Cosmic Radiation: High-energy radiation or particles from extraterrestrial space that strike the earth, its atmosphere, or spacecraft and may create secondary radiation as a result of collisions with the atmosphere or spacecraft.Aviation: Design, development, manufacture, and operation of heavier-than-air AIRCRAFT.Solar Activity: Any type of variation in the appearance of energy output of the sun. (NASA Thesaurus, 1994)Spacecraft: Devices, manned and unmanned, which are designed to be placed into an orbit about the Earth or into a trajectory to another celestial body. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Aircraft: A weight-carrying structure for navigation of the air that is supported either by its own buoyancy or by the dynamic action of the air against its surfaces. (Webster, 1973)Space Flight: Travel beyond the earth's atmosphere.Aerospace Medicine: That branch of medicine dealing with the studies and effects of flight through the atmosphere or in space upon the human body and with the prevention or cure of physiological or psychological malfunctions arising from these effects. (from NASA Thesaurus)Radiation Monitoring: The observation, either continuously or at intervals, of the levels of radiation in a given area, generally for the purpose of assuring that they have not exceeded prescribed amounts or, in case of radiation already present in the area, assuring that the levels have returned to those meeting acceptable safety standards.Radiation Dosage: The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).Radiation, Ionizing: ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION or particle radiation (high energy ELEMENTARY PARTICLES) capable of directly or indirectly producing IONS in its passage through matter. The wavelengths of ionizing electromagnetic radiation are equal to or smaller than those of short (far) ultraviolet radiation and include gamma and X-rays.Radiation Injuries: Harmful effects of non-experimental exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation in VERTEBRATES.Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation: The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.Radiation Tolerance: The ability of some cells or tissues to survive lethal doses of IONIZING RADIATION. Tolerance depends on the species, cell type, and physical and chemical variables, including RADIATION-PROTECTIVE AGENTS and RADIATION-SENSITIZING AGENTS.

Chromosome mechanics of fungi under spaceflight conditions--tetrad analysis of two-factor crosses between spore color mutants of Sordaria macrospora. (1/99)

Spore color mutants of the fungus Sordaria macrospora Auersw. were crossed under spaceflight conditions on the space shuttle to MIR mission S/MM 05 (STS-81). The arrangement of spores of different colors in the asci allowed conclusions on the influence of spaceflight conditions on sexual recombination in fungi. Experiments on a 1-g centrifuge in space and in parallel on the ground were used for controls. The samples were analyzed microscopically on their return to earth. Each fruiting body was assessed separately. Statistical analysis of the data showed a significant increase in gene recombination frequencies caused by the heavy ion particle stream in space radiation. The lack of gravity did not influence crossing-over frequencies. Hyphae of the flown samples were assessed for DNA strand breaks. No increase in damage was found compared with the ground samples. It was shown that S. macrospora is able to repair radiation-induced DNA strand breaks within hours.  (+info)

Incidence of cancer among commercial airline pilots. (2/99)

OBJECTIVES: To describe the cancer pattern in a cohort of commercial pilots by follow up through the Icelandic Cancer Registry. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of 458 pilots with emphasis on subcohort working for an airline operating on international routes. A computerised file of the cohort was record linked to the Cancer Registry by making use of personal identification numbers. Expected numbers of cancer cases were calculated on the basis of number of person-years and incidences of cancer at specific sites for men provided by the Cancer Registry. Numbers of separate analyses were made according to different exposure variables. RESULTS: The standardised incidence ratio (SIR) for all cancers was 0.97 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.62 to 1.46) in the total cohort and 1.16 (95% CI 0.70 to 1.81) among those operating on international routes. The SIR for malignant melanoma of the skin was 10.20, 95% CI 3.29 to 23.81 in the total cohort and 15.63, 95% CI 5.04 to 36.46 in the restricted cohort. Analyses according to number of block-hours and radiation dose showed that malignant melanomas were found in the subgroups with highest exposure estimates, the SIRs were 13.04 and 28.57 respectively. The SIR was 25.00 for malignant melanoma among those who had been flying over five time zones. CONCLUSIONS: The study shows a high occurrence of malignant melanoma among pilots. It is open to discussion what role exposure of cosmic radiation, numbers of block-hours flown, or lifestyle factors--such as possible excessive sunbathing--play in the aetiology of cancer among pilots. This calls for further and more powerful studies. The excess of malignant melanoma among those flying over five time zones suggests that the importance of disturbance of the circadian rhythm should be taken into consideration in future studies.  (+info)

Daily periodicity in the activity of a slide used to perform immunologic reactions at a liquid-solid interface. (3/99)

Nickel-plated slides were prepared by evaporating a nickel layer (congruent to 4000 A thick) on glass slides in the presence of a magnetic field whose lines of force were perpendicular to the surface of the slides. Such slides are called active. After being coated with a layer of bovine albumin, they could absorb a layer of antibodies 70-80 A thick. However, if the active slides before they were coated with bovine serum albumin, were submitted to a magnetic field with lines of force parallel to the surface, the layer of antibodies absorbed was only 40 A thick. They had become inactive. It has been found that slides remain active at night but that shortly after sunrise they become slowly inactivated and reach a minimum in their activity at exactly the midday period. They regain full activity at sunset. It is shown that the inactivation results from a solar radiation that can be stopped by 3.5 cm of lead. On December 13th, 1974 there was an eclipse of the sun with 65% occultation at noon (Daylight Saving Time). The activity of the slide at noon was 65% of the maximum activity (83 A) observed before sunrise. The thickness of the adsorbed layer of antibodies were 75 A instead of 63 A observed in the absence of the eclipse. The activation of the slides originates in a radiation of non-solar origin that is adsorbed by 1 can of lead.  (+info)

p53 deficiency alters the yield and spectrum of radiation-induced lacZ mutants in the brain of transgenic mice. (4/99)

Exposure to heavy particle radiation in the galacto-cosmic environment poses a significant risk in space exploration and the evaluation of radiation-induced genetic damage in tissues, especially in the central nervous system, is an important consideration in long-term manned space missions. We used a plasmid-based transgenic mouse model system, with the pUR288 lacZ transgene integrated in the genome of every cell of C57Bl/6(lacZ) mice, to evaluate the genetic damage induced by iron particle radiation. In order to examine the importance of genetic background on the radiation sensitivity of individuals, we cross-bred p53 wild-type lacZ transgenic mice with p53 nullizygous mice, producing lacZ transgenic mice that were either hemizygous or nullizygous for the p53 tumor suppressor gene. Animals were exposed to an acute dose of 1 Gy of iron particles and the lacZ mutation frequency (MF) in the brain was measured at time intervals from 1 to 16 weeks post-irradiation. Our results suggest that iron particles induced an increase in lacZ MF (2.4-fold increase in p53+/+ mice, 1.3-fold increase in p53+/- mice and 2.1-fold increase in p53-/- mice) and that this induction is both temporally regulated and p53 genotype dependent. Characterization of mutants based on their restriction patterns showed that the majority of the mutants arising spontaneously are derived from point mutations or small deletions in all three genotypes. Radiation induced alterations in the spectrum of deletion mutants and reorganization of the genome, as evidenced by the selection of mutants containing mouse genomic DNA. These observations are unique in that mutations in brain tissue after particle radiation exposure have never before been reported owing to technical limitations in most other mutation assays.  (+info)

Cosmic radiation protection dosimetry using an Electronic personal Dosemeter (Siemens EPD) on selected international flights. (5/99)

The effectiveness of an Electronic Personal Dosemeter (Siemens EPD) for cosmic-radiation dosimetry at aviation altitudes was examined on eight international flights between March and September, 1998. The EPD values (Hepd) of the dose equivalent from penetrating radiation, Hp(10), were assumed to be almost the same as the electron absorbed doses during those flights. Based on the compositions of cosmic radiation in the atmosphere and the 1977 ICRP recommendation, an empirical equation to conservatively estimate the personal dose equivalent (Hp77) at a depth of 5 cm was derived as Hp77 = 3.1 x Hepd. The personal dose equivalent (Hp90) based on the 1990 ICRP recommendation was given by Hp90 = 4.6 x Hepd; the conservative feature of Hp90 was confirmed in a comparison with the calculated effective doses by means of the CARI-6 code. It is thus expected that the EPD will be effectively used for radiation protection dosimetry on selected international flights.  (+info)

Cancer incidence among Norwegian airline cabin attendants. (6/99)

BACKGROUND: Cabin crews are exposed to cosmic radiation at work and this may increase their incidence of radiation-induced cancers. Former studies indicate an increased risk of breast cancer. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed. The cohort was established from the files of the Civil Aviation Administration and included people with a valid licence as a cabin attendant between 1950 and 1994. The cohort was linked to the Cancer Registry of Norway. Observed number of cases was compared with expected, based on national rates. Breast cancer incidence was analysed, adjusting for individual fertility variables. RESULTS: A group of 3693 cabin attendants were followed over 72 804 person-years. Among the women, 38 cases of breast cancer were observed (standardized incidence ratio (SIR) = 1.1, 95% CI : 0.8-1.5). Among men excess risks were found for cancers in the upper respiratory and gastric tract (SIR = 6.0, 95% CI : 2.7-11.4) and cancer of the liver (two cases, SIR = 10.8, 95% CI : 1.3-39.2). For both sexes elevated risks were found for malignant melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer; for men these were SIR = 2.9 (95% CI : 1.1-6.4) and SIR = 9.9 (95% CI : 4.5-18.8) respectively, while for women these were SIR = 1.7 (95% CI : 1.0-2.7) and SIR = 2.9 (95% CI : 1.0-6.9) respectively. For no cancer site was a significant decreased risk found. CONCLUSIONS: An increased risk of radiation-induced cancers was not observed. The excess risks of some other cancers are more probably explained by factors related to lifestyle.  (+info)

Cell growth and morphology of Dictyostelium discoideum in space environment. (7/99)

Two strains of cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, a radiation-sensitive mutant and the parental wild-type strain, were used to investigate the effects of microgravity and/or cosmic radiation on their morphology through the whole life span from spores to fruiting bodies for about 7 days in space shuttle of NASA. We found almost no effect of space environment on amoeba cell growth in both strains. It was also observed that almost the same number and shape of fruiting bodies in space compared to the control experiments on earth. These results suggest that there is little effect of microgravity and space radiation on germination, cell aggregation, cell differentiation and cell morphology in the cellular slime mold.  (+info)

Mutation frequency of Dictyostelium discoideum spores exposed to the space environment. (8/99)

Two strains of cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, a radiosensitive mutant and the parental wild-type strain, were used to investigate the effects of cosmic radiation on viability and mutation frequency at the spore stage for about 9 days in Space Shuttle of NASA. We measured little effect of space environment on viability and cell growth in the both strains as compared to ground controls. The mutation frequency of the flown spores were similar to that of ground control. These results suggest that there could be no effect of cosmic radiation, containing high linear energy transfer radiation at about 0.9 mSv/day as detected by real-time radiation monitoring device on the induction of mutation at the spore stage.  (+info)

*Willard Libby

W.F. Libby (1946). "Atmospheric Helium Three and Radiocarbon from Cosmic Radiation". Physical Review. 69 (11-12): 671-672. ... W.F. Libby (1946). "Atmospheric Helium Three and Radiocarbon from Cosmic Radiation". Physical Review. 69 (11-12): 671-672. ... "Radiocarbon From Cosmic Radiation". Science. 105 (2735): 576-577. Bibcode:1947Sci...105..576A. doi:10.1126/science.105.2735.576 ... He also developed sensitive radiation detectors that could use the technique. Tests against sequoia with known dates from their ...

*Large Latin American Millimeter Array

Cosmic background radiation. Search for CO in galaxies with high redshift. Molecular abundance. Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). ... Continuum radiation from extragalactic cold dust. Molecular material in the direction of different stellar objects. ... University of Maryland and University of Chicago Cosmic Background Imager a 13 element interferometer operating in Llano de ...

*Pioneer 10

ISBN 0-521-41008-8. Simpson, J. A. (2001). "The cosmic radiation". In Johan A. M. Bleeker; Johannes Geiss; Martin C. E. Huber. ... Peak flux for this electron radiation is 10,000 times stronger than the maximum radiation around the Earth. Starting on ... The plutonium-238 has a half-life of 87.74 years, so that after 29 years the radiation being generated by the RTGs was at 80% ... "Cosmic-Ray Spectra". NASA / National Space Science Data Center. Retrieved 2011-02-19. "Geiger Tube Telescope (GTT)". NASA / ...

*Medalha Elliott Cresson - Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre

Significant studies in the field of cosmic radiation 1961. Glaser, Donald A.Donald A. Glaser[13] Física The bubble chamber for ... Cosmic rays, gamma-ray astronomy 1975. Cohn, MildredMildred Cohn[14] Biologia Nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of enzymatic ... Pioneering achievements in space science, Van Allen Radiation Belts 1962. Baker, James G.James G. Baker[13] Física Innovations ... Creation of new methods for measuring gravitation, sound, heat, radiation and current and static electricity ...

*پرتو کیهانی - ویکی‌پدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد

"Cosmic radiation" redirects here. For some other types of cosmic radiation, see Cosmic background radiation and Cosmic ... "Are Cosmic Rays Electromagnetic radiation?". NASA. Retrieved 11 December 2012.. *^ a b "What are cosmic rays?". NASA, Goddard ... Role in ambient radiation. Cosmic rays constitute a fraction of the annual radiation exposure of human beings on the Earth, ... Cosmic rays can be divided into two types, galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and extragalactic cosmic rays, i.e., high-energy ...

