Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Drug Costs: The amount that a health care institution or organization pays for its drugs. It is one component of the final price that is charged to the consumer (FEES, PHARMACEUTICAL or PRESCRIPTION FEES).Cost Control: The containment, regulation, or restraint of costs. Costs are said to be contained when the value of resources committed to an activity is not considered excessive. This determination is frequently subjective and dependent upon the specific geographic area of the activity being measured. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Direct Service Costs: Costs which are directly identifiable with a particular service.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Cost Sharing: Provisions of an insurance policy that require the insured to pay some portion of covered expenses. Several forms of sharing are in use, e.g., deductibles, coinsurance, and copayments. Cost sharing does not refer to or include amounts paid in premiums for the coverage. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Critical Illness: A disease or state in which death is possible or imminent.Cost Allocation: The assignment, to each of several particular cost-centers, of an equitable proportion of the costs of activities that serve all of them. Cost-center usually refers to institutional departments or services.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.United StatesMental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Models, Economic: Statistical models of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, as well as of financial considerations. For the application of statistics to the testing and quantifying of economic theories MODELS, ECONOMETRIC is available.Illness Behavior: Coordinate set of non-specific behavioral responses to non-psychiatric illness. These may include loss of APPETITE or LIBIDO; disinterest in ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING; or withdrawal from social interaction.Employer Health Costs: That portion of total HEALTH CARE COSTS borne by an individual's or group's employing organization.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Quality-Adjusted Life Years: A measurement index derived from a modification of standard life-table procedures and designed to take account of the quality as well as the duration of survival. This index can be used in assessing the outcome of health care procedures or services. (BIOETHICS Thesaurus, 1994)Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Fever: An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Health Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Length of Stay: The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.Foodborne Diseases: Acute illnesses, usually affecting the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, brought on by consuming contaminated food or beverages. Most of these diseases are infectious, caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, or parasites that can be foodborne. Sometimes the diseases are caused by harmful toxins from the microbes or other chemicals present in the food. Especially in the latter case, the condition is often called food poisoning.Sick Role: Set of expectations that exempt persons from responsibility for their illness and exempt them from usual responsibilities.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Mentally Ill Persons: Persons with psychiatric illnesses or diseases, particularly psychotic and severe mood disorders.Great BritainQuality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Efficiency: Ratio of output to effort, or the ratio of effort produced to energy expended.Psychotic Disorders: Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Respiratory Tract DiseasesAttitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Stereotyping: An oversimplified perception or conception especially of persons, social groups, etc.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Ambulatory Care: Health care services provided to patients on an ambulatory basis, rather than by admission to a hospital or other health care facility. The services may be a part of a hospital, augmenting its inpatient services, or may be provided at a free-standing facility.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.EnglandBipolar Disorder: A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.Insurance Claim Review: Review of claims by insurance companies to determine liability and amount of payment for various services. The review may also include determination of eligibility of the claimant or beneficiary or of the provider of the benefit; determination that the benefit is covered or not payable under another policy; or determination that the service was necessary and of reasonable cost and quality.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Absenteeism: Chronic absence from work or other duty.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Travel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.Schizophrenic Psychology: Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Gastrointestinal Diseases: Diseases in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Catastrophic Illness: An acute or prolonged illness usually considered to be life-threatening or with the threat of serious residual disability. Treatment may be radical and is frequently costly.Managed Care Programs: Health insurance plans intended to reduce unnecessary health care costs through a variety of mechanisms, including: economic incentives for physicians and patients to select less costly forms of care; programs for reviewing the medical necessity of specific services; increased beneficiary cost sharing; controls on inpatient admissions and lengths of stay; the establishment of cost-sharing incentives for outpatient surgery; selective contracting with health care providers; and the intensive management of high-cost health care cases. The programs may be provided in a variety of settings, such as HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS and PREFERRED PROVIDER ORGANIZATIONS.Financing, Personal: Payment by individuals or their family for health care services which are not covered by a third-party payer, either insurance or medical assistance.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Decision Trees: A graphic device used in decision analysis, series of decision options are represented as branches (hierarchical).Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Common Cold: A catarrhal disorder of the upper respiratory tract, which may be viral or a mixed infection. It generally involves a runny nose, nasal congestion, and sneezing.Intensive Care Units: Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Markov Chains: A stochastic process such that the conditional probability distribution for a state at any future instant, given the present state, is unaffected by any additional knowledge of the past history of the system.Medicaid: Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XIX, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, administered by the states, that provides health care benefits to indigent and medically indigent persons.Morbidity: The proportion of patients with a particular disease during a given year per given unit of population.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Budgets: Detailed financial plans for carrying out specific activities for a certain period of time. They include proposed income and expenditures.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Decision Support Techniques: Mathematical or statistical procedures used as aids in making a decision. They are frequently used in medical decision-making.Caregivers: Persons who provide care to those who need supervision or assistance in illness or disability. They may provide the care in the home, in a hospital, or in an institution. Although caregivers include trained medical, nursing, and other health personnel, the concept also refers to parents, spouses, or other family members, friends, members of the clergy, teachers, social workers, fellow patients.Environmental Illness: A polysymptomatic condition believed by clinical ecologists to result from immune dysregulation induced by common foods, allergens, and chemicals, resulting in various physical and mental disorders. The medical community has remained largely skeptical of the existence of this "disease", given the plethora of symptoms attributed to environmental illness, the lack of reproducible laboratory abnormalities, and the use of unproven therapies to treat the condition. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)State Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Terminally Ill: Persons with an incurable or irreversible illness at the end stage that will result in death within a short time. (From O'Leary et al., Lexikon: Dictionary of Health Care Terms, Organizations, and Acronyms for the Era of Reform, 1994, p780)Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Depressive Disorder: An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.CaliforniaCase-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Fees, Pharmaceutical: Amounts charged to the patient or third-party payer for medication. It includes the pharmacist's professional fee and cost of ingredients, containers, etc.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Employment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.IndiaFamily: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Self Care: Performance of activities or tasks traditionally performed by professional health care providers. The concept includes care of oneself or one's family and friends.Persian Gulf Syndrome: Unexplained symptoms reported by veterans of the Persian Gulf War with Iraq in 1991. The symptoms reported include fatigue, skin rash, muscle and joint pain, headaches, loss of memory, shortness of breath, gastrointestinal and respiratory symptoms, and extreme sensitivity to commonly occurring chemicals. (Nature 1994 May 5;369(6475):8)Referral and Consultation: The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.Social Distance: The degree of closeness or acceptance an individual or group feels toward another individual or group.