The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.
Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.
The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.
The amount that a health care institution or organization pays for its drugs. It is one component of the final price that is charged to the consumer (FEES, PHARMACEUTICAL or PRESCRIPTION FEES).
The containment, regulation, or restraint of costs. Costs are said to be contained when the value of resources committed to an activity is not considered excessive. This determination is frequently subjective and dependent upon the specific geographic area of the activity being measured. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Costs which are directly identifiable with a particular service.
A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.
Provisions of an insurance policy that require the insured to pay some portion of covered expenses. Several forms of sharing are in use, e.g., deductibles, coinsurance, and copayments. Cost sharing does not refer to or include amounts paid in premiums for the coverage. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
A disease or state in which death is possible or imminent.
The assignment, to each of several particular cost-centers, of an equitable proportion of the costs of activities that serve all of them. Cost-center usually refers to institutional departments or services.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.
Statistical models of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, as well as of financial considerations. For the application of statistics to the testing and quantifying of economic theories MODELS, ECONOMETRIC is available.
Coordinate set of non-specific behavioral responses to non-psychiatric illness. These may include loss of APPETITE or LIBIDO; disinterest in ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING; or withdrawal from social interaction.
That portion of total HEALTH CARE COSTS borne by an individual's or group's employing organization.
The confinement of a patient in a hospital.
A measurement index derived from a modification of standard life-table procedures and designed to take account of the quality as well as the duration of survival. This index can be used in assessing the outcome of health care procedures or services. (BIOETHICS Thesaurus, 1994)
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.
Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.
The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.
Acute illnesses, usually affecting the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, brought on by consuming contaminated food or beverages. Most of these diseases are infectious, caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, or parasites that can be foodborne. Sometimes the diseases are caused by harmful toxins from the microbes or other chemicals present in the food. Especially in the latter case, the condition is often called food poisoning.
Set of expectations that exempt persons from responsibility for their illness and exempt them from usual responsibilities.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Persons with psychiatric illnesses or diseases, particularly psychotic and severe mood disorders.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
Ratio of output to effort, or the ratio of effort produced to energy expended.
Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.
An oversimplified perception or conception especially of persons, social groups, etc.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Health care services provided to patients on an ambulatory basis, rather than by admission to a hospital or other health care facility. The services may be a part of a hospital, augmenting its inpatient services, or may be provided at a free-standing facility.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.
Review of claims by insurance companies to determine liability and amount of payment for various services. The review may also include determination of eligibility of the claimant or beneficiary or of the provider of the benefit; determination that the benefit is covered or not payable under another policy; or determination that the service was necessary and of reasonable cost and quality.
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Chronic absence from work or other duty.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Aspects of health and disease related to travel.
Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.
Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).
Diseases in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.
The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
An acute or prolonged illness usually considered to be life-threatening or with the threat of serious residual disability. Treatment may be radical and is frequently costly.
Health insurance plans intended to reduce unnecessary health care costs through a variety of mechanisms, including: economic incentives for physicians and patients to select less costly forms of care; programs for reviewing the medical necessity of specific services; increased beneficiary cost sharing; controls on inpatient admissions and lengths of stay; the establishment of cost-sharing incentives for outpatient surgery; selective contracting with health care providers; and the intensive management of high-cost health care cases. The programs may be provided in a variety of settings, such as HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS and PREFERRED PROVIDER ORGANIZATIONS.
Payment by individuals or their family for health care services which are not covered by a third-party payer, either insurance or medical assistance.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A graphic device used in decision analysis, series of decision options are represented as branches (hierarchical).
Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)
The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
A catarrhal disorder of the upper respiratory tract, which may be viral or a mixed infection. It generally involves a runny nose, nasal congestion, and sneezing.
Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
Organized services to provide mental health care.
A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.
The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.
The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
A stochastic process such that the conditional probability distribution for a state at any future instant, given the present state, is unaffected by any additional knowledge of the past history of the system.
Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XIX, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, administered by the states, that provides health care benefits to indigent and medically indigent persons.
The proportion of patients with a particular disease during a given year per given unit of population.
Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.
Detailed financial plans for carrying out specific activities for a certain period of time. They include proposed income and expenditures.
The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.
Mathematical or statistical procedures used as aids in making a decision. They are frequently used in medical decision-making.
Persons who provide care to those who need supervision or assistance in illness or disability. They may provide the care in the home, in a hospital, or in an institution. Although caregivers include trained medical, nursing, and other health personnel, the concept also refers to parents, spouses, or other family members, friends, members of the clergy, teachers, social workers, fellow patients.
A polysymptomatic condition believed by clinical ecologists to result from immune dysregulation induced by common foods, allergens, and chemicals, resulting in various physical and mental disorders. The medical community has remained largely skeptical of the existence of this "disease", given the plethora of symptoms attributed to environmental illness, the lack of reproducible laboratory abnormalities, and the use of unproven therapies to treat the condition. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Persons with an incurable or irreversible illness at the end stage that will result in death within a short time. (From O'Leary et al., Lexikon: Dictionary of Health Care Terms, Organizations, and Acronyms for the Era of Reform, 1994, p780)
The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.
An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.
The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Amounts charged to the patient or third-party payer for medication. It includes the pharmacist's professional fee and cost of ingredients, containers, etc.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.
A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.
Performance of activities or tasks traditionally performed by professional health care providers. The concept includes care of oneself or one's family and friends.
Unexplained symptoms reported by veterans of the Persian Gulf War with Iraq in 1991. The symptoms reported include fatigue, skin rash, muscle and joint pain, headaches, loss of memory, shortness of breath, gastrointestinal and respiratory symptoms, and extreme sensitivity to commonly occurring chemicals. (Nature 1994 May 5;369(6475):8)
The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.
The degree of closeness or acceptance an individual or group feels toward another individual or group.
The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.
Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
Health care provided to a critically ill patient during a medical emergency or crisis.
Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.
Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.
Insurance providing for payment of services rendered by the pharmacist. Services include the preparation and distribution of medical products.
Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Nursing care given to an individual in the home. The care may be provided by a family member or a friend. Home nursing as care by a non-professional is differentiated from HOME CARE SERVICES provided by professionals: visiting nurse, home health agencies, hospital, or other organized community group.
A broad approach to appropriate coordination of the entire disease treatment process that often involves shifting away from more expensive inpatient and acute care to areas such as preventive medicine, patient counseling and education, and outpatient care. This concept includes implications of appropriate versus inappropriate therapy on the overall cost and clinical outcome of a particular disease. (From Hosp Pharm 1995 Jul;30(7):596)
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
Amounts charged to the patient as payer for health care services.
Economic aspects of the field of medicine, the medical profession, and health care. It includes the economic and financial impact of disease in general on the patient, the physician, society, or government.
Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.
The process of accepting patients. The concept includes patients accepted for medical and nursing care in a hospital or other health care institution.
Community health and NURSING SERVICES providing coordinated multiple services to the patient at the patient's homes. These home-care services are provided by a visiting nurse, home health agencies, HOSPITALS, or organized community groups using professional staff for care delivery. It differs from HOME NURSING which is provided by non-professionals.
An interval of care by a health care facility or provider for a specific medical problem or condition. It may be continuous or it may consist of a series of intervals marked by one or more brief separations from care, and can also identify the sequence of care (e.g., emergency, inpatient, outpatient), thus serving as one measure of health care provided.
A traditional term for all the activities which a physician or other health care professional normally performs to insure the coordination of the medical services required by a patient. It also, when used in connection with managed care, covers all the activities of evaluating the patient, planning treatment, referral, and follow-up so that care is continuous and comprehensive and payment for the care is obtained. (From Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2nd ed)
A perceived attribute that is deeply discrediting and is considered to be a violation of social norms.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Amounts charged to the patient as payer for medical services.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
Persons including soldiers involved with the armed forces.
Unforeseen occurrences, especially injuries in the course of work-related activities.
A syndrome characterized by persistent or recurrent fatigue, diffuse musculoskeletal pain, sleep disturbances, and subjective cognitive impairment of 6 months duration or longer. Symptoms are not caused by ongoing exertion; are not relieved by rest; and result in a substantial reduction of previous levels of occupational, educational, social, or personal activities. Minor alterations of immune, neuroendocrine, and autonomic function may be associated with this syndrome. There is also considerable overlap between this condition and FIBROMYALGIA. (From Semin Neurol 1998;18(2):237-42; Ann Intern Med 1994 Dec 15;121(12): 953-9)
Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.
Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.
Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.
Persons admitted to health facilities which provide board and room, for the purpose of observation, care, diagnosis or treatment.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.
Economic aspects related to the management and operation of a hospital.
Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.
A group of disorders characterized by physical symptoms that are affected by emotional factors and involve a single organ system, usually under AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM control. (American Psychiatric Glossary, 1988)
System of recording financial transactions.
Historical term for a chronic, but fluctuating, disorder beginning in early life and characterized by recurrent and multiple somatic complaints not apparently due to physical illness. This diagnosis is not used in contemporary practice.
Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.
Conditions of abnormal THYROID HORMONES release in patients with apparently normal THYROID GLAND during severe systemic illness, physical TRAUMA, and psychiatric disturbances. It can be caused by the loss of endogenous hypothalamic input or by exogenous drug effects. The most common abnormality results in low T3 THYROID HORMONE with progressive decrease in THYROXINE; (T4) and TSH. Elevated T4 with normal T3 may be seen in diseases in which THYROXINE-BINDING GLOBULIN synthesis and release are increased.
Persons who receive ambulatory care at an outpatient department or clinic without room and board being provided.
Collective behavior of an aggregate of individuals giving the appearance of unity of attitude, feeling, and motivation.
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Economic aspects of the fields of pharmacy and pharmacology as they apply to the development and study of medical economics in rational drug therapy and the impact of pharmaceuticals on the cost of medical care. Pharmaceutical economics also includes the economic considerations of the pharmaceutical care delivery system and in drug prescribing, particularly of cost-benefit values. (From J Res Pharm Econ 1989;1(1); PharmacoEcon 1992;1(1))
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.
Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.
The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.
A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.
A person's view of himself.
Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.
An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.
A clinical syndrome caused by heat stress, such as over-exertion in a hot environment or excessive exposure to sun. It is characterized by SWEATING, water (volume) depletion, salt depletion, cool clammy skin, NAUSEA, and HEADACHE.
Advanced and highly specialized care provided to medical or surgical patients whose conditions are life-threatening and require comprehensive care and constant monitoring. It is usually administered in specially equipped units of a health care facility.
Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
Drugs whose drug name is not protected by a trademark. They may be manufactured by several companies.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.
The interactions between physician and patient.
Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.
Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.
A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)
The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.
Those funds disbursed for facilities and equipment, particularly those related to the delivery of health care.
A preconceived judgment made without factual basis.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
A definite pathologic process with a characteristic set of signs and symptoms. It may affect the whole body or any of its parts, and its etiology, pathology, and prognosis may be known or unknown.
Poisoning caused by ingestion of food harboring species of SALMONELLA. Conditions of raising, shipping, slaughtering, and marketing of domestic animals contribute to the spread of this bacterium in the food supply.
Directions written for the obtaining and use of DRUGS.
The capacity of an organization, institution, or business to produce desired results with a minimum expenditure of energy, time, money, personnel, materiel, etc.
Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.
Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
A condition occurring as a result of exposure to a rapid fall in ambient pressure. Gases, nitrogen in particular, come out of solution and form bubbles in body fluid and blood. These gas bubbles accumulate in joint spaces and the peripheral circulation impairing tissue oxygenation causing disorientation, severe pain, and potentially death.
Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.
Care of patients by a multidisciplinary team usually organized under the leadership of a physician; each member of the team has specific responsibilities and the whole team contributes to the care of the patient.
Child hospitalized for short term care.
An office in the Department of Labor responsible for developing and establishing occupational safety and health standards.

The economic burden of asthma: direct and indirect costs in Switzerland. (1/3131)

Asthma mortality increased in Switzerland between 1980 and 1994. This study aimed to assess the economic burden of asthma in this country. Chart reviews were conducted for the last five patients seen for asthma in physician practices in 1996 and 1997. Direct expenditures and indirect costs for asthma-related morbidity were determined. A total of 589 patient charts were completely analysed, including 117 children's charts, obtained from 120 office-based physicians. The annual direct medical costs were CHF 1,778 and the mean annual indirect costs were CHF 1,019 per patient for all patients. The total estimated cost of asthma in Switzerland in 1997 was nearly CHF 1,252 million. Direct medical expenditures approached CHF 762 million, or 61% of the total. In 1997, the indirect costs for asthma were estimated to have exceeded CHF 490 million. Of these costs CHF 123 million (25%) was associated with morbidity and nearly CHF 368 million (75%) was associated with looking after asthmatic patients who had to be cared for at home. This study provides evidence that asthma is a major healthcare cost factor in Switzerland, amounting to approximately CHF 1,200 million per year. The data suggest that cost savings can be achieved by improving primary care for asthma in an ambulatory setting.  (+info)

The cost effectiveness of strategies for the treatment of intestinal parasites in immigrants. (2/3131)

BACKGROUND: Currently, more than 600,000 immigrants enter the United States each year from countries where intestinal parasites are endemic. At entry persons with parasitic infections may be asymptomatic, and stool examinations are not a sensitive method of screening for parasitosis. Albendazole is a new, broad-spectrum antiparasitic drug, which was approved recently by the Food and Drug Administration. International trials have shown albendazole to be safe and effective in eradicating many parasites. In the United States there is now disagreement about whether to screen all immigrants for parasites, treat all immigrants presumptively, or do nothing unless they have symptoms. METHODS: We compared the costs and benefits of no preventive intervention (watchful waiting) with those of universal screening or presumptive treatment with 400 mg of albendazole per day for five days. Those at risk were defined as immigrants to the United States from Asia, the Middle East, sub-Saharan Africa, Eastern Europe, and Latin America and the Caribbean. Cost effectiveness was expressed both in terms of the cost of treatment per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted (one DALY is defined as the loss of one year of healthy life to disease) and in terms of the cost per hospitalization averted. RESULTS: As compared with watchful waiting, presumptive treatment of all immigrants at risk for parasitosis would avert at least 870 DALYs, prevent at least 33 deaths and 374 hospitalizations, and save at least $4.2 million per year. As compared with watchful waiting, screening would cost $159,236 per DALY averted. CONCLUSIONS: Presumptive administration of albendazole to all immigrants at risk for parasitosis would save lives and money. Universal screening, with treatment of persons with positive stool examinations, would save lives but is less cost effective than presumptive treatment.  (+info)

Morbidity and mortality attributable to alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use in Canada. (3/3131)

OBJECTIVES: This study estimated morbidity and mortality attributable to substance abuse in Canada. METHODS: Pooled estimates of relative risk were used to calculate etiologic fractions by age, gender, and province for 91 causes of disease or death attributable to alcohol, tobacco, or illicit drugs. RESULTS: There were 33,498 deaths and 208,095 hospitalizations attributed to tobacco, 6701 deaths and 86,076 hospitalizations due to alcohol, and 732 deaths and 7095 hospitalizations due to illicit drugs in 1992. CONCLUSIONS: Substance abuse exacts a considerable toll on Canadian society in terms of morbidity and mortality, accounting for 21% of deaths, 23% of years of potential life lost, and 8% of hospitalizations.  (+info)

Ten-year trend in survival and resource utilization at a level I trauma center. (4/3131)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of increasing trauma center experience over time on survival and resource utilization. METHODS: The authors studied a retrospective cohort at a single level I trauma center over a 10-year period, from 1986 to 1995. Patients included all hospital admissions and emergency department deaths. The main outcome measures were the case-fatality rate adjusted for injury severity, hospital length of stay, and costs. RESULTS: A total of 25,979 patients were admitted or died. The number of patients per year increased, from 2063 in 1986 to 3313 in 1995. The proportion of patients transferred from another institution increased from 16.2% to 34.4%. Although mean length of stay declined by 28.4%, from 9.5 to 6.8 days, costs increased by 16.7%, from $14,174 to $16,547. The use of specific radiologic investigations increased; the frequency of operative procedures either remained unchanged (craniotomy, fracture fixation) or decreased (celiotomy). After adjusting for injury severity and demographic factors, the mortality rate decreased over 10 years. The improvement in survival was confined to patients with an injury severity score > or =16. CONCLUSION: Over a 10-year period, the case-fatality rate declined in patients with severe injuries. Overall acute care costs increased, partially because of the increased use of radiologic investigations. Even in otherwise established trauma centers, increasing cumulative experience results in improved survival rates in the most severely injured patients. These data suggest that experience contributes to a decrease in mortality rate after severe trauma and that developing trauma systems should consider this factor and limit the number of designated centers to maximize cumulative experience at individual centers.  (+info)

