High-energy radiation or particles from extraterrestrial space that strike the earth, its atmosphere, or spacecraft and may create secondary radiation as a result of collisions with the atmosphere or spacecraft.
Design, development, manufacture, and operation of heavier-than-air AIRCRAFT.
Any type of variation in the appearance of energy output of the sun. (NASA Thesaurus, 1994)
Devices, manned and unmanned, which are designed to be placed into an orbit about the Earth or into a trajectory to another celestial body. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)
A weight-carrying structure for navigation of the air that is supported either by its own buoyancy or by the dynamic action of the air against its surfaces. (Webster, 1973)
Travel beyond the earth's atmosphere.
That branch of medicine dealing with the studies and effects of flight through the atmosphere or in space upon the human body and with the prevention or cure of physiological or psychological malfunctions arising from these effects. (from NASA Thesaurus)
The observation, either continuously or at intervals, of the levels of radiation in a given area, generally for the purpose of assuring that they have not exceeded prescribed amounts or, in case of radiation already present in the area, assuring that the levels have returned to those meeting acceptable safety standards.
The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).
ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION or particle radiation (high energy ELEMENTARY PARTICLES) capable of directly or indirectly producing IONS in its passage through matter. The wavelengths of ionizing electromagnetic radiation are equal to or smaller than those of short (far) ultraviolet radiation and include gamma and X-rays.
Harmful effects of non-experimental exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation in VERTEBRATES.
The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.
The ability of some cells or tissues to survive lethal doses of IONIZING RADIATION. Tolerance depends on the species, cell type, and physical and chemical variables, including RADIATION-PROTECTIVE AGENTS and RADIATION-SENSITIZING AGENTS.

Chromosome mechanics of fungi under spaceflight conditions--tetrad analysis of two-factor crosses between spore color mutants of Sordaria macrospora. (1/99)

Spore color mutants of the fungus Sordaria macrospora Auersw. were crossed under spaceflight conditions on the space shuttle to MIR mission S/MM 05 (STS-81). The arrangement of spores of different colors in the asci allowed conclusions on the influence of spaceflight conditions on sexual recombination in fungi. Experiments on a 1-g centrifuge in space and in parallel on the ground were used for controls. The samples were analyzed microscopically on their return to earth. Each fruiting body was assessed separately. Statistical analysis of the data showed a significant increase in gene recombination frequencies caused by the heavy ion particle stream in space radiation. The lack of gravity did not influence crossing-over frequencies. Hyphae of the flown samples were assessed for DNA strand breaks. No increase in damage was found compared with the ground samples. It was shown that S. macrospora is able to repair radiation-induced DNA strand breaks within hours.  (+info)

Incidence of cancer among commercial airline pilots. (2/99)

OBJECTIVES: To describe the cancer pattern in a cohort of commercial pilots by follow up through the Icelandic Cancer Registry. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of 458 pilots with emphasis on subcohort working for an airline operating on international routes. A computerised file of the cohort was record linked to the Cancer Registry by making use of personal identification numbers. Expected numbers of cancer cases were calculated on the basis of number of person-years and incidences of cancer at specific sites for men provided by the Cancer Registry. Numbers of separate analyses were made according to different exposure variables. RESULTS: The standardised incidence ratio (SIR) for all cancers was 0.97 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.62 to 1.46) in the total cohort and 1.16 (95% CI 0.70 to 1.81) among those operating on international routes. The SIR for malignant melanoma of the skin was 10.20, 95% CI 3.29 to 23.81 in the total cohort and 15.63, 95% CI 5.04 to 36.46 in the restricted cohort. Analyses according to number of block-hours and radiation dose showed that malignant melanomas were found in the subgroups with highest exposure estimates, the SIRs were 13.04 and 28.57 respectively. The SIR was 25.00 for malignant melanoma among those who had been flying over five time zones. CONCLUSIONS: The study shows a high occurrence of malignant melanoma among pilots. It is open to discussion what role exposure of cosmic radiation, numbers of block-hours flown, or lifestyle factors--such as possible excessive sunbathing--play in the aetiology of cancer among pilots. This calls for further and more powerful studies. The excess of malignant melanoma among those flying over five time zones suggests that the importance of disturbance of the circadian rhythm should be taken into consideration in future studies.  (+info)

Daily periodicity in the activity of a slide used to perform immunologic reactions at a liquid-solid interface. (3/99)

Nickel-plated slides were prepared by evaporating a nickel layer (congruent to 4000 A thick) on glass slides in the presence of a magnetic field whose lines of force were perpendicular to the surface of the slides. Such slides are called active. After being coated with a layer of bovine albumin, they could absorb a layer of antibodies 70-80 A thick. However, if the active slides before they were coated with bovine serum albumin, were submitted to a magnetic field with lines of force parallel to the surface, the layer of antibodies absorbed was only 40 A thick. They had become inactive. It has been found that slides remain active at night but that shortly after sunrise they become slowly inactivated and reach a minimum in their activity at exactly the midday period. They regain full activity at sunset. It is shown that the inactivation results from a solar radiation that can be stopped by 3.5 cm of lead. On December 13th, 1974 there was an eclipse of the sun with 65% occultation at noon (Daylight Saving Time). The activity of the slide at noon was 65% of the maximum activity (83 A) observed before sunrise. The thickness of the adsorbed layer of antibodies were 75 A instead of 63 A observed in the absence of the eclipse. The activation of the slides originates in a radiation of non-solar origin that is adsorbed by 1 can of lead.  (+info)

p53 deficiency alters the yield and spectrum of radiation-induced lacZ mutants in the brain of transgenic mice. (4/99)

Exposure to heavy particle radiation in the galacto-cosmic environment poses a significant risk in space exploration and the evaluation of radiation-induced genetic damage in tissues, especially in the central nervous system, is an important consideration in long-term manned space missions. We used a plasmid-based transgenic mouse model system, with the pUR288 lacZ transgene integrated in the genome of every cell of C57Bl/6(lacZ) mice, to evaluate the genetic damage induced by iron particle radiation. In order to examine the importance of genetic background on the radiation sensitivity of individuals, we cross-bred p53 wild-type lacZ transgenic mice with p53 nullizygous mice, producing lacZ transgenic mice that were either hemizygous or nullizygous for the p53 tumor suppressor gene. Animals were exposed to an acute dose of 1 Gy of iron particles and the lacZ mutation frequency (MF) in the brain was measured at time intervals from 1 to 16 weeks post-irradiation. Our results suggest that iron particles induced an increase in lacZ MF (2.4-fold increase in p53+/+ mice, 1.3-fold increase in p53+/- mice and 2.1-fold increase in p53-/- mice) and that this induction is both temporally regulated and p53 genotype dependent. Characterization of mutants based on their restriction patterns showed that the majority of the mutants arising spontaneously are derived from point mutations or small deletions in all three genotypes. Radiation induced alterations in the spectrum of deletion mutants and reorganization of the genome, as evidenced by the selection of mutants containing mouse genomic DNA. These observations are unique in that mutations in brain tissue after particle radiation exposure have never before been reported owing to technical limitations in most other mutation assays.  (+info)

Cosmic radiation protection dosimetry using an Electronic personal Dosemeter (Siemens EPD) on selected international flights. (5/99)