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Emergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Critical Care: Health care provided to a critically ill patient during a medical emergency or crisis.Medicine, Traditional: Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Insurance, Pharmaceutical Services: Insurance providing for payment of services rendered by the pharmacist. Services include the preparation and distribution of medical products.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Home Nursing: Nursing care given to an individual in the home. The care may be provided by a family member or a friend. Home nursing as care by a non-professional is differentiated from HOME CARE SERVICES provided by professionals: visiting nurse, home health agencies, hospital, or other organized community group.Disease Management: A broad approach to appropriate coordination of the entire disease treatment process that often involves shifting away from more expensive inpatient and acute care to areas such as preventive medicine, patient counseling and education, and outpatient care. This concept includes implications of appropriate versus inappropriate therapy on the overall cost and clinical outcome of a particular disease. (From Hosp Pharm 1995 Jul;30(7):596)Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Fees and Charges: Amounts charged to the patient as payer for health care services.Economics, Medical: Economic aspects of the field of medicine, the medical profession, and health care. It includes the economic and financial impact of disease in general on the patient, the physician, society, or government.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Patient Admission: The process of accepting patients. The concept includes patients accepted for medical and nursing care in a hospital or other health care institution.Home Care Services: Community health and NURSING SERVICES providing coordinated multiple services to the patient at the patient's homes. These home-care services are provided by a visiting nurse, home health agencies, HOSPITALS, or organized community groups using professional staff for care delivery. It differs from HOME NURSING which is provided by non-professionals.Episode of Care: An interval of care by a health care facility or provider for a specific medical problem or condition. It may be continuous or it may consist of a series of intervals marked by one or more brief separations from care, and can also identify the sequence of care (e.g., emergency, inpatient, outpatient), thus serving as one measure of health care provided.Case Management: A traditional term for all the activities which a physician or other health care professional normally performs to insure the coordination of the medical services required by a patient. It also, when used in connection with managed care, covers all the activities of evaluating the patient, planning treatment, referral, and follow-up so that care is continuous and comprehensive and payment for the care is obtained. (From Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2nd ed)Social Stigma: A perceived attribute that is deeply discrediting and is considered to be a violation of social norms.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Fees, Medical: Amounts charged to the patient as payer for medical services.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Military Personnel: Persons including soldiers involved with the armed forces.Accidents, Occupational: Unforeseen occurrences, especially injuries in the course of work-related activities.Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic: A syndrome characterized by persistent or recurrent fatigue, diffuse musculoskeletal pain, sleep disturbances, and subjective cognitive impairment of 6 months duration or longer. Symptoms are not caused by ongoing exertion; are not relieved by rest; and result in a substantial reduction of previous levels of occupational, educational, social, or personal activities. Minor alterations of immune, neuroendocrine, and autonomic function may be associated with this syndrome. There is also considerable overlap between this condition and FIBROMYALGIA. (From Semin Neurol 1998;18(2):237-42; Ann Intern Med 1994 Dec 15;121(12): 953-9)Antipsychotic Agents: Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Inpatients: Persons admitted to health facilities which provide board and room, for the purpose of observation, care, diagnosis or treatment.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.WalesHealth Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Economics, Hospital: Economic aspects related to the management and operation of a hospital.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Psychophysiologic Disorders: A group of disorders characterized by physical symptoms that are affected by emotional factors and involve a single organ system, usually under AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM control. (American Psychiatric Glossary, 1988)Accounting: System of recording financial transactions.Hysteria: Historical term for a chronic, but fluctuating, disorder beginning in early life and characterized by recurrent and multiple somatic complaints not apparently due to physical illness. This diagnosis is not used in contemporary practice.Pandemics: Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.Euthyroid Sick Syndromes: Conditions of abnormal THYROID HORMONES release in patients with apparently normal THYROID GLAND during severe systemic illness, physical TRAUMA, and psychiatric disturbances. It can be caused by the loss of endogenous hypothalamic input or by exogenous drug effects. The most common abnormality results in low T3 THYROID HORMONE with progressive decrease in THYROXINE; (T4) and TSH. Elevated T4 with normal T3 may be seen in diseases in which THYROXINE-BINDING GLOBULIN synthesis and release are increased.Famous PersonsOutpatients: Persons who receive ambulatory care at an outpatient department or clinic without room and board being provided.Mass Behavior: Collective behavior of an aggregate of individuals giving the appearance of unity of attitude, feeling, and motivation.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Economics, Pharmaceutical: Economic aspects of the fields of pharmacy and pharmacology as they apply to the development and study of medical economics in rational drug therapy and the impact of pharmaceuticals on the cost of medical care. Pharmaceutical economics also includes the economic considerations of the pharmaceutical care delivery system and in drug prescribing, particularly of cost-benefit values. (From J Res Pharm Econ 1989;1(1); PharmacoEcon 1992;1(1))Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Pneumonia: Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.GermanySelf Concept: A person's view of himself.Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.ScotlandDengue: An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.Heat Exhaustion: A clinical syndrome caused by heat stress, such as over-exertion in a hot environment or excessive exposure to sun. It is characterized by SWEATING, water (volume) depletion, salt depletion, cool clammy skin, NAUSEA, and HEADACHE.Intensive Care: Advanced and highly specialized care provided to medical or surgical patients whose conditions are life-threatening and require comprehensive care and constant monitoring. It is usually administered in specially equipped units of a health care facility.Sentinel Surveillance: Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Drugs, Generic: Drugs whose drug name is not protected by a trademark. They may be manufactured by several companies.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Communicable DiseasesLondonHIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Influenza Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.Physician-Patient Relations: The interactions between physician and patient.Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care): Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Ontario: A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)Health Status Indicators: The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.Capital Expenditures: Those funds disbursed for facilities and equipment, particularly those related to the delivery of health care.Prejudice: A preconceived judgment made without factual basis.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Disease: A definite pathologic process with a characteristic set of signs and symptoms. It may affect the whole body or any of its parts, and its etiology, pathology, and prognosis may be known or unknown.Salmonella Food Poisoning: Poisoning caused by ingestion of food harboring species of SALMONELLA. Conditions of raising, shipping, slaughtering, and marketing of domestic animals contribute to the spread of this bacterium in the food supply.Drug Prescriptions: Directions written for the obtaining and use of DRUGS.Efficiency, Organizational: The capacity of an organization, institution, or business to produce desired results with a minimum expenditure of energy, time, money, personnel, materiel, etc.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Decompression Sickness: A condition occurring as a result of exposure to a rapid fall in ambient pressure. Gases, nitrogen in particular, come out of solution and form bubbles in body fluid and blood. These gas bubbles accumulate in joint spaces and the peripheral circulation impairing tissue oxygenation causing disorientation, severe pain, and potentially death.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Patient Care Team: Care of patients by a multidisciplinary team usually organized under the leadership of a physician; each member of the team has specific responsibilities and the whole team contributes to the care of the patient.Child, Hospitalized: Child hospitalized for short term care.