The cost of obesity in Canada. (5/3131)

BACKGROUND: Almost one-third of adult Canadians are at increased risk of disability, disease and premature death because of being obese. In order to allocate limited health care resources rationally, it is necessary to elucidate the economic burden of obesity. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the direct costs related to the treatment of and research into obesity in Canada in 1997. METHODS: The prevalence of obesity (body mass index of 27 or greater) in Canada was determined using data from the National Population Health Survey, 1994-1995. Ten comorbidities of obesity were identified from the medical literature. A population attributable fraction (PAF) was calculated for each comorbidity with data from large cohort studies to determine the extent to which each comorbidity and its management costs were attributable to obesity. The direct cost of each comorbidity was determined using data from the Canadian Institute of Health Information (for direct expenditure categories) and from Health Canada (for the proportion of expenditure category attributable to the comorbidity). This prevalence-based approach identified the direct costs of hospital care, physician services, services of other health professionals, drugs, other health care and health research. For each comorbidity, the cost attributable to obesity was determined by multiplying the PAF by the total direct cost of the comorbidity. The overall impact of obesity was estimated as the sum of the PAF-weighted costs of treating the comorbidities. A sensitivity analysis was completed on both the estimated costs and the PAFs. RESULTS: The total direct cost of obesity in Canada in 1997 was estimated to be over $1.8 billion. This corresponded to 2.4% of the total health care expenditures for all diseases in Canada in 1997. The sensitivity analysis revealed that the total cost could be as high as $3.5 billion or as low as $829.4 million; this corresponded to 4.6% and 1.1% respectively of the total health care expenditures in 1997. When the contributions of the comorbidities to the total cost were considered, the 3 largest contributors were hypertension ($656.6 million), type 2 diabetes mellitus ($423.2 million) and coronary artery disease ($346.0 million). INTERPRETATION: A considerable proportion of health care dollars is devoted to the treatment and management of obesity-related comorbidities in Canada. Further research into the therapeutic benefits and cost-effectiveness of management strategies for obesity is required. It is anticipated that the prevention and treatment of obesity will have major positive effects on the overall cost of health care.  (+info)

Economic burden of blindness in India. (6/3131)

Economic analysis is one way to determine the allocation of scarce resources for health-care programs. The initial step in this process is to estimate in economic terms the burden of diseases and the benefit from interventions for prevention and treatment of these diseases. In this paper, the direct and indirect economic loss due to blindness in India is calculated on the basis of certain assumptions. The cost of treating cataract blindness in India is estimated at current prices. The economic burden of blindness in India for the year 1997 based on our assumptions is Rs. 159 billion (US$ 4.4 billion), and the cumulative loss over lifetime of the blind is Rs. 2,787 billion (US$ 77.4 billion). Childhood blindness accounts for 28.7% of this lifetime loss. The cost of treating all cases of cataract blindness in India is Rs. 5.3 billion (US$ 0.15 billion). Similar estimates for causes of blindness other than cataract have to be made in order to develop a comprehensive approach to deal with blindness in India.  (+info)

The economic value of informal caregiving. (7/3131)

This study explores the current market value of the care provided by unpaid family members and friends to ill and disabled adults. Using large, national data sets we estimate that the national economic value of informal caregiving was $196 billion in 1997. This figure dwarfs national spending for formal home health care ($32 billion) and nursing home care ($83 billion). Estimates for five states also are presented. This study broadens the issue of informal caregiving from the micro level, where individual caregivers attempt to cope with the stresses and responsibilities of caregiving, to the macro level of the health care system, which must find more effective ways to support family caregivers.  (+info)

Willingness to pay: a feasible method for assessing treatment benefits in epilepsy? (8/3131)

