A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.
The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.
The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The amount that a health care institution or organization pays for its drugs. It is one component of the final price that is charged to the consumer (FEES, PHARMACEUTICAL or PRESCRIPTION FEES).
The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.

Evaluating cost-effectiveness of diagnostic equipment: the brain scanner case. (1/8073)

An approach to evaluating the cost-effectiveness of high-technology diagnostic equipment has been devised, using the introduction of computerised axial tomography (CAT) as a model. With the advent of CAT scanning, angiography and air encephalography have a reduced, though important, role in investigating intracranial disease, and the efficient use of conventional equipment requires the centralisation of neuroradiological services, which would result in major cash savings. In contrast, the pattern of demand for CAT scanning, in addition to the acknowledged clinical efficiency of the scanner and its unique role in the head-injured patient, ephasies the need for improved access to scanners. In the interest of the patients the pattern of service must change.  (+info)

The use of targets to improve the performance of health care providers: a discussion of government policy. (2/8073)

The aim of this discussion paper is to examine the advantages and drawbacks of employing targets, or performance indicators, to improve the performance of those delivering health care services. The paper is based on an examination of two target-setting policies initiated by Government: the 1992 Health of the Nation strategy and the 1990 General Practitioners' Contract. It is argued that the introduction of both the General Practitioners' Contract and the Health of the Nation have indeed been accompanied by improvements in performance, however, there are a number of problems with targets. They tend to focus on those things that are most easily measured, and they may foster complacency on the part of providers who have already achieved upper target limits, and defensiveness on the part of those performing badly. National targets may skew local priorities; they may also be unrealistic and unattainable for particular, less privileged population groups. They may serve to widen inequalities in health, and can exacerbate the 'inverse care law' by encouraging providers to direct their efforts at the more advantaged sections of society, where such efforts are more likely to pay off in terms of overall improvements in the target level achieved. Finally, the achievement of some targets will not necessarily result in better health outcomes. The paper concludes that a target-setting approach to improving the quality of care must be based on the use of appropriate indicators, and must take account of differences between more and less advantaged sections of society.  (+info)

Economic consequences of the progression of rheumatoid arthritis in Sweden. (3/8073)

OBJECTIVE: To develop a simulation model for analysis of the cost-effectiveness of treatments that affect the progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: The Markov model was developed on the basis of a Swedish cohort of 116 patients with early RA who were followed up for 5 years. The majority of patients had American College of Rheumatology (ACR) functional class II disease, and Markov states indicating disease severity were defined based on Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) scores. Costs were calculated from data on resource utilization and patients' work capacity. Utilities (preference weights for health states) were assessed using the EQ-5D (EuroQol) questionnaire. Hypothetical treatment interventions were simulated to illustrate the model. RESULTS: The cohort distribution among the 6 Markov states clearly showed the progression of the disease over 5 years of followup. Costs increased with increasing severity of the Markov states, and total costs over 5 years were higher for patients who were in more severe Markov states at diagnosis. Utilities correlated well with the Markov states, and the EQ-5D was able to discriminate between patients with different HAQ scores within ACR functional class II. CONCLUSION: The Markov model was able to assess disease progression and costs in RA. The model can therefore be a useful tool in calculating the cost-effectiveness of different interventions aimed at changing the progression of the disease.  (+info)

Use of out-of-plan services by Medicare members of HIP. (4/8073)

Use of out-of-plan services in 1972 by Medicare members of the Health Insurance Plan of Greater New York (HIP) is examined in terms of the demographic and enrollment characteristics of out-of-plan users, types of services received outside the plan, and the relationship of out-of-plan to in-plan use. Users of services outside the plan tended to be more seriously ill and more frequently hospitalized than those receiving all of their services within the plan. The costs to the SSA of providing medical care to HIP enrollees are compared with analogous costs for non-HIP beneficiaries, and the implications for the organization and financing of health services for the aged are discussed.  (+info)

Should prophylaxis for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in solid organ transplant recipients ever be discontinued? (5/8073)

Solid organ transplant recipients are at risk for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), but the risk of PCP beyond 1 year is poorly defined. We identified 25 cases of PCP in 1,299 patients undergoing solid organ transplantation between 1987 and 1996 at The Cleveland Clinic Foundation (4.8 cases per 1,000 person transplant-years [PTY]). Ten (36%) of 28 PCP cases (transplantation was performed before 1987 in three cases) occurred > or = 1 year after transplantation, and no patient developed PCP while receiving prophylaxis for PCP. The incidence of PCP during the first year following transplantation was eight times higher than that during subsequent years. The highest rate occurred among lung transplant recipients (22 cases per 1,000 PTY), for whom the incidence did not decline beyond the first year of transplantation. We conclude that the incidence of PCP is highest during the first year after transplantation and differs by type of solid organ transplant. Extending the duration of PCP prophylaxis beyond 1 year may be warranted for lung transplant recipients.  (+info)

The cost effectiveness of strategies for the treatment of intestinal parasites in immigrants. (6/8073)

BACKGROUND: Currently, more than 600,000 immigrants enter the United States each year from countries where intestinal parasites are endemic. At entry persons with parasitic infections may be asymptomatic, and stool examinations are not a sensitive method of screening for parasitosis. Albendazole is a new, broad-spectrum antiparasitic drug, which was approved recently by the Food and Drug Administration. International trials have shown albendazole to be safe and effective in eradicating many parasites. In the United States there is now disagreement about whether to screen all immigrants for parasites, treat all immigrants presumptively, or do nothing unless they have symptoms. METHODS: We compared the costs and benefits of no preventive intervention (watchful waiting) with those of universal screening or presumptive treatment with 400 mg of albendazole per day for five days. Those at risk were defined as immigrants to the United States from Asia, the Middle East, sub-Saharan Africa, Eastern Europe, and Latin America and the Caribbean. Cost effectiveness was expressed both in terms of the cost of treatment per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted (one DALY is defined as the loss of one year of healthy life to disease) and in terms of the cost per hospitalization averted. RESULTS: As compared with watchful waiting, presumptive treatment of all immigrants at risk for parasitosis would avert at least 870 DALYs, prevent at least 33 deaths and 374 hospitalizations, and save at least $4.2 million per year. As compared with watchful waiting, screening would cost $159,236 per DALY averted. CONCLUSIONS: Presumptive administration of albendazole to all immigrants at risk for parasitosis would save lives and money. Universal screening, with treatment of persons with positive stool examinations, would save lives but is less cost effective than presumptive treatment.  (+info)

The use of atypical antipsychotics in the management of schizophrenia. (7/8073)