The economic burden of asthma: direct and indirect costs in Switzerland. (1/3131)

Asthma mortality increased in Switzerland between 1980 and 1994. This study aimed to assess the economic burden of asthma in this country. Chart reviews were conducted for the last five patients seen for asthma in physician practices in 1996 and 1997. Direct expenditures and indirect costs for asthma-related morbidity were determined. A total of 589 patient charts were completely analysed, including 117 children's charts, obtained from 120 office-based physicians. The annual direct medical costs were CHF 1,778 and the mean annual indirect costs were CHF 1,019 per patient for all patients. The total estimated cost of asthma in Switzerland in 1997 was nearly CHF 1,252 million. Direct medical expenditures approached CHF 762 million, or 61% of the total. In 1997, the indirect costs for asthma were estimated to have exceeded CHF 490 million. Of these costs CHF 123 million (25%) was associated with morbidity and nearly CHF 368 million (75%) was associated with looking after asthmatic patients who had to be cared for at home. This study provides evidence that asthma is a major healthcare cost factor in Switzerland, amounting to approximately CHF 1,200 million per year. The data suggest that cost savings can be achieved by improving primary care for asthma in an ambulatory setting.  (+info)

The cost effectiveness of strategies for the treatment of intestinal parasites in immigrants. (2/3131)

BACKGROUND: Currently, more than 600,000 immigrants enter the United States each year from countries where intestinal parasites are endemic. At entry persons with parasitic infections may be asymptomatic, and stool examinations are not a sensitive method of screening for parasitosis. Albendazole is a new, broad-spectrum antiparasitic drug, which was approved recently by the Food and Drug Administration. International trials have shown albendazole to be safe and effective in eradicating many parasites. In the United States there is now disagreement about whether to screen all immigrants for parasites, treat all immigrants presumptively, or do nothing unless they have symptoms. METHODS: We compared the costs and benefits of no preventive intervention (watchful waiting) with those of universal screening or presumptive treatment with 400 mg of albendazole per day for five days. Those at risk were defined as immigrants to the United States from Asia, the Middle East, sub-Saharan Africa, Eastern Europe, and Latin America and the Caribbean. Cost effectiveness was expressed both in terms of the cost of treatment per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted (one DALY is defined as the loss of one year of healthy life to disease) and in terms of the cost per hospitalization averted. RESULTS: As compared with watchful waiting, presumptive treatment of all immigrants at risk for parasitosis would avert at least 870 DALYs, prevent at least 33 deaths and 374 hospitalizations, and save at least $4.2 million per year. As compared with watchful waiting, screening would cost $159,236 per DALY averted. CONCLUSIONS: Presumptive administration of albendazole to all immigrants at risk for parasitosis would save lives and money. Universal screening, with treatment of persons with positive stool examinations, would save lives but is less cost effective than presumptive treatment.  (+info)

Morbidity and mortality attributable to alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use in Canada. (3/3131)

OBJECTIVES: This study estimated morbidity and mortality attributable to substance abuse in Canada. METHODS: Pooled estimates of relative risk were used to calculate etiologic fractions by age, gender, and province for 91 causes of disease or death attributable to alcohol, tobacco, or illicit drugs. RESULTS: There were 33,498 deaths and 208,095 hospitalizations attributed to tobacco, 6701 deaths and 86,076 hospitalizations due to alcohol, and 732 deaths and 7095 hospitalizations due to illicit drugs in 1992. CONCLUSIONS: Substance abuse exacts a considerable toll on Canadian society in terms of morbidity and mortality, accounting for 21% of deaths, 23% of years of potential life lost, and 8% of hospitalizations.  (+info)

Ten-year trend in survival and resource utilization at a level I trauma center. (4/3131)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of increasing trauma center experience over time on survival and resource utilization. METHODS: The authors studied a retrospective cohort at a single level I trauma center over a 10-year period, from 1986 to 1995. Patients included all hospital admissions and emergency department deaths. The main outcome measures were the case-fatality rate adjusted for injury severity, hospital length of stay, and costs. RESULTS: A total of 25,979 patients were admitted or died. The number of patients per year increased, from 2063 in 1986 to 3313 in 1995. The proportion of patients transferred from another institution increased from 16.2% to 34.4%. Although mean length of stay declined by 28.4%, from 9.5 to 6.8 days, costs increased by 16.7%, from $14,174 to $16,547. The use of specific radiologic investigations increased; the frequency of operative procedures either remained unchanged (craniotomy, fracture fixation) or decreased (celiotomy). After adjusting for injury severity and demographic factors, the mortality rate decreased over 10 years. The improvement in survival was confined to patients with an injury severity score > or =16. CONCLUSION: Over a 10-year period, the case-fatality rate declined in patients with severe injuries. Overall acute care costs increased, partially because of the increased use of radiologic investigations. Even in otherwise established trauma centers, increasing cumulative experience results in improved survival rates in the most severely injured patients. These data suggest that experience contributes to a decrease in mortality rate after severe trauma and that developing trauma systems should consider this factor and limit the number of designated centers to maximize cumulative experience at individual centers.  (+info)

The cost of obesity in Canada. (5/3131)

