Cosmic Dust: Finely divided solid matter with particle sizes smaller than a micrometeorite, thus with diameters much smaller than a millimeter, moving in interplanetary space. (NASA Thesaurus, 1994)Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Pyroglyphidae: Family of house dust mites, in the superfamily Analgoidea, order Astigmata. They include the genera Dermatophagoides and Euroglyphus.Mites: Any arthropod of the subclass ACARI except the TICKS. They are minute animals related to the spiders, usually having transparent or semitransparent bodies. They may be parasitic on humans and domestic animals, producing various irritations of the skin (MITE INFESTATIONS). Many mite species are important to human and veterinary medicine as both parasite and vector. Mites also infest plants.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Astronomy: The science concerned with celestial bodies and the observation and interpretation of the radiation received in the vicinity of the earth from the component parts of the universe (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Astronomical Phenomena: Aggregates of matter in outer space, such as stars, planets, comets, etc. and the properties and processes they undergo.Silicates: The generic term for salts derived from silica or the silicic acids. They contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals, and may contain hydrogen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th Ed)Galaxies: Large aggregates of CELESTIAL STARS; COSMIC DUST; and gas. (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Silicon: A trace element that constitutes about 27.6% of the earth's crust in the form of SILICON DIOXIDE. It does not occur free in nature. Silicon has the atomic symbol Si, atomic number 14, and atomic weight [28.084; 28.086].ExplosionsSolar System: The group of celestial bodies, including the EARTH, orbiting around and gravitationally bound by the sun. It includes eight planets, one minor planet, and 34 natural satellites, more than 1,000 observed comets, and thousands of lesser bodies known as MINOR PLANETS (asteroids) and METEOROIDS. (From Academic American Encyclopedia, 1983)Physics: The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Meteoroids: Any solid objects moving in interplanetary space that are smaller than a planet or asteroid but larger than a molecule. Meteorites are any meteoroid that has fallen to a planetary surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Nuclear Physics: The study of the characteristics, behavior, and internal structures of the atomic nucleus and its interactions with other nuclei. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Extraterrestrial Environment: The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or space station) or to space itself, the moon, or other planets.Planets: Celestial bodies orbiting around the sun or other stars.Stars, Celestial: Large bodies consisting of self-luminous gas held together by their own gravity. (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Earth (Planet): Planet that is the third in order from the sun. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the SOLAR SYSTEM.Moon: The natural satellite of the planet Earth. It includes the lunar cycles or phases, the lunar month, lunar landscapes, geography, and soil.Telescopes: Instruments used to observe distant objects.Spacecraft: Devices, manned and unmanned, which are designed to be placed into an orbit about the Earth or into a trajectory to another celestial body. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Jupiter: The fifth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its sixteen natural satellites include Callisto, Europa, Ganymede, and Io.Bedding and Linens: Articles of cloth, usually cotton or rayon and other synthetic or cotton-blend fabrics, used in households, hospitals, physicians' examining rooms, nursing homes, etc., for sheets, pillow cases, toweling, gowns, drapes, and the like.Baths: The immersion or washing of the body or any of its parts in water or other medium for cleansing or medical treatment. It includes bathing for personal hygiene as well as for medical purposes with the addition of therapeutic agents, such as alkalines, antiseptics, oil, etc.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Nursing Homes: Facilities which provide nursing supervision and limited medical care to persons who do not require hospitalization.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Chenopodium: A plant genus in the CHENOPODIACEAE family.Cyprinodontiformes: An order of fish with eight families and numerous species of both egg-laying and livebearing fish. Families include Cyprinodontidae (egg-laying KILLIFISHES;), FUNDULIDAEl; (topminnows), Goodeidae (Mexican livebearers), Jenynsiidae (jenynsiids), Poeciliidae (livebearers), Profundulidae (Middle American killifishes), Aplocheilidae, and Rivulidae (rivulines). In the family Poeciliidae, the guppy and molly belong to the genus POECILIA.Sexual Harassment: A form of discrimination in the workplace which violates the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Sexual harassment takes two forms: quid pro quo, where the employee must submit to sexual advances in exchange for job benefits or be penalized for refusing; or a hostile environment, where the atmosphere of the workplace is offensive and affects the employee's well-being. Offensive sexual conduct may include unwelcome advances, comments, touching, questions about marital status and sex practices, etc. Both men and women may be aggressors or victims. (Slee and Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed, p.404). While civil rights legislation deals with sexual harassment in the workplace, the behavior is not restricted to this; it may take place outside the work environment: in schools and colleges, athletics, and other social milieus and activities.Animal Fins: Membranous appendage of fish and other aquatic organisms used for locomotion or balance.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Poecilia: A genus of livebearing cyprinodont fish comprising the guppy and molly. Some species are virtually all female and depend on sperm from other species to stimulate egg development. Poecilia is used in carcinogenicity studies as well as neurologic and physiologic research.Anopheles gambiae: A species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles and the principle vector of MALARIA in Africa.SwedenEarth Sciences: Fields of science encompassing studies and research from the disciplines of PHYSICS; CHEMISTRY; BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; and MATHEMATICS; that are related to the planet EARTH. Subfields include atmospheric chemistry; CLIMATOLOGY; ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; GEOGRAPHY; GEOLOGY; geophysics; METEOROLOGY; OCEANOGRAPHY; PALEONTOLOGY; mineralogy; and seismology.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Portal Vein: A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.Physical Phenomena: The entities of matter and energy, and the processes, principles, properties, and relationships describing their nature and interactions.Photometry: Measurement of the various properties of light.Yukon Territory: A territory of northwest Canada, bounded on the north by the Arctic Ocean, on the south by British Columbia, and on the west by Alaska. Its capital is Whitehorse. It takes its name from the Yukon River, the Indian yu-kun-ah, meaning big river. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1367 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p608)Reproductive Physiological Processes: Physiological activities and functions that pertain to REPRODUCTION.BooksCereals: Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.EncyclopediasCellular Phone: Analog or digital communications device in which the user has a wireless connection from a telephone to a nearby transmitter. It is termed cellular because the service area is divided into multiple "cells." As the user moves from one cell area to another, the call is transferred to the local transmitter.Replicon: Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Book Selection

Condensation of carbon in radioactive supernova gas. (1/63)

Chemistry resulting in the formation of large carbon-bearing molecules and dust in the interior of an expanding supernova was explored, and the equations governing their abundances were solved numerically. Carbon dust condenses from initially gaseous carbon and oxygen atoms because energetic electrons produced by radioactivity in the supernova cause dissociation of the carbon monoxide molecules, which would otherwise form and limit the supply of carbon atoms. The resulting free carbon atoms enable carbon dust to grow faster by carbon association than the rate at which the dust can be destroyed by oxidation. The origin of presolar micrometer-sized carbon solids that are found in meteorites is thereby altered.  (+info)

An infrared spectral match between GEMS and interstellar grains. (2/63)

Infrared spectral properties of silicate grains in interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) were compared with those of astronomical silicates. The approximately 10-micrometer silicon-oxygen stretch bands of IDPs containing enstatite (MgSiO3), forsterite (Mg2SiO4), and glass with embedded metal and sulfides (GEMS) exhibit fine structure and bandwidths similar to those of solar system comets and some pre-main sequence Herbig Ae/Be stars. Some GEMS exhibit a broad, featureless silicon-oxygen stretch band similar to those observed in interstellar molecular clouds and young stellar objects. These GEMS provide a spectral match to astronomical "amorphous" silicates, one of the fundamental building blocks from which the solar system is presumed to have formed.  (+info)

Deflection of the local interstellar dust flow by solar radiation pressure. (3/63)

Interstellar dust grains intercepted by the dust detectors on the Ulysses and Galileo spacecrafts at heliocentric distances from 2 to 4 astronomical units show a deficit of grains with masses from 1 x 10(-17) to 3 x 10(-16) kilograms relative to grains intercepted outside 4 astronomical units. To divert grains out of the 2- to 4-astronomical unit region, the solar radiation pressure must be 1.4 to 1.8 times the force of solar gravity. These figures are consistent with the optical properties of spherical or elongated grains that consist of astronomical silicates or organic refractory material. Pure graphite grains with diameters of 0.2 to 0.4 micrometer experience a solar radiation pressure force as much as twice the force of solar gravity.  (+info)

Titanium carbide nanocrystals in circumstellar environments. (4/63)

Meteorites contain micrometer-sized graphite grains with embedded titanium carbide grains. Although isotopic analysis identifies asymptotic giant branch stars as the birth sites of these grains, there is no direct observational identification of these grains in astronomical sources. We report that infrared wavelength spectra of gas-phase titanium carbide nanocrystals derived in the laboratory show a prominent feature at a wavelength of 20.1 micrometers, which compares well to a similar feature in observed spectra of postasymptotic giant branch stars. It is concluded that titanium carbide forms during a short (approximately 100 years) phase of catastrophic mass loss (>0.001 solar masses per year) in dying, low-mass stars.  (+info)

Evidence for dust grain growth in young circumstellar disks. (5/63)

Hundreds of circumstellar disks in the Orion nebula are being rapidly destroyed by the intense ultraviolet radiation produced by nearby bright stars. These young, million-year-old disks may not survive long enough to form planetary systems. Nevertheless, the first stage of planet formation-the growth of dust grains into larger particles-may have begun in these systems. Observational evidence for these large particles in Orion's disks is presented. A model of grain evolution in externally irradiated protoplanetary disks is developed and predicts rapid particle size evolution and sharp outer disk boundaries. We discuss implications for the formation rates of planetary systems.  (+info)

Accretion rates of meteorites and cosmic dust in the Early Ordovician. (6/63)

Abundant fossil meteorites in marine, condensed Lower Ordovician limestones from Kinnekulle, Sweden, indicate that accretion rates of meteorites were one to two orders of magnitude higher during an interval of the Early Ordovician than at present. Osmium isotope and iridium analyses of whole-rock limestone indicate a coeval enhancement of one order of magnitude in the influx rate of cosmic dust. Enhanced accretion of cosmic matter may be related to the disruption of the L chondrite parent body around 500 million years ago.  (+info)

Abiotic formation of bioorganic compounds in space--preliminary experiments on ground and future exobiology experiments in space. (7/63)

Simulation experiments on ground have shown that "amino acid precursors", which give amino acids after acid-hydrolysis, can be formed when an ice mixture simulating ice mantles of interstellar dust particles (lSDs) is irradiated with high energy particles or UV light. It is strongly suggested that such bioorganic compounds were delivered by comets for the first biosphere on the Earth. It is of great interest to confirm this hypothesis in actual space conditions, such as in an exposed facility of JEM. Fundamental designs for such exobiology experiments in earth orbit (EEEO) will be discussed.  (+info)

A conceptual design for cosmo-biology experiments in Earth's Orbit. (8/63)

A conceptual design was developed for a cosmo-biology experiment. It is intended to expose simulated interstellar ice materials deposited on dust grains to the space environment. The experimental system consists of a cryogenic system to keep solidified gas sample, and an optical device to select and amplify the ultraviolet part of the solar light for irradiation. By this approach, the long lasting chemical evolution of icy species could be examined in a much shorter time of exposure by amplification of light intensity. The removal of light at longer wavelength, which is ineffective to induce photochemical reactions, reduces the heat load to the cryogenic system that holds solidified reactants including CO as a constituent species of interstellar materials. Other major hardware components were also defined in order to achieve the scientific objectives of this experiment. Those are a cold trap maintained at liquid nitrogen temperature to prevent the contamination of the sample during the exposure, a mechanism to exchange multiple samples, and a system to perform bake-out of the sample exposure chamber. This experiment system is proposed as a candidate payload implemented on the exposed facility of Japanese Experiment Module on International Space Station.  (+info)

