Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Chromosomes in which fragments of exogenous DNA ranging in length up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast through ligation to vector sequences. These artificial chromosomes are used extensively in molecular biology for the construction of comprehensive genomic libraries of higher organisms.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A technique with which an unknown region of a chromosome can be explored. It is generally used to isolate a locus of interest for which no probe is available but that is known to be linked to a gene which has been identified and cloned. A fragment containing a known gene is selected and used as a probe to identify other overlapping fragments which contain the same gene. The nucleotide sequences of these fragments can then be characterized. This process continues for the length of the chromosome.
A contiguous gene syndrome associated with hemizygous deletions of chromosome region 11p13. The condition is marked by the combination of WILMS TUMOR; ANIRIDIA; GENITOURINARY ABNORMALITIES; and INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The type species of VARICELLOVIRUS causing CHICKENPOX (varicella) and HERPES ZOSTER (shingles) in humans.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence G/AATTC at the slash. EcoRI is from E coliRY13. Several isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence A/AGCTT at the slash. HindIII is from Haemophilus influenzae R(d). Numerous isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.
The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.

Analysis of two cosmid clones from chromosome 4 of Drosophila melanogaster reveals two new genes amid an unusual arrangement of repeated sequences. (1/1067)

Chromosome 4 from Drosophila melanogaster has several unusual features that distinguish it from the other chromosomes. These include a diffuse appearance in salivary gland polytene chromosomes, an absence of recombination, and the variegated expression of P-element transgenes. As part of a larger project to understand these properties, we are assembling a physical map of this chromosome. Here we report the sequence of two cosmids representing approximately 5% of the polytenized region. Both cosmid clones contain numerous repeated DNA sequences, as identified by cross hybridization with labeled genomic DNA, BLAST searches, and dot matrix analysis, which are positioned between and within the transcribed sequences. The repetitive sequences include three copies of the mobile element Hoppel, one copy of the mobile element HB, and 18 DINE repeats. DINE is a novel, short repeated sequence dispersed throughout both cosmid sequences. One cosmid includes the previously described cubitus interruptus (ci) gene and two new genes: that a gene with a predicted amino acid sequence similar to ribosomal protein S3a which is consistent with the Minute(4)101 locus thought to be in the region, and a novel member of the protein family that includes plexin and met-hepatocyte growth factor receptor. The other cosmid contains only the two short 5'-most exons from the zinc-finger-homolog-2 (zfh-2) gene. This is the first extensive sequence analysis of noncoding DNA from chromosome 4. The distribution of the various repeats suggests its organization is similar to the beta-heterochromatic regions near the base of the major chromosome arms. Such a pattern may account for the diffuse banding of the polytene chromosome 4 and the variegation of many P-element transgenes on the chromosome.  (+info)

Nonmethylated transposable elements and methylated genes in a chordate genome. (2/1067)

The genome of the invertebrate chordate Ciona intestinalis was found to be a stable mosaic of methylated and nonmethylated domains. Multiple copies of an apparently active long terminal repeat retrotransposon and a long interspersed element are nonmethylated and a large fraction of abundant short interspersed elements are also methylation free. Genes, by contrast, are predominantly methylated. These data are incompatible with the genome defense model, which proposes that DNA methylation in animals is primarily targeted to endogenous transposable elements. Cytosine methylation in this urochordate may be preferentially directed to genes.  (+info)

Three receptor genes for plasminogen related growth factors in the genome of the puffer fish Fugu rubripes. (3/1067)

Plasminogen related growth factors (PRGFs) and their receptors play major roles in embryogenesis, tissue regeneration and neoplasia. In order to investigate the complexity and evolution of the PRGF receptor family we have cloned and sequenced three receptors for PRGFs in the teleost fish Fugu rubripes, a model vertebrate with a compact genome. One of the receptor genes isolated encodes the orthologue of mammalian MET, whilst the other two may represent Fugu rubripes orthologues of RON and SEA. This is the first time three PRGF receptors have been identified in a single species.  (+info)

Complete exon-intron organization of the mouse fibulin-1 gene and its comparison with the human fibulin-1 gene. (4/1067)

Fibulin-1 is a 90 kDa calcium-binding protein present in the extracellular matrix and in the blood. Two major variants, C and D, differ in their C-termini as well as the ability to bind the basement membrane protein nidogen. Here we characterized genomic clones encoding the mouse fibulin-1 gene, which contains 18 exons spanning at least 75 kb of DNA. The two variants are generated by alternative splicing of exons in the 3' end. By searching the database we identified most of the exons encoding the human fibulin-1 gene and showed that its exon-intron organization is similar to that of the mouse gene.  (+info)

Genetic variation of chlorella viruses: variable regions localized on the CVK2 genomic DNA. (5/1067)

A physical map of the Chlorella virus CVK2 genomic DNA has been constructed based on a cosmid contig covering the entire genomic region. By using Southern blot analysis with 22 gene probes, the gene arrangement along the genome was compared between CVK2 and PBCV-1, the prototypic member of Phycodnaviridae, whose genomic sequence is now available. The major rearrangements were (1) an insertion of a 20-kbp region around the left end of CVK2 DNA, (2) a duplication of the gene for major capsid protein in CVK2 DNA, (3) deletions/insertions of some open reading frames, and (4) divergence in the terminal inverted repeat sequences. Despite these changes, extensive colinearity was revealed between most of the genes along the CVK2 and PBCV-1 genomes. These data imply that the Chlorella virus genome has an overall high degree of genomic stability, encompassing specific islands of rearrangements.  (+info)

Comparative genomic analysis of the interferon/interleukin-10 receptor gene cluster. (6/1067)

