Reductions in all or any portion of the costs of providing goods or services. Savings may be incurred by the provider or the consumer.
The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.
Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.
A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.
The amount that a health care institution or organization pays for its drugs. It is one component of the final price that is charged to the consumer (FEES, PHARMACEUTICAL or PRESCRIPTION FEES).
The containment, regulation, or restraint of costs. Costs are said to be contained when the value of resources committed to an activity is not considered excessive. This determination is frequently subjective and dependent upon the specific geographic area of the activity being measured. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Statistical models of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, as well as of financial considerations. For the application of statistics to the testing and quantifying of economic theories MODELS, ECONOMETRIC is available.
The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.
A measurement index derived from a modification of standard life-table procedures and designed to take account of the quality as well as the duration of survival. This index can be used in assessing the outcome of health care procedures or services. (BIOETHICS Thesaurus, 1994)
The expenses incurred by a hospital in providing care. The hospital costs attributed to a particular patient care episode include the direct costs plus an appropriate proportion of the overhead for administration, personnel, building maintenance, equipment, etc. Hospital costs are one of the factors which determine HOSPITAL CHARGES (the price the hospital sets for its services).
Drugs whose drug name is not protected by a trademark. They may be manufactured by several companies.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
The assignment, to each of several particular cost-centers, of an equitable proportion of the costs of activities that serve all of them. Cost-center usually refers to institutional departments or services.
Costs which are directly identifiable with a particular service.
Economic aspects of the fields of pharmacy and pharmacology as they apply to the development and study of medical economics in rational drug therapy and the impact of pharmaceuticals on the cost of medical care. Pharmaceutical economics also includes the economic considerations of the pharmaceutical care delivery system and in drug prescribing, particularly of cost-benefit values. (From J Res Pharm Econ 1989;1(1); PharmacoEcon 1992;1(1))
Health insurance plans intended to reduce unnecessary health care costs through a variety of mechanisms, including: economic incentives for physicians and patients to select less costly forms of care; programs for reviewing the medical necessity of specific services; increased beneficiary cost sharing; controls on inpatient admissions and lengths of stay; the establishment of cost-sharing incentives for outpatient surgery; selective contracting with health care providers; and the intensive management of high-cost health care cases. The programs may be provided in a variety of settings, such as HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS and PREFERRED PROVIDER ORGANIZATIONS.
A graphic device used in decision analysis, series of decision options are represented as branches (hierarchical).
The application of mathematical formulas and statistical techniques to the testing and quantifying of economic theories and the solution of economic problems.
Formularies concerned with pharmaceuticals prescribed in hospitals.
Mathematical or statistical procedures used as aids in making a decision. They are frequently used in medical decision-making.
Provisions of an insurance policy that require the insured to pay some portion of covered expenses. Several forms of sharing are in use, e.g., deductibles, coinsurance, and copayments. Cost sharing does not refer to or include amounts paid in premiums for the coverage. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
A stochastic process such that the conditional probability distribution for a state at any future instant, given the present state, is unaffected by any additional knowledge of the past history of the system.
Amounts charged to the patient or third-party payer for medication. It includes the pharmacist's professional fee and cost of ingredients, containers, etc.
The specialty or practice of nursing in the care of patients in the recovery room following surgery and/or anesthesia.
The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.
Insurance providing for payment of services rendered by the pharmacist. Services include the preparation and distribution of medical products.
Tax-exempt trusts or custodial accounts established by individuals with financial institutions for saving money for future medical expenses.
The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.
Trained lay women who provide emotional and/or physical support during obstetric labor and the postpartum period for mothers and their partners.
Works about lists of drugs or collections of recipes, formulas, and prescriptions for the compounding of medicinal preparations. Formularies differ from PHARMACOPOEIAS in that they are less complete, lacking full descriptions of the drugs, their formulations, analytic composition, chemical properties, etc. In hospitals, formularies list all drugs commonly stocked in the hospital pharmacy.
Endoscopes for examining the interior of the esophagus.
Review of claims by insurance companies to determine liability and amount of payment for various services. The review may also include determination of eligibility of the claimant or beneficiary or of the provider of the benefit; determination that the benefit is covered or not payable under another policy; or determination that the service was necessary and of reasonable cost and quality.
The room or rooms in which the physician and staff provide patient care. The offices include all rooms in the physician's office suite.
Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.
Detailed financial plans for carrying out specific activities for a certain period of time. They include proposed income and expenditures.
The confinement of a patient in a hospital.
Formal programs for assessing drug prescription against some standard. Drug utilization review may consider clinical appropriateness, cost effectiveness, and, in some cases, outcomes. Review is usually retrospective, but some analysis may be done before drugs are dispensed (as in computer systems which advise physicians when prescriptions are entered). Drug utilization review is mandated for Medicaid programs beginning in 1993.
Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XIX, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, administered by the states, that provides health care benefits to indigent and medically indigent persons.
A philosophy of nursing practice that takes into account total patient care, considering the physical, emotional, social, economic, and spiritual needs of patients, their response to their illnesses, and the effect of illness on patients' abilities to meet self-care needs. (From Mosby's Medical, Nursing, & Allied Health Dictionary, 4th ed, p745)
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Surgery performed on an outpatient basis. It may be hospital-based or performed in an office or surgicenter.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Great Britain is not a medical term, but a geographical name for the largest island in the British Isles, which comprises England, Scotland, and Wales, forming the major part of the United Kingdom.
Apparatus, devices, or supplies intended for one-time or temporary use.
The prices a hospital sets for its services. HOSPITAL COSTS (the direct and indirect expenses incurred by the hospital in providing the services) are one factor in the determination of hospital charges. Other factors may include, for example, profits, competition, and the necessity of recouping the costs of uncompensated care.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Organizations which assume the financial responsibility for the risks of policyholders.
Ratio of output to effort, or the ratio of effort produced to energy expended.
Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).
Health care services provided to patients on an ambulatory basis, rather than by admission to a hospital or other health care facility. The services may be a part of a hospital, augmenting its inpatient services, or may be provided at a free-standing facility.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Hospital-sponsored provision of health services, such as nursing, therapy, and health-related homemaker or social services, in the patient's home. (Hospital Administration Terminology, 2d ed)
The capacity of an organization, institution, or business to produce desired results with a minimum expenditure of energy, time, money, personnel, materiel, etc.
The use of fragrances and essences from plants to affect or alter a person's mood or behavior and to facilitate physical, mental, and emotional well-being. The chemicals comprising essential oils in plants has a host of therapeutic properties and has been used historically in Africa, Asia, and India. Its greatest application is in the field of alternative medicine. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed; from Dr. Atiba Vheir, Dove Center, Washington, D.C.)
Economic aspects related to the management and operation of a hospital.
A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.
Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XVIII-Health Insurance for the Aged, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, that provides health insurance benefits to persons over the age of 65 and others eligible for Social Security benefits. It consists of two separate but coordinated programs: hospital insurance (MEDICARE PART A) and supplementary medical insurance (MEDICARE PART B). (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed and A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, US House of Representatives, 1976)
Processes or methods of reimbursement for services rendered or equipment.
Community health and NURSING SERVICES providing coordinated multiple services to the patient at the patient's homes. These home-care services are provided by a visiting nurse, home health agencies, HOSPITALS, or organized community groups using professional staff for care delivery. It differs from HOME NURSING which is provided by non-professionals.
Total pharmaceutical services provided by qualified PHARMACISTS. In addition to the preparation and distribution of medical products, they may include consultative services provided to agencies and institutions which do not have a qualified pharmacist.
A broad approach to appropriate coordination of the entire disease treatment process that often involves shifting away from more expensive inpatient and acute care to areas such as preventive medicine, patient counseling and education, and outpatient care. This concept includes implications of appropriate versus inappropriate therapy on the overall cost and clinical outcome of a particular disease. (From Hosp Pharm 1995 Jul;30(7):596)
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.
Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
Theoretical representations and constructs that describe or explain the structure and hierarchy of relationships and interactions within or between formal organizational entities or informal social groups.
Payment by a third-party payer in a sum equal to the amount expended by a health care provider or facility for health services rendered to an insured or program beneficiary. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)
Consultation via remote telecommunications, generally for the purpose of diagnosis or treatment of a patient at a site remote from the patient or primary physician.
Directions written for the obtaining and use of DRUGS.
The utilization of drugs as reported in individual hospital studies, FDA studies, marketing, or consumption, etc. This includes drug stockpiling, and patient drug profiles.
The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.
The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.
The relative equivalency in the efficacy of different modes of treatment of a disease, most often used to compare the efficacy of different pharmaceuticals to treat a given disease.
Organized systems for providing comprehensive prepaid health care that have five basic attributes: (1) provide care in a defined geographic area; (2) provide or ensure delivery of an agreed-upon set of basic and supplemental health maintenance and treatment services; (3) provide care to a voluntarily enrolled group of persons; (4) require their enrollees to use the services of designated providers; and (5) receive reimbursement through a predetermined, fixed, periodic prepayment made by the enrollee without regard to the degree of services provided. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)
Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.
Those persons legally qualified by education and training to engage in the practice of pharmacy.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Germany" is a country and not a medical term or concept. Therefore, it doesn't have a medical definition. It is located in Central Europe and is known for its advanced medical research and facilities.
That portion of total HEALTH CARE COSTS borne by an individual's or group's employing organization.
Based on known statistical data, the number of years which any person of a given age may reasonably expected to live.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "California" is a place, specifically a state on the western coast of the United States, and not a medical term or concept. Therefore, it doesn't have a medical definition.
In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)
Institutions with permanent facilities and organized medical staff which provide the full range of hospital services primarily to a neighborhood area.
Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.
Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.
Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.
(Note: I believe there might be some confusion in your question as "Pennsylvania" is a place, specifically a state in the United States, and not a medical term. However, if you're asking for a medical condition or concept that shares a name with the state of Pennsylvania, I couldn't find any specific medical conditions or concepts associated with the name "Pennsylvania." If you have more context or clarification regarding your question, please provide it so I can give a more accurate response.)
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
A system for classifying patient care by relating common characteristics such as diagnosis, treatment, and age to an expected consumption of hospital resources and length of stay. Its purpose is to provide a framework for specifying case mix and to reduce hospital costs and reimbursements and it forms the cornerstone of the prospective payment system.
The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Diagnostic procedures, such as laboratory tests and x-rays, routinely performed on all individuals or specified categories of individuals in a specified situation, e.g., patients being admitted to the hospital. These include routine tests administered to neonates.
Subsequent admissions of a patient to a hospital or other health care institution for treatment.
Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
A province of Canada on the Pacific coast. Its capital is Victoria. The name given in 1858 derives from the Columbia River which was named by the American captain Robert Gray for his ship Columbia which in turn was named for Columbus. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p178 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p81-2)
Hospitals providing medical care to veterans of wars.
The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.
The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.
The process of accepting patients. The concept includes patients accepted for medical and nursing care in a hospital or other health care institution.
Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.
Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.

Practice patterns, case mix, Medicare payment policy, and dialysis facility costs. (1/780)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of case mix, practice patterns, features of the payment system, and facility characteristics on the cost of dialysis. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: The nationally representative sample of dialysis units in the 1991 U.S. Renal Data System's Case Mix Adequacy (CMA) Study. The CMA data were merged with data from Medicare Cost Reports, HCFA facility surveys, and HCFA's end-stage renal disease patient registry. STUDY DESIGN: We estimated a statistical cost function to examine the determinants of costs at the dialysis unit level. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The relationship between case mix and costs was generally weak. However, dialysis practices (type of dialysis membrane, membrane reuse policy, and treatment duration) did have a significant effect on costs. Further, facilities whose payment was constrained by HCFA's ceiling on the adjustment for area wage rates incurred higher costs than unconstrained facilities. The costs of hospital-based units were considerably higher than those of freestanding units. Among chain units, only members of one of the largest national chains exhibited significant cost savings relative to independent facilities. CONCLUSIONS: Little evidence showed that adjusting dialysis payment to account for differences in case mix across facilities would be necessary to ensure access to care for high-cost patients or to reimburse facilities equitably for their costs. However, current efforts to increase dose of dialysis may require higher payments. Longer treatments appear to be the most economical method of increasing the dose of dialysis. Switching to more expensive types of dialysis membranes was a more costly means of increasing dose and hence must be justified by benefits beyond those of higher dose. Reusing membranes saved money, but the savings were insufficient to offset the costs associated with using more expensive membranes. Most, but not all, of the higher costs observed in hospital-based units appear to reflect overhead cost allocation rather than a difference in real resources devoted to treatment. The economies experienced by the largest chains may provide an explanation for their recent growth in market share. The heterogeneity of results by chain size implies that characterizing units using a simple chain status indicator variable is inadequate. Cost differences by facility type and the effects of the ongoing growth of large chains are worthy of continued monitoring to inform both payment policy and antitrust enforcement.  (+info)

Mental health/medical care cost offsets: opportunities for managed care. (2/780)

Health services researchers have long observed that outpatient mental health treatment sometimes leads to a reduction in unnecessary or excessive general medical care expenditures. Such reductions, or cost offsets, have been found following mental health treatment of distressed elderly medical inpatients, some patients as they develop major medical illnesses, primary care outpatients with multiple unexplained somatic complaints, and nonelderly adults with alcoholism. In this paper we argue that managed care has an opportunity to capture these medical care cost savings by training utilization managers to make mental health services more accessible to patients whose excessive use of medical care is related to psychological factors. For financial reasons, such policies are most likely to develop within health care plans that integrate the financing and management of mental health and medical/surgical benefits.  (+info)

Feasibility of direct discharge from the coronary/intermediate care unit after acute myocardial infarction. (3/780)

OBJECTIVES: This investigation was designed to determine the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of direct discharge from the coronary/intermediate care unit (CICU) in 497 consecutive patients with an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). BACKGROUND: Although patients with an AMI are traditionally treated in the CICU followed by a period on the medical ward, the latter phase can likely be incorporated within the CICU. METHODS: All patients were considered for direct discharge from the CICU with appropriate patient education. The 6-week postdischarge course was evaluated using a structured questionnaire by a telephone interview. RESULTS: There were 497 patients (men = 353; women = 144; age 63.5 +/- 0.6 years) in the study, with 29 in-hospital deaths and a further 11 deaths occurring within 6 weeks of discharge. The mode length of CICU stay was 4.0 days (mean 5.1 +/- 0.2 days): 1 to 2 (12%), 3 (19%), 4 (21%), 5 (14%), 6 to 7 (19%) and > or = 7 (15%) days, respectively with 87.2% discharged home directly. Of the 425 patients surveyed, 119 (28.0%) indicated that they had made unscheduled return visits (URV) to a hospital or physician's office: 10.6% to an emergency room, 9.4% to a physician's office and 8.0% readmitted to a hospital. Of these URV, only 14.3% occurred within 48 h of discharge. Compared to historical controls, the present management strategy resulted in a cost savings of Cdn. $4,044.01 per patient. CONCLUSIONS: Direct discharge from CICU is a feasible and safe strategy for the majority of patients that results in considerable savings.  (+info)

Potential savings from generic prescribing and generic substitution in South Africa. (4/780)

Generic prescribing and generic substitution are mechanisms for reducing the cost of drugs. The purpose of this study was to assess the extent to which generic prescribing by private medical practitioners and generic substitution by private pharmacists is practised in South Africa and to estimate the potential savings from these two practices. Prescriptions from 10 pharmacists were collected on four randomly selected days. Computer printouts of all the prescriptions dispensed on these four days together with the original doctor's prescription were priced using a commercially available pharmacy dispensing computer package. A total of 1570 prescriptions with a total number of 4086 items were reviewed. Of the total prescriptions, 45.7% had at least one item for which there was a generic equivalent. Of the 961 drugs which had generic equivalents, 202 (21 %) were prescribed using the generic name of the drug. Only 0.3% of prescribers prohibited generic substitution. The cost of the prescription as dispensed was 1.4% (mean cost: R116.19 vs R117.84) below that of the original doctor's prescriptions, indicating the marginal benefit from the current low substitution rate of 13.9% by pharmacists. About 6.8% of the cost of the original doctor's prescriptions (mean cost: R117.84) could have been saved if total generic substitution (mean cost: R109.65) was practised. The cost of the prescriptions with only brand name items (mean cost: R120.49) would have been 9.9% higher than if generic drugs were used. Current restrictive prescribing and dispensing practices result in marginal cost savings from generic prescribing and generic substitution. Both these practices have a potential to reduce drug costs, if actively encouraged and practised to maximum capacity. It is noteworthy, however, that the potential savings from generic prescribing and substitution are at most 9.9% in the absence of any changes in types of drugs prescribed.  (+info)

Description of local adaptation of national guidelines and of active feedback for rationalising preoperative screening in patients at low risk from anaesthetics in a French university hospital. (5/780)

OBJECTIVE: To describe the effect of local adaptation of national guidelines combined with active feedback and organisational analysis on the ordering of preoperative investigations for patients at low risk from anaesthetics. DESIGN: Assessment of preoperative tests ordered over one month, before and after local adaptation of guidelines and feedback of results, combined with an organisational analysis. SETTING: Motivated anaesthetists in 15 surgical wards of Bordeaux University Hospital, Region Aquitain, France. SUBJECTS: 42 anaesthetists, 60 surgeons, and their teams. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number and type of preoperative tests ordered in June 1993 and 1994, and the estimated savings. RESULTS: Of 536 patients at low risk from anaesthetics studied in 1993 before the intervention 80% had at least one preoperative test. Most (70%) tests were ordered by anaesthetists. Twice the number of preoperative tests were ordered than recommended by national guidelines. Organisational analysis indicated lack of organised consultations and communication within teams. Changes implemented included scheduling of anaesthetic consultations; regular formal multidisciplinary meetings for all staff; preoperative ordering decision charts. Of 516 low risk patients studied in 1994 after the intervention only 48% had one or more preoperative tests ordered (p < 0.05). Estimated mean (SD) saving for one year if changes were applied to all patients at low risk from anaesthesia in the hospital 3.04 (1.23) mFF. CONCLUSIONS: A sharp decrease in tests ordered in low risk patients was found. The likely cause was the package of changes that included local adaptation of national guidelines, feedback, and organisational change.  (+info)

Outcomes for control patients referred to a pediatric asthma outreach program: an example of the Hawthorne effect. (6/780)