In the interstellar medium - the space between the stars in galaxies - new stars are born from material that is replenished by the debris ejected by stars when they die. This book is a comprehensive manual for studying the collisional and radiative processes observed in the interstellar medium. This second edition has been thoroughly updated and extended to cover related topics in radiation theory. It considers the chemistry of the interstellar medium both at the present epoch and in the early Universe, and discusses the physics and chemistry of shock waves. The methods of calculation of the rates of collisional excitation of interstellar molecules and atoms are explained, emphasising the quantum mechanical method. This book will be ideal for researchers involved in the interstellar medium and star formation, and physical chemists specialising in collision theory or in the measurement of the rates of collision processes.. • Comprehensive manual for studying collisional and radiative processes ...
If you have a question about this talk, please contact Stephen Walley.. Astronomers have long realised that reactions on the surface of dust grains play an important role in the formation of molecules in the interstellar medium (ISM), in particular those found frozen out as interstellar ices. To help understand the gas-grain interaction in the ISM , our group is undertaking a range of experimental and theoretical investigations of the adsorption, desorption and formation of interstellar ices.. This talk is part of the Surfaces, Microstructure and Fracture Group series.. ...
The researchers started with water and a variety of simple molecules that are known to exist in the `real` clouds, such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, ammonia and hydrogen cyanide. Although these initial ingredients were not exactly the same in each experiment, both groups `cooked` them in a similar way. In specific chambers in the laboratory they reproduced the common conditions of temperature and pressure known to exist in interstellar clouds, which is, by the way, quite different from our `normal` conditions. Interstellar clouds have a temperature of 260 °C below zero, and the pressure is also very low (almost zero). Great care was taken to exclude contamination. As a result, grains analogous to those in the clouds were formed ...
The origin of water on our planet is not only of interest for our understanding of the evolution of our own planet and life thereon, but even more so for the increasing exploration of other planets within our solar system and the discovery of potential planetary systems in other galaxies. Having spent half a lifetime teaching his students the accepted versions of the origin of our planetary water, which increasingly did not fit the available evidence, Dr Mike Drake at the University of Arizona suggested an alternative hypothesis: that water was already present at the surfaces of interstellar dust grains when they accreted to form our planet. Although this hypothesis fitted with all available evidence, it would only be feasible if the adhesion of water to the dust grains was sufficiently strong to survive the harsh conditions in the interstellar dust clouds where planets form. Computer simulations by myself and colleagues in UCL, Arizona and Muenster on the adhesion of water to a mineral commonly ...
NASAs Cassini spacecraft has detected the faint but distinct signature of dust coming from beyond our solar system. The research, led by a team of Cassini scientists primarily from Europe,
Metallic aluminum alloy foils exposed oil the forward, comet-facing surface of the aerogel tray oil the Stardust spacecraft are likely to have been impacted by the same cometary particle Population as the dedicated impact sensors and the aerogel collector. The ability of soft aluminum alloy to record hypervelocity impacts as bowl-shaped craters offers all opportunistic substrate for recognition of impacts by particles of a potentially wide size range. In contrast to impact surveys conducted oil samples from low Earth orbit, the simple encounter geometry for Stardust and Wild-2, with a known and constant spacecraft-particle relative velocity and effective surface-perpendicular impact trajectories, permits closely comparable simulation in laboratory experiments. For a detailed calibration program, we have selected a suite of spherical glass projectiles of uniform density and hardness characteristics, with well-documented particle size range from 10 mu m to nearly 100 mu m. Light gas gun buckshot ...
Many chemical models of dense interstellar clouds predict that the majority of gas-phase elemental nitrogen should be present as N2, with an abundance approximately five orders of magnitude less than that of hydrogen. As a homonuclear diatomic molecule, N2 is difficult to detect spectroscopically through infrared or millimeter-wavelength transitions. Therefore, its abundance is often inferred indirectly through its reaction product N2H+. Two main formation mechanisms, each involving two radical-radical reactions, are the source of N2 in such environments. Here we report measurements of the low temperature rate constants for one of these processes, the N + CN reaction, down to 56 K. The measured rate constants for this reaction, and those recently determined for two other reactions implicated in N2 formation, are tested using a gas-grain model employing a critically evaluated chemical network. We show that the amount of interstellar nitrogen present as N2 depends on the competition between its gas-phase
The large grains in interstellar space are probably complex, with refractory cores that condensed within stellar outflows topped by layers acquired subsequently during incursions into cold dense interstellar clouds. That cyclic process of growth and destruction outside of the clouds has been modeled[31][32] to demonstrate that the cores live much longer than the average lifetime of dust mass. Those cores mostly start with silicate particles condensing in the atmospheres of cool oxygen rich red-giant stars and carbon grains condensing in the atmospheres of cool carbon stars. The red-giant stars have evolved off the main sequence and have entered the giant phase of their evolution and are the major source of refractory dust grain cores in galaxies. Those refractory cores are also called Stardust (section above), which is a scientific term for the small fraction of cosmic dust that condensed thermally within stellar gases as they were ejected from the stars. Several percent of refractory grain ...
The chemistry of life may have begun shortly after the Big Bang, 13.8 billion years ago, during a habitable epoch when the Universe was only 10-17 million years old.[4][5]. The first carbon-containing molecule detected in the interstellar medium was the methylidyne radical (CH•) in 1937.[6] From the early 1970s it was becoming evident that interstellar dust consisted of a large component of more complex organic molecules (COMs),[7] probably polymers. Chandra Wickramasinghe proposed the existence of polymeric composition based on the molecule formaldehyde (H2CO).[8] Fred Hoyle and Chandra Wickramasinghe later proposed the identification of bicyclic aromatic compounds from an analysis of the ultraviolet extinction absorption at 2175 Å,[9] thus demonstrating the existence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules in space.. In 2004, scientists reported[10] detecting the spectral signatures of anthracene and pyrene in the ultraviolet light emitted by the Red Rectangle nebula (no other such ...
The chemistry of life may have begun shortly after the Big Bang, 13.8 billion years ago, during a habitable epoch when the Universe was only 10-17 million years old.[4][5] The first carbon-containing molecule detected in the interstellar medium was the methylidyne radical (CH) in 1937.[6] From the early 1970s it was becoming evident that interstellar dust consisted of a large component of more complex organic molecules (COMs),[7] probably polymers. Chandra Wickramasinghe proposed the existence of polymeric composition based on the molecule formaldehyde (H2CO).[8] Fred Hoyle and Chandra Wickramasinghe later proposed the identification of bicyclic aromatic compounds from an analysis of the ultraviolet extinction absorption at 2175A.,[9] thus demonstrating the existence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules in space. In 2004, scientists reported[10] detecting the spectral signatures of anthracene and pyrene in the ultraviolet light emitted by the Red Rectangle nebula (no other such complex ...
Abstract: Using 3D MHD simulation with the effects of radiative cooling/heating, chemical reactions, and thermal conduction, we investigate the formation of molecular cloud in the ISM. We consider the formation of molecular cloud by accretion of the HI clouds as suggested in recent observations. The simulation shows that the initial HI medium is compressed and piled up behind the shock waves induced by the accretion flows. Since the initial medium is highly inhomogeneous as a consequence of the thermal instability, the formed molecular cloud becomes very turbulent owing to the development of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability. The structure of the post shock region is composed of dense cold gas (T,100 K) and diffuse warm gas (T,1,000 K), which are spatially well mixed owing to the turbulence. Because the energy source of the turbulence is the accretion flows, the turbulence is highly anisotropic biased toward the direction of accretion flows. The kinetic energy of the turbulence dominates the ...
Abstract : Amino acids are the essential molecular components of living organisms on Earth, but the proposed mechanisms for their spontaneous generation have been unable to account for their presence in Earths early history. The delivery of extraterrestrial organic compounds has been proposed as an alternative to generation on Earth, and some amino acids have been found in several meteorites. Here we report the detection of amino acids in the room-temperature residue of an interstellar ice analogue that was ultraviolet-irradiated in a high vacuum at 12 K. We identified 16 amino acids ; the chiral ones showed enantiomeric separation. Some of the identified amino acids are also found in meteorites. Our results demonstrate that the spontaneous generation of amino acids in the interstellar medium is possible, supporting the suggestion that prebiotic molecules could have been delivered to the early Earth by cometary dust, meteorites or interplanetary dust particles.. ...
Explanation: Every book has a first page and every catalog a first entry. And so this lovely blue cosmic cloud begins the van den Bergh Catalog (vdB) of stars surrounded by reflection nebulae. Interstellar dust clouds reflecting the light of the nearby stars, the nebulae usually appear blue because scattering by the dust grains is more effective at shorter (bluer) wavelengths. The same type of scattering gives planet Earth its blue daytime skies. Van den Berghs 1966 list contains a total of 158 entries more easily visible from the northern hemisphere, including bright Pleiades cluster stars and other popular targets for astroimagers. Less than 5 light-years across, VdB1 lies about 1,600 light-years distant in the constellation Cassiopeia. Also on this scene, two intriguing nebulae at the right show loops and outflow features associated with the energetic process of star formation. Within are extremely young variable stars V633 Cas (top) and V376 Cas ...
Ok. Lets get some terminology down first. If a body (like the Earth) is orbiting around the Sun, we say it is closest to the Sun at perihelion and farthest from the Sun at aphelion. If a body (like the Moon) is orbiting around the Earth, its closest point to the Earth is perigee and its farthest point from the Earth is apogee. In 2000, perihelion for the Earth was on January 3, 2000, and aphelion was on July 4, 2000. The Earth was 91,405,436 miles from Sun at perihelion and 94,511,989 miles from Sun at aphelion. For the year 2001, perihelion will occur on January 3, 2001 and aphelion will occur on July 4, 2001. The actual date for perihelion and aphelion will differ from year to year. But, you can see that the Earth is closest to the Sun in January and farthest from the Sun in July!. This may not seem right. I mean its winter in the northern hemisphere in January and yet we are closest to the Sun. But, our seasons are actually determined by the tilt of the Earth and not the Earths proximity ...
Mineral evolution is a new way to look at our planets history. Its the study of the increasing diversity and characteristics of Earths near-surface minerals, from the dozen that arrived on interstellar dust particles when the Solar System was formed to the more than 4,700 types existing today. Ne
This table contains results from a survey of the Orion A and B molecular clouds undertaken with the IRAC and MIPS instruments on board Spitzer. In total, five distinct fields were mapped, covering 9 deg2 in five mid-IR bands spanning 3 - 24 microns (um). The survey includes the Orion Nebula Cluster, the Lynds 1641, 1630, and 1622 dark clouds, and the NGC 2023, 2024, 2068, and 2071 nebulae. These data are merged with the Two Micron All Sky Survey point source catalog to generate a catalog of eight-band photometry. The authors identify 3479 dusty young stellar objects (YSOs) in the Orion molecular clouds by searching for point sources with mid-IR colors indicative of reprocessed light from dusty disks or in-falling envelopes. The YSOs are subsequently classified on the basis of their mid-IR colors and their spatial distributions are presented. The authors classify 2991 of the YSOs as pre-main-sequence stars with disks and 488 as likely protostars. Most of the sources were observed with IRAC in two ...
What makes carbon-based organic compounds especially interesting to scientists is that life is made of them and produces them. So one source of the organics in Martian samples could be biology, Eigenbrode said. But she said there were other potential sources that might be more plausible.. Organics, for instance, can be formed through non-biological geothermal and hydrothermal processes on Earth, and presumably on Mars too. In addition, both meteorites and interstellar dust are known to contain organic compounds, and they rain down on Mars as they do on Earth.. Eigenbrode said the organics being detected could be coming from any one source, or from all of them.. Asked at the workshop what concentrations of organics were found, she replied with a grin that more light will be shed on the question at next weeks American Geophysical Union meeting.. The detection of a growing variety of organics on Mars adds to the conclusion already reached by the Curiosity team - that Mars was once much wetter, ...
For galaxy fans, you have got to point your telescope towards NGC 6946, the "Fireworks Galaxy" (RA 20h 34m 52.3s Dec +60 09 14). Who cares if this barred spiral galaxy 10 million light years away? This is one supernovae active baby! At one time, it was widely believed that NGC 6946 was a member of our Local Group; mainly because it could be easily resolved into stars.. There was a reddening observed in it, believed to be indicative of distance - but now know to be caused by interstellar dust. But it isnt the shrouding dust cloud that makes NGC 6946 so interesting, its the fact that so many supernova and star-forming events have sparkled in its arms in the last few years that has science puzzled! So many, in fact, that theyve been recorded every year or two for the last 60 years…. Now, for the really cool part - understanding barred structure. Thanks to the Hubble Space Telescope and a study of more than 2,000 spiral galaxies - the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) - astronomers understand ...
