COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Haplorhini: A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Sulfur Oxides: Inorganic oxides of sulfur.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Myristic Acids: 14-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Bungarus: A genus of poisonous snakes of the subfamily Elapinae of the family ELAPIDAE. They comprise the kraits. Twelve species are recognized and all inhabit southeast Asia. They are considered extremely dangerous. (Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p120)Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Myristic Acid: A saturated 14-carbon fatty acid occurring in most animal and vegetable fats, particularly butterfat and coconut, palm, and nutmeg oils. It is used to synthesize flavor and as an ingredient in soaps and cosmetics. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Oligonucleotide Probes: Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Protein Sorting Signals: Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Fetuins: A family of calcium-binding alpha-globulins that are synthesized in the LIVER and play an essential role in maintaining the solubility of CALCIUM in the BLOOD. In addition the fetuins contain aminoterminal cystatin domains and are classified as type 3 cystatins.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Alternative Splicing: A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Schizophrenia, Childhood: An obsolete concept, historically used for childhood mental disorders thought to be a form of schizophrenia. It was in earlier versions of DSM but is now included within the broad concept of PERVASIVE DEVELOPMENT DISORDERS.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Cell Compartmentation: A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Palmitic Acid: A common saturated fatty acid found in fats and waxes including olive oil, palm oil, and body lipids.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Palmitic Acids: A group of 16-carbon fatty acids that contain no double bonds.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Glycosylphosphatidylinositols: Compounds containing carbohydrate or glycosyl groups linked to phosphatidylinositols. They anchor GPI-LINKED PROTEINS or polysaccharides to cell membranes.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Acetylcholinesterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC 3.1.1.7.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Receptors, Gastrointestinal Hormone: Cell surface proteins that bind gastrointestinal hormones with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Most gastrointestinal hormones also act as neurotransmitters so these receptors are also present in the central and peripheral nervous systems.Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte: Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Lysophospholipase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of a single fatty acid ester bond in lysoglycerophosphatidates with the formation of glyceryl phosphatidates and a fatty acid. EC 3.1.1.5.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Diacylglycerol Kinase: An enzyme of the transferase class that uses ATP to catalyze the phosphorylation of diacylglycerol to a phosphatidate. EC 2.7.1.107.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Enzyme Precursors: Physiologically inactive substances that can be converted to active enzymes.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Phosphatidylinositol Diacylglycerol-Lyase: A phosphorus-oxygen lyase found primarily in BACTERIA. The enzyme catalyzes the cleavage of a phosphoester linkage in 1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol to form 1D-myo-inositol 1,2-cyclic phosphate and diacylglycerol. The enzyme was formerly classified as a phosphoric diester hydrolase (EC 3.1.4.10) and is often referred to as a TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. However it is now known that a cyclic phosphate is the final product of this enzyme and that water does not enter into the reaction.alpha-Mannosidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the HYDROLYSIS of terminal, non-reducing alpha-D-mannose residues in alpha-D-mannosides. The enzyme plays a role in the processing of newly formed N-glycans and in degradation of mature GLYCOPROTEINS. There are multiple isoforms of alpha-mannosidase, each having its own specific cellular location and pH optimum. Defects in the lysosomal form of the enzyme results in a buildup of mannoside intermediate metabolites and the disease ALPHA-MANNOSIDOSIS.Protein PrecursorsSerine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.Nerve Tissue ProteinsMultigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.src Homology Domains: Regions of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE similarity in the SRC-FAMILY TYROSINE KINASES that fold into specific functional tertiary structures. The SH1 domain is a CATALYTIC DOMAIN. SH2 and SH3 domains are protein interaction domains. SH2 usually binds PHOSPHOTYROSINE-containing proteins and SH3 interacts with CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.Chimera: An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.3',5'-Cyclic-AMP Phosphodiesterases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of CYCLIC AMP to form adenosine 5'-phosphate. The enzymes are widely distributed in animal tissue and control the level of intracellular cyclic AMP. Many specific enzymes classified under this heading demonstrate additional spcificity for 3',5'-cyclic IMP and CYCLIC GMP.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Sugar AcidsProto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.DNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Chloramphenicol O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Single-Strand Specific DNA and RNA Endonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of single-stranded regions of DNA or RNA molecules while leaving the double-stranded regions intact. They are particularly useful in the laboratory for producing "blunt-ended" DNA molecules from DNA with single-stranded ends and for sensitive GENETIC TECHNIQUES such as NUCLEASE PROTECTION ASSAYS that involve the detection of single-stranded DNA and RNA.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Fucosyltransferases: Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of fucose from a nucleoside diphosphate fucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid molecule. Elevated activity of some fucosyltransferases in human serum may serve as an indicator of malignancy. The class includes EC 2.4.1.65; EC 2.4.1.68; EC 2.4.1.69; EC 2.4.1.89.RNA Splicing: The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.PhosphoproteinsEscherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Mannosidases: Glycoside hydrolases that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha or beta linked MANNOSE.Steroid Hydroxylases: Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Microsomes: Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Poly A: A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Asialoglycoproteins: Endogenous glycoproteins from which SIALIC ACID has been removed by the action of sialidases. They bind tightly to the ASIALOGLYCOPROTEIN RECEPTOR which is located on hepatocyte plasma membranes. After internalization by adsorptive ENDOCYTOSIS they are delivered to LYSOSOMES for degradation. Therefore receptor-mediated clearance of asialoglycoproteins is an important aspect of the turnover of plasma glycoproteins. They are elevated in serum of patients with HEPATIC CIRRHOSIS or HEPATITIS.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.L Cells (Cell Line): A cultured line of C3H mouse FIBROBLASTS that do not adhere to one another and do not express CADHERINS.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Phosphatidylinositols: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Endopeptidases: A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Chromosome Deletion: Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Brefeldin A: A fungal metabolite which is a macrocyclic lactone exhibiting a wide range of antibiotic activity.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Bungarotoxins: Neurotoxic proteins from the venom of the banded or Formosan krait (Bungarus multicinctus, an elapid snake). alpha-Bungarotoxin blocks nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and has been used to isolate and study them; beta- and gamma-bungarotoxins act presynaptically causing acetylcholine release and depletion. Both alpha and beta forms have been characterized, the alpha being similar to the large, long or Type II neurotoxins from other elapid venoms.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Mammals: Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Codon: A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).Phorbol 12,13-Dibutyrate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL which, in addition to being a potent skin tumor promoter, is also an effective activator of calcium-activated, phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase C). Due to its activation of this enzyme, phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate profoundly affects many different biological systems.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.Frameshift Mutation: A type of mutation in which a number of NUCLEOTIDES deleted from or inserted into a protein coding sequence is not divisible by three, thereby causing an alteration in the READING FRAMES of the entire coding sequence downstream of the mutation. These mutations may be induced by certain types of MUTAGENS or may occur spontaneously.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Cysteine Endopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases: A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)Consensus Sequence: A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus: The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.Lysosomes: A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Models, Structural: A representation, generally small in scale, to show the structure, construction, or appearance of something. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)GlucuronidaseGlutathione Transferase: A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).