Contingent valuation using willingness to pay (WTP) is one of the methods available for assessing the value of a new technology or treatment for a disease in monetary terms. Experience with this method is lacking in epilepsy. The objectives of this study were to assess the acceptability of the WTP method in epilepsy, the level of the responses, and to investigate its validity by comparison with other non-monetary preference measures. Among 397 patients with epilepsy responding to a comprehensive questionnaire, 82 were randomly selected for an interview. They were asked about their WTP for an imaginary new technology which could permanently cure their epilepsy. Fifty-nine patients participated and 57 completed the interview (32 women; mean age 44 years), the majority with well-controlled epilepsy. The patients indicated a median WTP of Norwegian Kroner (NOK) 150,000 (USD 20,000; GBP 11,800), interquartile range NOK 50,000-350,000 (USD 6, 667-46, 667; GBP 3,937-27,559) for this cure. Non-response was low, indicating high acceptability of this method. There was little association between WTP and other preference measures; the Spearman rank correlation coefficient was -0.09 and -0.12 with time trade-off and standard gamble respectively, questioning the validity of this method.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks in 188 countries, 1990-2013: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. AU - Forouzanfar, Mohammad. AU - Alexander, Lily. AU - Anderson, H. AU - Bachman, Victoria. AU - Biryukov, Stan. AU - Kinfu, Yohannes. AU - al.,, et. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. N2 - Background: The Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factor study 2013 (GBD 2013) is the first of a series of annual updates of the GBD. Risk factor quantification, particularly of modifiable risk factors, can help to identify emerging threats to population health and opportunities for prevention. The GBD 2013 provides a timely opportunity to update the comparative risk assessment with new data for exposure, relative risks, and evidence on the appropriate counterfactual risk distribution. Methods: Attributable deaths, years of life lost, years lived with ...
Background: Diabetes is one of the most prevalent non-communicable diseases (NCDs) all over the world and leading cause of death, disability, and economic loss. Diabetes imposes a heavy economic burden on individuals, their families and society as a whole. The aim of this study is to estimate the economic burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Bangladesh and to find association between glycemic control and Health Related Quality of Life with cost-of-illness (COI).. Methodology: This will be an analytical cross-sectional cost-of-illness study. Within a specific time period participants aged ≥18 years, registered with Bangladesh Diabetic Somiti and having type 2 diabetes for more than one year will be recruited from selected hospitals inside and outside Dhaka to cover all level of health care services. A pre-tested electronic questionnaire will be used for data collection. The questionnaire will include demographic, clinical, behavioral information of the participants and all cost related ...
India is one of the fastest growing countries in the world and urbanisation is both a challenge and an opportunity for India with huge implications for the rest of the world. One critical concern for Indias urbanising future is the provision of basic urban services for all its citizens. Using a social cost accounting (SCA) methodology, this research estimates the market and non-market costs associated with the delivery of urban water, sanitation, transport and energy services in 4 case study cities. This study goes beyond typically studied issues of access to services and the direct costs involved and brings attention to ignored social costs such as indirect costs, health costs and environmental costs. One of the highlights of this study is that despite high levels of coverage in the four cities, the quantity and quality of services are inadequate in many respects, especially in the case of water and transport, and have high associated social costs ...
Pivodic, L., Block, L. van den, Pardon, K., Miccinesi, G., Vega, T., Boffin, N., Donker, G., Cancian, M., Lopéz-Maside, A., Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.D., Deliens, L. Burden on family carers and difficulty in covering costs of care at the end of life: a cross-national retrospective study via representative networks of general practitioners. European Journal of Palliative Care: 2013 53. Abstract. In: abstractbook. EAPC 2013. 13th World Congress of the European Association for Palliative Care (EAPC). 30 may - 2 june 2013, Prague ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Estimating the burden of disease attributable to physical inactivity in South Africa in 2000. AU - Joubert, J.. AU - Norman, R.. AU - Lambert, E.V.. AU - Groenewald, P.. AU - Schneider, M.. AU - Bull, Fiona. AU - Bradshaw, D.. PY - 2007. Y1 - 2007. N2 - Objectives. To quantify the burden of disease attributable to physical inactivity in persons 15 years or older, by age group and sex, in South Africa for 2000. Design. The global comparative risk assessment (CRA) methodology of the World Health Organization was followed to estimate the disease burden attributable to physical inactivity. Levels of physical activity for South Africa were obtained from the World Health Survey 2003. A theoretical minimum risk exposure of zero, associated outcomes, relative risks, and revised burden of disease estimates were used to calculate population-attributable fractions and the burden attributed to physical inactivity. Monte Carlo simulation-modelling techniques were used for the uncertainty ...
In type 2 diabetes, the successive failure of nonpharma-cologic therapy and oral antihyperglycemic agents eventually burdens patients with a heavy history of uncontrolled hyperglycemia. When this glycemic burden is defined as HbA1c-years ,8.0%, the total burden ranges from three-fourths of an HbA1c-year (8.6 HbA1c-months) in individuals failing diet and exercise to ∼2.5 HbA1c-years (29.9 HbA1c-months) for individuals failing combination therapy. When it is defined as HbA1c-years ,7.0%, the total burden is much higher, from 1.9 to 5.9 HbA1c-years (22.5-58.3 HbA1c-months). If, before starting insulin, a hypothetical patient were to progress from nonpharmacologic treatment through sulfonylurea or metformin monotherapy to combination oral agent therapy, as patients typically do in our study setting, he or she would accumulate nearly 5 HbA1c-years of total burden ,8.0% and about 10 HbA1c-years of total burden ,7.0%. The latter figure exceeds the mean reduction in glycemic burden (9.0 HbA1c-years) ...
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Over the last decade, there have been several attempts to estimate the global burden of ill health due to work activity. The most recent of these is the Comparative Risk Assessment (CRA) project of the World Health Organization. Published estimates of global burden of injury and disease due to occupational factors were summarized, compared, and contrasted with the aim of putting the CRA estimates
Irish drugs and alcohol research, data, policy and sources of evidence on prevention, treatment, rehabilitation, crime and consequences.
Researchers have discovered a link between certain changes in the genome of a tumor and increased chances of death across multiple types of cancer.
Up-to-date information about the economic impact of dental diseases is essential for health care decision makers when seeking to make rational use of available resources. The purpose of this study was to provide up-to-date estimates for dental expenditures (direct costs) and productivity losses (indirect costs) due to dental diseases on the global, regional, and country level. Direct costs of dental diseases were estimated using a previously established systematic approach; indirect costs were estimated using an approach developed by the World Health Organization Commission on Macroeconomics and Health and factoring in 2015 values for gross domestic product and disability-adjusted life years from the Global Burden of Disease Study ...
Along with The global burden of disease: 2004 update, WHO also analyzed the mortality and burden of disease attributable to 24 global risk factors using a consistent analytic framework known as Comparative Risk Assessment (CRA). Regional estimates of mortality and burden of disease and injury attributable to these 24 global risk factors are available for download. Estimates are available for risk factor exposures, mortality, and Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) by age, sex, risk factor and cause. These estimates can be downloaded as Excel files for several regional groupings: WHO regions, Low and Middle-Income Countries (LMIC) by WHO region, World Bank income groups and MDG regions. ...
The Global Burden of Disease Study 2017 (GBD 2017), coordinated by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME), estimated the burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors for 195 countries and territories, and at the subnational level for a subset of countries.. Estimates for deaths, YLLs, YLDs, and DALYs attributable to 84 risk factors by age and sex as well as estimates for summary exposure values (SEVs) by risk are available from the GBD Results Tool for 1990-2017. Select tables published in The Lancet in November 2018 in Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990-2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017 are also available for download via the Files tab above.. For additional GBD results and resources, visit the GBD 2017 Data Resources page.. ...
The economic burden of cancer in the United States is substantial and expected to increase significantly in the future because of expected growth and aging of the population and improvements in survival as well as trends in treatment patterns and costs of care following cancer diagnosis. In this article, we describe measures of the economic burden of cancer and present current estimates and projections of the national burden of cancer in the United States. We discuss ongoing efforts to characterize the economic burden of cancer in the United States and identify key areas for future work including developing and enhancing research resources, improving estimates and projections of economic burden, evaluating targeted therapies, and assessing the financial burden for patients and their families. This work will inform efforts by health care policy makers, health care systems, providers, and employers to improve the cancer survivorship experience in the United States. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers ...
This study estimates the cost burden associated with six major illnesses among Americans age 65 or older: chronic lung disease, ischemic heart disease, stroke, lung cancer, pneumonia, and gastrointestinal illness. These illnesses were selected because of their relatively high impact among older populations and because they include environmental exposures as a significant risk factor. A prevalence-based cost-of-illness approach was applied. Medical costs were estimated from Medicare claims data in 2000.
Reduction of exposure to key behavioural and environmental risk factors would prevent a substantial proportion of deaths from cancer.
Forouzanfar MH, Alexander L, Anderson HR, Bachman VF, Biryukov S, Brauer M, Burnett R, Casey D, Coates MM, Cohen A, Delwiche K, Estep K, Frostad JJ, KC A, Kyu HH, Moradi-Lakeh M, Ng M, Slepak EL, Thomas BA, Wagner J, Aasvang GM*, Abbafati C*, Abbasoglu Ozgoren A*, Abd-Allah F*, Abera SF*, Aboyans V*, Abraham B*, Abraham JP*, Abubakar I *, Abu-Rmeileh NME*, Aburto T C*, Achoki T*, Adelekan A*, Adofo K*, Adou AK*, Adsuar JC*, Afshin A*, Agardh EE*, Al Khabouri MJ*, Al Lami FH*, Alam S*, Alasfoor D*, Albittar MI*, Alegretti MA*, Aleman AV*, Alemu ZA*, Alfonso-Cristancho R*, Alhabib S*, Ali R*, Ali MK*, Alla F*, Allebeck P*, Allen PJ*, Alsharif U*, Alvarez E*, Alvis-Guzman N*, Amankwaa AA*, Amare AT*, Ameh EA*, Ameli O*, Amini H*, Ammar W*, Anderson BO*, Antonio CT*, Anwari P*, Argeseanu Cunningham S*, Arnlöv J*, Arsic Arsenijevic VS*, Artaman A*, Asghar RJ*, Assadi R*, Atkins LS*, Atkinson C*, Avila MA*, Awuah B*, Badawi A*, Bahit MC*, Bakfalouni T*, Balakrishnan K*, Balalla S*, Balu R*, Banerjee ...
The concept of Private Profits and Social Costs is implicitly easy to understand. It is far more difficult to recognize. Simply put, there are areas of economic activity where profits accrue to a few in the private sector but produce significant social costs that are paid by taxpayers. Currently, there is a political effort to…
Перевод текста музыки - Thy Burdens Are Greater Than Mine с английского на русский исполнителя Hank Williams
Research has shown that as a persons weight increases, so does the risk for developing a number of serious health conditions, including heart disease, diabetes, stroke and certain cancers (e.g. breast and colon). These conditions can lead to a decreased quality of life for individuals and their families and create an increased economic burden on the healthcare system. In 2008, the direct medical costs related to obesity in the United States totaled nearly $147 billion. These health conditions also have great economic impact on society because of productivity and income losses due to absenteeism and premature death. ...
About 75% of patients with depression have recurrent episodes, contributing to substantial personal and social costs. Read this new J Clin Psychlopedia activity to review the chronic nature of depression and learn what you can do to reduce its overall burden.
The burden of mental illness on health and productivity in the United States and throughout the world has long been underestimated. Data developed by the massive Global Burden of Disease study conducted by the World Health Organization, the World Bank, and Harvard University, reveal that mental illness, including suicide, accounts for over 15 percent of the burden of disease in established market economies, such as the United States. This is more than the disease burden caused by all cancers.. This Global Burden of Disease study developed a single measure to allow comparison of the burden of disease across many different disease conditions by including both death and disability. This measure was called Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). DALYs measure lost years of healthy life regardless of whether the years were lost to premature death or disability. The disability component of this measure is weighted for severity of the disability. For example, disability caused by major depression was ...
1. Ng M, Fleming T, Robinson M, Thomson B, Graetz N, Margono C, et al. Global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during 1980-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. The Lancet. 2014;384(9945):766-81. doi: 2. Lim SS, Vos T, Flaxman AD, Danaei G, Shibuya K, Adair-Rohani H, et al. A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990-2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet. 2012;380(9859):2224-60. Epub 2012/12/19. doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(12)61766-8 23245609; PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPmc4156511.. 3. Darmon N, Drewnowski A. Does social class predict diet quality? Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87(5):1107-17. Epub 2008/05/13. 18469226.. 4. Jones-Smith JC, Gordon-Larsen P, Siddiqi A, Popkin BM. Is the burden of overweight shifting to the poor across the globe? ...
Having said that, we do believe equally that a very significant, substantial financial package, both for short term and long term, is necessary. How do we define that? Simple. We must avail, or developed countries must avail in the next 5 years, fast track financing. That fast track financing is the equivalent of 1% of the GNP of developed countries. Its around 400 to 500 billion dollars depending on where … what happens to their economies. Of this, 150 billion dollars can be issued with immediate effect because, as we speak today, the IMF is sitting over 283 billion dollars worth of SDRs [Special Drawing Rights or supplementary foreign exchange reserve assets defined and maintained by the International Monetary Fund] that are not allocated. Simply sitting doing absolutely nothing, when we face a threat.. Many of you would say 400 billion dollars is a lot of money. Well, think about how much is being poured into your defence budgets and which wars are you fighting. Is there another war ...
Game publisher EA expects a tax benefit accumulating upwards to 1.7 billion dollars as a result of changing taxes in Switzerland where their HQ is...
Barbados-born Rihanna, whose birth name is Robyn Fenty, derives an estimated 1.4 billion dollars of her fortune from her 50 per cent stake in the Fenty Beauty cosmetics line, Forbes reported.
Uncut Billion Dollar Brain available on this website. (Divx Webplayer required.Please note movie should be available after 21:00.BST (GMT+1). ...
Read chapter 6 Discounting Module: The social cost of carbon (SC-CO2) is an economic metric intended to provide a comprehensive estimate of the net damage...
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One in every four couples in developing countries had been found to be affected by infertility, when an evaluation of responses from women in Demographic and Health Surveys from 1990 was completed in collaboration with WHO in 2004. The burden remains high. A WHO study, published at the end of 2012, has shown that the overall burden of infertility in women from 190 countries has remained similar in estimated levels and trends from 1990 to 2010. ...
Computerized tomography scan and head injury: The experience in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria: A cross sectional study February 2015. Trauma is the leading cause of death in all age groups, and head trauma is the cause of death in more than 50% of cases. Head injury reduces the level of physical and mental health of a community, ultimately increasing the socioeconomic burden. In our resource limited country, skull x ray was the main mode of investigating head trauma until recently when computerized tomography (CT) scans became the modality of choice.... Author(s): Akinwunmi Olalekan Akanji, Rachael Adeyanju Akinola, Babajide Olawale Balogun, Aliu Olabanji Akano, Omolola Mojisola Atalabi, Michael A. N. Akinkunmi and Gbolahan O. G. Awosanya ...
The population of developed nations is projected to age significantly over the next several decades. Because advanced age is the leading risk factor for Alzheimers disease (AD) and other cognitive disorders, a corollary of this increase in population age will be a substantial rise in the prevalence of cognitively impaired individuals and a resulting enormous socioeconomic burden (Reitz et al., 2011; Hebert et al., 2013). Discovery of new therapeutic approaches that can delay cognitive impairment would significantly mitigate this burden, but such discovery will likely be difficult without improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying unhealthy brain aging and aging-related susceptibility to Alzheimers disease. In this regard, accumulating evidence suggests that mechanisms of deleterious brain aging can be elucidated in part by investigation of the molecular machinery regulating neuronal Ca2+ homeostasis.. Numerous studies have found that Ca2+-dependent neuronal processes are ...
Within this chapter, we begin with the invaluable context of the experience of living after cancer as a young person. Then we move to describe the growing body of data indicating the consequences of cancer in patients diagnosed aged as teenagers and young adults (YAs). We identify that, while the variation in definitions used in the literature hamper firm conclusions, specific patterns of substantial morbidity are observed which are distinct from those seen in younger children. When combined with the epidemiology, the overall burden of late effects of adolescents and YA cancer and its treatment are a substantial public health problem. The progress in parts of Europe and the US in bringing together outcomes into medium-sized data sets, combined with the gaps in the data and remaining uncertainties, mean that the time is right for international epidemiological ascertainment of these adverse effects. There are potential benefits for commencing prospective clinical as well retrospective ...
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a significant reason behind incapacity within the aged inhabitants and represents a big public well being downside and socioeconomic burden worldwide. Nonetheless, no disease-modifying therapeutics are at … Continue Reading →. ...
Anyone who has looked at an OPPS proposed or final rule is aware the rules contain a massive amount of data, both in the form of projections and numbers from years past. Most of the time (but not always), CMS data is relatively accurate. However, CMS predictions for costs due to changes for laboratory packaging in 2014 were way off, and hospitals will have to pay for it in 2016.
Advocates see robots serving not just as helpers - carrying out simple chores and reminding patients to take their medication - but also as companions, even if the machines can carry on only a semblance of a real dialogue.. The ideal results: huge savings in medical costs, reduced burdens on family and caretakers, and old and sick people kept in better health.. This technology is really needed for the global community, said Russell Bodoff, executive director at the Center for Aging Services Technologies in Washington, D.C. If you look 30 years out, we have what I would call a global crisis in front of us: that we will have many more aging people than we could ever deal with. ...
Microbial and fungal infections are a major cause of death globally and can even cause potential epidemics, creating a huge economic burden on...
BOZEMAN - The Women to Women Project, a support network for rural women with chronic illness, is seeking women to participate in a study group forming in January 2008. The College of Nursing at
The total cost of dementia could reach $153 billion dollars per year by 2038, up from the current cost of $15 billion dollars per year. Without fundamental scientific advances such as ours, it is certain that the burdens will grow dramatically. It is urgent that we find ways of preventing, reversing, and repairing injured brains, and our findings are a significant advance in that direction ...
Global physiotherapy equipment market accounted USD 15.6 billion in 2016 and is predicted to garner USD 25.0 billion by the end of 2024.
Many people avoid hiring a house cleaner because they do not want to increase any financial burden on their shoulders. Indeed, they need to pay for the house cleaning, but this is a cost effective process you compared to cleaning your house by yourself. First of all, it will give more time to you, and you can save that time by making your own food instead of ordering it from outside. Or you can use that extra time to do work and make more money. Also, an expert house cleaner can reduce the consumption of house cleaning products that will be added saving for you. You can have many benefits similar to this, and that will make it a viable option for you instead of cleaning your house by yourself. So, if you are still cleaning your house by yourself, then now is the time to chance that habit. You shall hire a professional house cleaner, and you will see the amazing difference for sure. And if you still have any doubt, then you can try it for some time, and if you do not get positive results, then ...