A study was designed to determine whether identification of high risk for exacerbations of asthma based on pediatrician concern, emergency department visits, or hospital stays results in a decrease of resource utilization because of referral to an asthma outreach program even if the intervention does not take place. The findings for such a group were compared with those for a group who did undergo intervention with an asthma outreach program. Fifty-six patients 1 to 14 years of age were assigned to one of two groups. The control group (those who did not undergo intervention) had consistent but not statistically significant reductions in utilization of emergency visits, hospitalizations, and dollars spent (21%, 24%, and 32%, respectively). The group who underwent intervention with the asthma outreach program had large and statistically significant decreases in the same parameters (emergency visits, 60%, P = 0.001; hospital stays, 74%, P = 0.008; dollars spent, 72%, P = 0.004). However, the apparently insignificant effect of the reductions in utilization by the control group substantially altered interpretation of the outcomes of the study. Cost savings were reduced from $11.69 per dollar spent on intervention to $6.49 per dollar spent. In before-and-after studies such as those typically conducted during continuous quality improvement projects, which typically do not have control groups, investigators need to consider control group effects when they assess the results of intervention.  (+info)

A program to reduce discharge delays in a neonatal intensive care unit. (7/780)

Our hypothesis was that a program designed to identify the causes of discharge delays would reduce the length of stay in our neonatal intensive care unit. We reviewed every admission from January, 1994, to December, 1995. A discharge delay was defined as any delay not related to illness after the infant was cleared for release. Discharge delays were divided into the following categories: primary healthcare team, organizational, discharge planning, family, monitor related, and other. Potential discharge delays were identified daily according to established criteria. Actual discharge delays were reviewed monthly at a staff meeting attended by representatives of a multidisciplinary team. We identified 116 discharge delays, which accounted for 480 patient days. Eighty-three discharge delays accounted for 302 patient days in 1994, and 33 discharge delays for 178 patient days in 1995. Discharge delays ranged from 1 to 34 days, with an average of 4.1 days added per patient. Infants with discharge delays had a case mix index of 9.32. The average case mix index for the neonatal intensive care unit was 6.25 during 1994 and 5.18 during 1995, an average of 5.71 for the review period. Forty-four percent of infants who had discharge delays had private insurance, 55% had Medicaid, and 1% had self-payment arrangements. Eighty-eight of 116 discharge delays were caused by circumstances beyond the control of the primary care team. An additional 25 of 116 discharge delays were the result of our policy requiring 48 hours free of apnea-bradycardia alarms before discharge. Discharge delays for 1994 cost $226,298 ($749/day). For 1995, discharge delays cost $41,553 ($233/day) for a total cost of $262,431. Total savings in 1995 versus 1994 was $184,745 ($516/day). Despite the low birth weight and relatively severe illnesses of the infants, we believe that a focused team approach and monitoring for potential discharge delays can result in considerable reduction in hospital stay and cost.  (+info)

Cost recovery in Ghana: are there any changes in health care seeking behaviour? (8/780)

The study aimed to investigate the impact on health care seeking behaviour of the cost-sharing policies introduced in Ghana between 1985 and 1992. Qualitative research techniques were used to investigate the behaviour of patients after the introduction of these policies. Focus group discussions of cohorts of the population and in-depth interviews of health workers and selected opinion leaders were used to collect data from rural and urban health care facilities in three districts of Ghana. The study findings indicate that the cost recovery policies have led to an increase in self-medication and other behaviours aimed at cost-saving. At the same time, there is a perception of an improvement in the drug supply situation and general health delivery in government facilities. The study advocated enhanced training of drug peddlers and attendants at drug stores, especially in rural areas. User fee exemption criteria need to be worked out properly and implemented so that the very needy are not precluded from seeking health care at hospitals and clinics.  (+info)

Cost savings in a medical context generally refers to the reduction in expenses or resources expended in the delivery of healthcare services, treatments, or procedures. This can be achieved through various means such as implementing more efficient processes, utilizing less expensive treatment options when appropriate, preventing complications or readmissions, and negotiating better prices for drugs or supplies.

Cost savings can also result from comparative effectiveness research, which compares the relative benefits and harms of different medical interventions to help doctors and patients make informed decisions about which treatment is most appropriate and cost-effective for a given condition.

Ultimately, cost savings in healthcare aim to improve the overall value of care delivered by reducing unnecessary expenses while maintaining or improving quality outcomes for patients.

Health care costs refer to the expenses incurred for medical services, treatments, procedures, and products that are used to maintain or restore an individual's health. These costs can be categorized into several types:

1. Direct costs: These include payments made for doctor visits, hospital stays, medications, diagnostic tests, surgeries, and other medical treatments and services. Direct costs can be further divided into two subcategories:
* Out-of-pocket costs: Expenses paid directly by patients, such as co-payments, deductibles, coinsurance, and any uncovered medical services or products.
* Third-party payer costs: Expenses covered by insurance companies, government programs (like Medicare, Medicaid), or other entities that pay for health care services on behalf of patients.
2. Indirect costs: These are the expenses incurred as a result of illness or injury that indirectly impact an individual's ability to work and earn a living. Examples include lost productivity, absenteeism, reduced earning capacity, and disability benefits.
3. Non-medical costs: These are expenses related to caregiving, transportation, home modifications, assistive devices, and other non-medical services required for managing health conditions or disabilities.

Health care costs can vary significantly depending on factors such as the type of medical service, geographic location, insurance coverage, and individual health status. Understanding these costs is essential for patients, healthcare providers, policymakers, and researchers to make informed decisions about treatment options, resource allocation, and health system design.

Costs refer to the total amount of resources, such as money, time, and labor, that are expended in the provision of a medical service or treatment. Costs can be categorized into direct costs, which include expenses directly related to patient care, such as medication, supplies, and personnel; and indirect costs, which include overhead expenses, such as rent, utilities, and administrative salaries.

Cost analysis is the process of estimating and evaluating the total cost of a medical service or treatment. This involves identifying and quantifying all direct and indirect costs associated with the provision of care, and analyzing how these costs may vary based on factors such as patient volume, resource utilization, and reimbursement rates.

Cost analysis is an important tool for healthcare organizations to understand the financial implications of their operations and make informed decisions about resource allocation, pricing strategies, and quality improvement initiatives. It can also help policymakers and payers evaluate the cost-effectiveness of different treatment options and develop evidence-based guidelines for clinical practice.

Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is a systematic process used to compare the costs and benefits of different options to determine which one provides the greatest net benefit. In a medical context, CBA can be used to evaluate the value of medical interventions, treatments, or policies by estimating and monetizing all the relevant costs and benefits associated with each option.

The costs included in a CBA may include direct costs such as the cost of the intervention or treatment itself, as well as indirect costs such as lost productivity or time away from work. Benefits may include improved health outcomes, reduced morbidity or mortality, and increased quality of life.

Once all the relevant costs and benefits have been identified and quantified, they are typically expressed in monetary terms to allow for a direct comparison. The option with the highest net benefit (i.e., the difference between total benefits and total costs) is considered the most cost-effective.

It's important to note that CBA has some limitations and can be subject to various biases and assumptions, so it should be used in conjunction with other evaluation methods to ensure a comprehensive understanding of the value of medical interventions or policies.

"Drug costs" refer to the amount of money that must be paid to acquire and use a particular medication. These costs can include the following:

1. The actual purchase price of the drug, which may vary depending on factors such as the dosage form, strength, and quantity of the medication, as well as whether it is obtained through a retail pharmacy, mail-order service, or other distribution channel.
2. Any additional fees or charges associated with obtaining the drug, such as shipping and handling costs, insurance copayments or coinsurance amounts, and deductibles.
3. The cost of any necessary medical services or supplies that are required to administer the drug, such as syringes, needles, or alcohol swabs for injectable medications, or nebulizers for inhaled drugs.
4. The cost of monitoring and managing any potential side effects or complications associated with the use of the drug, which may include additional medical appointments, laboratory tests, or other diagnostic procedures.

It is important to note that drug costs can vary widely depending on a variety of factors, including the patient's insurance coverage, the pharmacy where the drug is obtained, and any discounts or rebates that may be available. Patients are encouraged to shop around for the best prices and to explore all available options for reducing their out-of-pocket costs, such as using generic medications or participating in manufacturer savings programs.

Cost control in a medical context refers to the strategies and practices employed by healthcare organizations to manage and reduce the costs associated with providing patient care while maintaining quality and safety. The goal is to optimize resource allocation, increase efficiency, and contain expenses without compromising the standard of care. This may involve measures such as:

1. Utilization management: Reviewing and monitoring the use of medical services, tests, and treatments to ensure they are necessary, appropriate, and evidence-based.
2. Case management: Coordinating patient care across various healthcare providers and settings to improve outcomes, reduce unnecessary duplication of services, and control costs.
3. Negotiating contracts with suppliers and vendors to secure favorable pricing for medical equipment, supplies, and pharmaceuticals.
4. Implementing evidence-based clinical guidelines and pathways to standardize care processes and reduce unwarranted variations in practice that can drive up costs.
5. Using technology such as electronic health records (EHRs) and telemedicine to streamline operations, improve communication, and reduce errors.
6. Investing in preventive care and wellness programs to keep patients healthy and reduce the need for costly interventions and hospitalizations.
7. Continuously monitoring and analyzing cost data to identify trends, opportunities for improvement, and areas of potential waste or inefficiency.

Economic models in the context of healthcare and medicine are theoretical frameworks used to analyze and predict the economic impact and cost-effectiveness of healthcare interventions, treatments, or policies. These models utilize clinical and epidemiological data, as well as information on resource use and costs, to estimate outcomes such as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained, incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs), and budget impacts. The purpose of economic models is to inform decision-making and allocate resources in an efficient and evidence-based manner. Examples of economic models include decision tree analysis, Markov models, and simulation models.

"Cost of Illness" is a medical-economic concept that refers to the total societal cost associated with a specific disease or health condition. It includes both direct and indirect costs. Direct costs are those that can be directly attributed to the illness, such as medical expenses for diagnosis, treatment, rehabilitation, and medications. Indirect costs include productivity losses due to morbidity (reduced efficiency while working) and mortality (lost earnings due to death). Other indirect costs may encompass expenses related to caregiving or special education needs. The Cost of Illness is often used in health policy decision-making, resource allocation, and evaluating the economic impact of diseases on society.

Quality-Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) is a measure of health outcomes that combines both the quality and quantity of life lived in a single metric. It is often used in economic evaluations of healthcare interventions to estimate their value for money. QALYs are calculated by multiplying the number of years of life gained by a weighting factor that reflects the quality of life experienced during those years, typically on a scale from 0 (representing death) to 1 (representing perfect health). For example, if a healthcare intervention extends a person's life by an additional five years but they experience only 80% of full health during that time, the QALY gain would be 4 (5 x 0.8). This measure allows for comparisons to be made between different interventions and their impact on both length and quality of life.

Hospital costs are the total amount of money that is expended by a hospital to provide medical and healthcare services to patients. These costs can include expenses related to:

* Hospital staff salaries and benefits
* Supplies, such as medications, medical devices, and surgical equipment
* Utilities, such as electricity, water, and heating
* Facility maintenance and renovation
* Equipment maintenance and purchase
* Administrative costs, such as billing and insurance processing

Hospital costs can also be classified into fixed and variable costs. Fixed costs are those that do not change with the volume of services provided, such as rent or depreciation of equipment. Variable costs are those that change with the volume of services provided, such as supplies and medications.

It's important to note that hospital costs can vary widely depending on factors such as the complexity of care provided, the geographic location of the hospital, and the patient population served. Additionally, hospital costs may not always align with charges or payments for healthcare services, which can be influenced by factors such as negotiated rates with insurance companies and government reimbursement policies.

A generic drug is a medication that contains the same active ingredients as an originally marketed brand-name drug, known as its "innovator" or "reference listed" drug. The active ingredient is the component of the drug that is responsible for its therapeutic effect. Generic drugs are required to have the same quality, strength, purity, and stability as their brand-name counterparts. They must also meet the same rigorous Food and Drug Administration (FDA) standards regarding safety, effectiveness, and manufacturing.

Generic drugs are typically less expensive than their brand-name equivalents because generic manufacturers do not have to repeat the costly clinical trials that were required for the innovator drug. Instead, they demonstrate through bioequivalence studies that their product is therapeutically equivalent to the reference listed drug. This means that the generic drug delivers the same amount of active ingredient into a patient's bloodstream in the same timeframe as the brand-name drug.

In summary, generic drugs are copies of brand-name drugs with the same active ingredients, dosage forms, strengths, routes of administration, and intended uses. They must meet FDA regulations for safety, efficacy, and manufacturing standards, ensuring that they provide patients with the same therapeutic benefits as their brand-name counterparts at a more affordable price.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

Cost allocation is the process of distributing or assigning costs to different departments, projects, products, or services within an organization. The goal of cost allocation is to more accurately determine the true cost of producing a product or providing a service, taking into account all related expenses. This can help organizations make better decisions about pricing, resource allocation, and profitability analysis.

There are various methods for allocating costs, including activity-based costing (ABC), which assigns costs based on the activities required to produce a product or provide a service; traditional costing, which uses broad categories such as direct labor, direct materials, and overhead; and causal allocation, which assigns costs based on a specific cause-and-effect relationship.

In healthcare, cost allocation is particularly important for determining the true cost of patient care, including both direct and indirect costs. This can help hospitals and other healthcare organizations make informed decisions about resource allocation, pricing, and reimbursement strategies.

Direct service costs are expenses that can be directly attributed to the delivery of a specific service or program. These costs are typically related to items such as personnel, supplies, and equipment that are used exclusively for the provision of that service. Direct service costs can be contrasted with indirect costs, which are expenses that are not easily linked to a particular service or program and may include things like administrative overhead, rent, and utilities.

Examples of direct service costs in a healthcare setting might include:

* Salaries and benefits for medical staff who provide patient care, such as doctors, nurses, and therapists
* Costs of medications and supplies used to treat patients
* Equipment and supplies needed to perform diagnostic tests or procedures, such as X-ray machines or surgical instruments
* Rent or lease payments for space that is dedicated to providing patient care services.

It's important to accurately track direct service costs in order to understand the true cost of delivering a particular service or program, and to make informed decisions about resource allocation and pricing.

Pharmaceutical economics is a branch of economics that focuses on the production and distribution of pharmaceutical products and services. It involves the analysis of various factors that influence the development, pricing, and accessibility of medications, including issues related to healthcare policy, regulation, reimbursement, and market competition.

Pharmaceutical economists study topics such as:

1. The research and development (R&D) process for new drugs, including the costs, risks, and uncertainties associated with bringing a new drug to market.
2. The pricing of pharmaceuticals, taking into account factors such as production costs, R&D expenses, market competition, and the value that medications provide to patients and society.
3. The impact of government regulations and policies on the pharmaceutical industry, including issues related to intellectual property protection, drug safety, and efficacy testing.
4. The role of health insurance and other third-party payers in shaping the demand for and access to pharmaceuticals.
5. The evaluation of pharmaceutical interventions' cost-effectiveness and their impact on healthcare outcomes and patient well-being.
6. The analysis of market structures, competitive dynamics, and strategic decision-making within the pharmaceutical industry.
7. The assessment of globalization, international trade, and cross-border collaboration in the pharmaceutical sector.

Pharmaceutical economics plays a crucial role in informing healthcare policy decisions, improving patient access to essential medications, and promoting sustainable and innovative practices within the pharmaceutical industry.

Managed care programs are a type of health insurance plan that aims to control healthcare costs and improve the quality of care by managing the utilization of healthcare services. They do this by using a network of healthcare providers who have agreed to provide services at reduced rates, and by implementing various strategies such as utilization review, case management, and preventive care.

In managed care programs, there is usually a primary care physician (PCP) who acts as the patient's main doctor and coordinates their care within the network of providers. Patients may need a referral from their PCP to see specialists or access certain services. Managed care programs can take various forms, including Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs), Preferred Provider Organizations (PPOs), Point-of-Service (POS) plans, and Exclusive Provider Organizations (EPOs).

The goal of managed care programs is to provide cost-effective healthcare services while maintaining or improving the quality of care. They can help patients save money on healthcare costs by providing coverage for a range of services at lower rates than traditional fee-for-service plans, but they may also limit patient choice and require prior authorization for certain procedures or treatments.

A decision tree is a graphical representation of possible solutions to a decision based on certain conditions. It is a predictive modeling tool commonly used in statistics, data mining, and machine learning. In the medical field, decision trees can be used for clinical decision-making and predicting patient outcomes based on various factors such as symptoms, test results, or demographic information.

In a decision tree, each internal node represents a feature or attribute, and each branch represents a possible value or outcome of that feature. The leaves of the tree represent the final decisions or predictions. Decision trees are constructed by recursively partitioning the data into subsets based on the most significant attributes until a stopping criterion is met.

Decision trees can be used for both classification and regression tasks, making them versatile tools in medical research and practice. They can help healthcare professionals make informed decisions about patient care, identify high-risk patients, and develop personalized treatment plans. However, it's important to note that decision trees are only as good as the data they are trained on, and their accuracy may be affected by biases or limitations in the data.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Models, Econometric" is not a medical term. Econometric models are statistical tools used in the field of economics to estimate economic relationships and forecast future outcomes. They are based on economic theory and use historical data to estimate the parameters of mathematical equations that describe these relationships.

If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I'd be happy to try to help! Just let me know what you're looking for.

A hospital formulary is a list of medications that a hospital or healthcare system has approved for use in specific clinical situations. The formulary is developed and maintained by a committee of physicians, pharmacists, and other healthcare professionals who evaluate the safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of various medications before adding them to the formulary.

The primary goal of a hospital formulary is to promote the safe and effective use of medications while minimizing unnecessary costs. By standardizing the medications used in the hospital, formularies can help reduce medication errors, improve patient outcomes, and ensure that limited resources are used wisely.

Hospital formularies may vary depending on the specific needs and preferences of the hospital or healthcare system. They typically include a wide range of medications, from common pain relievers and antibiotics to specialty drugs used to treat rare conditions. In addition to listing approved medications, hospital formularies may also provide guidelines for their use, including dosages, routes of administration, and monitoring requirements.

Healthcare providers who practice in hospitals with formularies are expected to follow the guidelines set forth in the formulary when prescribing medications. However, they may request exceptions to the formulary if a patient's clinical situation requires a medication that is not on the list. The formulary committee will then review the request and make a determination based on the available evidence and clinical expertise.

Decision support techniques are methods used to help individuals or groups make informed and effective decisions in a medical context. These techniques can involve various approaches, such as:

1. **Clinical Decision Support Systems (CDSS):** Computerized systems that provide clinicians with patient-specific information and evidence-based recommendations to assist in decision-making. CDSS can be integrated into electronic health records (EHRs) or standalone applications.

2. **Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM):** A systematic approach to clinical decision-making that involves the integration of best available research evidence, clinician expertise, and patient values and preferences. EBM emphasizes the importance of using high-quality scientific studies to inform medical decisions.