*George F. Smoot - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

He then took up an interest in the microwaves in cosmic radiation which had been discovered by Arno Allan Penzias and Robert ... That work made it possible to measure black holes and cosmic radiation much more exactly than was possible before. ... "Spitzer Cosmic Far-IR Background Project". Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Retrieved 2007-09-05.. ... Smoot has continued studying cosmic radiatin and now works on the third generation COBE satellite Planck. He is also working on ...

*Concorde

"Cosmic radiation". British Airways. Retrieved 11 January 2010.. *^ Arctowski, Henryk (1940). "On Solar Faculae and Solar ... the flight deck had a radiometer and an instrument to measure the rate of decrease of radiation.[127] If the radiation level ... Unusual solar activity might lead to an increase in incident radiation.[130] To prevent incidents of excessive radiation ... "How much radiation might I be exposed to?". British Airways. Retrieved 11 January 2010.. ...

*Jim Peebles

Dicke, R. H.; Peebles, P. J. E.; Roll, P. G.; Wilkinson, D. T. (1965). "Cosmic Black-Body Radiation". Astrophys. J. 142: 414. ... he predicted the cosmic microwave background radiation. Along with making major contributions to big bang nucleosynthesis, dark ... Fukugita, M.; Hogan, C. J.; Peebles, P. J. E. (1998). "The cosmic baryon budget". Astrophys. J. 503: 518. arXiv:astro-ph/ ... the cosmic microwave background and structure formation. His three textbooks (Physical Cosmology, 1971; Large Scale Structure ...

*Robert H. Dicke

Dicke, R. H.; Peebles, P. J. E.; Roll, P. G.; Wilkinson, D. T. (1965). "Cosmic Black-Body Radiation". Astrophysical Journal. ... R. B. Partridge (1995). 3 K: The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-35808-6. Penzias ... He used this to set a limit on the temperature of the microwave background radiation, from the roof of the Radiation Laboratory ... During the Second World War he worked in the Radiation Laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology where he worked ...

*Radiocarbon dating

The counters are surrounded by lead or steel shielding, to eliminate background radiation and to reduce the incidence of cosmic ... Libby, W.F. (1946). "Atmospheric helium three and radiocarbon from cosmic radiation". Physical Review. 69 (11-12): 671-672. ... "Radiocarbon from cosmic radiation". Science. 105 (2765): 576-577. Bibcode:1947Sci...105..576A. doi:10.1126/science.105.2735.576 ... Suess said he drew the line showing the wiggles by "cosmic schwung", by which he meant that the variations were caused by ...

*Edward P. Ney

These results had a major impact, for they showed that studies of cosmic radiation could play a significant role in ... Ney, Edward P. (February 14, 1959). "Cosmic Radiation and the Weather". Nature. 183 (4659): 451-452. Bibcode:1959Natur.183.. ... After the IGY ended, Ney's interest in cosmic rays began to diminish, but in 1959, he wrote an often cited paper Cosmic Rays ... Because its agenda included studies of cosmic rays, Ney served on the IGY's US National Committee - Technical Panel on Cosmic ...

*Radiocarbon dating

Korff, S.A. (1940). "On the contribution to the ionization at sea-level produced by the neutrons in the cosmic radiation". ... Libby, W.F. (1946). "Atmospheric helium three and radiocarbon from cosmic radiation". Physical Review. 69 (11-12): 671-672. ... The counters are surrounded by lead or steel shielding, to eliminate background radiation and to reduce the incidence of cosmic ... "Radiocarbon from cosmic radiation". Science. 105 (2765): 576-577. Bibcode:1947Sci...105..576A. doi:10.1126/science.105.2735.576 ...

*Rainer Weiss

He made pioneering measurements of the spectrum of the cosmic microwave background radiation, and then was co-founder and ... 1. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) R. Weiss (1980). "Measurements of the Cosmic Background Radiation". Annual ... Weiss, Rainer (1980). "Measurements of the Cosmic Background Radiation". Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 18: 489-535. Bibcode: ... "Measurements of the Anisotropy of the Cosmic Background Radiation and Diffuse Galactic Emission at Millimeter and Submillimeter ...

*Ruby Payne-Scott

CSIR Radiophysics Laboratory Report, RP 209 (1944). Solar and cosmic radio frequency radiation; survey of knowledge available ... With A.G. Little) The positions and movement on the solar disk of sources of radiation at a frequency of 97 Mc/s II. Noise ... "Solar radiation at radio frequencies and its relation to sunspots." Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A. ... With A.G. Little) The position and movement on the solar disk of sources of radiation at a frequency of 97 Mc/s. III. Outbursts ...

*Steady State theory

However, if the cosmic microwave radiation . . . is really black-body radiation, it will be difficult to doubt that the ... the definitive refutation of the steady-state theory came with the discovery of the cosmic microwave background radiation in ... However, the cosmic microwave background level is very even in all directions, making it difficult to explain how it could be ... The steady-state theory explained microwave background radiation as the result of light from ancient stars that has been ...

*Theodor Wulf

Energy was coming from outside the Earth's atmosphere and being detected by his device; this radiation was from cosmic rays. He ... "Early Cosmic-Ray Work Published in German". CENTENARY SYMPOSIUM 2012: DISCOVERY OF COSMIC RAYS. AIP Conference Proceedings. AIP ... To test his hypothesis, in 1910 he compared the radiation at the bottom and the top of the Eiffel Tower. He found that the ... 5, pages 152-157 Victor F. Hess: "About Observations of the Penetration {through-going} Radiation During 7 Balloon Flights" ...

*Rotating spheres

ISBN 0-521-62113-5. , and Ralph A. Alpher and Robert Herman (1975). Big bang cosmology and the cosmic black-body radiation (in ... The isotropy of the cosmic background radiation is another indicator that the universe does not rotate. See Louis N. Hand; ... ISBN 0-231-06636-8. R. B. Partridge (1995). 3 K: The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. Cambridge University Press. pp. 279 ...

*Antenna amplifier

... other perturberances that may be existing locally or even extra terrestrially like the Cosmic microwave background radiation ... See Also: Balun Cosmic microwave background radiation. ...

*Cryogenic Low-Energy Astrophysics with Neon

Shielding reduces the cosmic and radiation background. Neon has been studied as a clear, dense, low-background scintilator. ...

*List of unsolved problems in physics

"Testing Isotropy of Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 385 (4): 1718- ... and black hole radiation: Do black holes produce thermal radiation, as expected on theoretical grounds? Does this radiation ... How can these two concepts of time be reconciled ? Cosmic inflation: Is the theory of cosmic inflation correct, and, if so, ... Ultra-high-energy cosmic ray: Why is it that some cosmic rays appear to possess energies that are impossibly high, given that ...

*Supernova remnant

E. Fermi (1949). "On the Origin of the Cosmic Radiation". Physical Review. 75 (8): 1169-1174. Bibcode:1949PhRv...75.1169F. doi: ... "Supernova produces cosmic rays". BBC News. November 4, 2004. Retrieved 2006-11-28. "SNR and Cosmic Ray Acceleration". NASA ... Supernova remnants are considered the major source of galactic cosmic rays. The connection between cosmic rays and supernovas ... "Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays". University of Utah. Retrieved 2006-08-10. Galactic SNR Catalogue (D. A. Green, University of ...

*Bucket argument

ISBN 0-521-62113-5. Ralph A. Alpher and Robert Herman (1975). Big bang cosmology and the cosmic black-body radiation (in Proc. ... ISBN 0-375-41288-3. The isotropy of the cosmic background radiation is another indicator that the universe does not rotate. See ... R. B. Partridge (1995). 3 K: The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. Cambridge University Press. pp. 279-280. ISBN 0-521- ...

*STS-53

Cosmic Radiation Effects and Activation Monitor (CREAM); Radiation Monitoring Equipment (RME-III); Fluid Acquisition and ...

*Olbers' paradox

... as a result of the cosmic expansion, and thus forms the cosmic microwave background radiation. This explains the relatively low ... But the total radiation emitted by a star (or other cosmic object) is at most equal to the total nuclear binding energy of ... Smoot G. F., Gorenstein M. V., and Muller R. A. (5 October 1977). "Detection of Anisotropy in the Cosmic Blackbody Radiation" ( ... cosmic microwave background radiation has cosine anisotropy. Heat death paradox List of paradoxes Horizon problem Overbye, ...

*Operation Tomodachi

Cosmic Log - U.S. boosts radiation-sniffing system. Cosmiclog.msnbc.msn.com. Retrieved 19 March 2011. "DVIDS - News - HS-14 and ... While the radiation did not pose any significant health risk, "it needed to go away," Cmdr. Ron Rutan, chief engineer for the ... Radiation precautions were taken at U.S. bases, including USS George Washington leaving port at Yokosuka after very low levels ... There was an assurance that there would be daily monitoring of radiation levels. Many of the service men and women expressed ...

*Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

CRaTER The primary goal of the Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation is to characterize the global lunar radiation ... "Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation". Boston University. Archived from the original on May 6, 2006. Retrieved ... characterizing the radiation environment, and demonstrating new technologies. Launched on June 18, 2009, in conjunction with ... characterization of deep space radiation in lunar orbit; and high-resolution mapping, at a maximum resolution of 50 cm/pixel ( ...

*BoPET

Photomultiplier cosmic-ray observatories often make use of these mirrors for inexpensive large (1.0 m and above), lightweight ... Insulating material for a cryocooler radiation shield.. *As a window material to confine gas in detectors and targets in ... Insulation for houses and tents, reflecting thermal radiation. *Five layers of metallized boPET film in NASA's spacesuits make ... them radiation resistant and help regulate temperature.. *Metallized boPET film emergency blankets conserve a shock victim's ...