Rare earths are the flotsam of a churning, restless planet - 17 oddly behaving metal oxides pushed from deep in the mantle up to the crust over countless eons. Cerium was soon put to use. Because of its inherent ability to glow in heat, it was used to treat mantles on kerosene lanterns (Welsbachs invention) and later in Victorian gas street lamps to make them glow more brightly. Like all elements heavier than iron, they were manufactured in dying stars as they undergo the supernova process - they are ejected into space and form part of the interstellar dust that condenses to form new solar systems, Long said. According to Popular Science columnist Theodore Gray, The chemistry of elements depends almost entirely on the outer shell. What makes rare earths so important are their magnetic properties, Gray said, which result when electrons are added to the inner orbits, giving each a distinct set of peculiarities. If dysprosium replaces but 6 percent of the neodymium in the electric motor magnets
Rare earths are the flotsam of a churning, restless planet - 17 oddly behaving metal oxides pushed from deep in the mantle up to the crust over countless eons. Cerium was soon put to use. Because of its inherent ability to glow in heat, it was used to treat mantles on kerosene lanterns (Welsbachs invention) and later in Victorian gas street lamps to make them glow more brightly. Like all elements heavier than iron, they were manufactured in dying stars as they undergo the supernova process - they are ejected into space and form part of the interstellar dust that condenses to form new solar systems, Long said. According to Popular Science columnist Theodore Gray, The chemistry of elements depends almost entirely on the outer shell. What makes rare earths so important are their magnetic properties, Gray said, which result when electrons are added to the inner orbits, giving each a distinct set of peculiarities. If dysprosium replaces but 6 percent of the neodymium in the electric motor magnets
You seem to want to aggravate someone into commenting on evolution. Well, I will say this: Genesis was written a long time ago. It was not written as a scientific document. It does not talk about neutrons and protons, quarks and electrons. It says nothing about the sun being a burning gas fire full of hydrogen and helium or that other stars went supernova spitting heavy elements everywhere forming interstellar dust which could form a planet such as our own. It does not mention dinosaurs, the enormous meteor that wiped them out or an ice age. In fact, its not very comprehensive from a scientific viewpoint. But then again, Genesis does not try to be from a scientific viewpoint. Genesis sets out to tell us what we need to know. God created everything. He created life. And not only that, but His Son and the Spirit were there. Gods word is powerful. He created us in His image. We then turned from Him, i.e. sinned. The Bible as a whole explains this very well. We sin and that separates us from God, ...
The universe started 13.5 billion years ago with the Big Bang. Our earth is approximately 4.5 billion years old. As the interstellar dust coalesced to form Earth, it took approximately another billion years for the planet to cool and for the water vapor in the atmosphere to condense and form the oceans.. It was during this time that bacteriophage and bacteria evolved. They existed in this primordial earth alone for over a billion years before the evolution of eucaryotic cells. Bacteria and bacteriophage are the true senior citizens of our planet. Today, bacteriophage are ubiquitous and are the most diverse and widely distributed entities in the biosphere. One of the denses sources of phage is in sea water, where it is reported that there can be as many as one billion virions per millimeter of water. Bacteriophage give us a unique window into the past where we can imagine an even earlier period of primordial abiotic molecular self-assembly. Bacteriophage ...
The workshop will showcase a host of physics experiments that would not only exploit the environment, but might also become economically viable only by piggybacking off the stations power and navigation capabilities. These include a meteoroid-environment monitor, which would study the drifting interstellar dust that never reaches Earth owing to the planets magnetic field. A low-frequency radio observatory could be used to pick up radiation from the Universes dark ages, between 400,000 and 100 million years after the Big Bang - which is hugely challenging﻽ on Earth because of interference from human sources and the planets ionosphere, says Mark Bentum, a physicist at the University of Twente in Enschede, the Netherlands ...
Astronomers led by Simon Driver of Scotlands University of St. Andrews have discovered that interstellar dust shades us from as much as 50% of the light emitted by stars and galaxies. The scientists compared the number of galaxies we could see edge-on against the number which were facing us, re...
The planets residing in our solar system, just like the exoplanets of every other stellar system throughout the universe, formed when cosmic dust clumped together over billions of years. G
Interstellar Cycle Ultimately, stars form the interstellar medium. Stars replenish the interstellar medium at the end of their life cycle. There is a balance between the interstellar medium and stars.
We describe observations of the (CO)-O-18 J = 2 --, 1, 3 --, 2 and C I P-3(1) --, P-3(0) lines towards the HH24-26 molecular cloud core. The (CO)-O-18 traces the north-south molecular ridge, but the dense clumps identified by previous high-resolution HCO+ and dust continuum data do not stand out. Using H-2 column densities estimated from dust continuum measurements, we find that the CO abundance may be reduced by factors of at least 10 towards three positions (two of which are Class O protostars). Depending on the assumptions employed, the reduction may be as high as similar to 50 towards the clump positions. The magnitude of the reduced abundances is in good agreement with chemical models of collapsing clouds in which molecules accrete on to dust grains. Alternative interpretations, retaining normal abundances. and relying on subtle optical depth and beam filling effects, are considered, but shown to be less likely. The contrast in C I line intensity is low across the source. The greater part ...
I have discovered a prominent light echo around the low-luminosity Type II-plateau supernova (SN) 2008bk in NGC 7793, seen in archival images obtained with the Wide Field Channel of the Advanced Camera for Surveys on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The echo is a partial ring, brighter to the north and east than to the south and west. The analysis of the echo I present suggests that it is due to the SN light pulse scattered by a sheet, or sheets, of dust located Almost-Equal-To 15 pc from the SN. The composition of the dust is assumed to be of standard Galactic diffuse interstellar grains. The visual extinction of the dust responsible for the echo is A{sub V} Almost-Equal-To 0.05 mag in addition to the extinction due to the Galactic foreground toward the host galaxy. That the SN experienced much less overall extinction implies that it is seen through a less dense portion of the interstellar medium in its environment. The late-time HST photometry of SN 2008bk also clearly demonstrates that ...
The relationship between stars and the material around them -- the interstellar medium -- is complicated. Stars are born from this material -- wispy clouds of hydrogen, helium, and other elements, plus solid grains of dust. And when stars die, they expel much of their material back into the interstellar medium, enriching it with elements forged in the hearts of the stars themselves.. And between birth and death, a star can have a powerful influence on the interstellar medium around it.. An example is the star known as Alpha Camelopardalis. Its one of the brightest stars of the faint constellation Camelopardalis, the giraffe, which is high in the north on January evenings.. Alpha Cam is probably 25 to 30 times as massive as the Sun. That great heft makes its surface extremely hot, driving a strong "wind" of gas off the surface and into space, forming a big "bubble" around Alpha Cam.. The star is racing through space at more than a hundred thousand miles an hour. As it plows through the ...
Space is not empty, as the ancients believed when admiring the depth of the sky on starry nights. Space is occupied by material, although it is rarefied and with a non-uniform distribution between stars, planets and galaxies.The interstellar material (5) of our galaxy and perhaps of the entire universe is composed of hydrogen (70%) and helium (28%) in the gaseous state. Only a very small part (2%) is formed of tiny solid particles, called cosmic dust or interstellar grains. Among these elements like O, C, N, Ni, S, Al and Fe and also various organic and inorganic molecules have been identified.An important role in the evolution of the interstellar material is played by these grains, responsible for the absorption and diffraction of radiation, grain/grain collisions, absorption of various substances on their surfaces and electrical conductance. These latter properties allow electrical charge transfer inside the molecular clouds, regulating the ion/molecule interaction, in turn a source of further ...
Interplanetary dust particle collected from the stratosphere over south-western USA, probably from Comet 26P/Grigg-Skjellerup Link to MinDat.org Location Data ...
The uncertainties reported by the DIRBE team were dominated by systematic uncertainties in the foreground determination. This met the mission objective of searching for the CIB to the limits imposed by our astrophysical environment. Major sources of uncertainty were the stellar foreground model (1.2-3.5 µm), the interplanetary dust model (1.25-100 µm), and the interstellar medium model (100-240 µm). Because DIRBE data can yield improved measurements of the CIB as the foregrounds are better determined, it is worth summarizing how the DIRBE team analysis was done. The interplanetary dust contribution presents the most difficult problem except at the longest wavelengths, since it dominates the measured sky brightness from 1-140 µm even at high galactic and ecliptic latitude (see Figure 2, Hauser et al. 1998). The contribution from the IPD was determined by fitting a parameterized model of the spatial distribution and scattering and radiative properties of the dust cloud to the apparent annual ...
My thesis built on the work by Biesecker et al. (2002) who studied the Kreutz comets which arrived from 1996-1998. Biesecker et al. showed that Kreutz comets behave in a characteristic fashion: brightening as they approach the Sun, reaching a peak in brightness prior to perihelion, then fading as they continue to approach perihelion. They also found that the brightening followed two "universal curves" which peaked at slightly different heliocentric distances. I have updated and improved their photometric routines (presented at DPS in 2004) and have calculated the photometry for all SOHO comets which were discovered by February 2006 (approximately 1100 comets and more than 20,000 images). From this much larger sample of light curves (the original "two universal curves" model was derived from only the 56 brightest comets seen from 1996-1998), it appears that the "two universal curves" are smeared out and become part of a broader distribution of peaks in the brightness which occur from 10-14 solar ...
The first of these missions was DEEP IMPACT which encountered comet 9P/Temel 1 and, at about 05h45 UTC on 4 July 2005, intentionally impacted a 370 kg projectile onto the comet resulting in an ejecta plume that was observed by fly-by spacecraft and by ground-based observatories. Observations of the plume within one second after the impact were subsequently explained in terms of a cloud of expanding, incandescent, liquid droplets cooling from ≈ 3500 K to 1000 K in less than half a second. The total mass of the droplets was about ten times that of the impactor. Spitzer Space Telescope observations of the comet dust coma before impact show a rather smooth, featureless spectrum indicative of large (radius , 100 μm), optically thick, silicate emission grains. After the impact the scattering produced by the coma increased enormously, indicating the presence of large amounts of sub-micron sized particles, dust much smaller than in the pre-impact coma. These observations can be explained by the ...
Ziggy Stardust News: Latest and Breaking News on Ziggy Stardust. Explore Ziggy Stardust profile at Times of India for photos, videos and latest news of Ziggy Stardust. Also find news, photos and videos on Ziggy Stardust
Related resource: This practical activity, from the Royal Society, helps students to visualise the scale of our solar system by drawing out the planets orbits around the sun in a scale model. One astronomical unit is the distance between the Earth and the Sun, and this is used by astronomers to describe distances in space. A table is provided with the distance of each planet from the Sun given in astronomical units, which students can use to calculate a suitable scale for their model solar system based on the area they have available - the playground is ideal ...
S.I. Anisimov, V.P. Karyagin, V.M. Kovtunenko, A.B. Konstantinov, R.S. Kremnev, V.A. Kudryashov, Yu.A. Osipyan, Yu.A. Ryzhov, S.B. Svirshchevskii, A.Z. Strukov, A.V. Terterashvili, V.E. Fortov, Recording of dust particles in the vicinity of the nucleus of Comet Halley by the `Photon instrument (in Russian), Космические исследования, 25(6), 860-866 (1987) [S.I. Anisimov, V.P. Karyagin, V.M. Kovtunenko, A.B. Konstantinov, R.S. Kremnev, V.A. Kudryashov, Yu.A. Osipyan, Yu.A. Ryzhov, S.B. Svirshchevskii, A.Z. Strukov, A.V. Terterashvili, V.E. Fortov, Recording of dust particles in the vicinity of the nucleus of Comet Halley by the `Photon instrument, Cosmic Research, 25(6), 671-676 (1987)]. ...
A team of astronomers has used the Low Frequency Receiver onboard the twin Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory spacecraft to deduce the characteristics of nanodust, showing that this nanometer-scale dust is a significant contributor to the total mass in interplanetary space.. In our solar system, dust particles are abundant, created by asteroid collisions and by the evaporation of comets. These particles are the source of the zodiacal light, a diffuse glow in the night sky that extends along the ecliptic (the plane of the solar system) and which is seen from Earth stretching along the zodiac, most easily after sunset or before sunrise. It is so faint that moonlight is enough to mask it.. The gravity of the planets affects the distribution of these dust particles. The Earth, for example, collects dust in a series of patches which lie in a ring along the Earths orbit. New measurements used radio instruments on twin interplanetary spacecraft to study nanometer-scale dust particles, or ...
Some scientists have said that dust residues are microscopic particles that are easily scattered in the air due to their minute sizes. From the forensics point of view, every particle, apart from its own mass, may include other particles such as sawdust, other items particles, hair strand, feather, plants etc. The importance of dust particles from the forensics point of view. As mentioned earlier, the dust particle obtained from the offenders clothing items, shoes, hair, under nails, weapon or other handheld tools, are extremely important in determining whether or not the offender has been to a specific place or done a particular act. Based on the criminal investigators experience by dust particles, one could understand the offenders line of work to some extent; for instance, the sawdust particles obtained from the sawing workers and the stone dust particles obtained from the carpentry worker may telltale their said line of work. In addition, if a person spends a little of his time in a ...