3. **Diagnostic Reasoning:** The process of formulating a diagnosis based on history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests. Diagnostic reasoning techniques may include pattern recognition, hypothetico-deductive reasoning, or a combination of both.

4. **Predictive Modeling:** The use of statistical models to predict patient outcomes based on historical data and clinical variables. These models can help clinicians identify high-risk patients and inform treatment decisions.

5. **Cost-Effectiveness Analysis (CEA):** An economic evaluation technique that compares the costs and benefits of different medical interventions to determine which option provides the most value for money. CEA can assist decision-makers in allocating resources efficiently.

6. **Multicriteria Decision Analysis (MCDA):** A structured approach to decision-making that involves identifying, evaluating, and comparing multiple criteria or objectives. MCDA can help clinicians and patients make complex decisions by accounting for various factors, such as efficacy, safety, cost, and patient preferences.

7. **Shared Decision-Making (SDM):** A collaborative approach to decision-making that involves the clinician and patient working together to choose the best course of action based on the available evidence, clinical expertise, and patient values and preferences. SDM aims to empower patients to participate actively in their care.

These techniques can be used individually or in combination to support medical decision-making and improve patient outcomes.

Cost sharing in a medical or healthcare context refers to the portion of health care costs that are paid by the patient or health plan member, rather than by their insurance company. Cost sharing can take various forms, including deductibles, coinsurance, and copayments.

A deductible is the amount that a patient must pay out of pocket for medical services before their insurance coverage kicks in. For example, if a health plan has a $1,000 deductible, the patient must pay the first $1,000 of their medical expenses before their insurance starts covering costs.

Coinsurance is the percentage of medical costs that a patient is responsible for paying after they have met their deductible. For example, if a health plan has 20% coinsurance, the patient would pay 20% of the cost of medical services, and their insurance would cover the remaining 80%.

Copayments are fixed amounts that patients must pay for specific medical services, such as doctor visits or prescription medications. Copayments are typically paid at the time of service and do not count towards a patient's deductible.

Cost sharing is intended to encourage patients to be more cost-conscious in their use of healthcare services, as they have a financial incentive to seek out lower-cost options. However, high levels of cost sharing can also create barriers to accessing necessary medical care, particularly for low-income individuals and families.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Markov Chains" is a term from the field of mathematics and probability theory, not medicine. Markov Chains are mathematical systems that undergo transitions from one state to another according to certain probabilistic rules. They are named after Russian mathematician Andrey Markov. These chains are used in various fields, including computer science, physics, economics, and engineering, but not commonly in medical definitions or contexts.

Pharmaceutical fees are charges that healthcare professionals or institutions may impose on patients for various services related to the prescribing and dispensing of medications. These fees can include costs associated with medication therapy management, drug monitoring, medication reconciliation, and other clinical services provided by pharmacists or other healthcare providers.

It's important to note that these fees are separate from the cost of the medication itself and may not be covered by insurance. Patients should always ask about any potential fees before receiving pharmaceutical services and clarify whether they will be responsible for paying them out-of-pocket.

Postanesthesia nursing, also known as Recovery Room or PACU (Post-Anesthesia Care Unit) nursing, is a specialized area of nursing practice that focuses on the care and recovery of patients who have undergone anesthesia and surgical procedures. The primary goal of postanesthesia nursing is to monitor, evaluate, and manage the patient's airway, breathing, circulation, and level of consciousness while ensuring their comfort, safety, and optimal recovery.

Postanesthesia nurses assess patients for any potential complications related to anesthesia, such as respiratory depression, hypotension, nausea, vomiting, or pain. They closely monitor vital signs, oxygenation, and neurological status, providing interventions as needed to maintain physiological stability. Additionally, they collaborate with the interdisciplinary healthcare team, including anesthesiologists, surgeons, and other medical professionals, to ensure seamless communication and coordinated care throughout the patient's recovery process.

Postanesthesia nursing requires a strong understanding of anatomy, physiology, pharmacology, and pathophysiology, as well as excellent assessment, critical thinking, and communication skills. Nurses in this specialty must be able to adapt quickly to changing patient conditions and respond appropriately to emergencies, ensuring that patients receive the highest quality of care during their postoperative recovery.

Health expenditures refer to the total amount of money spent on health services, goods, and resources in a given period. This can include expenses for preventive care, medical treatments, medications, long-term care, and administrative costs. Health expenditures can be made by individuals, corporations, insurance companies, or governments, and they can be measured at the national, regional, or household level.

Health expenditures are often used as an indicator of a country's investment in its healthcare system and can reflect the overall health status of a population. High levels of health expenditures may indicate a strong commitment to healthcare, but they can also place a significant burden on individuals, businesses, and governments. Understanding patterns and trends in health expenditures is important for policymakers, healthcare providers, and researchers who are working to improve the efficiency, effectiveness, and accessibility of healthcare services.

Pharmaceutical services insurance refers to a type of coverage that helps individuals and families pay for their prescription medications. This type of insurance is often offered as part of a larger health insurance plan, but can also be purchased as a standalone policy.

The specifics of pharmaceutical services insurance coverage can vary widely depending on the policy. Some plans may cover only generic medications, while others may cover both brand-name and generic drugs. Additionally, some policies may require individuals to pay a portion of the cost of their prescriptions in the form of copays or coinsurance, while others may cover the full cost of medications.

Pharmaceutical services insurance can be especially important for individuals who have chronic medical conditions that require ongoing treatment with expensive prescription medications. By helping to offset the cost of these medications, pharmaceutical services insurance can make it easier for people to afford the care they need to manage their health and improve their quality of life.

A Medical Savings Account (MSA) is a type of savings account that allows individuals to set aside a portion of their earnings on a pre-tax basis to pay for current or future medical expenses. The funds in the MSA can be used to pay for qualified medical expenses, such as deductibles, copayments, and medications, which are not covered by health insurance.

There are two main types of MSAs: Archer MSAs and Health Savings Accounts (HSAs). Archer MSAs were established in 1996 and are available to self-employed individuals and employees of small businesses who have high-deductible health plans. HSAs, on the other hand, were created in 2003 and are available to anyone who has a high-deductible health plan, regardless of their employment status.

One of the benefits of MSAs is that they offer tax advantages. Contributions to an MSA are deductible from an individual's gross income, which reduces their taxable income. The funds in the account grow tax-deferred, and withdrawals used for qualified medical expenses are tax-free.

It's important to note that MSAs have certain rules and restrictions, such as annual contribution limits and requirements for using the funds for qualified medical expenses. If funds are withdrawn for non-qualified expenses, they may be subject to income taxes and penalties.

"Length of Stay" (LOS) is a term commonly used in healthcare to refer to the amount of time a patient spends receiving care in a hospital, clinic, or other healthcare facility. It is typically measured in hours, days, or weeks and can be used as a metric for various purposes such as resource planning, quality assessment, and reimbursement. The length of stay can vary depending on the type of illness or injury, the severity of the condition, the patient's response to treatment, and other factors. It is an important consideration in healthcare management and can have significant implications for both patients and providers.

A doula is not a medical professional, but rather a trained labor support person who provides emotional, physical, and informational support to women before, during, and after childbirth. The role of a doula is to help create a safe and comfortable environment for the birthing person, offer reassurance and encouragement, provide pain relief techniques such as massage or breathing exercises, and facilitate communication between the laboring person, their partner, and medical staff. Doulas can also provide support during pregnancy, postpartum, and with breastfeeding. While doulas do not provide medical care, their presence has been shown to improve birth outcomes, increase satisfaction with the childbirth experience, and reduce the need for medical interventions such as epidurals and cesarean sections.

A formulary is a list of prescription drugs, both generic and brand-name, that are approved for use in a specific health plan or healthcare system. The formulary includes information on the preferred drugs within each therapeutic class, along with any restrictions or limitations on their use. Formularies are developed and maintained by a committee of healthcare professionals, including pharmacists and physicians, who evaluate the safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of different medications.

The purpose of a formulary is to promote the appropriate use of medications, improve patient outcomes, and manage healthcare costs. By establishing a preferred list of drugs, health plans and healthcare systems can negotiate better prices with pharmaceutical manufacturers and ensure that patients receive high-quality, evidence-based care.

Formularies may include various types of medications, such as oral solid dosage forms, injectables, inhalants, topicals, and others. They are typically organized by therapeutic class, and each drug is assigned a tier based on its cost and clinical value. Tier 1 drugs are usually preferred generics or lower-cost brand-name medications, while Tier 2 drugs may be higher-cost brand-name medications that have no generic equivalent. Tier 3 drugs are typically specialty medications that are used to treat complex or rare conditions and are often associated with high costs.

Healthcare providers are encouraged to prescribe drugs that are listed on the formulary, as these medications have been thoroughly reviewed and deemed safe and effective for use in their patient population. However, there may be situations where a non-formulary medication is necessary to treat a particular patient's condition. In such cases, healthcare providers can request an exception or prior authorization to prescribe the non-formulary drug.

Formularies are regularly updated to reflect new drugs that come on the market, changes in clinical guidelines, and shifts in the therapeutic landscape. Health plans and healthcare systems may also modify their formularies in response to feedback from patients and providers or to address concerns about safety, efficacy, or cost.

In summary, a formulary is a comprehensive list of prescription drugs that are approved for use in a specific health plan or healthcare system. Formularies promote the appropriate use of medications, improve patient outcomes, and manage costs by encouraging the prescribing of safe and effective drugs that have been thoroughly reviewed and deemed appropriate for their patient population.

An esophagogastroduodenoscope, often referred to as an "esophagogastroscopy" or simply "esophagoscope," is a medical device used for visual examination of the upper digestive tract, including the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum. It is a long, flexible tube with a light and camera at the end, which allows doctors to see detailed images of the inside of these organs and diagnose various conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), ulcers, and cancer. The procedure of using an esophagogastroduodenoscope is called an "esophagogastroduodenoscopy" or "EGD."

An insurance claim review is the process conducted by an insurance company to evaluate a claim made by a policyholder for coverage of a loss or expense. This evaluation typically involves examining the details of the claim, assessing the damages or injuries incurred, verifying the coverage provided by the policy, and determining the appropriate amount of benefits to be paid. The insurance claim review may also include investigating the circumstances surrounding the claim to ensure its validity and confirming that it complies with the terms and conditions of the insurance policy.

"Physicians' Offices" is a general term that refers to the physical location where medical doctors or physicians practice their profession and provide healthcare services to patients. These offices can vary in size and setting, ranging from a single physician's small private practice to large, multi-specialty clinics.

In a physicians' office, medical professionals typically deliver outpatient care, which means that patients visit the office for appointments rather than staying overnight. The services provided may include routine check-ups, diagnosing and treating illnesses or injuries, prescribing medications, ordering and interpreting diagnostic tests, providing preventive care, and coordinating with other healthcare providers for specialist referrals or additional treatments.

The facilities in a physicians' office usually consist of examination rooms, a waiting area, nursing stations, and administrative support spaces. Some may also have on-site laboratory or diagnostic equipment, such as X-ray machines or ultrasound devices. The specific layout and amenities will depend on the size, specialty, and patient population of the practice.

Health resources refer to the personnel, facilities, equipment, and supplies that are used in the delivery of healthcare services. This includes:

1. Human resources: Healthcare professionals such as doctors, nurses, pharmacists, and allied health professionals.

2. Physical resources: Hospitals, clinics, laboratories, and other healthcare facilities.

3. Technological resources: Medical equipment and technology used for diagnosis and treatment, such as MRI machines, CT scanners, and electronic health records.

4. Financial resources: Funding for healthcare services, including public and private insurance, government funding, and out-of-pocket payments.

5. Informational resources: Research findings, evidence-based practices, and health education materials that inform healthcare decision-making.

The adequate availability, distribution, and utilization of these health resources are crucial for ensuring access to quality healthcare services and improving population health outcomes.

In medical terminology, a budget is not explicitly defined. However, in a general sense, it refers to a financial plan that outlines the anticipated costs and expenses for a specific period. In healthcare, budgets can be used by hospitals, clinics, or other medical facilities to plan for and manage their finances.

A healthcare organization's budget may include expenses related to:

* Salaries and benefits for staff
* Equipment and supply costs
* Facility maintenance and improvements
* Research and development expenses
* Insurance and liability coverage
* Marketing and advertising costs

Budgets can help healthcare organizations manage their finances effectively, allocate resources efficiently, and make informed decisions about spending. They may also be used to plan for future growth and expansion.

Hospitalization is the process of admitting a patient to a hospital for the purpose of receiving medical treatment, surgery, or other health care services. It involves staying in the hospital as an inpatient, typically under the care of doctors, nurses, and other healthcare professionals. The length of stay can vary depending on the individual's medical condition and the type of treatment required. Hospitalization may be necessary for a variety of reasons, such as to receive intensive care, to undergo diagnostic tests or procedures, to recover from surgery, or to manage chronic illnesses or injuries.

A Drug Utilization Review (DUR) is a systematic retrospective examination of a patient's current and past use of medications to identify medication-related problems, such as adverse drug reactions, interactions, inappropriate dosages, duplicate therapy, and noncompliance with the treatment plan. The goal of DUR is to optimize medication therapy, improve patient outcomes, reduce healthcare costs, and promote safe and effective use of medications.

DUR is typically conducted by pharmacists, physicians, or other healthcare professionals who review medication records, laboratory results, and clinical data to identify potential issues and make recommendations for changes in medication therapy. DUR may be performed manually or using automated software tools that can analyze large datasets of medication claims and electronic health records.

DUR is an important component of medication management programs in various settings, including hospitals, long-term care facilities, managed care organizations, and ambulatory care clinics. It helps ensure that patients receive the right medications at the right doses for the right indications, and reduces the risk of medication errors and adverse drug events.

Medicaid is a joint federal-state program that provides health coverage for low-income individuals, including children, pregnant women, elderly adults, and people with disabilities. Eligibility, benefits, and administration vary by state, but the program is designed to ensure that low-income individuals have access to necessary medical services. Medicaid is funded jointly by the federal government and the states, and is administered by the states under broad federal guidelines.

Medicaid programs must cover certain mandatory benefits, such as inpatient and outpatient hospital services, laboratory and X-ray services, and physician services. States also have the option to provide additional benefits, such as dental care, vision services, and prescription drugs. In addition, many states have expanded their Medicaid programs to cover more low-income adults under the Affordable Care Act (ACA).

Medicaid is an important source of health coverage for millions of Americans, providing access to necessary medical care and helping to reduce financial burden for low-income individuals.

Holistic nursing is a specialized form of nursing practice that focuses on treating the whole person, including their physical, mental, emotional, spiritual, and environmental needs. It is based on the principles of holism, which emphasizes the interconnectedness of all aspects of a person's life and the importance of addressing them in the healing process.

The American Holistic Nurses Association (AHNA) defines holistic nursing as "all nursing practice that has the patient, person, health, or human experience as its central focus." It encompasses a wide range of practices, including complementary and alternative therapies, mind-body techniques, and self-care strategies.

Holistic nurses aim to create a healing environment that supports the patient's innate ability to heal. They work in partnership with patients, families, and other healthcare providers to identify and address the underlying causes of illness or distress, rather than just treating symptoms. Holistic nursing also emphasizes the importance of self-care for nurses, recognizing that they must take care of themselves in order to provide optimal care to others.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Ambulatory surgical procedures, also known as outpatient or same-day surgery, refer to medical operations that do not require an overnight hospital stay. These procedures are typically performed in a specialized ambulatory surgery center (ASC) or in a hospital-based outpatient department. Patients undergoing ambulatory surgical procedures receive anesthesia, undergo the operation, and recover enough to be discharged home on the same day of the procedure.

Examples of common ambulatory surgical procedures include:

1. Arthroscopy (joint scope examination and repair)
2. Cataract surgery
3. Colonoscopy and upper endoscopy
4. Dental surgery, such as wisdom tooth extraction
5. Gallbladder removal (cholecystectomy)
6. Hernia repair
7. Hysteroscopy (examination of the uterus)
8. Minor skin procedures, like biopsies and lesion removals
9. Orthopedic procedures, such as carpal tunnel release or joint injections
10. Pain management procedures, including epidural steroid injections and nerve blocks
11. Podiatric (foot and ankle) surgery
12. Tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy

Advancements in medical technology, minimally invasive surgical techniques, and improved anesthesia methods have contributed to the growth of ambulatory surgical procedures, offering patients a more convenient and cost-effective alternative to traditional inpatient surgeries.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Great Britain" is not a medical concept or condition. It is a geographical and political term referring to the largest island in the British Isles, on which the majority of England, Scotland, and Wales are located. It's also used to refer to the political union of these three countries, which is called the United Kingdom. Therefore, it doesn't have a medical definition.

Disposable equipment in a medical context refers to items that are designed to be used once and then discarded. These items are often patient-care products that come into contact with patients or bodily fluids, and are meant to help reduce the risk of infection transmission. Examples of disposable medical equipment include gloves, gowns, face masks, syringes, and bandages.

Disposable equipment is intended for single use only and should not be reused or cleaned for reuse. This helps ensure that the equipment remains sterile and free from potential contaminants that could cause harm to patients or healthcare workers. Proper disposal of these items is also important to prevent the spread of infection and maintain a safe and clean environment.

Hospital charges refer to the total amount that a hospital charges for providing medical and healthcare services, including room and board, surgery, laboratory tests, medications, and other related expenses. These charges are typically listed on a patient's bill or invoice and can vary widely depending on the type of care provided, the complexity of the treatment, and the specific hospital or healthcare facility. It is important to note that hospital charges may not reflect the actual cost of care, as many hospitals negotiate discounted rates with insurance companies and government payers. Additionally, patients may be responsible for paying a portion of these charges out-of-pocket, depending on their insurance coverage and other factors.

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures used to describe the performance of a diagnostic test or screening tool in identifying true positive and true negative results.

* Sensitivity refers to the proportion of people who have a particular condition (true positives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true positive rate" or "recall." A highly sensitive test will identify most or all of the people with the condition, but may also produce more false positives.
* Specificity refers to the proportion of people who do not have a particular condition (true negatives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true negative rate." A highly specific test will identify most or all of the people without the condition, but may also produce more false negatives.

In medical testing, both sensitivity and specificity are important considerations when evaluating a diagnostic test. High sensitivity is desirable for screening tests that aim to identify as many cases of a condition as possible, while high specificity is desirable for confirmatory tests that aim to rule out the condition in people who do not have it.

It's worth noting that sensitivity and specificity are often influenced by factors such as the prevalence of the condition in the population being tested, the threshold used to define a positive result, and the reliability and validity of the test itself. Therefore, it's important to consider these factors when interpreting the results of a diagnostic test.