The effectiveness of an Electronic Personal Dosemeter (Siemens EPD) for cosmic-radiation dosimetry at aviation altitudes was examined on eight international flights between March and September, 1998. The EPD values (Hepd) of the dose equivalent from penetrating radiation, Hp(10), were assumed to be almost the same as the electron absorbed doses during those flights. Based on the compositions of cosmic radiation in the atmosphere and the 1977 ICRP recommendation, an empirical equation to conservatively estimate the personal dose equivalent (Hp77) at a depth of 5 cm was derived as Hp77 = 3.1 x Hepd. The personal dose equivalent (Hp90) based on the 1990 ICRP recommendation was given by Hp90 = 4.6 x Hepd; the conservative feature of Hp90 was confirmed in a comparison with the calculated effective doses by means of the CARI-6 code. It is thus expected that the EPD will be effectively used for radiation protection dosimetry on selected international flights.  (+info)

Cancer incidence among Norwegian airline cabin attendants. (6/99)

BACKGROUND: Cabin crews are exposed to cosmic radiation at work and this may increase their incidence of radiation-induced cancers. Former studies indicate an increased risk of breast cancer. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed. The cohort was established from the files of the Civil Aviation Administration and included people with a valid licence as a cabin attendant between 1950 and 1994. The cohort was linked to the Cancer Registry of Norway. Observed number of cases was compared with expected, based on national rates. Breast cancer incidence was analysed, adjusting for individual fertility variables. RESULTS: A group of 3693 cabin attendants were followed over 72 804 person-years. Among the women, 38 cases of breast cancer were observed (standardized incidence ratio (SIR) = 1.1, 95% CI : 0.8-1.5). Among men excess risks were found for cancers in the upper respiratory and gastric tract (SIR = 6.0, 95% CI : 2.7-11.4) and cancer of the liver (two cases, SIR = 10.8, 95% CI : 1.3-39.2). For both sexes elevated risks were found for malignant melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer; for men these were SIR = 2.9 (95% CI : 1.1-6.4) and SIR = 9.9 (95% CI : 4.5-18.8) respectively, while for women these were SIR = 1.7 (95% CI : 1.0-2.7) and SIR = 2.9 (95% CI : 1.0-6.9) respectively. For no cancer site was a significant decreased risk found. CONCLUSIONS: An increased risk of radiation-induced cancers was not observed. The excess risks of some other cancers are more probably explained by factors related to lifestyle.  (+info)

Cell growth and morphology of Dictyostelium discoideum in space environment. (7/99)

Two strains of cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, a radiation-sensitive mutant and the parental wild-type strain, were used to investigate the effects of microgravity and/or cosmic radiation on their morphology through the whole life span from spores to fruiting bodies for about 7 days in space shuttle of NASA. We found almost no effect of space environment on amoeba cell growth in both strains. It was also observed that almost the same number and shape of fruiting bodies in space compared to the control experiments on earth. These results suggest that there is little effect of microgravity and space radiation on germination, cell aggregation, cell differentiation and cell morphology in the cellular slime mold.  (+info)

Mutation frequency of Dictyostelium discoideum spores exposed to the space environment. (8/99)

Two strains of cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, a radiosensitive mutant and the parental wild-type strain, were used to investigate the effects of cosmic radiation on viability and mutation frequency at the spore stage for about 9 days in Space Shuttle of NASA. We measured little effect of space environment on viability and cell growth in the both strains as compared to ground controls. The mutation frequency of the flown spores were similar to that of ground control. These results suggest that there could be no effect of cosmic radiation, containing high linear energy transfer radiation at about 0.9 mSv/day as detected by real-time radiation monitoring device on the induction of mutation at the spore stage.  (+info)

Cosmic radiation refers to high-energy radiation that originates from space. It is primarily made up of charged particles, such as protons and electrons, and consists of several components including galactic cosmic rays, solar energetic particles, and trapped radiation in Earth's magnetic field (the Van Allen belts).

Galactic cosmic rays are high-energy particles that originate from outside our solar system. They consist mainly of protons, with smaller amounts of helium nuclei (alpha particles) and heavier ions. These particles travel at close to the speed of light and can penetrate the Earth's atmosphere, creating a cascade of secondary particles called "cosmic rays" that can be measured at the Earth's surface.

Solar energetic particles are high-energy charged particles, mainly protons and alpha particles, that are released during solar flares or coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from the Sun. These events can accelerate particles to extremely high energies, which can pose a radiation hazard for astronauts in space and for electronic systems in satellites.

Trapped radiation in Earth's magnetic field is composed of charged particles that are trapped by the Earth's magnetic field and form two doughnut-shaped regions around the Earth called the Van Allen belts. The inner belt primarily contains high-energy electrons, while the outer belt contains both protons and electrons. These particles can pose a radiation hazard for satellites in low Earth orbit (LEO) and for astronauts during spacewalks or missions beyond LEO.

Cosmic radiation is an important consideration for human space exploration, as it can cause damage to living tissue and electronic systems. Therefore, understanding the sources, properties, and effects of cosmic radiation is crucial for ensuring the safety and success of future space missions.

The branch of transportation concerned with flying aircraft, including the design, development, production, and operation of airplanes, helicopters, and other flying machines. In a medical context, aviation may refer to the study of the effects of flight on the human body, particularly in relation to pilot health and safety, or to the medical aspects of aviation, such as aeromedical evacuation and transportation of patients by air.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "solar activity" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Solar activity refers to the various phenomena that occur on the Sun, including solar flares, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), and solar wind. These events involve the release of energy and charged particles from the Sun's atmosphere and can have effects on space weather and technological systems in near-Earth space. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help with those!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "spacecraft" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space. It may be used to transport humans or cargo to and from space stations, conduct scientific research, or explore other celestial bodies such as the moon, planets, and asteroids. If you have any questions related to medical terminology, I'd be happy to help!

An "aircraft" is not a medical term, but rather a general term used to describe any vehicle or machine designed to be powered and operated in the air. This includes fixed-wing aircraft such as airplanes and gliders, as well as rotary-wing aircraft such as helicopters and autogyros.

However, there are some medical conditions that can affect a person's ability to safely operate an aircraft, such as certain cardiovascular or neurological disorders. In these cases, the individual may be required to undergo medical evaluation and obtain clearance from aviation medical examiners before they are allowed to fly.

Additionally, there are some medical devices and equipment that are used in aircraft, such as oxygen systems and medical evacuation equipment. These may be used to provide medical care to passengers or crew members during flight.

"Space flight" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, in general, it refers to the act of traveling through space, outside of Earth's atmosphere, aboard a spacecraft. This can include trips to the International Space Station (ISS), lunar missions, or travel to other planets and moons within our solar system.

From a medical perspective, space flight presents unique challenges to the human body, including exposure to microgravity, radiation, and isolation from Earth's biosphere. These factors can have significant impacts on various physiological systems, including the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, sensory, and immune systems. As a result, space medicine has emerged as a distinct field of study focused on understanding and mitigating these risks to ensure the health and safety of astronauts during space flight.

Aerospace medicine is a branch of medicine that deals with the health and safety of pilots, astronauts, and passengers during space travel or aircraft flight. It involves studying the effects of various factors such as altitude, weightlessness, radiation, noise, vibration, and temperature extremes on the human body, and developing measures to prevent or mitigate any adverse effects.