Long-term drug treatment of schizophrenia with conventional antipsychotics has limitations: an estimated quarter to one third of patients are treatment-resistant; conventional antipsychotics have only a modest impact upon negative symptoms (poverty of thought, social withdrawal and loss of affect); and adverse effects, particularly extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS). Newer, so-called atypical, antipsychotics such as olanzapine, risperidone, sertindole and clozapine (an old drug which was re-introduced in 1990) are claimed to address these limitations. Atypical agents are, at a minimum, at least as effective as conventional drugs such as haloperidol. They also cause substantially fewer extrapyramidal symptoms. However, some other adverse effects are more common than with conventional drugs. For example, clozapine carries a significant risk of serious blood disorders, for which special monitoring is mandatory; it also causes troublesome drowsiness and increased salivation more often than conventional agents. Some atypical agents cause more weight gain or QT prolongation than older agents. The choice of therapy is, therefore, not straightforward. At present, atypical agents represent an advance for patients with severe or intolerable EPS. Most published evidence exists to support the use of clozapine, which has also been shown to be effective in schizophrenia refractory to conventional agents. However, the need for compliance with blood count monitoring and its sedative properties make careful patient selection important. The extent of any additional direct benefit offered by atypical agents on negative symptoms is not yet clear. The lack of a depot formulation for atypical drugs may pose a significant practical problem. To date, only two double-blind studies in which atypical agents were compared directly have been published. Neither provides compelling evidence for the choice of one agent over another. Atypical agents are many times more expensive than conventional drugs. Although drug treatment constitutes only a small proportion of the costs of managing schizophrenia, the additional annual cost of the use of atypical agents in, say, a quarter of the likely U.K. schizophrenic population would be about 56 M pound sterling. There is only limited evidence of cost-effectiveness. Atypical antipsychotics are not currently licensed for other conditions where conventional antipsychotics are commonly used, such as behaviour disturbance or dementia in the elderly. Their dose, and place in treatment in such cases have yet to be determined.  (+info)

The reach and effectiveness of a national mass media-led smoking cessation campaign in The Netherlands. (8/8073)

OBJECTIVES: This study examined the reach, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of a mass media-led smoking cessation campaign including television shows, a television clinic, a quit line, local group programs, and a comprehensive publicity campaign. METHODS: A random sample of baseline smokers (n = 1338) was interviewed before and after the campaign and at a 10-month follow-up. A nonpretested control group (n = 508) of baseline smokers was incorporated to control for test effects. RESULTS: Most smokers were aware of the campaign, although active participation rates were low. Dose-response relations between exposure and quitting were found. The follow-up point prevalence abstinence rate attributable to the campaign was estimated to be 4.5% after control for test effects and secular trends. The cost per long-term quitter was about $12. CONCLUSIONS: In spite of a massive rise in tobacco promotion expenditures prior to the campaign and the absence of governmental control over the media, the campaign under study may have increased normal cessation rates substantially.  (+info)

Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is a systematic process used to compare the costs and benefits of different options to determine which one provides the greatest net benefit. In a medical context, CBA can be used to evaluate the value of medical interventions, treatments, or policies by estimating and monetizing all the relevant costs and benefits associated with each option.

The costs included in a CBA may include direct costs such as the cost of the intervention or treatment itself, as well as indirect costs such as lost productivity or time away from work. Benefits may include improved health outcomes, reduced morbidity or mortality, and increased quality of life.

Once all the relevant costs and benefits have been identified and quantified, they are typically expressed in monetary terms to allow for a direct comparison. The option with the highest net benefit (i.e., the difference between total benefits and total costs) is considered the most cost-effective.

It's important to note that CBA has some limitations and can be subject to various biases and assumptions, so it should be used in conjunction with other evaluation methods to ensure a comprehensive understanding of the value of medical interventions or policies.

Risk assessment in the medical context refers to the process of identifying, evaluating, and prioritizing risks to patients, healthcare workers, or the community related to healthcare delivery. It involves determining the likelihood and potential impact of adverse events or hazards, such as infectious diseases, medication errors, or medical devices failures, and implementing measures to mitigate or manage those risks. The goal of risk assessment is to promote safe and high-quality care by identifying areas for improvement and taking action to minimize harm.

Costs refer to the total amount of resources, such as money, time, and labor, that are expended in the provision of a medical service or treatment. Costs can be categorized into direct costs, which include expenses directly related to patient care, such as medication, supplies, and personnel; and indirect costs, which include overhead expenses, such as rent, utilities, and administrative salaries.

Cost analysis is the process of estimating and evaluating the total cost of a medical service or treatment. This involves identifying and quantifying all direct and indirect costs associated with the provision of care, and analyzing how these costs may vary based on factors such as patient volume, resource utilization, and reimbursement rates.

Cost analysis is an important tool for healthcare organizations to understand the financial implications of their operations and make informed decisions about resource allocation, pricing strategies, and quality improvement initiatives. It can also help policymakers and payers evaluate the cost-effectiveness of different treatment options and develop evidence-based guidelines for clinical practice.

Health care costs refer to the expenses incurred for medical services, treatments, procedures, and products that are used to maintain or restore an individual's health. These costs can be categorized into several types:

1. Direct costs: These include payments made for doctor visits, hospital stays, medications, diagnostic tests, surgeries, and other medical treatments and services. Direct costs can be further divided into two subcategories:
* Out-of-pocket costs: Expenses paid directly by patients, such as co-payments, deductibles, coinsurance, and any uncovered medical services or products.
* Third-party payer costs: Expenses covered by insurance companies, government programs (like Medicare, Medicaid), or other entities that pay for health care services on behalf of patients.
2. Indirect costs: These are the expenses incurred as a result of illness or injury that indirectly impact an individual's ability to work and earn a living. Examples include lost productivity, absenteeism, reduced earning capacity, and disability benefits.
3. Non-medical costs: These are expenses related to caregiving, transportation, home modifications, assistive devices, and other non-medical services required for managing health conditions or disabilities.

Health care costs can vary significantly depending on factors such as the type of medical service, geographic location, insurance coverage, and individual health status. Understanding these costs is essential for patients, healthcare providers, policymakers, and researchers to make informed decisions about treatment options, resource allocation, and health system design.

Decision-making is the cognitive process of selecting a course of action from among multiple alternatives. In a medical context, decision-making refers to the process by which healthcare professionals and patients make choices about medical tests, treatments, or management options based on a thorough evaluation of available information, including the patient's preferences, values, and circumstances.

The decision-making process in medicine typically involves several steps:

1. Identifying the problem or issue that requires a decision.
2. Gathering relevant information about the patient's medical history, current condition, diagnostic test results, treatment options, and potential outcomes.
3. Considering the benefits, risks, and uncertainties associated with each option.
4. Evaluating the patient's preferences, values, and goals.
5. Selecting the most appropriate course of action based on a careful weighing of the available evidence and the patient's individual needs and circumstances.
6. Communicating the decision to the patient and ensuring that they understand the rationale behind it, as well as any potential risks or benefits.
7. Monitoring the outcomes of the decision and adjusting the course of action as needed based on ongoing evaluation and feedback.