An insurance carrier, also known as an insurer or a policy issuer, is a company or organization that provides insurance coverage to individuals and businesses in exchange for premium payments. The insurance carrier assumes the financial risk associated with the policies it issues, agreeing to pay for covered losses or expenses as outlined in the insurance contract, such as a health insurance policy, car insurance policy, or life insurance policy.

Insurance carriers can be divided into two main categories: life and health insurance companies and property and casualty insurance companies. Life and health insurance companies focus on providing coverage for medical expenses, disability, long-term care, and death benefits, while property and casualty insurance companies offer protection against losses or damages to property (home, auto, etc.) and liabilities (personal injury, professional negligence, etc.).

The primary role of an insurance carrier is to manage the risks it assumes by pooling resources from its policyholders. This allows the company to pay for claims when they arise while maintaining a stable financial position. Insurance carriers also engage in various risk management practices, such as underwriting, pricing, and investment strategies, to ensure their long-term sustainability and ability to meet their obligations to policyholders.

In a medical context, efficiency generally refers to the ability to achieve a desired outcome with minimal waste of time, effort, or resources. It can be applied to various aspects of healthcare, including the delivery of clinical services, the use of medical treatments and interventions, and the operation of health systems and organizations. High levels of efficiency can help to improve patient outcomes, increase access to care, and reduce costs.

Ambulatory care is a type of health care service in which patients are treated on an outpatient basis, meaning they do not stay overnight at the medical facility. This can include a wide range of services such as diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up care for various medical conditions. The goal of ambulatory care is to provide high-quality medical care that is convenient, accessible, and cost-effective for patients.

Examples of ambulatory care settings include physician offices, community health centers, urgent care centers, outpatient surgery centers, and diagnostic imaging facilities. Patients who receive ambulatory care may have a variety of medical needs, such as routine checkups, chronic disease management, minor procedures, or same-day surgeries.

Overall, ambulatory care is an essential component of modern healthcare systems, providing patients with timely and convenient access to medical services without the need for hospitalization.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Hospital-based home care services refer to medical care and support provided to patients in their own homes by healthcare professionals, with the coordination and oversight coming from a hospital-based organization. These services are typically for patients who require skilled nursing or therapy services following a hospital stay, but who do not need to be in a hospital or skilled nursing facility. The goal of hospital-based home care services is to provide high-quality, cost-effective care in the most appropriate setting, which is often the patient's home. Services may include wound care, medication management, pain management, physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech-language pathology. Hospital-based home care services are designed to promote recovery, maintain independence, and improve quality of life for patients.

Organizational efficiency is a management concept that refers to the ability of an organization to produce the desired output with minimal waste of resources such as time, money, and labor. It involves optimizing processes, structures, and systems within the organization to achieve its goals in the most effective and efficient manner possible. This can be achieved through various means, including the implementation of best practices, the use of technology to automate and streamline processes, and the continuous improvement of skills and knowledge among employees. Ultimately, organizational efficiency is about creating value for stakeholders while minimizing waste and maximizing returns on investment.

Aromatherapy is defined as the use of essential oils from plants for therapeutic purposes. The essential oils are typically extracted through steam distillation or cold pressing, and they can be used in a variety of ways, including inhalation, topical application, or oral consumption. Aromatherapy is believed to promote physical and psychological well-being by engaging the smell receptors in the nose, which then send messages to the limbic system in the brain, which is responsible for emotions and memories. Some people use aromatherapy to help manage stress, improve sleep, or alleviate symptoms of various health conditions. However, it's important to note that while some studies suggest that aromatherapy may have certain health benefits, more research is needed to fully understand its effects and safety.

Hospital economics refers to the study and application of economic principles and concepts in the management and operation of hospitals and healthcare organizations. This field examines issues such as cost containment, resource allocation, financial management, reimbursement systems, and strategic planning. The goal of hospital economics is to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of hospital operations while maintaining high-quality patient care. It involves understanding and analyzing various economic factors that affect hospitals, including government regulations, market forces, technological advancements, and societal values. Hospital economists may work in a variety of settings, including hospitals, consulting firms, academic institutions, and government agencies.

"State Medicine" is not a term that has a widely accepted or specific medical definition. However, in general terms, it can refer to the organization, financing, and delivery of healthcare services and resources at the national or regional level, overseen and managed by the government or state. This can include public health initiatives, regulation of healthcare professionals and institutions, and the provision of healthcare services through publicly funded programs.

In some contexts, "State Medicine" may also refer to the practice of using medical treatments or interventions as a means of achieving political or social objectives, such as reducing crime rates or improving economic productivity. However, this usage is less common and more controversial.

Medicare is a social insurance program in the United States, administered by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), that provides health insurance coverage to people who are aged 65 and over; or who have certain disabilities; or who have End-Stage Renal Disease (permanent kidney failure requiring dialysis or a transplant).

The program consists of four parts:

1. Hospital Insurance (Part A), which helps pay for inpatient care in hospitals, skilled nursing facilities, hospices, and home health care.
2. Medical Insurance (Part B), which helps pay for doctors' services, outpatient care, medical supplies, and preventive services.
3. Medicare Advantage Plans (Part C), which are private insurance plans that provide all of your Part A and Part B benefits, and may include additional benefits like dental, vision, and hearing coverage.
4. Prescription Drug Coverage (Part D), which helps pay for medications doctors prescribe for treatment.

Medicare is funded by payroll taxes, premiums paid by beneficiaries, and general revenue. Beneficiaries typically pay a monthly premium for Part B and Part D coverage, while Part A is generally free for those who have worked and paid Medicare taxes for at least 40 quarters.

Reimbursement mechanisms in a medical context refer to the various systems and methods used by health insurance companies, government agencies, or other payers to refund or recompense healthcare providers, institutions, or patients for the costs associated with medical services, treatments, or products. These mechanisms ensure that covered individuals receive necessary medical care while protecting payers from unnecessary expenses.

There are several types of reimbursement mechanisms, including:

1. Fee-for-service (FFS): In this model, healthcare providers are paid for each service or procedure they perform, with the payment typically based on a predetermined fee schedule. This can lead to overutilization and increased costs if providers perform unnecessary services to increase their reimbursement.
2. Capitation: Under capitation, healthcare providers receive a set amount of money per patient enrolled in their care for a specified period, regardless of the number or type of services provided. This encourages providers to manage resources efficiently and focus on preventive care to maintain patients' health and reduce overall costs.
3. Bundled payments: Also known as episode-based payment, this model involves paying a single price for all the services related to a specific medical event, treatment, or condition over a defined period. This encourages coordination among healthcare providers and can help eliminate unnecessary procedures and costs.
4. Resource-Based Relative Value Scale (RBRVS): RBRVS is a payment system that assigns relative value units (RVUs) to various medical services based on factors such as time, skill, and intensity required for the procedure. The RVUs are then converted into a monetary amount using a conversion factor. This system aims to create more equitable and consistent payments across different medical specialties and procedures.
5. Prospective payment systems (PPS): In PPS, healthcare providers receive predetermined fixed payments for specific services or conditions based on established diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) or other criteria. This system encourages efficiency in care delivery and can help control costs by setting limits on reimbursement amounts.
6. Pay-for-performance (P4P): P4P models tie a portion of healthcare providers' reimbursements to their performance on specific quality measures, such as patient satisfaction scores or adherence to evidence-based guidelines. This system aims to incentivize high-quality care and improve overall healthcare outcomes.
7. Shared savings/risk arrangements: In these models, healthcare providers form accountable care organizations (ACOs) or other collaborative entities that assume responsibility for managing the total cost of care for a defined population. If they can deliver care at lower costs while maintaining quality standards, they share in the savings with payers. However, if costs exceed targets, they may be required to absorb some of the financial risk.

These various reimbursement models aim to balance the need for high-quality care with cost control and efficiency in healthcare delivery. By aligning incentives and promoting coordination among providers, these systems can help improve patient outcomes while reducing unnecessary costs and waste in the healthcare system.

Home care services, also known as home health care, refer to a wide range of health and social services delivered at an individual's residence. These services are designed to help people who have special needs or disabilities, those recovering from illness or surgery, and the elderly or frail who require assistance with activities of daily living (ADLs) or skilled nursing care.

Home care services can include:

1. Skilled Nursing Care: Provided by registered nurses (RNs), licensed practical nurses (LPNs), or licensed vocational nurses (LVNs) to administer medications, wound care, injections, and other medical treatments. They also monitor the patient's health status, provide education on disease management, and coordinate with other healthcare professionals.
2. Therapy Services: Occupational therapists, physical therapists, and speech-language pathologists help patients regain strength, mobility, coordination, balance, and communication skills after an illness or injury. They develop personalized treatment plans to improve the patient's ability to perform daily activities independently.
3. Personal Care/Assistance with Activities of Daily Living (ADLs): Home health aides and personal care assistants provide assistance with bathing, dressing, grooming, toileting, and other personal care tasks. They may also help with light housekeeping, meal preparation, and shopping.
4. Social Work Services: Provided by licensed social workers who assess the patient's psychosocial needs, connect them to community resources, and provide counseling and support for patients and their families.
5. Nutritional Support: Registered dietitians evaluate the patient's nutritional status, develop meal plans, and provide education on special diets or feeding techniques as needed.
6. Telehealth Monitoring: Remote monitoring of a patient's health status using technology such as video conferencing, wearable devices, or mobile apps to track vital signs, medication adherence, and symptoms. This allows healthcare providers to monitor patients closely and adjust treatment plans as necessary without requiring in-person visits.
7. Hospice Care: End-of-life care provided in the patient's home to manage pain, provide emotional support, and address spiritual needs. The goal is to help the patient maintain dignity and quality of life during their final days.
8. Respite Care: Temporary relief for family caregivers who need a break from caring for their loved ones. This can include short-term stays in assisted living facilities or hiring professional caregivers to provide in-home support.

Pharmaceutical services refer to the direct patient care activities conducted by licensed pharmacists, which include but are not limited to:

1. Medication therapy management: This involves reviewing a patient's medications to ensure they are appropriate, effective, and safe. Pharmacists may make recommendations to the prescriber about changes to medication therapy as needed.
2. Patient education: Pharmacists provide education to patients about their medications, including how to take them, potential side effects, and storage instructions. They also provide information on disease prevention and management.
3. Immunizations: Many pharmacists are trained to administer vaccines, which can help increase access to this important preventive health service.
4. Monitoring and evaluation: Pharmacists monitor patients' responses to medication therapy and make adjustments as needed. They also evaluate the effectiveness of medication therapy and make recommendations for changes if necessary.
5. Clinical services: Pharmacists may provide a range of clinical services, such as managing anticoagulation therapy, providing diabetes education, or conducting medication reconciliation after hospital discharge.
6. Collaborative practice: Pharmacists work collaboratively with other healthcare providers to optimize medication therapy and improve patient outcomes. This may involve participating in multidisciplinary teams, consulting with prescribers, or sharing information with other healthcare professionals.

Overall, pharmaceutical services aim to improve patient outcomes by ensuring that medications are used safely and effectively.

Disease management is a proactive, planned approach to identify and manage patients with chronic medical conditions. It involves a systematic and coordinated method of delivering care to patients with the goal of improving clinical outcomes, enhancing quality of life, and reducing healthcare costs. This approach typically includes elements such as evidence-based care guidelines, patient education, self-management support, regular monitoring and follow-up, and collaboration between healthcare providers and specialists.

The objective of disease management is to improve the overall health and well-being of patients with chronic conditions by providing them with the necessary tools, resources, and support to effectively manage their condition and prevent complications. By implementing a comprehensive and coordinated approach to care, disease management can help reduce hospitalizations, emergency department visits, and other costly healthcare services while improving patient satisfaction and overall health outcomes.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Program Evaluation is a systematic and objective assessment of a healthcare program's design, implementation, and outcomes. It is a medical term used to describe the process of determining the relevance, effectiveness, and efficiency of a program in achieving its goals and objectives. Program evaluation involves collecting and analyzing data related to various aspects of the program, such as its reach, impact, cost-effectiveness, and quality. The results of program evaluation can be used to improve the design and implementation of existing programs or to inform the development of new ones. It is a critical tool for ensuring that healthcare programs are meeting the needs of their intended audiences and delivering high-quality care in an efficient and effective manner.

A Health Benefit Plan for Employees refers to a type of insurance policy that an employer provides to their employees as part of their benefits package. These plans are designed to help cover the costs of medical care and services for the employees and sometimes also for their dependents. The specific coverage and details of the plan can vary depending on the terms of the policy, but they typically include a range of benefits such as doctor visits, hospital stays, prescription medications, and preventative care. Employers may pay all or part of the premiums for these plans, and employees may also have the option to contribute to the cost of coverage. The goal of health benefit plans for employees is to help protect the financial well-being of workers by helping them manage the costs of medical care.

Medical mass screening, also known as population screening, is a public health service that aims to identify and detect asymptomatic individuals in a given population who have or are at risk of a specific disease. The goal is to provide early treatment, reduce morbidity and mortality, and prevent the spread of diseases within the community.

A mass screening program typically involves offering a simple, quick, and non-invasive test to a large number of people in a defined population, regardless of their risk factors or symptoms. Those who test positive are then referred for further diagnostic tests and appropriate medical interventions. Examples of mass screening programs include mammography for breast cancer detection, PSA (prostate-specific antigen) testing for prostate cancer, and fecal occult blood testing for colorectal cancer.

It is important to note that mass screening programs should be evidence-based, cost-effective, and ethically sound, with clear benefits outweighing potential harms. They should also consider factors such as the prevalence of the disease in the population, the accuracy and reliability of the screening test, and the availability and effectiveness of treatment options.

Organizational models in the context of medicine refer to frameworks that are used to describe, analyze, and improve the structure, processes, and outcomes of healthcare organizations. These models provide a systematic way of understanding how different components of an organization interact with each other and how they contribute to the overall performance of the system.

Examples of organizational models in healthcare include:

1. The Donabedian model: This model focuses on the structure, process, and outcome of healthcare as interrelated components that influence the quality of care.
2. The Baldrige Performance Excellence Program: This model provides a framework for organizations to evaluate their performance and identify areas for improvement in seven categories: leadership, strategic planning, customer focus, measurement, analysis, and knowledge management; workforce focus; process management; and results.
3. The Institute of Medicine's (IOM) six aims for improvement: The IOM has identified six aims that should be the focus of healthcare quality improvement efforts: safety, timeliness, patient-centeredness, effectiveness, efficiency, and equity.
4. The Lean management system: This model is a process improvement approach that focuses on eliminating waste and maximizing value for customers through continuous improvement and respect for people.
5. The Six Sigma methodology: This model is a data-driven approach to quality improvement that seeks to reduce variation and defects in processes through the use of statistical tools and techniques.

These are just a few examples of organizational models used in healthcare. Each model has its own strengths and limitations, and organizations may choose to adopt one or more models depending on their specific needs and goals.

Health Insurance Reimbursement refers to the process of receiving payment from a health insurance company for medical expenses that you have already paid out of pocket. Here is a brief medical definition of each term:

1. Insurance: A contract, represented by a policy, in which an individual or entity receives financial protection or reimbursement against losses from an insurance company. The company pools clients' risks to make payments more affordable for the insured.
2. Health: Refers to the state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.
3. Reimbursement: The act of refunding or compensating a person for expenses incurred, especially those that have been previously paid by the individual and are now being paid back by an insurance company.

In the context of health insurance, reimbursement typically occurs when you receive medical care, pay the provider, and then submit a claim to your insurance company for reimbursement. The insurance company will review the claim, determine whether the services are covered under your policy, and calculate the amount they will reimburse you based on your plan's benefits and any applicable co-pays, deductibles, or coinsurance amounts. Once this process is complete, the insurance company will issue a payment to you to cover a portion or all of the costs you incurred for the medical services.

A remote consultation, also known as teleconsultation or virtual consultation, is a healthcare service where a patient and a healthcare professional communicate remotely, using various technologies such as telephone, video conferencing, or secure messaging. This type of consultation aims to provide medical advice, diagnosis, treatment plan, or follow-up care without the need for physical presence in a clinical setting. Remote consultations can increase accessibility to healthcare services, reduce travel time and costs, and minimize the risk of infection transmission during pandemics or in situations where in-person visits are not feasible. However, remote consultations may also present challenges related to establishing rapport, conducting physical examinations, ensuring privacy, and managing technology.

A drug prescription is a written or electronic order provided by a licensed healthcare professional, such as a physician, dentist, or advanced practice nurse, to a pharmacist that authorizes the preparation and dispensing of a specific medication for a patient. The prescription typically includes important information such as the patient's name and date of birth, the name and strength of the medication, the dosage regimen, the duration of treatment, and any special instructions or precautions.

Prescriptions serve several purposes, including ensuring that patients receive the appropriate medication for their medical condition, preventing medication errors, and promoting safe and effective use of medications. They also provide a legal record of the medical provider's authorization for the pharmacist to dispense the medication to the patient.

There are two main types of prescriptions: written prescriptions and electronic prescriptions. Written prescriptions are handwritten or printed on paper, while electronic prescriptions are transmitted electronically from the medical provider to the pharmacy. Electronic prescriptions are becoming increasingly common due to their convenience, accuracy, and security.

It is important for patients to follow the instructions provided on their prescription carefully and to ask their healthcare provider or pharmacist any questions they may have about their medication. Failure to follow a drug prescription can result in improper use of the medication, which can lead to adverse effects, treatment failure, or even life-threatening situations.

Drug utilization refers to the use of medications by patients or healthcare professionals in a real-world setting. It involves analyzing and evaluating patterns of medication use, including prescribing practices, adherence to treatment guidelines, potential duplications or interactions, and outcomes associated with drug therapy. The goal of drug utilization is to optimize medication use, improve patient safety, and minimize costs while achieving the best possible health outcomes. It can be studied through various methods such as prescription claims data analysis, surveys, and clinical audits.

Health services research (HSR) is a multidisciplinary field of scientific investigation that studies how social factors, financing systems, organizational structures and processes, health technologies, and personal behaviors affect access to healthcare, the quality and cost of care, and ultimately, our health and well-being. The goal of HSR is to inform policy and practice, improve system performance, and enhance the health and well-being of individuals and communities. It involves the use of various research methods, including epidemiology, biostatistics, economics, sociology, management science, political science, and psychology, to answer questions about the healthcare system and how it can be improved.