Interferons and interleukin-10 are involved in key aspects of the host defence mechanisms. Human chromosome 21 harbors the interferon/interleukin-10 receptor gene cluster linked to the GART gene. This cluster includes both components of the interferon alpha/beta-receptor (IFNAR1 and IFNAR2) and the second components of the interferon gamma-receptor (IFNGR2) and of the IL-10 receptor (IL10R2). We report here the complete gene content of this GART-cytokine receptor gene cluster and the use of comparative genomic analysis to identify chicken IFNAR1, IFNAR2, and IL10R2. We show that the large-scale structure of this locus is conserved in human and chicken but not in the pufferfish Fugu rubripes. This establishes that the receptor components of these host defense mechanisms were fixed in an ancestor of the amniotes. The extraordinary diversification of the interferon ligand family during the evolution of birds and mammals has therefore occurred in the context of a fixed receptor structure.  (+info)

Molecular cloning and characterization of the human topoisomerase IIalpha and IIbeta genes: evidence for isoform evolution through gene duplication. (7/1067)

Human DNA topoisomerase II is essential for chromosome segregation and is the target for several clinically important anticancer agents. It is expressed as genetically distinct alpha and beta isoforms encoded by the TOP2alpha and TOP2beta genes that map to chromosomes 17q21-22 and 3p24, respectively. The genes display different patterns of cell cycle- and tissue-specific expression, with the alpha isoform markedly upregulated in proliferating cells. In addition to the fundamental role of TOP2alpha and TOP2beta genes in cell growth and development, altered expression and rearrangement of both genes are implicated in anticancer drug resistance. Here, we report the complete structure of the human topoisomerase IIalpha gene, which consists of 35 exons spanning 27.5 kb. Sequence data for the exon-intron boundaries were determined and examined in the context of topoisomerase IIalpha protein structure comprising three functional domains associated with energy transduction, DNA breakage-reunion activity and nuclear localization. The organization of the 3' half of human TOP2beta, including sequence specifying the C-terminal nuclear localization domain, was also elucidated. Of the 15 introns identified in this 20 kb region of TOP2beta, the first nine and the last intron align in identical positions and display the same phases as introns in TOP2alpha. Though their extreme 3' ends differ, the striking conservation suggests the two genes diverged recently in evolutionary terms consistent with a gene duplication event. Access to TOP2alpha and TOP2beta gene structures should aid studies of mutations and gene rearrangements associated with anticancer drug resistance.  (+info)

Control of fertilization-independent endosperm development by the MEDEA polycomb gene in Arabidopsis. (8/1067)

Higher plant reproduction is unique because two cells are fertilized in the haploid female gametophyte. Egg and sperm nuclei fuse to form the embryo. A second sperm nucleus fuses with the central cell nucleus that replicates to generate the endosperm, a tissue that supports embryo development. To understand mechanisms that initiate reproduction, we isolated a mutation in Arabidopsis, f644, that allows for replication of the central cell and subsequent endosperm development without fertilization. When mutant f644 egg and central cells are fertilized by wild-type sperm, embryo development is inhibited, and endosperm is overproduced. By using a map-based strategy, we cloned and sequenced the F644 gene and showed that it encodes a SET-domain polycomb protein. Subsequently, we found that F644 is identical to MEDEA (MEA), a gene whose maternal-derived allele is required for embryogenesis [Grossniklaus, U., Vielle-Calzada, J.-P., Hoeppner, M. A. & Gagliano, W. B. (1998) Science 280, 446-450]. Together, these results reveal functions for plant polycomb proteins in the suppression of central cell proliferation and endosperm development. We discuss models to explain how polycomb proteins function to suppress endosperm and promote embryo development.  (+info)

Cosmids are a type of cloning vector, which are self-replicating DNA molecules that can be used to introduce foreign DNA fragments into a host organism. Cosmids are plasmids that contain the cos site from bacteriophage λ, allowing them to be packaged into bacteriophage heads during an in vitro packaging reaction. This enables the transfer of large DNA fragments (up to 45 kb) into a host cell through transduction. Cosmids are widely used in molecular biology for the construction and analysis of genomic libraries, physical mapping, and DNA sequencing.

Molecular cloning is a laboratory technique used to create multiple copies of a specific DNA sequence. This process involves several steps:

1. Isolation: The first step in molecular cloning is to isolate the DNA sequence of interest from the rest of the genomic DNA. This can be done using various methods such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, or hybridization.
2. Vector construction: Once the DNA sequence of interest has been isolated, it must be inserted into a vector, which is a small circular DNA molecule that can replicate independently in a host cell. Common vectors used in molecular cloning include plasmids and phages.
3. Transformation: The constructed vector is then introduced into a host cell, usually a bacterial or yeast cell, through a process called transformation. This can be done using various methods such as electroporation or chemical transformation.
4. Selection: After transformation, the host cells are grown in selective media that allow only those cells containing the vector to grow. This ensures that the DNA sequence of interest has been successfully cloned into the vector.
5. Amplification: Once the host cells have been selected, they can be grown in large quantities to amplify the number of copies of the cloned DNA sequence.

Molecular cloning is a powerful tool in molecular biology and has numerous applications, including the production of recombinant proteins, gene therapy, functional analysis of genes, and genetic engineering.

Artificial chromosomes, yeast are synthetic chromosomes that have been created in the laboratory and can function in yeast cells. They are made up of DNA sequences that have been chemically synthesized or engineered from existing yeast chromosomes. These artificial chromosomes can be used to introduce new genes or modify existing ones in yeast, allowing for the study of gene function and genetic interactions in a controlled manner.

The creation of artificial chromosomes in yeast has been an important tool in biotechnology and synthetic biology, enabling the development of novel industrial processes and the engineering of yeast strains with enhanced properties for various applications, such as biofuel production or the manufacture of pharmaceuticals. Additionally, the study of artificial chromosomes in yeast has provided valuable insights into the fundamental principles of genome organization, replication, and inheritance.

Restriction mapping is a technique used in molecular biology to identify the location and arrangement of specific restriction endonuclease recognition sites within a DNA molecule. Restriction endonucleases are enzymes that cut double-stranded DNA at specific sequences, producing fragments of various lengths. By digesting the DNA with different combinations of these enzymes and analyzing the resulting fragment sizes through techniques such as agarose gel electrophoresis, researchers can generate a restriction map - a visual representation of the locations and distances between recognition sites on the DNA molecule. This information is crucial for various applications, including cloning, genome analysis, and genetic engineering.