115, D21203, doi:10.1029/2010JD014139.. Multiwavelength (MW) Raman lidars have demonstrated their potential to profile particle parameters; however, until now, the physical models used in retrieval algorithms for processing MW lidar data have been predominantly based on the Mie theory. This approach is applicable to the modeling of light scattering by spherically symmetric particles only and does not adequately reproduce the scattering by generally nonspherical desert dust particles. Here we present an algorithm based on a model of randomly oriented spheroids for the inversion of multiwavelength lidar data. The aerosols are modeled as a mixture of two aerosol components: one composed only of spherical and the second composed of nonspherical particles. The nonspherical component is an ensemble of randomly oriented spheroids with size-independent shape distribution. This approach has been integrated into an algorithm retrieving aerosol properties from the observations with a Raman lidar based on a ...
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Eck, C.L. van; Haverkorn, M. ; Alves, M.I.R.; Beck, R.; Bruyn, A.G. de; Enßlin, T.; Farnes, J.S.; Ferrière, K.; Heald, G.; Horellou, C.; Horneffer, A.; Iacobelli, M.; Jelić, V.; Martí-Vidal, I.; Mulcahy, D.D.; Reich, W.; Röttgering, H.J.A.; Scaife, A.M.M.; Schnitzeler, D.H.F.M.; Sobey, C; Sridhar, S.S. ...
Unlike all previous cometary space missions, the Rosetta spacecraft accompanied its target, comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, for more than two years on its way around the Sun. Thereby, an unexpected diversity and complexity of the chemical composition was revealed. Our first step of decrypting the exact chemical composition of the gaseous phase is the identifying and quantifying the bulk composition of the pure aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. For this study, data from ROSINA-Double Focusing Mass Spectrometer (DFMS) onboard the Rosetta spacecraft and the laboratory twin model were used. A joint campaign of laboratory calibration measurements and space data analysis was performed to derive the hydrocarbon bulk composition for the post-inbound equinox period at 1.52 AU in May 2015. Furthermore, several other mission phases were investigated to determine the dependencies of season, location, and heliocentric distance on the relative abundances of hydrocarbons. It is shown that the bulk composition
The SSULI (Special Sensor Ultraviolet Limb Imager) is a low-resolution hyperspectral far- and extreme-ultraviolet limb-scanning imager designed to monitor ionospheric and thermospheric airglow. SSULI has a spectral range from 80 to 170 nm, and a nominal resolution of 2.1 nm (at 147 nm). The instrument is scheduled to fly aboard all DMSP Block 5D3 weather satellites. The first SSULI instrument was launched in fall 2003, aboard DMSP F16, and has been collecting data since December 2003. The second SSULI flight aboard DMSP F17 began in fall 2006. On the ground, the SSULI instruments are calibrated using a monochromator to isolate single emission features of interest produced by a gas discharge lamp, whereas the flight spectra consists of numerous overlapping emissions. The determination of individual emission feature contribution against the entire airglow spectrum is determined using the multiple linear regression technique with basis functions defining each observable emission. The accuracy of ...
Go to a very, very dark place (hard to find, you have to make a special effort and go far from highways, cities, and towns on a clear moonless night), wait for your eyes to fully dark-adapt (might take half an hour or more), and look up - you can see dust within our solar system as zodiacal light and gegenschein ...
A hole at the heart of a stunning rose-like interstellar cloud has puzzled astronomers for decades - but new UK research offers an explanation for the discrepancy between the size and age of the Rosette Nebulas central cavity and that of its central stars.. ...
A familiar scenario from the early universe is getting a tune-up. Its long been believed that cosmic dust was first produced by supernovae, becoming the essential building block for the formation of planets. New work using the Spitzer Space Telescope suggests a second mechanism that complements the first. So-called c
parsecs is derived from our sample of 25 weak line T Tauri stars in Taurus. This is within the range of distances found for the molecular cloud (140 pc - 160 pc) and confirms that the T Tauri stars are embedded within.. Alternatively, the agreement of the distances to the stars and dark cloud, along with their intimate sky location, lends support to the interpretation and assumptions. This means that we find a random orientation of the rotation axes, which excludes a preferential orientation that might be caused by large scale magnetic fields in the molecular cloud. Another aspect is that our results seem to exclude strong differential rotation for the T Tauri stars.. Key words: methods: statistical ...
We present the results of a very deep ROSAT HRI X-ray observation of the highly active star forming region NGC1333. In total we could detect 20 X-ray sources, 16 of which we assume to be members to the cluster of pre main sequence stars. Since most of the stars in NGC1333 are still deeply embedded in the molecular cloud (A_V ~ 5 - 30 mag), we use near infrared data to estimate individual extinctions for the calculation of X-ray luminosities. One of the X-ray sources is identified with the optically invisible, very deeply embedded (A_V ~ 28 mag) infrared class I source SVS16, for which we find an extremely high X-ray luminosity of 2.8 x 10^32 erg/sec, making this object one of the most X-ray luminous pre main sequence stars known to date. Since we have already performed similar sensitive ROSAT observations of the young cluster IC348 (the second active star forming region in the Perseus molecular cloud complex), we compare the X-ray properties of the young stars in NGC1333 to those in IC348. We ...
The researchers found the stardust in tiny fragments of asteroids and comets-interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) -collected 20 km above the earth by NASA planes. A typical IDP is a mishmash of more than 100,000 grains gleaned from different parts of space. Until recently, ion probes had to analyze dozens of grains at one time and so were able to deduce only the average properties of a sample.. In 2001, with help from NASA and the National Science Foundation, Washington University bought a newly available and much more sensitive ion probe. Made by Cameca in Paris, the NanoSIMS probe can resolve particles as small as 100 nanometers in diameter. A million such particles side by side would make a centimeter. The grains in IDPs range from 100 to 500 nanometers. "So like the Hubble telescope, the NanoSIMS allows us to see things on a much finer scale than ever before," Messenger said.. Lindsay P. Keller, Ph.D., at NASAs Johnson Space Center in Houston, first examined thin slices of IDPs under the ...
A depressant is a drug that reduces the activity of various body functions. Some depressants such as anesthetics, sedatives, antiepileptics, narcotics analgesics, and some muscle relaxants, slow nervous and muscular activity by acting on the central nervous system. Tranquilizers are depressants that affect only part of the nervous system. They induce relaxation without causing total depression ...
In the search for molecular species in the interstellar medium and extraterrestrial planetary atmospheres, theoretical methods continue to be an invaluable tool to astronomically minded chemists. Using state-of-the art methods, this doctoral work characterizes the electronically excited states of interstellar radicals, cations, and even rare anions and also predicts the gas phase fundamental vibrational frequencies of the cis and trans-HOCO radicals, as well as the cis-HOCO anion. First, open-shell coupled cluster methods of singles and doubles (CCSD) and singles and doubles with triples-inclusion (CC3) are tested on the C2H and C4H radicals. The significant double-excitation character, as well as the quartet multiplicity of some states yields inaccurate excitation energies and large spin contamination with CCSD. CC3 somewhat improves this for select states, but discrepancies between CC and multiref- erence results for certain states exist and likely arise from the lack of spin adaptation in ...
In the early 1980s, astronomer Carl Sagan hosted and narrated a 13-part television series called "Cosmos" that aired on PBS. On the show, Sagan thoroughly explained many science-related topics, including Earths history, evolution, the origin of life and the solar system.. Since stardust atoms are the heavier elements, the percentage of star mass in our body is much more impressive. Most of the hydrogen in our body floats around in the form of water. The human body is about 60% water and hydrogen only accounts for 11% of that water mass. Even though water consists of two hydrogen atoms for every oxygen, hydrogen has much less mass. We can conclude that 93% of the mass in our body is stardust. Just think, long ago someone may have wished upon a star that you are made of.. "We are a way for the universe to know itself. Some part of our being knows this is where we came from. We long to return. And we can, because the cosmos is also within us. Were made of star stuff," Sagan famously stated in one ...
This is a lithograph that outlines the major mission highlights of the Interstellar Boundary Explorer, or IBEX, mission, a Small Explorer Earth-orbiting spacecraft that is designed to map the distant boundary between the solar wind from our Sun and the interstellar medium, the material between ...
This is a lithograph that outlines the major mission highlights of the Interstellar Boundary Explorer, or IBEX, mission, a Small Explorer Earth-orbiting spacecraft that is designed to map the distant boundary between the solar wind from our Sun and the interstellar medium, the material between ...
KIDA is a database of kinetic data of interest for astrochemical (interstellar medium and planetary atmospheres) studies. In addition to the available referenced data, KIDA provides recommendations over a number of important reactions.
Endorsed by the National Sleep Foundation and engineered to meet the filtration requirements set by the Johns Hopkins University Medical School for ongoing studies. It was Austin Airs goal to design a new filtering system which would be able to capture gasses and particles at the nano-size level. The Bedroom Machine™ possesses the most advanced filtering system that Austin Air has ever designed. It consists of 5 stages of filtration which increases its ability to capture a wider array of chemicals, gaseous elements and particulate matter.
An anonymous reader writes Yesterday, Voyager 1 passed 100 astronomical units from the sun as it continues operating after nearly 30 years in space. That is about 15 billion kilometers or 9.3 billion miles as it travels about 1 million miles per day. Scientists still hope it will find the edge of...
The IQAir® GC Series is the worlds most effective compact room air purifier for the control of gaseous chemicals. The GC Series relies on an interchangeable cartridge design for optimized gaseous pollutant control. Thanks to its selectable cartridges, the IQAir® GC Series is able to meet almost any moderate gas phase removal need in residential or commercial environments.
R. M. Healy, J. M. Wang, C.‐H. Jeong, A. K. Y. Lee, M. D. Willis, E. Jaroudi, N. Zimmerman, N. Hilker, M. Murphy, S. Eckhardt, A. Stohl, J. P. D. Abbatt, J. C. Wenger, G. J. ...
C. H. Twohy, B. E. Anderson, R. A. Ferrare, K. E. Sauter, T. S. LEcuyer, S. C. van den Heever, A. J. Heymsfield, S. Ismail, G. S. ...
The reaction of ground-state carbon atoms with acetylene was studied under single-collision conditions in crossed beam experiments to investigate the chemical dynamics of forming cyclic and linear C3H isomers (c-C3H and l-C3H, respectively) in interstellar environments via an atom-neutral reaction. Combined state-of-the-art ab initio calculations and experimental identification of the carbon-hydrogen exchange channel to both isomers classify this reaction as an important alternative to ion-molecule encounters to synthesize C3H radicals in the interstellar medium. These findings strongly correlate with astronomical observations and explain a higher [c-C3H]/[l-C3H] ratio in the dark cloud TMC-1 than in the carbon star IRC+10216.. ...
http://activemq.apache.org/ Apache ActiveMQ] is a popular and powerful open source messaging and Integration Patterns server. Stardust can easily be configured to use ActiveMQ as a message broker. This setup is frequently used to add JMS support to a Stardust Spring + Tomcat configuration.,br ...
The AWS Virtual Machine Image (AMI) is configured to run on all Instance Types including the Standard Micro (t1.micro) type and your choice depends entirely on the expected load profile. For first experiments the Standard Micro is sufficient, however with increased use, you will soon see issues because of the limited memory (see Troubleshooting). Please consider that although there are no charges for Stardust, Amazon charges you for most of the EC2 configurations. Select your data center region of choice - the Stardust AMI is available for all AWS data center regions: ...
Boron is rare in the cosmos because its nucleus is "fragile." So, how does one get from the interstellar medium, where boron was first produced, to Earths upper continental crust where boron is concentrated in deposits containing remarkably diverse suites of boron minerals? Processes that led to the formation of continental crust also concentrated boron, which is preferentially incorporated into melts and aqueous fluids. Deposits with high boron-mineral diversity include granitic pegmatites, peralkaline intrusions, boron-enriched skarns, and evaporite deposits. Despite the loss of boron minerals from the geologic record due to their ready solubility in water and breakdown at low temperatures, the increase in boron-mineral diversity with time is real, and is accelerated during supercontinent assembly.. Read More ...
Solution for describe how the 21-cm line of hydrogen is formed. Why is this line such animportant tool for understanding the interstellar medium
A brief mission study is now presented to show the performance of a hypothetical ramjet. The fusion reaction occurring within the ramjets fusion reactor is assumed to have a mass-to-energy conversion efficiency of 0.71 percent and of the energy generated, 80 percent gets converted into useful propulsive energy while 20 percent is lost as thermal radiation. The ramjet is assumed to have a total mass of 10,000 metric tons and a ramscoop intake diameter of 7,000 kilometres. Finally, the interstellar medium is assumed to have a density of one proton per cubic centimetre. Starting from an initial velocity of 1 percent the speed of light, the time required for the ramjet to accelerate to 80 percent the speed of light is 454 days and the distance covered during this time is 0.632 light years or 5.98 trillion kilometres. Due to the effect of special relativity, the time elapsed for an observer onboard the ramjet is 369 days ...
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Cleaning is the removal of unwanted matter, including macro soil we can see: dirt, debris, and spills; and micro soil: harmful bacteria, viruses, spores, dust particles, and chemical substances below the threshold of human perception.