Aerospace medicine also encompasses the diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions that occur during space travel or aircraft flight, as well as the development of medical standards and guidelines for pilot and astronaut selection, training, and fitness for duty. Additionally, it includes research into the physiological and psychological challenges of long-duration space missions and the development of countermeasures to maintain crew health and performance during such missions.

Radiation monitoring is the systematic and continuous measurement, assessment, and tracking of ionizing radiation levels in the environment or within the body to ensure safety and to take appropriate actions when limits are exceeded. It involves the use of specialized instruments and techniques to detect and quantify different types of radiation, such as alpha, beta, gamma, neutron, and x-rays. The data collected from radiation monitoring is used to evaluate radiation exposure, contamination levels, and potential health risks for individuals or communities. This process is crucial in various fields, including nuclear energy production, medical imaging and treatment, radiation therapy, and environmental protection.

Radiation dosage, in the context of medical physics, refers to the amount of radiation energy that is absorbed by a material or tissue, usually measured in units of Gray (Gy), where 1 Gy equals an absorption of 1 Joule of radiation energy per kilogram of matter. In the clinical setting, radiation dosage is used to plan and assess the amount of radiation delivered to a patient during treatments such as radiotherapy. It's important to note that the biological impact of radiation also depends on other factors, including the type and energy level of the radiation, as well as the sensitivity of the irradiated tissues or organs.

Ionizing radiation is a type of radiation that carries enough energy to ionize atoms or molecules, which means it can knock electrons out of their orbits and create ions. These charged particles can cause damage to living tissue and DNA, making ionizing radiation dangerous to human health. Examples of ionizing radiation include X-rays, gamma rays, and some forms of subatomic particles such as alpha and beta particles. The amount and duration of exposure to ionizing radiation are important factors in determining the potential health effects, which can range from mild skin irritation to an increased risk of cancer and other diseases.

Radiation injuries refer to the damages that occur to living tissues as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation. These injuries can be acute, occurring soon after exposure to high levels of radiation, or chronic, developing over a longer period after exposure to lower levels of radiation. The severity and type of injury depend on the dose and duration of exposure, as well as the specific tissues affected.

Acute radiation syndrome (ARS), also known as radiation sickness, is the most severe form of acute radiation injury. It can cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fatigue, fever, and skin burns. In more severe cases, it can lead to neurological damage, hemorrhage, infection, and death.

Chronic radiation injuries, on the other hand, may not appear until months or even years after exposure. They can cause a range of symptoms, including fatigue, weakness, skin changes, cataracts, reduced fertility, and an increased risk of cancer.

Radiation injuries can be treated with supportive care, such as fluids and electrolytes replacement, antibiotics, wound care, and blood transfusions. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove damaged tissue or control bleeding. Prevention is the best approach to radiation injuries, which includes limiting exposure through proper protective measures and monitoring radiation levels in the environment.

A dose-response relationship in radiation refers to the correlation between the amount of radiation exposure (dose) and the biological response or adverse health effects observed in exposed individuals. As the level of radiation dose increases, the severity and frequency of the adverse health effects also tend to increase. This relationship is crucial in understanding the risks associated with various levels of radiation exposure and helps inform radiation protection standards and guidelines.

The effects of ionizing radiation can be categorized into two types: deterministic and stochastic. Deterministic effects have a threshold dose below which no effect is observed, and above this threshold, the severity of the effect increases with higher doses. Examples include radiation-induced cataracts or radiation dermatitis. Stochastic effects, on the other hand, do not have a clear threshold and are based on probability; as the dose increases, so does the likelihood of the adverse health effect occurring, such as an increased risk of cancer.

Understanding the dose-response relationship in radiation exposure is essential for setting limits on occupational and public exposure to ionizing radiation, optimizing radiation protection practices, and developing effective medical countermeasures in case of radiation emergencies.

Radiation tolerance, in the context of medicine and particularly radiation oncology, refers to the ability of tissues or organs to withstand and recover from exposure to ionizing radiation without experiencing significant damage or loss of function. It is often used to describe the maximum dose of radiation that can be safely delivered to a specific area of the body during radiotherapy treatments.

Radiation tolerance varies depending on the type and location of the tissue or organ. For example, some tissues such as the brain, spinal cord, and lungs have lower radiation tolerance than others like the skin or bone. Factors that can affect radiation tolerance include the total dose of radiation, the fractionation schedule (the number and size of radiation doses), the volume of tissue treated, and the individual patient's overall health and genetic factors.

Assessing radiation tolerance is critical in designing safe and effective radiotherapy plans for cancer patients, as excessive radiation exposure can lead to serious side effects such as radiation-induced injury, fibrosis, or even secondary malignancies.