BACKGROUND: Almost one-third of adult Canadians are at increased risk of disability, disease and premature death because of being obese. In order to allocate limited health care resources rationally, it is necessary to elucidate the economic burden of obesity. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the direct costs related to the treatment of and research into obesity in Canada in 1997. METHODS: The prevalence of obesity (body mass index of 27 or greater) in Canada was determined using data from the National Population Health Survey, 1994-1995. Ten comorbidities of obesity were identified from the medical literature. A population attributable fraction (PAF) was calculated for each comorbidity with data from large cohort studies to determine the extent to which each comorbidity and its management costs were attributable to obesity. The direct cost of each comorbidity was determined using data from the Canadian Institute of Health Information (for direct expenditure categories) and from Health Canada (for the proportion of expenditure category attributable to the comorbidity). This prevalence-based approach identified the direct costs of hospital care, physician services, services of other health professionals, drugs, other health care and health research. For each comorbidity, the cost attributable to obesity was determined by multiplying the PAF by the total direct cost of the comorbidity. The overall impact of obesity was estimated as the sum of the PAF-weighted costs of treating the comorbidities. A sensitivity analysis was completed on both the estimated costs and the PAFs. RESULTS: The total direct cost of obesity in Canada in 1997 was estimated to be over $1.8 billion. This corresponded to 2.4% of the total health care expenditures for all diseases in Canada in 1997. The sensitivity analysis revealed that the total cost could be as high as $3.5 billion or as low as $829.4 million; this corresponded to 4.6% and 1.1% respectively of the total health care expenditures in 1997. When the contributions of the comorbidities to the total cost were considered, the 3 largest contributors were hypertension ($656.6 million), type 2 diabetes mellitus ($423.2 million) and coronary artery disease ($346.0 million). INTERPRETATION: A considerable proportion of health care dollars is devoted to the treatment and management of obesity-related comorbidities in Canada. Further research into the therapeutic benefits and cost-effectiveness of management strategies for obesity is required. It is anticipated that the prevention and treatment of obesity will have major positive effects on the overall cost of health care.  (+info)

Economic burden of blindness in India. (6/3131)

Economic analysis is one way to determine the allocation of scarce resources for health-care programs. The initial step in this process is to estimate in economic terms the burden of diseases and the benefit from interventions for prevention and treatment of these diseases. In this paper, the direct and indirect economic loss due to blindness in India is calculated on the basis of certain assumptions. The cost of treating cataract blindness in India is estimated at current prices. The economic burden of blindness in India for the year 1997 based on our assumptions is Rs. 159 billion (US$ 4.4 billion), and the cumulative loss over lifetime of the blind is Rs. 2,787 billion (US$ 77.4 billion). Childhood blindness accounts for 28.7% of this lifetime loss. The cost of treating all cases of cataract blindness in India is Rs. 5.3 billion (US$ 0.15 billion). Similar estimates for causes of blindness other than cataract have to be made in order to develop a comprehensive approach to deal with blindness in India.  (+info)

The economic value of informal caregiving. (7/3131)

This study explores the current market value of the care provided by unpaid family members and friends to ill and disabled adults. Using large, national data sets we estimate that the national economic value of informal caregiving was $196 billion in 1997. This figure dwarfs national spending for formal home health care ($32 billion) and nursing home care ($83 billion). Estimates for five states also are presented. This study broadens the issue of informal caregiving from the micro level, where individual caregivers attempt to cope with the stresses and responsibilities of caregiving, to the macro level of the health care system, which must find more effective ways to support family caregivers.  (+info)

Willingness to pay: a feasible method for assessing treatment benefits in epilepsy? (8/3131)

Contingent valuation using willingness to pay (WTP) is one of the methods available for assessing the value of a new technology or treatment for a disease in monetary terms. Experience with this method is lacking in epilepsy. The objectives of this study were to assess the acceptability of the WTP method in epilepsy, the level of the responses, and to investigate its validity by comparison with other non-monetary preference measures. Among 397 patients with epilepsy responding to a comprehensive questionnaire, 82 were randomly selected for an interview. They were asked about their WTP for an imaginary new technology which could permanently cure their epilepsy. Fifty-nine patients participated and 57 completed the interview (32 women; mean age 44 years), the majority with well-controlled epilepsy. The patients indicated a median WTP of Norwegian Kroner (NOK) 150,000 (USD 20,000; GBP 11,800), interquartile range NOK 50,000-350,000 (USD 6, 667-46, 667; GBP 3,937-27,559) for this cure. Non-response was low, indicating high acceptability of this method. There was little association between WTP and other preference measures; the Spearman rank correlation coefficient was -0.09 and -0.12 with time trade-off and standard gamble respectively, questioning the validity of this method.  (+info)

