civicrm/contribute/transact?id=18&reset=1

Cost Sharing on Sponsored Projects (Policy No. 300.0) | Research at Brown | Brown UniversityCost Sharing on Sponsored Projects (Policy No. 300.0) | Research at Brown | Brown University

Costs that are Not Acceptable to meet Cost Sharing Commitments. The following costs may not be proposed as Cost Sharing/ ... Cost Sharing. A portion of total sponsored project/program costs not funded by the sponsor. Cost sharing is further classified ... Develop a cost sharing plan and identify the source(s) of funding for all cost sharing commitments and complete the Cost ... When Cost Sharing of any kind is represented in a proposal, upon award that Cost Sharing becomes a commitment that must be met ...
more infohttps://www.brown.edu/research/conducting-research-brown/preparing-proposal/proposal-review-submission-osp/cost-sharing-sponsored-projects

Cost Share Booklet Breakdown | CPNRDCost Share Booklet Breakdown | CPNRD

Click here for funding available in each Cost Share Program.. NSWCP/CPNRD Cost Share Programs. BOOKLET PAGE #. COST SHARE ... Flow Meter Cost Share Program. Purpose. Application. $20,000. 14. Streambank Stabilization Cost Share Program Purpose. ... Well Decommissioning Cost Share Program. Purpose. $15,000. 16. Center Pivot Incentive- Purpose of Cost Share & Program ... Central Platte NRD Cost Share Programs. List of CPNRD Programs. 2. Nebraska Soil & Water Conservation Programs & Central Platte ...
more infohttp://cpnrd.org/cost-share-booklet-breakdown/

Health Care Reform - Changes to cost sharing limits coming in 2015Health Care Reform - Changes to cost sharing limits coming in 2015