... is electromagnetic radiation that fills all space. The origin of this radiation depends on the ... of the cosmic background radiation suggests that the early universe was dominated by a radiation field, a field of extremely ... Cosmic background radiation, Observational astronomy, Physical cosmology, Concepts in astronomy, Electromagnetic radiation). ... The Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect shows the phenomena of radiant cosmic background radiation interacting with "electron" clouds ...
The Cosmic Radiation Satellite (CORSA, also CORSA-A) was a Japanese space telescope. It was supposed to be Japan's first X-ray ...
The discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation constitutes a major development in modern physical cosmology. In 1964, ... There had been a prior measurement of the cosmic background radiation (CMB) by Andrew McKellar in 1941 at an effective ... In the first, Dicke and his associates outlined the importance of cosmic background radiation as substantiation of the Big Bang ... Dicke, R. H.; Peebles, P. J. E.; Roll, P. J.; Wilkinson, D. T. (July 1965). "Cosmic Black-Body Radiation". Astrophysical ...
Cosmic background radiation. Search for CO in galaxies with high redshift. Molecular abundance. Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). ... Continuum radiation from extragalactic cold dust. Molecular material in the direction of different stellar objects. ... University of Maryland and University of Chicago Cosmic Background Imager a 13 element interferometer operating in Llano de ...
ISBN 978-0-521-41008-3. Simpson, J. A. (2001). "The cosmic radiation". In Johan A. M. Bleeker; Johannes Geiss; Martin C. E. ... Peak flux for this electron radiation is 10,000 times stronger than the maximum radiation around the Earth. Starting on ... The plutonium-238 has a half-life of 87.74 years, so that after 29 years the radiation being generated by the RTGs was at 80% ... "Cosmic-Ray Spectra". NASA / National Space Science Data Center. Retrieved February 19, 2011. "Geiger Tube Telescope (GTT)". ...
Simpson, J. A. (2001). "The cosmic radiation". In Johan A. M. Bleeker; Johannes Geiss; Martin C. E. Huber (eds.). The century ... "Cosmic-Ray Spectra". NASA / National Space Science Data Center. Retrieved February 19, 2011. "Geiger Tube Telescope (GTT)". ... "Jovian Trapped Radiation". NASA / National Space Science Data Center. Retrieved February 19, 2011. "Meteoroid Detectors". NASA ... and cosmic rays. It was the first probe to encounter Saturn, the second to fly through the asteroid belt, and the second to fly ...
Shea, M.A.; Smart, D.F. (2000). "Fifty years of cosmic radiation data". Space Science Reviews. 93: 229-262. doi:10.1023/A: ... Sulphur Mountain Cosmic Ray Station, a National Historic Site of Canada found atop Sulphur Mountain in Banff National Park, ... Canada constructed nine sites to study cosmic rays, but this site in particular was the most important due to its higher ... List of astronomical observatories "Sulphur Mountain Cosmic Ray Station National Historic Site of Canada". Parks Canada. ...
Dicke, R. H.; Peebles, P. J. E.; Roll, P. G.; Wilkinson, D. T. (1965). "Cosmic Black-Body Radiation". Astrophys. J. 142: 414. ... Clearly one of the most important during my career was the detection of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation that ... Peebles predicted the cosmic microwave background radiation. Along with making major contributions to Big Bang nucleosynthesis ... Fukugita, M.; Hogan, C. J.; Peebles, P. J. E. (1998). "The cosmic baryon budget". Astrophys. J. 503 (2): 518. arXiv:astro-ph/ ...
Dicke, R. H.; Peebles, P. J. E.; Roll, P. G.; Wilkinson, D. T. (1965). "Cosmic Black-Body Radiation". Astrophysical Journal. ... R. B. Partridge (1995). 3 K: The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-35808-6. Penzias ... He used this to set a limit on the temperature of the microwave background radiation, from the roof of the Radiation Laboratory ... "A Cosmic Journey: A History of Scientific Cosmology". history.aip.org. Retrieved December 24, 2022. "Robert Dicke and atomic ...
Dicke, R. H.; Peebles, P. J. E.; Roll, P. G.; Wilkinson, D. T. (1965). "Cosmic Black-Body Radiation". The Astrophysical Journal ... The matter and radiation we see today were generated during the most recent collision in a pattern dictated by quantum ... Moreover, as with cosmic inflation, while the general character of the forces (in the ekpyrotic scenario, a force between ... In 2011, a five-year survey of 200,000 galaxies and spanning 7 billion years of cosmic time confirmed that "dark energy is ...
"Primary Cosmic Radiation," Phys. Rev. 74:1818-1827 (1948) with E.J. Lofgren, E.P. Ney, and F. Oppenheimer "Emulsion ... Freier, P. S.; Waddington, C. J. (1965-05-01). "The helium nuclei of the primary cosmic radiation as studied over a solar cycle ... As a graduate student she presented evidence for the existence of elements heavier than helium in cosmic radiation. Her work ... At the University of Minnesota, she and her colleagues discovered the presence of heavy nuclei in cosmic radiation, which ...
Dicke, R. H.; Peebles, P. J. E.; Roll, P. G.; Wilkinson, D. T. (July 1965). "Cosmic Black-Body Radiation". The Astrophysical ... In addition to using electromagnetic radiation, modern astrophysicists can also make observations using neutrinos, cosmic rays ... Powerful gamma rays can, however be detected by the large air showers they produce, and the study of cosmic rays is a rapidly ... Instruments employed during a solar eclipse could be used to measure the radiation from the corona. With the discovery of radio ...
W.F. Libby (1946). "Atmospheric Helium Three and Radiocarbon from Cosmic Radiation". Physical Review. 69 (11-12): 671-672. ... W.F. Libby (1946). "Atmospheric Helium Three and Radiocarbon from Cosmic Radiation". Physical Review. 69 (11-12): 671-672. ... "On the contribution to the ionization at sea-level produced by the neutrons in the cosmic radiation". Journal of the Franklin ... "Radiocarbon From Cosmic Radiation". Science. 105 (2735): 576-577. Bibcode:1947Sci...105..576A. doi:10.1126/science.105.2735.576 ...
Korff, S.A. (1940). "On the contribution to the ionization at sea-level produced by the neutrons in the cosmic radiation". ... primarily by galactic cosmic rays, and to a lesser degree by solar cosmic rays. These cosmic rays generate neutrons as they ... The counters are surrounded by lead or steel shielding, to eliminate background radiation and to reduce the incidence of cosmic ... Libby, W.F. (1946). "Atmospheric helium three and radiocarbon from cosmic radiation". Physical Review. 69 (11-12): 671-672. ...
These results had a major impact, for they showed that studies of cosmic radiation could play a significant role in ... Ney, Edward P. (February 14, 1959). "Cosmic Radiation and the Weather". Nature. 183 (4659): 451-452. Bibcode:1959Natur.183.. ... After the IGY ended, Ney's interest in cosmic rays began to diminish, but in 1959, he wrote an often cited paper Cosmic Rays ... Because its agenda included studies of cosmic rays, Ney served on the IGY's US National Committee - Technical Panel on Cosmic ...
1 April 1975.[permanent dead link] "Cosmic radiation". British Airways. Archived from the original on 3 July 2009. Retrieved 11 ... Unusual solar activity might lead to an increase in incident radiation. To prevent incidents of excessive radiation exposure, ... the flight deck had a radiometer and an instrument to measure the rate of increase or decrease of radiation. If the radiation ... "How much radiation might I be exposed to?". British Airways. Archived from the original on 3 July 2009. Retrieved 11 January ...
Most known cosmic radio sources emit synchrotron radiation. It is often used to estimate the strength of large cosmic magnetic ... Synchrotron radiation (also known as magnetobremsstrahlung radiation) is the electromagnetic radiation emitted when ... Cosmic ray electrons moving through the medium interact with relativistic plasma and emit synchrotron radiation which is ... Cosmic Magnetobremsstrahlung (synchrotron Radiation), by Ginzburg, V. L., Syrovatskii, S. I., ARAA, 1965 Developments in the ...
In 1973 he made pioneering measurements of the spectrum of the cosmic microwave background radiation, taken from a weather ... R. Weiss (1980). "Measurements of the Cosmic Background Radiation". Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics. 18: 489-535. ... Weiss, Rainer (1980). "Measurements of the Cosmic Background Radiation". Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 18: 489-535. Bibcode: ... "Measurements of the Anisotropy of the Cosmic Background Radiation and Diffuse Galactic Emission at Millimeter and Submillimeter ...