*Belgrano I Base

Cosmic radiation was measured by riometer and radiosondes. Upon closure of Belgrano I, the LABEL laboratory was moved to ...
In the figure above, we take the abundance of silicon as a "standard candle" or reference point, and compare the abundances (relative to silicon) of the elements in the solar system and in galactic cosmic rays. Silicon is used as the reference because it is a common intermediate-weight element that is easy to measure. We see that there is less hydrogen and helium in the cosmic rays than in the solar system, we think because hydrogen and helium are harder to accelerate to high energies than heavier elements. We also see that some light elements (lithium, beryllium, and boron) that are rare in the solar system (and in the rest of the universe) are quite common in cosmic rays. We also see more cosmic ray elements between silicon and iron than in the solar system.. The accepted reason for all the observed cosmic ray lithium, beryllium, and boron is that these are pieces of heavier cosmic ray elements, especially carbon and oxygen, that have had high speed collisions with the very tenuous gas in ...
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Cosmic rays can be accelerated in different ways. Some cosmic rays (called anomalous cosmic rays or ACR) are accelerated in the Solar System, at the shock where the solar wind meets interstellar space. Others are accelerated outside the solar system, by various processes in the Milky Way Galaxy and are called GCRs. Erics PhD thesis research involved separating these two components for cosmic ray hydrogen, and identifying which part of the observed hydrogen cosmic rays were ACRs. The key idea was that ACRs and GCRs, because they are accelerated by different processes, have different energies. GCRs have higher energies than ACRs. Therefore, you should be able (theoretically) to identify the two components by looking at their spectra. This can be seen in the proton (hydrogen nuclei) energy spectra below, which show two separate humps. Comparing the hydrogen spectra with those from other elemental cosmic rays, Eric speculated that the lower energy hump was from the population of ACRs and the higher ...
Figure 1: Earths Magnetosphere. Serious exposure to heavy ion galactic cosmic radiation occurs in regions beyond the outer red lines emanating from Earth in the above figure. Image credit: NASA. About 99 percent of galactic cosmic radiation is comprised of single protons, electrons, and helium nuclei. There are nine times as many helium nuclei as there are electrons and ten times as many protons as there are helium nuclei. Ions heavier than helium nuclei-for example, carbon-12, oxygen-16, silicon-28, and iron-56 nuclei-make up just one percent of all galactic cosmic rays.. Even though heavy nuclei make up such a tiny percentage, they inflict more biological damage than all the other forms of galactic cosmic radiation. Another reason heavy nuclei cosmic radiation caught the attention of Kumars team is that there is no technology available, or even conceivable, to protect astronauts in a spacecraft from heavy ion radiation. Furthermore, scientists know that at least 30 percent of astronauts ...
SALT LAKE CITY - An observatory run by the University of Utah found a "hotspot" beneath the Big Dipper emitting a disproportionate number of the highest-energy cosmic rays. The discovery moves physics another step toward identifying the mysterious sources of the most energetic particles in the universe. "This puts us closer to finding out the sources - but no cigar yet," says University of Utah physicist Gordon Thomson, spokesman and co-principal investigator for the $25 million Telescope Array cosmic ray observatory west of Delta, Utah. It is the Northern Hemispheres largest cosmic ray detector. "All we see is a blob in the sky, and inside this blob there is all sorts of stuff - various types of objects - that could be the source" of the powerful cosmic rays, he adds. "Now we know where to look." A new study identifying a hotspot in the northern sky for ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays has been accepted for publication by Astrophysical Journal Letters.. Thomson says many astrophysicists suspect ...
Guest post by Bart Verheggen, Department of Air Quality and Climate Change , Energy research Institute of the Netherlands (ECN). In Part I, I discussed how aerosols nucleate and grow. In this post Ill discuss how changes in nucleation and ionization might impact the net effects. Cosmic rays. Galactic cosmic rays (GCR) are energetic particles originating from space entering Earths atmosphere. They are an important source of ionization in the atmosphere, besides terrestrial radioactivity from e.g. radon (naturally emitted by the Earths surface). Over the oceans and above 5 km altitude, GCR are the dominant source. Their intensity varies over the 11 year solar cycle, with a maximum near solar minimum. Carslaw et al. give a nice overview of potential relations between cosmic rays, clouds and climate. Over the first half of the 20th century solar irradiance has slightly increased, and cosmic rays have subsequently decreased. RC has had many previous posts on the purported links between GCR and ...
On 16 February 2016, the President of Senate Christine Defraigne handed Harald Koninckx the Odissea prize 2015 for his graduation work entitled "Measures Counteracting the radiation health risks on a manned lunar outpost" in the framework of the advanced masters in Space Studies. He carried out his research in the laboratories of SCK•CEN under the guidance of Sarah Baatout, Marjan Moreels and Merel Van Wallegem of the Radiobiology group.. Sarah Baatout "Harald investigated how astronauts can protect themselves against the risks arising from cosmic radiation during a longer stay on the moon. He did several experiments in our labs and on the basis of the results he introduced solutions to reduce health risks.". One of the major concerns for a future moon platform is the radiation environment and how to protect astronauts against cosmic radiation. The impact on DNA damage of various antioxidants and shieldings following simulated radiation environment was assessed on human cells.. Sarah Baatout: ...
Cosmic Radiation Could Cause Alzheimers in Mars Astronauts By SUSAN DONALDSON JAMES Jan. 1, 2013 Space travel has always been portrayed as risky -- no air or
Other investigators have reported difficulty in finding significant effects of the solar eruptions on clouds, and Henrik Svensmark understands their problem. "Its like trying to see tigers hidden in the jungle, because clouds change a lot from day to day whatever the cosmic rays are doing," he says. The first task for a successful hunt was to work out when "tigers" were most likely to show themselves, by identifying the most promising instances of sudden drops in the count of cosmic rays, called Forbush decreases. Previous research in Copenhagen predicted that the effects should be most notice-able in the lowest 3000 metres of the atmosphere. The team identified 26 Forbush decreases since 1987 that caused the biggest reductions in cosmic rays at low altitudes, and set about looking for the consequences.. Forgetting to sow the seeds. The first global impact of the shortage of cosmic rays is a subtle change in the colour of sunlight, as seen by ground stations of the aerosol robotic network ...
I know what youre saying - wasnt there already a glow in the dark version of Electron+? Yes. This new Outer Space Men Cosmic Radiation Electron+ is cast in a slightly different (and better) glow plastic with more paint highlights and for the first time, bent arms. The original release, for reasons not ever truly revealed, just had the straight arms only. If you just need a glow Electron+, either version is great - but if you want a matching glow set or the very best version you can get, get this new one. ...
The rates of anencephalus in 36 Canadian cities and the province of New Brunswick from 1950 through 1969 were reviewed with regard to the horizontal geomagnetic flux, city growth, and the magnesium (7439954) concentration of tap water. High geomagnetic flux was considered as inversely related to levels of cosmic radiation. Data were screened by a bipartite stratification of the variables for assoc
CREDO-II (Cosmic Radiation Environment and Dosimetry Experiment), provided by DERA, MoD, heritage of STRV-1b. Objective: To monitor those aspects of space radiation which cause single event effects in microelectronic components. The measurements comprise energetic proton fluxes from the inner radiation belt and solar flares, and the linear energy transfer spectra of heavy ions in cosmic rays and solar particle events. The instrument is as a compact, low power monitor housed on a single board. Two telescopes are employed, each comprising two pin diodes of area 3cm2 in coincidence, in order to define the arrival directions of the particles and their pathlength through the detector. In one telescope the charge depositions are amplified and pulse-height analyzed to give the linear energy transfer spectra, while in the other the counts above a low threshold are used to monitor the much higher proton fluxes. Counts are accumulated into programmable time bins to reflect the finer resolution required at ...
Comments: 8 Pages. Version 2.. NASA incorrectly claims that any cosmic radiation increases deliver energy directly and cause temperature rises. Because this does not happen (the opposite occurs, see Fig. 5), NASA claims that cosmic radiation does not have any effect on climate. However, increases in cosmic radiation increase high altitude cloud cover by the "Wilson cloud chamber" effect (well proved in nuclear physics), and so have a cooling effect on the earths climate by increasing Earths albedo. This mechanism is justified by a correlation between temperature and the inverse of the cosmic ray intensity (Fig. 5). The only reason why significant CO2 related temperature rises are predicted by all 21 IPCC climate models is that they all contain the same error: assuming that water vapour absorbs sunlight to amplify the CO2 injection by positive feedback, ignoring the fact that it would gain buoyancy, rise and condense into cloud cover. It is easy to prove that any net positive feedback by water ...
Jupiter Radiation Environment. Nicolas André. RPWI Kick-Off Meeting, Uppsala, Sweden , November 26-27 2009. Jupiter Radiation Environments. Radiation effects . Radiation environments. Total Ionizing Dose (TID) - Cumulative long- term ionizing damage Slideshow 6747383 by miranda-kinney
This finding is important for understanding the origin of cosmic rays, which are atomic nuclei that strike the Earths atmosphere with very high energies. Scientists believe that some are produced by flares on the Sun, and others by similar events on other stars, or pulsars or black hole accretion disks. But, one of the prime suspects has been supernova shock waves. Now, a team of astronomers has used Chandra observations of Tychos supernova remnant to strengthen the case for this explanation. "With only a single object involved we cant state with confidence that supernova shock waves are the primary source of cosmic rays," said John P. Hughes of Rutgers University in Piscataway, New Jersey, and coauthor of a report to be published in an upcoming issue of The Astrophysical Journal. "What we have done is present solid evidence that the shock wave in at least one supernova remnant has accelerated nuclei to cosmic ray energies." In the year 1572, the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe observed and ...
The author has suggested that the knee phenomenon in the cosmic ray energy spectrum at 3 PeV can be explained as a split between a radiation-dominated expansion and a matter-dominated expansion of an expanding heat bath. The model proposed in 1985, in fact, predicted that high energy cosmic rays are emitted from AGN, massive black holes, in agreement with recent data from the Pierre Auger Observatory. Similarly, the ankle phenomenon at 3 EeV is shown to be explained by a split between inflational expansion and ordinary material expansion of the expanding heat bath, not unlike that in the expansion of the universe. All the spectral indicies in the respective regions of the energy spectra agree with the theoretical calculation from the respective expansion rates. It is shown that the ankle energy is approximately equal to the threshold energy of cosmic ray production of an electron positron pair on the cmb photon.
A Forbush decrease is a rapid decrease in the observed galactic cosmic ray intensity following a coronal mass ejection (CME). It occurs due to the magnetic field of the plasma solar wind sweeping some of the galactic cosmic rays away from Earth. The term Forbush decrease was named after the American physicist Scott E. Forbush, who studied cosmic rays in the 1930s and 1940s. The Forbush decrease is usually observable by particle detectors on Earth within a few days after the CME, and the decrease takes place over the course of a few hours. Over the following several days, the solar cosmic ray intensity returns to normal. Forbush decreases have also been observed by humans on Mir and the International Space Station (ISS), and by instruments onboard Pioneer 10 and 11 and Voyager 1 and 2, even past the orbit of Neptune. The magnitude of a Forbush decrease depends on three factors: the size of the CME the strength of the magnetic fields in the CME the proximity of the CME to the Earth A Forbush ...
Spacecraft, both manned and unmanned, must cope with the high radiation environment of outerspace. Radiation emitted by the Sun and other galactic sources, and trapped in radiation "belts" is more dangerous and hundreds of times more intense than radiation sources such as medical X-rays or normal cosmic radiation usually experienced on Earth.[24] When the intensely ionizing particles found in space strike human tissue, it can result in cell damage and may eventually lead to cancer.. The usual method for radiation protection is material shielding by spacecraft and equipment structures (usually aluminium), possibly augmented by polyethylene in human spaceflight where the main concern is high energy protons and cosmic ray ions. On unmanned spacecraft in high electron dose environments such as Jupiter missions, or medium Earth orbit (MEO), additional shielding with materials of a high atomic number can be effective. On long duration manned missions, advantage can be taken of the good shielding ...
A study in the July 2002 issue of Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, published by the American Geophysical Union, proposes for the first time that interstellar cosmic rays could be the missing link between the discordant temperatures observed during the last two decades (since recorded satellite records began in 1979). The report, by Fangqun Yu of the State University of New York-Albany, proposes that the rays, tiny charged particles that bombard all planets with varying frequency depending on solar wind intensity, may have height-dependent effects on our planet s cloudiness. Previous research has proposed a link between cosmic rays and cloud cover, has not suggested the altitude dependence of the current study ...
This grant will investigate the potential of carbon-14 in ice cores as an absolute dating tool, as a tracer of the past cosmic ray flux and as a recorder of the past fossil fraction of the global methane budget. Cosmic ray particles produce carbon-14 from oxygen-16 directly within near-surface glacial ice and firn. This in-situ produced carbon-14 quickly reacts to form 14C-containing carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and methane in the ice matrix. Some or all of the resulting 14C-bearing gases may be lost from the firn to the atmosphere. This research will provide a thorough characterization of in-situ cosmogenic 14C in glacial firn and shallow ice in the Summit region of Greenland. It will examine the retention of cosmogenic 14C in ice grains at all depth levels in the firn column, the partitioning of 14C between carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and methane, as well as the production rates and accumulation of cosmogenic 14C in shallow ice below firn close-off. A thorough understanding of ...
Bulletin Board: A Post From the Community | Caption: (From left, front row) Andrew Marquardt (Benet), James Austgen (Benet), Quinlan McGrath (Benet), Dr. Jennifer Gimmell (Benet/COD), Cate Stoppelman, (Benet), Frank Kariuki (COD), Kris Gardner (COD), Zuriel Tronco (COD); (back row) Dr. Mark Adams (QuarkNet), Mike Boetel (COD), Mitch Gosma (COD) and Prerak Sanghvi (COD). Students in College of DuPage's Physics Club joined forces with Benet Academy high school students and the University of Chicago QuarkNet Center at Fermilab to build and use cosmic ray detectors. During the recent Cosmic Ray Workshop, participants spent two Saturdays in February on COD's campus in Glen Ellyn, first learning how to build ...
Emulsion photograph showing the birth and death of a cosmic ray pion (or pi-meson). A primary cosmic ray has struck and shattered an atomic nucleus to form the star at the bottom of the picture. Among the fragments of the collision, a pion has been created which forms the track moving towards the top right. The pion soon strikes another nucleus, forming a second star. The length of the pions track is about 0.11 mm. The picture, taken in 1947 by Lattes, Occhialini & Powell, was one of the first observations of the creation of a pion. - Stock Image A134/0001
While the link between cosmic rays and cloud cover is yet to be confirmed, more importantly, there has been no correlation between cosmic rays and global temperatures over the last 30 years of global warming.
NASA and private company SpaceX plan to send humans to Mars within the next 15 years--but need to figure out how to protect astronauts from the dangerous cosmic radiation of deep space. Now the lab of UCSF neuroscientist Susanna Rosi, PhD, has identified a potential treatment for the brain damage caused by cosmic rays--a drug that prevents memory impairment in mice exposed to simulated space radiation. The study was published May 18, 2018 in Scientific Reports.
An airline cabin crew member has today been charged after cocaine with an estimated street value of £98,000 was seized at Gatwick Airport.
The energy spectra of galactic cosmic rays carry fundamental information regarding their origin and propagation. These spectra, when measured near Earth, are significantly affected by the solar magnetic field. A comprehensive description of the cosmic radiation must therefore include the transport and modulation of cosmic rays inside the heliosphere. During the end of the last decade, the Sun underwent a peculiarly long quiet phase well suited to study modulation processes. In this paper we present proton spectra measured from 2006 July to 2009 December by PAMELA. The large collected statistics of protons allowed the time variation to be followed on a nearly monthly basis down to 400 MV. Data are compared with a state-of-the-art three-dimensional model of solar modulation.. ...