  • The questionnaire will include demographic, clinical, behavioral information of the participants and all cost related information related to diabetes management during last one year. (banglajol.info)
  • Researchers examined the rates of 10 of the most common and costly chronic illnesses among those over age 50. (go.com)
  • We knew that obesity and smoking rates would be higher in the U.S. But the extent of the differences, especially with some of the chronic illnesses such as hypertension, heart disease and diabetes, was higher than we anticipated. (go.com)
  • And this doesn't even come close to capturing the laundry list of expenses associated with my chronic illnesses. (lifescienceleader.com)
  • Yet this estimate is probably conservative, because the [survey used] did not assess people in hospitals or prisons, and included very few participants with autism, schizophrenia or other chronic illnesses that are known to greatly affect a person's ability to work. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Our principal finding is that chemical factors in the environment continue to contribute greatly to childhood morbidity and to healthcare costs," Leonardo Trasande, MD, of the Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York City, and Yinghua Liu, MD, of the National Children's Study New York-Northern New Jersey Center wrote. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Many analyses of healthcare costs involve use of data with varying periods of observation and right censoring of cases before death or at the end of the episode of illness. (nih.gov)
  • To determine the demands on healthcare resources caused by different types of illnesses and variation with age and sex. (bmj.com)
  • Proportion of healthcare budget spent on each category of disease and cost of health care per person at various ages. (bmj.com)
  • The top five areas of healthcare costs were mental retardation, musculoskeletal disease (predominantly joint disease and dorsopathy), dementia, a heterogeneous group of other mental disorders, and ill defined conditions. (bmj.com)
  • A large share of the healthcare budget is spent on long term nursing care, and this cost will inevitably increase further in an ageing population. (bmj.com)
  • We therefore subdivided total healthcare costs in the Netherlands by healthcare sector, diagnosis, age, and sex to determine which illnesses and age groups have the greatest demand for care. (bmj.com)
  • We used data on healthcare costs for each care sector from the Ministry of Health for 1994 (table 1 ). (bmj.com)
  • Costs were calculated from the perspective of healthcare and transfer payment providers and the individual patient. (springer.com)
  • We conducted a cost-of-illness study of DFD in 2014, while considering the Brazilian Public Healthcare System (SUS) perspective. (mdpi.com)
  • For outpatient costs, a panel of experts was convened from which utilization of healthcare services for the management of DFD was obtained. (mdpi.com)
  • Quantities of each healthcare service was then multiplied by their respective unit costs obtained from national price listings. (mdpi.com)
  • SINTEF was commissioned by the Norwegian Labour Inspection Authority (NLIA) to compile a report showing the estimated annual social cost of deaths, injuries, treatment at emergency medical centres and specialist healthcare providers, sickness leave, disability pensions and reduced quality of life. (sintef.no)
  • One-year costs of healthcare (pharmacy, outpatient, inpatient, and total) among GCA patients and controls were compared, adjusting for age, gender, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), Chronic Condition Count (CCC), U.S. region, and health plan type (HMO vs. other) using generalized linear models. (bmj.com)
  • Conclusions Patients with GCA experience increased healthcare costs compared to patients without GCA after adjusting for covariates related to health care utilization and costs. (bmj.com)
  • Multiple sclerosis (MS) causes work disability and healthcare resource use, but little is known about the distribution of the associated costs to society. (springer.com)
  • Cost data came from the National Council on Compensation Insurance, the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project and the National Academy of Social Insurance. (ohsonline.com)
  • This study aimed to describe costs of illness for a group of IBD patients and determine factors associated with increased healthcare costs. (bmj.com)
  • Hospitalisation affected a minority of sufferers but accounted for half of the total direct costs falling on the healthcare system. (bmj.com)
  • There is pressure within all healthcare systems to control expenditure and a growing acceptance of the need for more accurate information on the costs of different diseases. (bmj.com)
  • As a result, our knowledge of the level and profile of healthcare costs for IBD in Britain is remarkably limited. (bmj.com)
  • C. SCHMUTZ et al, Estimating healthcare costs of acute gastroenteritis and human campylobacteriosis in Switzerland, Epidemiology and Infection (2016). (medicalxpress.com)
  • To assess the relationship between severity and progression of illness in Parkinson's disease and the use of healthcare resources. (springer.com)
  • Psoriasis is a multisystem disease with significant financial burden for Bulgarian healthcare system as a result of the costs for treatment of the concomitant diseases, hospitalization costs and phototherapy. (oatext.com)
  • Psoriasis is a chronic autoimmune disease, which consumes significant part of healthcare resources due to the significantly high pharmacotherapy costs for the main and for the concomitant diseases [1- (oatext.com)
  • AIMS: To investigate the effect of integrated care models on disease-related hospitalisations as a quality indicator and healthcare costs in patients with either diabetes, cardiovascular diseases or respiratory illnesses. (uzh.ch)
  • Healthcare costs were statistically significant lower in all three patient groups with integrated care, but with the highest effect in patients with diabetes (Swiss francs (CHF) -778). (uzh.ch)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Integrated care may provide an effective strategy to improve the quality of care and to reduce healthcare costs in chronically ill patients. (uzh.ch)
  • DSA results identified lack of response to first-line therapy and IDDM development post surgery (and associated healthcare costs) as major cost drivers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As most studies likely underestimated the actual costs (e.g. by disregarding provision of certain healthcare services), real healthcare costs tend to be at the upper end of the cost range. (tu-berlin.de)
  • Healthcare costs depend on the patient's age (for adults, costs are approximately twice as high as for children), the grade of severity (the cost relationship of severe to mild CF is between 4.5 and 7.1) and other factors. (tu-berlin.de)
  • Health economic analyses of future CF therapeutic technologies should present explicit data regarding healthcare services provision, resource consumption and unit costs. (tu-berlin.de)
  • A greater number of effectiveness studies should be performed to determine costs and outcomes of therapies applied under everyday life conditions for patients with CF. Finally, international comparison studies should identify the influence of different healthcare systems on the costs and outcomes of interventions. (tu-berlin.de)
  • OBJECTIVE To investigate the impact of epilepsy in Italy on healthcare resources, producing an average cost per patient per year of follow-up. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Results: The costs of hospitalized cases ranged from USD 129 in Kolkata to USD 432 in North Jakarta (hospitalization rates varied from 2% in Kolkata to 40% in Hechi) and the costs of non-hospitalized cases ranged from USD 13 in Kolkata to USD 67 in Hechi. (rti.org)
  • For inpatient care, ICD10 codes related to DFD were identified and costs of hospitalizations due to osteomyelitis, amputations, and other selected DFD related conditions were obtained from a nationwide hospitalization database. (mdpi.com)
  • This study examines how mental illness or addiction affects risk for repeat hospitalization and/or emergency department use for ambulatory care-sensitive conditions (ACSCs) among high-cost users of medical care. (ices.on.ca)