CSIR Radiophysics Laboratory Report, RP 209 (1944). "Solar and cosmic radio frequency radiation; survey of knowledge available ... With A. G. Little) "The positions and movement on the solar disk of sources of radiation at a frequency of 97 Mc/s II. Noise ... "Solar radiation at radio frequencies and its relation to sunspots." Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A. ... With A. G. Little) "The position and movement on the solar disk of sources of radiation at a frequency of 97 Mc/s. III. ...
Margaret Ann ("Peggy") Shea is a space scientist known for research on the connections between cosmic radiation and Earth's ... Shea, M.A. (2000). "Fifty years of cosmic radiation data". Space Science Reviews. 93 (1/2): 229-262. Bibcode:2000SSRv...93.. ... Shea, M.A. (2000). "Fifty years of cosmic radiation data". Space Science Reviews. 93 (1/2): 229-262. Bibcode:2000SSRv...93.. ... In college, she monitored cosmic rays in New Hampshire and was one of three women who entered the College of Technology at the ...
Photon diffusion was first described in Joseph Silk's 1968 paper entitled "Cosmic Black-Body Radiation and Galaxy Formation", ... ISBN 978-0-412-62300-4. Partridge, R. B. (1995-09-29). 3K: The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. Cambridge University ... ISBN 978-0-8053-8912-8. Silk, Joseph (1968-02-01). "Cosmic Black-Body Radiation and Galaxy Formation". Astrophysical Journal. ... making the universe itself and the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) more uniform. Around 300,000 years after the Big ...
Piercing the secrets of cosmic radiation. Doctor Tamara Elzein, Lebanon, Material Sciences. Trapping radioactivity. Doctor Ran ...
However, if the cosmic microwave radiation ... is really black-body radiation, it will be difficult to doubt that the universe ... the refutation of the steady-state model came with the discovery of the cosmic microwave background radiation in 1964, which ... However, the cosmic microwave background level is very even in all directions, making it difficult to explain how it could be ... Data from the Planck Mission shows hemispheric bias in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) in two respects: one with respect ...
Energy was coming from outside the Earth's atmosphere and being detected by his device; this radiation was from cosmic rays. He ... Early Cosmic-Ray Work Published in German. CENTENARY SYMPOSIUM 2012: DISCOVERY OF COSMIC RAYS. AIP Conference Proceedings. AIP ... To test his hypothesis, in 1910 he compared the radiation at the bottom and the top of the Eiffel Tower. He found that the ... 5, pages 152-157 Victor F. Hess: "About Observations of the Penetration {through-going} Radiation During 7 Balloon Flights" ...
ISBN 0-521-62113-5., and Ralph A. Alpher and Robert Herman (1975). Big bang cosmology and the cosmic black-body radiation (in ... The isotropy of the cosmic background radiation is another indicator that the universe does not rotate. Bucket argument ... R. B. Partridge (1995). 3 K: The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. Cambridge University Press. pp. 279-280. ISBN 0-521- ...
doi:10.1046/j.1365-8711.2003.06563.x. Study of the background cosmic microwave radiation ; read at the reception Dr. D. Rafael ... He has been a pioneer in Spain in the experimental research of the cosmic microwave background. Rebolo has developed ... Rebolo has developed research projects in cosmology, in stellar physics and exoplanets, involving the study of the cosmic ... Rebolo leads the QUIJOTE consortium for measuring the polarization of the cosmic microwave background with telescopes in ...
Shielding reduces the cosmic and radiation background. Neon has been studied as a clear, dense, low-background scintillator. ...
"Testing Isotropy of Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 385 (4): 1718- ... and black hole radiation: Do black holes produce thermal radiation, as expected on theoretical grounds? Does this radiation ... Cosmic inflation: Is the theory of cosmic inflation in the very early universe correct, and, if so, what are the details of ... Ultra-high-energy cosmic ray: Why is it that some cosmic rays appear to possess energies that are impossibly high, given that ...
De Rújula, A.; Glashow, S. L. (December 1984). "Nuclearites-a novel form of cosmic radiation". Nature. 312 (5996): 734-737. ... Strangelet Cosmic rays Bakari, D.; Cecchini, S.; Dekhissi, H.; Derkaoui, J.; Giacomelli, G.; Giorgini, M.; Mandrioli, G.; ...
B. Peters (1961). "Primary cosmic radiation and extensive air showers". Nuovo Cimento. 22 (4): 800-819. doi:10.1007/BF02783106 ... The Ter-Antonyan function parameterizes the energy spectra of primary cosmic rays in the "knee" region ( 10 15 − 10 17 {\ ... cite journal}}: Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) Samvel Ter-Antonyan (2014). "Sharp knee phenomenon of primary cosmic ray ... CS1 errors: missing periodical, Orphaned articles from January 2021, All orphaned articles, Cosmic rays). ...
Cosmic background radiation is electromagnetic radiation that fills all space. The origin of this radiation depends on the ... of the cosmic background radiation suggests that the early universe was dominated by a radiation field, a field of extremely ... Cosmic background radiation, Observational astronomy, Physical cosmology, Concepts in astronomy, Electromagnetic radiation). ... The Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect shows the phenomena of radiant cosmic background radiation interacting with "electron" clouds ...
... also known as cosmic radiation. Provided by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). ... radiation. UV radiation is not considered cosmic radiation. Unlike cosmic radiation, UV radiation is lower in energy and is ... What is the risk from cosmic radiation?. Cosmic radiation exposes the body to radiation in a manner similar to exposure from a ... Radiation dose due to cosmic radiation will vary with altitude. Higher altitudes mean greater exposure to cosmic radiation. ...
Science News was founded in 1921 as an independent, nonprofit source of accurate information on the latest news of science, medicine and technology. Today, our mission remains the same: to empower people to evaluate the news and the world around them. It is published by the Society for Science, a nonprofit 501(c)(3) membership organization dedicated to public engagement in scientific research and education (EIN 53-0196483).. ...
And these are called the cosmic-- let me write this down. This is the cosmic microwave background radiation. And its this in ... or the source of the electromagnetic radiation is moving away from you, the radiation itself get red shifted. So even though ... Or another way to think about it is that radiation has taken 13.7 billion years to reach us. So let me draw. So if I were to ... So the points that were closer to us, it was emitting that radiation. But it got to us much sooner. It got to us billions of ...
What is Cosmic Radiation?. Cosmic radiation is a phenomenon, caused by the fact that galaxies in the solar system emit energy. ... Cosmic Radiation: #11 Cobalt Blue explores the question of how life on Earth is connected to cosmos. On a more philosophical ... Thus, cosmic radiation consists of light and energy in the shape of particles, which enter into the atmosphere of the Earth. ... Cosmic Radiation is part of Open, a research project and public program funded by the New Carlsberg Foundation and Statens ...
The High Energy cosmic-Radiation Detection (HERD) facility has been proposed as one of the main scientific payloads on-board ... The major scientific goals of the mission are the study of cosmic rays energy spectra and composition up to the PeV range, the ... Volume 444 - 38th International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC2023) - Gamma-ray Astronomy (GA) ...
High Energy Gamma Ray Sources (Cosmic Gamma Radiation). At energies above 30 MeV, detection of cosmic Y-rays becomes ... Interactions with Photon Fields (Cosmic Gamma Radiation) Part 1. The interaction of relativistic electrons with radiation ... Cosmic Gamma Radiation) Part 2. Gamma rays from supernova remnants It is believed that cosmic rays below the so-called knee ... Energy Domains of Gamma Ray Astronomy (Cosmic Gamma Radiation). Returning back to the question of the last window, we notice ...
HowTo: How to Explain Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation to a Precocious 10-year-old? ... HowTo: How to Explain Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation to a Precocious 10-year-old? ... HowTo: How to Explain Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation to a Precocious 10-year-old? ... But you really dont care how to explain cosmic background noise to a 10 year old do you? ...