Examples of HSR topics include:

* Evaluating the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of different healthcare interventions and technologies
* Studying patient-centered care and patient experiences with the healthcare system
* Examining healthcare workforce issues, such as shortages of primary care providers or the impact of nurse-to-patient ratios on patient outcomes
* Investigating the impact of health insurance design and financing systems on access to care and health disparities
* Analyzing the organization and delivery of healthcare services in different settings, such as hospitals, clinics, and long-term care facilities
* Identifying best practices for improving healthcare quality and safety, reducing medical errors, and eliminating wasteful or unnecessary care.

Health services refer to the delivery of healthcare services, including preventive, curative, and rehabilitative services. These services are typically provided by health professionals such as doctors, nurses, and allied health personnel in various settings, including hospitals, clinics, community health centers, and long-term care facilities. Health services may also include public health activities such as health education, surveillance, and health promotion programs aimed at improving the health of populations. The goal of health services is to promote and restore health, prevent disease and injury, and improve the quality of life for individuals and communities.

I apologize, but "Canada" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country located in North America, known for its vast wilderness, multicultural cities, and significant natural resources. If you have any questions related to healthcare or medical terms, I would be happy to help answer those!

Therapeutic equivalence refers to the concept in pharmaceutical medicine where two or more medications are considered to be equivalent in clinical efficacy and safety profiles. This means that they can be used interchangeably to produce the same therapeutic effect.

Two products are deemed therapeutically equivalent if they contain the same active ingredient(s), are available in the same dosage form and strength, and have been shown to have comparable bioavailability, which is a measure of how much and how quickly a drug becomes available for use in the body.

It's important to note that therapeutic equivalence does not necessarily mean that the medications are identical or have identical excipients (inactive ingredients). Therefore, patients who may have sensitivities or allergies to certain excipients should still consult their healthcare provider before switching between therapeutically equivalent medications.

In many countries, including the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) maintains a list of therapeutic equivalence evaluations for generic drugs, known as the "Orange Book." This resource helps healthcare providers and patients make informed decisions about using different versions of the same medication.

A Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) is a type of managed care organization (MCO) that provides comprehensive health care services to its members, typically for a fixed monthly premium. HMOs are characterized by a prepaid payment model and a focus on preventive care and early intervention to manage the health of their enrolled population.

In an HMO, members must choose a primary care physician (PCP) who acts as their first point of contact for medical care and coordinates all aspects of their healthcare needs within the HMO network. Specialist care is generally only covered if it is referred by the PCP, and members are typically required to obtain medical services from providers that are part of the HMO's network. This helps to keep costs down and ensures that care is coordinated and managed effectively.

HMOs may also offer additional benefits such as dental, vision, and mental health services, depending on the specific plan. However, members may face higher out-of-pocket costs if they choose to receive care outside of the HMO network. Overall, HMOs are designed to provide comprehensive healthcare coverage at a more affordable cost than traditional fee-for-service insurance plans.

Health policy refers to a set of decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific healthcare goals within a population. It is formulated by governmental and non-governmental organizations with the objective of providing guidance and direction for the management and delivery of healthcare services. Health policies address various aspects of healthcare, including access, financing, quality, and equity. They can be designed to promote health, prevent disease, and provide treatment and rehabilitation services to individuals who are sick or injured. Effective health policies require careful consideration of scientific evidence, ethical principles, and societal values to ensure that they meet the needs of the population while being fiscally responsible.

A Pharmacist is a healthcare professional who practices in the field of pharmacy, focusing on the safe and effective use of medications. They are responsible for dispensing medications prescribed by physicians and other healthcare providers, as well as providing information and counseling to patients about their medications. This includes explaining how to take the medication, potential side effects, and any drug interactions. Pharmacists may also be involved in medication therapy management, monitoring patient health and adjusting medication plans as needed. They must have a deep understanding of the properties and actions of drugs, including how they are absorbed, distributed, metabolized, and excreted by the body, as well as their potential interactions with other substances and treatments. In addition to a Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm.D.) degree, pharmacists must also be licensed in the state where they practice.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Germany" is not a medical term or concept. It is the name of a country in central Europe. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you!

Employer health costs refer to the financial expenses incurred by employers for providing healthcare benefits to their employees. These costs can include premiums for group health insurance plans, payments towards self-insured health plans, and other out-of-pocket expenses related to employee healthcare. Employer health costs also encompass expenses related to workplace wellness programs, occupational health services, and any other initiatives aimed at improving the health and well-being of employees. These costs are a significant component of overall employee compensation packages and can have substantial impacts on both employer profitability and employee access to quality healthcare services.

Life expectancy is a statistical measure that indicates the average amount of time a person is expected to live, based on their current age and other demographic factors such as sex, health status, and geographical location. It is often calculated using data from population studies and represents the number of years of life remaining at a given age, assuming that current mortality rates continue to apply.

For example, if the life expectancy at birth in a particular population is 80 years, it means that on average, newborns in that population are expected to live to be 80 years old. However, it's important to note that life expectancy is a statistical measure and does not predict the exact lifespan of any individual person.

"California" is a geographical location and does not have a medical definition. It is a state located on the west coast of the United States, known for its diverse landscape including mountains, beaches, and forests. However, in some contexts, "California" may refer to certain medical conditions or situations that are associated with the state, such as:

* California encephalitis: a viral infection transmitted by mosquitoes that is common in California and other western states.
* California king snake: a non-venomous snake species found in California and other parts of the southwestern United States, which can bite and cause allergic reactions in some people.
* California roll: a type of sushi roll that originated in California and is made with avocado, cucumber, and crab meat, which may pose an allergy risk for some individuals.

It's important to note that these uses of "California" are not medical definitions per se, but rather descriptive terms that refer to specific conditions or situations associated with the state.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the "Monte Carlo method" is actually a term from the field of mathematics and computer science, not medicine. It refers to a statistical technique that allows for the modeling of complex systems by running multiple simulations with random inputs. This method is widely used in various fields such as physics, engineering, and finance, but it is not a medical concept or term.

Community hospitals are healthcare facilities that provide a range of medical services to the local population in a given geographic area. They are typically smaller than major teaching or tertiary care hospitals and offer a more personalized level of care. The services provided by community hospitals may include general medical, surgical, obstetrical, and pediatric care, as well as diagnostic and therapeutic services such as laboratory testing, imaging, and rehabilitation.

Community hospitals often play an important role in providing access to healthcare for underserved populations and may offer specialized programs to address the specific health needs of the communities they serve. They may also collaborate with other healthcare providers, such as primary care physicians, specialists, and long-term care facilities, to provide coordinated care and improve outcomes for patients.

Overall, community hospitals are an essential component of the healthcare system and play a vital role in providing high-quality, accessible care to local populations.

Physician's practice patterns refer to the individual habits and preferences of healthcare providers when it comes to making clinical decisions and managing patient care. These patterns can encompass various aspects, such as:

1. Diagnostic testing: The types and frequency of diagnostic tests ordered for patients with similar conditions.
2. Treatment modalities: The choice of treatment options, including medications, procedures, or referrals to specialists.
3. Patient communication: The way physicians communicate with their patients, including the amount and type of information shared, as well as the level of patient involvement in decision-making.
4. Follow-up care: The frequency and duration of follow-up appointments, as well as the monitoring of treatment effectiveness and potential side effects.
5. Resource utilization: The use of healthcare resources, such as hospitalizations, imaging studies, or specialist consultations, and the associated costs.

Physician practice patterns can be influenced by various factors, including medical training, clinical experience, personal beliefs, guidelines, and local availability of resources. Understanding these patterns is essential for evaluating the quality of care, identifying potential variations in care, and implementing strategies to improve patient outcomes and reduce healthcare costs.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "pilot projects" is not a medical term per se. Instead, it is a general term used in various fields, including healthcare and medicine, to describe a small-scale initiative that is implemented on a temporary basis to evaluate its feasibility, effectiveness, or impact before deciding whether to expand or continue it.

In the context of healthcare, pilot projects might involve testing new treatment protocols, implementing innovative care models, or introducing technology solutions in a limited setting to assess their potential benefits and drawbacks. The results of these projects can help inform decisions about broader implementation and provide valuable insights for improving the quality and efficiency of healthcare services.

An emergency service in a hospital is a department that provides immediate medical or surgical care for individuals who are experiencing an acute illness, injury, or severe symptoms that require immediate attention. The goal of an emergency service is to quickly assess, stabilize, and treat patients who require urgent medical intervention, with the aim of preventing further harm or death.

Emergency services in hospitals typically operate 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, and are staffed by teams of healthcare professionals including physicians, nurses, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, and other allied health professionals. These teams are trained to provide rapid evaluation and treatment for a wide range of medical conditions, from minor injuries to life-threatening emergencies such as heart attacks, strokes, and severe infections.

In addition to providing emergency care, hospital emergency services also serve as a key point of entry for patients who require further hospitalization or specialized care. They work closely with other departments within the hospital, such as radiology, laboratory, and critical care units, to ensure that patients receive timely and appropriate treatment. Overall, the emergency service in a hospital plays a crucial role in ensuring that patients receive prompt and effective medical care during times of crisis.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Pennsylvania" is not a medical term or concept. It is a state located in the Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I would be happy to help answer those!

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

Diagnosis-Related Groups (DRGs) are a system of classifying hospital patients based on their severity of illness, resource utilization, and other factors. DRGs were developed by the US federal government to determine the relative cost of providing inpatient care for various types of diagnoses and procedures.

The DRG system categorizes patients into one of several hundred groups based on their diagnosis, treatment, and other clinical characteristics. Each DRG has a corresponding payment weight that reflects the average resource utilization and costs associated with caring for patients in that group. Hospitals are then reimbursed for inpatient services based on the DRG payment weights, providing an incentive to provide more efficient and cost-effective care.

DRGs have been widely adopted as a tool for managing healthcare costs and improving quality of care. They are used by Medicare, Medicaid, and many private insurers to determine payments for inpatient hospital services. DRGs can also be used to compare the performance of hospitals and healthcare providers, identify best practices, and support quality improvement initiatives.

The "delivery of health care" refers to the process of providing medical services, treatments, and interventions to individuals in order to maintain, restore, or improve their health. This encompasses a wide range of activities, including:

1. Preventive care: Routine check-ups, screenings, immunizations, and counseling aimed at preventing illnesses or identifying them at an early stage.
2. Diagnostic services: Tests and procedures used to identify and understand medical conditions, such as laboratory tests, imaging studies, and biopsies.
3. Treatment interventions: Medical, surgical, or therapeutic treatments provided to manage acute or chronic health issues, including medications, surgeries, physical therapy, and psychotherapy.
4. Acute care services: Short-term medical interventions focused on addressing immediate health concerns, such as hospitalizations for infections, injuries, or complications from medical conditions.
5. Chronic care management: Long-term care and support provided to individuals with ongoing medical needs, such as those living with chronic diseases like diabetes, heart disease, or cancer.
6. Rehabilitation services: Programs designed to help patients recover from illnesses, injuries, or surgeries, focusing on restoring physical, cognitive, and emotional function.
7. End-of-life care: Palliative and hospice care provided to individuals facing terminal illnesses, with an emphasis on comfort, dignity, and quality of life.
8. Public health initiatives: Population-level interventions aimed at improving community health, such as disease prevention programs, health education campaigns, and environmental modifications.

The delivery of health care involves a complex network of healthcare professionals, institutions, and systems working together to ensure that patients receive the best possible care. This includes primary care physicians, specialists, nurses, allied health professionals, hospitals, clinics, long-term care facilities, and public health organizations. Effective communication, coordination, and collaboration among these stakeholders are essential for high-quality, patient-centered care.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

'Diagnostic tests, routine' is a medical term that refers to standard or commonly used tests that are performed to help diagnose, monitor, or manage a patient's health condition. These tests are typically simple, non-invasive, and safe, and they may be ordered as part of a regular check-up or when a patient presents with specific symptoms.

Routine diagnostic tests may include:

1. Complete Blood Count (CBC): A test that measures the number of red and white blood cells, platelets, and hemoglobin in the blood. It can help diagnose conditions such as anemia, infection, and inflammation.
2. Urinalysis: A test that examines a urine sample for signs of infection, kidney disease, or other medical conditions.
3. Blood Chemistry Tests: Also known as a chemistry panel or comprehensive metabolic panel, this test measures various chemicals in the blood such as glucose, electrolytes, and enzymes to evaluate organ function and overall health.
4. Electrocardiogram (ECG): A test that records the electrical activity of the heart, which can help diagnose heart conditions such as arrhythmias or heart attacks.
5. Chest X-ray: An imaging test that creates pictures of the structures inside the chest, including the heart, lungs, and bones, to help diagnose conditions such as pneumonia or lung cancer.
6. Fecal Occult Blood Test (FOBT): A test that checks for hidden blood in the stool, which can be a sign of colon cancer or other gastrointestinal conditions.
7. Pap Smear: A test that collects cells from the cervix to check for abnormalities that may indicate cervical cancer or other gynecological conditions.

These are just a few examples of routine diagnostic tests that healthcare providers may order. The specific tests ordered will depend on the patient's age, sex, medical history, and current symptoms.

Patient readmission refers to the event when a patient who was previously discharged from a hospital or healthcare facility returns for further treatment, often within a specified period. It is measured as a percentage of patients who are readmitted within a certain time frame, such as 30, 60, or 90 days after discharge. Readmissions may be planned or unplanned and can occur due to various reasons, including complications from the initial illness or treatment, inadequate post-discharge follow-up care, or the patient's inability to manage their health conditions effectively at home. High readmission rates are often considered an indicator of the quality of care provided during the initial hospitalization and may also signify potential issues with care coordination and transitions between healthcare settings.

A randomized controlled trial (RCT) is a type of clinical study in which participants are randomly assigned to receive either the experimental intervention or the control condition, which may be a standard of care, placebo, or no treatment. The goal of an RCT is to minimize bias and ensure that the results are due to the intervention being tested rather than other factors. This design allows for a comparison between the two groups to determine if there is a significant difference in outcomes. RCTs are often considered the gold standard for evaluating the safety and efficacy of medical interventions, as they provide a high level of evidence for causal relationships between the intervention and health outcomes.

British Columbia is a province located on the west coast of Canada. It is not a medical term or concept. The province has a diverse geography, with mountains, forests, and coastal areas. Its largest city is Vancouver, and its capital is Victoria. The province is known for its natural beauty and outdoor recreational opportunities, as well as its vibrant cities and cultural attractions. It is home to a number of medical facilities and healthcare providers, and the provincial government plays a role in regulating and funding healthcare services within the province.

Veterans hospitals, also known as Veterans Administration (VA) hospitals, are healthcare facilities provided by the US Department of Veterans Affairs. These hospitals offer comprehensive medical care, including inpatient and outpatient services, to eligible veterans. The services offered include surgery, mental health counseling, rehabilitation, long-term care, and other specialized treatments. The mission of veterans hospitals is to provide high-quality healthcare to those who have served in the US military.

Patient satisfaction is a concept in healthcare quality measurement that reflects the patient's perspective and evaluates their experience with the healthcare services they have received. It is a multidimensional construct that includes various aspects such as interpersonal mannerisms of healthcare providers, technical competence, accessibility, timeliness, comfort, and communication.

Patient satisfaction is typically measured through standardized surveys or questionnaires that ask patients to rate their experiences on various aspects of care. The results are often used to assess the quality of care provided by healthcare organizations, identify areas for improvement, and inform policy decisions. However, it's important to note that patient satisfaction is just one aspect of healthcare quality and should be considered alongside other measures such as clinical outcomes and patient safety.

Quality of health care is a term that refers to the degree to which health services for individuals and populations increase the likelihood of desired health outcomes and are consistent with current professional knowledge. It encompasses various aspects such as:

1. Clinical effectiveness: The use of best available evidence to make decisions about prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and care. This includes considering the benefits and harms of different options and making sure that the most effective interventions are used.
2. Safety: Preventing harm to patients and minimizing risks associated with healthcare. This involves identifying potential hazards, implementing measures to reduce errors, and learning from adverse events to improve systems and processes.
3. Patient-centeredness: Providing care that is respectful of and responsive to individual patient preferences, needs, and values. This includes ensuring that patients are fully informed about their condition and treatment options, involving them in decision-making, and providing emotional support throughout the care process.
4. Timeliness: Ensuring that healthcare services are delivered promptly and efficiently, without unnecessary delays. This includes coordinating care across different providers and settings to ensure continuity and avoid gaps in service.
5. Efficiency: Using resources wisely and avoiding waste, while still providing high-quality care. This involves considering the costs and benefits of different interventions, as well as ensuring that healthcare services are equitably distributed.
6. Equitability: Ensuring that all individuals have access to quality healthcare services, regardless of their socioeconomic status, race, ethnicity, gender, age, or other factors. This includes addressing disparities in health outcomes and promoting fairness and justice in healthcare.

Overall, the quality of health care is a multidimensional concept that requires ongoing evaluation and improvement to ensure that patients receive the best possible care.

Patient admission in a medical context refers to the process by which a patient is formally accepted and registered into a hospital or healthcare facility for treatment or further medical care. This procedure typically includes the following steps:

1. Patient registration: The patient's personal information, such as name, address, contact details, and insurance coverage, are recorded in the hospital's system.
2. Clinical assessment: A healthcare professional evaluates the patient's medical condition to determine the appropriate level of care required and develop a plan for treatment. This may involve consulting with other healthcare providers, reviewing medical records, and performing necessary tests or examinations.
3. Bed assignment: Based on the clinical assessment, the hospital staff assigns an appropriate bed in a suitable unit (e.g., intensive care unit, step-down unit, general ward) for the patient's care.
4. Informed consent: The healthcare team explains the proposed treatment plan and associated risks to the patient or their legal representative, obtaining informed consent before proceeding with any invasive procedures or significant interventions.
5. Admission orders: The attending physician documents the admission orders in the medical chart, specifying the diagnostic tests, medications, treatments, and care plans for the patient during their hospital stay.
6. Notification of family members or caregivers: Hospital staff informs the patient's emergency contact or next of kin about their admission and provides relevant information regarding their condition, treatment plan, and any necessary follow-up instructions.
7. Patient education: The healthcare team educates the patient on what to expect during their hospital stay, including potential side effects, self-care strategies, and discharge planning.

The goal of patient admission is to ensure a smooth transition into the healthcare facility, providing timely and appropriate care while maintaining open communication with patients, families, and caregivers throughout the process.

Primary health care is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as:

"Essential health care that is based on practical, scientifically sound and socially acceptable methods and technology made universally accessible to individuals and families in the community through their full participation and at a cost that the community and country can afford. It forms an integral part both of the country's health system, of which it is the central function and main focus, and of the overall social and economic development of the community. It is the first level of contact of individuals, the family and community with the national health system bringing health care as close as possible to where people live and work, and constitutes the first element of a continuing health care process."