Not only can these mites cause problems to our pets. They can also bite humans, causing lesions on our skin. These mites can be found in dog bedding, dust particles around the house and can occasionally be picked up by our pets from places like dog day care. Because of this, it is important that the environment is cleaned regularly through vacuuming. And that early signs of itching or dandruff are examined by the vet ...
Floors treated with Ideal hard system, last longer, cost less to maintain, and safe to use ard are guaranteed to resist dusting for years to come. it is VOC-compliant, odourless, environmentally safe and simple to apply. Through a chemical-ion exchange process, Ideal Hard develops internal bonds, which densify the concrete substrate into a hardened, chemically-cure, homogeneous, concrete mass that resists abrasion, oil contamination and water. This chemical-ion exchange process begins immediately after treatment and continues through the initial six months following application.Ideal Hard is safe to use. Its odorless formula allows its use in employee-occupied areas with concren. It can be applied in the close proximity of foodstuffs without fear of contamination. Ideal Hard is also safe to own stopping dust particle for becoming airborne. IDEAL HARD treated floors provide a significant savings in maintenance costs over conventional acrylic, epoxy and urethane sealers. Ideal Hard will not ...
Each day approximately forty to fifty billion (yes billion) cells die in every human. Have you ever wondered where these dead cells go and how your body eliminates the dead cells? Try getting rid of a small dust particle from your eye. You know just how difficult it is. Every day without you realizing it, you are elimination billions of cells without breaking a sweat. A significant part of these dead cells is destroyed, worn out, and regenerated in your skin. These cells slough off and new ones made in their place. Removal of dead cells from your skin is the simpler part of this process. Many cells die inside your body. Here is where it gets interesting.. Your cell has a membrane which keeps the contents within isolated from everything outside of it. When a cell dies, the membrane layer becomes "leaky" and allows the contents outside to mingle with the contents inside. Enzymes will now begin to digest the insides of the cell. White Blood Cells (neutrophils and macrophages) which are also ...
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Hi Laura Why are some people left-handed and others right-handed? Does it mean something? -B.G. Hi B.G., Because we pre-selected it that way. Just like we preselect our body shapes and sizes, our life themes, our families….. I know, I know, you are asking what?!" But yes, it is true, we chart all those things. ... Read more ...
The term fashion icon gets thrown around quite a bit these days. But when you think of those who truly deserve a place in the esteemed canon, few pass...
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Be Natural Organics has received the lowest toxicity ratings from "The Compact for Safe Cosmetics," a leading U.S. health and environmental agency dedicated to protecting the health and safety of consumers. Our low ratings demonstrate the cleanliness of our products ...
It is collecting cosmic dust and exposing dehydrated microorganisms outside the International Space Station while orbiting 400 ... The mission is currently collecting cosmic dust by using ultra-low density silica gel (aerogel), and it will be analyzed for ... The mission will collect cosmic dust and other particles for three years by using ultra-low density silica gel called aerogel. ... 2014). "Design of a Silica-aerogel-based Cosmic Dust Collector for the Tanpopo Mission Aboard the International Space Station ...
January 4 - A machine, dubbed the "cosmic dust sucker," begins its first runs. It will be used to literally pull in cosmic dust ... Lucibella, Michael (January 4, 2017). "Cosmic Dust Sucker". Antarctic Sun. McGowan, Stephen (April 25, 2017). "Getting Down to ... microbes and mineral dust. Samples will be collected from this buried ice mass, down to a depth of 10 meters, and cosmogenic ...
"Cosmic Dust Experiment (CDE)". Hampton University. 2010. Retrieved 2010-03-16. "Solar Occultation For Ice Experiment". GATS, ... The AIM mission will help determine what factors - temperature, water vapor, and dust particles - lead to the formation of ...
Mayo Greenberg, J (2002). "Cosmic dust and our origins". Surface Science. 500 (1-3): 793-822. Bibcode:2002SurSc.500..793M. doi: ... It is one of the most identifiable nebulae because of the shape of its swirling cloud of dark dust and gases, which bears some ... The dark cloud of dust and gas is a region in the Orion Molecular Cloud Complex where star formation is taking place. It is ... This stellar nursery, as it is known, can contain over 100 known kinds of organic and inorganic gases as well as dust; some of ...
Padma Kant Shukla-coauthor of Introduction to Dusty Plasma Physics Mendis, D. A. (September 1979). "Dust in cosmic plasma ... those from positive ions-dust particle interactions, and neutral-dust particle interactions. Ion-dust interactions are further ... The temperature of dust in a plasma may be quite different from its environment. For example: The electric potential of dust ... Mendis, D. A. (1979). "Dust in cosmic plasma environments". Astrophysics and Space Science. 65: 5-12. Bibcode:1979Ap&SS..65.... ...
"Cosmic Spherules and Meteoritic Dust." Scientific American, Volume 202 Issue 2, February 1960, pp. 123-132. Snelling, Andrew ... "Moon Dust and the Age of the Solar System." Creation Ex-Nihilo Technical Journal, Volume 7, Number 1, 1993, p. 2 42. Wilhelms, ... In 1957 Hans Peterson conducted one of the first direct measurements of the fall of space dust on the Earth, estimating it to ... D. E. Brownlee, D. A. Tomandl and E. Olszewski (1977) Interplanetary dust: A new source of extraterrestrial material for ...
Out of the Cosmic Dust. Vasanta Press. 1985. Eco-Theology: Toward a Religion for our Times. Eco-Philosophy Publications. 1984. ... World as Sanctuary: The Cosmic Philosophy of Henryk Skolimowski. Creative Fire Press. 2010. Let There Be Light: The Mysterious ... Journey of Cosmic Creativity. Wisdom Tree. 2005. Philosophy for a New Civilization. Gyan Publishing House. 2001. The Dawn of ...
"Cosmic Dust: Messengers from Distant Worlds". mpi-hd.mpg.de. High Energy Stereoscopic System. Retrieved December 10, 2012. DSI ... and a detector of cosmic and Jovian dust. It also carried the Heavy Ion Counter, an engineering experiment to assess the ... The masses of dust particles that the DDS could detect go from 10−16 to 10−7 grams. The speed of these small particles could be ... The Dust Detector Subsystem (DDS) was used to measure the mass, electric charge, and velocity of incoming particles. ...
Moshkin, B.E.; Ekonomov, A.P.; Golovin, Iu.M. (1979). "Dust on the surface of Venus". Kosmicheskie Issledovaniia (Cosmic ... this is still enough to transport dust and small stones across the surface, much like a slow-moving current of water.[1][25] ...
The Dust Telescope is a space observatory that would measure various properties of incoming cosmic dust. The dust telescope ... "Cosmic Dust - Messenger from Distant Worlds" (PDF). University Stuttgart. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 24, 2014 ... Stardust (Mission #4), a mission to collect interstellar dust and dust particles from the nucleus of comet 81P/Wild for study ... There were two sample return missions, one for comet dust, another for solar wind, and that also detected interstellar dust, ...
They are also the most common class of carbon molecule in meteorites and in cometary and asteroidal dust (cosmic dust). These ... Chow, Denise (26 October 2011). "Discovery: Cosmic Dust Contains Matter from Stars". Space.com. Retrieved 2011-10-26. ... scientists reported that cosmic dust contains organic matter ("amorphous organic solids with a mixed aromatic-aliphatic ... These mixed-molecular ices are exposed to ultraviolet radiation and cosmic rays, which results in complex radiation-driven ...
Stardust is one component of cosmic dust. Stardust is individual solid grains that condensed during mass loss from various long ...
... and with Cosmic Dust, one studio album. Notes: Kennedy performs lead vocals and rhythm guitar on acoustic versions of "Back ...
Cosmic dust - small interplanetary and interstellar particles that are similar to meteorites (See Micrometeorite). ... Micrometeorite - microscopic meteorites derived from Cosmic dust. Nakhlite - a group of Martian meteorites Neumann lines (or ... Some or all of the original cosmic material has been replaced by diagenetic minerals. (It is, however, not a fossil). Fragment ...
"Sweeping the Dust from a Cosmic Lobster". ESO Press Release. Retrieved 11 April 2013. Dante Minniti; et al. (2010). "VISTA ...
Cosmic dust Cosmochemistry Interplanetary dust cloud Glossary of meteoritics List of Martian meteorites List of meteorites on ... In October 2011, scientists reported that one form of extraterrestrial material, cosmic dust, contains complex organic matter ... Cosmic Dust Contains Organic Matter from Stars". Space.com. Retrieved 2011-10-26. ScienceDaily Staff (26 October 2011). " ... cosmic abundance. The atmosphere of planet Earth, and the Earth's magnetic field, protect us from impact and irradiation by a ...
Stardust grains are one component of cosmic dust. In particular, radioactive 44Ti was measured to be very abundant within ... Stardust is one component of cosmic dust and is frequently called presolar grains. The measured isotopic compositions in ... Cosmic ray spallation process reduces the atomic weight of interstellar matter by the impact with cosmic rays, to produce some ... Star portal Stellar evolution Supernova nucleosynthesis Cosmic dust Extinct isotopes of superheavy elements Metallicity Donald ...
In October 2011, scientists reported that cosmic dust contains complex organic matter ("amorphous organic solids with a mixed ... Chow, Denise (26 October 2011). "Discovery: Cosmic Dust Contains Organic Matter from Stars". Space.com. Retrieved 26 October ... Cosmic pluralism, the plurality of worlds, or simply pluralism, describes the philosophical belief in numerous "worlds" in ... Medieval Muslim writers like Fakhr al-Din al-Razi and Muhammad al-Baqir supported cosmic pluralism on the basis of the Qur'an. ...
Scientists also found that the cosmic dust permeating the Universe contains complex organics ("amorphous organic solids with a ... Chow, Denise (26 October 2011). "Discovery: Cosmic Dust Contains Organic Matter from Stars". Space.com. Ogden, UT: Purch. ... 2009). "Cosmic Distribution of Chemical Complexity". Ames Research Center. Mountain View, CA: NASA. Archived from the original ... Based on computer model studies, the complex organic molecules necessary for life may have formed on dust grains in the ...
The mission will collect cosmic dusts and other particles for three years by using an ultra-low density silica gel called ... In October 2011, scientists reported that cosmic dust contains complex organic matter ("amorphous organic solids with a mixed ... Chow, Denise (26 October 2011). "Discovery: Cosmic Dust Contains Organic Matter from Stars". Space.com. Retrieved 26 October ... The dust plays a critical role of shielding the molecules from the ionizing effect of ultraviolet radiation emitted by stars. A ...
In October 2011, scientists reported that cosmic dust contains complex organic matter ("amorphous organic solids with a mixed ... Chow, Denise (26 October 2011). "Discovery: Cosmic Dust Contains Organic Matter from Stars". Space.com. Retrieved 2011-10-26. ... as one type of composite cosmic dust ("stardust") Recent findings by NASA, based on studies of meteorites found on Earth, ... In 1956, Urey and his colleague, German scientist Hans Suess, published the first table of cosmic abundances to include ...
Abiogenesis Astrobiology Astrochemistry Atomic and molecular astrophysics Cosmic dust Cosmic ray Cosmochemistry Diffuse ... Chow, Denise (26 October 2011). "Discovery: Cosmic Dust Contains Organic Matter from Stars". Space.com. Retrieved 2011-10-26. ... scientists found using spectroscopy that cosmic dust contains complex organic compounds ("amorphous organic solids with a mixed ... The dust plays a critical role of shielding the molecules from the ionizing effect of ultraviolet radiation emitted by stars. ...
The cosmic dust permeating the universe contains complex organic compounds ("amorphous organic solids with a mixed aromatic- ... Chow, Denise (26 October 2011). "Discovery: Cosmic Dust Contains Organic Matter from Stars". Space.com. Retrieved 26 October ... Astrobiology portal Abiogenesis Active SETI Astrobiology Magazine Astrochemistry/Cosmochemistry Astrosciences Cosmic dust ... The results support that life could have survived in early aqueous asteroids and on similar materials imported to Earth by dust ...
Chow, Denise (26 October 2011). "Discovery: Cosmic Dust Contains Organic Matter from Stars". Space.com. ScienceDaily Staff (26 ... is an experiment designed by the European Space Agency that will investigate the effects of solar and cosmic radiation on ...
A cosmic dust detector to measure the flux of cosmic dust particles in space. A solar plasma spectrometer to measure the ... Particle detectors were mounted halfway up the mast, along with the cosmic ray detector. The cosmic dust detector and solar ... Microwave radiometer Infrared radiometer Three axis fluxgate magnetometer Cosmic ray detector Cosmic dust detector Solar plasma ... It was also shown that in interplanetary space, the solar wind streams continuously and the cosmic dust density is much lower ...
Construction of the predecessor of the present Kamioka Observatory, the Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo ... Initially, water from the Super-Kamiokande tank is passed through nominal 1 μm mesh filters to remove dust and particles, which ... Atmospheric neutrinos are secondary cosmic rays produced by the decay of particles resulting from interactions of primary ... cosmic rays (mostly protons) with Earth atmosphere. The observed atmospheric neutrino events fall into four categories. Fully ...
Cosmic dust, also called extraterrestrial dust or space dust, is dust which exists in outer space, as well as all over planet ... Sources of Solar System dust include comet dust, asteroidal dust, dust from the Kuiper belt, and interstellar dust passing ... Cosmic dust is made of dust grains and aggregates of dust grains. These particles are irregularly shaped, with porosity ranging ... Cosmic dust can be detected by indirect methods that utilize the radiative properties of the cosmic dust particles. ...
Cosmic dust, also called extraterrestrial dust or space dust, is dust which exists in outer space, or has fallen on Earth.[1][2 ... Solar System dust includes comet dust, asteroidal dust, dust from the Kuiper belt, and interstellar dust passing through the ... Cosmic dust is made of dust grains and aggregates of dust grains. These particles are irregularly shaped, with porosity ranging ... Cosmic dust can be detected by indirect methods that utilize the radiative properties of the cosmic dust particles. ...
Cosmic dust in measurements of anomalous microwave emission and Hubble redshift both suggest the Universe is not expanding - ... Expanding Universe or Cosmic Dust?. Cosmic dust in measurements of anomalous microwave emission and Hubble redshift both ... how are the AME and Hubble redshift related to cosmic dust?. Theory and Discussion. QED induced EM radiation in cosmic dust NPs ... AME stands for Anomalous Microwave Emission and CMB for Cosmic Microwave Background. However, cosmic dust [2] in the Milky Way ...