Sonic hedgehog signaling by the patched-smoothened receptor complex. (1/15431)

BACKGROUND: The Hedgehog (Hh) family of secreted proteins is involved in a number of developmental processes as well as in cancer. Genetic and biochemical data suggest that the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) receptor is composed of at least two proteins: the tumor suppressor protein Patched (Ptc) and the seven-transmembrane protein Smoothened (Smo). RESULTS: Using a biochemical assay for activation of the transcription factor Gli, a downstream component of the Hh pathway, we show here that Smo functions as the signaling component of the Shh receptor, and that this activity can be blocked by Ptc. The inhibition of Smo by Ptc can be relieved by the addition of Shh. Furthermore, oncogenic forms of Smo are insensitive to Ptc repression in this assay. Mapping of the Smo domains required for binding to Ptc and for signaling revealed that the Smo-Ptc interaction involves mainly the amino terminus of Smo, and that the third intracellular loop and the seventh transmembrane domain are required for signaling. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that Smo is the signaling component of a multicomponent Hh receptor complex and that Ptc is a ligand-regulated inhibitor of Smo. Different domains of Smo are involved in Ptc binding and activation of a Gli reporter construct. The latter requires the third intracellular loop and the seventh transmembrane domain of Smo, regions often involved in coupling to G proteins. No changes in the levels of cyclic AMP or calcium associated with such pathways could be detected following receptor activation, however.  (+info)