Chromosome mapping, also known as physical mapping, is the process of determining the location and order of specific genes or genetic markers on a chromosome. This is typically done by using various laboratory techniques to identify landmarks along the chromosome, such as restriction enzyme cutting sites or patterns of DNA sequence repeats. The resulting map provides important information about the organization and structure of the genome, and can be used for a variety of purposes, including identifying the location of genes associated with genetic diseases, studying evolutionary relationships between organisms, and developing genetic markers for use in breeding or forensic applications.

Nucleic acid hybridization is a process in molecular biology where two single-stranded nucleic acids (DNA, RNA) with complementary sequences pair together to form a double-stranded molecule through hydrogen bonding. The strands can be from the same type of nucleic acid or different types (i.e., DNA-RNA or DNA-cDNA). This process is commonly used in various laboratory techniques, such as Southern blotting, Northern blotting, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and microarray analysis, to detect, isolate, and analyze specific nucleic acid sequences. The hybridization temperature and conditions are critical to ensure the specificity of the interaction between the two strands.

A bacterial gene is a segment of DNA (or RNA in some viruses) that contains the genetic information necessary for the synthesis of a functional bacterial protein or RNA molecule. These genes are responsible for encoding various characteristics and functions of bacteria such as metabolism, reproduction, and resistance to antibiotics. They can be transmitted between bacteria through horizontal gene transfer mechanisms like conjugation, transformation, and transduction. Bacterial genes are often organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that the term "bacterial gene" is used to describe genetic elements found in bacteria, but not all genetic elements in bacteria are considered genes. For example, some DNA sequences may not encode functional products and are therefore not considered genes. Additionally, some bacterial genes may be plasmid-borne or phage-borne, rather than being located on the bacterial chromosome.

A "gene library" is not a recognized term in medical genetics or molecular biology. However, the closest concept that might be referred to by this term is a "genomic library," which is a collection of DNA clones that represent the entire genetic material of an organism. These libraries are used for various research purposes, such as identifying and studying specific genes or gene functions.

Rhizobium is not a medical term, but rather a term used in microbiology and agriculture. It refers to a genus of gram-negative bacteria that can fix nitrogen from the atmosphere into ammonia, which can then be used by plants as a nutrient. These bacteria live in the root nodules of leguminous plants (such as beans, peas, and clover) and form a symbiotic relationship with them.

The host plant provides Rhizobium with carbon sources and a protected environment within the root nodule, while the bacteria provide the plant with fixed nitrogen. This mutualistic interaction plays a crucial role in maintaining soil fertility and promoting plant growth.

While Rhizobium itself is not directly related to human health or medicine, understanding its symbiotic relationship with plants can have implications for agricultural practices, sustainable farming, and global food security.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

A genomic library is a collection of cloned DNA fragments that represent the entire genetic material of an organism. It serves as a valuable resource for studying the function, organization, and regulation of genes within a given genome. Genomic libraries can be created using different types of vectors, such as bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs), yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs), or plasmids, to accommodate various sizes of DNA inserts. These libraries facilitate the isolation and manipulation of specific genes or genomic regions for further analysis, including sequencing, gene expression studies, and functional genomics research.

A plasmid is a small, circular, double-stranded DNA molecule that is separate from the chromosomal DNA of a bacterium or other organism. Plasmids are typically not essential for the survival of the organism, but they can confer beneficial traits such as antibiotic resistance or the ability to degrade certain types of pollutants.

Plasmids are capable of replicating independently of the chromosomal DNA and can be transferred between bacteria through a process called conjugation. They often contain genes that provide resistance to antibiotics, heavy metals, and other environmental stressors. Plasmids have also been engineered for use in molecular biology as cloning vectors, allowing scientists to replicate and manipulate specific DNA sequences.

Plasmids are important tools in genetic engineering and biotechnology because they can be easily manipulated and transferred between organisms. They have been used to produce vaccines, diagnostic tests, and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for various applications, including agriculture, medicine, and industry.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

A genetic complementation test is a laboratory procedure used in molecular genetics to determine whether two mutated genes can complement each other's function, indicating that they are located at different loci and represent separate alleles. This test involves introducing a normal or wild-type copy of one gene into a cell containing a mutant version of the same gene, and then observing whether the presence of the normal gene restores the normal function of the mutated gene. If the introduction of the normal gene results in the restoration of the normal phenotype, it suggests that the two genes are located at different loci and can complement each other's function. However, if the introduction of the normal gene does not restore the normal phenotype, it suggests that the two genes are located at the same locus and represent different alleles of the same gene. This test is commonly used to map genes and identify genetic interactions in a variety of organisms, including bacteria, yeast, and animals.

A DNA probe is a single-stranded DNA molecule that contains a specific sequence of nucleotides, and is labeled with a detectable marker such as a radioisotope or a fluorescent dye. It is used in molecular biology to identify and locate a complementary sequence within a sample of DNA. The probe hybridizes (forms a stable double-stranded structure) with its complementary sequence through base pairing, allowing for the detection and analysis of the target DNA. This technique is widely used in various applications such as genetic testing, diagnosis of infectious diseases, and forensic science.

DNA restriction enzymes, also known as restriction endonucleases, are a type of enzyme that cut double-stranded DNA at specific recognition sites. These enzymes are produced by bacteria and archaea as a defense mechanism against foreign DNA, such as that found in bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria).

Restriction enzymes recognize specific sequences of nucleotides (the building blocks of DNA) and cleave the phosphodiester bonds between them. The recognition sites for these enzymes are usually palindromic, meaning that the sequence reads the same in both directions when facing the opposite strands of DNA.

Restriction enzymes are widely used in molecular biology research for various applications such as genetic engineering, genome mapping, and DNA fingerprinting. They allow scientists to cut DNA at specific sites, creating precise fragments that can be manipulated and analyzed. The use of restriction enzymes has been instrumental in the development of recombinant DNA technology and the Human Genome Project.