Contributing Factors to the Clinical and Economic Burden of Patients with Laboratory-Confirmed Carbapenem-Nonsusceptible Gram-Negative Respiratory Infections
Extended hospital parking in large cities can exceed $1,000 a month -- a significant burden for many families visiting their children in NICUs.
November is American Diabetes Month and its important to know the facts about this often misunderstood illness.Diabetes is a disease. It places enormous emotional, physical and financial burden on an individual as well as those around them. Recent estimat
How do we measure the impact of a childhood cancer diagnosis? There are many ways to we could try to measure the total burden of childhood cancer in the world. We could count the number of new.... ...
Tony Hoare introduced Null references in ALGOL W back in 1965 simply because it was so easy to implement, says Mr. Hoare. He talks about that decision considering it my billion-dollar mistake.
If the post you are commenting on is more than 30 days old, your comment will have to await approval before being published. Rest assured, however, that as long as it is not spam, it will be published in due time. ...
Controversy generated by Kachikwus letter to Buhari is not new. Except you are Diezani, it is difficult to compel NNPC to report to anybody else.
DNA Force Plus is the most powerful Infowars Life formula yet! Try it today and see why so many listeners have made it an essential part of their daily routine ...
Its a little-known fact that when Justin Timberlake told Mark Zuckerberg A million dollars isnt cool. You know whats cool? A billion dollars, he
Tarricone, Rosanna (2006). "Cost-of-illness analysis". Health Policy. 77 (1): 51-63. doi:10.1016/j.healthpol.2005.07.016. PMID ... Opportunity costs are not restricted to monetary or financial costs but could be measured by the real cost of output forgone, ... an example of a real opportunity cost. Thus, if one more Gun costs 100 units of butter, the opportunity cost of one Gun is 100 ... Opportunity cost is the economic cost of production: the value of the next best opportunity foregone. Choices must be made ...
Economic benefit-cost analysis. Archives of General Psychiatry, 37, 400-405. *^ a b Test, M. A., & Stein, L. I. (1980). ... Thresholds further adapted the approach to serve deaf people with mental illness,[50] homeless people with mental illness,[51] ... Social cost. Archives of General Psychiatry, 37, 409-412. *^ Stein, L. I., & Santos, A. B. (1998). Assertive community ... Minkoff, K. & Drake, R. E. (Eds.) (1991). Dual diagnosis of major mental illness and substance disorder. New Directions for ...
The reason it costs corporations more is because people can not work to their full potential in poor conditions, affecting the ... Illness. 38 (1): 21-42. doi:10.1111/1467-9566.12300. hdl:1885/109350. PMID 26174027. Herlinger, Chris. "Bangladesh Counts The ... In developing countries with loose labor regulations and a large supply of low-skill, low-cost workers, there are risks for ... Corporations manage their supply chain to take advantage of cheaper costs of production. A supply chain is a system of ...
"Effectiveness of community health financing in meeting the cost of illness". Bulletin of the World Health Organization. Geneva ... transactions are low-cost (and reflect members' willingness to pay);. *clients are essentially low-net-worth (but not ... These include both health risks (illness, injury, or death) and property risks (damage or loss). A wide variety of ... against specific perils in exchange for regular premium payment proportionate to the likelihood and cost of the risks involved ...
... cost of illness and headache". The Journal of Headache and Pain. 9 (4): 199-206. doi:10.1007/s10194-008-0051-9. PMC 3451939. ... Nearly a tenth of the direct cost is due to the cost of triptans.[147] In those who do attend work with a migraine, ... In the United States direct costs have been estimated at $17 billion while indirect costs, such as missed or decreased ability ... Migraines are a significant source of both medical costs and lost productivity. It has been estimated that they are the most ...
Illness/disease (malaria, tuberculosis, AIDS, etc.): Illness imposes high and regressive cost burdens on families in developing ... "An overview of diarrhea, symptoms, diagnosis and the costs of morbidity" (PDF). CHNRI. 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) ... Russel S. The economic burden of illness for households in developing countries: a review of studies focusing on malaria, ... Strategies include improving combustion, reducing smoke exposure, improving safety and reducing labor, reducing fuel costs, and ...
Osceola died in prison of illness; the war resulted in over 1,500 U.S. deaths, and cost the government $20 million. Some ... At our trading houses, too, we mean to sell so low as merely to repay us cost and charges, so as neither to lessen or enlarge ...
Roeser organized a benefit concert to help with the family's medical costs. Roeser, his wife Sandy, drummer John Miceli and ... Browning eventually succumbed to his illness. The Roesers still have a close relationship with the Browning family. Roeser is ...
... community care of serious mental illness; and health care and cost-effectiveness evaluation. He has developed computer aids ...
Sommai's son's illness is growing worse. Another doctor says the cause is a tumor at the base of the boy's brain, and that a ... At all costs, Thanu would rather not confront his old sergeant again. Thanu goes as far as visiting Sommai at his barbershop, ...
CostsEdit. The pathogen results in an estimated 2,100 hospitalizations annually in the United States. The illness is often ... Usually little or no fever is present, and the illness resolves in 5 to 10 days.[4] It can also sometimes be asymptomatic.[5] ... It is a cause of disease, typically foodborne illness, through consumption of contaminated and raw food, including raw milk and ... Transmission is via the fecal-oral route, and most illness has been through distribution of contaminated raw leaf green ...
His habits eventually led to serious illness. Levitov died of tuberculosis in a Moscow clinic in 1877. The funeral costs were ...
Her illness required John to do more work to meet the costs of her treatment. In 1823 John's own earlier illness returned. He ... His illness soon returned, along with consequent poverty. He continued to write, and encouraged Michael in his writing of The ... He was often in pain and had to use opiates to sleep, but during the short intervals between the attacks of his illness, he was ... Upon visiting John in London, in the summer of 1826, Michael found that his brother's illness had aged him and made him appear ...
... a shortage of low-cost rental housing; and a high prevalence of severe mental illness, which often co-occurs with addiction. ... Costs per individual: For each untreated drug addict, the costs to society, including crime, judicial costs, and health care, ... Several overlapping sets of data exist on costs related to the DTES: *DTES-specific costs: Of the estimated $360 million per ... The annual cost of ambulances responding to overdoses in Vancouver is $500,000,[100] and the cost of police response to calls ...
walesonline Administrator (12 September 2008). "Boxing: Illness cost me Hall fight says Jones". walesonline. "Latest Boxing ... progress at this time was all the more impressive as in 2003 he had been the victim of a stabbing incident which nearly cost ...
Dave Goldiner, "Lung illness take an Angel of Ground Zero." "New York Daily News." November 3, 2006, p. 4 SEWELL CHAN, "Officer ... Giuliani's triumph of leadership as having come with a human cost." The article reported that he seized control of the cleanup ... In September 2006, the U.S. House Committee on Homeland Security held a two-day hearing on illnesses caused by post-9/11 air ... By raising attention to her own devastating illness, Sister Mahoney will continue as she did in life, to help those affected by ...
Taube, Carl A.; Goldman, Howard H.; Salkever, David (January 1990). "Medicaid Coverage for Mental Illness: Balancing Access and ... Costs". Health Affairs. 9 (1): 5-18. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.9.1.5. ISSN 0278-2715. "Psychiatrist wins the American Public Health ...
Frerichs, RR; Becht, JN; Foxman, B (1980). "Prevalence and cost of illness episodes in rural Bolivia". Int J Epidemiol. 9 (3): ... Globally, his research included health status measures and costs of care in Bolivia, microcomputer applications in Bangladesh, ...
... and intangible cost of diseases can be estimated through cost-of-illness studies. Direct costs are estimated through prevalence ... Rice, Dorothy P. (2000-09-01). "Cost of illness studies: what is good about them?". Injury Prevention. 6 (3): 177-179. doi: ... Indirect costs due to alcohol dependence are significant. The biggest indirect cost comes from lost productivity, followed by ... and cost of property damage and enforcement, far exceed the direct health care and law enforcement costs. Aggregating the ...
For Egypt, the cost totaled $1 billion, 3% of GDP. Yemen had a cost of $830 million, 10% of GDP, while it cost Jordan $1.8 ... There has been widespread speculation and disagreement about the causes of the illness and the possibly related birth defects. ... The ODI factored in elements of "cost" which included oil imports, remittance flows, re-settlement costs, loss of export ... The cost of the war to the United States was calculated by the US Congress in April 1992 to be $61.1 billion (equivalent to $ ...
In 1928, however, he died following a brief illness. He wanted William Neagle, who he had hired 26 years earlier, to have first ... Through drastic inventory and cost reductions Neagle managed to keep Chelsea afloat. When World War II arrived, Chelsea's role ...
Betz was also involved in the creation of the EU COST B4 Report. The report describes the scientific criteria and conditions ... He died on 8 June 2019 after a long illness. In 2012 Betz was presented with the European Council of Skeptical Organisations' ... Betz was a leading skeptic in Flanders and participant in the EU COST B4 Project (a European initiative for comprehensive ... in the fact that many illnesses disappear spontaneously (e.g., common colds) or fluctuate (e.g., allergies), as well as in the ...
Cost of Illness in the 1993 Waterborne Cryptosporidium Outbreak, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (CDC) [1]A Massive Outbreak in Milwaukee ... "Cost of illness in the 1993 waterborne Cryptosporidium outbreak, Milwaukee, Wisconsin". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 9 (4): ... The total cost of the outbreak, in productivity loss and medical expenses, was $96 million dollars. The city of Milwaukee has ... Public health officials suspected recent illness to be due to water consumption. To verify suspicions, both the water treatment ...
"No Breathing Room: National Illness Costs of Air Pollution" (PDF). Canadian Medical Association. August 2008. Archived from the ... The study estimated the economic impact of air pollution to be at $8 billion, including lost productivity, health care costs, ...
Through September repeated attacks gained several blocks in the northeast of the city at the cost of nearly 20,000 more ... On October 4 General Sokolov died of an unstated illness. He was replaced two days later by Col. Pyotr Dmitrievich Govorunenko ...
One Australian estimate pegged alcohol's social costs at 24% of all drug misuse costs; a similar Canadian study concluded ... Mental illness or other addictions may complicate treatment. After detoxification, various forms of individual or group therapy ... medical costs due to injuries due to drunkenness and organ damage from long-term use, and secondary treatment costs, such as ... Beyond the financial costs that alcohol consumption imposes, there are also significant social costs to both the alcoholic and ...
... such as a cost-effectiveness analysis or cost-utility analysis. This affects the types of costs (resource expenditures) and ... Examples include lost productivity and lost wages due to illness.. ... Average acquisition cost would be more relevant. More complex perspectives may require broader consideration of costs and more ... Other relevant costs include inventory carrying cost, pharmacy time to compound or dispense, nursing time to administer, ...
The frequent occurrences cost the country lives, illness, malnutrition, and denial of education and health services. Filipino ...
... they are not cost effective as of 2010.[110] In those who are pregnant, insulin is generally the treatment of choice.[23] ... "The clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of bariatric (weight loss) surgery for obesity: a systematic review and ...
A chronic lack of nutritious food can cause various illnesses, and will eventually lead to starvation. When this happens in a ... Humphries, M. M.; Thomas, D.W.; Kramer, D.L. (2003). "The role of energy availability in mammalian hibernation: A cost-benefit ... and numerous other illnesses and eating disorders. ...
... cost about $12 for a daily dose, which is 24% less than Invirase and 33% less than Norvir.[14] Because the company ... Protease inhibitors changed the nature of AIDS from a terminal illness to a somewhat manageable one. It significantly increased ... In response to this hefty price, Merck stated that it cost a lot to research and develop the drug, and they did not have enough ...
This may be due to a natural recovery from the illness, or a fluctuation in the symptoms of a long-term condition.[119] The ... Sobel, D.S. (2000). "Chapter 28: The Cost-effectiveness of Mind-body Medicine Interventions". In Mayer, E.A.; Saper, C.B. (eds ... possibly life-threatening illness.[170] For this reason, critics argue that therapies that rely on the placebo effect to define ... The Sociology of Health and Illness (8th ed.). New York: Worth. pp. 261-77. ISBN 9781429205580. .. ...
CostEdit. This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. ... permit the visualization of neuroreceptor pools in the context of a plurality of neuropsychiatric and neurologic illnesses. ... Because of cost as well as the marginal utility of detecting cancer metastases in companion animals (the primary use of this ... One of the disadvantages of PET scanners is their operating cost.[3] A similar imaging process to PET is single-photon emission ...
The disease is often diagnosed 3-6 years after the onset of illness.[19] Several studies have shown that Cushing's disease is ... this test is used only as a last resort due to its high cost and complexity.[9] ...
"Total quality management and the reduction of inpatient violence and costs in a forensic psychiatric hospital". Psychiatric ... by many clinicians to compromise the hospital's mission of providing excellent care for persons with serious mental illness, as ...
Ole Anthony estimated that with none of the Word of Faith Family Church overhead and with television production costs at a ... usually involving Tilton shouting as loudly as possible at demons supposedly possessing people suffering from pain and illness ...
The poor and excluded have limited access to basic health care due to its high costs and low availability. The demand for ... Even moderately acute and severely acute malnourished children are more likely to die from common childhood illness than those ... Immunization services can be obtained at free of cost from EPI clinics in hospitals, other health centers, mobile and outreach ... Lack of appropriate complementary feeding may lead to malnutrition and frequent illnesses, which in turn may lead to death. ...
This action almost cost him his marriage to Ingeborg. As his business grows, Mads, who's originally honest and well-meaning, is ... Consul Holm, the chairman of Korsbæk Bank, dies (The actor, Karl Stegger, in fact died in 1980 after a long illness and the ... This lack of responsibility towards his family once nearly cost him his son's life, and his marriage. It was during Daniel ...
Physical medicine and rehabilitation (or physiatry) is concerned with functional improvement after injury, illness, or ... "Transparency called key to uniting cost control, quality improvement". Managed Care ... These include treatment of acute and chronic illnesses, preventive care and health education for all ages and both sexes. ... History of present illness (HPI): the chronological order of events of symptoms and further clarification of each symptom. ...
Current total costs amount to €5.4 billion.[49][50][51][52][53] Revised plans suggest additional costs amounting to an extra € ... but survived after a three-month period of illness.[376] ... Initially planned to cost €200 million, the exploding cost of ... The current time-cost frame is limited to 2016;[60] the estimated cost of €6.9 billion is current as of May 2016.[61] The ... This means that the three years of work from 2018 onwards will cost at least €900 million.[63] The total cost of the airport ...
Cost[edit]. The cost of treatment depends on the amount of growth hormone given, which in turn depends on the child's weight ... Chronic illnesses, malnutrition, endocrine, metabolic disorders or chromosomal anomalies are characterized by proportionate ... One year's worth of drugs normally costs about US$20,000 for a small child and over $50,000 for a teenager.[5] These drugs are ... barring troublesome side effects and excessive cost of treatments.[7] ...
In addition, such laws may reduce health care costs,[3] improve work productivity, and lower the overall cost of labour in the ... not smoking-related illness.[157] They argued it was "cruel" to deny patients cigarettes.[158] ... Smoking ban 'costs pub takings' 17 December 2007, BBC News *^ "The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke ... It has also been found that treatment of tobacco related diseases and the loss of productivity caused therein cost the country ...
This allows the entirety of donations made to the cancer fund to solely support patients without hindrance from outside costs. ... suffering from mental illness', 'have an active imagination', that they 'didn't understand their own experience' and also ' ...
The EM (Erythema migrans) rash is often accompanied by symptoms of a viral-like illness, including fatigue, headache, body ... Following approval of the vaccine, its entry in clinical practice was slow for a variety of reasons, including its cost, which ... People with high fever for more than two days or whose other symptoms of viral-like illness do not improve despite antibiotic ... A regionally restricted condition that may be related to Borrelia infection is southern tick-associated rash illness (STARI), ...
Cost-effectiveness. A 2012 systematic review suggested that the use of spine manipulation in clinical practice is a cost- ... disability or illness."[50][51] ... A 2006 systematic cost-effectiveness review found that the ... Utilization of chiropractic care is sensitive to the costs incurred by the co-payment by the patient.[1] The use of ... van der Roer N, Goossens ME, Evers SM, van Tulder MW (2005). "What is the most cost-effective treatment for patients with low ...
Failure to meet cost targets will lead to substantial losses for an organisation. In addition, with global competition, the R&D ... unreasonable risk of illness or injury and require premarket approval.[18][15][18] Examples of Class III devices include ... and may not present an unreasonable risk of illness or injury.[17] Examples of Class I devices include elastic bandages, ...
... during their illness to relieve symptoms. Experimental treatments include targeted therapy, gamma knife radiosurgery,[45] boron ... the average lifetime economic cost of a case of brain cancer is $1.9 million, the greatest of any type of cancer.[9] ...
One comprising factor is the number of febrile illnesses present in Africa, such as malaria or typhoid fever that could ... but the cost of the drug is still very high for many of those in West African states. Fluid replacement, blood transfusion, and ... About 15-20% of hospitalized Lassa fever patients will die from the illness. The overall mortality rate is estimated to be 1%, ... After an incubation period of six to 21 days, an acute illness with multiorgan involvement develops. Nonspecific symptoms ...
... with no cost to the patient. These policies, along with research expenses and other costs, cause the hospital to incur more ... Jude have profoundly changed how doctors treat children with cancer and other catastrophic illnesses.[11][12] Since St. Jude ... The hospital costs about US$2.8 million a day to run, but patients are not charged for their care.[1] It is located in Memphis ... To cover operating costs, ALSAC conducts many fund-raising events and activities. The WGC Invitational, a PGA Tour event, is ...
Research findings indicate that this two-pronged approach is effective in preventing work-related illness and injury.[150] ... The interventions tended reduce organization health-care costs.[143][144] ...
... the environment presents stresses to remove from the population those individuals who cannot survive because of illness.[ ... High producing cows are increasingly difficult to breed and are subject to higher health costs than cows of lower genetic merit ...
File:The Cost Of The Common Cold & Influenza.jpg,upright=1.3,thumb,Një poster britanik nga [[Lufta e Dytë Botërore]] që ...,website=CDC,accessdate=4 February 2016,format=17 April ...,archivedate=1 February 2016,language=en}},/ref, Ata ... përshkruan koston e ftohjes së zakonshme,ref,{{cite web,title=The Cost of the Common Cold and Influenza,website=Imperial War ...
Light weight and high cost are related in the manual wheelchair market. At the low-cost end, heavy, folding steel chairs with ... A wheelchair is a chair with wheels, used when walking is difficult or impossible due to illness, injury, or disability. ... The chair has been engineered to be low-cost and usable on the rough roads common in developing countries. ... This wheelchair is designed to be low-cost, constructed with local materials, for users in developing countries. Engineering ...
A review of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic use in depressive illness". Drugs. 43 (4): 561-596. doi:10.2165/ ... such as the costs of conducting the necessary trials to gain approval, moclobemide is unavailable in the USA pharmaceutical ... A review of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic use in depressive illness". Drugs. 43 (4): 561-96. doi:10.2165/ ... Roth M, Guelfi JD (September 1992). "The efficacy of reversible monoamine oxidase inhibitors in depressive illness". Can J ...
... rather than cost.[4] Roosevelt did not fulfill his promise until December 1939, when he appointed Myron Charles Taylor as his ...
Nitschke's lawyer will apply for costs of approximately AU$300,000, which were paid using donations, including $20,000 from ... "Jeff Kennett slams Philip Nitschke for helping man without a terminal illness to die". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 5 ...