... proposed the cost sharing limitations for 2015 cost sharing limitations. ... 25, 2013, the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) proposed the cost sharing limitations for 2015 cost sharing ... The proposed cost limits for stand-alone dental plans covering pediatric dental (as essential health benefits) offered through ...
more infohttp://www.bcbsm.com/content/microsites/health-care-reform/en/reform-alerts/changes-to-cost-sharing-limits-coming-in-2015.html
  • The subsidies are expected to cost the federal government about $7 billion in 2017. (wptv.com)
  • WASHINGTON, Dec. 21, 2016 - The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) today announced that starting March 20, 2017, organic producers and handlers will be able to visit over 2,100 USDA Farm Service Agency (FSA) offices to apply for federal reimbursement to assist with the cost of receiving and maintaining organic or transitional certification. (usda.gov)
  • The survey reveals that 76 percent of respondents use employee cost sharing as a utilization management tool, up substantially from 51 percent in 2008. (shrm.org)
  • We exchanged emails trying to get at why primary care visits were not responsive to a decrease in cost sharing, but specialist visits and imaging utilization were responsive to an increase in cost sharing. (theincidentaleconomist.com)
  • Look, I am by no means applauding the decision to cancel the cost-sharing subsidy payments. (ahtins.com)
  • Because I believe the unfunded cost-sharing subsidy liabilities are going to be shifted to the "silver" Exchange plans (in the form of higher premiums), which at the end of the day, means the unfunded cost-sharing liabilities are going to borne by the government, not the consumer. (ahtins.com)
  • The second piece of evidence comes from the Congressional Budget Office (CBO), and CBO's report analyzing the impact of a decision to cancel the cost-sharing subsidy payments. (ahtins.com)
  • What I find most interesting about the CBO report is this: If you have been an advocate of increasing the premium subsidy amounts so as to help low- and middle-income people better afford health insurance, cancelling the cost-sharing subsidy payments actually HELPS these consumers. (ahtins.com)
  • Some sponsors require institutional Cost Sharing on their grants and contracts as a matter of statute, regulation, or policy. (brown.edu)
  • Public private grants are used for land acquisition with 75 percent of the acquisition costs come from REAP and the remaining 25 percent coming from private contributions. (iowadnr.gov)
  • Historically, many state departments of agriculture have obtained grants to disburse reimbursements to those producers and handlers qualifying for cost share assistance. (usda.gov)
  • USDA strongly supports the organic sector through a wide variety of programs, including conservation grants, organic crop insurance, certification cost-share, organic market news, and simplified microloans. (usda.gov)
  • We study a policy change that raised patient cost sharing for the supplemental insurer for retired public employees in California. (harvard.edu)
  • These generally sell for considerably more than Silver policy, in part precisely because the insurer pays for 80% of costs on average rather than the Silver 70% and in part because of "induced demand": people who buy Gold policies tend to have higher medical expenses than people who buy Silver. (forbes.com)
  • The Medicare Part D prescription drug benefit has helped improve the affordability of medications for people with Medicare, but enrollees can face relatively high out-of-pocket drug costs because there is no hard cap on out-of-pocket spending under Part D. This analysis examines out-of-pocket prescription drug spending among Medicare Part D enrollees with costs above the catastrophic coverage threshold. (kff.org)
  • A 2010 study by the Harvard economist Amitabh Chandra and colleagues found that when cost sharing for physician visits and prescription drugs goes up, so does overall Medicare spending. (theincidentaleconomist.com)
  • Participants may receive 75 to 90 percent reimbursement for their project based on available funding and project cost. (raleighnc.gov)
  • Brown's objective is to maximize sponsor cost reimbursement to support the continued growth of the research enterprise. (brown.edu)
  • Application fees, inspection costs, fees related to equivalency agreement/ arrangement requirements, travel/per diem for inspectors, user fees, sales assessments and postage are all eligible for a cost share reimbursement from USDA. (usda.gov)
  • Once certified, producers and handlers are eligible to receive reimbursement for up to 75 percent of certification costs each year up to a maximum of $750 per certification scope-crops, livestock, wild crops and handling. (usda.gov)
  • This brief looks at the extent to which people have enough savings to meet the cost sharing requirements under private health insurance policies, which have risen substantially in recent years. (kff.org)
  • In response to this higher cost sharing, hospital spending grew substantially for the sickest patients. (theincidentaleconomist.com)
  • In these cases, the University follows its long-standing practice of meeting published mandatory cost sharing requirements for targeted programs. (brown.edu)
  • While the cost of prescription drug coverage varies widely, 30 percent, or the largest group of respondents, said pharmacy benefits represent between 11 percent and 15 percent of total health care costs," says Jacobs. (shrm.org)
  • According to survey respondents, the most important clinical management steps they are taking to control pharmacy benefit costs are broader based than prescription drug coverage. (shrm.org)
  • This year, plan sponsors are clearly focused on controlling costs in response to budget cuts," says Michael Jacobs, a principal and national clinical practice leader at Buck Consultants. (shrm.org)
  • Despite its great importance there is so far no work on large scale cost sharing problems from practice. (zib.de)
  • Medicaid) also were less likely to skip getting care for their children than parents at or below 250 percent of the FPL with higher cost-sharing levels. (medindia.net)
  • The district's plan for building repairs alone could cost an average taxpayer $45 a year over 15 years, according to estimates in a draft survey. (gazettextra.com)
  • Costs for potential work could be spread out over 15 years at a cost of about $45 a year for a taxpayer with a $100,000 home, according to district estimates. (gazettextra.com)
  • The second-highest four-year total costs amount to $93,272 and $67,786 for East Ridge and Soddy-Daisy, respectively. (timesfreepress.com)