Effective decision-making in medicine requires a thorough understanding of medical evidence, clinical expertise, and patient preferences. It also involves careful consideration of ethical principles, such as respect for autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, and justice. Ultimately, the goal of decision-making in healthcare is to promote the best possible outcomes for patients while minimizing harm and respecting their individual needs and values.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

"Drug costs" refer to the amount of money that must be paid to acquire and use a particular medication. These costs can include the following:

1. The actual purchase price of the drug, which may vary depending on factors such as the dosage form, strength, and quantity of the medication, as well as whether it is obtained through a retail pharmacy, mail-order service, or other distribution channel.
2. Any additional fees or charges associated with obtaining the drug, such as shipping and handling costs, insurance copayments or coinsurance amounts, and deductibles.
3. The cost of any necessary medical services or supplies that are required to administer the drug, such as syringes, needles, or alcohol swabs for injectable medications, or nebulizers for inhaled drugs.
4. The cost of monitoring and managing any potential side effects or complications associated with the use of the drug, which may include additional medical appointments, laboratory tests, or other diagnostic procedures.

It is important to note that drug costs can vary widely depending on a variety of factors, including the patient's insurance coverage, the pharmacy where the drug is obtained, and any discounts or rebates that may be available. Patients are encouraged to shop around for the best prices and to explore all available options for reducing their out-of-pocket costs, such as using generic medications or participating in manufacturer savings programs.

"Cost of Illness" is a medical-economic concept that refers to the total societal cost associated with a specific disease or health condition. It includes both direct and indirect costs. Direct costs are those that can be directly attributed to the illness, such as medical expenses for diagnosis, treatment, rehabilitation, and medications. Indirect costs include productivity losses due to morbidity (reduced efficiency while working) and mortality (lost earnings due to death). Other indirect costs may encompass expenses related to caregiving or special education needs. The Cost of Illness is often used in health policy decision-making, resource allocation, and evaluating the economic impact of diseases on society.