Concomitant activation of pathways downstream of Grb2 and PI 3-kinase is required for MET-mediated metastasis. (2/15431)

The Met tyrosine kinase - the HGF receptor - induces cell transformation and metastasis when constitutively activated. Met signaling is mediated by phosphorylation of two carboxy-terminal tyrosines which act as docking sites for a number of SH2-containing molecules. These include Grb2 and p85 which couple the receptor, respectively, with Ras and PI 3-kinase. We previously showed that a Met mutant designed to obtain preferential coupling with Grb2 (Met2xGrb2) is permissive for motility, increases transformation, but - surprisingly - is impaired in causing invasion and metastasis. In this work we used Met mutants optimized for binding either p85 alone (Met2xPI3K) or p85 and Grb2 (MetPI3K/Grb2) to evaluate the relative importance of Ras and PI 3-kinase as downstream effectors of Met. Met2xPI3K was competent in eliciting motility, but not transformation, invasion, or metastasis. Conversely, MetP13K/Grb2 induced motility, transformation, invasion and metastasis as efficiently as wild type Met. Furthermore, the expression of constitutively active PI 3-kinase in cells transformed by the Met2xGrb2 mutant, fully rescued their ability to invade and metastasize. These data point to a central role for PI 3-kinase in Met-mediated invasiveness, and indicate that simultaneous activation of Ras and PI 3-kinase is required to unleash the Met metastatic potential.  (+info)

Plasma membrane recruitment of RalGDS is critical for Ras-dependent Ral activation. (3/15431)

In COS cells, Ral GDP dissociation stimulator (RalGDS)-induced Ral activation was stimulated by RasG12V or a Rap1/Ras chimera in which the N-terminal region of Rap1 was ligated to the C-terminal region of Ras but not by Rap1G12V or a Ras/Rap1 chimera in which the N-terminal region of Ras was ligated to the C-terminal region of Rap1, although RalGDS interacted with these small GTP-binding proteins. When RasG12V, Ral and the Rap1/Ras chimera were individually expressed in NIH3T3 cells, they localized to the plasma membrane. Rap1Q63E and the Ras/Rap1 chimera were detected in the perinuclear region. When RalGDS was expressed alone, it was abundant in the cytoplasm. When coexpressed with RasG12V or the Rap1/Ras chimera, RalGDS was detected at the plasma membrane, whereas when coexpressed with Rap1Q63E or the Ras/Rap1 chimera, RalGDS was observed in the perinuclear region. RalGDS which was targeted to the plasma membrane by the addition of Ras farnesylation site (RalGDS-CAAX) activated Ral in the absence of RasG12V. Although RalGDS did not stimulate the dissociation of GDP from Ral in the absence of the GTP-bound form of Ras in a reconstitution assay using the liposomes, RalGDS-CAAX could stimulate it without Ras. RasG12V activated Raf-1 when they were coexpressed in Sf9 cells, whereas RasG12V did not affect the RalGDS activity. These results indicate that Ras recruits RalGDS to the plasma membrane and that the translocated RalGDS induces the activation of Ral, but that Rap1 does not activate Ral due to distinct subcellular localization.  (+info)

Arrestin function in G protein-coupled receptor endocytosis requires phosphoinositide binding. (4/15431)