A multigene family is a group of genetically related genes that share a common ancestry and have similar sequences or structures. These genes are arranged in clusters on a chromosome and often encode proteins with similar functions. They can arise through various mechanisms, including gene duplication, recombination, and transposition. Multigene families play crucial roles in many biological processes, such as development, immunity, and metabolism. Examples of multigene families include the globin genes involved in oxygen transport, the immune system's major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes, and the cytochrome P450 genes associated with drug metabolism.

Chromosome walking is a historical term used in genetics to describe the process of mapping and sequencing DNA along a chromosome. It involves the identification and characterization of a specific starting point, or "landmark," on a chromosome, followed by the systematic analysis of adjacent DNA segments, one after another, in a step-by-step manner.

The technique typically employs the use of molecular biology tools such as restriction enzymes, cloning vectors, and genetic markers to physically isolate and characterize overlapping DNA fragments that cover the region of interest. By identifying shared sequences or markers between adjacent fragments, researchers can "walk" along the chromosome, gradually building up a more detailed map of the genetic sequence.

Chromosome walking was an important technique in the early days of genetics and genomics research, as it allowed scientists to systematically analyze large stretches of DNA before the advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies. Today, while whole-genome sequencing has largely replaced chromosome walking for many applications, the technique is still used in some specialized contexts where a targeted approach is required.

WAGR syndrome is a genetic disorder that stands for four main features: Wilms' tumor (a type of kidney cancer), aniridia (absence of the iris in the eye), genitourinary anomalies, and mental retardation. It is caused by a deletion of genetic material on chromosome 11, which includes the WAFT gene. This syndrome is rare and occurs in approximately 1 in 500,000 individuals.

The Wilms' tumor in WAGR syndrome typically develops during childhood, with about half of affected children developing this type of cancer by age 7. Aniridia is usually present at birth and can cause decreased vision or sensitivity to light. Genitourinary anomalies can include abnormalities of the reproductive and urinary systems, such as undescended testicles in males or structural abnormalities of the kidneys or urinary tract. Mental retardation ranges from mild to severe and is often accompanied by developmental delays and behavioral problems.

Early diagnosis and treatment of WAGR syndrome can improve outcomes for affected individuals. Treatment typically includes surveillance for Wilms' tumor, management of aniridia and genitourinary anomalies, and special education and therapy services for mental retardation.

Recombinant DNA is a term used in molecular biology to describe DNA that has been created by combining genetic material from more than one source. This is typically done through the use of laboratory techniques such as molecular cloning, in which fragments of DNA are inserted into vectors (such as plasmids or viruses) and then introduced into a host organism where they can replicate and produce many copies of the recombinant DNA molecule.

Recombinant DNA technology has numerous applications in research, medicine, and industry, including the production of recombinant proteins for use as therapeutics, the creation of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for agricultural or industrial purposes, and the development of new tools for genetic analysis and manipulation.

It's important to note that while recombinant DNA technology has many potential benefits, it also raises ethical and safety concerns, and its use is subject to regulation and oversight in many countries.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "hybrid cells" is not a standard medical term with a widely accepted or specific definition in the field of medicine. The term "hybrid" is used in various scientific and medical contexts to describe combinations or mixtures of different elements, such as hybridoma cells (a type of fusion cell used in research, created by combining a B cell and a tumor cell) or hybridization (in genetics, the process of combining DNA from two different sources).

Without more specific context, it's difficult to provide an accurate medical definition for "hybrid cells." If you could provide more information about the context in which this term was used, I would be happy to help you further!

In situ hybridization, fluorescence (FISH) is a type of molecular cytogenetic technique used to detect and localize the presence or absence of specific DNA sequences on chromosomes through the use of fluorescent probes. This technique allows for the direct visualization of genetic material at a cellular level, making it possible to identify chromosomal abnormalities such as deletions, duplications, translocations, and other rearrangements.

The process involves denaturing the DNA in the sample to separate the double-stranded molecules into single strands, then adding fluorescently labeled probes that are complementary to the target DNA sequence. The probe hybridizes to the complementary sequence in the sample, and the location of the probe is detected by fluorescence microscopy.

FISH has a wide range of applications in both clinical and research settings, including prenatal diagnosis, cancer diagnosis and monitoring, and the study of gene expression and regulation. It is a powerful tool for identifying genetic abnormalities and understanding their role in human disease.

Southern blotting is a type of membrane-based blotting technique that is used in molecular biology to detect and locate specific DNA sequences within a DNA sample. This technique is named after its inventor, Edward M. Southern.

In Southern blotting, the DNA sample is first digested with one or more restriction enzymes, which cut the DNA at specific recognition sites. The resulting DNA fragments are then separated based on their size by gel electrophoresis. After separation, the DNA fragments are denatured to convert them into single-stranded DNA and transferred onto a nitrocellulose or nylon membrane.

Once the DNA has been transferred to the membrane, it is hybridized with a labeled probe that is complementary to the sequence of interest. The probe can be labeled with radioactive isotopes, fluorescent dyes, or chemiluminescent compounds. After hybridization, the membrane is washed to remove any unbound probe and then exposed to X-ray film (in the case of radioactive probes) or scanned (in the case of non-radioactive probes) to detect the location of the labeled probe on the membrane.

The position of the labeled probe on the membrane corresponds to the location of the specific DNA sequence within the original DNA sample. Southern blotting is a powerful tool for identifying and characterizing specific DNA sequences, such as those associated with genetic diseases or gene regulation.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

Also known as Varicella-zoster virus (VZV), Herpesvirus 3, Human is a species-specific alphaherpesvirus that causes two distinct diseases: chickenpox (varicella) during primary infection and herpes zoster (shingles) upon reactivation of latent infection.

Chickenpox is typically a self-limiting disease characterized by a generalized, pruritic vesicular rash, fever, and malaise. After resolution of the primary infection, VZV remains latent in the sensory ganglia and can reactivate later in life to cause herpes zoster, which is characterized by a unilateral, dermatomal vesicular rash and pain.

Herpesvirus 3, Human is highly contagious and spreads through respiratory droplets or direct contact with the chickenpox rash. Vaccination is available to prevent primary infection and reduce the risk of complications associated with chickenpox and herpes zoster.