Doctors also suffered illness and death, and fewer were available to care for patients. Three of Rush's apprentices and his ... Mitchell noted that the stomach and intestines filled with blood and that these organs had to be emptied at all costs. "On this ... but that was also where land was available at lower cost. Families who could afford it planned to vacate the port cities during ...
Learn about Cost of Illness: What is the economic burden of the condition? ... What output does a cost of illness analysis provide?. Cost of illness analysis provides the economic costs of an illness, ... Total cost of illness. medical + productivity losses. $394M. $186M. Average cost or cost per case. total cost/number of cases. ... What is cost of illness analysis?. Cost of illness analysis is a way of measuring medical and other costs resulting from a ...
... will be forced onto the welfare rolls after prolonged illnesses wipe out their family finances, a House subcommittee reported ... Pepper remarked Wednesday, I have found nothing useful in my 86 years of life that doesnt cost something. Of course it will ... Chafee said any serious proposal must include protection against the impoverishment of the elderly as a result of the cost of ... In addition, he said that the needs of younger families and children with chronic illnesses or disabilities must be addressed ...
In some cases, Critical Illness insurance can cost as little as $20 a month and the coverage pays regardless of any other ... Many Critical Illnesses are hereditary so, if youve ever had to care for a family member with a Critical Illness such as ... What your health insurance will not pay should you develop a critical illness: ...
... By John M. Grohol, Psy.D. Founder ... Home » Blog » Cutting Mental Illness Services At What Cost?. .fn { margin:-2px 0 0 0;font-size:90%!important; } .time-read { ... ... The Boston Globes front-page story about this topic was a good read, detailing the difficulty many people with mental illness ...
... ,. Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology,. vol. 16. ,. Article ID ... What Can We Learn from Cost-of-Illness Studies?. Andreas Laupacis1. 1Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, G-106-2075 ...
When researchers calculated the actual cost of mental health leave, they found that on average, its double the cost of a leave ... A new Canadian study reveals that mental illness is associated with more lost work days than any other chronic condition. ... for a physical illness. The study, published in the Journal of ... Double the Costs for Worksite Mental Illness. Double the Costs ... Disability leaves due to physical illness cost nearly half of that for a leave due to mental illness. ...
... to be the first to use national data to estimate these costs.1 We find that the costs of occupational injuries and illnesses ... Our study attempted to estimate the total costs of occupational injuries and illnesses to the United States in 1992. This study ... Since the injuries and illnesses occur at places of business, some of their costs are spread to consumers in the form of higher ... But despite the size of these costs and the fact that so many people pay them, occupational injuries and illnesses do not ...
Preventable Illness at Core of U.S. Health Costs. Americans may have themselves to blame for higher health care costs. ... Researchers examined the rates of 10 of the most common and costly chronic illnesses among those over age 50. The illnesses ... As John Smith prepares for retirement, he also realizes that 18 percent of his income goes toward health care costs, and he ... And according to the study, it may be Americans own habits that are driving health care costs in the United States. ...
The fatal cost of illness in Africa. Wednesday, December 19, 2007. When friends carried Jennifer Uduma, bleeding from a gunshot ... By treating more than 200 people a day and working all hours, a team of devoted doctors manages to keep costs low enough for ...
77 billion in medical costs and lost productivity in 2008 alone, a new analysis found. ... Childhood diseases thought to be linked to environmental causes cost the nation nearly $ ... Meanwhile, asthma cost more than $3 billion in medical costs, such as trips to the hospital and doctors visits, in 2008, and ... About 10% of that cost was for medical care, but 90% is attributable to lost economic productivity from "reduced cognitive ...
... inspection costs and staff retraining, a new study from researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health ... A single foodborne outbreak could cost a restaurant millions of dollars in lost revenue, fines, lawsuits, legal fees, insurance ... "Estimated Cost to a Restaurant of a Foodborne Illness Outbreak" was written by Sarah M. Bartsch, Lindsey Asti, Sindiso Nyathi, ... A foodborne illness outbreak could cost a restaurant millions, study suggests. Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of ...
Mental illness is a quiet epidemic - and its affecting Americas workplaces. Untreated mental illnesses cost the U.S. at least ... The Scientific American points out that one in 17 adults has a serious mental illness and "nearly one in two people in the U.S. ... This all means that, statistically speaking, you are probably working alongside someone who is struggling with a metal illness ... Unfortunately, there is still a stigma surrounding mental illness, which is why so many conditions go untreated. ...
Estimating lifetime or episode-of-illness costs under censoring.. Basu A1, Manning WG. ... Many analyses of healthcare costs involve use of data with varying periods of observation and right censoring of cases before ... which jointly determine costs. In this paper, we propose a new estimator that extends the class of two-part models to deal with ... death or at the end of the episode of illness. The prominence of observations with no expenditure for some short periods of ...
Estimates the cost burden associated with six major illnesses among Americans age 65 or older: chronic lung disease, ischemic ... heart disease, stroke, lung cancer, pneumonia, and gastrointestinal illness. ... A prevalence-based cost-of-illness approach was applied. Medical costs were estimated from Medicare claims data in 2000. ... Costs of illness among older adults. An analysis of six major health conditions with significant environmental risk factors ...
ORCID: 0000-0003-1427-0215 (2003) Hidden cost of mental illness. British Journal of Psychiatry, 183 (6). pp. 477-478. ISSN 0007 ...
WHO Report Estimates Productivity Cost Of Illness In Africa. Mar 28, 2019 ... WHO Regional Office for Africa: Diseases cost the African Region $2.4 trillion a year, says WHO. "The World Health Organization ...
The economic impact of illness. In: Abshagen U, Munnich FE, eds. Cost of illness and benefits of drug treatment., Munich: ... Demographic and epidemiological determinants of healthcare costs in Netherlands: cost of illness study BMJ 1998; 317 :111 ... Demographic and epidemiological determinants of healthcare costs in Netherlands: cost of illness study. BMJ 1998; 317 doi: ... It is these costs which cause the exponential increase in costs in old age. Like the American study we found that costs for ...
Mental illness-Treatment costs-Judgment for accrued amounts.. Whenever any notice and finding of responsibility, or appeal ... and/or the costs of outpatient services, and such judgment shall have and be given the same effect as if entered pursuant to ... upon application of the secretary enter a judgment in the amount of the accrued monthly charges for the costs of ...
... estimates of the costs of illness and premature death for a number of foodborne illnesses have been used in regulatory cost- ... Foodborne Illness Cost Calculator The Economic Research Service (ERS) ... You are here: Home / Resources / Foodborne Illness Cost Calculator. Foodborne Illness Cost Calculator. Filed by fulltextreports ... Foodborne Illness Cost Calculator. The Economic Research Service (ERS) estimates of the costs of illness and premature death ...
This study is to update the estimates of the economic burden of illness because of overweight and obesity in Canada by ... Obesity and overweight in Canada: an updated cost-of-illness study Obes Rev. 2010 Jan;11(1):31-40. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X. ... The burden was estimated from a societal perspective using the prevalence-based cost-of-illness methodology. Results from a ... The direct costs were extracted from the National Health Expenditure Database and allocated to each comorbidity using weights ...
... foodborne illness is relatively new. It was coined over the past few decades. Yet humans have been infected by cryptic- ... The gravity of the problem begins to sink in when it is compared to previous cost estimates of foodborne illness, which ranged ... If we invest $10 billion in a program that reduces illness by 10 percent, then cost savings to society would be $15 billion, so ... Health cost of foodborne illness staggering. By Stephanie Smith. CNN Medical Producer ...
At the same time, total costs reflect true costs more accurately if the costs of asthma-patients are to be compared with costs ... 29 could utilise physician costs in direct cost, total costs of illness for asthma can be estimated to be slightly higher than ... Indirect costs. Sick benefits are the major source of indirect costs for insurants with asthma. Total costs for sick benefits ... Total cost of drug prescription was split up into total cost for asthma medication and total cost of all prescribed medication ...
The financial burden of so-called lifestyle illnesses in working people aged 45 and over is costing federal and state ... Lifestyle illnesses costing governments hundreds of millions of dollars annually: study. The World Today ... The financial burden of so-called lifestyle illnesses in working people aged 45 and over is costing federal and state ... The itemised bill for lifestyle illnesses in NSW alone was $330 million for heart disease, $170 million for blood clots, $92 ...
Direct costs account for the most part and are on account of the national healthcare system. In addition, patients bear ... Cost of illness and health service patterns in Morbus Parkinson in Austria] Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2009;121(17-18):574-82. doi: ... direct costs (5910 ,euro,) and 40% indirect costs (3910 ,euro,). The major part (59%) of direct costs was paid by the national ... Cost-driving factors were identified by multiple regression analysis. Results: The overall costs from the perspective of ...
Methods: To measure out-of-pocket costs of illness and lost earnings, families with culture-proven cases were ... costs of blood culture-confirmed typhoid fever in Hechi, China; North Jakarta, Indonesia; Kolkata, India; Karachi, Pakistan and ... Public costs of treatment were measured at local health facilities using a micro costing (bottom-up) method. Results: The costs ... Methods: To measure out-of-pocket costs of illness and lost earnings, families with culture-proven cases were surveyed 7, 14 ...
How much does critical illness cover cost?. The cost of critical illness cover depends largely on the policy you choose. There ... If you are over the age of 50, have a history of illness or you work in a high-risk industry, your premium is likely to be ... higher than somebody who is younger with no history of illness. Once you take a policy out you may find that the cost increases ... spreading the cost). If you make any changes to your policy or you increase your cover, you should expect to pay a higher ...
Even so, the broader economic and social costs of poor quality care, including long-term disability, impairment and lost ... Anti-hypertensive and anti-diabetic drugs for the patients at free of cost. ... Anti-hypertensive and anti-diabetic drugs for the patients at free of cost. ...
... but Joe Elliott said his performing days were in danger following an illness in 2016. ... Joe Elliott Says Illness in 2016 Almost Cost Him His Voice Erica Banas // Rock Music Reporter June 25th ... but Joe Elliott said in a new interview his performing days were in danger following an illness in 2016. ...
New research nets the true economic costs of global mosquito-borne illness. Dengue fever costs billions in healthcare, lost ... The study set out to estimate the true economic costs of a case of dengue, whether the patient was treated at home or in the ... Dengue illness involves sudden severe headache, muscle and joint pain, diarrhea, vomiting, and a high fever typically lasting ... "We found that that the economic cost of this disease is high-at least $1.8 billion yearly in these 8 countries after adjusting ...
... in Germany over a 6-month observation period and to identify the predictors of these costs. St ... Cost of illness in Parkinson disease: a retrospective 3-month analysis of direct costs. Nervenarzt 1997; 68 (12): 978-84PubMed ... including drug costs) and non-medical direct costs for the GKV were €3380 ± €4230. Univariate predictors for GKV direct costs ... Cost of illness and disease severity in a cohort of French patients with Parkinsons disease. Pharmacoeconomics 1999; 16 (1): ...
  • Calculation of indirect costs (absenteeism and disability) was based on the Human Capital Method (HCM). (
  • When applying the FCM for calculating the indirect costs, these costs were reduced to $96 million. (
  • The cost structure shown in this study, with high indirect costs, has also been found in other studies. (
  • Total costs for asthma, including direct and indirect costs, were calculated at \#8364;2.74 billion during 1999. (
  • The study also indicates that there is room for substantial savings in the German social insurance system, with indirect costs amounting to 74.8% of total costs and payment of sick benefits through the sickness funds amounting to 58.3% of indirect costs. (
  • As there is no national registry this study estimates the direct and indirect medical costs and prevalence of asthma in Germany by analysing medical claims data augmented by data from the federal office of statistics (Statistisches Bundesamt) and the association of German pension funds 22 , 23 . (
  • The study, published in the May issue of the American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene , assessed the direct and indirect costs of dengue cases in eight American and Asian countries, tallying the collective economic burden of dengue in those countries at about $1.8 billion annually. (
  • Direct and indirect costs were evaluated in 145 patients with PD (mean age 67.3 ± 9.6 years). (
  • Indirect costs for lost productivity were also calculated. (
  • We estimated average per patient direct, indirect and total costs for the 6-month observation period. (
  • Total indirect costs amounted to €3180 ± €6480. (
  • Prevalence-based direct and indirect costs in 2010 were calculated, including costs for prescription drug use, specialized healthcare, sick leave, and disability pension. (
  • The estimated COI of all the MS patients were SEK 3950 million, of which 75% were indirect costs. (
  • MS was the main diagnosis for resource use, causing 38% of healthcare costs and 67% of indirect costs. (
  • Indirect costs contributed to approximately 75% of the estimated overall COI of MS patients of working age in Sweden. (
  • Lost earning potential, costs associated with treating coexisting conditions, Social Security payments, homelessness and incarceration are just some of the indirect costs associated with mental illnesses that have been difficult to quantify," Dr. Thomas R. Insel, director of the National Institute of Mental Health, said in a prepared statement. (
  • This study shows us that just one source of these indirect costs is staggeringly high. (
  • Forty studies described both individual (direct and indirect) and societal level costs. (
  • The most commonly reported indirect individual level component cost was productivity losses due to sick leave from work. (
  • Costs at the individual level are divided into direct and indirect costs. (
  • Indirect costs represent productivity losses due to illness or death and intangible costs such as pain and suffering. (
  • Costs associated with overhead activities that are shared amongst individuals and expenditures incurred in the process of seeking care are also indirect costs. (
  • This figure is $31 billion more than the direct and indirect costs of all cancer, $76 billion more than diabetes, and $187 billion more than strokes. (
  • Published in the December issue of the Milbank Quarterly: A Multidisciplinary Journal of Population Health and Health Policy , the study is based on Leigh's evaluation of more than 40 datasets from sources that track work-related injuries and illnesses as well as their direct medical and indirect productivity costs. (
  • A postal survey of patients was undertaken to examine indirect costs, out of pocket expenses, and primary care visits. (
  • The out-of-pocket direct and indirect costs of dengue illness were US$421 (SD 744) and US$571 (SD 1,913) per episode, respectively, averaging to a total out-of-pocket cost of US$992 (SD 2,052) per episode. (
  • The study findings suggest that international travelers incur important direct and indirect costs because of dengue-related illness. (
  • The economic costs, such as absences from work, as well as other indirect costs have not been taken into account yet," highlights Dr Daniel Mäusezahl, epidemiologist at the Swiss TPH. (
  • The share of direct medical costs per patient is 58% (12% for ambulatory therapy (medications and phototherapy) and 46% in hospital settings (medications, medical care, and laboratory test), 42% - indirect costs. (
  • The study is intended to present the direct and indirect cost of psoriasis therapy at hospital settings as well as the financial burden associated with psoriasis concomitant diseases. (
  • We derived the COI from the sum of direct and indirect costs (morbidity and mortality). (
  • The total cost of outpatients comprises direct medical costs, non-medical costs and the indirect costs of patients and caregivers. (
  • Indirect costs comprise travel and waiting times and income losses associated with treatment. (
  • The direct costs are relatively minor compared to the large indirect cost burden that illness places on households. (
  • These indirect costs are mainly the result of time off work and foregone wages. (
  • However, average indirect costs are higher for public hospital patients than private hospital patients by a factor of almost two. (
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that approximately 48 million people get sick, 128,000 are hospitalized and 3,000 die each year due to food-related illnesses, which are often referred to as food poisoning. (
  • This study estimates the cost burden associated with six major illnesses among Americans age 65 or older: chronic lung disease, ischemic heart disease, stroke, lung cancer, pneumonia, and gastrointestinal illness. (
  • A simple extrapolation of these cost estimates based on population growth and increases in average medical care prices since 2000 implies that the comparable costs in 2007 were more than $196 billion. (
  • The Economic Research Service (ERS) estimates of the costs of illness and premature death for a number of foodborne illnesses have been used in regulatory cost-benefit and impact analyses. (
  • Like all cost estimates, the ERS estimates include assumptions about disease incidence, outcome severity, and the level of medical, productivity, and disutility costs. (
  • Changes to any of these assumptions could change the cost estimates and, as a result, change the way policymakers rank risks, prioritize spending, and formulate food safety policies. (
  • The Foodborne Illness Cost Calculator provides information on the assumptions behind foodborne illness cost estimates-and gives you a chance to make your own assumptions and calculate your own cost estimates. (
  • This study is to update the estimates of the economic burden of illness because of overweight and obesity in Canada by incorporating the increase in prevalence of overweight and obesity, findings of new related comorbidities and rise in the national healthcare expenditure. (
  • The inclusion of newly identified comorbidities increased the direct cost estimates of obesity by 25%, while the rise in national healthcare expenditure accounted for a 19% increase. (
  • A new report by the Produce Safety Project at Georgetown University estimates that the health-related cost of foodborne illness in the U.S. at $152 billion per year (see state by state breakdown from the group Make Our Food Safe here ). (
  • The gravity of the problem begins to sink in when it is compared to previous cost estimates of foodborne illness, which ranged from $6.5 to $35 billion per year, according to government data compiled by the University of Georgia Center for Food Safety. (
  • Conclusion: Although these estimates may understate true costs due to the fact that higher quality treatment may have been provided earlier-than-usual, this multi-country community-based study contributes to evidence on the public and private costs of typhoid fever in developing countries. (
  • The few studies that provide cost estimates are incomplete and/or based on limiting assumptions [4]. (
  • For example, most cost estimates include only a few, if any, of the long-term health outcomes associated with acute foodborne illnesses [5]. (
  • Below, I present estimates of the cost of foodborne illness, both at the aggregate and pathogen-specific levels. (
  • And these cost estimates are also lower than other recent numbers, says FSN. (
  • Regarding a disease like MS, with large recent and ongoing changes in the treatment, up-to-date knowledge of costs is necessary for real-world cost-effectiveness assessment when implementing and making decisions on reimbursement of new treatments [ 5 ], but such estimates also need to be representative of costs in the whole patient population. (
  • This cost of illness study estimates the total annual financial and well-being impacts of delirium for the first time in Australia. (
  • This study also estimates the costs of dementia that are associated with delirium in Australia, with significant implications for other high-income western countries. (
  • While this cost of illness study estimates the overall cost of delirium, more work is needed to identify cost-effective interventions to reduce the burden of delirium. (
  • This is a cost model based on a combination of prevalence estimates, country and region specific data on Gross Domestic Product per person and average wage with results from previously published cost-of-illness studies in different key countries with detailed data. (
  • This COI-approach (where Anders Wimo and Linus Jönsson were authors to the original paper together with Professor Bengt Winblad) is based on the Dementia Worldwide Cost Database (DWCD), which has been used for worldwide estimates, (2, 3) but it is here used with a focus on EU (EU25) and Europe (EU25 was in focus when the original paper was written). (
  • Prior estimates published in the literature were the most commonly used source of component cost data. (