Internalization of agonist-activated G protein-coupled receptors is mediated by non-visual arrestins, which also bind to clathrin and are therefore thought to act as adaptors in the endocytosis process. Phosphoinositides have been implicated in the regulation of intracellular receptor trafficking, and are known to bind to other coat components including AP-2, AP180 and COPI coatomer. Given these observations, we explored the possibility that phosphoinositides play a role in arrestin's function as an adaptor. High-affinity binding sites for phosphoinositides in beta-arrestin (arrestin2) and arrestin3 (beta-arrestin2) were identified, and dissimilar effects of phosphoinositide and inositol phosphate on arrestin interactions with clathrin and receptor were characterized. Alteration of three basic residues in arrestin3 abolished phosphoinositide binding with complete retention of clathrin and receptor binding. Unlike native protein, upon agonist activation, this mutant arrestin3 expressed in COS1 cells neither supported beta2-adrenergic receptor internalization nor did it concentrate in coated pits, although it was recruited to the plasma membrane. These findings indicate that phosphoinositide binding plays a critical regulatory role in delivery of the receptor-arrestin complex to coated pits, perhaps by providing, with activated receptor, a multi-point attachment of arrestin to the plasma membrane.  (+info)

The MAP kinase ERK2 inhibits the cyclic AMP-specific phosphodiesterase HSPDE4D3 by phosphorylating it at Ser579. (5/15431)

The extracellular receptor stimulated kinase ERK2 (p42(MAPK))-phosphorylated human cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase PDE4D3 at Ser579 and profoundly reduced ( approximately 75%) its activity. These effects could be reversed by the action of protein phosphatase PP1. The inhibitory state of PDE4D3, engendered by ERK2 phosphorylation, was mimicked by the Ser579-->Asp mutant form of PDE4D3. In COS1 cells transfected to express PDE4D3, challenge with epidermal growth factor (EGF) caused the phosphorylation and inhibition of PDE4D3. This effect was blocked by the MEK inhibitor PD98059 and was not apparent using the Ser579-->Ala mutant form of PDE4D3. Challenge of HEK293 and F442A cells with EGF led to the PD98059-ablatable inhibition of endogenous PDE4D3 and PDE4D5 activities. EGF challenge of COS1 cells transfected to express PDE4D3 increased cAMP levels through a process ablated by PD98059. The activity of the Ser579-->Asp mutant form of PDE4D3 was increased by PKA phosphorylation. The transient form of the EGF-induced inhibition of PDE4D3 is thus suggested to be due to feedback regulation by PKA causing the ablation of the ERK2-induced inhibition of PDE4D3. We identify a novel means of cross-talk between the cAMP and ERK signalling pathways whereby cell stimuli that lead to ERK2 activation may modulate cAMP signalling.  (+info)

p50(cdc37) acting in concert with Hsp90 is required for Raf-1 function. (6/15431)

Genetic screens in Drosophila have identified p50(cdc37) to be an essential component of the sevenless receptor/mitogen-activated kinase protein (MAPK) signaling pathway, but neither the function nor the target of p50(cdc37) in this pathway has been defined. In this study, we examined the role of p50(cdc37) and its Hsp90 chaperone partner in Raf/Mek/MAPK signaling biochemically. We found that coexpression of wild-type p50(cdc37) with Raf-1 resulted in robust and dose-dependent activation of Raf-1 in Sf9 cells. In addition, p50(cdc37) greatly potentiated v-Src-mediated Raf-1 activation. Moreover, we found that p50(cdc37) is the primary determinant of Hsp90 recruitment to Raf-1. Overexpression of a p50(cdc37) mutant which is unable to recruit Hsp90 into the Raf-1 complex inhibited Raf-1 and MAPK activation by growth factors. Similarly, pretreatment with geldanamycin (GA), an Hsp90-specific inhibitor, prevented both the association of Raf-1 with the p50(cdc37)-Hsp90 heterodimer and Raf-1 kinase activation by serum. Activation of Raf-1 via baculovirus coexpression with oncogenic Src or Ras in Sf9 cells was also strongly inhibited by dominant negative p50(cdc37) or by GA. Thus, formation of a ternary Raf-1-p50(cdc37)-Hsp90 complex is crucial for Raf-1 activity and MAPK pathway signaling. These results provide the first biochemical evidence for the requirement of the p50(cdc37)-Hsp90 complex in protein kinase regulation and for Raf-1 function in particular.  (+info)

Dominant activity of activation function 1 (AF-1) and differential stoichiometric requirements for AF-1 and -2 in the estrogen receptor alpha-beta heterodimeric complex. (7/15431)