Results SMR for all-cause, specific cancer groups and most individual cancers were reduced in all aircrew groups. The only increases were seen for brain cancer in pilots (n=23, SMR 2.01, 95% CI 1.15 to 3.28) and for malignant melanoma (n=10, SMR 1.88, 95% CI 0.78 to 3.85). Breast cancer mortality among female cabin crew was similar to the general population (n=71, SMR 1.06, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.44). Overall median cumulative effective dose was 34.2 mSv (max: 116 mSv) for 1960-2014. No dose-response associations were seen in any of the models. For brain cancer, relative risks were elevated across dose categories. An indicative negative trend with increasing dose category was seen for large intestine cancer in female cabin crew (n=23). ...
Electronic components, based on current semiconductor technologies and operating in radiation rich environments, suffer degradation of their performance as a result of radiation exposure. Silicon carbide (SiC) provides an alternate solution as a radiation hard material, because of its wide bandgap and higher atomic displacement energies, for devices intended for radiation environment applications. However, the radiation tolerance and reliability of SiC-based devices needs to be understood by testing devices under controlled radiation environments. These kinds of studies have been previously performed on diodes and MESFETs, but multilayer devices such as bipolar junction transistors (BJT) have not yet been studied.. In this thesis, SiC material, BJTs fabricated from SiC, and various dielectrics for SiC passivation are studied by exposure to high energy ion beams with selected energies and fluences. The studies reveal that the implantation induced crystal damage in SiC material can be partly ...
Electronic components, based on current semiconductor technologies and operating in radiation rich environments, suffer degradation of their performance as a result of radiation exposure. Silicon carbide (SiC) provides an alternate solution as a radiation hard material, because of its wide bandgap and higher atomic displacement energies, for devices intended for radiation environment applications. However, the radiation tolerance and reliability of SiC-based devices needs to be understood by testing devices under controlled radiation environments. These kinds of studies have been previously performed on diodes and MESFETs, but multilayer devices such as bipolar junction transistors (BJT) have not yet been studied.. In this thesis, SiC material, BJTs fabricated from SiC, and various dielectrics for SiC passivation are studied by exposure to high energy ion beams with selected energies and fluences. The studies reveal that the implantation induced crystal damage in SiC material can be partly ...
When a star is disrupted by a supermassive black hole, and its debris are accreted onto it, a powerful hadronic jet can be generated and be a source of high energy neutrinos and cosmic rays. I review the simplest models of neutrino production from such Tidal Disruption Events (TDEs), and show that the resulting neutrino flux is detectable, and can explain a fraction of the diffuse neutrino flux detected at IceCube. The possibility of a joint explanation of the neutrino and Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Ray data is briefly illustrated. I discuss the hypothesis - which requires further study to be fully substantiated - that a single TDE burst might have been responsible for the 2014-2015 neutrino flare observed by IceCube ...
Women who fly during pregnancy, whether as passengers or crew, continue to fuel the debate over the potential impact on pregnancy outcome and fetal development, the two risk factors most commonly invoked being relative hypoxaemia due to the decreased cabin pressure and, more recently, cosmic radiation. On both theoretical and experimental grounds (altitude physiology and studies in pregnant women during flight), commercial flight poses no threat to the fetal oxygen supply in a normal pregnancy. As for cosmic radiation, only theoretical estimates are available of flight crew exposure: if annual doses approximate to background at ground level (3-5 mSv), the dose received during an individual pregnancy can be estimated from the fraction of annual flight time spent while pregnant. It is doubtful whether any epidemiological study could ever confirm or refute this theoretical estimate of a low increase in risk. Many airlines have opted to allow pregnant crew to continue flying. There is thus little if ...
New species do not emerge through breeding; their genetic makeup in the sex cell changes due to random changes that affect genetic inheritance. However, rapid emergence of new species is attributed to cosmic radiation capable of modifying sex cell DNA in more profound manner. This cosmic radiation is random, but for some reason has led to the emergence of more and more sophisticated species on this planet leading to Homo sapiens. In other words, Nature knew what it was doing. How can anyone be so ignorant not to look at other options regarding the source of the radiation? We live in the universe that is said to be 15 billion years old. Just give me some 2000 years in focused genetic research and I turn crocodile into a dog by radiating the environment where crocodiles live. There is no sound argument that disproves the possibility of someone finding this planet and using the primitive life here for accelerated evolutionary experiments ...
Hes got great accessories. The Gargoyle Gun is mostly painted silver, with the bare glow head plastic coming through. I wish they left the grip unpainted, and to be honest if they inverted the glow versus the silver that would also be nice. Its not bad. The staff is similarly cool, because the only painted element is a silver ball which hovers eerily above the figure with glowing wings. Now theres something out of your Phantasm-inspired nightmares.. For those keeping track, you might remember something about how these are made - specifically, a series worth of accessories are on a single sprue. This means that glowing helmets (instead of clear) and clear staffs (instead of glowing) exist and were run - we got samples of them in a baggie with the order, but right now it doesnt seem to be advertised as a bonus with all orders. This goes for Alpha 7, Electron+, and Commander Comet too - none of the year one guys seemed to have bonus parts in my order.. Now while it would be awesome to have ...
Adam Pawlus has written about Star Wars action figures, toys, and collectibles on the web since 1995. He has worked for a variety of magazines and websites and presently works as a Toy Evangelist / Buyer for Entertainment Earth. He also loves Jolt ...
Ok so ive been doing a lot of research which leads me to conclude that our solar system is stuck in a 4D time "bubble". The voyager 1 and 2 only reached the Heliopause which is one of the outer shells of our solar systems magnetic field, I believe that beyond the "bow shock" which is believed to be the final endpoint of the magnetic field, we would find exponential growth in the amount of cosmic radiation, I believe that these travel way beyond the speed of light, like super energy, or what the human aura can consist of. Anyways everything we are measuring from outside this bubble seems to slow down because for some reason this region we are in is highly dense. So relating it to the vatican and all of their lies and sun worshiping i believe that they are intentionally modifying the suns frequency to that of something very dense in order to inhibit the growth of our human dna. So basically all research states that our dna is highly influenced by cosmic radiation, the kind of code that reprograms ...
Space is a dangerous place. ESA scientists are aiming to learn a little bit more about what it takes to survive in the big empty.
Space is a dangerous place. ESA scientists are aiming to learn a little bit more about what it takes to survive in the big empty.
Earths magnetic field shields space station crew from much of the radiation that can damage the DNA in our cells and lead to serious health problems.. When future astronauts set off on long journeys deeper into space, they will be venturing into more perilous radiation environments and will need substantial protection. With the help of a biology experiment within a small satellite called BioSentinel, scientists at NASAs Ames Research Center, in Californias Silicon Valley, are taking an early step toward finding solutions.. To learn the basics of what happens to life in space, researchers often use "model organisms" that we understand relatively well. This helps show the differences between what happens in space and on Earth more clearly. For BioSentinel, NASA is using yeast - the very same yeast that makes bread rise and beer brew. In both our cells and yeast cells, the type of high-energy radiation encountered in deep space can cause breaks in the two entwined strands of DNA that carry ...
ABSTRACT The short term variability of the galactic cosmic ray flux (CRF) reaching Earth has been previously associated with variations in the global low altitude cloud cover. This CRF variability arises from changes in the solar wind strength. However, cosmic ray variability also arises intrinsically from variable activity of and motion through the Milky Way. Thus, if indeed the CRF climate connection is real, the increased CRF witnessed while crossing the spiral arms could be responsible for a larger global cloud cover and a reduced temperature, thereby facilitating the occurrences of ice ages. This picture has been recently shown to be supported by various data [PhRvL 89 (2002) 051102]. In particular, the variable CRF recorded in Iron meteorites appears to vary synchronously with the appearance ice ages.Here, we expand upon the original treatment with a more thorough analysis and more supporting evidence. In particular, we discuss the cosmic ray diffusion model which considers the motion of ...
Cosmic rays are small atomic nuclei-mostly hydrogen nuclei, or protons-that whiz through space at close to the speed of light. No ordinary star could boost matter to such unimaginably high speeds; some other high-energy process in deep space must be at work. Researchers suspect supernovas but dont yet have conclusive evidence. The problem is that cosmic rays themselves dont tell you where theyve come from. Because the particles carry electric charge, interstellar magnetic fields scramble their trajectories, making it impossible to identify their source. But if theorists are right that the cosmic rays get their initial kick from supernova remnants, then this boost has a byproduct: TeV gamma rays, which, being chargeless, zip through space as straight as an arrow. Find where those gamma rays come from, the theory goes, and you might just find a source of cosmic rays.. Gamma rays dont give up their secrets easily, however, because they cannot penetrate Earths atmosphere. Astronomers first got ...
This finding is important for understanding the origin of cosmic rays, which are atomic nuclei that strike the Earths atmosphere with very high energies. Scientists believe that some are produced by flares on the Sun, and others by similar events on other stars, or pulsars or black hole accretion disks. But, one of the prime suspects has been supernova shock waves. Now, a team of astronomers has used Chandra observations of Tychos supernova remnant to strengthen the case for this explanation ...
We thus find that there is no significant correlation of the CRF curve from Shavivs model and the temperature curve of Veizer, even after one of the four CRF peaks was arbitrarily shifted by 40 m.y. to improve the fit to the temperature curve. There also is no significant correlation between the original meteorite data and the temperature reconstruction. The explained variance claimed by [Shaviv and Veizer, 2003] is the maximum achievable by optimal smoothing of the temperature data and by making several arbitrary adjustments to the cosmic ray data (within their large uncertainty) to line up their peaks with the temperature curve. Regression of CO2 and temperature. The final argument of [Shaviv and Veizer, 2003] - that CO2 has a smaller effect on climate than previously thought - is based on a simple regression analysis of smoothed temperature and CO2 reconstructions. [Shaviv and Veizer, 2003] conclude that the effect of a doubling of atmospheric CO2 concentration on tropical sea surface ...
Charge-coupled device detectors are vulnerable to cosmic rays that can contaminate Raman spectra with positive going spikes. Because spikes can adversely affect spectral processing and data analyses, they must be removed. Although both hardware-based and software-based spike removal methods exist, they typically require parameter and threshold specification dependent on well-considered user input. Here, we present a fully automated spike removal algorithm that proceeds without requiring user input. It is minimally dependent on sample attributes, and those that are required (e.g., standard deviation of spectral noise) can be determined with other fully automated procedures. At the core of the method is the identification and location of spikes with coincident second derivatives along both the spectral and spatiotemporal dimensions of two-dimensional datasets. The method can be applied to spectra that are relatively inhomogeneous because it provides fairly effective and selective targeting of ...
This old argument is getting another airing among the internet climate change contrarian/denier ghetto. Briefly it claims that humans have nothing to do with current climate change - its all caused by the sun! Specifically the influence of cosmic rays originating from the sun on formation of clouds in the atmosphere. Of course things are…
This old argument is getting another airing among the internet climate change contrarian/denier ghetto. Briefly it claims that humans have nothing to do with current climate change - its all caused by the sun! Specifically the influence of cosmic rays originating from the sun on formation of clouds in the atmosphere. Of course things are…
Nonlinear Cosmic Ray Diffusion Theories von Andreas Shalchi und Buchbewertungen gibt es auf ReadRate.com. Bücher können hier direkt online erworben werden.
The original finding aid described this as: Description: Photographic documentation of foil packs on the Space Shuttle Discoverys SPACEHAB, taken during STS-63. The foil packs were used in conjunction with the Cosmic Radiation Effects and Activation Monitor (CREAM). CREAM was designed to collect data on cosmic ray energy loss spectra, neutron fluxes, and induced radioactivity. Subject Terms: STS-63,SPACE SHUTTLES,DISCOVERY (ORBITER),TESTING,SPACEHAB,ONBOARD EQUIPMENT,MONITORS,RADIATION,FOILS (MATERIALS) Date Taken: 6/11/1997 0:00 Categories: Experiment (Non-medical) Interior_Exterior: Interior Ground_Orbit: On-orbit Original: Film - 35MM CN Preservation File Format: TIFF. less ...
We have a desire to go into space to find out whats on other worlds and to learn more about dangers such as Cosmic radiation. Nine University of Virginia students have teamed up with NASA to send a cosmic ray experiment 23 miles into space on a giant high-altitude balloon to determine how much radiation is too much. The students have been working on the project for 2 years and the NASA balloon with payload will launch any day now.
en] Optical phase conjugation (OPC) provides a means of dynamical correction of thermally induced aberrations in high-power laser systems. This method is particularly interesting for space applications because it is passive, mechanically simple, and allows for improved beam quality with only a small loss in power. To exploit it one has to assess the effect of the space environment, and in particular of space radiation, on the properties of the materials that are suitable for phase-conjugating mirrors (PCMs). We have investigated both materials providing OPC via stimulated Brillouin scattering and actual PCMs with regard to their radiation hardness. Proton- and gamma-irradiated PCMs in the form of 30-cm long silica rods and 5-cm long TeO2 crystals were tested in a single frequency flash-lamp pumped Nd:YAG system delivering up to 220 mJ pulses with a 20 ns duration at a 50 Hz repetition rate. The difference in the reflectivity between irradiated and nonirradiated components was found to be within ...
Abstract: Galactic winds are observed to be a mirror of the energized ISM that launches them: hot winds include cool clouds, dust, magnetic fields, and cosmic rays. Understanding these components is central to building a predictive model of the outflow of mass, angular momentum, and energy from galaxies. In pursuit of this, our group has built a model combining the thermal and non-thermal components of multi-phase winds. First, I will briefly review our work in adding cosmic-ray pressure and heating to galactic wind models, and our discovery of a galactic wind from our Milky Way. I will then introduce a semi-analytic model that combines cosmic-ray pressure, thermal pressure, magnetic pressure, and galactic rotation into one model, and address how cosmic rays and cool clouds interact within this wind. We are applying this model and other studies of ISM energization to understand the nearby starbursts M 82 and NGC 253 and the possible WMAP/Fermi Haze towards the Galactic Center. ...
The cabin crew profession is very beautiful and as Sasha, my Safety & Security instructor said, if flying gets in your blood, its difficult to get rid of it. Those who think being a cabin crew is easy, are very wrong. It is a very demanding job, both physically and mentally. You have a very chaotic schedule, flying at all hours, varying in duration, you travel the world back and forth, cutting across several time zones, you have to know very well everything you have learned during training, but, the most demanding of all, to satisfy all passengers requests with a smile on your face and according to a certain standard. Passengers do not care that you are there first of all for their safety and that serving them only comes after, on the contrary, they are mostly interested in service.. There have been flights where the area designated to me consisted of 75 passengers, each having their own needs and demands. In addition to this, the biggest sacrifice you make is your personal life. Its hard to ...
Recent observations of the supernova remnant W44 by the \emph{Fermi }spacecraft observatory strongly support the idea that the bulk of galactic cosmic rays is accelerated in such remnants by a Fermi mechanism, also known as diffusive shock acceleration. However, the W44 expands into weakly ionized dense gas, and so a significant revision of the mechanism is required. In this paper we provide the necessary modifications and demonstrate that strong ion-neutral collisions in the remnant surrounding lead to the steepening of the energy spectrum of accelerated particles by \emph{exactly one power}. The spectral break is caused by Alfven wave evanescence leading to the fractional particle losses. The gamma-ray spectrum generated in collisions of the accelerated protons with the ambient gas is also calculated and successfully fitted to the Fermi Observatory data. The parent proton spectrum is best represented by a classical test particle power law $\propto E^{- 2}$, steepening to $E^{-3}$ at ...