12 - Cosmology: 12.1 - Cosmology: cosmic background radiation. Search individual members. Follow the IAU on social media. ...
9. Cosmic Radiation Shield. Life on Mars is expected to pose a significant risk to the health of those who will visit it since ... To protect humans, human waste, together with water and food, can be put in bags and used as a shield against radiation. This ... there is exposure to radiation from cosmic rays. The extent of the effects posed to human beings upon exposure to galactic ... cosmic rays is not clearly known, but it is known to increase the risk of cancer. ...
Cosmic radiation damage to humans is a huge issue. Problem is, there will be a public outcry like weve never seen when people ... Cosmic radiation damage to humans is a huge issue. Problem is, there will be a public outcry like weve never seen when people ... Cosmic fountain is polluting intergalactic space with 50 million suns worth of material ... Cosmic fountain is polluting intergalactic space with 50 million suns worth of material ...
Cosmic rays. Relatively few studies have been performed on human exposure to cosmic radiation. Cosmic radiation is ionizing ... Countries of the European Union, by law, limit fetal exposure of cosmic radiation to 1 mSv. In the United States, the FAAs ... Pregnancy and in-flight cosmic radiation. Aviat Space Environ Med. 1998 Nov. 69(11):1061-4. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ... Radiation Exposure. Diagnostic imaging in pregnancy. The use of radiation for diagnostic imaging in the pregnant woman is ...
How The Discovery Of The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation Falsified Atheism. View Post ...
You know, just like background, the equivalent of cosmic background radiation. But if you actually do individual frame captures ...
cosmic radiation ;). * 2009-05-03, 04:50. drragostea Deoxyribonucleic acid. * 2009-05-03, 15:10 ...
4. Cosmic Radiation. 5. Miss You. 6. For The Season. 7. King Kong. 8. You. 9. Sun And The Moon ... Pre-order the limited UFO pressing-an "exclusive, glow-in-the-dark, cosmic flying disc which comes with the album download ...
I Some questions about Cosmic Microwave Background radiation *. Jun 28, 2022. Cosmology ...
Mean Cosmic Radiation Over Past 8 Years Highest Since 1958 …Current Solar Cycle Weakest In Almost Two Centuries!. Mean Cosmic ... notrickszone.com/2015/05/10/mean-cosmic-radiation-over-past-8-years-highest-since-1958-current-solar-cycle-weakest-in-almost- ... Radiation Over Past 8 Years Highest Since 1958 …Current Solar Cycle Weakest In Almost Two Centuries! http:// ...
Then, we will explain where radiation comes from. Finally, we will describe the more important types of radiation to which you ... Of the different types and sources of ionizing radiation, this profile will discuss the three main types: alpha, beta, and ... To explain what ionizing radiation is, we will start with a discussion of atoms, how they come to be radioactive, and how they ... such as cosmic radiation from space and terrestrial radiation from radioactive materials in the ground. Ionizing radiation can ...
Conklin, E.K.; Bracewell, R.N. Isotropy of cosmic background radiation at 10,690 MHz. Phys. Rev. Lett., 18, 614, 1967. ... Conklin, E.K.; Bracewell, R.N. Limits on small scale variations in the cosmic background radiation. Nature, 216, 777, 1967. ... Bracewell, R.N. Infrared planetary detection and cosmic ray Čerenkov radiation. Earth, Moon & Planets, 30, 75, 1984. ... Reprinted in: Cosmic Search, 1, 48, 1979.]. Black, D.C.; Bracewell, R.N.; MacPhie, R.M. Investigation of planetary search ...
its not radiation, cosmic waves/radio waves ................... when MASS is in its lowest possible state is exposed other ... MASS in its lowest possible state, does not carry a charge, it is inert ............... its not radiation, cosmic waves/radio ... radiation/radiowaves/isotopes etc. we can come by ............ the experiment you see in the youtube video, puts current into ... radiation/radiowaves/isotopes etc. we can come by ............ the experiment you see in the youtube video, puts current into ...
2. Exposure to noise and ionizing non-ionizing radiation (galactic cosmic radiation, energetic solar-article radiation and in- ... Workers; Humans; Airline safety; Aircrews; Air quality; Noise; Nonionizing radiation; Cosmic radiation; Ozone; Ergonomics; ... flight radiation as sources). 3. Exposure to increase ozone concentration with increased altitude. 4. Exposure to in-cabin and ...
alpha radiation * background level * background radiation * beta radiation * bioluminescence * core meltdown * cosmic radiation ...
Cosmic Inflight Radiation Recorded on video during flight to Majorca Started by Andrew K FletcherBoard General Science ...
Sciencelines Guide to the Exoplanets: The Cosmic Ray Diamond. Exoplanet Guide Rahul Rao • March 30, 2020. PSR J1719-1438 b: ... Enthusiasm to send people to Mars may dampen knowing the health risks of exposure to space radiation - something we still dont ...
The Herschel and Planck probes will study infrared radiation. and cosmic background radiation, respectively. The RT54SX32S and ... radiation-tolerant markets. Founded in 1985, Actel employs approximately 500. people worldwide. The Company is traded on the ... announced today that its RTSX-S radiation-tolerant field-programmable gate. arrays (FPGAs) have been selected for extensive use ... the Planck space probe, the circuit maintains the radiation measuring and. cooling equipment at a constant temperature of -269 ...
discoveries in the domain of nuclear physics and cosmic radiation. 1950 Powell. photographic method of studying nuclear ...
Timepix detectors track cosmic radiation on the ISS On 31 July, an unmanned Russian Progress spacecraft was launched from ... Cosmic rays discovered 100 years ago Today marks 100 years since Victor Hess made last of series of balloon flights leading to ... Endeavour astronauts mark 100 years of cosmic-ray research The space-shuttle crew laid a European Physical Society plaque at ... The research programme at CERN covers topics from kaons to cosmic rays, and from the Standard Model to supersymmetry ...
Youll be outdoors a lot, and Marss atmosphere is pretty thin, so cosmic radiation could fry your DNA. Things could fall on ...
  • There is also background radiation in the infrared, x-rays, etc., with different causes, and they can sometimes be resolved into an individual source. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cosmic radiation consists of high-energy charged particles, x-rays and gamma rays produced in space. (cdc.gov)
  • This yearly amount of radiation is similar to the amount of radiation from three chest x-rays. (cdc.gov)
  • At energies above 30 MeV, detection of cosmic Y-rays becomes significantly easier. (what-when-how.com)
  • Gamma rays from supernova remnants It is believed that cosmic rays below the so-called 'knee' around 1 PeV have galactic origin and are produced in shell-type SNRs. (what-when-how.com)
  • X-rays are measured in several types of units, the most important of which are the radiation-absorbed dose (rad), which is a US measurement, and the gray (Gy), which is an international measurement. (medscape.com)
  • Ionizing radiation is energy that is carried by several types of particles and rays given off by radioactive material, x ray machines, and fuel elements in nuclear reactors. (cdc.gov)
  • The atmosphere of the Earth protects us and all life on the planet from cosmic rays, solar ultraviolet radiation and solar winds. (lu.se)
  • In general, ionizing radiation refers to high-energy electromagnetic waves (x-rays and gamma rays) and particles (alpha particles, beta particles, and neutrons) that are capable of stripping electrons from atoms (ionization). (msdmanuals.com)
  • Over the years, these cosmic rays have given us important hints about the fundamental constituents of matter, they are studied in detail to shed light on open questions in the understanding of our universe, and they are used to commission the operation of particle detectors. (lu.se)
  • It does not tell you about non-ionizing radiation, such as microwaves, ultrasound, or ultraviolet radiation. (cdc.gov)
  • Airline pilots and flight attendants are exposed occupationally to certain known cancer risk factors (e.g., cosmic radiation, ultraviolet radiation, and circadian rhythm disruption). (cdc.gov)
  • 1946: Robert Dicke predicts a microwave background radiation temperature of 20 K (ref: Helge Kragh) 1946: Robert Dicke predicts a microwave background radiation temperature of "less than 20 K" but later revised to 45 K (ref: Stephen G. Brush). (wikipedia.org)