  • The mean initial hospitalization costs almost doubled for patients with complicated Staph aureus bacteremias such as endocarditis and osteomyelitis versus bacteremias without these complications ($32,462 compared to $17,011, p=0.002). (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • The cost of hospitalization was estimated from data provided by the national hospitalization database for short-term care by considering all hospital stays in which the ICD-10 code A92.0 appeared. (inserm.fr)
  • A possible reason for a lower rate of hospitalization among children from poor households could be the burden of higher illness-related costs and debts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Def Leppard has been a consistently touring band for many years before the coronavirus pandemic, but Joe Elliott said in a new interview his performing days were in danger following an illness in 2016. (wrif.com)
  • Louise Bradley, President and CEO of the Mental Health Commission of Canada, said in a statement for Mental Health Week 2016, "Too often, mental health problems or illnesses are considered an inevitable consequence of aging. (bc211.ca)
  • Design, setting and participants A cost of illness study was conducted for the Australian population in the 2016-2017 financial year. (bmj.com)
  • The prevalence of delirium in 2016-2017 was calculated to inform cost estimations. (bmj.com)
  • Costs were expressed in 2016-2017 pound sterling (£) and Australian dollars ($A). (bmj.com)
  • The total costs of delirium in Australia were estimated to be £4.3 billion ($A8.8 billion) in 2016-2017, ranging between £2.6 billion ($A5.3 billion) and £5.9 billion ($A12.1 billion). (bmj.com)
  • Model inputs were informed by a pragmatic literature review, NHS Reference Costs (2015-2016) and the British National Formulary (2017). (biomedcentral.com)
  • When researchers calculated the actual cost of mental health leave, they found that on average, it's double the cost of a leave for a physical illness. (psychcentral.com)
  • Results showed that the cost to a company for a single employee on a short-term disability leave due to mental health concerns totals nearly $18,000. (psychcentral.com)
  • Health and wellness interventions may hold the key to maintaining a healthy workforce and reducing costs. (psychcentral.com)
  • Americans may have themselves to blame for higher health care costs. (go.com)
  • As John Smith prepares for retirement, he also realizes that 18 percent of his income goes toward health care costs, and he wonders why he is paying so much. (go.com)
  • And according to the study, it may be Americans' own habits that are driving health care costs in the United States. (go.com)
  • However, the study in this week's issue of the journal Health Affairs suggests that Americans' obesity and smoking habits may be partly to blame, and may be costing Americans $100 billion to $150 billion per year. (go.com)
  • This added burden of disease has led to higher health costs overall. (go.com)
  • If the United States could improve its population's health to have the same levels of chronic illness as Europeans do, Americans would save between $1,200 and $1,750 per year each on medical bills, the researchers found. (go.com)
  • All told, the higher rates of disease are costing Americans between $100 billion and $150 billion per year, or 13 percent to 19 percent of total health care spending for those age 50 and over. (go.com)
  • According to Thorpe, these findings could have a significant impact on strategies to control health care costs in America. (go.com)
  • A single foodborne outbreak could cost a restaurant millions of dollars in lost revenue, fines, lawsuits, legal fees, insurance premium increases, inspection costs and staff retraining, a new study from researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health suggests. (eurekalert.org)
  • 16 in the journal Public Health Reports , are based on computer simulations that suggest a foodborne illness outbreak can have large, reverberating consequences regardless of the size of the restaurant and outbreak. (eurekalert.org)
  • The Scientific American points out that one in 17 adults has a serious mental illness and " nearly one in two people in the U.S. will suffer from depression, anxiety disorders or another mental health ailment at some point in their life. (businessinsider.com)
  • Cornell University professor Phyllis Gabriel told the WSJ that " t he burden of mental disorders on health and productivity throughout the world has long been profoundly underestimated … Mental health problems strongly influence employee performance, rates of illness, absenteeism, accidents and staff turnover. (businessinsider.com)
  • The debate on containing the cost of health care is mainly focused on the supply side and the financing of health care. (bmj.com)
  • 1 Little attention is given to changes in population health, which is another important determinant of costs. (bmj.com)
  • Direct health care costs were estimated for hospital care, general practice care and paramedical care. (nih.gov)
  • The share of these costs was about 1% of total health care expenditures and 0.1 % of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 1996. (nih.gov)
  • Public costs of treatment were measured at local health facilities using a micro costing (bottom-up) method. (rti.org)
  • The costs from the perspective of statutory health insurance (Gesetzliche Krankenkversicherung [GKV]) consisted of direct medical costs €1370 ± €3240, including rehabilitation (€420 ± €1630), hospitalisation (€710 ± €2520), outpatient treatment (€40 ± €30), ancillary treatment (€190 ± €280) and ambulatory diagnostic procedures (€10 ± €30). (springer.com)
  • This was causing 'an extraordinary cost' to the public health system and costing the economy $31.5 billion a year, Mr Rudd said. (news.com.au)
  • Foodborne illness is a serious public-health problem in the United States. (pewtrusts.org)
  • The derivation of an accurate cost-of-illness measure for foodborne illness is important as a guide to policymakers who seek to allocate scarce resources to programs designed to improve the health of Americans. (pewtrusts.org)
  • The derivation of a measure for the aggregate health costs of foodborne illness is useful as a means of evaluating the importance of this problem relative to other pressing health problems. (pewtrusts.org)
  • Instead, I focus on costs of acute foodborne illnesses and a few long-term health-related costs. (pewtrusts.org)
  • The National Alliance for the Mentally Ill (NAMI) thanks Chairman Billy Tauzin of the Committee on Energy & Commerce and Representative Michael Bilarakis, chairman of the Health Subcommittee, and their colleagues, for convening today's hearing on insurance coverage of mental illness. (nami.org)
  • As the nation's largest organization representing children and adults with mental illnesses, NAMI is pleased to help shed light on how current health insurance plans discriminate against individuals with mental illnesses and their families. (nami.org)
  • We estimated that the annual direct medical costs of DFD in 2014 was Int$ 361 million, which denotes 0.31% of public health expenses for this period. (mdpi.com)
  • As such, public health preventive strategies to reduce DFD related morbidity and mortality and costs are of utmost importance. (mdpi.com)
  • The MHCC's Mental Health Indicators for Canada show one in four seniors live with a mental health problem or illness. (bc211.ca)
  • In its report, Making the Case for Investing in Mental Health in Canada , the Mental Health Commission of Canada concludes that, if nothing changes to better apply the evidence we have, by 2041 there will be over 8.9 million people in Canada living with a mental illness. (bc211.ca)
  • The increasing attention to mental health in Canada provides poignant examples on a daily basis of how too many people in Canada are not receiving the services and programs that we know can improve the quality of their lives, reduce the limitations imposed by their illnesses, or even help prevent certain mental health problems and illnesses from developing into larger problems. (bc211.ca)
  • Promote mental health across the lifespan and prevent mental illness and suicide wherever possible. (bc211.ca)
  • Foster recovery and well-being for people of all ages living with mental health problems and illnesses, and uphold their rights. (bc211.ca)