In a paper in Geoscience Canada, Veizer (2005) states that the multitude of empirical observations favours celestial phenomena as the most important driver of terrestrial climate on most time scales. This paper was cited by a contributor to a debate on the website openDemocracy . In short, the argument is that the cosmic ray flux (CRF, also denoted as GCR - galactic cosmic rays - in some papers) is the most important factor affecting our climate. Since this issue is likely to crop up from time to time, it is worth taking a closer look at the Veizer (2005) paper ( Here is a link to short summary, but the actual paper requires subscription). [Update: The actual paper is now available as supplemental material on the Geoscience Canada website.] I will try to show that CRF explanation for the recent global warming is easy to rule out.. One of the main planks of the argument that CRF is responsible for the most recent warming is based on figure 14b in Veizer (2005), where there appears to be a ...
The gamma-ray sky can be decomposed into individually detected sources, diffuse emission attributed to the interactions of Galactic cosmic rays with gas and radiation fields, and a residual all-sky emission component commonly called the isotropic diffuse gamma-ray background (IGRB). The IGRB comprises all extragalactic emissions too faint or too diffuse to be resolved in a given survey, as well as any residual Galactic foregrounds that are approximately isotropic. The first IGRB measurement with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) used 10 months of sky-survey data and considered an energy range between 200 MeV and 100 GeV. Improvements in event selection and characterization of cosmic-ray backgrounds, better understanding of the diffuse Galactic emission (DGE), and a longer data accumulation of 50 months allow for a refinement and extension of the IGRB measurement with the LAT, now covering the energy range from 100 MeV to 820 GeV. The IGRB ...
Since the first evidence of the existence of cosmic rays (c. 1910) and the first hints of a new ghost particle later on named neutrino (c. 1920) has passed a century. During this time, many experiments and theoretical ideas have expanded our knowledge about the most fundamental particle physics and the most extreme astrophysical processes in the Universe. One of these ideas was proposed half a century ago: neutrino telescopes, the feasibility of which has been proven during the last decade. They aim to provide a crucial contribution to the understanding of the physical processes hosted in the many astrophysical objects by the detection of high energy neutrinos. Eventually, they may provide an answer to the origin of the cosmic rays. It has been during the last years that they provided the first evidence of the existence of high energy cosmic neutrinos. This work represents an effort in this direction. In this thesis, multiple analyses have been performed using data of the ANTARES neutrino ...
Our proposal is focused on analyzing the effects of space radiation on these critical populations of multipotent neural stem and precursor cells. We have developed the technology to isolate and grow these cells in culture and will use a variety of techniques to analyze how cells exposed to space radiation change. We will monitor the time course of oxidative stress in these cells and how that depends on the dose, the dose rate and type of radiation applied. We will determine how radiation-induced oxidative stress impacts cellular proliferation, signaling between cells, cell fate and survival ...
Are you among the lucky ones who have passed their final interview and can almost call themselves cabin crew? Then it means that you can start imagining your cabin crew career, the adventures youll have and the wonderful experience that lie ahead.
Greenbelt MD (SPX) Apr 22, 2016 - Most of the cosmic rays that we detect at Earth originated relatively recently in nearby clusters of massive stars, according to new results from NASAs Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraf
A graph theyd prefer you not to notice. Tucked away near the end of online supplementary material, and omitted from the printed CLOUD paper in Nature, it clearly shows how cosmic rays promote the formation of clusters of molecules ("particles") that in the real atmosphere can grow and seed clouds. In an early-morning experimental run at CERN, starting at 03.45, ultraviolet light began making sulphuric acid molecules in the chamber, while a strong electric field cleansed the air of ions. It also tended to remove molecular clusters made in the neutral environment (n) but some of these accumulated at a low rate. As soon as the electric field was switched off at 04.33, natural cosmic rays (gcr) raining down through the roof of the experimental hall in Geneva helped to build clusters at a higher rate. How do we know they were contributing? Because when, at 04.58, CLOUD simulated stronger cosmic rays with a beam of charged pion particles (ch) from the accelerator, the rate of cluster production ...
US research has said that long journeys into deep space, including a mission to Mars, could expose astronauts to levels of cosmic radiation harmful to the brain and accelerate Alzheimers disease.
The DMC-2000X LCD Radiation Detector Monitor and Geiger Counter is a user-friendly personal electronic dosimeter that is compact, light weight, and is water resistant. The expanded detection range of down to 20 keV makes it effective in even low level radiation environments. The DMC-2000X Radiation Detector Monitor inc
The National Ignition Facility (NIF) and Laser Mega Joule (LMJ) facilities are currently under construction in the United States and France. Ignited targets at these facilities are anticipated to produce up to 1019 deuterium-tritium fusion neutrons. This will provide unprecedented opportunities and challenges for the use of nuclear diagnostics in inertial confinement fusion experiments. The NIF and LMJ nuclear diagnostics will work in a harsh radiation environment that includes neutron, hard x-ray, and gamma backgrounds, neutron induced signals in coaxial cables, and electromagnetic pulse (EMP) generated signals. Recent results of different background measurements on OMEGA laser facility will be reported. Based on these results, specific design concepts have been identified to mitigate much of the radiation and EMP-induced backgrounds. An overview of the background mitigation techniques in the NIF nuclear diagnostics conceptual designs will be presented.
Occasional air travel is safe for most pregnant women, and most airlines will allow women to fly up to 36 weeks of pregnancy. Make sure to wear your seatbelt during the flight, and take steps to ease the discomforts of prolonged travel and sitting. Frequent air travel during pregnancy increases the risk of fetal exposure to cosmic radiation. If you are a pregnant pilot, aircrew member, or other frequent flier, check with your employer about flying restrictions ...
Le site Im PNC est heureux de vous accueillir sur ses pages et son forum. Il est dédié aux PNC (hôtesse de lair, steward, cabin crew, personnel navigant commercial) et futurs PNC. Vous y trouverez des informations utiles pour débuter (centres de form
Electronic devices are susceptible to damage from radiation, potentially cosmic radiation and even ultraviolet radiation. A study using spectroscopy reveals that the amount of optical damage, as opposed to structural damage, that can be caused may be more than ten times greater than studies suggested.. "These are somewhat new ideas, especially in my opinion the concept of optical damage versus structural damage where as people normally focus on the later, I believe the former is a very much unexplored area with important implications for actual, real, operating nanodevices," research leader Andrew Steigerwald of Vanderbilt University told me.. "Considering that, I hope in the future that our results can be extended to other materials (e.g. silicon) and perhaps coupled with a sensitive microscopy technique so that we can compare spectroscopy results with mapping of electronic states.". Damaged goods: Probing the depths - Ezine - spectroscopyNOW.com.. ...
Second: an article entitled... Scientists Admit There Is a Second, Secret DNA Code Which Controls Genes. Here is an excerpt from that article.. Quote:. "DNA Responds To Frequency. The Russian biophysicist and molecular biologist Pjotr Garjajev and his colleagues explored the vibrational behavior of the DNA. The bottom line was: "Living chromosomes function just like solitonic/holographic computers using the endogenous DNA laser radiation." This means that they managed for example to modulate certain frequency patterns onto a laser ray and with it influenced the DNA frequency and thus the genetic information itself. Since the basic structure of DNA-alkaline pairs and of language (as explained earlier) are of the same structure, no DNA decoding is necessary.. Cosmic Radiation And Light Changes DNA. This finally and scientifically explains why affirmations, autogenous training, hypnosis and the like can have such strong effects on humans and their bodies. It is entirely normal and natural for our ...
The phenomenal resistance of Deinococcus bacteria has given rise to numerous descriptions of their origin, including that they evolved on Mars under harsh cosmic radiation. The present analysis firmly places the origin of Deinococcus bacteria on Earth, where the evolutionary steps that led to their survival mechanisms clearly occurred in their terrestrial ancestors - most likely in a desert near you ...
the earth is full of thy riches. (Psalm 104:24). Its in all the textbooks. Every high school biology student is exposed to it. Its taught as if it were fact and that all scientists agree. Its thought to be proof of evolution and yet-is it really true?. According to strict naturalistic evolution, life sprung from non-living chemicals on at least one occasion in Earths past. It doesnt happen today because the atmospheric conditions are all wrong for life to form, but conditions must have been different in the past in just the right way for complex organic (i.e., carbon-based) molecules to come together.. Todays atmosphere contains abundant free oxygen (02), and this oxygen is absolutely essential for lifes functions. Our lungs deliver oxygen to the blood where it traverses the body, reaching all of our 75 trillion cells. Furthermore, as O3, it comprises the ozone layer which protects all of life from destructive cosmic radiation.. But while oxygen is essential for lifes continuance, ...
Off the keyboard of A.G. Gelbert Why They Work and Fossil & Nuclear Fuels Never Did Discuss this article at the Energy Table of the Diner Quote The biosphere is the global sum of all ecosystems. It can also be called the zone of life on Earth, a closed (apart from solar and cosmic radiation)…
Where there is no genetic disease component involved, premature aging is simply the result of nutritional neglect. Our bodies are bombarded with free radicals from the outside (e.g., carbon monoxide fumes, tobacco smoke, air pollution, X-rays, microwaves, cosmic radiation, chlorinated swimming … Continue reading →. ...
DRAGON adopts a second-order Cranck-Nicholson scheme with Operator Splitting and time overrelaxation to solve the diffusion equation. This provides a fast solution that is accurate enough for the average user. Occasionally, users may want to have very accurate solutions to their problem. To enable this feature, users may get close to the accurate solution by using the fast method, and then switch to a more accurate solution scheme featuring the Alternating-Direction-Implicit (ADI) Cranck-Nicholson scheme. ...
How a mission to Mars could kill you http://news.discovery.com/space/mission-to-mars-health-risks-110718.html "...Despite several decades of research and development, a long-duration voyage to Mars is still on the drawing board...there are still major engineering and physiological hurdles to overcome...effects of background cosmic rays from extragalactic sources and extreme radiation events from the sun make space travel too hazardous for an estimated six months there and six months return...you would exceed acceptable levels of fatal cancer...We also worry about effects of radiation on the heart and the central nervous system...Lead shields actually create secondary radiation when struck by cosmic rays, while water, perhaps the best form of protection, would have to be several meters thick to get enough protection...Solution: Pick astronauts that have...a built-in genetic resistance to radiation damage. "We didnt know about this (ability) five or ten years ago...the human body falls apart ...
By comparing computer models of damaged human DNA with microscopic images of human cells that reveal focal sites of radiation-induced damage, researchers in the Life Sciences Division (LSD) of the Department of Energys Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, with colleagues at NASA and the Universities Space Research Association, have found evidence that indeed there are specific regions where broken DNA is concentrated for repair. "NASA has long been interested in the radiation hazards in space," says LSDs Sylvain Costes, who led the study. "On a trip to Mars, astronauts will be exposed to cosmic rays for as long as three years, so NASA has been trying to come up with a mechanistic model of DNA repair to estimate the increased risk of cancer. We are helping to develop such a model." Double-strand breaks and radiation-induced fociIn many NASA studies cells have been exposed to particles like those found in cosmic rays, such as energetic iron nuclei produced in accelerators at Brookhaven ...
BioLab Microscope D&C Cassette Troubleshooting: Following yesterdays successful Part A of the Microscope troubleshooting and initialization, Flight Engineer (FE)-5 Parmitano continued with Part B of the troubleshooting by extracting the BioLab HM drawer, installing a Microscope cassette, verifying the correct fit of the cassette, and close up of the microscope. The ground subsequently performed a successful functional test of the microscope. The BioLab is a multiuser research facility located in the European Columbus laboratory. It will be used to perform space biology experiments on microorganisms, cells, tissue cultures, small plants, and small invertebrates. BioLab will allow scientists to gain a better understanding of the effects of microgravity and space radiation on biological organisms.. Robonaut Teleoperations: Today FE-3 Cassidy performed Robonaut Teleoperations. With cooperation from ground teams, Cassidy controlled Robonaut to perform soft-good manipulation operations. Robonaut is a ...
The high-energy cosmic rays are so powerful that they can penetrate into the atmosphere, tear up molecules, and reach the ground level. After reaching the surface of our planet, the immense radiation could have resulted in an increase of cancer and mutation rates. Another effect might have been a speeding of the evolution.. As for the climate, the scientists believe that the cosmic rays forced atoms and molecules to gain a negative or a positive charge. The ionization process is supposed to have lasted more than 1,000 years, and it is possible it might have triggered the climate change and brought the series of ice ages.. The present study is the first to demonstrate that a supernova explosion might have had such catastrophic effects on Earth. The earlier simulations implied the fact that a supernova would need to be very close to our planet in order to affect the climate and the biosphere.. While the previous study showed the critical distance would have been 25 light-years, the present study ...
4/7) "We recently wrote an app that turns your smartphone into a particle detector.". "How does it do that?". "Well, the camera in your smartphone has a lens, and behind the lens is a CMOS device which is basically a square of silicon, and the silicon is divided up into tiny cells, each one for a pixel, and each pixel is sensitive to light. The device collects light, turns it into electrons, and then measures the current. But its not just sensitive to light, its also sensitive to particles from space, cosmic rays, and we use the same technology to detect particles at the Large Hadron Collider. We realized that every phone contains this little CMOS device along with GPS, WIFI, and a little computer, so we wrote an app that turns your phone into a particle detector. And then we thought, Thats cool, but can we do real science with this? So we did a calculation. How many people would have to run the app to build a cosmic ray telescope the size of the planet, and our calculation said about a ...
CHAPTER 26 Atom Building Several chapters of Volume I were devoted to tracing the path followed by the matter that is ejected into the material sector of the universe from the inverse, or cosmic, sector in the form of cosmic rays. As brought out there, the cosmic atoms that constitute the cosmic rays, three-dimensional rotational combinations with net speeds greater than unity, are broken down into massless particles; that is, particles with effective rotation in less than three dimensions.
We see it everywhere in science that dosage plays a key role, except for particle collisions where it is never considered of any importance, why? Are the distances in between (follow up) collisions relatively so spaced out or are there studies of what the limits are of the numbers of collisions one may jam into a particular volume? Also does the collision box gets to be heat up after a while or does everything just fly by? The LHC creates temperatures 105 times hotter than the center of the sun, how much of this energy is spread out through the Higgs Field onto the surrounding matter ...
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NASA scientists are working to determine how this radiation affects the human body, and develop ways to protect against the violent nuclear collisions that occur as particles slam into shielding.
Le site Im PNC est heureux de vous accueillir sur ses pages et son forum. Il est dédié aux PNC (hôtesse de lair, steward, cabin crew, personnel navigant commercial) et futurs PNC. Vous y trouverez des informations utiles pour débuter (centres de form
In addition to latitudinal effects, the energetic particle and cosmic ray measurements made by Ulysses have revealed a striking global periodic variation. Recurrent increases in the low-energy particle flux with ~26-day period were observed up to high latitudes in the southern hemisphere. On the other hand, at energies ,100 MeV, the nucleon intensities show corresponding periodic decreases. Both of these phenomena are thought to be associated with Corotating Interaction Regions (CIR) that form as a consequence of stream interactions between fast and slow solar wind flows. CIR shocks accelerate the low-energy particles, while the magnetic field compressions associated with the stream interactions impede the access of high-energy particles to the inner heliosphere. In the light of the first comprehensive study of the 3-dimensional evolution of CIRs, the question raised by the Ulysses measurements is how do the effects of CIRs operate at high latitudes, where the CIRs themselves are no longer seen? ...