Primary health care includes a range of services such as preventive care, health promotion, curative care, rehabilitation, and palliative care. It is typically provided by a team of health professionals including doctors, nurses, midwives, pharmacists, and other community health workers. The goal of primary health care is to provide comprehensive, continuous, and coordinated care to individuals and families in a way that is accessible, affordable, and culturally sensitive.

Public health is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as "the art and science of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts of society." It focuses on improving the health and well-being of entire communities, populations, and societies, rather than individual patients. This is achieved through various strategies, including education, prevention, surveillance of diseases, and promotion of healthy behaviors and environments. Public health also addresses broader determinants of health, such as access to healthcare, housing, food, and income, which have a significant impact on the overall health of populations.

Practice guidelines, also known as clinical practice guidelines, are systematically developed statements that aim to assist healthcare professionals and patients in making informed decisions about appropriate health care for specific clinical circumstances. They are based on a thorough evaluation of the available scientific evidence, consensus of expert opinion, and consideration of patient preferences. Practice guidelines can cover a wide range of topics, including diagnosis, management, prevention, and treatment options for various medical conditions. They are intended to improve the quality and consistency of care, reduce unnecessary variations in practice, and promote evidence-based medicine. However, they should not replace clinical judgment or individualized patient care.

Quality of Life (QOL) is a broad, multidimensional concept that usually includes an individual's physical health, psychological state, level of independence, social relationships, personal beliefs, and their relationship to salient features of their environment. It reflects the impact of disease and treatment on a patient's overall well-being and ability to function in daily life.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines QOL as "an individual's perception of their position in life in the context of the culture and value systems in which they live and in relation to their goals, expectations, standards and concerns." It is a subjective concept, meaning it can vary greatly from person to person.

In healthcare, QOL is often used as an outcome measure in clinical trials and other research studies to assess the impact of interventions or treatments on overall patient well-being.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