Genetic markers are specific segments of DNA that are used in genetic mapping and genotyping to identify specific genetic locations, diseases, or traits. They can be composed of short tandem repeats (STRs), single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), or variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs). These markers are useful in various fields such as genetic research, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and breeding programs. They can help to track inheritance patterns, identify genetic predispositions to diseases, and solve crimes by linking biological evidence to suspects or victims.

A gene is a specific sequence of nucleotides in DNA that carries genetic information. Genes are the fundamental units of heredity and are responsible for the development and function of all living organisms. They code for proteins or RNA molecules, which carry out various functions within cells and are essential for the structure, function, and regulation of the body's tissues and organs.

Each gene has a specific location on a chromosome, and each person inherits two copies of every gene, one from each parent. Variations in the sequence of nucleotides in a gene can lead to differences in traits between individuals, including physical characteristics, susceptibility to disease, and responses to environmental factors.

Medical genetics is the study of genes and their role in health and disease. It involves understanding how genes contribute to the development and progression of various medical conditions, as well as identifying genetic risk factors and developing strategies for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

DNA transposable elements, also known as transposons or jumping genes, are mobile genetic elements that can change their position within a genome. They are composed of DNA sequences that include genes encoding the enzymes required for their own movement (transposase) and regulatory elements. When activated, the transposase recognizes specific sequences at the ends of the element and catalyzes the excision and reintegration of the transposable element into a new location in the genome. This process can lead to genetic variation, as the insertion of a transposable element can disrupt the function of nearby genes or create new combinations of gene regulatory elements. Transposable elements are widespread in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes and are thought to play a significant role in genome evolution.

Human chromosome pair 3 consists of two rod-shaped structures present in the nucleus of each cell in the human body. Each member of the pair is a single chromosome, and together they contain the genetic material that is inherited from both parents. Chromosomes are made up of DNA, which contains the instructions for the development and function of all living organisms.

Human chromosomes are numbered from 1 to 22, with an additional two sex chromosomes (X and Y) that determine biological sex. Chromosome pair 3 is one of the autosomal pairs, meaning it contains genes that are not related to sex determination. Each member of chromosome pair 3 is identical in size and shape and contains a single long DNA molecule that is coiled tightly around histone proteins to form a compact structure.

Chromosome pair 3 is associated with several genetic disorders, including Waardenburg syndrome, which affects pigmentation and hearing; Marfan syndrome, which affects the connective tissue; and some forms of retinoblastoma, a rare eye cancer that typically affects young children.

Deoxyribonuclease EcoRI is a type of enzyme that belongs to the class of endonucleases. It is isolated from the bacterium called Escherichia coli (E. coli) and recognizes and cleaves specific sequences of double-stranded DNA. The recognition site for EcoRI is the six-base pair sequence 5'-GAATTC-3'. When this enzyme cuts the DNA, it leaves sticky ends that are complementary to each other, which allows for the precise joining or ligation of different DNA molecules. This property makes EcoRI and other similar restriction enzymes essential tools in various molecular biology techniques such as genetic engineering and cloning.

Bacterial chromosomes are typically circular, double-stranded DNA molecules that contain the genetic material of bacteria. Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA housed within a nucleus, bacterial chromosomes are located in the cytoplasm of the cell, often associated with the bacterial nucleoid.

Bacterial chromosomes can vary in size and structure among different species, but they typically contain all of the genetic information necessary for the survival and reproduction of the organism. They may also contain plasmids, which are smaller circular DNA molecules that can carry additional genes and can be transferred between bacteria through a process called conjugation.

One important feature of bacterial chromosomes is their ability to replicate rapidly, allowing bacteria to divide quickly and reproduce in large numbers. The replication of the bacterial chromosome begins at a specific origin point and proceeds in opposite directions until the entire chromosome has been copied. This process is tightly regulated and coordinated with cell division to ensure that each daughter cell receives a complete copy of the genetic material.

Overall, the study of bacterial chromosomes is an important area of research in microbiology, as understanding their structure and function can provide insights into bacterial genetics, evolution, and pathogenesis.

Chromosome banding is a technique used in cytogenetics to identify and describe the physical structure and organization of chromosomes. This method involves staining the chromosomes with specific dyes that bind differently to the DNA and proteins in various regions of the chromosome, resulting in a distinct pattern of light and dark bands when viewed under a microscope.

The most commonly used banding techniques are G-banding (Giemsa banding) and R-banding (reverse banding). In G-banding, the chromosomes are stained with Giemsa dye, which preferentially binds to the AT-rich regions, creating a characteristic banding pattern. The bands are numbered from the centromere (the constriction point where the chromatids join) outwards, with the darker bands (rich in A-T base pairs and histone proteins) labeled as "q" arms and the lighter bands (rich in G-C base pairs and arginine-rich proteins) labeled as "p" arms.

R-banding, on the other hand, uses a different staining procedure that results in a reversed banding pattern compared to G-banding. The darker R-bands correspond to the lighter G-bands, and vice versa. This technique is particularly useful for identifying and analyzing specific regions of chromosomes that may be difficult to visualize with G-banding alone.

Chromosome banding plays a crucial role in diagnosing genetic disorders, identifying chromosomal abnormalities, and studying the structure and function of chromosomes in both clinical and research settings.

A genetic vector is a vehicle, often a plasmid or a virus, that is used to introduce foreign DNA into a host cell as part of genetic engineering or gene therapy techniques. The vector contains the desired gene or genes, along with regulatory elements such as promoters and enhancers, which are needed for the expression of the gene in the target cells.

The choice of vector depends on several factors, including the size of the DNA to be inserted, the type of cell to be targeted, and the efficiency of uptake and expression required. Commonly used vectors include plasmids, adenoviruses, retroviruses, and lentiviruses.

Plasmids are small circular DNA molecules that can replicate independently in bacteria. They are often used as cloning vectors to amplify and manipulate DNA fragments. Adenoviruses are double-stranded DNA viruses that infect a wide range of host cells, including human cells. They are commonly used as gene therapy vectors because they can efficiently transfer genes into both dividing and non-dividing cells.