Both costs and benefits can be diverse. Costs tend to be most thoroughly represented in cost-benefit analyses due to relatively ... Benefit-Cost Analysis Center at the University of Washington's Daniel J. Evans School of Public Affairs Benefit-Cost Analysis ... Cost-benefit analysis (CBA), sometimes also called benefit-cost analysis, is a systematic approach to estimating the strengths ... Introduction to Cost-Benefit Analysis and Alternative Evaluation Methodologies and Handbook of Cost-Benefit Analysis, Finance ...
In cost-benefit analysis and social welfare economics, the term option value refers to the value that is placed on private ... This concept of "option value" in cost-benefit analysis is different from the concept used in finance, where the term refers to ... Transportation Cost and Benefit Analysis II , Ch.5.9: Transportation Diversity Weisbrod, Burton. 1964. "Collective Consumption ... In the US, option value is recognized in several transportation benefit-cost analysis guides, including those of the ...
Adaptation Cost-benefit analysis Evolutionary medicine Lochmiller, R. L.; Deerenberg, C. (2000). "Trade-offs in evolutionary ... Deployment cost-benefit selection in physiology concerns the costs and benefits of physiological process that can be deployed ... A cost exists in creating or obtaining these antioxidants. This creates a conflict between the biological fitness benefits of ... Cost benefit trade-off actuary issues apply to the antibacterial and antiviral effects of fever (increased body temperature). ...
Business case Cost-benefit analysis Value engineering Ward, John; Elvin, Roger (1999). "A new framework for managing IT‐enabled ... Benefits Realization Management (BRM) (also benefits management, benefits realisation or project benefits management) is one of ... End Benefit Independent Benefits (not interlinked) that achieve the objective. Intermediate Benefit "An outcome of change which ... A benefit is a measurable positive impact of change. A dis-benefit is a measurable negative impact of change. Successful BRM ...
Cost-Benefit Analysis. EPA must conduct a thorough cost-benefit analysis for every new standard to determine whether the ... benefits of a drinking water standard justify the costs. Drinking Water State Revolving Fund. States can use this fund to help ... EPA will pay for the monitoring costs for small drinking water systems (those serving a population of 10,000 or fewer). The ... methods for chemical analysis, and treatment methods. The advisories are not enforceable. EPA was given explicit authority to ...
ISBN 978-1-349-95188-8. "Cost-Benefit Analysis , Public economics and public policy". Cambridge University Press. Retrieved ... Such costs, considered as prices in a market economy, are used for analysis of economic efficiency or for predicting responses ... With scarcity, choosing one alternative implies forgoing another alternative-the opportunity cost. The opportunity cost ... Economists believe that incentives and costs play a pervasive role in shaping decision making. An immediate example of this is ...
"Cost - Benefit Analysis". Retrieved Oct 18, 2015. "Cost and Benefit Principles". Retrieved Oct 20, 2015. Leiwy, D. (2015). ... The costs and benefits constraint, also called the cost-effectiveness constraint, is pervasive throughout the framework. ... Properly speaking, if the costs in particular information exceed the benefit they can acquire, companies may choose not to ... These constraints deal with issues such as requiring evidence, balancing the costs and benefits of providing financial ...
"Environmental Valuation and Benefit-Cost Analysis in U.K. Policy". Journal of Benefit-Cost Analysis. 9 (1): 97-119. doi:10.1017 ... Cost-benefit analysis are often used prior to the Olympic Games in determining the economic benefits from hosting these events ... "Environmental Cost-Benefit Analysis (Giles Atkinson and Susana Mourato, 2008) , UNDP Climate Change Adaptation". www.adaptation ... Mourato's research interests are in economic valuation, cost-benefit analysis, well-being and life satisfaction, and cultural ...
Economic benefit-cost analysis. Archives of General Psychiatry, 37, 400-405. Test, M. A., & Stein, L. I. (1980). Alternative to ... The cost-effectiveness of ACT was relatively easy to demonstrate in the early days, when psychiatric hospital beds were more ... For a definitive analysis of the essential components of the ACT approach, see: Linkins, K., Tunkelrott, T., Dybdal, K., & ... In the years to come, program planners will have to justify the comparatively high cost of ACT through the continued use of ...
"Benefit-Cost Analysis Memorandum" (PDF). Nevada Department of Transportation. January 7, 2013. pp. 11-14. Archived from the ... Expansion for 2017 was calculated to have a network-wide benefit-cost ratio of 9.1 (with 30-year benefits of $600 million for ... was planned for completion in December 2017 and was expected to cost between $65 million and $70 million. The funds to fast- ... costs of $66 million), and a travel reduction time of 38%, as the increased traffic could use the shorter 439 for TRIC and ...
Benefit shortfall Cost-benefit analysis Odds algorithm Optimism bias Reference class forecasting "Risk-Benefit Analysis". ... Risk-benefit analysis (or benefit-risk analysis) is analysis that seeks to quantify the risk and benefits and hence their ratio ... A risk-benefit ratio (or benefit-risk ratio) is the ratio of the risk of an action to its potential benefits. ... Only if there is a favorable risk-benefit ratio may a study be considered ethical. The Declaration of Helsinki, adopted by the ...
Cost-Benefit' Analysis of UID, in response to the cost-benefit analysis published by NIPFP. She argued that the seemingly large ... published a paper titled A cost-benefit analysis of Aadhaar. The paper claimed that by 2015-2016 the benefits of the project ... "A cost-benefit analysis of Aadhaar" (PDF). National Institute of Public Finance and Policy. 9 November 2012. Archived from the ... "A cost-benefit analysis of Aadhaar" (PDF). National Institute of Public Finance and Policy. 9 November 2012. Archived from the ...
Benefit-Cost Analysis: In Theory and Practice. New York, NY: Harper Collins. "The social costs of carbon", Brookings ... Thus, social costs are the costs pertaining to the transaction costs to the society as a whole. Generally, social costs are ... Private costs refer to direct costs to the producer for producing the good or service. Social cost includes these private costs ... a general equilibrium analysis. Journal of Political Economy, 98 (4): 853-873. Gramlich, E. M. 1981. Cost-Benefit Analysis of ...
Brown, Darryl K. (2004). "Cost-Benefit Analysis in Criminal Law". California Law Review. 92 (2): 323-372. doi:10.2307/3481427. ... Competition policy Contract theory Constitutionalism Constitutional economics Cost-benefit analysis Economic imperialism ( ... Calculus of negligence Congestion pricing Corporate governance Cost-benefit analysis Criminal law Mass surveillance in the ... Law and economics, or economic analysis of law, is the application of microeconomic theory to the analysis of law. The field ...
ISBN 978-1-64693-728-8. Raven, JA (1997). "The vacuole: a cost-benefit analysis". Advances in Botanical Research. 25: 59-86. ...
"Cost-Benefit Analysis of Test Automation". StickyMinds. 2000-11-17. Retrieved 2014-01-25. American Society of Test Engineers - ... Some of the advantages are: Cheaper cost. Especially if the CM resides in a country where labor is at minimum. Beneficial if ... "Silicon Test and Yield Analysis - White Papers". Archived from the original on 2011-07-20. "中国电子制造 EMAsia-China.com". Emasiamag ... which drives up costs and development delays of the final product. Often people take shortcuts to be able to deliver final ...
A cost-benefit analysis is needed. Occasional tests and trials verify the viability and effectiveness of the plan. An auditor ... The planning committee prepares a risk analysis and a business impact analysis (BIA) that includes a range of possible ... Due to high cost, various plans are not without critics. Dell has identified five "common mistakes" organizations often make ... Like every insurance plan, there are benefits that can be obtained from proper business continuity planning, including: ...
As of 2012, the ACT government has declined to develop the facility, but has made the cost benefit analysis and feasibility ... "Williamsdale Airfield Cost Benefit Analysis" (PDF). Deloitte Access Economics. 2011. Retrieved 27 May 2012. "Willamsdale Solar ... In response to increasing operating costs for general aviation users of Canberra Airport, a proposal was made by the ACT ...
Growth:The Price We Pay, Staples Press, 1969.] Cost-Benefit Analysis, Allen & Unwin, 1971. Pornography, Psychedelics and ... Mishan, Ezra J., The Costs of Economic Growth, Staples Press, 1967. Turner, Derek (2006). "The Costs of Economic Growth Ezra J ... In 1965, while at the LSE, he wrote his seminal work The Costs of Economic Growth, but was unable to find a publisher until ... The Costs of Economic Growth, Staples Press, 1967. 21 Popular Economic Fallacies, Allen Lane, 1969. [ ...