"Sales of savings tools continue to climb". The Daily Star. 8 January 2018. Retrieved 18 July 2018. "Sanchayapatra and cost of ... Department of National Savings is a government department that acts as the National Saving Bank of Bangladesh and is ... Department of National Savings traces its origins to the National Savings Institute which was founded in 1944 under the ... The department sells saving certificates to the general public. The government pays interest on the saving certificate and they ...
... chairman of the Lincoln Savings and Loan Association. Keating's Lincoln Savings failed in 1989, costing the federal government ... Lincoln Savings and Loan collapsed in 1989, at a cost of $3.4 billion to the federal government (and thus taxpayers). Some ... Silverado Savings and Loan collapsed in 1988, costing taxpayers $1.3 billion. Neil Bush, the son of then Vice President of the ... "The Cost of the Savings and Loan Crisis: Truth and Consequences." FDIC Banking Review. Dec. 2000. pp. 26-34. Emmons, William R ...
The work cost an estimated $3,000. The bank added a sign with a clock on 14th Street in 1926. The neighborhood was growing by ... "2 Savings Banks Ready to Merge; F.D.I.C. Approves Plans of the Bank for Savings and New York Savings Question Noted Tabled on ... The New York Savings Bank was absorbed by the larger Bank for Savings in August 1963, becoming the New York Bank for Savings. ... "New York Savings Bank And Bank for Savings Plan to Merge Aug. 19: FDIC Approves Creation of Fourth Largest Savings Bank Despite ...
... at which point the building was planned to cost $3 million. The Williamsburgh Savings Bank acquired land from the Hanson Place ... Upon hearing of the plans, the City Savings Bank and the Dime Savings Bank of New York, which operated branches in Downtown ... At the end of 1989, the Republic Savings Bank merged with the Manhattan Savings Bank. The building's name was not changed, and ... The others were the Dime Savings Bank Building, Williamsburgh Savings Bank Building (175 Broadway), Brooklyn Trust Company ...
The structure ultimately cost $700,000 to erect. The Williamsburgh Savings Bank opened its new building on June 1, 1875. The ... The others were the Dime Savings Bank Building, Williamsburgh Savings Bank Tower, Brooklyn Trust Company Building, Bowery ... Some of the cost was covered by NRHP tax credits. The restoration process was complicated by the fact that both the original ... The Williamsburgh Savings Bank spent $110,000 in 1869 to acquire a plot, measuring 112 by 100 ft (34 by 30 m), at Broadway and ...
The cost of the foundation was $7,009. The foundations were the first ones reinforced with concrete with steel girders running ... Stockton Savings and Loan Society Bank Stockton Savings & Loan Society Bank (1914) National Register of Historic Places ... The Stockton Savings and Loan Society Bank is a Renaissance Revival building constructed from 1907 to 1908. It is a steel- ... Stockton Savings and Loan Society Bank (now Bank of Stockton) is a historic commercial building completed in 1908. It is ...
The recording cost about $100,000 per hour. Spielberg chose the Orchestra: "This is a movie about a company of soldiers, and it ... Saving Private Ryan at IMDb Saving Private Ryan at AllMovie Portals: 1990s Film United States World War II Saving Private Ryan ... "Saving Private Ryan". Rotten Tomatoes. Archived from the original on December 26, 2022. Retrieved January 11, 2023. "Saving ... they would have voted Saving Private Ryan as Best Picture. For the 52nd British Academy Film Awards, Saving Private Ryan won ...
The New York Times estimated that the new building would cost $500,000. The Bowery Savings Bank rented safe-deposit boxes while ... The others were the Dime Savings Bank Building, Williamsburgh Savings Bank Tower, Williamsburgh Savings Bank Building (175 ... "Bowery Savings Absorbs Universal; Savings Bank's Name Will Be Dropped and It Will Be Run as Branch on 42d Street". The New York ... Bowery Savings Bank of New York 1888, pp. 22-23. Bowery Savings Bank of New York 1888, p. 56. Landmarks Preservation Commission ...
The entire cost of the structure was $150,000. The Metropolitan Savings Bank was chartered in New York in 1852. In 1935 the ... "Savings Banks". The New York Times. May 30, 1867. p. 6. Retrieved August 16, 2022. "Metropolitan Savings Bank". The New York ... In 1942, it merged with the Manhattan Savings Institution (founded 1852) and the Citizens Savings Bank to form the Manhattan ... The Metropolitan Savings Bank Building opened on May 30, 1867, at the northeast corner of Third Avenue and East 7th Street, in ...
Work began on the new Suburban Trust and Savings Bank Building in June 1925. It was constructed at a cost of $250,000. On May 1 ... The Suburban Trust and Savings Bank Building is a bank building at 840 S. Oak Park Avenue, Oak Park, Illinois. It was built in ... The following year, Suburban Trust and Savings Bank was sold to a group of investors headed by Denis P. Daly. On January 6, ... "One Last Hope for Saving Life of Girl Dancer", Chicago Tribune. March 29, 1935. p. 1. "Blood Donors Found to Save Life of ...
Chase, Steve (March 4, 1998). "Mill loan costs Albertans $155M". Calgary Herald. p. A3. ProQuest 2263092090. Alberta Treasury ... The Alberta Heritage Savings Trust Fund was shifted away from strategic business investments to become a savings tool investing ... The operations of the Heritage Savings Trust Fund are subject to the Alberta Heritage Savings Trust Fund Act and with the goal ... would be funded by raiding the Alberta Heritage Savings Trust Fund. There were no new savings. The 2015 Fraser Institute report ...
Carrick, Rob (February 26, 2014). "Misunderstanding this simple TFSA rule could cost you a lot". The Globe and Mail. Archived ... Taxation in Canada Registered retirement savings plan Registered education savings plan First Home Savings Account Canada ... "The Tax-Free Savings Account". aem. Retrieved 2020-08-13. "Tax-Free Savings Account (TFSA)" (PDF). 1 October 2008. Retrieved ... Trusts Governed by Registered Retirement Savings Plans, Registered Education Savings Plans and Registered Retirement Income ...
Co the bank that held the funds of the Savings Bank. The initial cost was £2,600 although eventually it was all recovered. The ... The Sheffield Savings Bank was formed in Sheffield Yorkshire in 1819. For much of its early years it was run conservatively, ... Horne, Oliver (1947). A History Of Savings Banks. p. 374. (Use dmy dates from April 2022, Defunct banks of the United Kingdom, ... Horne described the Sheffield Savings Bank as "easily the most important of the thirty-nine started in 1819." Despite the ...
The building was completed for $1,000 less than Sullivan's estimated cost. Farmers and Merchants Bank, Columbus, Wisconsin ( ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to People's Federal Savings and Loan Association. People's Federal Savings and Loan ... People's Federal Savings and Loan Association is located at 101 East Court Street on the corner of South Ohio Street in Sidney ... The People's Federal Savings and Loan Association is a historic bank building at 101 East Court Street in Sidney, Ohio, ...
The costs and benefits may differ between places. Some areas may adopt DST simply as a matter of coordination with other areas ... in areas that observe daylight saving time, and Europe. For example, in the U.S. the period of daylight saving time is defined ... The savings in electricity may also be offset by extra use of other types of energy, such as heating fuel. The period of ... Daylight saving time (DST) is the practice of advancing clocks during warmer months so that darkness falls later each day ...
The overall cost for repairs and restoration was estimated at $1.5 million. The work consisted of restoring original light ... The Ocean City Life-Saving Station (also known as U.S. Life Saving Station 30 and U.S. Coast Guard Station No. 126) is the only ... The U.S. Life-Saving Service provided funds for repairs in 1884. Instead of repairing Ocean City Station, the Life-Saving ... National Register of Historic Places listings in Cape May County, New Jersey Avalon Life Saving Station U.S. Life-Saving ...
... s sprang up all across the United States because there was low-cost funding available through the ... Accounts at savings and loans were insured by the FSLIC. Some savings and loans did become savings banks, such as First Federal ... ISBN 0-256-13948-2. Curry, Timothy; Shibut, Lynn (December 2000). "The Cost of the Savings and Loan Crisis: Truth and ... Accounts at savings banks were insured by the FDIC. When the Western Savings Bank of Philadelphia failed in 1982, it was the ...
He further reasoned that if patients (as opposed to third-party payers) paid their own medical expenses, then the cost of ... Flexible spending account Health Reimbursement Account Health savings account "Health Savings Plans: Protecting Your Savings". ... In the United States, a medical savings account (MSA) refers to a medical savings account program, generally associated with ... References: WHO 1986 "Singapore's Family Savings Scheme" by Kai Hong Phua; "Saving for health"World Health Forum, vol. 8, 1987 ...
After the contract ends, all additional cost savings accrue to the agency. The savings must be guaranteed and the Federal ... The ESCO guarantees that the improvements will generate energy cost savings sufficient to pay for the project over the term of ... ESPCs allow Federal agencies to accomplish energy savings projects without up-front capital costs and without special ... Energy Savings Performance Contracts are regulations created by the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) of the United ...
... also involves reducing expenditures, such as recurring costs. In terms of personal finance, saving generally specifies ... Saving does not automatically include interest. Saving differs from savings. The former refers to the act of not consuming ... "saving" as "savings". In different contexts there can be subtle differences in what counts as saving. For example, the part of ... If savings are not deposited into a financial intermediary such as a bank, there is no chance for those savings to be recycled ...
Nash, Nathaniel C. (1988-12-29). "2 SAVINGS BAILOUTS COSTING $7 BILLION CONFIRMED BY U.S." The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. ... Far West Savings and Loan in 1992, Valley Federal S&L in 1992, and Encino Savings Bank in 1994. In 1996, American Savings Bank ... State Savings changed its name to American Savings after the acquisition. In 1984, the thrift suffered a run of nearly $7 ... American Savings and Loan Association was an American savings and loan based in Stockton, California. It was the largest thrift ...
The building was completed in April 1875, at a final cost of $435,000. The result was a massive six story edifice that ... "Architecture of the Troy Savings Bank Music Hall". Troy Savings Bank Music Hall Corp. Retrieved November 3, 2013. "Troy Savings ... "Troy Savings Bank Music Hall - House Technical Specifications: a note to Production/Tour Managers regarding the Troy Savings ... "The Troy Savings Bank Charitable Foundation: Home - Troy Savings Bank, Music Hall, grants, foundation, community development, ...
Laraia reduced the commercial loan portfolio and cut costs significantly. In 1994, Alan Shamoon became the chief executive ... the bank acquired the troubled Central Savings Bank. Created as the German Savings Bank in 1858, Central Savings Bank counted ... Apple Bank for Savings is a savings bank headquartered in Manhasset, New York and operating in the New York metropolitan area. ... "Harlem Savings". The New York Times. May 12, 1983. BELKIN, LISA (June 26, 1986). "Apple Bank to Buy Eastern Savings". The New ...
Paul McDougall (1 March 2007). "PG&E says patching meters for an early daylight-saving time will cost $38 million". ... called also daylight saving, daylight savings, daylight savings time, daylight time "daylight saving time". Oxford Dictionaries ... the saving of daylight) or a participle (the time for saving). [...] Using savings as the adjective-as in savings account or ... Daylight saving time by country Daylight saving time in Africa Daylight saving time in Asia Summer time in Europe Daylight ...
The other situation could be rising costs of real estates and mortgages. Because of mortgage market regulations one does have ... savings rate "gross" forced saving ratio = shortage effect/savings rate Net forced savings ratio considers that informal ... Unlike saving money, forced saving is involuntarily decreasing present consumption, whilst saving money is voluntarily lowering ... We can define forced saving ratio which measures how much of household savings is composed by forced savings. "net" forced ...
For every passbook, the customers were asked to pay 25 paise(now given free of cost). Besides banks enjoyed the freedom to fix ... In India, Savings Bank did not exist at most banks in India. Customers only relied on fixed deposits for their savings. Canara ... High yield savings accounts, sometimes abbreviated to HYSA, are a type of savings account with higher interest than normal ... Traditionally, transactions on savings accounts were widely recorded in a passbook, and were sometimes called passbook savings ...
Unfortunately, the cost of the finders' fee drained the AFPSLAI's finances and contributed to its collapse. Then President of ... The Savings and Loan has a reputation for offering tax-free, high yield dividend products to its members which are not insured ... "Armed Forces and Police Savings and Loans Association, Inc". Retrieved June 8, 2020. "PRO9 Partners with ... The Armed Forces and Police Savings & Loan Association, Inc. (AFPSLAI) is a banking corporation in the Philippines associated ...
Fuel savings. Ultra-low emissions. Improved wheel to rail adhesion capability. With multiple engine gensets, should one genset ... Greater capital cost. Greater deadweight. More engines, and the engines and generators do not use standard parts, reducing ...
... time savings; cost savings. An assessment of Taylor's contributions to the evolution of memory's politics is explored by Nathan ...
"Costs & Savings". SAFE California. Archived from the original on January 15, 2013. Retrieved July 23, 2017. Williams, Carol J ... 34 cite the cost of implementing the death penalty as a major motivating factor behind the initiative. A 2011 study by former ... "Savings, Accountability, and Full Enforcement for California Act", or SAFE California, Prop. 34. If it had been passed by ... June 20, 2011). "Death penalty costs California $184 million a year, study says". Los Angeles Times. "Death Penalty. Initiative ...
The discussion centers around whether e-learning is really more cost effective than traditional brick-and-mortar schooling. ... Comparing Costs. See Also. Read a web-only article, "Online Professional Development Weighed as Cost-Saving Tactic,". that ... A version of this article appeared in the March 18, 2009 edition of Education Week as Experts Debate Cost Savings Of Virtual Ed ... Experts Debate Cost Savings Of Virtual Ed.. By Katie Ash - March 16, 2009 6 min read ...
... as well as reduce costs and increase revenue. ... Duplication & Cost Savings GAOs annual report on the federal ... U.S. Comptroller General Testifies to U.S. Senate on 2023 Duplication and Cost Savings Report. Friday, June 16, 2023. ... Duplication & Cost Savings Recommendations. In our annual report, our recommendations for congressional consideration and ... The total savings associated with this work is a rough estimate based on a variety of sources. For more information on our ...
Get the facts on cost and Rinvoq, how generics compare with brand names, what financial assistance may be available, and more. ... What is Rinvoqs cost per month and cost per year?. Rinvoqs monthly cost and yearly cost will depend on different factors, ... How much does Rinvoq cost with insurance? What about with Medicare?. The cost of Rinvoq with insurance, including the cost of ... The cost of the drug with and without insurance can depend on several factors, such as whether Rinvoq has a savings program. ...
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Over the next 90 days, DHS will begin numerous cost-saving programs, including acquiring enterprise licenses for commonly used ... DHS Reaches First Efficiency Review Milestone, Begins Cost-Savings Initiatives Department Wide. ... "The entire Department is focused on streamlining operations and saving valuable resources," said Secretary Napolitano. "These ...
Blundering officials have been slammed over a government savings drive that COST taxpayers £81million. ... The shared services centre was supposed to cut costs by £112million. Instead, it will save just £40million, while costs have ...
Cost Savings. Another major advantage of conducting meetings online is the potential for cost savings. Traditional face-to-face ... In conclusion, conducting meetings online offers numerous benefits, including enhanced efficiency, time savings, cost savings, ... In this article, we will explore the benefits of conducting meetings online, focusing on efficiency and cost savings. ... businesses can demonstrate their commitment to environmental responsibility while saving on costs. ...
This Perspective combines prior research and recent data to estimate cost savings in the U.S. market. ... Food and Drug Administration is expected to release regulations outlining lower-cost approval requirements for so-called ... The Cost Savings Potential of Biosimilar Drugs in the United States. by Andrew W. Mulcahy, Zachary Predmore, Soeren Mattke ... Mulcahy, Andrew W., Zachary Predmore, and Soeren Mattke, The Cost Savings Potential of Biosimilar Drugs in the United States, ...
Lowest lifetime costs. We are constantly innovating to ensure that we provide our customers with the highest quality product ...
... By Michelle R. Davis. - March 13, 2009 7 min read ... "Once a training course or a workshop is developed it can be reused multiple times and thats where the cost savings come from ... The cost to districts varies. Some districts encourage their teachers to take a TeacherLine course and then reimburses the cost ... "Not only is it not costing the district anything," he says, "but its also not costing teachers time away from the classroom." ...
estimates the average cost at $23,000, but who wants to find out? Anti-DDoS tools can provide early warnings of attacks so you ... Its difficult to tally the total costs when a hackers DDoS attack blocks customers from your e-commerce site or workers from ... Some new technologies simply reduce costs over the long haul; others give you a better ROI than alternatives; and still others ... which aim to provide a more cost-effective way to weave together disparate applications and data sources, be they inside or ...
SRM has lowered costs, created revenue opportunities, increased productivity, and provided a competitive edge for clients in an ... The company was founded in 1992 by Curtis Downs, now SRMs Chairman of the Board, who developed the unique shared savings ... It specializes in identifying previously undiscovered opportunities for growth or savings, aligning expenses with industry ... dedicated professionals who were just as passionate as I am about saving our clients millions of dollars on contracts they ...
Fight rising costs with our helpful advice on how to save money by budgeting and taking advantage of offers and programs like ... With cost-of-living pressures, its never been more important to take advantage of ways to save money. Keep an eye out for ... Planning how much its going to cost and what you need to make it a reality is a good start - you can do this by setting a ... savings target with My Goals.. You can put a dent in the overall cost by signing up for frequent flyer and credit card reward ...
... the City of Chicago experienced signifant cost savings by migrating to Red Hat. City officials estimated the cost of replacing ... Maintenance costs have also declined.Our main priorities when evaluating our planned Solaris-to-Linux migration were three- ... As these servers neared the end of their life cycles, the City of Chicago began the migration to cost-effective Red Hat ... The City of Chicago migrated to Red Hat in order to reduce costs and improve support, performance and scalability. The city has ...
Learn about potential cost saving technology options available to your business such as wireless RF monitoring. ... Cost Saving Technologies for Fire Alarm Monitoring. Learn about potential cost saving technology options available to your ... In fact, the cost of those lines can far exceed the cost of the monitoring service itself.. One option, Wireless Radio ... Contact your local Cintas Fire Protection service location for more information about this cost saving technology. ...
How manufacturing plants can identify energy waste, save on utilities, and industrial energy costs. ... ROI on industrial energy efficiency cost savings. Energy efficiency, Energy management. What does measurement have to do with ... Download a copy of the rate schedule from the utility website, so that you know how much energy units cost at different times ... The three points of an ROI equation are: 1) the quantity of waste combined with 2) the cause and 3) the cost to address. ...
The Chicago-based credit-reporting company wants to cut operating costs by more than $100 million a year. ... TransUnion is cutting or offshoring about 10% of its workforce as part of an effort to trim operating costs by more than $100 ... The layoffs are part of a wider move to cut costs through an ongoing offshoring program. ... save costs and fund growth," the company said in a regulatory filing. "We also intend to eliminate roles in the near-term to ...
However, recycling ink cartridges can not only reduce this waste, but also provide significant cost savings for businesses an ... But what about the cost savings? Recycling ink cartridges can actually be a cost-effective alternative to constantly purchasing ... The cost savings of remanufactured ink cartridges are significant compared to buying new cartridges.. According to a study ... In addition to cost savings, ink cartridge recycling can also benefit the economy by creating jobs in the recycling and ...
California District Installs Solar Energy System for Cost Savings, Educational Opportunities. *By Scott Aronowitz ... "We are proud that this project will provide savings to the district, which is critical in the current economic environment," ... 10 million in utility costs, Chevron Energy estimated the emissions-free energy source will allow SDUHSD to reduce its carbon ...
... savings motives. We report empirical evidence that (i) a quarter of job losers cannot borrow for current consumption, (ii) this ... "Borrowing constraints, the cost of precautionary saving and unemployment insurance," IFS Working Papers W05/02, Institute for ... "Borrowing Constraints, the Cost of Precautionary Saving, and Unemployment Insurance," Social and Economic Dimensions of an ... "Borrowing constraints, the cost of precautionary saving and unemployment insurance," International Tax and Public Finance, ...
... resulting in substantial cost savings in care of inpatient oncology patients. ... Overall medication costs were reduced as well, resulting in an overall cost savings of $156 per hospital day for patients in ... costs were approximately $564,000. Even utilizing the most conservative estimate of cost savings ($488,592/year), by the second ... the hospital realizes a savings of $204,184 based on decreased medication costs. This annual savings rises to $279,592 in the ...
Cost Management at re:Invent: Savings Plans, Cost Categories, and more!. by Erin Carlson and Alee Whitman , on 03 DEC 2019. , ... 1: Savings Plans: You can save money by purchasing Savings Plans. Savings Plans allow you to get low prices on AWS compute ... in AWS Budgets, AWS Cloud Financial Management, AWS Cost and Usage Report, AWS Cost Explorer, AWS re:Invent, Events, ... Using AWS Budgets, you can create cost, usage, Savings Plans, and Reservation budgets. Then, using Budget Reports, you can ...
Theres no specifics available for where the program savings might stem, and with no budget documentation about the total cost ... Trump trims Air Force One cost-saving estimates from billions to millions. By. Valerie Insinna ... but remained rather vague on cost savings.. "Now what well wait on is … a proposal that addresses all those requirements ... Its hard to know exactly how much the new Air Force Ones should cost, but converting the Boeing 747-8 into a flying White ...
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Snap optimizes cost savings while storing over 1.5 trillion photos and videos on Amazon S3 Glacier Instant Retrieval. ... Snap Optimizes Cost Savings While Storing Over 1.5 Trillion Photos and Videos on Amazon S3 Glacier Instant Retrieval. Overview ... Snap plans to continue looking for opportunities to achieve further cost savings while focusing on innovation. "The AWS team ... so the company wanted to optimize its storage on AWS for further cost savings. ...
... Blood Adv. 2020 Feb ... At a median follow-up of 55 months in the initial TTP cohort, rituximab use produced a projected cost savings of $905 906 and ... In the relapse TTP setting, rituximab use produced a projected cost savings of $425 736 and would have prevented 86 inpatient ... From a hospital cost standpoint, cost of rituximab should no longer be a barrier to initiating inpatient rituximab in both ...
Academic Business Translation CAT Tools Chinese Corporate Translation Cost Saving Desktop Publishing Editing English Etymology ... a time saving which the client also enjoys, in the form of reduced translation costs. ...
Trump Infrastructure: Potential Taxpayer Savings from the Use of Life Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA) ... Trump Infrastructure: Potential Taxpayer Savings from the Use of Life Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA) ... Trump Infrastructure: Potential Taxpayer Savings from the Use of Life Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA). ... Trump Infrastructure: Potential Taxpayer Savings from the Use of Life Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA) ...
... health care industry groups pledged to scale back projected increases in health care costs by $2 trillion over the next 10 ... Health Care Advocates Hesitant About Industry Pledges on Cost Savings. As President Obama on Monday met with health care ... According to the Times, "At this point, cost control is little more than a shared aspiration" (Pear, New York Times, 5/12). ... He added, "Even if some of those savings can be realized, thats a huge step not only for finding the money to cover the ...
President Wilson recommends cost savings exceeding $6 million per year April 24, 2020-President Matt Wilson recommended a ... comprehensive set of cost-saving measures to the Missouri Western State University Board of Governors. The Board will vote on ... Other efficiencies to reduce costs and increase revenues. "There is no question we have faced unprecedented challenges - from a ... Missouri Westerns academic review process is designed to address these challenges while reducing costs, strengthening core ...
  • Here's another sign of the times: thePlatform is announcing this morning that it has launched three new initiatives aimed at reducing small-to-medium (SMB) sized content providers' total cost of running their broadband video operations. (
  • thePlatform's initiatives are based on an analysis it conducted of its SMB customers' key cost elements. (
  • therefore, budget rules could prevent Congress from using the savings to pay for new initiatives to cover the uninsured. (
  • In this dashboard, you can view cumulative Cost Savings between all or select agencies, view the savings among the six OMB Initiatives, and break out the savings by each Savings Type. (
  • In 2022, the Secretariat focused on providing continuity to the cost saving and efficiency gains initiatives reported previously to Member States in document A75/7, and reported on 95 such initiatives (as compared to reporting on 79 initiatives last year). (
  • In total, 32 initiatives were considered to carry exclusively qualitative benefits, while 63 initiatives were considered quantifiable by either cost or time savings. (
  • This marketplace competition may lead to lower costs for generics. (
  • This competition in the market can lead to lower costs for generics. (
  • The lab initiated Agile Business Processes in fiscal year 2016 aimed to gather improvements and resources savings from employees and throughout the organization. (
  • A recent 2016 economic analysis found that for communities of 1,000 or more people, the savings associated with water fluoridation exceeded estimated program costs, with an average annual savings of $20 per dollar invested. (
  • Objective 3.1's stated purpose is to "generate cost awareness to drive savings/avoidance by over $2 billion per year," according to the 2017 AFMC Strategic Plan. (
  • These lubrication programs employ the steps that differentiate effective lubrication programs with excellent cost avoidance from ineffective, low cost avoidance lubrication programs. (
  • The reports below are derived from Integrated Data Collection (IDC) Realized Cost Savings and Avoidance data provided publicly by agencies. (
  • But the upfront training costs are well worth it because then you can be on your way to having the capacity to manage your own program. (
  • The problem is that they require huge upfront costs that make them more expensive than traditional power, even in the long run. (
  • The collaboration with these companies in concert with this demonstration project will allow Federal agencies to implement dynamic windows without upfront capital costs and without the need for special Congressional appropriations. (
  • Objective The health gains and cost savings from tobacco tax increase peak many decades into the future. (
  • Ebert estimates that an upcoming, day-long professional-development meeting for 104 math department chairs in the district will cost about $16,000. (
  • Forrester Research Inc. estimates the average cost at $23,000, but who wants to find out? (
  • This article provides information on how those cost saving estimates are calculated, based on the contract type you may have with Google Cloud and your specific role and permissions. (
  • The cost savings calculations in the recommendations, whether based on your historical costs or list pricing, are estimates based on past usage and do not take into consideration credits or any additional discounts. (
  • The cost saving estimates are intended to help customers compare and prioritize cost saving recommendations. (
  • To ensure the accuracy of estimates for a 113,375-sq.-ft. building Û 175 feet long and 125 feet wide, featuring 38,124 sq. ft. in exterior wall-panel surface area Û Kneeland contacted precasters, crane operators, and vendors for pricing, rather than relying on standard construction cost databases. (
  • Economic assessment of this project estimates a payback of upgrading to View dynamic windows over state-of-the-art low-e windows of less than 3 years and a lifetime savings-to-investment ratio of 4.3. (
  • Newer studies have been able to make use of actual costs from water systems rather than relying primarily on expert estimates. (
  • Estimates of the cost of these infections, in 2002 prices, ings, for example saving on drugs, consumables, and suggest that the annual economic costs are $6.7 billion per nursing staff employed on a contract that can be terminat- year in the United States (3)1 and £1.06 billion (approxi- ed at short notice. (
  • WRIGHT-PATTERSON AIR FORCE BASE, Ohio (AFNS) -- Air Force Materiel Command captured more than $2.5 billion in cost savings for fiscal year 2017, the second fiscal year in a row the command has achieved its strategic savings objective. (
  • Having done many business cases for various content providers over the years, I'm well-acquainted with how quickly CDN costs can gobble up potential profitability even though the cost/GB delivered has plunged over the years. (
  • Add it all up and thePlatform believes it can offer a 32% reduction in "total cost of ownership" for SMB video content providers. (
  • To optimize the cost of storing permanent content, Snap adopted Amazon S3 Glacier Instant Retrieval , which is designed to deliver low-cost storage for long-lived data that is rarely accessed. (
  • Snapchatters might view this content for a few days and then not view it again for months or years, so the company wanted to optimize its storage on AWS for further cost savings. (