Cosmic Dust Factory Provides Clues About Star Birth. A group of scientists led by researchers at Cardiff University have ... Cosmic Dust Factory Provides Clues About Star Birth. * Press Release - Source: Cardiff University ... It was previously thought that the massive explosions of supernovae would completely destroy any molecules and dust that may ... made it possible to see through the intervening dust and gas and study the abundance and location of the newly formed molecules ...
Cosmic Dust album. Cosmic Dust has three albums, Journey in 1991, Step Right Up! in 2008 and The Dust Also Rises in 2017. All ... Cosmic Dust, also known as the Cosmic Dust Fusion Band, is an instrumental jazz band formed in 1990 by Jim Templeton. The band ... www.noahpeterson.com/cosmic_dust/ Cosmic Dust is based out of Vancouver, WA/Portland, OR. Peterson Entertainment, Llc(Official ... The bands third and final release "The Dust Also Rises" was more of a final documentation of Jims tunes than a commercial ...
Showing at Nidi gallery. Barcelona based embroidery artist Laura Ameba presents her second solo exhibition with a collection of...
... Faizuddin Ahmed ... We present a gravitational collapse null dust solution of the Einstein field equations. The space-time is regular everywhere ... which develop at some particular moment in a causally well-behaved manner and may represent a Cosmic Time Machine. The radial ...
Cosmic dust, however, wasnt part of the equation, although "dust" is also ubiquitous. Exactly how things like glycine get put ... Jena - "Dust to dust" goes the saying, and it turns out to be much truer than even scripture may have guessed. Dust in space ... Op-Ed: Life literally from the dust - Cosmic dust, to be exact. Listen , Print ... More about cosmic dust biochemical formation, Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, University of Jena, IDIC, organic materials ...
Similar Discussions: How to detect Cosmic Dust? * Sad disconnect at Cosmic Variance blog-how not to discuss (Replies: 9) ... What kind of observation can be made to verify the existence of cosmic dust (space dust)? ... Unlike interstellar gas, cosmic dust does not have absorption or emission lines. It causes scattering and extinction of light ... Unlike interstellar gas, cosmic dust does not have absorption or emission lines. It causes scattering and extinction of light ...
Astronomers realised that when the dust grains in a molecular cloud are warm enough, the dust grains surface should release ... On the surface of the dust grain it would be converted into water ice, making it invisible to missions looking for oxygen. ... A series of reactions that culminate in molecular oxygen formation are triggered when a cosmic ray ionises molecular hydrogen, ... One hypothesis put forward was that oxygen could be freezing onto dust grains in areas with low temperatures. ...
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Cosmic dust factory reveals clues to how stars are born. by Cardiff University ... like molecular orbitals that form around these cosmic bodies and extend far away from the core, where dust and smaller bodies ... Citation: Cosmic dust factory reveals clues to how stars are born (2017, July 10) retrieved 25 May 2019 from https://phys.org ... It was previously thought that the massive explosions of supernovae would completely destroy any molecules and dust that may ...
Life as a Cosmic Imperative - 1995, Page 227 by Christian De Duve. Read Vital Dust: Life as a Cosmic Imperative now at Questia. ... Vital Dust: Life as a Cosmic Imperative. By Christian De Duve , Go to book overview ... Publication information: Book title: Vital Dust:Life as a Cosmic Imperative. Contributors: Christian De Duve - Author. ...
Cosmic dust to devastate earth in 2012? It happens approximately every five thousand years and Mayans understood it very well. ... The number of cosmic rays hitting the earth has not changed much over time. Space dust has accumulated at about the same rate ... inability of astronomers to map areas of cosmic dust and to predict when the earth would have passed through these clouds. [ ... Now it has been reported that we had enter into the Local fluff around the mid 50s ... ?.. did this increase in dust and cosmic ...
... dust, for example, is everywhere. If all the material between the Sun and Jupiter were compressed together it would form a moon ... Metals from the cosmic dust play a part in various phenomena that affect our climate. An accurate estimate of dust would also ... "Cosmic dust is associated with the formation of noctilucent clouds - the highest clouds in the Earths atmosphere. The dust ... EcoAlert: Does Cosmic Dust Play a Role in Climate Change? April 03, 2012 ...
... www.naturalnews.com/2019-04-30-cosmic-dust-boosts-brain-power-lowers-ldl-cholesterol.html",Study suggests that cosmic dust can ... Study suggests that cosmic dust can boost brain power and lower LDL cholesterol levels. Tuesday, April 30, 2019 by: Edsel Cook ... www.naturalnews.com/2019-04-30-cosmic-dust-boosts-brain-power-lowers-ldl-cholesterol.html. ... Space dust is mostly made up of carbon, oxygen, and silicon. But it also contains PQQ. So do the cells of living organisms like ...
The Photolysis of Aromatic Hydrocarbons Adsorbed on the Surfaces of Cosmic Dust Grains. ...
... dust. New computer simulations uncover the cause of mystery cosmic horseshoe dust. Share this page on Facebook Share this ... "These swirling discs of gas and dust around young stars are the birth places of planets like the ones in our Solar System," he ... "We showed how the second star carves a hole in the middle of the disc, creates a giant `horseshoe in the dust, produces ... "By seeing dust trapped in a horseshoe pattern we could be witnessing the birth of a planet." ...
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... particles is vital for interpretation of astronomical observations and an understanding of the formation and processing of dust ... Information about the optical characteristics and physical processes involving cosmic dust ... COSMIC DUST ELECTRON BEAMS INFRARED RADIATION INTERSTELLAR MATTER OPTICAL PROPERTIES PARTICLES PLANETARY ENVIRONMENTS STELLAR ... Cosmic dust particles are formed in a variety of astrophysical environments such as in cool stellar outflows and circumstellar ...
... formed when cosmic dust clumped together over billions of years. G ... Contrarily, cosmic dust continues to swirl around in outer space to this very day.. Specks of cosmic dust can be so small that ... With as much cosmic dust on the Earths surface as there is, youre probably within reaching-distance of some right now. Its ... formed when cosmic dust clumped together over billions of years.. Given just how much time has passed since the formation of ...
Cosmic Gateway to Infinity, the third full-length from Italian power/thrashers Ancient Dome, falls well shy of this goal, but ... Cosmic Gateway to Infinity is not going to be that diamond in the void; but its not exactly space debris either. I dont hear ...
The observed dust composition around some OH/IR stars is consistent with the condensation of dust from a gas of cosmic ... Interstellar dust - dust in the ISM, a mix of stardust, re-processed stardust and dust formed in situ in the ISM. ... The mineralogy of cosmic dust: astromineralogy Anthony P. Jones Anthony P. Jones ... The dust life-cycle and stars. The life-cycle of dust in the ISM is intimately bound to the evolution of stars. For, in general ...
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CDA: Cosmic Dust Analyzer. The Cosmic Dust Analyser (CDA) instrument will provide direct observations of dust and ice particles ... Cosmic Dust Analyser. The Cosmic Dust Analyser (CDA) is intended to provide direct observations of particulate matter in the ... The Cosmic Dust Analyser Subsystem (CDA) will provide direct observations of dust and ice particles in interplanetary space and ... Dust Analyser. The dust analyser (DA) consists of the following components: four charge pick-up grids; a hemispherical target, ...
  • QED induced EM radiation in cosmic dust NPs is proposed as the mechanism by which both AME and Hubble redshift may be used to question an expanding Universe. (prlog.org)
  • The dust is thought to act as a catalyst for the formation of complex molecules using types of radiation as active agents. (digitaljournal.com)
  • Cosmic Radiation - how is our sun's speed calculated? (physicsforums.com)
  • An experimental facility based on suspension of dust particles in electrodynamic balance in a pressure/temperature controlled environment in a cavity has been operational at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, and is currently being employed for studies of dust particle charging mechanisms using electron beams and with UV radiation. (nasa.gov)
  • When light or other electromagnetic radiation interacts with dust or other particles it is scattered in all directions. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Finding the source of the microwave fog will ultimately help the Planck team refine its studies of the cosmic microwave background, or CMB, radiation that was emitted during the big bang, more than 13 billion years ago. (blogspot.com)
  • F g {\displaystyle \mathbf {F_{g}} } is the sum of all gravitational forces acting on the dust particle, whether it be from planets, satellites or other particles and F P {\displaystyle \mathbf {F_{P}} } is the force contribution from radiation pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • In our Solar System, the interplanetary dust particles have a role in scattering sunlight and in emitting thermal radiation, which is the most prominent feature of the night-sky light in the 5-50 micrometer wavelength range (Levasseur-Regourd, A.C. 1996). (wikipedia.org)
  • The main physical processes "affecting" (destruction or expulsion mechanisms) interplanetary dust particles are: expulsion by radiation pressure, inward Poynting-Robertson (PR) radiation drag, solar wind pressure (with significant electromagnetic effects), sublimation, mutual collisions, and the dynamical effects of planets (Backman, D., 1997). (wikipedia.org)
  • He also pointed out, that the CIB cause a significant attenuation for very high energy electrons, protons and gamma-rays of the cosmic radiation through inverse Compton scattering, photopion and electron-positron pair production. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dust plays a critical role of shielding the molecules from the ionizing effect of ultraviolet radiation emitted by stars. (wikipedia.org)
  • OREOcube (ORganics Exposure in Orbit) is an experiment designed by the European Space Agency that will investigate the effects of solar and cosmic radiation on selected organic compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • These winds are understood to be driven by radiation pressure on dust condensing in the upper atmosphere of the stars. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cooling by slow evaporation of the helium kept the temperature of the telescope below 3.4 K and the science instruments below 1.9 K. These very low temperatures were required for the scientific instruments to be sensitive enough to detect even the smallest amount of infrared radiation from cosmic sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polarimetry studies can reveal the properties of cosmic dust and synchrotron radiation regions in galaxies and other astronomical objects. (wikipedia.org)
  • The telescope remained the same, but new detectors were inserted into BICEP2 using a completely different technology: a printed circuit board on the focal plane that could filter, process, image, and measure radiation from the cosmic microwave background. (wikipedia.org)
  • MV.7 emplaced only 30 cm deep in Martian dust could survive the cosmic radiation for up to 100,000 years before suffering 10⁶ population reduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, solar radiation would have caused the resulting dust to drift inward to Earth orbit over a time span consistent with the record of dust in the ocean sediment. (wikipedia.org)
  • On Oct. 21, 2014, Science Daily reported the POLARBEAR collaboration's announcement of evidence for B-modes "produced by gravitational lensing in the polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alvarez's hypothesis at the time conflicted over whether an impact was the cause or whether the iridium had been deposited by a supernova from a nearby star, which could have also killed most life on Earth due to gamma ray bursts and cosmic radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In astronomy, extinction is the absorption and scattering of electromagnetic radiation by dust and gas between an emitting astronomical object and the observer. (wikipedia.org)
  • A cosmic bubble of gas and dust, RCW 79 has grown to about 70 light-years in diameter, blown by the winds and radiation from hot young stars. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, more deeply embedded star-formation is obscured by dust, so radiation can only escape from the cloud surface and not from the embedded objects themselves. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mission: Venus flyby weight: 203 kg (446 lb) Sensors: microwave and infrared radiometers, cosmic dust, solar plasma and high-energy radiation, magnetic fields Status: Mariner 1 - Destroyed shortly after liftoff. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mission: Mars flyby Mass: 261 kg (575 lb) Sensors: camera with digital tape recorder (about 20 pictures), cosmic dust, solar plasma, trapped radiation, cosmic rays, magnetic fields, radio occultation and celestial mechanics Status: Mariner 3 - Malfunctioned. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mission: Venus flyby Mass: 245 kg (540 lb) Sensors: ultraviolet photometer, cosmic dust, solar plasma, trapped radiation, cosmic rays, magnetic fields, radio occultation and celestial mechanics Status: Mariner 5 - Defunct. (wikipedia.org)
  • The instruments on Mariner 3 included: Television camera Magnetometer Plasma probe Cosmic ray telescope Trapped radiation detector Cosmic ray ionization chamber Cosmic dust detector Spaceflight portal Exploration of Mars List of missions to Mars Robotic spacecraft Space exploration "Mariner Mars 1964 Mechanical Configuration" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • Similarly, an expanding Universe was questioned because of cosmic dust exaggerating Hubble redshift measurements of distant galaxies by Doppler's effect. (prlog.org)
  • The interstellar dust component of the ISM is responsible for the attenuation of the light from distant stars and galaxies. (geoscienceworld.org)
  • Planck is giving us some of the most detailed surveys of our galaxy's gas and dust structure and distribution, which we think can give us hints to the birthing process of stars and even the way galaxies like ours can form. (blogspot.com)
  • These clouds of frigid dust and gas inside galaxies have average temperatures of just 7 Kelvin (-447 degrees F, or -266 degrees C). Such cold clouds are hotbeds of star formation, because dense dust helps keep gases cool, allowing the gases to collapse and begin forming stars. (blogspot.com)
  • So far, we lack the knowledge on how the majority of cosmic dust forms in galaxies, which impedes our understanding of how these galaxies evolve through time. (ugent.be)
  • An international team of astronomers has completed a benchmark study of more than 300 galaxies, producing the largest census of dust in the local Universe, the Herschel Reference Survey. (phys.org)
  • dust mass suggests that supernovae can be an important source of dust in the interstellar medium, from local to high-redshift galaxies. (osti.gov)