He co-authored an influential textbook on environmental cost-benefit analysis, but his work was increasingly critical of the ... Hanley, N.; Spash, C. L. (1993). Cost-Benefit Analysis and the Environment. Aldershot, England: Edward Elgar. Spash, C. L. ( ... Hanley, N.; Spash, C. L. (1993). Cost-Benefit Analysis and the Environment. Aldershot, England: Edward Elgar. Spash, C. L.; ... Spash's work in the area of environmental cost-benefit analysis (e.g. Hanley and Spash) developed into the exploration of ...
"Cost-Benefit Analysis in Language Planning." Can Language Be Planned? Ed. Rubin, Joan, and Björn H. Jernudd. Hawaii: The ... To determine financial costs. Although acquisition planning can be useful to governments, there are problems which must be ... It is debatable whether these education programs will benefit education or raise the status of Quechua. Abstand and ausbau ... Better communication through assimilation of a single dominant language can bring economic benefits to minorities but is also ...
Schmidtz, David (October 2001). "A place for cost-benefit analysis". Philosophical Issues. 11 (1): 148-171. doi:10.1111/j.1758- ... combined his interests in moral philosophy and economic analysis. Schmidtz has also written on rational choice theory and ...
It is based on cost-benefit analysis. However, it is more comprehensive in that it looks at not only the total costs and total ... LCPM itself is generally more costly than cost-benefit analysis, because of the requirement to study objectively all potential ... benefits for an individual project, but it also examines the total costs and benefits for all alternatives or combinations ... Least-cost planning methodology (LCPM), also referred to as least-cost planning (LCP) is a relatively new technique used by ...
Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is a process that places a monetary value on costs and benefits to evaluate issues. Environmental ... "Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA)", World Bank Group. n.d. Accessed: 20 November 2011. Westra, Laura; Lawson, Bill E. (2001). Faces ... After statistical analysis, the first study concluded that "the percentage of community residents that belonged to a racial or ... When someone is willing and able to pay more for clean water or air, their payment financially benefits society more than when ...
The whole cost-benefit analysis is warped. They say, well you can kill so many people if the benefits are great enough. Then ... Mintz, Morton (1985). At Any Cost: Corporate Greed, Women, And The Dalkon Shield. New York: Pantheon. ISBN 9780394548463. ... they can take the benefits and circulate them through the given industry, they circulate them through the oil company, through ...
A 2013 cost-benefit analysis by the Lewin Group for Eye Bank Association of America, estimated an average cost of $16,500 for ... "Cost-Benefit Analysis of Corneal Transplant" (PDF). Restoresight.org. Retrieved 30 November 2016. Facts About the Cornea and ... The doctor will also discuss the risks and benefits of the various options. If the patient elects to proceed with the surgery, ... However, an Australian study has shown that despite its benefits, the loss of endothelial cells that maintain transparency is ...
The analysis also found that the benefits of development were likely to outweigh the costs of development. Wikimedia Commons ... "West Hayden Island Public Cost/Benefit Analysis." The City of Portland, Oregon. June 2012. URL:http://www.portlandoregon.gov/ ... the report found that the benefits of development were likely to outweigh the benefits of forgoing development. ... The city of Portland commissioned ECONorthwest to measure the net economic benefits and impacts of the proposed development. ...
Vitaliano, Donald F. (2015). "Repeal of Prohibition: A Benefit-Cost Analysis". Contemporary Economic Policy. 33 (1): 44-55. doi ... Total benefits of $3.25 billion consist primarily of increased consumer and producer surplus, tax revenues, and reduced ... These numbers do not take into account the costs to local and state governments. According to Harvard University historian Lisa ... Along with other economic effects, the enactment and enforcement of Prohibition caused an increase in resource costs. During ...
So, by 1977, the establishment of dose limits was secondary to the establishment of cost-benefit analysis and use of collective ... doi:10.1016/S0074-2740(75)80015-8. Ahmed, J U; Daw, H T (1980). "Cost-Benefit Analysis and Radiation Protection" (PDF). IAEA ... Consequently, the concept of the collective dose was introduced to facilitate cost-benefit analysis and to restrict the ... However, there were important additions which weakened the link to cost benefit analysis and collective dose, and strengthened ...
Gordon and Loeb also co-authored Managing Cybersecurity Resources: A Cost-Benefit Analysis, a book providing a more extensive ... Gordon, Lawrence; Loeb, Martin (2006). Managing Cybersecurity Resources: A Cost-Benefit Analysis. McGraw-Hill, Inc. ISBN ... In his early career, he conducted research on economic mechanism design, incentive regulation, cost allocations, and cost-based ...
Both costs and benefits can be diverse. Costs tend to be most thoroughly represented in cost-benefit analyses due to relatively ... Benefit-Cost Analysis Center at the University of Washingtons Daniel J. Evans School of Public Affairs Benefit-Cost Analysis ... Cost-benefit analysis (CBA), sometimes also called benefit-cost analysis, is a systematic approach to estimating the strengths ... Introduction to Cost-Benefit Analysis and Alternative Evaluation Methodologies and Handbook of Cost-Benefit Analysis, Finance ...
How does this concept relate to incremental analysis. Provide an example to prove your. ... The concept of Cost-Benefit permeates smart decision making and accounting principles. ... Cost Benefit and Effectiveness Analysis (CBA and CEA). However, the difference is that cost benefit analysis assigns a monetary ... In order for an activity to be added onto the budget, a full cost-benefit analysis is prepared, and if the benefits outweigh ...
Learn about Cost-Benefit Analysis: How do costs compare to benefits? ... What is cost-benefit analysis?. Cost-benefit analysis is a way to compare the costs and benefits of an intervention, where both ... What output does a cost-benefit analysis provide?. CBA provides the net benefits (benefits minus costs) of an intervention. ... Cost-Benefit Analysis infographic text. 1-Monetary Valuation. The analysis estimates that the following benefits are worth $40 ...
Benefit-cost meta-analysis of investment in the International Agricultural Research Centres ... Benefit-cost meta-analysis of investment in the International Agricultural Research Centres. ... Benefit-cost meta-analysis of investment in the International Agricultural Research Centres ...
Aviation Big Data Science Competition and regulation Corporate Governance Cost and benefit analysis Economics of Development ... have produced a General Guide to Social Cost-Benefit Analysis (SCBA) that is applicable to a broad range of policy sectors ( ... methods and best practice on social cost-benefit analysis? This involves examining not only the scientific literature but also ... The Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis (CPB) and the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL) ...
The Future of Cost-Benefit Analysis in Environmental Policy. November 12th, 2009 Environmental Law: The Future of Cost-Benefit ... Cost-benefit analysis is just a matter of figuring out whether the benefits exceed the harms ... We should be cautious about allowing government analysis to decide the cost/benefit analysis for individuals in areas where ... In US, almost all analysis takes place before regulation, but growing support for retrospective analysis ...
Which Value of a Statistical Life (VSL) to use in Cost-Benefit Analyses? A global meta-analysis of Stated Preference Studies. ... Which Value of a Statistical Life (VSL) to use in Cost-Benefit Analyses? A global meta-analysis of Stated Preference Studies. ... Which Value of a Statistical Life (VSL) to use in Cost-Benefit Analyses? A global meta-analysis of Stated Preference Studies ... The outcome of cost-benefit analyses of environmental and climate, transport and health policies often depend heavily on the ...
Disclaimer: The information and views set out on this website are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the opinion of the Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC), the Parties to the Protocol to Eliminate Illicit Trade in Tobacco Products, or the Secretariat of the WHO FCTC ...
Hearing on Truth Commission Must Include Cost-Benefit Analysis of Torture Senate Judiciary Committee Chairman Patrick Leahy (D- ... General Taguba emphasized that any review must include close analysis of claims from Bush administration officials that abusive ... and the strategic costs of policies allowing torture. As Senator Leahy notes in his statement announcing the convening of the ... and then weigh that against the enormous costs of those policies on our national security. ...
Benefit- cost ratio method- This is the ratio of sum of the discounted net benefits (benefits-costs) to the discounted ... Recurrent costs are those costs due to operation and maintenance and include energy costs, labour costs, material costs. ... Cost benefit Analysis Framework. Identify and quantify project effects. Costs are usually divided into; ... Value costs and Benefits. While tangible costs and benefits can be valued using market prices, environmental commodities do not ...