  • 1946: George Gamow estimates a temperature of 50 K. 1948: Ralph Alpher and Robert Herman re-estimate Gamow's estimate at 5 K. 1949: Ralph Alpher and Robert Herman re-re-estimate Gamow's estimate at 28 K. 1960s: Robert Dicke re-estimates a MBR (microwave background radiation) temperature of 40 K (ref: Helge Kragh). (wikipedia.org)
  • HowTo: How to Explain Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation to a Precocious 10-year-old? (aseannow.com)
  • Development of historical exposure estimates of cosmic radiation and circadian rhythm disruption for cohort studies of Pan Am flight attendants. (cdc.gov)
  • Methods/Results: We developed a method for estimating individual cumulative domicile-based cosmic radiation effective doses and two metrics for circadian rhythm disruption for each flight attendant: cumulative times zones crossed and cumulative travel time during the standard sleep interval. (cdc.gov)
  • Body text: Flight crew must understand the different types of radiation, such as cosmic radiation and radiation from solar storms. (scandlearn.com)
  • Finally, we will describe the more important types of radiation to which you may be exposed. (cdc.gov)
  • Depending on the magnitude of the dose, organs exposed, and types of radiation cellular damage caused by ionizing radiation can cause acute illness, increase the risk of developing cancer, or both. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The Gy and Sv are similar, except the Sv takes into account the effectiveness of different types of radiation to cause damage and the sensitivity of different tissues in the body to radiation. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Since their discovery in the 1920s, high-energy radiation originating outside our Solar System have played a crucial role in particle physics, cosmology and astroparticle physics. (lu.se)
  • This talk will provide an overview of cosmic radiation, its origins and its implications for particle physics as well as cosmology and astroparticle physics. (lu.se)
  • Flight crew are exposed to elevated levels of cosmic radiation and to disruption of circadian rhythm when flying across multiple time zones. (cdc.gov)
  • 5. Published a scientific article reporting that among a small subset of flight attendants with 32 or more births breast cancer was more frequent when exposure to cosmic radiation or circadian disruption was higher. (cdc.gov)
  • Radio waves, such as from cell phones and AM and FM radio transmitters, and visible light also are forms of electromagnetic radiation. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Exposure to ionizing radiation can come from many sources. (cdc.gov)
  • This information is important because exposure to ionizing radiation may harm you and because these sites may be sources of exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • Even in the event that you are exposed, it does not necessarily mean you will be harmed or suffer longterm health effects from exposure to ionizing radiation. (cdc.gov)
  • Radiation injury is damage to tissues caused by exposure to ionizing radiation. (msdmanuals.com)
  • 2. Exposure to noise and ionizing non-ionizing radiation (galactic cosmic radiation, energetic solar-article radiation and in-flight radiation as sources). (cdc.gov)
  • Mean Cosmic Radiation Over Past 8 Years Highest Since 1958 …Current Solar Cycle Weakest In Almost Two Centuries! (climatedepot.com)
  • The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements recommends a radiation dose limit of 0.5 mSv (millisievert) per month during pregnancy, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration provides information on current weather conditions and whether aircrew flying at higher altitudes could be exposed to higher radiation levels due to solar radiation activity. (cdc.gov)
  • Large doses of ionizing radiation can cause acute illness by reducing the production of blood cells and damaging the digestive tract. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Radiation injury due to large and very large doses is referred to as a tissue reaction. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Specifical y, were physicians who were recruited hand delivered to the physicians in each high radiation doses tend to kill cells, from the 2 largest referral hospitals in setting, accompanied by an informa- while low doses tend to damage or alter Palestine: Al-Makassed hospital (250 tion sheet explaining the purpose of the the DNA of irradiated cel s [1,2]. (who.int)
  • NCRP Report No. 160, Ionizing Radiation Exposure of the Population of the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • Charged particles react with the earth's atmosphere to produce secondary radiation which reaches the earth. (cdc.gov)
  • As an at once poetic and scientific testimony of the presence of cosmic traces in the physical space, the participants in the performance, seated on Aalto's chairs, could experience the traces of cosmic particles descending to earth and becoming absorbed by air, bodies and objects. (kunsten.dk)
  • Radiation is energy transmitted in the form of electromagnetic waves or energetic particles. (medscape.com)
  • Ionizing radiation can also be in the form of particulate radiation, which includes subatomic l charged or neutral particles traveling near the speed of light and therefore with high very high kinetic energy. (medscape.com)
  • Endeavour astronauts mark 100 years of cosmic. (cern.ch)
  • This is also present in Cosmic Radiation: #11 Cobalt Blue for which she connects quantum physics, Russian Constructivism, Russian Cosmism, an esoteric movement active in the time around the Russian Revolution (1917-23) and Alvar Aalto and Jean Baruëls architecture for Aalborg Art Museum. (kunsten.dk)
  • Therefore the physics of radiation and absorption mechanisms is one of the central subjects of astronomy. (what-when-how.com)
  • Radiation dose due to cosmic radiation will vary with altitude. (cdc.gov)
  • The average annual dose or exposure from cosmic radiation is 0.33 mSv (33 mrem) or 11% of a person's yearly exposure due to all natural sources of radiation. (cdc.gov)
  • The average annual dose due to cosmic radiation in the US is 0.34 mSv (34 mrem) per year. (cdc.gov)
  • This low radiation dose is unlikely to affect human health. (cdc.gov)
  • These factors include the dose (how much), the duration (how long), and the type of radiation. (cdc.gov)
  • Aircrew have the highest annual individual radiation dose of any occupation, work irregular hours, and can be at risk of exposure to infectious diseases when traveling. (cdc.gov)
  • A very large dose of ionizing radiation can also damage the heart and blood vessels (cardiovascular system), brain, and skin. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The gray (Gy) and sievert (Sv) are measures of the dose of radiation, which is the amount of radiation deposited in matter, and are the units used to measure dose in humans after exposure to radiation. (msdmanuals.com)
  • An individual's radiation dose can be increased in two ways, contamination and irradiation. (msdmanuals.com)
  • ALARA et 98,2 % ignoraient qu'il n'existait pas de seuil en dessous duquel une dose est sans danger, selon les recommandations internationales. (who.int)
  • Many review articles and topics related to gamma-ray astronomy start with a statement that the 7-ray domain of cosmic radiation is the last of the electromagnetic windows to be opened. (what-when-how.com)
  • Of the different types and sources of ionizing radiation, this profile will discuss the three main types: alpha, beta, and gamma radiation. (cdc.gov)
  • The High Energy cosmic-Radiation Detection (HERD) facility has been proposed as one of the main scientific payloads on-board the China Space Station. (sissa.it)
  • 12. Use an electronic detection system for muons from the cosmic radiation and measure the lifetime of the muons. (lu.se)
  • The discovery (by chance in 1965) of the cosmic background radiation suggests that the early universe was dominated by a radiation field, a field of extremely high temperature and pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some evidence suggests that cosmic radiation exposure, high physical job demands, and working during typical sleep hours might be associated with an increased risk for miscarriage among pregnant flight attendants. (cdc.gov)
  • Cosmic background radiation is electromagnetic radiation that fills all space. (wikipedia.org)
  • One component is the cosmic microwave background. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect shows the phenomena of radiant cosmic background radiation interacting with "electron" clouds distorting the spectrum of the radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • See cosmic infrared background and X-ray background. (wikipedia.org)