  • However, there is concern in the scientific literature that COI estimates are limited in usefulness, due to variability in their execution (e.g., varying cost inventories and study methodologies), and a lack of transparency and detail when describing such methodologies. (
  • A new report funded by the Charles & Margery Barancik Foundation and the Gulf Coast Community Foundation and conducted by the University of South Florida estimates that one in five young people experience a "severe mental disorder" during their lifetime, and that untreated mental illness costs Sarasota County more than $86 million each year. (
  • Leigh accounted for underreported illnesses and injuries using estimates based on reporting to BLS and workers' compensation systems. (
  • The study, recently published in the scientific journal Epidemiology & Infection , estimates the costs entailed until a patient is cured. (
  • The study estimates individual costs for illnesses caused by acute diarrhoea ranging from about EUR 30 to 4,800 depending on the severity of the illness. (
  • These cost estimates are very conservative. (
  • The numbers most people care about: 76 million cases of foodborne illness each year, resulting in 325,000 hospitalizations and 5,000 deaths, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (
  • From 1999 to 2010, CDC estimated there were 76 million cases of foodborne illnesses annually, sending 325,000 to hospitals and resulting in 5,000 deaths. (
  • In addition, every chronic illness closely linked to obesity or smoking was more common in the United States. (
  • If the United States could improve its population's health to have the same levels of chronic illness as Europeans do, Americans would save between $1,200 and $1,750 per year each on medical bills, the researchers found. (
  • The 2011 Aflac WorkForces Report revealed only 19 percent of employees think it likely they or a family member will be diagnosed with a chronic illness, such as heart disease or diabetes, and 13 percent said they thought a serious illness like cancer will occur or that there will be a need for long-term care. (
  • Having a chronic illness and disability is expensive - some of my meds are covered, but some aren't and don't get me started on how expensive it is to repair a power wheelchair. (
  • No matter how good you are at managing your budget, being diagnosed with a chronic illness can throw everything out of whack. (
  • Australians with a chronic illness or disability face serious levels of economic hardship, according to University of Sydney research just published in the Medical Journal of Australia. (
  • In accordance with the assertive community treatment scale developed by Dartmouth College, assertive community treatment uses principles of care coordination, chronic illness management and evidence-based therapies to minimize fragmentation of care and maximize care coordination for persons whose symptoms of mental illness result in serious functioning difficulties in multiple areas of life, including family relationships, social relationships, education, employment, residential independence, medical health, substance abuse and psychotropic medication management. (
  • This issue brief examines approaches to delivering and financing health services for persons with advanced chronic illness. (
  • The report ranks states according to their total costs related to foodborne illness and cost per case for an individual, which is $1,850 on average nationwide. (
  • Among the data released by the USDA, the total annual cost to U.S. taxpayers in medical care and other expenses related to foodborne illnesses are more than $15.6 billion. (
  • Results: The costs of hospitalized cases ranged from USD 129 in Kolkata to USD 432 in North Jakarta (hospitalization rates varied from 2% in Kolkata to 40% in Hechi) and the costs of non-hospitalized cases ranged from USD 13 in Kolkata to USD 67 in Hechi. (
  • The legislature finds that laws and regulations relating to the rights of the state to collection from criminally insane patients for cost of their hospitalization are in need of clarification. (
  • For inpatient care, ICD10 codes related to DFD were identified and costs of hospitalizations due to osteomyelitis, amputations, and other selected DFD related conditions were obtained from a nationwide hospitalization database. (
  • This study examines how mental illness or addiction affects risk for repeat hospitalization and/or emergency department use for ambulatory care-sensitive conditions (ACSCs) among high-cost users of medical care. (
  • The mean initial hospitalization costs almost doubled for patients with complicated Staph aureus bacteremias such as endocarditis and osteomyelitis versus bacteremias without these complications ($32,462 compared to $17,011, p=0.002). (
  • Psoriasis is a multisystem disease with significant financial burden for Bulgarian healthcare system as a result of the costs for treatment of the concomitant diseases, hospitalization costs and phototherapy. (
  • The cost of hospitalization was estimated from data provided by the national hospitalization database for short-term care by considering all hospital stays in which the ICD-10 code A92.0 appeared. (
  • A possible reason for a lower rate of hospitalization among children from poor households could be the burden of higher illness-related costs and debts. (
  • Our study attempted to estimate the total costs of occupational injuries and illnesses to the United States in 1992. (
  • This study appears to be the first to use national data to estimate these costs.1 We find that the costs of occupational injuries and illnesses are considerable, surpassing those of AIDS and nearly as great as those of cancer and heart disease. (
  • Some caution should be taken in interpretation, as a number of assumptions had to be made in order to estimate the total costs. (
  • The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence and cost of illness of asthma in Germany by retrospectively analysing routine health insurance data. (
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of asthma and to provide an estimate of the cost burden in Germany. (
  • Aggregated data from national data sources were used to estimate the costs for rehabilitation and lost productivity due to premature death and early retirement. (
  • The study set out to estimate the true economic costs of a case of dengue, whether the patient was treated at home or in the hospital, including school absenteeism, lost productivity, and the unpaid time of caregivers. (
  • 2009) enhanced food-safety, cost-of-illness model to provide a more complete estimate of the aggregate health costs from foodborne illness in the United States [7]. (
  • Nevertheless, my best estimate for the cost of foodborne illness in the U.S. is $152 billion a year. (
  • The aim of this study was to estimate the annual costs for the treatment of diabetic foot disease (DFD) in Brazil. (
  • We then developed a decision analytic tree to estimate nationwide costs of DFD in Brazil, while taking into the account the estimated cost per case and considering epidemiologic parameters obtained from a national survey, secondary data, and the literature. (
  • Despite using different methodologies to estimate outpatient and inpatient costs related to DFD, this is the first study to assess the overall economic burden of DFD in Brazil, while considering all of its syndromes and both outpatients and inpatients. (
  • Objectives The objective of this study was to estimate the cost of illness in patients with GCA in the US. (
  • The aim of this study was to estimate the societal COI of MS patients of working age in Sweden and to specify the distribution of those costs. (
  • Objectives To estimate the economic impact of delirium in the Australian population in 2016-2017, including financial costs, and its burden on health. (
  • Yet this estimate is probably conservative, because the [survey used] did not assess people in hospitals or prisons, and included very few participants with autism, schizophrenia or other chronic illnesses that are known to greatly affect a person's ability to work. (
  • Governments require high-quality scientific evidence to prioritize resource allocation and the cost-of-illness (COI) methodology is one technique used to estimate the economic burden of a disease. (
  • In generating the estimate, Leigh gathered 2007 data on occupational injuries and illnesses and their costs for U.S. civilian workers, including agricultural and self-employed workers. (
  • The objective of this study was to estimate and predict the cost of illness (COI) associated with prostate cancer in Japan. (
  • The aim of this study is to estimate the economic burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Bangladesh and to find association between glycemic control and Health Related Quality of Life with cost-of-illness (COI). (
  • The objective of this study was to analyze health care and non-health care resource utilization under routine medical practice in a primary care setting claims database and to estimate the incremental average cost per patient per year of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) compared with a reference population. (
  • To estimate the economic burden of dengue, accurate cost-of-illness data are essential. (
  • Multivariate regression models were applied to estimate the effect of integrated care models on disease-related hospitalisations and healthcare costs. (
  • Get an immediate estimate of costs for $10,000 of cancer-only insurance. (
  • This study aimed to estimate the annual cost of illness (COI) of CHI patients in the UK from a service provider perspective (National Health Service, NHS and Personal Social Services), and to explore cost distribution within the patient population. (
  • The objective of this study was to estimate an outpatient's total cost of illness as result of treatment in private and public hospitals in Sylhet, Bangladesh. (
  • The model estimated costs of 15 foodborne pathogens that caused outbreaks in restaurants from 2010 - 2015 as reported by the CDC. (
  • The model ran several different scenarios to determine the impact level ranging from smaller outbreaks that may incur few costs (i.e., no lawsuits and legal fees or fines) to larger outbreaks that incur a high amount of lawsuits and legal fees. (
  • The subsequent costs of outbreaks can be major setbacks for restaurants and are sometime irreversible. (
  • In the past decade, several national restaurant chains have lost significant business due to food-illness outbreaks. (
  • Foodborne illness outbreaks can be avoided in some cases by various infection prevention and control measures, many of which may cost substantially less than the outbreak itself. (
  • According to the group: 'Continued outbreaks of foodborne illness over the last several years - from spinach to peppers to peanut products - have demonstrated that these outbreaks are not random, unpreventable occurrences, but are due to widespread problems with our food-safety system. (
  • More recent data on sporadic illnesses and outbreaks suggests that this problem is not going away [2, 3]. (
  • They do not include food industry costs, including any loss of consumer confidence in a brand or a business, associated recall expenses, or charges stemming from litigation, nor do they include the cost to taxpayers for local, state, and federal health agencies that respond to outbreaks. (
  • Marler Clark, The Food Safety Law Firm, is the nation's leading law firm representing victims of foodborne illness outbreaks. (
  • The direct costs were extracted from the National Health Expenditure Database and allocated to each comorbidity using weights principally from the Economic Burden of Illness in Canada. (
  • Why the burden of illness and health costs increasing globally? (
  • Conclusion: Overall, public hospital patients, who tend to be the poorest, bear a larger economic burden of illness and treatment than relatively wealthier private hospital patients. (
  • Cost of illness analysis provides the economic costs of an illness, injury, or risk factor. (
  • Cost of illness analysis provides decision makers information on the economic burden of a disease or condition, which offers a sense of how big a problem is. (
  • Hoffmann S, Maculloch B, Batz M. Economic burden of major foodborne illnesses acquired in the United States, EIB-140,U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, May 2015. (
  • About 10% of that cost was for medical care, but 90% is attributable to lost economic productivity from "reduced cognitive potential" resulting from preventable exposure to lead during childhood, according to the Trasande and Liu. (
  • Even so, the broader economic and social costs of poor quality care, including long-term disability, impairment and lost productivity, are estimated to amount to trillions of dollars each year. (
  • Researchers at Brandeis, in collaboration with several other institutions worldwide, have pinpointed for the first time the multi-country economic costs of dengue fever, the endemic and epidemic mosquito-borne illness that is a rapidly growing public health problem in tropical and sub-tropical countries. (
  • We found that that the economic cost of this disease is high-at least $1.8 billion yearly in these 8 countries after adjusting for price differences and under-reporting of cases," said lead author Jose Suaya , a visiting scholar at the Heller School. (
  • To prospectively evaluate the health economic burden of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) in Germany over a 6-month observation period and to identify the predictors of these costs. (
  • Costs were derived from various German medical economic resources. (
  • At the same time, the aggregate economic cost of health losses associated with foodborne illnesses has not been sufficiently examined. (
  • The primary objective of this study is to provide policymakers with measures of the economic burden of foodborne illnesses, both at the aggregate level and at the pathogen-specific level. (
  • At the same time, the economic cost of mental illness will grow more than sixfold over the next thirty years to $306 billion. (
  • In the four decades since the Occupational Safety and Health Act and the Mine Safety and Health Act were signed, there has been significant improvement in the prevention of work-related injuries and illnesses," said NIOSH Director John Howard, M.D. "However, much work lies ahead of us, and a study such as this one is important for highlighting the economic burden of occupational illness. (
  • Gaining a better understanding of the burden helps NIOSH and our partners make the case that preventing work-related injuries and illnesses is part of a wise national strategy for economic recovery and growth. (
  • A copy of the study -- "Economic Burden of Occupational Injury and Illness in the United States" -- can be downloaded at . (
  • This study is the first to date to investigate the impact and out-of-pocket costs of travel-related dengue illness from the patient's perspective and paves the way for future economic burden studies in this population. (
  • Systematic review of published studies on the costs associated with managing and treating psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis in 5 European countries gives us a reason to conclude that both diseases have significant economic burden [10]. (
  • The household socio-economic status was determined and its possible association with health seeking behaviour and the ability to pay for the costs of a febrile illness. (
  • The large economic impacts of illness need a public policy response which at a minimum should include a national health insurance scheme as a matter of urgency. (
  • For example, heart disease in the United States costs more than $321 billion each year-$193 billion in direct medical costs and $128 billion in lost productivity from early death. (
  • Cost of illness analysis may include direct costs, productivity losses, and intangible costs of a disease or injury. (
  • Researchers calculate the cost to the Canadian economy in lost productivity to be $51 billion annually. (
  • WASHINGTON -- Childhood diseases thought to be linked to environmental causes cost the nation nearly $77 billion in medical costs and lost productivity in 2008 alone, a new analysis found. (
  • Trasande and Liu said more than $5 billion in productivity costs were lost in 2008 because of intellectual disabilities caused by environmental factors. (
  • Meanwhile, asthma cost more than $3 billion in medical costs, such as trips to the hospital and doctors' visits, in 2008, and another $4 billion in lost productivity as parents had to take off work to care for sick kids. (
  • Untreated mental illnesses cost the U.S. at least $105 billion in lost productivity annually, according research by Harvard University Medical School. (
  • Cornell University professor Phyllis Gabriel told the WSJ that " t he burden of mental disorders on health and productivity throughout the world has long been profoundly underestimated … Mental health problems strongly influence employee performance, rates of illness, absenteeism, accidents and staff turnover. (
  • The total cost of all unintentional disabling injuries, including items like medical expenses and lost wages/productivity, was more than $700 billion. (
  • Main outcome measures The total and per capita costs were analysed for three categories: health systems costs, other financial costs including productivity losses and informal care and cost associated with loss of well-being (burden of disease). (
  • We examine the various measurement approaches that have been used to quantify the impact of illness and its treatment on workplace productivity, and we describe some of the shortcomings associated with each alternative. (
  • Given these uncertainties, we examine the various measurement approaches for quantifying the impact of illness and its treatment on workplace productivity, and we describe some of the shortcomings associated with each alternative. (
  • Critical illness insurance, like LTC insurance, helps organizations prosper by reducing absenteeism and loss of productivity due to financial and care-giving concerns. (
  • Many Critical Illnesses are hereditary so, if you've ever had to care for a family member with a Critical Illness such as cancer, heart conditions or stroke, you know how expensive it can get. (
  • In some cases, Critical Illness insurance can cost as little as $20 a month and the coverage pays regardless of any other coverage you might have. (
  • How much does critical illness cover cost? (
  • The cost of critical illness cover depends largely on the policy you choose. (
  • It was known as dread disease insurance or critical illness cover, and the latter name is sometimes still used today. (
  • By having critical illness protection in place, the policyholder can ultimately focus on what really matters - their recovery. (
  • Craig Brown, director of Legal & General Intermediary, said the research highlighted the need for protection policies which could mitigate the financial impact of a critical illness. (
  • He said: "Though the effects of critical illness on our health are rightly front of mind, our research clearly shows that these diseases can have a major impact on our ability to work and earn a steady income. (
  • The lump sum paid out by critical illness insurance can be invaluable in helping consumers to manage their financial circumstances in their time of need. (
  • Alan Lakey, director at CIExpert, said the figures were not surprising considering the vast costs incurred due to critical illness, from downsizing a home, to making structural alterations and the increased expense of doctor appointments. (
  • He said: "When considering critical illness I always advise clients to consider the worst aspect, which is being paralysed and never being able to work again and also requiring full-time care. (
  • What Is A Critical Illness? (
  • Serious illnesses and life threatening health conditions that not only adversely affect the health of an individual but also affect routine activities resulting in a serious loss of health and finances fall under the category of critical illness. (
  • How Much Does it Cost to Cure a Critical Illness? (
  • An increasing cost of medical treatment in India has incurred high treatment cost for a patient diagnosed with critical illness and the person's inability to work results in further loss of income increasing his worries. (
  • Titled "Surviving Critical Illness Financially," the guide is being offered free of charge by LTC Financial Partners, LLC (LTCFP), under a non-exclusive distribution agreement with business partners American Independent Marketing (AIM) and GoldenCare USA, the publishers. (
  • How likely is it that I or a family member will encounter a critical illness? (
  • What is the average cost for critical illness insurance? (
  • You easily could overpay because each of the 60 insurance companies that offer critical illness insurance set their own prices. (
  • A 48-year old male (non-smoker) could pay $160-per-year for $10,000 of critical illness insurance. (
  • Comprehensive critical illness insurance costs more. (
  • Get an instant cost quotes for both the exclusive cancer-only and comprehensive critical illness insurance . (
  • Take a minute to compare critical illness insurance costs. (
  • A cancer insurance or critical illness insurance policy can charge smokers more than non-smokers. (
  • Each of the 60 insurance companies pay actuaries to price their critical illness policies. (
  • For that reason, no two critical illness insurance policies are ever going to be exactly the same price. (
  • Here is a real example based on the pricing for the Unified Life Insurance critical illness insurance. (
  • An example of costs for $10,000 of critical illness insurance. (
  • Do you have both cancer-only and comprehensive critical illness options? (
  • Additional Critical Illness Insurance Information is available. (
  • Besides information here, access the Critical Illness Insurance Association's News Archive to read the latest information on cancer, heart attacks, strokes and critical illness insurance. (
  • Def Leppard has been a consistently touring band for many years before the coronavirus pandemic, but Joe Elliott said in a new interview his performing days were in danger following an illness in 2016. (
  • Louise Bradley, President and CEO of the Mental Health Commission of Canada, said in a statement for Mental Health Week 2016, "Too often, mental health problems or illnesses are considered an inevitable consequence of aging. (
  • Design, setting and participants A cost of illness study was conducted for the Australian population in the 2016-2017 financial year. (
  • The prevalence of delirium in 2016-2017 was calculated to inform cost estimations. (
  • Costs were expressed in 2016-2017 pound sterling (£) and Australian dollars ($A). (
  • The total costs of delirium in Australia were estimated to be £4.3 billion ($A8.8 billion) in 2016-2017, ranging between £2.6 billion ($A5.3 billion) and £5.9 billion ($A12.1 billion). (
  • C. SCHMUTZ et al, Estimating healthcare costs of acute gastroenteritis and human campylobacteriosis in Switzerland, Epidemiology and Infection (2016). (