  • The Universe is becoming gradually cleaner as more and more cosmic dust is being mopped up by the formation of stars within galaxies, an international team of astronomers has revealed. (scienmag.com)
  • The results showed that stars were forming inside galaxies much faster in the past compared to today, and that this rapid star birth is using up more and more of the cosmic dust that is ubiquitous in the Universe. (scienmag.com)
  • The dust and the gas in the universe is the raw material out of which stars and galaxies form. (scienmag.com)
  • Owing to a collection of sensitive instruments, mirrors and filters, the Herschel telescope had the capacity to detect the dust through the far-infrared emission it emits, revealing the existence of stars and galaxies hidden by the dust. (scienmag.com)
  • Our results show that the reason for this evolution is that galaxies used to contain more dust and gas in the past, and the universe is gradually becoming cleaner as the dust is used up. (scienmag.com)
  • Dr Elisabetta Valiante, a lead author from Cardiff University's School of Physics and Astronomy, said: 'The exciting thing about our survey is that it encompasses almost all of cosmic history, from the violent star-forming systems full of dust and gas in the early universe, that are essentially galaxies in the process of formation, to the much more subdued systems we see around us today. (scienmag.com)
  • At that time Jim Peebles pointed out, that in a Big Bang-created Universe there must have been a cosmic infrared background (CIB) - different from the cosmic microwave background - that can account for the formation and evolution of stars and galaxies. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the early models the CIB was built up from the redshifted spectra of the galaxies found in our cosmic neighborhood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dust in the host galaxies can absorb it and re-emit it in the infrared, contributing to the CIB. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although most of today's galaxies contain little dust (e.g. elliptical galaxies are practically dustless), there are some special stellar systems even in our vicinity which are extremely bright in the infrared and at the same time faint (often almost invisible) in the optical. (wikipedia.org)
  • He used the new technique to investigate eclipsing binaries, the reddening of starlight by interstellar dust, colors of galaxies, and variable stars. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intergalactic dust is cosmic dust in between galaxies in intergalactic space. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dust may affect intergalactic distance measurements, such as to supernova and quasars in other galaxies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intergalactic dust can form intergalactic dust clouds, known to exist around some galaxies since the 1960s. (wikipedia.org)
  • examined the SNe Ia color data comparisons while taking into account the effect of cosmic dust in external galaxies. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 1980s, Davis, now at Berkeley, was part of a collaboration-with George Efstathiou, Carlos Frenk, and Simon White-that established the validity of the "cold dark matter" theory for the formation of galaxies and other cosmic structures, now the accepted interpretation in cosmology. (wikipedia.org)
  • In these systems most of the gravitational potential energy of the matter falling into the central black hole is converted into X-rays, which would escape unless they are absorbed by the dust torus of the accretion disc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cosmic ray spallation, caused when cosmic rays impact the interstellar medium and fragment larger atomic species, is a significant source of the lighter nuclei, particularly 3He, 9Be and 10,11B, that are not created by stellar nucleosynthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, Mariner 2 detected high-energy charged particles coming from the Sun, including several brief solar flares, as well as cosmic rays from outside the Solar System. (wikipedia.org)
  • The interplanetary medium includes interplanetary dust, cosmic rays and hot plasma from the solar wind. (wikipedia.org)
  • This matter includes gas in ionic, atomic, and molecular form, as well as dust and cosmic rays. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although X-rays have been observed emanating from the Sun since the 1940s, the discovery in 1962 of the first cosmic X-ray source was a surprise. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rovers have to withstand high levels of acceleration, high and low temperatures, pressure, dust, corrosion, cosmic rays, remaining functional without repair for a needed period of time. (wikipedia.org)
  • The rate of the final step, which produces the O 2 , has been a topic of debate, but even the lowest estimates should produce lots of molecular oxygen in all but the coldest clouds of gas and dust. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Huge dust clouds are observable, e.g., with the renewed Hubble Space Telescope . (springer.com)
  • According to the Planck team, the new data suggest that some dust particles in these interstellar clouds are constantly colliding with fast-moving atoms and ultraviolet light. (blogspot.com)
  • The AIM mission will help determine what factors - temperature, water vapor, and dust particles - lead to the formation of these clouds. (wikipedia.org)
  • By the 1980s, at least four intergalactic dust clouds had been discovered within several megaparsec (Mpc) of the Milky Way galaxy, exemplified by the Okroy cloud. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cosmic wind, also called galactic wind, is a powerful cosmic force that can push interstellar dust clouds of low density into intergalactic space. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although it easily pushes low density gas and dust clouds, it can not easily push high density clouds. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the cosmic winds start to push the clouds, they start to separate and start looking like taffy being pulled apart. (wikipedia.org)
  • Improvements in the telescope and the use of unmanned spacecraft have enabled the investigation of geological phenomena, such as mountains, craters, seasonal meteorological phenomena, such as clouds, dust storms and ice caps on the other planets. (wikipedia.org)
  • It gave users an interactive environment to create and modify dynamic events such as water, clouds, rain, fire and dust. (wikipedia.org)
  • He is best known for his work on the structure and evolution of the Milky Way galaxy, and for the discovery of Bok globules, which are small, densely dark clouds of interstellar gas and dust that can be seen silhouetted against brighter backgrounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to theories of stellar formation, as in other stellar nurseries, the stars in Henize 206 were created after a dying star, or supernova, exploded, sending intense shockwaves through clouds of cosmic gas and dust. (wikipedia.org)
  • Artist's impression of dust formation around a supernova explosion. (wikipedia.org)
  • This artist's illustration of Supernova 1987A reveals the cold, inner regions of the exploded star's remnants (red) where tremendous amounts of dust were detected and imaged by ALMA. (phys.org)
  • The dust formed around evolved stars is ejected into the surrounding interstellar medium by the relatively benign effects of stellar winds, where it is subject to stochastic and violent processing in fast supernova-generated shock waves. (geoscienceworld.org)
  • Looking not only at supernova data but also at the cosmic microwave background spectrum, Big Bang nucleosynthesis and other factors, they concluded that "voids are in severe tension with the data. (wikipedia.org)
  • In December 2013, 36Ar, in the form of argon hydride, was found in cosmic dust associated with the Crab Nebula supernova. (wikipedia.org)
  • The evolution of dust traces out paths in which the Universe recycles material, in processes analogous to the daily recycling steps with which many people are familiar: production, storage, processing, collection, consumption, and discarding. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expanding Universe or Cosmic Dust? (prlog.org)
  • However, cosmic dust in the Milky Way may also produce AME similar to that found in BICEP2 thereby placing in question the Big Bang and the expanding Universe. (prlog.org)
  • Later, extrapolation of 353 GHz Planck telescope data to 160 GHz suggested the AME was caused by dust and not remnants of gravitational waves, thereby placing doubt in the expanding Universe. (prlog.org)
  • Like AME, redshift by dust in the line of sight to a galaxy suggested Universe expansion may be grossly exaggerated, i.e., the Hubble redshift may show a galaxy is receding near the speed of light relative to the Earth when in fact the dust NPs need not be moving at all. (prlog.org)
  • What this means is cosmic dust is the commonality by which an expanding Universe may be assessed. (prlog.org)
  • Most of the heavier elements that eventually go into building planets-and even you and me-spent most of their life in this universe as dust particles," said Martin, a professor of astronomy at the University of Toronto. (blogspot.com)
  • Stars, as the engines that produce metals in the Universe, are considered to be an obvious site for dust formation. (ugent.be)
  • This ``stardust" is currently thought to be insufficient to account for all cosmic dust in the Universe. (ugent.be)
  • This is one of the main ways dust is recycled in our universe, making its way from older stars to newborn solar systems. (nasa.gov)
  • Galaxy collisions and mergers were more frequent in the cosmic past: the global star formation rate of the Universe peaked around redshift z = 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Larger quantities of these lighter elements in the present universe are therefore thought to have been restored through billions of years of cosmic ray (mostly high-energy proton) mediated breakup of heavier elements in interstellar gas and dust. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fragments of these cosmic-ray collisions include the light elements Li, Be and B. The first ideas on nucleosynthesis were simply that the chemical elements were created at the beginning of the universe, but no rational physical scenario for this could be identified. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the age of 16, Wandrei completed his short story "The Red Brain", in which a mysterious Cosmic Dust sweeps through the universe, obliterating the stars. (wikipedia.org)
  • He is a public speaker, inventor, and an expert in the study of the universe's oldest light, the cosmic microwave background (CMB), using it to learn about the origin and evolution of the universe. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mapping these B-modes, therefore, allows physicists to map large-scale structure across the universe and through cosmic time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Seen in visible light, these regions of the Universe are often dark and obscured due to the dust, but they shine brightly in the millimetre and submillimetre part of the spectrum. (wikipedia.org)
  • This recycling of stellar dust and gas appears to occur throughout the Universe. (wikipedia.org)
  • Professor John Plane of the University of Leeds will present the Cosmic Dust in the Terrestrial Atmosphere (CODITA) project on Friday 30 March at the National Astronomy meeting in Manchester, England. (dailygalaxy.com)
  • Initially this book focuses on the chemical and morphological properties of dust particles, both cosmological and terrestrial, and some of techniques used to gain information. (environmental-expert.com)
  • In 1938, Swiss mineralogist Victor Goldschmidt and his colleagues compiled a list of what they called "cosmic abundances" based on their analysis of several terrestrial and meteorite samples. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, cosmic dust can drive the mass loss when a star is nearing the end of its life , play a part in the early stages of star formation , and form planets . (wikipedia.org)
  • Simulation showing the formation of a giant dust horseshoe at the edge of the cavity around the young binary star HD142527. (monash.edu)
  • Given just how much time has passed since the formation of the planets, you might feel inclined to think most of the universe's cosmic dust has found a home by now. (labroots.com)
  • The formation of the dust, in circumstellar environments and subsequently ejected into the interstellar medium, is thus balanced by destructive processes that erode and eventually destroy it. (geoscienceworld.org)
  • The dark cloud of dust and gas is a region in the Orion Molecular Cloud Complex where star formation is taking place. (wikipedia.org)
  • While she is researching the influence of cosmic dust on early planet formation, she is also working on models of why life on earth is constructed of left hand twisted amino acids and right hand twisted sugars. (wikipedia.org)
  • United States Patent Application Publication, US2006/0054187 2006 A1 Formation of Cosmic Dust Bunnies. (wikipedia.org)
  • At this time, the most consistent formation reactions seems to be on the surface of ice in cosmic dust. (wikipedia.org)
  • In astronomy, Bok globules are isolated and relatively small dark nebulae, containing dense cosmic dust and gas from which star formation may take place. (wikipedia.org)
  • A good 17 thousand light-years away in the grand southern constellation Centaurus, the expanding nebula itself has triggered star formation as it plows into the gas and dust surrounding it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycolaldehyde has been identified in gas and dust near the center of the Milky Way galaxy, in a star-forming region 26000 light-years from Earth, and around a protostellar binary star, IRAS 16293-2422, 400 light years from Earth. (wikipedia.org)
  • He has also helped organize and run an all-sky model of cosmic dust distribution in the Milky Way galaxy. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, on June 5, 2014 at a conference of the American Astronomical Society, astronomer David Spergel argued that the B-mode polarization detected by BICEP2 could instead be the result of light emitted from dust between the stars in our Milky Way galaxy. (wikipedia.org)
  • On January 30, 2015, a joint analysis of BICEP2 and Planck data was published and the European Space Agency announced that the signal can be entirely attributed to dust in the Milky Way. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists later determined that the BICEP2 team could not rule out the possibility that the B-modes it detected originated from dust within the Milky Way galaxy - and not from inflation. (wikipedia.org)
  • It might be dust from the Milky Way or from gravitational waves lurking beneath the dust signal. (wikipedia.org)
  • The development of radio astronomy, infrared astronomy and submillimetre astronomy in the 20th Century allowed the gas and dust of the Milky Way to be mapped for the first time. (wikipedia.org)
  • This has been extensively studied by secondary ion mass spectrometry, the key instrumentation for cosmic dust analysis and dust eroded surfaces in combination with scanning electron microscopy. (springer.com)
  • We have now amassed a wealth of information on interstellar and circumstellar dust from astronomical observations encompassing the far-ultraviolet to the mm wavelength regime. (geoscienceworld.org)