  • Since the NLIA is responsible for the working environment and health and safety, it also wanted to gain some basic knowledge about how much the actual social costs are, which will enable it to plan and prioritise preventive work in the future. (sintef.no)
  • We describe the effect of influenza-like illness (ILI) during the outbreak of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 on health care worker (HCW) absenteeism and compare the effectiveness and cost of 2 sick leave policies for HCWs with suspected influenza. (cdc.gov)
  • Effectiveness and costs of sick leave policies should be evaluated to guide hospital managers and public health officials, particularly during epidemics and pandemics. (cdc.gov)
  • This report also contains an estimation of health care costs in the last year of life. (openrepository.com)
  • The role of these costs in projections of future health expenditure is discussed. (openrepository.com)
  • Health care costs are also attributed to risk factors and aspects of unhealthy behaviour. (openrepository.com)
  • Main outcome measures The total and per capita costs were analysed for three categories: health systems costs, other financial costs including productivity losses and informal care and cost associated with loss of well-being (burden of disease). (bmj.com)
  • Conclusions These findings highlight the substantial burden that delirium imposes on Australian society-both in terms of financial costs associated with health system expenditure and the increased need for residential aged care due to the functional and cognitive decline associated with delirium and dementia. (bmj.com)
  • Many reports on cost and quality disparity (the best known is the Dartmouth Atlas of Health Care ) are based on data from the government's Medicare program for seniors. (krvs.org)
  • Although there is movement toward integrating mental health services financing and delivery with the rest of the health care sector, very little is known about the care and costs of mentally ill patients who are enrolled in integrated delivery systems that reimburse providers with global payments. (commonwealthfund.org)
  • The Department of Health is sending information on this opportunity to visit NIH to the parents and families of those affected by this illness and urges them to take advantage of this opportunity to be examined by these experts. (thebatavian.com)
  • Based on the clinical evaluations of the patients and the pattern in which these cases presented, the department continues to believe that there is no environmental or infectious cause of these illnesses or public health threat to the community. (thebatavian.com)
  • As a result, many occupational health issues go unresolved, and the bulk of the costs are absorbed by employer-provided medical insurance and Medicare and Medicaid, Leigh said. (ohsonline.com)
  • It's an incredible jigsaw puzzle, but an essential one to assemble, since it's impossible for business and policy leaders to effectively manage health-care resources or make changes for the better without first having an accurate assessment of costs," said Leigh. (healthcanal.com)
  • Study of 843 children under 36 months of age enrolled in a prepaid health plan from September 1985 through March 1986 revealed an increased incidence of illness in children attending day care centers, but not day care homes. (ed.gov)
  • Using a structured questionnaire, we collected information on patients and their health-care utilization and out-of-pocket expenditures, as well as income and other financial losses they incurred because of dengue illness. (diva-portal.org)
  • The two studies presented at ICAAC clearly describe the clinical outcomes, associated with health care resource utilization and infection-associated costs of Staph aureus bacteremia among a large group of prospectively identified, hemodialysis-dependent patients. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • In 2012, gastrointestinal diseases gave rise to health care costs of between EUR 29 to 45 million. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Offenders with mental illness also have much higher rates of recidivism due to many factors, including substance abuse, lack of access to mental health treatment , homelessness, and unemployment. (crossbowcommunications.com)
  • According to the report, it's more cost-effective for all stakeholders to intervene with many of these individuals in a community mental health setting before they encounter the law enforcement system. (crossbowcommunications.com)
  • Secondly, people with mental illness who end up in jail or prison must be assisted with transition programs to maintain their health and independence. (crossbowcommunications.com)
  • At the request of the Arapahoe County Sherriff's Department, Arapahoe/Douglas Mental Health Network added a Jail Reentry case management team in 2006 to provide services to those with mental illness who are leaving jail so that they can successfully return to the community. (crossbowcommunications.com)
  • The average costs for pharmacotherapy of the concomitant diseases per patient are almost equally paid from the National health insurance fund (20.53 BGN) and the patient (23.10 BGN). (oatext.com)
  • It was found that the direct health-care costs of treating over 700,000 cases of prostate cancer among Canadian men aged 40-80 years in 1997 would amount to C$9.76 billion. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, recognizing the factors of cost-of-illness will help both patients and health care providers to improve the management plan and cost control and hence, to have better quality of life. (banglajol.info)
  • In accordance with the assertive community treatment scale developed by Dartmouth College, assertive community treatment uses principles of care coordination, chronic illness management and evidence-based therapies to minimize fragmentation of care and maximize care coordination for persons whose symptoms of mental illness result in serious functioning difficulties in multiple areas of life, including family relationships, social relationships, education, employment, residential independence, medical health, substance abuse and psychotropic medication management. (mainelegislature.org)
  • BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to assess the impact of chikungunya on health costs during the epidemic that occurred on La Réunion in 2005-2006. (inserm.fr)
  • METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From data collected from health agencies, the additional costs incurred by chikungunya in terms of consultations, drug consumption and absence from work were determined by a comparison with the expected costs outside the epidemic period. (inserm.fr)
  • Spending for six of the top seven causes of death and disease over the last 20 years was both cost-effective and improved patient outcomes, according to a study published in the January 2019 issue of Health Affairs , a leading health policy journal. (npcnow.org)
  • The research addresses concerns about the rising cost of health care in the United States and the costs associated with innovative treatments by measuring whether - when considering inflation and disease prevalence - the cost of treatment for the top conditions associated with disability and mortality actually became costlier over time. (npcnow.org)
  • Researchers at the National Pharmaceutical Council (NPC) and RTI Health Solutions examined health spending on prevalent chronic conditions from 1995-2015 to determine the estimated changes in the cost and burden of disease (in terms of morbidity and mortality) over time. (npcnow.org)
  • While medical costs, in aggregate, are growing, the Health Affairs analysis found that disease prevalence and general inflation account for a significant portion of cost increases. (npcnow.org)
  • Second, when we think about rising health costs, rather than blunt approaches that target all spending, we need policies that enable a disease-based approach focused on conditions where increasing costs are not justified by associated health gains. (npcnow.org)
  • METHODS: A propensity-matched retrospective cohort study based on a large Swiss health insurance database (2012-2013) was performed for three chronic patient groups (diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory illnesses), who were enrolled in an integrated care model and compared to individuals in a standard care model. (uzh.ch)