  • Model inputs were informed by a pragmatic literature review, NHS Reference Costs (2015-2016) and the British National Formulary (2017). (
  • Our principal finding is that chemical factors in the environment continue to contribute greatly to childhood morbidity and to healthcare costs," Leonardo Trasande, MD, of the Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York City, and Yinghua Liu, MD, of the National Children's Study New York-Northern New Jersey Center wrote. (
  • Many analyses of healthcare costs involve use of data with varying periods of observation and right censoring of cases before death or at the end of the episode of illness. (
  • To determine the demands on healthcare resources caused by different types of illnesses and variation with age and sex. (
  • Proportion of healthcare budget spent on each category of disease and cost of health care per person at various ages. (
  • The top five areas of healthcare costs were mental retardation, musculoskeletal disease (predominantly joint disease and dorsopathy), dementia, a heterogeneous group of other mental disorders, and ill defined conditions. (
  • A large share of the healthcare budget is spent on long term nursing care, and this cost will inevitably increase further in an ageing population. (
  • We therefore subdivided total healthcare costs in the Netherlands by healthcare sector, diagnosis, age, and sex to determine which illnesses and age groups have the greatest demand for care. (
  • We used data on healthcare costs for each care sector from the Ministry of Health for 1994 (table 1 ). (
  • Costs were calculated from the perspective of healthcare and transfer payment providers and the individual patient. (
  • We conducted a cost-of-illness study of DFD in 2014, while considering the Brazilian Public Healthcare System (SUS) perspective. (
  • For outpatient costs, a panel of experts was convened from which utilization of healthcare services for the management of DFD was obtained. (
  • Quantities of each healthcare service was then multiplied by their respective unit costs obtained from national price listings. (
  • SINTEF was commissioned by the Norwegian Labour Inspection Authority (NLIA) to compile a report showing the estimated annual social cost of deaths, injuries, treatment at emergency medical centres and specialist healthcare providers, sickness leave, disability pensions and reduced quality of life. (
  • One-year costs of healthcare (pharmacy, outpatient, inpatient, and total) among GCA patients and controls were compared, adjusting for age, gender, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), Chronic Condition Count (CCC), U.S. region, and health plan type (HMO vs. other) using generalized linear models. (
  • Conclusions Patients with GCA experience increased healthcare costs compared to patients without GCA after adjusting for covariates related to health care utilization and costs. (
  • Multiple sclerosis (MS) causes work disability and healthcare resource use, but little is known about the distribution of the associated costs to society. (
  • Cost data came from the National Council on Compensation Insurance, the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project and the National Academy of Social Insurance. (
  • This study aimed to describe costs of illness for a group of IBD patients and determine factors associated with increased healthcare costs. (
  • Hospitalisation affected a minority of sufferers but accounted for half of the total direct costs falling on the healthcare system. (
  • There is pressure within all healthcare systems to control expenditure and a growing acceptance of the need for more accurate information on the costs of different diseases. (
  • As a result, our knowledge of the level and profile of healthcare costs for IBD in Britain is remarkably limited. (
  • To assess the relationship between severity and progression of illness in Parkinson's disease and the use of healthcare resources. (
  • Psoriasis is a chronic autoimmune disease, which consumes significant part of healthcare resources due to the significantly high pharmacotherapy costs for the main and for the concomitant diseases [1-3]. (
  • AIMS: To investigate the effect of integrated care models on disease-related hospitalisations as a quality indicator and healthcare costs in patients with either diabetes, cardiovascular diseases or respiratory illnesses. (
  • Healthcare costs were statistically significant lower in all three patient groups with integrated care, but with the highest effect in patients with diabetes (Swiss francs (CHF) -778). (
  • CONCLUSIONS: Integrated care may provide an effective strategy to improve the quality of care and to reduce healthcare costs in chronically ill patients. (
  • DSA results identified lack of response to first-line therapy and IDDM development post surgery (and associated healthcare costs) as major cost drivers. (
  • Costs of occupational injuries and illnesses. (
  • Since the injuries and illnesses occur at places of business, some of their costs are spread to consumers in the form of higher prices throughout the economy, all workers in the form of lower wages, and taxpayers. (
  • But despite the size of these costs and the fact that so many people pay them, occupational injuries and illnesses do not receive the attention they deserve (Rosenstock 1981). (
  • By almost any measure, AIDS, arthiritis, Alzheimer's disease, cancer, and heart disease receive far more attention than occupational injuries and illnesses.2 In the course of four years of medical training, the typical U.S. doctor receives six hours of instruction in occupational safety and health. (
  • The potential for cost savings from prevention of occupational injuries and illnesses appears to be significant. (
  • Back pain is the most common ailment affecting quality of life, while crush injuries are the most likely to result in death - and this constitutes the biggest cost to society. (
  • Since there was no single, comprehensive register of illnesses or injuries acquired at work, they had to turn to individual surveys and evaluations. (
  • The researchers put together figures showing how many people are affected annually, how many years people have lived with injuries, and the number of treatments received - and arrived at the price tag of NOK 30 billion for deaths, illness and injuries. (
  • A UC Davis researcher has estimated the national annual price tag of occupational injuries and illnesses at $250 billion. (
  • In fact, less than 25 percent of the costs of workplace injuries and illnesses are covered by workers' compensation. (
  • SACRAMENTO, Calif.) - In the first comprehensive review of its kind since 1992, a UC Davis researcher has estimated the national annual price tag of occupational injuries and illnesses at $250 billion, much higher than generally assumed. (
  • Leigh, who led the similar published study based on 1992 data, hopes his research will be used to expand awareness of the impact of occupational injuries and illnesses and to encourage prevention. (
  • He said one way to begin this process is to base workers' compensation premiums on the costs of job-related injuries and illnesses for each business or government agency rather than on industry-wide costs. (
  • Washington - The financial burden of workplace injuries and illnesses increasingly has shifted to the worker, deepening social inequalities, according to a report released March 4 from OSHA. (
  • These injuries and illnesses contribute to the pressing issue of income inequality: they force working families out of the middle class and into poverty, and keep the families of lower-wage workers from entering the middle class," the authors said in the report. (
  • Rep. Matthew J. Rinaldo of New Jersey, the ranking Republican on the committee, said, 'We shouldn't be afraid or skittish about providing an expansion of Medicare,' which now finances health care for 31 million people at an annual cost of more than $70 billion. (
  • When researchers calculated the actual cost of mental health leave, they found that on average, it's double the cost of a leave for a physical illness. (
  • Results showed that the cost to a company for a single employee on a short-term disability leave due to mental health concerns totals nearly $18,000. (
  • Health and wellness interventions may hold the key to maintaining a healthy workforce and reducing costs. (
  • Americans may have themselves to blame for higher health care costs. (
  • As John Smith prepares for retirement, he also realizes that 18 percent of his income goes toward health care costs, and he wonders why he is paying so much. (
  • And according to the study, it may be Americans' own habits that are driving health care costs in the United States. (
  • However, the study in this week's issue of the journal Health Affairs suggests that Americans' obesity and smoking habits may be partly to blame, and may be costing Americans $100 billion to $150 billion per year. (
  • This added burden of disease has led to higher health costs overall. (
  • All told, the higher rates of disease are costing Americans between $100 billion and $150 billion per year, or 13 percent to 19 percent of total health care spending for those age 50 and over. (
  • According to Thorpe, these findings could have a significant impact on strategies to control health care costs in America. (
  • A single foodborne outbreak could cost a restaurant millions of dollars in lost revenue, fines, lawsuits, legal fees, insurance premium increases, inspection costs and staff retraining, a new study from researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health suggests. (
  • 16 in the journal Public Health Reports , are based on computer simulations that suggest a foodborne illness outbreak can have large, reverberating consequences regardless of the size of the restaurant and outbreak. (
  • The Scientific American points out that one in 17 adults has a serious mental illness and " nearly one in two people in the U.S. will suffer from depression, anxiety disorders or another mental health ailment at some point in their life. (
  • The debate on containing the cost of health care is mainly focused on the supply side and the financing of health care. (
  • 1 Little attention is given to changes in population health, which is another important determinant of costs. (
  • Direct health care costs were estimated for hospital care, general practice care and paramedical care. (
  • The share of these costs was about 1% of total health care expenditures and 0.1 % of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 1996. (
  • The Sax Institute's 45 and Up study has been tracking about 10 per cent of the New South Wales population in relation to health costs. (
  • Public costs of treatment were measured at local health facilities using a micro costing (bottom-up) method. (
  • The premium price will also depend on your personal details, your lifestyle (case in point, if you smoke, you may pay more because smoking increases the risk of several serious illnesses) and how old you are, in addition to what occupation you have and your health. (
  • The costs from the perspective of statutory health insurance (Gesetzliche Krankenkversicherung [GKV]) consisted of direct medical costs €1370 ± €3240, including rehabilitation (€420 ± €1630), hospitalisation (€710 ± €2520), outpatient treatment (€40 ± €30), ancillary treatment (€190 ± €280) and ambulatory diagnostic procedures (€10 ± €30). (
  • This was causing 'an extraordinary cost' to the public health system and costing the economy $31.5 billion a year, Mr Rudd said. (
  • Foodborne illness is a serious public-health problem in the United States. (
  • The derivation of an accurate cost-of-illness measure for foodborne illness is important as a guide to policymakers who seek to allocate scarce resources to programs designed to improve the health of Americans. (
  • The derivation of a measure for the aggregate health costs of foodborne illness is useful as a means of evaluating the importance of this problem relative to other pressing health problems. (
  • Instead, I focus on costs of acute foodborne illnesses and a few long-term health-related costs. (
  • The National Alliance for the Mentally Ill (NAMI) thanks Chairman Billy Tauzin of the Committee on Energy & Commerce and Representative Michael Bilarakis, chairman of the Health Subcommittee, and their colleagues, for convening today's hearing on insurance coverage of mental illness. (
  • As the nation's largest organization representing children and adults with mental illnesses, NAMI is pleased to help shed light on how current health insurance plans discriminate against individuals with mental illnesses and their families. (
  • We estimated that the annual direct medical costs of DFD in 2014 was Int$ 361 million, which denotes 0.31% of public health expenses for this period. (
  • As such, public health preventive strategies to reduce DFD related morbidity and mortality and costs are of utmost importance. (
  • The MHCC's Mental Health Indicators for Canada show one in four seniors live with a mental health problem or illness. (
  • In its report, Making the Case for Investing in Mental Health in Canada , the Mental Health Commission of Canada concludes that, if nothing changes to better apply the evidence we have, by 2041 there will be over 8.9 million people in Canada living with a mental illness. (
  • The increasing attention to mental health in Canada provides poignant examples on a daily basis of how too many people in Canada are not receiving the services and programs that we know can improve the quality of their lives, reduce the limitations imposed by their illnesses, or even help prevent certain mental health problems and illnesses from developing into larger problems. (
  • Promote mental health across the lifespan and prevent mental illness and suicide wherever possible. (
  • Foster recovery and well-being for people of all ages living with mental health problems and illnesses, and uphold their rights. (
  • Since the NLIA is responsible for the working environment and health and safety, it also wanted to gain some basic knowledge about how much the actual social costs are, which will enable it to plan and prioritise preventive work in the future. (
  • However, limited data exist on the health care resource utilization and costs that are attributable to GCA. (
  • We describe the effect of influenza-like illness (ILI) during the outbreak of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 on health care worker (HCW) absenteeism and compare the effectiveness and cost of 2 sick leave policies for HCWs with suspected influenza. (
  • Effectiveness and costs of sick leave policies should be evaluated to guide hospital managers and public health officials, particularly during epidemics and pandemics. (
  • This report also contains an estimation of health care costs in the last year of life. (
  • The role of these costs in projections of future health expenditure is discussed. (
  • Health care costs are also attributed to risk factors and aspects of unhealthy behaviour. (
  • Conclusions These findings highlight the substantial burden that delirium imposes on Australian society-both in terms of financial costs associated with health system expenditure and the increased need for residential aged care due to the functional and cognitive decline associated with delirium and dementia. (
  • Many reports on cost and quality disparity (the best known is the Dartmouth Atlas of Health Care ) are based on data from the government's Medicare program for seniors. (
  • Although there is movement toward integrating mental health services financing and delivery with the rest of the health care sector, very little is known about the care and costs of mentally ill patients who are enrolled in integrated delivery systems that reimburse providers with global payments. (
  • The Department of Health is sending information on this opportunity to visit NIH to the parents and families of those affected by this illness and urges them to take advantage of this opportunity to be examined by these experts. (
  • Based on the clinical evaluations of the patients and the pattern in which these cases presented, the department continues to believe that there is no environmental or infectious cause of these illnesses or public health threat to the community. (
  • As a result, many occupational health issues go unresolved, and the bulk of the costs are absorbed by employer-provided medical insurance and Medicare and Medicaid, Leigh said. (
  • It's an incredible jigsaw puzzle, but an essential one to assemble, since it's impossible for business and policy leaders to effectively manage health-care resources or make changes for the better without first having an accurate assessment of costs," said Leigh. (
  • Study of 843 children under 36 months of age enrolled in a prepaid health plan from September 1985 through March 1986 revealed an increased incidence of illness in children attending day care centers, but not day care homes. (
  • Using a structured questionnaire, we collected information on patients and their health-care utilization and out-of-pocket expenditures, as well as income and other financial losses they incurred because of dengue illness. (
  • The two studies presented at ICAAC clearly describe the clinical outcomes, associated with health care resource utilization and infection-associated costs of Staph aureus bacteremia among a large group of prospectively identified, hemodialysis-dependent patients. (
  • In 2012, gastrointestinal diseases gave rise to health care costs of between EUR 29 to 45 million. (
  • Offenders with mental illness also have much higher rates of recidivism due to many factors, including substance abuse, lack of access to mental health treatment , homelessness, and unemployment. (
  • According to the report, it's more cost-effective for all stakeholders to intervene with many of these individuals in a community mental health setting before they encounter the law enforcement system. (
  • Secondly, people with mental illness who end up in jail or prison must be assisted with transition programs to maintain their health and independence. (
  • At the request of the Arapahoe County Sherriff's Department, Arapahoe/Douglas Mental Health Network added a Jail Reentry case management team in 2006 to provide services to those with mental illness who are leaving jail so that they can successfully return to the community. (
  • The average costs for pharmacotherapy of the concomitant diseases per patient are almost equally paid from the National health insurance fund (20.53 BGN) and the patient (23.10 BGN). (
  • It was found that the direct health-care costs of treating over 700,000 cases of prostate cancer among Canadian men aged 40-80 years in 1997 would amount to C$9.76 billion. (
  • Furthermore, recognizing the factors of cost-of-illness will help both patients and health care providers to improve the management plan and cost control and hence, to have better quality of life. (
  • BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to assess the impact of chikungunya on health costs during the epidemic that occurred on La Réunion in 2005-2006. (
  • METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From data collected from health agencies, the additional costs incurred by chikungunya in terms of consultations, drug consumption and absence from work were determined by a comparison with the expected costs outside the epidemic period. (
  • Spending for six of the top seven causes of death and disease over the last 20 years was both cost-effective and improved patient outcomes, according to a study published in the January 2019 issue of Health Affairs , a leading health policy journal. (
  • The research addresses concerns about the rising cost of health care in the United States and the costs associated with innovative treatments by measuring whether - when considering inflation and disease prevalence - the cost of treatment for the top conditions associated with disability and mortality actually became costlier over time. (
  • Researchers at the National Pharmaceutical Council (NPC) and RTI Health Solutions examined health spending on prevalent chronic conditions from 1995-2015 to determine the estimated changes in the cost and burden of disease (in terms of morbidity and mortality) over time. (
  • While medical costs, in aggregate, are growing, the Health Affairs analysis found that disease prevalence and general inflation account for a significant portion of cost increases. (
  • Second, when we think about rising health costs, rather than blunt approaches that target all spending, we need policies that enable a disease-based approach focused on conditions where increasing costs are not justified by associated health gains. (
  • METHODS: A propensity-matched retrospective cohort study based on a large Swiss health insurance database (2012-2013) was performed for three chronic patient groups (diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory illnesses), who were enrolled in an integrated care model and compared to individuals in a standard care model. (
  • Background: A central aim of Universal Health Coverage (UHC) is protection for all against the cost of illness. (
  • In a low income country like Bangladesh the cost burden of health care in tertiary facilities is likely to be significant for most citizens. (
  • The study showed that the total direct costs attributable to overweight and obesity in Canada were $6.0 billion in 2006, with 66% attributable to obesity. (
  • The costs estimated in this study also include dementia attributable to delirium. (
  • Dementia attributable to delirium accounted for £2.2 billion of the total cost of delirium. (
  • Demographic and clinical data were abstracted from clinical records and individual resource use was itemised for all attributable costs (including extraintestinal manifestations). (
  • This monograph presents a preliminary analysis of the costs of illness attributable to physical inactivity, with particular emphasis on coronary heart disease (CHD), non-insulin dependant diabetes (NIDDM) and colon cancer. (
  • Other costs of illness attributable to physical inactivity are described, although in less detail. (
  • Objective - The role of mental illness and addiction in acute care use for chronic medical conditions that are sensitive to ambulatory care management requires focussed attention. (
  • To assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of inpatient specialist palliative care in acute hospitals for adults with advanced illness and their unpaid caregivers. (
  • The paper also looks at palliative-care approaches along the continuum of inpatient and post-acute services and raises cost, quality, and access issues for end-of-life care. (
  • A prevalence-based cost-of-illness approach was applied. (
  • The burden was estimated from a societal perspective using the prevalence-based cost-of-illness methodology. (
  • A prevalence-based approach was used and annual costs incurred at all ages were calculated. (
  • Cost of illness analysis is a way of measuring medical and other costs resulting from a speci﫿c disease or condition. (
  • Non-medical costs , such as travel costs for obtaining care and related childcare costs. (
  • Psych Central does not provide medical, mental illness, or psychological advice, diagnosis or treatment. (