  • In addition to the spinning dust, Planck's initial data on non-CMB sources-released today at a meeting of the American Astronomical Society in Seattle, Washington-revealed a menagerie of unusual structures. (blogspot.com)
  • The real observations of the CIB began after the era of astronomical satellites working in the infrared, started by the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS), and followed by the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE), the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) and by the Spitzer Space Telescope. (wikipedia.org)
  • A preprint released by the Planck team in September 2014, eventually accepted in 2016, provided the most accurate measurement yet of dust, concluding that the signal from dust is the same strength as that reported from BICEP2. (wikipedia.org)
  • On May 12, 2016, Keating was named Director of the Simons Observatory, a $45 million Cosmic Microwave Background experiment co-located near the POLARBEAR/Simons Array and ACT telescopes in northern Chile. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most glacial ice contains tiny air bubbles that have trapped the atmospheric gases and other atmospherically transported materials existing at the time that the ice was deposited such as plant pollen, microbes and mineral dust. (wikipedia.org)
  • in 2008 and The Dust Also Rises in 2017. (wikipedia.org)
  • On 14 February 2017, Pullman announced that The Book of Dust would be a new trilogy, and announced the publication of the first novel, La Belle Sauvage, published on 19 October 2017. (wikipedia.org)
  • AME stands for Anomalous Microwave Emission and CMB for Cosmic Microwave Background. (prlog.org)
  • Unlike interstellar gas, cosmic dust does not have absorption or emission lines. (physicsforums.com)
  • Observations of the thermal emission from this dust, which is at relatively low temperatures ( T = 50-200 K), in the circumstellar shells around these stars indicate that the dust consists of both amorphous and crystalline materials. (geoscienceworld.org)
  • Our Herschel spectra show only weak CO line emission, and provide an upper limit for the 63 μm [O I] line flux, eliminating the possibility that line contaminations distort the previously estimated dust mass. (osti.gov)
  • The far-infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) is well fitted by thermal emission from cold dust. (osti.gov)
  • In the 1960s the absorption of starlight by dust was already taken into account, but without considering the re-emission of this absorbed energy in the infrared. (wikipedia.org)
  • Comet dust refers to cosmic dust that originates from a comet. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the Earth passes through a comet dust trail, it can produce a meteor shower. (wikipedia.org)
  • Comet Dust Bunny Archived 2011-03-19 at the Wayback Machine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary science objectives of the mission included: Providing a flyby of a comet of interest (Wild 2) at a sufficiently low velocity (less than 6.5 km/s) such that non-destructive capture of comet dust is possible using an aerogel collector. (wikipedia.org)
  • The metals injected into the atmosphere from evaporating dust particles are involved in a diverse range of phenomena linked to climate change. (dailygalaxy.com)
  • A smaller fraction of all dust in space consists of larger refractory minerals that condensed as matter left by stars. (wikipedia.org)
  • In October 2011, scientists reported that cosmic dust contains complex organic matter (amorphous organic solids with a mixed aromatic - aliphatic structure) that could be created naturally, and rapidly, by stars . (wikipedia.org)
  • For the first time, we have shown how the dust horseshoe, cavity, fast flows, streamers, spirals and shadows could be explained with one simple answer: the disc orbits two stars not one," said Associate Professor Price. (monash.edu)
  • The space between the stars, the interstellar medium (ISM), has long been known to harbour copious quantities of gas and dust. (geoscienceworld.org)
  • Interstellar dust is the solid phase of interstellar matter from which stars and planets form. (springer.com)
  • That means it created all its stars in a cosmic eye-blink - a growth spurt of 100 to 500 million years. (newscientist.com)
  • Cosmic dust is comprised of tiny solid particles that are found everywhere in space between the stars. (scienmag.com)
  • These dust eruptions probably occur only once every 10,000 years in the lives of old stars, and they are thought to last less than a few hundred years each time. (nasa.gov)
  • The team plans to follow up with space- and ground-based telescopes to confirm its nature and to better understand how older stars recycle dust back into the cosmos. (nasa.gov)
  • The darkness of the Horsehead is caused mostly by thick dust blocking the light of stars behind it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nuclear fusion takes place inside the stars, and we can really see this light redshifted: this is the main source of the cosmic ultraviolet- and visual background. (wikipedia.org)
  • In October 2011, scientists reported that one form of extraterrestrial material, cosmic dust, contains complex organic matter ("amorphous organic solids with a mixed aromatic-aliphatic structure") that could be created naturally, and rapidly, by stars. (wikipedia.org)
  • Working with Susanne Hofner, their research in 2003 showed that "correct micro-physical description of the dust is crucial for predicting the mass loss rates of AGB stars. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because new stars and planets form from gases, the cosmic winds that push the gases away are preventing new stars from forming. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most recently he has been studying the polarization produced in cataclysmic variables, or interacting binary star systems that give off sudden bursts of intense energy, and dust about young stars. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, its effects had been noted in 1847 by Friedrich Georg Wilhelm von Struve, and its effect on the colors of stars had been observed by a number of individuals who did not connect it with the general presence of galactic dust. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the UBV photometric system the color excess E B − V {\displaystyle E_{B-V}} is related to the B-V colour by: E B − V = ( B − V ) observed − ( B − V ) intrinsic {\displaystyle E_{B-V}=(B-V)_{\textrm {observed}}-(B-V)_{\textrm {intrinsic}}\,} Interstellar reddening occurs because interstellar dust absorbs and scatters blue light waves more than red light waves, making stars appear redder than they are. (wikipedia.org)
  • The resulting false-color image shows embedded young stars as bright white spots, with the surrounding gas and dust in blue, green and red. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gas and dust were subsequently compressed into large groups, then gravity further condensed them into massive objects, and stars were born. (wikipedia.org)
  • Satellite observations suggest that 100-300 tons of cosmic dust enter the atmosphere each day. (dailygalaxy.com)
  • These measurements include meteor radar observations, laser observations of the sodium and iron atoms from evaporating dust in the upper atmosphere, and measurements by high altitude aircraft of meteoritic iron in the lower stratosphere. (dailygalaxy.com)
  • The Cosmic Dust Analyser (CDA) is intended to provide direct observations of particulate matter in the Saturnian system, to investigate the physical, chemical, and dynamical properties of these particles, and to study their interactions with the rings, icy satellites, and magnetosphere of Saturn. (esa.int)
  • These observations suggest that organic compounds introduced on Earth by interstellar dust particles could serve as basic ingredients for life due to their surface-catalytic activities. (wikipedia.org)
  • But most of the mass of dust particles entering the atmosphere are much smaller than this, so can be detected only using specialised meteor radars. (dailygalaxy.com)
  • In this respect the Mediterranean Sea is of special importance because its atmosphere receives inputs of anthropogenic aerosols from the north and desert- derived Saharan dusts from the south. (environmental-expert.com)
  • We've known since the 1940s that cosmic dust falls continuously through our atmosphere, but until now we've thought that it could not be detected," says team leader Matthew Genge at Imperial College London. (newscientist.com)
  • An estimated 30,000 ± 20,000 tonnes per year (t/yr) of cosmic dust enters the upper atmosphere each year of which less than 10% (2700 ± 1400 t/yr) is estimated to reach the surface as particles. (wikipedia.org)
  • After investigating the effects of the 1883 eruption of Krakatoa, he determined that a large enough impact could force enough ash and dust into the atmosphere to block out the sun, leading to a global mass extinction. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is similar to the effect seen when dust particles in the atmosphere of Earth contribute to red sunsets. (wikipedia.org)
  • Space dust" redirects here. (wikipedia.org)
  • For other uses, see Space dust (disambiguation) . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cosmic dust , also called extraterrestrial dust or space dust , is dust which exists in outer space , as well as all over planet Earth . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cosmic dust of the Andromeda Galaxy as revealed in infrared light by the Spitzer Space Telescope . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cosmic dust , also called extraterrestrial dust or space dust , is dust which exists in outer space , or has fallen on Earth . (wikipedia.org)
  • The space-time admits closed timelike curves (CTCs) which develop at some particular moment in a causally well-behaved manner and may represent a Cosmic Time Machine. (hindawi.com)
  • Dust in space contains amino acids and more. (digitaljournal.com)
  • As a Show and Tell exercise, the life from the dust is an insight into a range of far more complex processes which weren't much considered, let alone theorized, to occur in space. (digitaljournal.com)
  • Although we think of space as being empty, there is more out there than meets the eye - dust, for example, is everywhere. (dailygalaxy.com)
  • Natural News ) Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is an organic compound discovered in the space dust that permeated outer space. (naturalnews.com)
  • Space dust is mostly made up of carbon, oxygen, and silicon. (naturalnews.com)
  • In addition to being found inside space dust, PQQ can also be produced on Earth through a natural fermentation process. (naturalnews.com)
  • Contrarily, cosmic dust continues to swirl around in outer space to this very day. (labroots.com)
  • Dust is an essential component throughout space. (springer.com)
  • It is collecting cosmic dust and exposing dehydrated microorganisms outside the International Space Station while orbiting 400 km (250 mi) above the Earth. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1957 Hans Peterson conducted one of the first direct measurements of the fall of space dust on the Earth, estimating it to be 14,300,000 tons per year. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1974 they proposed the hypothesis that some dust in interstellar space was largely organic (containing carbon), which Wickramasinghe later proved to be correct. (wikipedia.org)
  • Large Area Dust Collection - on the International Space Station", 2007. (wikipedia.org)
  • During this period, he spent 6 months as a visiting scientist at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center focusing on data analysis of cosmic dust experiments, and 6 months as a visiting scientist at the NASA Ames Research Center, doing research on hypervelocity impact phenomena. (wikipedia.org)
  • His research currently focuses on Lunar dust processes, development of space instrumentation (LDEX, DUNE, SARIM) and dust accelerator research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eberhard Grün was the Principal Investigator (PI) of dust instruments on many space missions like Helios 1 (1974), Helios 2 (1976), Galileo (1989), Ulysses (1990), and Cassini-Huygens (1997). (wikipedia.org)
  • A similar product, Cosmic Candy, previously called Space Dust, was in powdered form and was also manufactured by General Foods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Under the pen-name Rei Kozumi (小隅 黎, Kozumi Rei), a play on "cosmic ray," he translated as many as sixty science fiction novels from English into Japanese, including E. E. Smith's Lensman series and Larry Niven's Known Space series. (wikipedia.org)
  • In astronomy, the interstellar medium (or ISM) is the gas and cosmic dust that pervade interstellar space: the matter that exists between the star systems within a galaxy. (wikipedia.org)
  • After destroying the space shuttle, the Decpticons attempt to steal the cosmic dust that is left behind, as well as a laser from a research facility. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infrared light from the dust embedded in the nebula is tinted red in this gorgeous false-color view from the Spitzer Space Telescope. (wikipedia.org)
  • NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope easily detects infrared light from the dust particles in RCW 79. (wikipedia.org)
  • She founded the company von Hoerner & Sulger, which produces scientific instruments, notably dust analyzers used on space missions by ESA and NASA. (wikipedia.org)
  • This included the launch of several spacecraft designed to directly measure the micrometeorite flux (Pegasus satellite program) or directly measure the dust on the surface of the Moon (Surveyor Program). (wikipedia.org)
  • There he concentrated on dust-magnetosphere interactions and on data analysis of the Voyager 2 spacecraft. (wikipedia.org)
  • The visual extinction of the dust responsible for the echo is A{sub V} Almost-Equal-To 0.05 mag in addition to the extinction due to the Galactic foreground toward the host galaxy. (osti.gov)
  • The mission will collect cosmic dust and other particles for three years by using ultra-low density silica gel called aerogel. (wikipedia.org)
  • A trademark for "Dustbunny" was registered in 2006 for the "Dustbunny Cleaner", a robotic ball with an electrostatic sleeve that rolls around under furniture to collect dust bunnies and other material. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its primary mission was to collect dust samples from the coma of comet Wild 2, as well as samples of cosmic dust, and return these to Earth for analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • They can collect dust, rocks, and even take pictures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Results indicate the star recently exploded with copious amounts of fresh dust, equivalent in mass to our planet Earth. (nasa.gov)
  • The LMT mainly studies thermally cold objects, most of them associated to large amounts of cosmic dust and/or molecular gas. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the amount of iridium in the layer was higher than would be expected, that would imply an asteroid or comet impact had caused impactor dust to fall in high amounts all around the world, building up a higher concentration of iridium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Initially the proposed dust models were inevitably simple, e.g. , the dirty ice model, but have now advanced to the stage where we can now justifiably begin to call this field a branch of mineralogy (astromineralogy). (geoscienceworld.org)
  • Specks of cosmic dust can be so small that you can't see them with the naked eye. (labroots.com)