  • This issue brief examines approaches to delivering and financing health services for persons with advanced chronic illness. (gwu.edu)
  • Background: A central aim of Universal Health Coverage (UHC) is protection for all against the cost of illness. (sun.ac.za)
  • In a low income country like Bangladesh the cost burden of health care in tertiary facilities is likely to be significant for most citizens. (sun.ac.za)
  • and health care and cost-effectiveness evaluation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conclusions - The presence of mental illness and addiction among high-cost users of medical services may represent an unmet need for quality ambulatory and primary care. (ices.on.ca)
  • Methods: To measure out-of-pocket costs of illness and lost earnings, families with culture-proven cases were surveyed 7, 14 and 90 days after onset of illness. (rti.org)
  • Methods: The study used face to face interviews at three hospitals (one public and two private) to elicit cost data from presenting outpatients. (sun.ac.za)
  • Future modeling studies including cost inputs should critically evaluate the risk of bias based on costing methods and data sources. (umaryland.edu)
  • SMOKING-RELATED illness costs the economy a staggering $31.5 billion a year with the PM appearing to confirm a tobacco tax hike is the way to cut rising cancer rates. (news.com.au)
  • SMOKING-related illness costs the economy a staggering $31.5 billion a year with Kevin Rudd today appearing to confirm tobacco tax increases will soon be on the way. (news.com.au)
  • Mean total dengue-related costs did not differ from those of other febrile illnesses (31.5 vs. 27.2 US$, p = 0.44). (biomedcentral.com)
  • These numbers show that the cost of living with ALS, myotonic dystrophy and Duchenne muscular dystrophy are all of a similar magnitude in comparison to diseases such as multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease, which often get more federal attention. (mda.org)
  • The four most prevalent critical illnesses, cancer, Multiple Sclerosis (MS), strokes and coronary heart disease, have impacted the economy to a loss of £15.2bn, according to research by Legal & General. (ftadviser.com)
  • Workforces at large tertiary care hospitals functioning as reference hospitals for persons with influenza may be substantially affected during pandemics, particularly in regard to absenteeism and associated costs. (cdc.gov)
  • The objectives of this study were to describe the effects of ILI during the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 outbreak on HCW absenteeism and the associated costs. (cdc.gov)
  • Non-specific cost containment measures may endanger the quality of care for old and mentally disabled people. (bmj.com)
  • Long term care is rarely included in other studies, 2 - 5 which consequently underestimate the high costs of disabling disease. (bmj.com)
  • The 2011 Aflac WorkForces Report revealed only 19 percent of employees think it likely they or a family member will be diagnosed with a chronic illness, such as heart disease or diabetes, and 13 percent said they thought a serious illness like cancer will occur or that there will be a need for long-term care. (disabled-world.com)
  • We found essentially no correlation between average costs and the measured level of care quality across markets," the authors wrote. (krvs.org)
  • However, some who received good scores for both quality and efficiency delivered care costing about 14 percent less compared with that of other doctors. (krvs.org)
  • In summary, the total societal costs of dementia in Europe were estimated to 103 billion € where informal care in the base case constituted about one third of the costs (table 15). (alzheimer-europe.org)
  • Summary of total societal costs of dementia care (base cases, in 2008. (alzheimer-europe.org)
  • Interviews will further explore how the AQC's payment incentives are affecting care delivery for patients with mental illness and comorbid chronic conditions. (commonwealthfund.org)
  • Illness Associated with Child Day Care: A Study of Incidence and Cost. (ed.gov)
  • The strongest correlation was between clinical indicators and ancillary care costs. (springer.com)
  • The multivariable regression analysis and bootstrap method will also be employed to analyze the relationship between the total cost of care (dependent variable) and several potential explanatory variables (independent variables). (banglajol.info)
  • RESULTS: The matched cohorts included a total of 12,526 patients with diabetes, 71,778 with cardiovascular diseases and 17,498 with respiratory illnesses, in which each one half was enrolled in integrated care models and the other half in standard care models. (uzh.ch)
  • The implementation of a standard care strategy would avert 791 deaths and is cost-saving in comparison to sub-optimal care. (diabeticfootonline.com)
  • This may be because the relation between disease and costs is not straightforward and relevant data are often lacking. (bmj.com)
  • Unfortunately, the data for SMA did not prove to be useful due to small sample sizes and the inability to distinguish between early- and late-onset disease, in which the costs are very different. (mda.org)
  • How is cost of illness data used? (mda.org)
  • However, every issue with the data that we have detailed in the paper would make the true cost of these diseases higher than listed, so we see this as a minimal cost - with the true cost of these diseases being much higher. (mda.org)
  • All pertinent data were extracted at the level of detail reported in a study, and the component cost and source data were subsequently grouped into themes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Data sources were not provided or specifically linked to component costs in several studies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This scoping review can be used as evidence that there is a lack of standardization in cost inventories in the cost of foodborne illness literature, and to promote greater transparency and detail of data source reporting. (biomedcentral.com)
  • By conforming to a more standardized cost inventory, and by reporting data sources in more detail, there will be an increase in cost of foodborne illness research that can be interpreted and compared in a meaningful way. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cost data were expressed as mean six month costs per patient (with 95% confidence interval (CI)) obtained using non-parametric bootstrapping. (bmj.com)
  • 1 In the UK, detailed cost data for individual diseases are difficult to obtain owing to the absence of any systematic process for recording patient specific resource use. (bmj.com)
  • The study suggests that the U.S. should place greater emphasis on reducing work-related injury and illnesses, especially since the costs have risen by more than $33 billion (inflation adjusted) since a 1992 analysis, the author said. (ohsonline.com)
  • The study strongly suggests that the U.S. should place greater emphasis on reducing work-related injury and illnesses, especially since the costs have risen by more than $33 billion (inflation adjusted) since the 1992 analysis, the author said. (healthcanal.com)
  • First, it emphasizes the importance of adjusting for changes in inflation and in disease prevalence in future funding and legislation to prevent undue attention on disease areas where per-patient costs are well-controlled. (npcnow.org)
  • Our results are the first to inform researchers, clinicians, and policymakers on the cost burden of GCA, estimated to be approximately $1 billion annually in the US. (bmj.com)
  • The value of these numbers is to look at what type of benefits we can attain if we prevent these illnesses,' said Scharff, currently an assistant professor in the Department of Consumer Sciences at Ohio State University. (cnn.com)
  • The cost of treatment of heart diseases ranges between 3-5 lakhs depending on the city you live in. (icicilombard.com)
  • Bottom up approach was applied in order to calculate the costs associated with treatment of psoriasis and concomitant diseases. (oatext.com)
  • The research also illustrates that for some diseases, additional spending is both cost-effective and a source of high value creation. (npcnow.org)
  • This underscores the need to tailor future cost-management strategies specifically for diseases where increased spending is not leading to substantial benefits. (npcnow.org)