  • As Fung and colleagues have shown us, we cannot ignore cost sharing, especially with respect to lower-income individuals obtaining commercial insurance through the exchanges," Carroll concludes. (medindia.net)
  • This document establishes requirements for the identification, approval, funding, accounting and reporting of committed cost sharing, matching, and in-kind requirements associated with sponsored projects. (brown.edu)
  • Challenge Cost Share projects are as diverse as our national parks. (nps.gov)
  • Click a few examples below to see the nationwide impact of Challenge Cost Share projects. (nps.gov)
  • Starting March 20, USDA will provide a uniform, streamlined process for organic producers and handlers to apply for organic cost share assistance either by mail or in person at USDA offices located in almost every rural county in the country. (usda.gov)
  • A cost-sharing problem is defined by the following functions, where i is an agent and Q is a quantity of the product: Demand(i) = the amount that agent i wants to receive. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several county commissioners have said they cannot comment on the cost-sharing plan until they receive a formal presentation from Haynes, which they expect in the near future. (timesfreepress.com)
  • A solid migration plan is necessary in order to successfully transfer MPLS to SD-WAN and avoid contract mishaps, unexpected costs. (computerweekly.com)
  • The school board this week approved cost estimates for $4.8 million in facility maintenance, up to $2.5 million in technology upgrades and a plan to refinance $2.9 million in district debt linked to the Wisconsin Retirement System all of which the district has identified as spending options in a possible referendum to exceed district levy limits. (gazettextra.com)
  • Associations between OOP costs and mean PDC, HCU, and plan healthcare spending per 90-day period were estimated. (ajmc.com)
  • Haynes' cost-sharing plan would put Chattanooga on the hook for $557,152, due June 30. (timesfreepress.com)
  • Haynes said he wanted to assure residents that their property tax bills will not be impacted by the cost-sharing plan. (timesfreepress.com)
  • These include care management, disease management and low-cost generic pricing programs offered by retail pharmacy chains. (shrm.org)
  • When developing budgets which include committed cost sharing, every effort should be made to list expenses the University already covers, such as faculty salary or tuition, as the cost shared items. (brown.edu)
  • They are taking $25 plus co-insurance out of their pocket - perhaps $15 to $30 more depending on what is done in the visit (it would help to get some actual costs) - which is felt as roughly 2x the final dollar amount. (theincidentaleconomist.com)
  • The most common target cost-sharing range is 11 percent to 20 percent of claim costs (used by 39 percent of respondents). (shrm.org)
  • This is down from last year's survey, when the largest group indicated their drug benefits made up between 16 percent and 20 percent of total health care costs. (shrm.org)
  • While 73 percent of respondents cited are taking advantage of low-cost generic pricing offered by retail pharmacy chains as a high priority, only 26 percent require their mail service provider to match these low-cost retail generic prices. (shrm.org)
  • and 18.2 percent had higher cost-sharing levels for all services (e.g. $75 or more for an emergency department visit). (medindia.net)
  • Parents at or below 250 percent of the FPL with lower vs. higher cost-sharing levels were less likely to delay or avoid taking their children to a physician's visit (3.8 percent vs. 31.6 percent) and the emergency department (1.2 percent vs. 19.4 percent) because of cost. (medindia.net)
  • Overall, 2.6 percent of parents reported switching their child to a cheaper asthma medicine and 9.3 percent used less medicine than prescribed because of the costs. (medindia.net)
  • Also, 7.6 percent of parents delayed or avoided taking their child to an office visit and 5.3 percent delayed or avoided an emergency department visit because of costs. (medindia.net)
  • More U.S. employers are using employee cost sharing in their prescription drug programs, according to Buck Consultants' Prescription Drug Benefit Survey , completed in July 2009. (shrm.org)
  • Can broader diffusion of value-based insurance design increase benefits from US health care without increasing costs? (wikipedia.org)
  • A 2012 study showed that higher cost sharing reduces spending on physician visits and drugs, but can increase hospital spending . (theincidentaleconomist.com)
  • Normally, for example, if one wanted a policy them on average with just 20% of medical costs, one would need to purchase a "Gold" policy. (forbes.com)
  • The University must ensure that cost sharing requirements of sponsored agreements are proposed, approved, accounted for, and reported in a manner consistent with the requirements of the sponsor and the University. (brown.edu)
  • Refinancing the full $2.9 million debt would cost taxpayers with a $100,000 home $21 to $35 annually depending on whether the district split repayments over 10 or 15 years, according to district estimates. (gazettextra.com)
  • A district committee is still completing a needs assessment, but the district estimates it would cost $1.5 million to install a wireless computer network and replace the phone system along with its older computers. (gazettextra.com)
  • Additional technology upgrades could cost another $1 million. (gazettextra.com)
  • The two of us puzzled over the findings of the paper on Mayo Clinic cost-sharing Aaron posted on earlier this morning. (theincidentaleconomist.com)
  • In a related editorial, Aaron E. Carroll, M.D., M.S., of the Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, writes: "Their findings are not surprising, given our prior knowledge about cost sharing. (medindia.net)
  • Committed cost sharing must be identified, administered and accounted for consistently throughout the University. (brown.edu)
  • The question of the project cost sharing is, how the common costs of a cooperation are allocated fairly to the members? (zib.de)
  • The cost sharing problem is a kind of game, in which the costs of an common infrastructure among different members of an organization or a cooperation is partitioned. (zib.de)
  • It does nothing to eliminate choice should the patient want to go directly to specialist (at extra cost) or go without a referral, and if desired, provides the patient with an informed agent (the PCP) for specialist selection and to help counterbalance the specialists information advantage. (theincidentaleconomist.com)