Retroviruses and lentiviruses are RNA viruses that integrate their genetic material into the host cell's genome. This allows for stable expression of the transgene over time. Lentiviruses, a subclass of retroviruses, have the advantage of being able to infect non-dividing cells, making them useful for gene therapy applications in post-mitotic tissues such as neurons and muscle cells.

Overall, genetic vectors play a crucial role in modern molecular biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study gene function, develop new therapies, and modify organisms for various purposes.

Insertional mutagenesis is a process of introducing new genetic material into an organism's genome at a specific location, which can result in a change or disruption of the function of the gene at that site. This technique is often used in molecular biology research to study gene function and regulation. The introduction of the foreign DNA is typically accomplished through the use of mobile genetic elements, such as transposons or viruses, which are capable of inserting themselves into the genome.

The insertion of the new genetic material can lead to a loss or gain of function in the affected gene, resulting in a mutation. This type of mutagenesis is called "insertional" because the mutation is caused by the insertion of foreign DNA into the genome. The effects of insertional mutagenesis can range from subtle changes in gene expression to the complete inactivation of a gene.

This technique has been widely used in genetic research, including the study of developmental biology, cancer, and genetic diseases. It is also used in the development of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for agricultural and industrial applications.

Deoxyribonuclease (DNase) HindIII is a type of enzyme that cleaves, or cuts, DNA at specific sequences. The name "HindIII" refers to the fact that this particular enzyme was first isolated from the bacterium Haemophilus influenzae strain Rd (Hin) and it cuts at the restriction site 5'-A/AGCTT-3'.

DNase HindIII recognizes and binds to the palindromic sequence "AAGCTT" in double-stranded DNA, and then cleaves each strand of the DNA molecule at specific points within that sequence. This results in the production of two fragments of DNA with sticky ends: 5'-phosphate and 3'-hydroxyl groups. These sticky ends can then be joined together by another enzyme, DNA ligase, to form new combinations of DNA molecules.

DNase HindIII is widely used in molecular biology research for various purposes, such as restriction mapping, cloning, and genetic engineering. It is also used in diagnostic tests to detect specific sequences of DNA in clinical samples.

The X chromosome is one of the two types of sex-determining chromosomes in humans (the other being the Y chromosome). It's one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes that make up a person's genetic material. Females typically have two copies of the X chromosome (XX), while males usually have one X and one Y chromosome (XY).

The X chromosome contains hundreds of genes that are responsible for the production of various proteins, many of which are essential for normal bodily functions. Some of the critical roles of the X chromosome include:

1. Sex Determination: The presence or absence of the Y chromosome determines whether an individual is male or female. If there is no Y chromosome, the individual will typically develop as a female.
2. Genetic Disorders: Since females have two copies of the X chromosome, they are less likely to be affected by X-linked genetic disorders than males. Males, having only one X chromosome, will express any recessive X-linked traits they inherit.
3. Dosage Compensation: To compensate for the difference in gene dosage between males and females, a process called X-inactivation occurs during female embryonic development. One of the two X chromosomes is randomly inactivated in each cell, resulting in a single functional copy per cell.

The X chromosome plays a crucial role in human genetics and development, contributing to various traits and characteristics, including sex determination and dosage compensation.

Genetic linkage is the phenomenon where two or more genetic loci (locations on a chromosome) tend to be inherited together because they are close to each other on the same chromosome. This occurs during the process of sexual reproduction, where homologous chromosomes pair up and exchange genetic material through a process called crossing over.

The closer two loci are to each other on a chromosome, the lower the probability that they will be separated by a crossover event. As a result, they are more likely to be inherited together and are said to be linked. The degree of linkage between two loci can be measured by their recombination frequency, which is the percentage of meiotic events in which a crossover occurs between them.

Linkage analysis is an important tool in genetic research, as it allows researchers to identify and map genes that are associated with specific traits or diseases. By analyzing patterns of linkage between markers (identifiable DNA sequences) and phenotypes (observable traits), researchers can infer the location of genes that contribute to those traits or diseases on chromosomes.