Cost-Benefit Analysis for Project Appraisal Johansson, Per-Olov Kriström, Bengt Published: January 2016 ... Applied Choice Analysis Hensher, David A. Rose, John M. Greene, William H. Published: August 2015. 2nd Edition ... Dynamic Economic Analysis Deterministic Models in Discrete Time. textbook Sorger, Gerhard Published: April 2015 ...
This analysis will enable a thorough cost-benefit analysis and help identify contextually relevant desired features for the ... However, before embarking on such a transformation, a comprehensive cost-benefit analysis is imperative. This analysis involves ... When conducting a cost-benefit analysis, it is important to consider long-term scalability to ensure that the PBX system aligns ... Upgrading PBX Systems: Cost-Benefit Analysis. March 29, 2024. by Elton Chang ...
As a decision-making tool the decision rule in a Cost/Benefit Analysis is relatively simple. Once all the relevant costs and ... The Road Safety Authority has gone a step further and half done one half a Cost/Benefit Analysis. They have argued that the ... The aim here is to merely highlight the difficulties that arise when trying to undertake a cost/benefit analysis when ... Just be careful what you read when it comes to pronouncements on a cost/benefit analysis! Tweet ...
Overall, the benefits of adopting MDT far exceed the costs in most cases. MDT is a product that is 10 years in the making and ... Benefits of MDT. Now that we have a basic understanding of the inner workings of MDT, lets dig into some of the benefits. ... In this post, Ill briefly define the scope and capabilities of MDT, as well as summarize its benefits and potential costs. ... Potential Costs of MDT. While a free product, using MDT will incur some indirect costs. Perhaps the biggest of these is the ...
Cost-benefit analysis has been used to constrain regulation, but it can - and should - be used to compel regulation and ... if and when a private actor credibly demonstrates that the stricter rule has become cost-benefit justified. Using cost-benefit ... In order to combat obsolescence, agencies should use cost-benefit analysis as a commitment device. When an agency analyzes a ... the assumptions underlying a rules cost-benefit analysis obsolesce. Yet because of agency inaction, rulemaking ossification, ...
Benefit/Cost Analysis. 1. Safety Benefits. BCA - Transit-Active-Transportation-Safety-Benefits-Template_DowntownBusService.xlsx ... BCA Results The results of the benefit-cost analysis, for each benefit category, and total, is presented on the following table ... BCA Category Benefits Results (2018$, 000s) Safety Benefits: $13,000 Delay Benefits: $249,659 Emissions Benefits (NOx + VOC ... 3. Emissions Benefits. BCA - New-Transit-Vehicle-Purchase-Emissions-Benefits.xlsx. 4. Additional BCA Documentation (Optional). ...
Cost-benefit-analysis An analysis of the cost effectiveness of different alternatives in order to see whether the benefits ... Opportunity-cost Opportunity cost is the sacrifice of benefits from the next-best alternative that you face when you make a ... Upfront-costs Also called closing costs, these are fees and any other costs that you pay at a loan closing. ... A consumer protection law that requires lenders to disclose all of your loan costs, your true interest cost as an annual ...
... by: Alain C. ... "On Balance: Systems Analysis, Cost-Effectiveness Analysis, Benefit-Cost Analysis, and Government Decisions". Comments 0-5 of 0 ... Searching for Benefit-Cost Analyses Addressing Interventions in Low- and Middle-Income Countries. Lisa Robinson (Harvard T.H. ... Call for Papers for a Special Issue of Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics: "Cost-Benefit Analysis and Policy Evaluation ...
Decision-makers around the world use cost-benefit analysis (CBA) to decide whether or not to build dams, roads and airports; ... For related work on cost-benefit analysis see http://www.thecornerhouse.org.uk/resource/toward-different-debate-environmental- ... Challenges have been repeatedly raised about the economic viability and development benefits of Desertec, a plan to build ... A British biomass boom is set to benefit polluters and cause widespread environmental destruction through land grabs and ...
Concerns with the cost-benefit analysis in the proposed rule. It is worth noting that the Departments finding that the ... Economic Analysis and Research Network • EARN. A network of state and local organizations improving workers lives through ... For a given salary and for any plausible combination of usual hours worked and actual hours worked, the marginal cost to the ... EPI conducts research and analysis on the economic status of working America, proposes public policies that protect and improve ...
Cost-Benefit Analysis: Ridesharing For People Who Want To Ride, Not Drive. Nakesha Dumar February 27, 2023 ... This is done by Uber and other ridesharing companies as a tactic designed to drive consumer behavior, but at a great cost - ... but also the driver who may be working long hours just to cover costs.. Surge pricing is a way of increasing prices during ... but at a great cost - its not just the consumer who pays for surge pricing, but also the driver who may be working long hours ...
Investment in Agriculture-A Cost-Benefit Analysis Samuel Paul. Uncategorised. Seed without Grain ...
Cost-Benefit Analysis of a Differentiated Tuition .... * Der Antiheld Travis Bickle. Eine Analyse des Protagonisten in Mar... ...
Beyond Cost-Benefit Analysis (Oxford University Press, 2012), Professor Matthew Adler discusses how to incorporate a concern ... for inequality into cost-benefit analysis. He proposes to do so via ... "One way to think about the book is that its an argument for a weighted cost-benefit analysis, where dollar costs and benefits ... maybe costs for workers. What cost-benefit analysis has to do, which is quite complicated, is figure out the costs for all ...
The 11th edition of the Milan Summer School on Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) of Investment Projects will be held in Milan on 9-13 ... CBA SUMMER SCHOOL: Cost-Benefit Analysis of Investment Projects, Csil, Italy 9-13 Sept 2024 ... CBA SUMMER SCHOOL: Cost-Benefit Analysis of Investment Projects, Csil, Italy 9-13 Sept 2024. ... Amongst them are experts involved in preparing and reviewing the European Commissions Guide to Cost-Benefit Analysis of ...
... ... Cost benefit analysis of different energy sources used in public secondary schools in Mtito Andei Division, Makueni County. ... This study focuses on cost benefit analysis of different energy sources used in public secondary schools in Mtito Andei ... conduct cost benefit analysis of major energy sources. The study used Survey Research Design (SRD) and a census survey, with ...
Homepage / Business Costing Template / Cost Benefit Analysis Templates Examples ᐅ Template Lab pertaining to Business Costing ... Cost Benefit Analysis Templates Examples ᐅ Template Lab pertaining to Business Costing Template. By JenifferPosted on July 29, ... Gallery of Cost Benefit Analysis Templates Examples ᐅ Template Lab pertaining to Business Costing Template. *. ...
However intense competition and a rising cost environment is squeezing margins - the airline industry is a good example of ... Transport Economics: The Return of Trams - Benefits and Costs 1st June 2014 ... However intense competition and a rising cost environment is squeezing margins - the airline industry is a good example of ...
Cost-Benefit Analysis * Delivery of Health Care* * Developing Countries * Evaluation Studies as Topic ...
Cost-Benefit Analysis: Weigh the potential gains against the time, effort, and resources you need for negotiation. This ... Cost of Concessions: Concessions made during negotiation come at a cost. Do your concessions outweigh the benefits of the ... Look at the terms, benefits, and drawbacks of each one. This analysis will provide a clear basis for decision-making. ... Assess the potential benefits, costs, and risks associated with pursuing this course of action. ...
  • Decision makers can also use CBA to compare health and non-health interventions because both costs and benefits are expressed in monetary units. (cdc.gov)
  • The specific objectives are to: (1) establish the sources of energy used in public secondary schools, (2) investigate the factors determining the choice of the energy source(s), (3) assess environmental and socio-economic impacts of major energy sources and (4) conduct cost benefit analysis of major energy sources. (ac.ke)
  • 3. Conduct Cost/Benefit Analysis. (todolistsoft.com)
  • Rather, their willingness to pay provided a theoretical foundation on the societal worth or benefit of a project. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, it remains unknown whether SSB taxes lead to net benefits at the societal level in Mexico . (bvsalud.org)
  • We found that, at the societal level, all simulated taxes will eventually generate benefits that surpass costs within ten years. (bvsalud.org)