There is a clear and direct correlation between the Anomaly of the Intergalactic Cosmic Rays and the Tropospheric temperature oscillation on Earth. One more proof in favor of a no-anthropogenic Global Warming.
Nucleon capture cross sections enter various astrophysical processes. The measurement of proton capture on nuclei at astrophysically relevant lowenergies is a challenge, and theoretical computations in this long-wavelength regime are sensitive to the long-distance asymptotics of thewave functions. Atheoretical foundation for estimating and correcting errors introduced in capture cross sections due to Hilbert space truncation has so far been lacking. We derive extrapolation formulas that relate the infrared regularized capture amplitudes to the infinite basis limit and demonstrate their efficacy for proton-proton fusion. Our results are thus relevant to current calculations of few-body capture reactions such as proton-proton fusion or proton capture on the deuteron, and they also open the way for the use of ab initio many-body wave functions represented in finite Hilbert spaces in precision calculations of nucleon capture on heavier nuclei.
The AMS-01 detector measured charged cosmic rays during 10 days on the Space Shuttle Discovery in 1998 and collected 108 events. By identifying 8349 Lithium and 22709 Carbon nuclei from the raw data, this thesis presents ...
We use moderate-resolution optical spectrophotometry and the new MARCS stellar atmosphere models to determine the effective temperatures of 74 Galactic red supergiants (RSGs). The stars are mostly members of OB associations or clusters with known distances, allowing a critical comparison with modern stellar evolutionary tracks. We find we can achieve excellent matches between the observations and the reddened model fluxes and molecular transitions, although the atomic lines Ca I λ4226 and Ca II H and K are found to be unrealistically strong in the models. Our new effective temperature scale is significantly warmer than those in the literature, with the differences amounting to 400 K for the latest type M supergiants (i.e., M5 I). We show that the newly derived temperatures and bolometric corrections give much better agreement with stellar evolutionary tracks. This agreement provides a completely independent verification of our new temperature scale. The combination of effective temperature and
Well, lets look at what the original article is really telling us. Why are more frequently dividing stem cells more likely to turn into cancer cells? When a cell divides through the process of mitosis, the complete set of nuclear DNA is copied so that each new daughter cell can begin its life with the same DNA as the parent cell. The cellular machinery to copy DNA is sophisticated and there are both proofreading and repair methods to ensure high fidelity of the DNA copy. However, if a mistake is made in the copy process that escapes the proofreading and repair mechanisms then it remains as a new mutation. Keep in mind that at this point, we are not even talking about the mutations that can arise from radiation or cancer causing mutagens, such as stray cosmic rays from space, an X-ray from that chest X-ray taken at the hospital, or even the carcinogenic chemicals inhaled from second-hand smoke. Were simply talking about mistakes made during the normal process of cell division. In this case you ...
The technique is based on comparing the levels of 14C and 12C isotopes in the sample. 14C is produced in the atmosphere by cosmic ray neutrons replacing a proton in nitrogen (14N), producing 14C.[1] 14C is unstable and decays back to 14N, at the rate of 50% every 5,730 years (so after 11,460 years 25% will be left, after 17,190 years 12.5% will be left, and so on). In the meantime, however, the 14C will combine with oxygen in the atmosphere to form carbon dioxide, which enters the food chain via photosynthesis in plants.[1] By this means, most living things also have 14C and 12C in the same ratio as in the atmosphere. This ratio is about one 14C atom for every 1,000,000,000,000 12C atoms.[1] However, when the sample dies, it stops ingesting 14C, so as the 14C decays to 14N, the ratio of 14C and 12C changes. This ratio of 14C to 12C is measured and a calculation turns the measurement into a figure representing how long ago the sample died. Depending on the method used to measure the 14C, after ...
Abstract: The average total energy as well as its hadronic and electromagnetic components are measured with the CMS detector at pseudorapidities $-$6.6 $,$ $\eta$ $,-$5.2 in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy $\sqrt{s} =$ 13 TeV. The results are presented as a function of the charged particle multiplicity in the region $,\eta,$ $,$ 2. This measurement is sensitive to correlations induced by the underlying event structure over a very wide pseudorapidity region. The predictions of Monte Carlo event generators commonly used in collider experiments and ultra-high energy cosmic ray physics are compared to the data. All generators considered overestimate the fraction of energy going into hadrons ...
*The limit for accurate determination of age is about 50,000yrs* D.3.1 Outline the method for dating rocks and fossils using radioisotopes, with reference to 14C and 40K. 14C is a naturally occurring isotope of carbon with a half life of 5730 years; It is constantly being made in the atmosphere when cosmic rays cause neutrons to fuse with nitrogen nuclei and
To raise money for their cosmic ray balloon program, on March 2nd the students of Earth to Sky Calculus flew a basket of bunnies to the edge of space. Get one for $49.95--space helmet included. They make a hare-raising gift. Each shipment of Easter-naut Read More... ...
Volgende Parity Check - Duur: 10:59. A repetition code, described in the section below, is a special case of error-correcting code: although rather inefficient, a repetition code is suitable in some applications of error correction and detection Interleaving allows distributing the effect of a single cosmic ray potentially upsetting multiple physically neighboring bits across multiple words by associating neighboring bits to different words. Error Detection And Correction Pdf Eddie Woo 38.131 weergaven 3:18 Lecture - 15 Error Detection and Correction - Duur: 58:27. Carl Herold 370.393 weergaven 18:10 Meer suggesties laden... Inloggen 32 Laden... Probeer het later opnieuw. http://back2cloud.com/error-detection/parity-bit-error-detection-example.php However, parity has the advantage that it uses only a single bit and requires only a number of XOR gates to generate. Check out the Computer Science Field Guide. For a given set of bits, if the count of bits with a value of 1 is even, the parity bit ...
One feature that I see in the story as it unfolds in the creation narrative, is that there is no wasted time: things move apace, as quickly as natural processes (when they rule) allow. Thus the earth and the universe are about as young as may be; the first life appeared almost as soon as the earth cooled to the point that life could exist. The ecosystem that supports advanced life developed apace. The modern oxygen atmosphere that is essential to advanced life came about at the earliest possible moment, followed almost immediately by the first complex (oxygen-based) life. Animal life and plant life came into existence in parallel "just in time", often in a symbiotic synchronization. Land-based life came as soon as the land could support it and it was possible to survive without suffering the bad effects of cosmic rays. There is a remarkable "arrow of time" that moved inexorably upwards. Even the mass extinctions that occurred periodically in the past served a purpose to clear the way for another ...
Chai and Why? Astrochemistry: Exploring the outer space laboratory Arnab Bhattacharya , added on Nov 04, 2011 , India Amazing chemical reactions happen in clouds of gas and dust that lie between the stars. These molecular clouds are billions of km across with cold atoms and molecules well-spaced and hit by cosmic rays. How do we know what molecules are there? What kind of chemical reactions dominate when it is so cold and rare? ...
Chai and Why? Astrochemistry: Exploring the outer space laboratory Arnab Bhattacharya , added on Nov 04, 2011 , India Amazing chemical reactions happen in clouds of gas and dust that lie between the stars. These molecular clouds are billions of km across with cold atoms and molecules well-spaced and hit by cosmic rays. How do we know what molecules are there? What kind of chemical reactions dominate when it is so cold and rare? ...
In the Oct. 14 SN: 2017s scientists to watch, duel over a real-life Brienne of Tarth, the origin of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays, long-lasting spheres of color, watermelon snows downside, support for the Unruh effect, polite robots and more. ...
In the Oct. 14 SN: 2017s scientists to watch, duel over a real-life Brienne of Tarth, the origin of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays, long-lasting spheres of color, watermelon snows downside, support for the Unruh effect, polite robots and more. ...
all while you both have no clue what you are babbling about, and are completely ignorant about the fact that your adversary, as opposed to you, indeed does understand what he is talking about.. Seriously. what brain lesion makes you even think that I dont know what cosmic rays. are ?. Why do you think that you are the only one who knows how much shielding is needed.. Especially, when you ( either on purpose or out of ignorance ) fail to mention that active shielding with only 10 KW power consumption can provide adequate protection. And you are also completely omitting the fact, that we are talking about mining asteroids, and a hollowed out asteroid provides kilometers thick shielding.. To sum up.. You are just another sad case of the Dunning-Kruger effect. You are so ignorant about the things you are talking about, that dont even know that you are ignorant, and the other guy is not.. ...
We thank Dr Rafnsson for valuable comments on our paper. Rafnsson finds our policy implications surprising. In the light of present evidence, we do not find further measures justified for reducing radiation exposure among cabin crew. The justification for this view is the fact that exposure limits common for all radiation workers also apply for the cabin crew. Dose monitoring indicates that the cosmic radiation doses are within the exposure limits. We see no reason to depart from the general radiation protection principles.. Cohort studies have shown an excess risk of breast cancer in cabin crew, in particular among those with long employment, with 1.5-3.4-fold incidence compared with the general population.1 Nevertheless, the radiation doses received are low and the expected effect based on previous literature is very small, with relative risk well below 1.1.2 Neither previous studies nor our study have been able to identify the cause for the excess incidence of breast cancer. Lack of ...
A common effect of radiation exposure that is reported by crewmembers is the perception of light flashes. The actual mechanism of these light flashes is not understood. Earlier studies on the Mir space station suggest that both heavy nuclei and protons trigger abnormal CNS responses. (Casolino et al. 2003). A Visual Stimulator tests the crewmembers overall visual system, including dark adaptation stimuli to monitor visual status. While not manned, the ALTEA hardware provides a continuous measure of the cosmic radiation in the ISS U.S. Laboratory, Destiny. The neurophysiological effects of cosmic radiation in long term space travel have never been explored with the depth of the ALTEA experiment. Data collected will help quantify risks to astronauts on future long-duration space missions and propose optimized countermeasures. ^ back to top ...
Flying a plane safely through the sky… with passengers or freight on board… takes more than excellent vision… airline and commercial pilots need quick reaction times and excellent problem-solving abilities. These pilots fly and navigate airplanes, helicopters, and other aircraft. Pilots run through detailed checks before every flight, including checking fuel supplies, aircraft weight limit, cargo balance, weather conditions, and aircraft condition. Tiny cockpits contain the flight crew for the duration of flight; strong teamwork and sharing of flight duties keep the pilot and copilot alert and rested. Pilots communicate frequently with air traffic controllers on the ground, from submitting their flight plan before take-off, to checking in during a flight, and receiving instructions for landing and handling storms or emergencies. Airline pilots fly public, scheduled flights. They may fly long-distance routes, and be away from home for extended periods. Those routes, along with mandatory ...
This paper reports the results of two separate heavy ion irradiation experiments. In the first set, nanomaterial samples including single and multi wall carbon nanotubes and electrospun carbon nanofibers, with well-graphitized vapor grown carbon fibers as controls, were irradiated using a primary beam of Krypton-86 ions at 142 Amp MeV. The single and multi wall carbon nanotube samples sustained little damage from the highest radiation dose. In the second set, a gallium nitride nanowire-based field effect transistor was irradiated using a primary beam of Krypton-78 ions at 140 Amp MeV. The nanocircuit maintained normal function under high active bias and high radiation dose. Krypton-86 and Krypton-78 are representative of high-Z heavy ions encountered in a space radiation environment. Results from the pre-irradiation structure and optoelectronic characterization of the gallium nitride nanowires are also reported ...
In todays A Lab Aloft, guest blogger Fred Kohl, Ph.D., International Space Station Physical Sciences Research project manager at NASAs Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, talks about some of the physical science investigations that take place in microgravity aboard the space station.. Extremes are part of exploration, whether youre talking about space travel or probing new areas of discovery to expand knowledge in a given science. So it is appropriate that the extreme environment of the International Space Station provides an ideal location to study physical sciences, from flames to fluids. Removing gravity from the equation aboard this Earth-orbiting laboratory reveals the fundamental aspects of physics hidden by force-dependent phenomena where a fluid phase (i.e., a liquid or gas) is present. Such experiments, which investigate the disciplines of fluid physics, complex fluids, materials science, combustion science, biophysics and fundamental physics, use the stations specialized experiment ...
MOSCOW: A Russian Soyuz spacecraft carrying Italys first female astronaut has safely docked with the International Space Station, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) said on Monday. Samantha Cristoforetti, along with Russian cosmonaut Anton Shkaplerov and American astronaut Terry Virts, arrived at the orbiting space lab on the Soyuz TMA-15M spacecraft at 2:49 a.m. on Monday, NASA said. "A new vehicle has arrived. The Soyuz is confirmed as attached properly," high above the Pacific Ocean, NASA television added. Cristoforetti, Virts and Shkaplerov docked just under six hours after taking off from Russias Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. They are to stay at the space station until May 2015.. AFP. ...
The Neutral Buoyancy risk abatement test was conducted at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Neutral Buoyancy Simulator facility during June and July 1995. The purpose of this neutral buoyancy simulation was to evaluate the crew interfaces associated with intra-vehicular activity (IVA) and extravehicular activity (EVA) operations for the International Space Station (ISS) Product Group-3 (PG-3) hardware.There were seven test objectives evaluated during the 1995 NBS test; three EVA and four IVA. The IVA tasks included two Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) maintenance evaluations, a Fluid System Servicer (FSS) operation evaluation and an Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS) rack installation/removal demonstration. The two CDRA maintenance tasks were removal and replacement of the upper rear heater controller Orbital Replaceable Unit (ORU) and removal and replacement of the rear Desiccant/Adsorbent (D/A) bed ORU. This paper will report on the results of IVA tests involving the CDRA rear D/A ...
MAURITIUS based Flyafrica Limited, which owns 49 percent of low cost airline Flyafrcia Zimbabwe, says its local partners acted unilaterally and illegally when they surrendered the Airline operator Certificate (AOC) to aviation authorities this week.. Flyafrica Zimbabwe is a partnership between the Karase familys Fresh Air and Flyafrica Limited.. The company said in a statement on Wednesday the move was in retaliation for fraud and theft charges involving $140,000 which had been filed against an unnamed member of the Karase family on Tuesday.. The Civil Aviation Authority of Zimbabwe (CAAZ) on Wednesday grounded the airlines aircraft following the surrender of its AOC.. "This conflict is deeply troubling to us, however we cannot allow theft of such a large-scale to go unresponded," said chief executive Adrian Hamilton-Manns, adding that the move by the Karase family was designed to tarnish the companys brand.. Hamilton-Manns said Flyafrica limited had suspended its local partner for breach ...
The new Expedition 52 crew will spend a four and a half month stint aboard the station and continue over 250 ongoing science investigations in fields such as biology, Earth science, human research, physical sciences and technology development.. Bresnik, Ryazanskiy and Nespoli are slated to stay aboard until returning to Earth in December.. Whitson, Fischer and Yurchikhin are in the home stretch of their mission and will retun to Earth in September. Shortly after their departure, NASA astronauts Mark Vande Hei and Joseph Acaba and Russian cosmonaut Alexander Misurkin will launch on the next Soyuz from Kazakhstan to join the Expedition 53 crew.. Whitson is the most experienced US astronaut with time in space. Her record setting cumulative time in space will exceed 600 days and include a 9 month stay on this flight upon her return to Earth.. She most recently launched to the ISS last year on Nov 17, 2016 aboard a Russian Soyuz capsule from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. This is her 3rd long duration stay ...