Depending on the particular aim of the experiment, broad host range cosmids, shuttle cosmids or 'mammalian' cosmids (linked to ... Cosmids can be used to build genomic libraries. They were first described by Collins and Hohn in 1978. Cosmids can contain 37 ... Selection against wild type cosmid DNA is simply done via size exclusion. Cosmids, therefore, always form colonies and not ... is held by the terminase after the previous cosmid has been packaged, to prevent degradation by cellular DNases. Cosmids are ...
Examples are cosmids and phagemids. Transposons: These are DNA sequences that can move and replicate in different parts of a ...
... ; occipitotemporal sulcus (OTS); collateral sulcus (CoS); mid-fusiform sulcus (MFS). The fusiform gyrus can be ...
cosmid cpDNA See chloroplast DNA. CpG island A region of a genome in which CpG sites occur repetitively or with high frequency ...
Once inside the host, the cosmids circularize with the aid of the host's DNA ligase and then function as plasmids. Cosmids are ... This sequence allows the cosmid to be packaged into bacteriophage λ particles. These particles- containing a linearized cosmid ... Cosmid vectors are plasmids that contain a small region of bacteriophage λ DNA called the cos sequence. ...
campestris using the broad host range cosmid pLAFR1". The EMBO Journal. 3 (13): 3323-3328. doi:10.1002/j.1460-2075.1984.tb02298 ...
Alu repeats and polymorphisms in cosmids sequenced from chromosome 4p16.3". Nature Genetics. 1 (5): 348-53. doi:10.1038/ng0892- ...
Kim UJ, Shizuya H, de Jong PJ, Birren B, Simon MI (March 1992). "Stable propagation of cosmid sized human DNA inserts in an F ... Fosmids are similar to cosmids but are based on the bacterial F-plasmid. The cloning vector is limited, as a host (usually E. ... The major advantage of Fosmids over other cosmid systems lies in its capability of stably propagating human DNA fragments. ... The low copy number offers higher stability than vectors with relatively higher copy numbers, including cosmids. Fosmids may be ...
In molecular cloning, a vector is any particle (e.g., plasmids, cosmids, Lambda phages) used as a vehicle to artificially carry ... The four major types of vectors are plasmids, viral vectors, cosmids, and artificial chromosomes. Of these, the most commonly ...
... indicating it is on the cosmid 'F38H4', and there are at least 6 other genes on that cosmid. If a gene produces a protein that ... For example, in 2005 a 39 kb cosmid had to be inverted. Other improvements have come from comparing genomic DNA to cDNA ... These species therefore do not have sequence names for CDSs and gene transcripts that are based on cosmid names. Instead they ... which is derived from the cosmid, fosmid or YAC clone on which they reside, for instance F38H4.7, ...
1982). "Isolation of human oncogene sequences (v-fes homolog) from a cosmid library". Science. 216 (4550): 1136-8. Bibcode: ...
It is encoded by the P87050 2247 bp ORF on the cosmid 57A10. The protein is 775 amino acids in length. Cdr2 is a member of the ...
"Physical mapping of the mitochondrial genome of Arabidopsis thaliana by cosmid and YAC clones". Plant Journal. 6 (3): 447-455. ...
A cosmid library (31 249 bp in total) has been made from the genome. The estimated gene density based on the cosmid library is ...
1990). "High-resolution mapping of human chromosome 11 by in situ hybridization with cosmid clones". Science. 247 (4938): 64-9 ...
June 1994). "Isolation of cosmid and cDNA clones in the region surrounding the BTK gene at Xq21.3-q22". Genomics. 21 (3): 517- ...
The location of frq was verified in 1986 through transformation of cosmids into frq9 and by rescuing the circadian rhythm. frq ...
1994). "Isolation of cosmid and cDNA clones in the region surrounding the BTK gene at Xq21.3-q22". Genomics. 21 (3): 517-24. ...
... a 1 Mbp cosmid and PAC contig". Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer. 31 (3): 228-39. doi:10.1002/gcc.1139. PMID 11391793. S2CID ...
1999). "A 500-kb sequence-ready cosmid contig and transcript map of the MEN1 region on 11q13". Genomics. 55 (1): 49-56. doi: ...
Cosmid/BAC/YAC end sequences use Cosmid/Bacterial artificial chromosome/Yeast artificial chromosome to sequence the genome from ... Cosmid/BAC/YAC can also be used to get bigger clone of DNA fragment than vectors like plasmid and phagemid. A larger insert is ... BAC can't do that, but BACs can reliably represent human DNA much better than YAC or cosmid. Exon trapped sequence is used to ... DDBJ-GSS MEGA- and GIGA preps of cosmid-, BAC-, PAC, YAC-, and P1-DNA with JETSTAR 2.0 "WSSP-04 Chapter 2 - Vectors" (PDF). ...
1994). "Isolation of cosmid and cDNA clones in the region surrounding the BTK gene at Xq21.3-q22". Genomics. 21 (3): 517-24. ...
... cytogenetic band location of 540 cosmids and 70 genes or DNA markers". Genomics. 15 (1): 133-45. doi:10.1006/geno.1993.1021. ...
January 1993). "Fluorescence in situ hybridization mapping of human chromosome 19: cytogenetic band location of 540 cosmids and ...
... cytogenetic band location of 540 cosmids and 70 genes or DNA markers". Genomics. 15 (1): 133-45. doi:10.1006/geno.1993.1021. ...
January 1993). "Fluorescence in situ hybridization mapping of human chromosome 19: cytogenetic band location of 540 cosmids and ...
January 1993). "Fluorescence in situ hybridization mapping of human chromosome 19: cytogenetic band location of 540 cosmids and ...
... cytogenetic band location of 540 cosmids and 70 genes or DNA markers". Genomics. 15 (1): 133-45. doi:10.1006/geno.1993.1021. ...
... cytogenetic band location of 540 cosmids and 70 genes or DNA markers". Genomics. 15 (1): 133-145. doi:10.1006/geno.1993.1021. ...
January 1993). "Fluorescence in situ hybridization mapping of human chromosome 19: cytogenetic band location of 540 cosmids and ...
Depending on the particular aim of the experiment, broad host range cosmids, shuttle cosmids or mammalian cosmids (linked to ... Cosmids can be used to build genomic libraries. They were first described by Collins and Hohn in 1978. Cosmids can contain 37 ... Selection against wild type cosmid DNA is simply done via size exclusion. Cosmids, therefore, always form colonies and not ... is held by the terminase after the previous cosmid has been packaged, to prevent degradation by cellular DNases. Cosmids are ...
From To Kb Plasmid Comment 1 2843 2.8 E07_02.8 2843 4485 1.6 E07_01.7 4485 4607 0.1 4607 9085 4.5 E07_04.4 9085 9665 0.6 E07_0.6 9665 11551 1.9 E07_01.9 11551 17297 5.7 E07_05.7 17297 17432 0.1 E07_0.1 17432 20047 2.6 E07_02.7 20047 25760 5.7 E07_05.7P1 25760 26877 1.1 E07_01.1 26877 26958 0.1 26958 27686 0.7 E07_0.75 27686 29120 1.4 E07_01.4 29120 30965 1.8 E07_01.85 30965 36612 5.6 E07_05.5 36612 37303 0.7 E07_0.7 37303 37384 0.1 37384 45357 8.0 C09_07.6 45357 60803 15.4 C09_15.0 60803 76887 16.1 C09_15.5 76887 76968 0.1 76968 79285 2.3 R02_02.3 also: C09_02.3 79285 89374 10.1 R02_09.5 89374 90058 0.7 R02_0.7 90058 90139 0.1 90139 91341 1.2 R02_01.2 91341 98167 6.8 R02_06.5 98167 108906 10.7 R02_10.7 108906 116812 7.9 R02_07.5 116812 125896 9.1 D09_09.0 125896 140308 14.4 D09_14.0 140308 153184 12.9 D09_12.6 153184 156018 2.8 B01_02.9 156018 156110 0.1 156110 159891 3.8 B01_03.7 159891 160399 0.5 B01_0.55 160399 161437 1.0 B01_01.0 161437 161830 0.4 B01_0.46 161830 171732 9.9 B01_09.6 171732 ...