Estrogenic responses are now known to be mediated by two forms of estrogen receptors (ER), ERalpha and ERbeta, that can function as homodimers or heterodimers. As homodimers the two have been recently shown to exhibit distinct transcriptional responses to estradiol (E2), antiestrogens, and coactivators, suggesting that the ER complexes are not functionally equivalent. However, because the three possible configurations of ER complexes all recognize the same estrogen response element, it has not been possible to evaluate the transcriptional properties of the ER heterodimer complex by transfection assays. Using ER subunits with modified DNA recognition specificity, we were able to measure the transcriptional properties of ERalpha-ERbeta heterodimers in transfected cells without interference from the two ER homodimer complexes. We first demonstrated that the individual activation function 1 (AF-1) domains act in a dominant manner within the ERalpha-ERbeta heterodimer: the mixed agonist-antagonist 4-hydroxytamoxifen acts as an agonist in a promoter- and cell context-dependent manner via the ERalpha AF-1, while activation of the complex by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway requires only the ERalpha- or ERbeta-responsive MAPK site. Using ligand-binding and AF-2-defective mutants, we further demonstrated that while the ERalpha-ERbeta heterodimer can be activated when only one E2-binding competent partner is present per dimer, two functional AF-2 domains are required for transcriptional activity. Taken together, the results of this study of a retinoid X receptor-independent heterodimer complex, the first such study, provide evidence of different stoichiometric requirements for AF-1 and -2 activity and demonstrate that AF-1 receptor-specific properties are maintained within the ERalpha-ERbeta heterodimer.  (+info)

A human sequence homologue of Staufen is an RNA-binding protein that is associated with polysomes and localizes to the rough endoplasmic reticulum. (8/15431)

In the course of a two-hybrid screen with the NS1 protein of influenza virus, a human clone capable of coding for a protein with high homology to the Staufen protein from Drosophila melanogaster (dmStaufen) was identified. With these sequences used as a probe, cDNAs were isolated from a lambda cDNA library. The encoded protein (hStaufen-like) contained four double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-binding domains with 55% similarity and 38% identity to those of dmStaufen, including identity at all residues involved in RNA binding. A recombinant protein containing all dsRNA-binding domains was expressed in Escherichia coli as a His-tagged polypeptide. It showed dsRNA binding activity in vitro, with an apparent Kd of 10(-9) M. Using a specific antibody, we detected in human cells a major form of the hStaufen-like protein with an apparent molecular mass of 60 to 65 kDa. The intracellular localization of hStaufen-like protein was investigated by immunofluorescence using a series of markers for the cell compartments. Colocalization was observed with the rough endoplasmic reticulum but not with endosomes, cytoskeleton, or Golgi apparatus. Furthermore, sedimentation analyses indicated that hStaufen-like protein associates with polysomes. These results are discussed in relation to the possible functions of the protein.  (+info)

*COS cells

Two forms of COS cell lines commonly used are COS-1 and COS-7. The COS cell lines are often used by biologists when studying ... COS are fibroblast-like cell lines derived from monkey kidney tissue. COS cells are obtained by immortalizing CV-1 cells with a ... The CV-1 cell line in turn was derived from the kidney of the African green monkey. The acronym "COS" is derived from the cells ... and cell biology experiments. When an expression construct with an SV40 promoter is introduced into COS cells, the vector can ...

*Fibrinogen beta chain

Danishefsky K, Hartwig R, Banerjee D, Redman C (1990). "Intracellular fate of fibrinogen B beta chain expressed in COS cells". ... Cell Biol. 31 (7): 741-6. doi:10.1016/S1357-2725(99)00032-1. PMID 10467729. Redman CM, Xia H (2001). "Fibrinogen biosynthesis. ... In addition, various cleavage products of fibrinogen and fibrin regulate cell adhesion and spreading, display vasoconstrictor ... and chemotactic activities, and are mitogens for several cell types. Mutations in this gene lead to several disorders, ...