Tree rings show calendar of sun spot activity • The RegisterTree rings show calendar of sun spot activity • The Register

... radiation from deep space - impact the planet. The sun deflects much of the cosmic radiation that would otherwise smash into ... that are formed in the atmosphere when cosmic rays - ...
more infohttps://www.theregister.co.uk/2004/10/28/sun_spots/

Ноябрь 2013 Высокий риск землетрясения в Зоне Вранча РумынияНоябрь 2013 Высокий риск землетрясения в "Зоне Вранча" Румыния

The plates from lead can to protect from radiation, but it is necessary to know the exact location of the radiation source.. ... 3. Shumilov, O. I., Kasatkina, E. A., Raspopov, O. M., Turunen, E., Jacoby, G., & Morner, N.A. Influence of Cosmic Ray ... As well known the influence on Earth is not determined by the solar radiation parameters but is determined by parameters of ... It is possible to protect from external radiation exposure by decreasing time spent in the danger zone. ...
more infohttp://malevichart2.blogspot.com/2013/11/2013.html

Radiation Studies - CDC: Cosmic RadiationRadiation Studies - CDC: Cosmic Radiation

... also known as cosmic radiation. Provided by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). ... radiation. UV radiation is not considered cosmic radiation. Unlike cosmic radiation, UV radiation is lower in energy and is ... What is the risk from cosmic radiation?. Cosmic radiation exposes the body to radiation in a manner similar to exposure from a ... Radiation dose due to cosmic radiation will vary with altitude. Higher altitudes mean greater exposure to cosmic radiation. ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/nceh/radiation/cosmic.html

DailyTech - Cosmic Radiation Under InvestigationDailyTech - Cosmic Radiation Under Investigation

Science Cosmic Radiation Under Investigation. Levi Beckerson (Blog) - April 15, 2008 8:49 AM. ... High on the list of peril are a practical vacuum, near absolute zero temperature and cosmic radiation of all sorts. While ... Learning more about the problems cosmic radiation can cause will allow scientists and engineers to build safer space craft and ... Radiation is well known as a carcinogen. It can also simply kill living cells, leading to serious tissue damage in vital organs ...
more infohttp://www.dailytech.com/article.aspx?newsid=11488&commentid=280795&threshhold=1&red=111

DailyTech - Cosmic Radiation Under InvestigationDailyTech - Cosmic Radiation Under Investigation

Science Cosmic Radiation Under Investigation. Levi Beckerson (Blog) - April 15, 2008 8:49 AM. ... High on the list of peril are a practical vacuum, near absolute zero temperature and cosmic radiation of all sorts. While ... Learning more about the problems cosmic radiation can cause will allow scientists and engineers to build safer space craft and ... Radiation is well known as a carcinogen. It can also simply kill living cells, leading to serious tissue damage in vital organs ...
more infohttp://www.dailytech.com/article.aspx?newsid=11488&commentid=281341&threshhold=1&red=4148

Expanding Universe or Cosmic Dust? -- QED Radiations | PRLogExpanding Universe or Cosmic Dust? -- QED Radiations | PRLog

Cosmic dust in measurements of anomalous microwave emission and Hubble redshift both suggest the Universe is not expanding - ... QED induced EM radiation in cosmic dust NPs is proposed as the mechanism by which both AME and Hubble redshift may be used to ... Expanding Universe or Cosmic Dust?. Cosmic dust in measurements of anomalous microwave emission and Hubble redshift both ... AME stands for Anomalous Microwave Emission and CMB for Cosmic Microwave Background. However, cosmic dust [2] in the Milky Way ...
more infohttps://www.prlog.org/12413673-expanding-universe-or-cosmic-dust.html

The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation - NeatoramaThe Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation - Neatorama

Now they have a new item called the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. This cuddly plush toy represents the residual ... radiation from the Big Bang. The perfect gift for someone who understands what that is -or someone who doesnt! http://www. ... Main Blog , The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation ... Now they have a new item called the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. This cuddly plush toy represents the residual ...
more infohttp://www.neatorama.com/2009/06/22/the-cosmic-microwave-background-radiation/

Cosmic Microwave Background Radiations Polarization Detected at Last - Scientific AmericanCosmic Microwave Background Radiation's Polarization Detected at Last - Scientific American

Although it was discovered less than 40 years ago, the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation has been around a lot longer ... to study the CMB radiation. Over a two-year period, this array of radio telescopes collected radiation signals coming from deep ... A relic from the early days of the Universe more than 14 billion years ago, the CMB is the oldest radiation on record. Current ... the scientists report that the CMB radiations level and spatial distribution are in excellent agreement with the predictions ...
more infohttps://www.scientificamerican.com/article/cosmic-microwave-backgrou/

Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation / Space Science / Our Activities / ESACosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation / Space Science / Our Activities / ESA

This fossil radiation, the furthest that any telescope can see, was released soon after the Big Bang. ... The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) is the cooled remnant of the first light that could ever travel freely throughout the ... The cosmic background has been affected by the same process: it has expanded and cooled down. Space has stretched itself, and ... The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) is the cooled remnant of the first light that could ever travel freely throughout the ...
more infohttp://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Space_Science/Cosmic_Microwave_Background_CMB_radiation

NIOSHTIC-2  Publications Search - 00174921 - Anencephalus, drinking water, geomagnetism and cosmic radiation.NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 00174921 - Anencephalus, drinking water, geomagnetism and cosmic radiation.

High geomagnetic flux was considered as inversely related to levels of cosmic radiation. Data were screened by a bipartite ... The relationship between cosmic radiation and geomagnetic flux was discussed in terms of possible genetic effects which could ... High geomagnetic flux was considered as inversely related to levels of cosmic radiation. Data were screened by a bipartite ... Ionizing-radiation; Environmental-contamination; Physiological-response; Exposure-levels; Author Keywords: anencephalus; cosmic ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/niosh/nioshtic-2/00174921.html

cosmic radiation facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about cosmic radiationcosmic radiation facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about cosmic radiation

Make research projects and school reports about cosmic radiation easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia ... and pictures about cosmic radiation at Encyclopedia.com. ... radiation, cosmic (cosmic rays) Streams of subatomic particles ... Cosmic radiation contributes to background radiation. See also supernova. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the ... cosmic radiation (cosmic rays) Charged particles from space that constantly bombard the Earth at velocities approaching the ...
more infohttps://www.encyclopedia.com/earth-and-environment/ecology-and-environmentalism/environmental-studies/cosmic-radiation

Astronauts and Alzheimers: Mouse Study Shows Cosmic Radiation Is Associated With Disease - ABC NewsAstronauts and Alzheimer's: Mouse Study Shows Cosmic Radiation Is Associated With Disease - ABC News

Astronauts headed for Mars in 2035 are exposed to dangerous effects of powerful radiation, which is also associated with cancer ... Cosmic radiation is unlike anything on earth, according to OBanion, similar only to what might be experienced in a nuclear ... "Galactic cosmic radiation poses a significant threat to future astronauts," said Dr. M. Kerry OBanion, senior author and ... Cosmic Radiation Could Cause Alzheimers in Mars Astronauts. * By Susan Donaldson James ...
more infohttp://abcnews.go.com/Health/astronauts-alzheimers-mouse-study-shows-cosmic-radiation-disease/story?id=18104305&.tsrc=samsungwn

Cosmic background radiation - WikipediaCosmic background radiation - Wikipedia

Cosmic background radiation is electromagnetic radiation from the big bang. The origin of this radiation depends on the region ... of the cosmic background radiation suggests that the early universe was dominated by a radiation field, a field of extremely ... The Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect shows the phenomena of radiant cosmic background radiation interacting with "electron" clouds ... See cosmic infrared background and X-ray background. See also cosmic neutrino background and extragalactic background light. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cosmic_background_radiation

Cosmic Radiation Satellite - WikipediaCosmic Radiation Satellite - Wikipedia

The Cosmic Radiation Satellite (CORSA) was a Japanese space telescope. It was supposed to be Japans first X-ray astronomy ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cosmic_Radiation_Satellite

Earth Times: show/mysterious-source-of-high-energy-cosmic-radiation-discovered,629786.shtmlEarth Times: show/mysterious-source-of-high-energy-cosmic-radiation-discovered,629786.shtml

The Earth Times site and content have been updated. We do apologise, as this may mean that the article or page you were looking for has changed. The Earth Times now focuses on producing and publishing our own unique content on environmental issues, which is written by our own team of expert authors and journalists. We now publish environmental news articles and information on various environmental problems. You can use the site search at the top of each page, otherwise there are links to some of the main site categories and green blogs we publish included on this page.. Some of the environmental topics and categories that we now focus on include climate change and the effects of global warming, including their various impacts on both people and the planet as well as conservation issues and news articles relating to nature and wildlife. The site puts an emphasis on sustainability issues, including the use and technological progress made with various types of alternative or renewable energy. Earth ...
more infohttp://www.earthtimes.org/articles/show/mysterious-source-of-high-energy-cosmic-radiation-discovered,629786.shtml

Cosmic radiation may give astronauts Alzheimers, says study. Dont cancel your Mars tickets yet.Cosmic radiation may give astronauts Alzheimer's, says study. Don't cancel your Mars tickets yet.