  • We will conduct a societal cost-effectiveness analysis using Bayesian hierarchical models that account for the individual-level correlation between costs and outcomes as well as intra-cluster correlation. (lu.se)
  • Given limited societal and personal resources and restrictions under health insurance, cost considerations have become more relevant in clinical decision making. (msdmanuals.com)
  • From a societal perspective , all such costs are taken into account along with the costs of lost productivity and costs of treating other diseases (iatrogenic and naturally occurring) that may develop in patients who recover from the disease being treated. (msdmanuals.com)
  • This allows the ranking of alternative policies in terms of a cost-benefit ratio. (wikipedia.org)
  • Assuming an accurate CBA, changing the status quo by implementing the alternative with the lowest cost-benefit ratio can improve Pareto efficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both descriptive and Benefit Cost Ratio analytical procedures were used. (ac.ke)
  • The study found the Benefit cost ratio (BCR) of solar power at 1.19 and BCR of firewood at 0.19. (ac.ke)
  • Results: Among 110 centers, the overall benefit-to-cost ratio was 1.7-3.09 and the payback period was 1.98-1.06 year (using alternative turnover cost estimates). (cdc.gov)
  • Both CBA and cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) include health outcomes. (cdc.gov)
  • However, CBA places a monetary value on health outcomes so that both costs and benefits are in monetary units (such as dollars). (cdc.gov)
  • The next pandemic will be associated with major adverse health and economic outcomes, with estimated costs reaching US$166 billion in the United States alone ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • We set out to identify strategies for the use of the antiviral drug oseltamivir in the containment of a pandemic and to construct a mathematical model to appraise the cost and benefit of each strategy in terms of health-related and economic outcomes. (cdc.gov)
  • 2 ). Costs related to these outcomes were calculated from data provided by a major Israeli healthcare organization ( 4 ) and by the Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics ( 5 ). (cdc.gov)
  • These outcomes would result in an excess of $55.4 million in health-related costs and in overall costs to the economy of $523.5 million (≈0.5% of the Israeli gross domestic product). (cdc.gov)
  • Briefly, the economic benefit of each strategy was calculated by multiplying each of the reductions in adverse outcomes by its estimated economic value. (cdc.gov)
  • For the cost-effectiveness analysis, end-of-treatment outcomes will be used to estimate disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted. (lu.se)
  • their allocation depends on an understanding of the various costs and outcomes resulting from strategies of care. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Different perspectives often result in different conclusions based on which costs and outcomes are considered. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The average annualized net savings per bed for the 110 centers (using company based turnover cost estimates) was $143, with a 95% confidence interval of $22-$264. (cdc.gov)
  • However, at 49 centers costs exceeded benefits. (cdc.gov)
  • Conclusions: Decreased costs of worker injury compensation claims and turnover appear at least partially attributable to the SRHP. (cdc.gov)
  • Modeling the cost-benefit of nerve conduction studies in pre-employment screening for carpal tunnel syndrome. (cdc.gov)
  • CBA is related to cost-effectiveness analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The implications of cost-effectiveness analysis of medical technology. (who.int)
  • The aim of this study is to determine the costs, cost-effectiveness and equity impact of implementing DATs in Ethiopia. (lu.se)
  • Cost-benefit analysis is a way to compare the costs and benefits of an intervention, where both are expressed in monetary units. (cdc.gov)
  • Cost-benefit analysis is often used by organizations to appraise the desirability of a given policy. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission must conduct cost-benefit analyses before instituting regulations or deregulations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulations involving public health, safety, and the environment are all examined through the cost-benefit lens. (duke.edu)
  • The benefits will be less pollution, the costs will be costs for the shareholders of the companies that have to comply with regulations in place, maybe for consumers, maybe costs for workers. (duke.edu)
  • We calculated direct costs to the healthcare system and overall costs to the economy, the latter including the value of lost workdays but not the potential value of lost lives. (cdc.gov)
  • We defined net benefits as the difference between economic benefits (the value of statistical life , healthcare savings , and tax revenue) and costs (consumer surplus and profit losses). (bvsalud.org)
  • In many cases, the quieter piece of equipment is the least expensive when all life cycle costs of the machinery, possible workers' compensation claims, costs associated with a company's hearing conservation program, costs of healthcare (such as hearing aids), and lost productivity are counted. (cdc.gov)
  • Future research should examine center-specific factors that enhance program success, and improve measures of turnover costs and healthcare productivity. (cdc.gov)
  • Benefits including those resulting from an intervention, such as medical costs averted, productivity gains, and the monetized value of health improvements. (cdc.gov)
  • Cost-benefit analysis (CBA), sometimes also called benefit-cost analysis, is a systematic approach to estimating the strengths and weaknesses of alternatives. (wikipedia.org)
  • Systematic review and meta-analysis were used to estimate the efficacy of preexposure prophylaxis, while the expected efficacy of postexposure prophylaxis and the number of persons treated under this strategy were estimated by using the results of a recently published stochastic simulation model ( 6 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The value of a cost-benefit analysis depends on the accuracy of the individual cost and benefit estimates. (wikipedia.org)
  • The analysis estimates that the following benefits are worth $40 billion: Direct medical costs averted. (cdc.gov)
  • Next, the analysis estimates that costs to the industry and consumers are $6 billion. (cdc.gov)
  • EPI conducts research and analysis on the economic status of working America, proposes public policies that protect and improve the economic conditions of low- and middle-income workers, and assesses policies with respect to how well they further those goals. (epi.org)
  • The table demonstrates that the intervention could generate $134 billion in net economic benefits. (cdc.gov)
  • This analysis will generate economic evidence to inform the implementation of DATs in Ethiopia and globally. (lu.se)
  • A CBA may be used to compare completed or potential courses of action, and to estimate or evaluate the value against the cost of a decision, project, or policy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The objective of this study is to estimate the net benefits of SSB taxes compared to a scenario of no tax in urban Mexico . (bvsalud.org)
  • In this method, we bridge schedule-based model forecasts with cost-benefit analysis framework. (kth.se)
  • Cost analysis of a screening program needs to include the costs of pursuing false-positive results, which in a screening test for a disease with a low prevalence often exceed the costs of evaluating and treating patients who actually have the disease. (msdmanuals.com)
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the costs associated with pre-employment nerve conduction testing as a screening tool for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in the workplace. (cdc.gov)
  • The question here in each case is: what is the current situation in the literature as regards knowledge, methods and best practice on social cost-benefit analysis? (seo.nl)
  • RESULTS: In our base case, total employer costs for CTS from the perspective of the employer (cost of screening plus costs for workers' compensation associated with CTS) were higher when screening was used. (cdc.gov)
  • Additionally, Buy Quiet may reduce the long-term costs of audiometric testing, personal protective equipment, and workers' compensation. (cdc.gov)
  • Workers' compensation and turnover costs before and after the intervention were compared against investment costs using the ''net-cost model. (cdc.gov)
  • METHODS: We used a Markov decision analysis model to compare the costs associated with a strategy of screening all prospective employees for CTS and not hiring those with abnormal nerve conduction, versus a strategy of not screening for CTS. (cdc.gov)
  • Methods: The company provided data on program costs, compensation claims, and turnover rates (2003-2009). (cdc.gov)
  • There are lots of complications, but the basic idea behind cost-benefit analysis is to take different aspects of well-being, whether it be income or health or environmental effects or what-have-you, and then try to measure those in terms of dollars, which are used as a common scale. (duke.edu)