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  • Sequencing of six neighbouring EcoRI fragments of cosmid UKG041 from chromosome XI. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Starting with two cosmids within 3p21.1, D3S92 and D3S93, we have isolated two separate contigs of overlapping cosmids within 3p21.1, by screening a library of 5700 chromosome 3-specific cosmid clones. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Cosmids are predominantly plasmids with a bacterial oriV, an antibiotic selection marker and a cloning site, but they carry one, or more recently two, cos sites derived from bacteriophage lambda. (wikipedia.org)
  • These extracts will recognize and package the recombinant molecules in vitro, generating either mature phage particles (lambda-based vectors) or recombinant plasmids contained in phage shells (cosmids). (wikipedia.org)
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  • One hundred cosmid clones, each with 40-Kb DNA recognized fungal infection of hibernating bats. (cdc.gov)
  • A cosmid is a type of hybrid plasmid that contains a Lambda phage cos sequence. (wikipedia.org)
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  • Selection against wild type cosmid DNA is simply done via size exclusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cosmids can contain 37 to 52 (normally 45) kb of DNA, limits based on the normal bacteriophage packaging size. (wikipedia.org)
  • The loading capacity of cosmids varies depending on the size of the vector itself but usually lies around 40-45 kb. (wikipedia.org)
  • 6 ). A cosmid DNA library was constructed destructans genotype. (cdc.gov)
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  • The Maxi Plasmid Kits use pre-packed ion-exchange resin columns to purify plasmid or cosmid DNA from bacterial cultures. (primelabmed.com)
  • After the construction of recombinant lambda or cosmid libraries the total DNA is transferred into an appropriate E. coli host via a technique called in vitro packaging. (wikipedia.org)
  • These extracts will recognize and package the recombinant molecules in vitro, generating either mature phage particles (lambda-based vectors) or recombinant plasmids contained in phage shells (cosmids). (wikipedia.org)
  • Viral (bacteriophage) DNA can also be used as a vector, as can cosmids, recombinant plasmids containing bacteriophage genes. (tutorialspoint.com)
  • I developed a system to produce mutations in the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome by transfecting cells with cosmid DNAs to obtain recombinant viruses. (nih.gov)
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  • Approximately 60 % of the expressed genes of the human genome is known to be associated with CpG islands, most of which are able to be detected with BssHII, EagI and SacII.To help isolate and identify genes, we have sought CpG-islands in the cosmid/PAC contigs with these diagnostic enzymes, assuming close clustering (within l kb) of two or more cutting sites as potential CpG islands. (nii.ac.jp)
  • A physical map of the genome has been assembled with a combination of cosmid and YAC genes. (cshlpress.com)
  • Cosmids can be used to build genomic libraries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phage libraries are also stored and screened more easily than cosmid libraries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thank you very much for your cosmid libraries. (bio.net)
  • We were building YAC [yeast artificial chromosome] libraries, cosmid libraries. (nih.gov)
  • A cosmid is a type of hybrid plasmid that contains a Lambda phage cos sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cosmids are predominantly plasmids with a bacterial oriV, an antibiotic selection marker and a cloning site, but they carry one, or more recently two, cos sites derived from bacteriophage lambda. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to improve our knowledge of the human immunoglobulin variable lambda locus (IGLV), we mapped one cosmid clone (designated as C40.2) isolated by screening a Colo320HSR genomic library. (cnrs.fr)
  • The cosmid also contains a vestigial sequence lambda vg2. (cnrs.fr)
  • We constructed a set of four cosmids that encompass the 125-kb VZV genome. (nih.gov)
  • Screening the CBP gene for larger deletions, by using different cosmid probes in FISH, showed 14/171 microdeletions. (nih.gov)
  • Single splice forms rescued both the insecticide susceptible and resistant phenotypes associated with the locus as effectively as the complete cosmid. (nih.gov)
  • 7. Physical and genetic analysis of cosmids from the vicinity of the cystic fibrosis locus. (nih.gov)
  • Free xXx Jizz Sex Cum Porn BeeG Pics Site Cosmid Hottest Girl Sonny Nude Photos Naked Images Naughty Pictures Galleries. (beeg.pics)
  • This study requires a combination of chromosome painting and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with yeast artificial chromosomes (YAC) and cosmids. (medscape.com)
  • The hybrid cosmid DNA in the capsids can then be transferred into bacterial cells by transduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • The full integrity of PAC and high dense cosmid overlap map shows the fidelity in cloning with the bacterial system. (nii.ac.jp)
  • 6 ). A cosmid DNA library was constructed destructans genotype. (cdc.gov)
  • Previous studies have shown partial rescue of the susceptible phenotype via germline transformation of a 36 kb cosmid coding (or all four alternative Rdl splice forms. (nih.gov)
  • The steps in the analysis are the development of maps: (1) physical, (2) restriction, (3) cosmid, and (4) linkage. (nih.gov)
  • Cosmid, however, really does find and photograph the girls you work with and see on the street every day. (nerdnudes.com)
  • The cosQ site of next cosmid (as rolling circle replication often results in linear concatemers) is held by the terminase after the previous cosmid has been packaged, to prevent degradation by cellular DNases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transfection of cells in culture with these four cosmids results in recombination and production of infectious VZV. (nih.gov)
  • Depending on the particular aim of the experiment, broad host range cosmids, shuttle cosmids or 'mammalian' cosmids (linked to SV40 oriV and mammalian selection markers) are available. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shashank S Shah, MD, a bariatric surgeon at the Laparo Obeso Centre in Pune, India, presented the findings from COSMID at the American Diabetes Association (ADA) 2016 Scientific Sessions last week, where he was awarded ADA's 2016 Vivian Fonseca Scholar Award for this research involving minorities. (medscape.com)
  • Those cells which did not take up the cosmid would be unable to grow. (wikipedia.org)