  • See also cosmic neutrino background and extragalactic background light. (wikipedia.org)
  • How far back do you have to go in time so that the background microwave radiation was still in the visible light spectrum? (khanacademy.org)
  • If we assume that the universe was essentially a black body radiator at the time of the emission of the cosmic background radiation, than at 3000K, the peak emission wavelength is about 960nm, which is in the infrared, already outside of the visible spectrum. (khanacademy.org)
  • But you really don't care how to explain cosmic background noise to a 10 year old do you? (aseannow.com)
  • The Herschel and Planck probes will study infrared radiation and cosmic background radiation, respectively. (spaceref.com)
  • The performance Cosmic Radiation: #11 Cobalt Blue took place November 4 2020 as a performance and immersive installation inside Eleven Less One. (kunsten.dk)
  • The document includes basic radiation reference material, suggestions for designing a preparedness strategy, and practical material that the reader may need in a real event. (medscape.com)
  • Once in the body, radioactive material may be transported to various sites, such as the bone marrow, where it continues to emit radiation, increasing the person's radiation exposure, until it is removed or emits all its energy (decays). (msdmanuals.com)
  • The amount of radiation is measured in several different units. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Any interpretation of an astronomical observation requires, by definition, unambiguous identification of the relevant radiation mechanism(s). (what-when-how.com)
  • 179/1" 1938: Walther Nernst re-estimates the cosmic ray temperature as 0.75 K. 1946: The term "microwave" is first used in print in an astronomical context in an article "Microwave Radiation from the Sun and Moon" by Robert Dicke and Robert Beringer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike cosmic radiation, UV radiation is lower in energy and is considered non-ionizing radiation. (cdc.gov)
  • [ 3 ] In a broad sense, any energy-carrying waveform must be considered a kind of radiation. (medscape.com)
  • However, because of their lower energy, these forms of radiation are not ionizing, and thus public exposure to these common sources does not damage cells. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Energy can travel through space in the form of electromagnetic radiation. (medscape.com)
  • Ionizing radiation is emitted by radioactive substances (radionuclides), such as uranium, radon, and plutonium. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Many of the most significant radiation accidents have exposed people to both. (msdmanuals.com)
  • To explain what ionizing radiation is, we will start with a discussion of atoms, how they come to be radioactive, and how they give off ionizing radiation. (cdc.gov)
  • Doctors remove as much external and internal (that which is inhaled or ingested) radioactive material as possible and treat symptoms and complications of radiation injury. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The roentgen equivalent man (rem) unit of measure and sievert (Sv) unit are used to quantify radiation exposure over time (eg, environmental releases). (medscape.com)
  • The adequate knowledge of the features of the principal radiation processes is another key issue. (what-when-how.com)
  • The interaction of relativistic electrons with radiation fields through inverse Compton scattering provides one of the principal Y-ray production processes in astrophysics. (what-when-how.com)
  • [ 4 ] Likely the distinct scientific language and differing cognitive processes between front-line clinicians and radiation safety experts contribute, at least in part, to the discrepancy between what experts think should be done and what front-line providers think can be done. (medscape.com)
  • 1965: Arno Penzias and Robert Woodrow Wilson measure the temperature to be approximately 3 K. Robert Dicke, P. J. E. Peebles, P. G. Roll and D. T. Wilkinson interpret this radiation as a signature of the Big Bang. (wikipedia.org)
  • Incorporated in the high-frequency instrument (HFI) on the Planck space probe, the circuit maintains the radiation measuring and cooling equipment at a constant temperature of -269 degrees Celsius. (spaceref.com)
  • One natural source of radiation is from space. (cdc.gov)
  • Cosmic radiation is more intense in the upper atmosphere and most intense in deep space. (cdc.gov)
  • Space weather is extremely powerful and gives off large amounts of radiation that can pose hazards to people and electrical equipment. (scandlearn.com)
  • The origin of this radiation depends on the region of the spectrum that is observed. (wikipedia.org)
  • This component is redshifted photons that have freely streamed from an epoch when the Universe became transparent for the first time to radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example if you were to use a telescope back in the time of the first dinosaurs (say 500mya) would the universe look much different or would the radiation just be closer? (khanacademy.org)
  • So that's what the radiation would have looked like at the time of emission , about 13.7 bya - even then, most of it was already outside the visible range, and that remaining 8% would get redshifted to infrared in relatively short time spans (relatively short here meaning 'short' on a cosmic time scale, so like a billion years). (khanacademy.org)
  • What is the risk from cosmic radiation? (cdc.gov)
  • Ionizing radiation can increase the risk of cancer. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Radiation exposure of sperm and egg cells carries little increased risk of genetic defects in offspring. (msdmanuals.com)
  • 6. Heavy workload base on either task, ergonomic layout, hours of duty or other factors that may arise during the flight such as meteorological conditions at point of departure, en route and at the destination, quality and quantity of radio communications. (cdc.gov)
  • You can learn when and where you may be exposed to sources of ionizing radiation in the exposure section below. (cdc.gov)
  • However, it's unknown how many of the 1,467 current or former NPL sites have been evaluated for the presence of ionizing radiation sources. (cdc.gov)
  • On Earth, we are constantly exposed to low levels of radiation. (cdc.gov)
  • ABSTRACT Previous studies have shown that physicians tend to underestimate the risks to patients of radiation exposure. (who.int)
  • Specific health effects of ionizing radiation are reported by route of exposure , by type of health effect (death, systemic, immunologic, reproductive), and by length of exposure (acute, intermediate, and chronic). (cdc.gov)
  • This public health statement tells you about ionizing radiation and the effects of exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • These features position the RTAX-S family, which is based on the AX architecture and scalable platform, as the only viable radiation-tolerant alternative to application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) that meets the density, performance and radiation-resistance requirements of many satellite applications. (spaceref.com)
  • Actel Corporation is a supplier of innovative programmable logic solutions, including field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) based on antifuse and flash technologies, high-performance intellectual property (IP) cores, software development tools and design services, targeted for the high-speed communications, application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) replacement and radiation-tolerant markets. (spaceref.com)
  • Cosmic radiation exposes the body to radiation in a manner similar to exposure from a medical X-ray. (cdc.gov)
  • A 3000K black body will radiate some light in the visible, but only about 8% of its radiation will be in that band. (khanacademy.org)
  • How much radiation people are exposed to and how much is deposited in their body may be very different. (msdmanuals.com)
  • This type of radiation is called cosmic radiation. (cdc.gov)
  • This Public Health Statement is the summary chapter from the Toxicological Profile for ionizing radiation . (cdc.gov)
  • Only one-third of physicians had received a radiation protection course during their undergraduate study or in the workplace. (who.int)
  • However, were approached and gave permission the use of ionizing radiation such as X- A cross-sectional study design was for the authors to conduct the study. (who.int)
  • The use of radiation for diagnostic imaging in the pregnant woman is usually associated with a high level of anxiety for the woman, her family, and, often, the physician. (medscape.com)