  • So if you're talking about regulating pollution in factories that tend to be located in poorer areas, the environmental benefits might be given greater weight as opposed to pollution that affects the average citizen, who can better weather a drop in property value or afford better health care. (duke.edu)
  • Equity and cost in the organization of primary health care in Java, Indonesia / Peter Berman. (who.int)
  • Towards more egalitarian measurements of benefits of health intervention in the developing countries / Abdulhamid Bedri Kello. (who.int)
  • Provider and patient cost data will be collected from a subsample of 5 health facilities per study arm, 10 participants per facility (n = 150). (lu.se)
  • This paper follows the published trial protocol and describes the protocol and analysis plan for the health economics work package of the ASCENT-Ethiopia trial. (lu.se)
  • Although a cost-benefit analysis is pending, he said, it's likely that more routine conscious sedation in TAVR would save money, among other gains. (medscape.com)
  • Costs including those of implementing an intervention. (cdc.gov)
  • CBA provides the net benefits (benefits minus costs) of an intervention. (cdc.gov)
  • CBA's estimated net benefit offers a sense of the economic value provided to society by an intervention. (cdc.gov)
  • More recently, cost-benefit analysis has been applied to decisions regarding investments in cybersecurity-related activities (e.g., see the Gordon-Loeb model for decisions concerning cybersecurity investments). (wikipedia.org)
  • Full model for the Whole Energy Systems Cost Benefit Analysis tool, used to determine whether a solution on the network is the best choice. (energynetworks.org)
  • Thus, we conducted a cost-benefit analysis from the perspective of the government , producers, and consumers for a simulated closed cohort of adults in a life -table model. (bvsalud.org)
  • The variables included in our model included employee turnover rate, the incidence of CTS, the prevalence of median nerve conduction abnormalities, the relative risk of developing CTS conferred by abnormal nerve conduction screening, the costs of pre-employment screening, and the worker's compensation costs to the employer for each case of CTS. (cdc.gov)
  • The Flood Control Act of 1939 was instrumental in establishing CBA as federal policy, requiring that "the benefits to whomever they accrue [be] in excess of the estimated costs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Objective 4: We will perform a cost/benefit analysis that will allow for the comparison of the benefits of the ozone microbubble wash treatments, versus the cost of conducting such wash treatments. (usda.gov)
  • I'm interested in inequality, and there is increasing national interest in inequality, so I've been working on refining policy analysis to take account of considerations of equity, of fair distribution. (duke.edu)
  • With Network benefits reserved for the monumental expenses to fight the legal aftermath of use of force in self defense, paying to defend against charges resulting from arguing with patrol officers is outside the scope of the Network's help. (armedcitizensnetwork.org)
  • Patients consider out-of-pocket expenses (eg, cost of insurance, deductibles, transportation, parking) and lost income (for themselves and their family). (msdmanuals.com)
  • An equity impact analysis will be conducted to summarise equity efficiency trade-offs. (lu.se)
  • By considering whole energy systems, we are looking to save consumers money by using the most efficient and cost-effective energy for network needs. (energynetworks.org)
  • We are continuing to deliver benefits for consumers by realising more cost-effective network investment and operation across gas and electricity networks. (energynetworks.org)
  • On the other hand, it is recognized that business behavior judged under the rule of reason can benefit consumers by reducing prices and by increasing product output, quality and variety. (cia.gov)
  • The government and consumers will experience overall positive net benefits among society's members. (bvsalud.org)
  • It is used to determine options which provide the best approach to achieving benefits while preserving savings in, for example, transactions, activities, and functional business requirements. (wikipedia.org)
  • To provide a basis for comparing investments (or decisions), comparing the total expected cost of each option with its total expected benefits. (wikipedia.org)
  • What output does a cost-benefit analysis provide? (cdc.gov)
  • Together they represent an effort to provide firm normative foundations for cost-benefit analysis and to show how the technique can be refined, says Adler, who joined the Duke Law faculty in 2012 from the University of Pennsylvania and who serves as director of the new Duke Center on Law, Economics and Public Policy. (duke.edu)
  • The new, easy to use materials highlight the benefits of a Buy Quiet program, explain how to establish a program in a workplace, and provide additional resources for finding quieter tools and machinery. (cdc.gov)
  • Cost benefit analysis of malaria control and eradication programmes in India / T. J. Ramaiah. (who.int)
  • Using Monte Carlo simulation varying all parameters, we found a 30% probability that screening would be cost-beneficial. (cdc.gov)
  • Also, the difference in strokes appeared concentrated in the early weeks after the TAVR procedures, as shown in a post hoc landmark analysis that found no significant difference in stroke rate between the two valves starting at day 30, observed Hans-Josef Feistritzer, MD, PhD, Heart Center at University of Leipzig, Germany, when presenting the 1-year analysis at TCT Connect, the virtual edition of Transcatheter Cardiovascular Therapeutics (TCT) 2020 . (medscape.com)
  • CBA helps predict whether the benefits of a policy outweigh its costs (and by how much), relative to other alternatives. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis (CPB) and the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL) have produced a General Guide to Social Cost-Benefit Analysis (SCBA) that is applicable to a broad range of policy sectors (Romijn and Renes, 2013). (seo.nl)
  • One way to think about the book is that it's an argument for a weighted cost-benefit analysis, where dollar costs and benefits are first multiplied by weights before being added up, and weights are assigned in this 'prioritarian' fashion," says Adler, the Richard A. Horvitz Professor of Law who holds secondary appointments in philosophy and public policy at Duke University. (duke.edu)
  • 6 CBA has two main applications: To determine if an investment (or decision) is sound, ascertaining if - and by how much - its benefits outweigh its costs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ideas for the book proceed naturally from Adler's extensive work on cost-benefit analysis, and from recent events. (duke.edu)
  • Other related techniques include cost-utility analysis, risk-benefit analysis, economic impact analysis, fiscal impact analysis, and social return on investment (SROI) analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interest groups may attempt to include (or exclude) significant costs in an analysis to influence its outcome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benefits of Buy Quiet include more than just reducing the risk of hearing loss at the worksite. (cdc.gov)
  • Generally, accurate cost-benefit analysis identifies choices which increase welfare from a utilitarian perspective. (wikipedia.org)
  • A sensitivity analysis showed that a strategy of screening was cost-beneficial from the perspective of the employer only under a few circumstances. (cdc.gov)
  • The elements included in cost analysis are determined by the perspective of the analysis. (msdmanuals.com)
  • It is an analysis of the expected balance of benefits and costs, including an account of any alternatives and the status quo. (wikipedia.org)
  • The time spent for the program was approximately 53 hours, with a total cost of R$637.34 (~R$1.23/child). (bvsalud.org)
  • An economic analysis of a safe resident handling program in nursing homes. (cdc.gov)
  • Now, the costs and benefits of the project could be accurately analyzed, and an informed decision could be made. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Economics of survival : the role of cost-benefit analysis in environmental decision-making / edited by Yusuf J. Ahmad. (who.int)
  • Conduct a cost/benefit analysis on the research, extension and education efforts of the project. (usda.gov)
  • Cost-benefit analysis of alternative tax policies on sugar-sweetened beverages in Mexico. (bvsalud.org)
  • We in the private sector have certainly benefitted from that choice because you've put a lot of effort into helping your students understand policing. (armedcitizensnetwork.org)
  • The cost of the project proved much simpler to calculate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cost-benefit analysis : issues and methodologies / Anandarup Ray. (who.int)
  • Facility managers should alert senior executives when low staffing levels are likely to backfire and drive up costs in other areas. (facilitiesnet.com)