  • If a drug requires prior authorization and you start treatment without the prior approval, you could pay the full cost of the medication. (
  • If donepezil requires prior authorization and you don't receive it before you start treatment, you could pay the full cost of the drug. (
  • Our main priorities when evaluating our planned Solaris-to-Linux migration were three-fold: user support, reduction in cost and compatibility with our current vendor," said Niersbach. (
  • Lastly, through its new Advantage program it's tapping into a select group of its ecosystem partners to find another 10% or more cost reduction on services like advertising, reporting and analytics and online community creation. (
  • Robert Zirkelbach, a spokesperson for AHIP, one of the groups represented at the meeting, said that the groups will put together a "specific road map" on how to reach their cost-reduction goal ( Hartford Courant , 5/12). (
  • Lighter-weight cladding also reduces the loads borne by a building's structural frame, which allows a reduction in the size and cost of structural members. (
  • The project demonstrated a reduction in HVAC energy consumption of 29% compared to the existing windows baseline, corresponding to 2.2x greater energy savings than if the team had upgraded to state-of-the-art low-e windows. (
  • Thus, installing CROPS instead of existing ROPS retrofits improved the cost-effectiveness ratio substantially, with a 73% reduction in the net cost per injury prevented. (
  • SRM has lowered costs, created revenue opportunities, increased productivity, and provided a competitive edge for clients in an environment of constant and accelerating change. (
  • We intend to transition certain job responsibilities to our Global Capability Centers, which we expect will improve productivity, save costs and fund growth," the company said in a regulatory filing. (
  • 3 Nationwide, this same study found, community water fluoridation programs have been estimated to provide nearly $6.5 billion dollars a year in net cost savings by averting direct dental treatment costs (tooth restorations and extractions) and indirect costs (losses of productivity and follow-up treatment). (
  • Fully addressing these recommendations could result in tens of billions in savings for the federal government. (
  • Incorporating a life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) provision into the Trump infrastructure bill can save taxpayers and state DOTs billions of dollars. (
  • The cost of the drug with and without insurance can depend on several factors, such as whether Rinvoq has a savings program. (
  • Rinvoq's monthly cost and yearly cost will depend on different factors, such as your insurance plan and treatment plan. (
  • Donepezil's cost may depend on factors such as your dosage, whether you have health insurance, and the pharmacy you use. (
  • There are many different types of Medicare plans, and your cost and coverage depend on your particular plan's benefits. (
  • The magnitude of savings will depend on the specifics of the final FDA regulations, the amount of increased competition, and the acceptance of biosimilars by physicians, patients, and payers. (
  • According to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE),facilities could lower their energy bills by 25 %, but the actual savings depend on a couple of things. (
  • We show theoretically how the optimal benefit can depend significantly on borrowing constraints, and on other (non- precautionary) savings motives. (
  • I think it is a mistake for schools to look at online learning to save money, at least in the K-12 environment," said Richard S. Kaestner, the project director of the Washington-based Consortium for School Networking's Calculating the Cost of Investment initiative and the author of a 2007 case study on the value of opening an online school. (
  • We compared length of stay, total medication costs, and costs of as-needed medications for both groups: the baseline sample of inpatient oncology patients and patients exposed to the Urban Zen healing environment initiative. (
  • The Urban Zen (UZ) Initiative at Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, was a pilot project evaluating the impact of a multifaceted "optimal healing environment" 1 intervention-incorporating yoga therapy, holistic nursing practices, a patient navigator, and a renovated physical environment—on quality of life and cost outcomes for inpatients on a medical oncology floor. (
  • The initiative is estimated to have saved the council £72,000 by reducing fuel and maintenance costs and negating the need to own as many trucks. (
  • While the Secretariat is pleased to report significant cost savings during 2022, it also stresses the need to remain vigilant as to how investment in the Organization achieves a greater impact with a similar level of resources, and at the same time ensure that the Organization remains fit for purpose and has the right kind of resources. (
  • But wireless LANs may be one of the best long-term investments your company can make right now, because they give your network managers the flexibility to upgrade, reconfigure, or extend the corporate network without the hassle, time, and often staggering costs involved with installing cable. (
  • Reward and discount programs may not seem like you're saving a huge amount each time, but it adds up over time. (
  • Clearly, this gives both the translator and client much greater flexibility, as it enables the translator to take the project at a less demanding pace - a time saving which the client also enjoys, in the form of reduced translation costs . (
  • When you've signed on the dotted line and you're a brand-new franchise owner, it's time to think about franchise startup costs. (
  • And in many cases, the time gained doesn't produce enough long-term value to offset the increased cost. (
  • The time you'll invest in making these contacts will be an investment that can pay big dividends in startup savings. (
  • Expected costs were $457 and $248 with and without CROPS, respectively, over the same time period, giving the cost per injury prevented as $136,601. (
  • Take spending on highway pavements for example (LCCA) evaluates the cost of a pavement over its full lifetime, thereby helping transportation planners and designers make more accurate cost decisions when spending taxpayer dollars on infrastructure. (
  • Until Egypt reforms its energy pricing structure, it costs less to buy an inexpensive electric water heater and pay for electricity than to install expensive thermal panels on one's roof, even if afterwards the hot water comes out free for the lifetime of the heater. (
  • In this article, we will explore the benefits of conducting meetings online, focusing on efficiency and cost savings. (
  • Energy inspection identifies opportunities to increase efficiency and gives the facility manager the data to understand which energy saving activities make sense given the facility's primary objectives, and which ones either don't offer enough ROI or fall too far outside the priorities. (
  • The letter pointed toward lowering administrative costs, reducing hospitalization rates, improving management of chronic diseases, increasing hospital efficiency and expanding the use of health information technology as methods of reducing health care spending. (
  • This project demonstrated the performance and life-cycle cost benefits for U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) building energy efficiency by using dynamic windows, a new type of advanced "Smart Window" product, as compared to existing single pane windows or low-emissivity (low-e). (
  • When the cost of intervention ($1,000 for purchasing, shipping, and installation of ROPS retrofit) is used in the analysis, the cost-effectiveness ratio is $497,000 per injury prevented over the 20-year period. (
  • Gen. James Peccia III, director of the AFMC Financial Management Directorate, said that though these savings were achieved during the most recent fiscal year, there remains a continual need for innovative approaches resulting in reduced costs and more efficient processes. (
  • After the Independence of Bangladesh in 1971, the government of Bangladesh created the Directorate of National Savings which absorbed the functions of the National Savings Institute. (
  • In 2014 the Directorate of National Savings was upgraded to a full department. (
  • The cost of utilizing LARC, especially the copper IUD, is significantly lower than the costs attributable to unintended pregnancies in adolescence . (
  • Some state departments of education offer free online educator workshops, for example, while services from private companies can cost tens of thousands of dollars. (
  • By using Amazon S3 Glacier Instant Retrieval for its long-term, rarely accessed media files, Snap is saving tens of millions of dollars while delivering the same performance and powering new business opportunities, such as innovative app features and new hardware products. (
  • Benefits from actions that reduce or eliminate the need for an increase in manpower or costs, to include funds, manpower or other resources. (
  • Various methods may be utilized for determining costs and benefits of community water fluoridation. (
  • Economic evaluations reaffirm the cost benefits of community water fluoridation. (
  • 2 Per capita annual costs for community water fluoridation ranged from $0.11 to $24.38, while per capita annual benefits ranged from $5.49 to $93.19. (
  • 1,5-7 Water fluoridation benefits all members of a community by preventing tooth decay, improving oral health and saving money for everyone. (
  • The cost-effectiveness indices were calculated using morbidity and mortality data from the demonstration and published studies and compared with cost-effectiveness of other Medicare benefits. (
  • An approach including yoga, holistic nursing, and a 'healing environment' can decrease medication use, resulting in substantial cost savings in care of inpatient oncology patients. (
  • We found a significant decrease in use of antiemetic, anxiolytic, and hypnotic medication costs as well as a decrease in total medication costs in the Urban Zen sample compared with the baseline group. (
  • Overall medication costs were reduced as well, resulting in an overall cost savings of $156 per hospital day for patients in the intervention group. (
  • A barrier to care in initiating rituximab in the inpatient setting has been the presumed excessive cost of medication to the hospital. (
  • Despite obvious advantages of studcast cladding systems, a barrier to their more widespread market acceptance has been perceived cost premiums. (
  • If you pick a plan with higher premiums, more of your health costs will be covered. (
  • The cost of Rinvoq with insurance, including the cost of Rinvoq on Medicare, can vary. (
  • If you have Medicare Part D , the cost of Rinvoq can vary depending on your coverage. (
  • For more details about how much Rinvoq may cost with insurance or Medicare, talk with your pharmacist or insurance provider. (
  • To find out whether your Medicare plan covers the cost of donepezil, call your plan provider. (
  • You can also ask your doctor about the cost of donepezil if you have Medicare. (
  • In 1988, the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) and CDC began a congressionally mandated 4-year demonstration project to evaluate the cost-effectiveness to Medicare of providing influenza vaccine to Medicare beneficiaries. (
  • In intervention areas, influenza vaccine was supplied without cost to Medicare providers by local health departments using computerized vaccine monitoring and distribution systems. (
  • To evaluate the cost impact of an integrative medicine intervention on an inpatient oncology service. (
  • An integrative medicine approach including yoga therapy, holistic nursing, and a healing environment in the inpatient setting can decrease use of medications, resulting in substantial cost savings for hospitals in the care of oncology patients. (
  • An integrative medicine approach incorporating yoga, holistic nursing, and a "healing environment" added to the inpatient care of oncology patients can significantly reduce hospital costs. (
  • Although a fair amount of research has been published on the impact of integrative/complementary medicine interventions on costs of care in the workplace and outpatient settings, to date very little research exists on the question of potential cost savings in the inpatient setting. (
  • Because implementation of this type of intervention in the inpatient setting does require potentially substantial initial investment by the hospital, and because maintaining these types of services does entail additional ongoing cost, it is critical to generate data regarding the potential cost savings that can result from this type of approach. (
  • this study sought to determine what, if any, potential for cost savings could result from an integrative, "healing-oriented" intervention on an inpatient medical unit. (
  • Retrospectively reviewing TTP admissions from 2004 to 2018 at our academic center, we calculated the actual inpatient cost of care. (
  • We then calculated the theoretical cost to the hospital of initiating rituximab in the inpatient setting for both initial TTP and relapse TTP cohorts, with the hypothesis that preventing sufficient future TTP admissions offsets the cost of initiating rituximab in all patients with TTP. (
  • At a median follow-up of 55 months in the initial TTP cohort, rituximab use produced a projected cost savings of $905 906 and would have prevented 185 inpatient admission days and saved 137 TPE procedures. (
  • In the relapse TTP setting, rituximab use produced a projected cost savings of $425 736 and would have prevented 86 inpatient admission days and saved 64 TPE procedures. (
  • From a hospital cost standpoint, cost of rituximab should no longer be a barrier to initiating inpatient rituximab in both initial and relapse TTP settings. (
  • Read on to learn about Rinvoq and cost, as well as how to save money on prescriptions. (
  • And that costs money. (
  • Quite often, a facility will uncover enough maintenance and operational savings on large equipment that within a few years they've saved enough money to accelerate the equipment replacement with a leaner model. (
  • He added, "Even if some of those savings can be realized, that's a huge step not only for finding the money to cover the uninsured, but to ultimately bring down the cost of care" ( San Francisco Chronicle , 5/12). (
  • Video: Where to Live and Retire for Low-Cost Living and Saving Money i. (
  • You might be surprised to hear that the biggest money-wasting startup cost is really just part of human nature: impatience. (
  • These are savings accounts that allow you to set aside pre-tax money for health care expenses. (
  • Such companies, she said, can provide that service at a lower cost because they are serving larger populations. (
  • This can also lead to lower generic costs. (
  • How can I lower my long-term drug costs? (
  • This could reduce your number of trips to the pharmacy and help lower the cost of the drug. (
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration is expected to release final regulations outlining lower-cost approval pathway requirements for so-called biosimilar drugs. (
  • TransUnion said today that it will speed up an offshoring program started five years ago in which it moved roughly one-third of its employees to "global capability centers" in lower-cost locations, such as India, South Africa and Costa Rica. (
  • To determine if Amazon S3 Glacier Instant Retrieval delivered a lower total cost than Amazon S3 Standard-IA, Snap began by analyzing the access patterns of its data. (
  • The center's Strategic Alternative Sourcing Program Office searched the commercial aviation sector for used aircraft parts to repair military aircraft, finding savings in parts with prices lower than those the Air Force has paid in the past. (
  • Made of low emissive (Low-E) impregnated laminated glass, SEF Low-E Secondary Windows offer building owners across the nation a way to significantly lower their energy and maintenance costs without. (
  • A randomized clinical trial from India raises the possibility of huge cost savings by using much lower doses of immunotherapy. (
  • In general, prescription drugs such as Rinvoq have a higher cost without insurance than with insurance. (
  • To learn more about what a Rinvoq prescription may cost you, talk with your insurance company or pharmacist. (
  • Will new FDA regulations allowing for the introduction of 'biosimilar' drugs (competing versions of complex biologic drugs) in the U.S. prescription drug market reduce health care costs? (
  • L'étude a révélé que les perceptions vis-à-vis du rôle des pharmaciens cliniciens dans les services des urgences étaient positives, notamment pour la garantie de la prescription et de l'administration appropriées de médicaments, pour le suivi de l'observance du patient, pour la fourniture d'informations sur les produits proposés en consultation, pour la surveillance de la réponse du patient au traitement et du résultat thérapeutique. (
  • Quantify the total predicted life-cycle cost-, energy- and GHG-savings relative to state-of-the-art low-e windows at the site and across the entire DoD building stock. (
  • While cash-savings from avoided expense of infection control should be compared to the variable costs are easy to quantify, the resources that rep- savings. (
  • Another major advantage of conducting meetings online is the potential for cost savings. (
  • Learn about potential cost saving technology options available to your business such as wireless RF monitoring. (
  • While our estimate uses recent data and transparent assumptions, we caution that actual savings will hinge on the specifics of the final FDA regulations and on the level of competition. (
  • I talked to Marty Roberts, thePlatform's VP Marketing, who explained the specifics of how the savings would work. (
  • There's no specifics available for where the program savings might stem, and with no budget documentation about the total cost, the president can "pick a number" and take credit for bringing costs down, said Richard Aboulafia, an aerospace analyst at the Teal Group. (
  • Rather than talking about the cost of blades, software licenses, or technicians, each cloud-delivered service is priced out, encompassing an end-to-end tally of all of the direct and indirect expenses that contribute to the overall cost of that service. (
  • Still, some experts caution schools not to see e-learning simply or primarily as a cost-saving tool. (
  • 3 What research exists has primarily focused on cost savings in the perioperative setting. (
  • Savings will accrue to a range of stakeholders in the short term-including physicians and hospitals-though patients and taxpayers will benefit in the long term. (
  • WASHINGTON - The White House webpage extolling U.S. President Donald Trump's first 100 days in office celebrates the president's success in reducing the cost of the Air Force One replacement by millions of dollars. (
  • Traditional face-to-face meetings often incur expenses related to travel (flights, accommodations), meals, venue rentals, and other miscellaneous costs that can quickly add up. (
  • It specializes in identifying previously undiscovered opportunities for growth or savings, aligning expenses with industry benchmarks, and fostering supplier partnerships with a focus on quality and long-term stability. (
  • Often one of the first suggestions when it comes to saving is cutting back on unnecessary expenses, like eating out and going to the movies. (
  • The city has already saved more than $250,000, and is reducing server hardware, maintenance and operating costs as a result of Oracle's certification and support infrastructure on Red Hat. (
  • Patil and his team call the combination "an alternative standard of care" that can substantially reduce drug costs and increase access to immunotherapy in resource-limited settings. (
  • And it may just be that schools don't perceive any real cost benefit to making the move. (
  • Who will benefit the most from the cost savings from biosimilars? (
  • In addition to cost savings, ink cartridge recycling can also benefit the economy by creating jobs in the recycling and remanufacturing industries. (
  • The project was intended to facilitate future technology transfer across all DoD building stock, while providing a direct benefit to the host base in terms of reduced energy consumption, reduced life-cycle cost, and improved occupant comfort. (
  • Sure, the service provider can often make some quick process improvements that reduce the cost per transaction. (
  • From small improvements to large, keeping cost under continuous review goes hand in hand with ensuring you're partnering with the right suppliers. (
  • Active Assist's cost optimization recommendations help Google Cloud users optimize their cloud deployment cost such as by identifying waste (idle resources), highlighting over-provisioned resources, and optimizing pricing models. (
  • While initial construction cost considerations are important, future maintenance or repair costs can equal more than 50 percent of the total cost of a project. (
  • Because financial expenditures on fixed costs are unavoid- mental cost of the new program is the change in total cost able in the short-term, they are largely irrelevant to deci- from $100,000 to $140,000, or $40,000. (
  • This Perspective combines prior research and recent data to estimate cost savings in the U.S. market. (
  • That's the idea behind the Syncx integration appliances from CommerceRoute, which aim to provide a more cost-effective way to weave together disparate applications and data sources, be they inside or outside company walls. (
  • We had complete cost data on 85 patients in our baseline group and 72 in our intervention group. (
  • This analysis showed that using Amazon S3 Glacier Instant Retrieval would reduce costs because the storage class is ideal for data that needs immediate access but is only accessed once per quarter. (
  • Use the calibrated models and historic weather data to predict the life-cycle energy savings (and resulting greenhouse gas [GHG] and energy cost savings) at the site. (
  • Maintenance costs have also declined. (
  • A newer, well-maintained facility isn't going to offer as many savings opportunities as an older facility where systems and equipment have drifted from recommended settings and maintenance practices. (
  • One option, Wireless Radio Frequency (RF) monitoring , allows you to eliminate the cost and maintenance of wired telephone landlines, is UL and NFPA (Fire Code) approved, and is available right now in many markets. (
  • Wind farms and photovoltaic arrays, once up and running, cost very little, apart from maintenance and upkeep. (
  • Maintenance costs between 2 and 3 per cent of the initial cost a year. (
  • One advantage for renewable energy in Egypt is that the country's photovoltaic (PV) power tends to be more economical than in industrial nations, partly because Egypt's inexpensive labour lowers installation and maintenance costs, but also because the desert sunlight is bright and clouds are few. (
  • With your realtor and attorney, you can determine what's standard in your marketplace in terms of variables like the costs per square foot, the Common Area Maintenance (CAM) charges, free rent periods, construction allowances, and other terms. (
  • In this article, we present a summary of our findings on cost outcomes. (
  • Significant cost savings were realized on as-needed medications including antiemetics and anxiolytics in intervention patients compared with controls. (
  • For example, Montgomery et al found that a brief hypnosis intervention produced a substantial cost savings in patients undergoing excisional breast biopsy. (
  • To provide news and analysis on policy, market and technology trends in reliable low-cost energy. (
  • In addition to the energy the project will provide, which is expected to save the district a total of more than $10 million in utility costs, Chevron Energy estimated the emissions-free energy source will allow SDUHSD to reduce its carbon footprint by about 2,200 metric tons. (
  • We are proud that this project will provide savings to the district, which is critical in the current economic environment," said SDUHSD Superintendent Ken Noah. (
  • However, recycling ink cartridges can not only reduce this waste, but also provide significant cost savings for businesses and individuals. (
  • Tablet splitting can provide significant savings for you. (
  • The objective aligns with the command's third goal to "drive cost-effectiveness into the capabilities we provide. (
  • Instead, it will save just £40million, while costs have doubled. (
  • With the launch of Amazon S3 Glacier Instant Retrieval in November 2021, the company realized that it could save even more on costs with virtually no impact on performance. (
  • These programs help you save on your drug costs. (
  • Duplication & Cost Savings GAO's annual report on the federal government's opportunities to reduce fragmentation, overlap, and duplication, as well as reduce costs and increase revenue. (
  • This article reports annual cost savings from several effective lubrication programs using onsite oil analysis. (
  • If broadly adopted, View's dynamic windows technology could reduce global DoD energy consumption from buildings by 15% and GHG emissions by 24%, representing an annual savings of approximately $680 million. (
  • Large loads that have never been mapped to the utility rate schedule to take advantage of the cheapest times of day have the promise to deliver significant savings. (
  • In general, renewable energy still costs a lot more than fossil fuel, but there are a few important niche markets in Egypt where significant savings could be achieved reasonably quickly, both for consumers and the government. (
  • This category of franchise startup costs can bring significant savings, so it's wise to gather expert advice. (
  • If you qualify for this program, it may help cover costs of the drug. (
  • The layoffs are part of a wider move to cut costs through an ongoing offshoring program. (
  • thePlatform is offering a new storage program which slashes the cost of storage from $8/GB on average, to $2/GB. (
  • Trump's commentary about Air Force One began before inauguration, when he tweeted that the program, worth $4 billion, should be cancelled because of cost. (
  • Now what we'll wait on is … a proposal that addresses all those requirements coming in from Boeing, and then we'll set an acquisition program baseline, and then we'll be able to figure out what it's going to cost, and then we'll go from there," he said. (
  • The center's Engine Water Wash Program washed more than 416 bomber, tanker, reconnaissance, and airlift jet engines resulting in improved operating performance, saving more than 577,000 gallons of jet fuel. (
  • With a mixture of faith, skills, and tenacity, I founded SRM and was fortunate to cultivate a team of talented, dedicated professionals who were just as passionate as I am about saving our clients millions of dollars on contracts they would have otherwise continued to pay more than fair market value for. (
  • Reported cost avoidances include cancelling low-value support contracts, divesting and transferring tasks to other agencies or organizations, and centralizing and streamlining processes. (
  • To accelerate the transfer of technology throughout the DoD, the project team also engaged with major DoD Energy Service Companies, including Johnson Controls Inc. (JCI) and Noresco, to enable and accelerate future installation through Energy Savings Performance Contracts (ESPC). (
  • Department of National Savings traces its origins to the National Savings Institute which was founded in 1944 under the Ministry of Finance (India). (
  • After the Partition of India the National Savings Institute was managed by the Ministry of Finance (Pakistan). (
  • Buffer-Stock Saving and the Life Cycle/Permanent Income Hypothesis ," The Quarterly Journal of Economics , Oxford University Press, vol. 112(1), pages 1-55. (
  • Buffer-Stock Saving and the Life Cycle/Permanent Income Hypothesis ," Economics Working Paper Archive 371, The Johns Hopkins University,Department of Economics, revised Aug 1996. (
  • Buffer-Stock Saving and the Life Cycle/Permanent Income Hypothesis ," NBER Working Papers 5788, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc. (
  • Recycling ink cartridges can actually be a cost-effective alternative to constantly purchasing new cartridges. (
  • Ellen Andrews, executive director of the Connecticut Health Policy Project, said, "They're trying to use this (savings pledge) to head off real reform and protect their turf. (
  • Drew Altman, president and CEO of the Kaiser Family Foundation, said, "Neither managed care, nor wage and price controls, nor regulation, nor voluntary action nor market competition has had a lasting impact on our nation's health care costs," adding, "Reformers should not overpromise" ( New York Times , 5/12). (
  • There will be no member cost-share for outpatient facility-based mental health and substance use disorder treatment services. (
  • Community water fluoridation is recognized as one of the most cost-effective, equitable, and safe measures communities can take to prevent cavities and improve oral health. (
  • We included articles covering adolescents aged 10-19 years without language restrictions that evaluated the use of LARC compared with non-LARC in terms of effectiveness and the public health costs of unintended pregnancy . (
  • The cost of health care continues to rise. (
  • That is why it helps to learn how to take steps to limit your out-of-pocket health care costs. (
  • The City of Chicago migrated to Red Hat in order to reduce costs and improve support, performance and scalability. (
  • House Minority Leader John Boehner (R-Ohio) criticized the meeting, saying that the "announcement promises savings with no concrete plan to achieve them and no enforcement mechanism if they don't" (Alonso-Zaldivar, AP/Philadelphia Inquirer , 5/12). (
  • Studcast panel costs per square foot of exterior wall may range higher than those for conventional precast, because the reduced material cost of thinner concrete is more than offset by inclusion of steel-stud framing. (
  • If you fall into this or a similar category, and you find that you are struggling to make your repayments, read on for some helpful hints on cutting household costs. (
  • In each of those cost optimization recommendations, you can typically find an estimated cost saving amount, if you were to decide and take the suggested action. (
  • Consistent with prior analyses, this study supports the finding that community water fluoridation remains one of the most cost-effective methods of delivering fluoride to all community members regardless of age, educational attainment, or income level. (
  • This study estimated the expected effects and costs at a per-tractor level for two options: No-CROPS and Install-CROPS. (
  • There are several common expense categories that most startup savings fall into. (
  • This category of franchise startup costs represents a significant expense for most franchises. (
  • The payback period for switching from diesel water pumping to PV pumping - pumping water is one of the country's biggest use of off-grid power - is about five years if all costs of diesel are taken into account. (
  • Much has been written in recent years regarding the extraordinary high cost of cancer drugs," the editorialists say, but "very few viable solutions have been provided. (
  • Over the next 90 days, DHS will begin numerous cost-saving programs, including acquiring enterprise licenses for commonly used software, implementing energy efficiencies at the workplace and the standardizing employee trainings and orientations. (
  • What does measurement have to do with saving energy? (
  • Lighting energy was reduced by 62%, corresponding to 2.4x enhanced savings over upgrading with low-e windows. (
  • Total building energy savings was 28%, a 2.4x enhancement over upgrading with low-e windows. (
  • Secretary of Defense [Jim] Mattis has ordered a cost-cutting review of Boeing's next-generation Air Force One fleet, after President Trump was able to cap the cost at millions below that which was agreed to by the Obama administration," the website stated. (
  • Mr Aziz calculates that if depreciation and other costs are factored in, it costs about 0.90 Egyptian pound (Dh0.42) per kilowatt hour equivalent to heat water in a boiler. (