  • Medical costs were estimated from Medicare claims data in 2000. (
  • Thus, also in the area of direct medical costs, there may be room for cost savings by stimulating and improving cost-efficiency and cost-effectiveness of the (para)medical care. (
  • In order to deal with the lack of specific disease information, more detailed information of medical consumption, sick leave and disability is required for future cost analysis. (
  • Non-medical direct costs calculated from the GKV perspective were estimated to be €480 ± €1710, which included transportation (€10 ± €20), special equipment (€420 ± €1640), social/home-help services (€10 ± €110) and sickness benefit (€40 ± €540). (
  • The total medical (including drug costs) and non-medical direct costs for the GKV were €3380 ± €4230. (
  • This is the first comprehensive study of this kind to be published in the United States, establishing the direct medical and nonmedical costs, as well as the loss of income associated with these diseases. (
  • MDA's study was comprehensive, including both medical and nonmedical costs, as well as loss of income to families due to caregiving, loss of opportunities for education, etc. (
  • We could separate the conditions well enough by medical codes to get useful values for medical costs. (
  • That is, they are filed by people who have lost income due to illness or mortgage their home to pay medical bills. (
  • However, for people who carry a lot of debt due to high medical costs, getting control over expenses may not solve the problem. (
  • You may be able to reduce your medical costs by using a financial assistance program for medication and thinking creatively to stretch your prescription medication budget . (
  • For each pathogen, the data provide a range of potential costs, taking into account such factors as associated outpatient and inpatient expenditures for medical care and lost income," reports Food Safety News . (
  • Direct medical costs of outpatient management and inpatient care were considered. (
  • Direct medical costs of DFD in Brazil was estimated considering the 2014 purchasing power parity (PPP) (1 Int$ = 1.748 BRL). (
  • Direct medical and non-medical costs as well as costs for informal care were included. (
  • Last year, 1,224 soldiers with a mental illness, such as post-traumatic stress disorder, received a medical discharge. (
  • Aggressive efforts to identify and treat mental illnesses by medical officials, Porter says, are also why more soldiers are being discharged. (
  • Among the top 10% of medical care users ranked by cost, we determined rates of any and repeat care use (hospitalizations and emergency department [ED] visits) between April 1, 2011, and March 31, 2012, for 14 consensus established ACSCs and compared them between those with and without diagnosed mental illness or addiction during the 2 years prior. (
  • Conclusions - The presence of mental illness and addiction among high-cost users of medical services may represent an unmet need for quality ambulatory and primary care. (
  • Inpatient services (medical and/or surgical) were required by 67 patients (14%) but accounted for 49% of total secondary care costs. (
  • Costs Her Everything (Medical Mystery. (
  • The mean medical cost was 308 euros (EUR) [$US357] for patients followed by a general practitioner and EUR2580 ($US2993) for patients followed by a neurologist. (
  • Medical costs were strongly correlated with most clinical indicators and the cost generally progressed in line with the severity of the disease. (
  • Under routine medical practice, patients with FMS were associated with considerably higher annual total costs in the primary care setting compared with the reference population. (
  • The Incidence of Illness and The Receipt and Costs of Medical Care Among Representative Families da Falk, I.S. (
  • The total cost of neck pain in The Netherlands in 1996 was estimated to be US $686 million. (
  • The total number of sick days related to neck pain were estimated to be 1.4 million with a total cost of $185.4 million in 1996. (
  • Disability for neck pain accounted for the largest proportion (50%) of the total costs related to neck pain in 1996 ($341). (
  • A two-week stint in the hospital - 14 days of my life fully bedridden and barely able to talk - cost my insurance company a grand total of $200,000. (
  • MDA and the Lewin Group have completed a total cost of illness study for three common neuromuscular disorders. (
  • The total estimated cost of illness to the nation for ALS, DMD and DM combined is $1.07 to $1.37 billion per year. (
  • The present value of the cumulative total cost over the next thirty years will exceed $2.5 trillion. (
  • 63 per cent of the total costs came from years of life lost and reduced quality of life as a result of illness or injury. (
  • The distribution of costs was skewed, in which less than 25% of the patients accounted for half the total COI. (
  • The total estimated costs comprised financial costs of £1.7 billion and the value of healthy life lost of £2.5 billion. (
  • There were a number of data gaps when estimating costs, meaning the results of this study are only indicative of the total cost. (
  • In the base case, the total costs of informal care in Europe is 33 billion € (27 billion € in EU25) (table 13), with a range from 2,202 to 5,148 € per case and year, depending of region. (
  • In summary, the total societal costs of dementia in Europe were estimated to 103 billion € where informal care in the base case constituted about one third of the costs (table 15). (
  • Summary of total societal costs of dementia care (base cases, in 2008. (
  • Total costs were calculated by multiplying the number of cases of occupational injury or illness by the average cost per case. (
  • Drug costs accounted for less than a quarter of total costs. (
  • The total cost of diarrhoea as a common illness may be considerably higher. (
  • The multivariable regression analysis and bootstrap method will also be employed to analyze the relationship between the total cost of care (dependent variable) and several potential explanatory variables (independent variables). (
  • The calculated total cost-of-illness will be projected for T2DM in Bangladesh by a mathematical modelling. (
  • 2) The total annual cost of services for each member, except as approved by the department, may not exceed a maximum amount set by the department. (
  • Focusing solely on total rising costs may lead to misguided policies. (
  • Mean total dengue-related costs did not differ from those of other febrile illnesses (31.5 vs. 27.2 US$, p = 0.44). (
  • RESULTS: The matched cohorts included a total of 12,526 patients with diabetes, 71,778 with cardiovascular diseases and 17,498 with respiratory illnesses, in which each one half was enrolled in integrated care models and the other half in standard care models. (
  • Cost distribution was skewed among CHI patients, with 5.9% of patients (95 patients in their first year of life) contributing to 61.8% (£2,105,491.07) of total costs. (
  • Total costs of outpatients are higher in public hospitals compared to private hospitals regardless of patient's income, gender, age or illness. (
  • In 1999, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimated that approximately 76 million new cases of food-related illness (resulting in 5,000 deaths and 325,000 hospitalizations) occur in the United States each year [1]. (
  • SMOKING-RELATED illness costs the economy a staggering $31.5 billion a year with the PM appearing to confirm a tobacco tax hike is the way to cut rising cancer rates. (
  • SMOKING-related illness costs the economy a staggering $31.5 billion a year with Kevin Rudd today appearing to confirm tobacco tax increases will soon be on the way. (
  • The financial burden of so-called lifestyle illnesses in working people aged 45 and over is costing federal and state governments hundreds of millions of dollars annually, reveals the first major study of its kind. (
  • Our results are the first to inform researchers, clinicians, and policymakers on the cost burden of GCA, estimated to be approximately $1 billion annually in the US. (
  • Infections with the pathogen Campylobacter generate costs of estimated EUR 8 million annually. (
  • The COI of CHI patients to the NHS was £3,408,398.59 annually and average cost per patient was £2124.95. (
  • Methods: To measure out-of-pocket costs of illness and lost earnings, families with culture-proven cases were surveyed 7, 14 and 90 days after onset of illness. (
  • Methods: The study used face to face interviews at three hospitals (one public and two private) to elicit cost data from presenting outpatients. (
  • Mental Illness Costs U.S. Billions in Los. (
  • THURSDAY May 8 (HealthDay News) -- Serious mental illness costs Ameri. (
  • THURSDAY, May 8 (HealthDay News) -- Serious mental illness costs Americans at least $193 billion a year in lost earnings alone, a new report shows. (
  • According to the MACC study, longer periods of incarceration for inmates with mental illness costs the metro counties almost $34 million each year," said Rick Doucet, CEO of Community Reach Center. (
  • WASHINGTON -- This year more than 1 million Americans -- two-thirds of them elderly -- will be forced onto the welfare rolls after prolonged illnesses wipe out their family finances, a House subcommittee reported Wednesday. (
  • Pepper's legislation would extend Medicare coverage to the chronically ill at home and in nursing homes and put a limit of $750 a year on a patient's share of Medicare costs. (
  • After the first year of life, costs per person for children were lowest. (
  • Across Great Britain, that comes to about 140 million days a year, at a cost to employers of some £9 billion in sick pay. (
  • Costs are in year 2000-02 values. (
  • These pathogens account for 95 percent of the foodborne illnesses and deaths, with Norovirus the culprit in more than 5.4 million cases each year. (
  • Mental illness currently costs the economy at least $50 billion per year. (
  • An insurer has warned critical illnesses cost the UK economy more than £15bn a year, with a continued financial impact felt by sufferers even when they return to work. (
  • The study broadly defines mood and anxiety disorders that greatly limit a person's ability to function for at least 30 days a year, including instances of any condition linked to suicidal behaviors or frequent violent acts, as serious mental illness (SMI). (
  • The original cost model year is 2005, but the prevalence figures has been updated to 2008 (with the same source for the age class prevalence figures as in the original paper) and the cost figures have been adjusted to 2008 with the same method as described earlier in this report. (
  • For instance, if you need two prescriptions every month for a year, it'll cost you £206.40. (
  • Approximately 5 million people in India fall prey to critical illnesses every year, equivalent to the population of New Zealand. (
  • The questionnaire will include demographic, clinical, behavioral information of the participants and all cost related information related to diabetes management during last one year. (
  • These numbers show that the cost of living with ALS, myotonic dystrophy and Duchenne muscular dystrophy are all of a similar magnitude in comparison to diseases such as multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease, which often get more federal attention. (
  • The four most prevalent critical illnesses, cancer, Multiple Sclerosis (MS), strokes and coronary heart disease, have impacted the economy to a loss of £15.2bn, according to research by Legal & General. (
  • Workforces at large tertiary care hospitals functioning as reference hospitals for persons with influenza may be substantially affected during pandemics, particularly in regard to absenteeism and associated costs. (
  • The objectives of this study were to describe the effects of ILI during the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 outbreak on HCW absenteeism and the associated costs. (
  • Of this, only a fraction are on disability due to mental illness, yet it costs employers the most. (
  • Disability leaves due to physical illness cost nearly half of that for a leave due to mental illness. (
  • The direct costs of treatment, disability pensions and lost production amount to 37 per cent', say Tarald Rohde and Karl-Gerhard Hem at SINTEF. (
  • Unfortunately, disability benefits and grants from the Government to cover these costs are incredibly difficult to get approved, meaning your illness could leave you seriously out of pocket. (
  • During mid-April 2009, Mexico reported 1,918 cases of influenza-like illness (ILI) and 84 deaths. (
  • Estimating lifetime or episode-of-illness costs under censoring. (
  • George Dranitsaris, Jean Maroun, and Amil Shah, "Estimating the Cost of Illness in Colorectal Cancer Patients Who Were Hospitalized for Severe Chemotherapy-Induced Diarrhea," Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology , vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 83-87, 2005. (
  • A scoping review was conducted to identify the component costs and the respective data sources used for estimating the cost of foodborne illnesses in a population. (
  • In this study we investigated the costs of neck pain in the Netherlands in 1996 to assess the financial burden to society. (
  • In Cambodia, dengue and other febrile illnesses pose a financial burden to households. (
  • The 10 most frequently estimated costs were due to illnesses caused by bacterial foodborne pathogens, with non-typhoidal Salmonella spp. (
  • The potentially high costs of care associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are recognised but we have little knowledge of the scale, profile, or determinants of these costs in the UK. (
  • Determinants of cost were analysed using generalised linear regression modelling. (
  • This study represents the first detailed characterisation of the scale and determinants of costs of illness for IBD in a British hospital. (
  • The mean cost of treating Staph aureus bacteremia, including readmissions and outpatient costs, was $24,034 per episode. (
  • The direct costs for inpatient and outpatient treatment, laboratory tests, and drugs accounted for 60-75 % of the COI of prostate cancer. (
  • Chafee said any serious proposal 'must include protection against the impoverishment of the elderly as a result of the cost of long-term care,' as well as hospital care. (
  • Non-specific cost containment measures may endanger the quality of care for old and mentally disabled people. (
  • Long term care is rarely included in other studies, 2 - 5 which consequently underestimate the high costs of disabling disease. (
  • Costs for hospital care, medication and sick benefit were taken from claims data. (
  • We found essentially no correlation between average costs and the measured level of care quality across markets," the authors wrote. (
  • However, some who received good scores for both quality and efficiency delivered care costing about 14 percent less compared with that of other doctors. (
  • Interviews will further explore how the AQC's payment incentives are affecting care delivery for patients with mental illness and comorbid chronic conditions. (
  • Illness Associated with Child Day Care: A Study of Incidence and Cost. (
  • The strongest correlation was between clinical indicators and ancillary care costs. (
  • The Incidence of Illness and The Receipt and. (
  • And this doesn't even come close to capturing the laundry list of expenses associated with my chronic illnesses. (
  • When asked how they would pay for out-of-pocket expenses due to an unexpected illness, 44 percent of workers said they would have to borrow money from family or friends, tap retirement savings, or use a credit card. (
  • Thus, different attempts to elucidate aspects of comorbidities for cost outcomes are warranted. (
  • To reduce the substantial well-being costs of delirium, further research should seek to better understand the potential pathways from an episode of delirium to subsequent mortality and reduced cognitive functioning outcomes. (
  • Providing services and support to people with mental illness can save money, reduce recidivism, and improve overall outcomes. (
  • Costs for rehabilitation, premature death and early retirement were estimated using the human capital approach and data from national statistics. (
  • In sob-choked testimony, Betty Stevens of Clinton, Md., who has nursed two aged parents, told the congressmen, 'It is time to tell those depending on Medicare , in plain English, their future is in jeopardy should a catastrophic illness strike. (
  • The president himself remained noncommittal Tuesday night when he told the nation in his State of the Union message that he would submit legislation 'to help free the elderly from the fear of catastrophic illness,' but offered no details on what form it would take. (
  • KIRKLAND, Wash., May 29, 2013 (SEND2PRESS NEWSWIRE) - A new 16-page guide describes a form of insurance designed to protect against financial catastrophe on the heels of catastrophic illness. (
  • These costs are generally more complicated to measure than direct costs. (
  • Univariate predictors for GKV direct costs included occurrence of motor complications and falls, disease severity, nightmares and dementia. (
  • The results from "key countries" regarding direct costs (2) (based on 14 studies (4-17)) were extrapolated to other countries where dementia specific cost figures not are known. (
  • The direct individual level component costs most often included were hospital services, physician personnel, and drug costs. (
  • Only direct costs to the NHS and Personal Social Services were considered. (
  • Private hospital patients have higher average direct costs than public hospital patients. (
  • Many restaurants may not realize how much even just a single foodborne illness outbreak can cost them and affect their bottom line," says Bruce Y. Lee, MD, MBA, executive director of the Global Obesity Prevention Center (GOPC) at the Bloomberg School. (
  • With the expectation that these costs will continue to increase significantly as the population ages, priority should be given to prevention strategies such as environmental quality improvements. (
  • So one way is to look at where we're currently spending and look at that as an opportunity in which we can sort of mobilise our resources more effectively and channel them towards prevention, rather than continually be worrying about treating people once they've already experienced illness. (
  • The Boston Globe's front-page story about this topic was a good read, detailing the difficulty many people with mental illness will have now that one of their treatment supports is being removed. (
  • RCW 43.20B.345: Mental illness-Treatment costs-Judgment for accrued amounts. (
  • RCW 43.20B.335: Mental illness-Treatment costs-Determination of ability to pay-Standards-Rules and regulations. (
  • The Norwegian Patient Register keeps a record of treatment costs. (
  • But veterans groups argue that the failure of early detection and treatment allow mental illnesses to fester into problems so severe that a soldier must be discharged from the service. (
  • The cost of treatment of heart diseases ranges between 3-5 lakhs depending on the city you live in. (
  • The cost of treatment for other ailments has also increased proportionately. (
  • CHICAGO -- Substantial treatment costs and illness are suffered by end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients who develop Staph aureus blood stream infections (bacteremias), according to new pharmacoeconomic studies presented this week at the 43rd annual Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (ICAAC) in Chicago. (
  • Moreover, ESRD patients with Staph aureus bacteremia that are caused by bacteria that are resistant to the antibiotic methicillin (MRSA) are at a higher risk of dying and incur higher treatment costs than patients with bacteremias caused by methicillin sensitive Staph aureus (MSSA). (
  • However, in some cases, they can lead to hospitalisation with high treatment costs. (
  • Bottom up approach was applied in order to calculate the costs associated with treatment of psoriasis and concomitant diseases. (
  • The average monthly pharmacotherapy costs for treatment of one patient with psoriasis in hospital are higher in 2015 than in 2014 - 35 BGN and 33 BGN, respectively. (
  • By definition, there is not a cure or adequate treatment for terminal illnesses. (
  • The priciest environmentally-caused disease is lead poisoning, which, Trasande said at a press briefing, cost the nation $60 billion in 2008. (
  • Estimated costs range from $0.5 billion (gastrointestinal illness) to almost $60 billion (ischemic heart disease). (
  • The combined costs of these conditions among the 65-or-older population in 2000 were almost $135 billion. (
  • If we invest $10 billion in a program that reduces illness by 10 percent, then cost savings to society would be $15 billion, so that would pass a cost benefit test. (
  • The study suggests that the U.S. should place greater emphasis on reducing work-related injury and illnesses, especially since the costs have risen by more than $33 billion (inflation adjusted) since a 1992 analysis, the author said. (
  • The study strongly suggests that the U.S. should place greater emphasis on reducing work-related injury and illnesses, especially since the costs have risen by more than $33 billion (inflation adjusted) since the 1992 analysis, the author said. (
  • We conducted a prospective, community-based, matched case-control study to assess the cost and impact of an episode of dengue fever and other febrile illness on households in rural Cambodia. (
  • The panel's chairman, Rep. Claude Pepper, has joined with House Speaker Jim Wright and other Democrats to take the initiative on legislation to extend Medicare coverage for those suffering prolonged illnesses. (
  • Like previous studies based on Medicare claims , the study also found wide variation in costs in different geographical areas. (
  • Although the costs of dengue illness to patients and households have been extensively studied in endemic populations, international travelers have not been the focus of costing studies. (
  • The value of these numbers is to look at what type of benefits we can attain if we prevent these illnesses,' said Scharff, currently an assistant professor in the Department of Consumer Sciences at Ohio State University. (
  • Hospitalisation, disease severity grade, and disease extent correlated positively with cost of illness but costs were independent of age or sex. (
  • When it was first introduced in 1983, serious illness insurance only provided cover against cancer, heart attacks, strokes and bypasses. (
  • The insurer found cancer alone accounted for a £9.3bn detriment to the economy, with a fifth of that cost being the result of employees continuing to work but being impacted by ongoing complications such as fatigue and post traumatic stress. (
  • The cost for treating cancer has increased by 3-4 times since 2000. (
  • 6 ] researched the cost of prostate cancer in several countries, including the United States. (
  • An example of $10,000 of cancer-only insurance costs. (