Radiation from the sun and cosmic radiation are both significant dangers to astronauts. While the cosmic radiation is chronic, ... Radiation that endangers astronauts spurts through space in two main forms: galactic cosmic rays and protons ejected by the sun ... The study, done at the University of Rochester, claims that galactic cosmic radiation may lead to an increased risk of ... Even though galactic radiation can be more energetic, the number of particles in a burst of solar radiation can be as much as ...
more infohttp://www.slate.com/blogs/future_tense/2013/01/03/cosmic_radiation_may_give_astronauts_alzheimer_s_says_study_don_t_cancel.html

Radiometer System to Map the Cosmic Background Radiation - Digital LibraryRadiometer System to Map the Cosmic Background Radiation - Digital Library

The antennas, which have an extremely low side-lobe response of less than -65 dB past 60{sup o}, reject anisotropic radiation ... have developed a 33 GHz airborne radiometer system to map large-scale angular variations in the temperature of the 3 K cosmic ... background radiation. A ferrite circulator switches a room-temperature mixer between two antennas pointing 60{sup o} apart in ... Radiometer System to Map the Cosmic Background Radiation, article, November 1, 1977; Berkeley, California. (digital.library.unt ...
more infohttps://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc883734/

Cosmic opportunity for radiation research at ESA / Research / Human and Robotic Exploration / Our Activities / ESACosmic opportunity for radiation research at ESA / Research / Human and Robotic Exploration / Our Activities / ESA

... which is why ESA has made cosmic radiation a focus of its research programme. ... Cosmic radiation is considered the main health hazard to human spaceflight and space exploration of the Moon, Mars and beyond, ... Researchers need to understand the full biological effects of cosmic rays to accurately calculate how much cosmic radiation ... Cosmic radiation is considered the main health hazard to human spaceflight and space exploration of the Moon, Mars and beyond, ...
more infohttp://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Human_and_Robotic_Exploration/Research/Cosmic_opportunity_for_radiation_research_at_ESA

Cosmic Radiation Associated With Risk of Cataract in Airline Pilots | EmaxHealthCosmic Radiation Associated With Risk of Cataract in Airline Pilots | EmaxHealth

Exposure to cosmic radiation was assessed based on employment time as pilots, annual number of hours flown on each aircraft ... "The association between the cosmic radiation exposure of pilots and the risk of nuclear cataracts, adjusted for age, smoking ... indicates that cosmic radiation may be a causative factor in nuclear cataracts among commercial airline pilots," the authors ... and that risk is associated with cumulative exposure to cosmic radiation, according to a study in the August issue of the ...
more infohttps://www.emaxhealth.com/96/2916.html

Cosmic Background Radiation | Physics Forums - The Fusion of Science and CommunityCosmic Background Radiation | Physics Forums - The Fusion of Science and Community

Yes, in some sense, the cosmic microwave backgrond (CMB) does the provide an absolute cosmological frame, and our solar system ... the cosmic microwave backgrond (CMB) does the provide an absolute cosmological frame from George Jones (who gets extra points ... the cosmic microwave backgrond (CMB) does the provide an absolute cosmological frame from George Jones (who gets extra points ...
more infohttps://www.physicsforums.com/threads/cosmic-background-radiation.315037/

Cosmic radiation : Science World ReportCosmic radiation : Science World Report

Cosmic Radiation May Not Endanger Space Travelers as Much as Expected. Scientists have conducted an analysis of data from the ... Now, scientists have found that cosmic rays may threaten future deep-space astronaut missions with hazardous radiation. ... AMS Experiment Sheds Light on the Flux of Cosmic Rays and Possibly on the Nature of Dark Matter. Understanding cosmic rays is ... the first comprehensive measurements of long-term exposure of astronauts to cosmic radiation, and have found that the cosmos ...
more infohttp://www.scienceworldreport.com/tags/cosmic-radiation

KELEA, Cosmic Rays, Cloud Formation and Electromagnetic Radiation: Electropollution as a Possible Explanation for Climate ChangeKELEA, Cosmic Rays, Cloud Formation and Electromagnetic Radiation: Electropollution as a Possible Explanation for Climate Change

This article proposes that increasing levels of electromagnetic radiation in the atmosphere is reducing the capacity of cosmic ... from its presumed association with cosmic rays. Cosmic ray delivered KELEA is viewed as normally participating in the formation ... The resulting clouds act as a reflective barrier to some of the infrared radiation from the sun and, thereby, reduce the ... fields accompanying electromagnetic radiation may do so by competitively withdrawing some of the KELEA from the incoming cosmic ...
more infohttps://www.scirp.org/Html/3-4700459_64084.htm

Interpretation of anisotropy in the cosmic background radiation | Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London A:...Interpretation of anisotropy in the cosmic background radiation | Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London A:...

Interpretation of anisotropy in the cosmic background radiation. C. J. Hogan, N. Kaiser, M. J. Rees, F. R. S. ... Interpretation of anisotropy in the cosmic background radiation Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... We review mechanisms for producing temperature and polarization anisotropies in the microwave background radiation, and ... in particular the unknown opacity of the pregalactic gas and the possible contribution of discrete sources of radiation. ...
more infohttp://rsta.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/307/1497/97

Cohort study of occupational cosmic radiation dose and cancer mortality in German aircrew, 1960-2014 | Occupational &...Cohort study of occupational cosmic radiation dose and cancer mortality in German aircrew, 1960-2014 | Occupational &...

Hazards at 10 000 m: studies of aircrew and their importance in understanding cancer risks from cosmic radiation and circadian ... Cohort study of occupational cosmic radiation dose and cancer mortality in German aircrew, 1960-2014 ... Cohort study of occupational cosmic radiation dose and cancer mortality in German aircrew, 1960-2014 ... Future work should focus on investigating radiation jointly with other risk factors that may contribute to risks for specific ...
more infohttps://oem.bmj.com/content/early/2020/02/18/oemed-2019-106165
  • The sun deflects much of the cosmic radiation that would otherwise smash into the planet, but when solar activity is more intense, it deflects even more. (theregister.co.uk)
  • QED radiation is a consequence of QM that denies the atoms in NPs under TIR confinement to have the heat capacity to allow changes in temperature upon absorbing galaxy light. (prlog.org)
  • Cosmic radiation is electronically charged atoms known as ions that originate from outer space and from our own sun. (mitochondrialtherapy.com)
  • These atoms could no longer absorb the thermal radiation, and the universe became transparent instead of being an opaque fog. (phys.org)
  • Unlike the uncombined protons and electrons, these newly conceived atoms could not absorb the thermal radiation, and so the universe became transparent instead of being an opaque fog. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ionizing radiation carries more than 10 eV , which is enough to ionize atoms and molecules, and break chemical bonds . (mashpedia.com)
  • While an individual cell is made of trillions of atoms, only a small fraction of those will be ionized at low to moderate radiation powers. (mashpedia.com)
  • Electromagnetic radiation that does not readily ionize atoms such as that in visible light, ultraviolet light, infrared light, microwaves, ultrasound, and radiofrequency emissions. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This analogy works on the basis of thinking about matter as an enormous mass of atoms (that is nuclei with orbiting electrons) and that the radiation is a particle/photon passing through this type of environment. (wikibooks.org)
  • So the analogy to think about is a spaceship passing through a meteor storm like you might see in a science-fiction movie where the spaceship represents the radiation and the meteors represent the atoms of the material through which the radiation is passing. (wikibooks.org)
  • Though engineers say they can protect themselves from the radiation associated with solar flares, so far, they cannot block other forms of cosmic radiation. (go.com)
  • This well timed assessment covers all elements of 3 many years of research of this ghostly remnant of the new monstrous Bang foundation of the Universe, and examines the implications for astrophysics, cosmology and theories of the evolution of large-scale cosmic constitution. (football-rivalries.com)
  • This is the source for the term relic radiation , another name for the CMBR. (phys.org)
  • So headlines like " Study: Space Radiation Could Cause Alzheimer's " are true in a narrow sense: Space radiation could cause Alzheimer's. (slate.com)
  • Studies have suggested that pilots and cabin crew may be at higher risk for cataracts and cosmic radiation may contribute to the development, over time, of certain cancers. (mitochondrialtherapy.com)
  • On Earth, we are constantly exposed to low levels of radiation. (cdc.gov)
  • The levels of radiation aren't high, but they would add up to cause significant damage over time. (scienceworldreport.com)
  • Cosmonauts, pilots, cabin crew and frequent fliers who spend extended periods of time at high altitudes and consequently can be exposed to levels of radiation 100-300 times stronger that the levels measured at sea level. (mitochondrialtherapy.com)
  • The international symbol for types and levels of radiation that are unsafe for unshielded humans. (mashpedia.com)
  • No good sir, Cosmic Radiation Mystron 's on the level. (blogspot.com)
  • Friday at 9:00 PM Eastern, TheOuterSpaceMen.com will sell Cosmic Radiation Mystron - the glow-in-the-dark Man from Hollow Earth. (blogspot.ca)
  • Friday night at 9:00 Eastern I will drop the balance of the Mystron Cosmic Radiation figures left over from the #fivepointsfestival I have less then a case left so these are really limited in number. (blogspot.ca)
  • However, fast neutrons will interact with the protons in hydrogen (in the manner of a billiard ball hitting another, sending it away with all of the first ball's energy of motion), and this mechanism produces proton radiation (fast protons). (bionity.com)
  • The second basic flaw in the University of Rochester study is that it relies on subjecting mice to acute doses of radiation and measuring the effects, instead of saying anything about how humans deal with radiation. (slate.com)
  • Crewmembers may be exposed to different doses and qualities of radiation, threatening life quality and individual survivability, thereby disrupting mission success," explains Jennifer Ngo-Anh, head of Human Research at ESA. (esa.int)
  • Cumulative radiation doses were estimated from individual flight records. (cdc.gov)
  • But it's not clear exactly what effect space radiation has on the brain because there are different types of radiation and they're delivered in different doses. (thecosmicview.com)
  • High geomagnetic flux was considered as inversely related to levels of cosmic radiation. (cdc.gov)
  • The relationship between cosmic radiation and geomagnetic flux was discussed in terms of possible genetic effects which could be related to anencephaly. (cdc.gov)
  • However, cosmic dust in the Milky Way may also produce AME similar to that found in BICEP2 thereby placing in question the Big Bang and the expanding Universe. (prlog.org)
  • Radiation dose due to cosmic radiation will vary with altitude. (cdc.gov)
  • While security checkpoints increase airport safety and high cruising altitude conserves fuel, both expose our bodies to excessive radiation. (onlocaltime.com)
  • This radiation is much more intense in the upper troposphere , around 10 km altitude, and is thus of particular concern for airline crews and frequent passengers, who spend many hours per year in this environment. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Longer-term radiation effects include damage to the eyes, gastrointestinal system, lungs and central nervous system. (go.com)
  • This is the first such study to explore effects of radiation on the nervous system, a phenomenon known as neurodegeneration, according to the authors. (go.com)
  • Although UV radiation mainly has an impact in the stratosphere, there are top-down effects that lead to impacts to the troposphere. (notrickszone.com)
  • Diana Battefeld, The Effects of a Rotating Cosmic String Loop on the Surrounding Plasma, 2015 [soft chalk on paper]. (horizoncrossing.com)
  • And unless the crew is in perfect health at takeoff there would be no sure way to determine the effects of cosmic radiation later. (spacesafetymagazine.com)
  • Since all radiation detectors are made from some form of matter it is useful to first of all know how radiation interacts so that we can exploit the effects in the design of such detectors in subsequent chapters of this wikibook. (wikibooks.org)
  • Although radiation damages both cancer cells and normal cells, most normal cells can recover from the effects of radiation and function properly. (news-medical.net)
  • Both sources of radiation are potentially dangerous to human life. (slate.com)
  • We also review possible sources of ambiguity in interpreting data, in particular the unknown opacity of the pregalactic gas and the possible contribution of discrete sources of radiation. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • NASA, which has displayed an unsteady commitment to such exploration, has funded research in how to mitigate radiation risk in haphazard fashion in the past, according to a 2008 National Research Council report . (slate.com)
  • Two new studies support and inform the use of proton radiation therapy to treat patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a common but often fatal type of liver cancer for which there are limited treatment options. (news-medical.net)
  • suggests that proton radiation, compared to traditional photon radiation, can extend overall survival with reduced toxicity. (news-medical.net)
  • It strongly depends on the sunspot number because the ultraviolet radiation is produced in the areas near sunspots. (notrickszone.com)
  • Exploring the relationship between solar extreme ultraviolet radiation flux and 150-km radar echoes. (eos.org)
  • The researchers found an association between the estimated cumulative radiation dose and the risk of nuclear cataract. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Low-level radiation includes that emitted by power lines, nuclear power plants, and appliances such as electric blankets, television sets, and computer terminals. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • On Fringe , the scientists make a reference to Russian radiation experiments during the Cold War, but Karam says that there were radiation experiments on both sides of the battle, mostly to discover what would happen to the population in the event of a nuclear war. (popularmechanics.com)
  • The two young scientists postulated that the universe would become transparent to radiation from this time onwards, and that this radiation might even be observable in today's universe (like a cosmic fossil). (antimatter.ie)
  • Rodents and flies reproduce prodigiously in a short span of time, allowing scientists to discern genetic changes that radiation might create. (spacesafetymagazine.com)
  • The study team wanted to see if radiation had the potential to accelerate Alzheimer's in those who were genetically vulnerable. (go.com)
  • The study , done at the University of Rochester, claims that galactic cosmic radiation may lead to an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease. (slate.com)