*N-myristoyltransferase 1

... and membrane association in COS cells". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87 (2): 728-32. doi:10.1073/pnas.87.2.728. PMC 53339 . ... Cell. Biochem. 204 (1-2): 135-55. doi:10.1023/A:1007012622030. PMID 10718634. Geyer M, Fackler OT, Peterlin BM (2001). " ... Wice BM, Gordon JI (1992). "A strategy for isolation of cDNAs encoding proteins affecting human intestinal epithelial cell ... "Antimyristoylation of the gag proteins in the human immunodeficiency virus-infected cells with N-myristoyl glycinal ...

*TP53

... cDNA sequence and expression in COS cells". The EMBO Journal. 4 (5): 1251-5. PMC 554332 . PMID 4006916. Baker SJ, Fearon ER, ... Suppression of p53 plays important roles in cancer stem cell phenotype, induced pluripotent stem cells and other stem cell ... Tsai RY, McKay RD (December 2002). "A nucleolar mechanism controlling cell proliferation in stem cells and cancer cells". Genes ... Cells with decreased levels of p53 have been shown to reprogram into stem cells with a much greater efficiency that normal ...

*GNAZ

... and membrane association in COS cells". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87 (2): 728-32. doi:10.1073/pnas.87.2.728. PMC 53339 . ... Cell Sci. 115 (Pt 23): 4483-93. doi:10.1242/jcs.00093. PMID 12414994. Glick JL, Meigs TE, Miron A, Casey PJ (October 1998). " ... Cell Biol. 141 (7): 1515-27. doi:10.1083/jcb.141.7.1515. PMC 2132997 . PMID 9647645. Glick JL, Meigs TE, Miron A, Casey PJ ( ... "Guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins in retinal pigment epithelial cells". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 88 (9): 3907 ...

*CD79B

1995). "Reconstitution of the B cell antigen receptor signaling components in COS cells". J. Biol. Chem. 270 (45): 27072-8. doi ... is identical in B cell and plasma cell lines producing all the human Ig isotypes". J. Immunol. 150 (2): 491-8. PMID 8419481. ... Müller B, Cooper L, Terhorst C (1995). "Interplay between the human TCR/CD3 epsilon and the B-cell antigen receptor associated ... 1994). "CD5 is associated with the human B cell antigen receptor complex". Eur. J. Immunol. 24 (4): 812-6. doi:10.1002/eji. ...

*Tyrosine-protein kinase BLK

1995). "Reconstitution of the B cell antigen receptor signaling components in COS cells". J. Biol. Chem. 270 (45): 27072-8. doi ... Cell. Biol. 13 (9): 5877-87. PMC 360336 . PMID 8395016. Malek SN, Yang CH, Earnshaw WC, et al. (1996). "p150TSP, a conserved ... Cell. Biol. 16 (9): 4735-43. PMC 231474 . PMID 8756631. Saouaf SJ, Wolven A, Resh MD, Bolen JB (1997). "Palmitylation of Src ... Dymecki SM, Niederhuber JE, Desiderio SV (1990). "Specific expression of a tyrosine kinase gene, blk, in B lymphoid cells". ...

*Sandra Saouaf

1995). "Reconstitution of the B cell antigen receptor signaling components in COS cells". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. ... After completion of her degree, Saouaf went to work in the cell signaling laboratory of Bristol-Myers Squibb where she ... December 1990). "Mechanisms of Autoimmunity in the Context of T-Cell Tolerance: Insights from Natural and Transgenic Animal ... January 1989). "Molecular characterization of suppressor T cells". Transplantation Proceedings. 20 (6): 1151-1153. Siegel, ...

*CUGBP1

2002). "Coexpression of the CUG-binding protein reduces DM protein kinase expression in COS cells". J. Biochem. 130 (5): 581-7 ... In mammalian cell extract as well as in xenopus egg extracts, depletion and rescue experiments showed that specific binding of ... In human cells, tethering of hCUGBP1 to a mRNA decreases its steadystate suggesting the destabilization of the mRNA. The first ... Cell. 29 (2): 263-70. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2007.11.024. PMC 2367162 . PMID 18243120. Marquis J, Paillard L, Audic Y, Cosson B, ...

*Carbonic anhydrase 4

... and expression in COS cell membranes". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 89 (4): 1315-9. doi:10.1073/pnas.89.4.1315. PMC 48440 . ... from the interior of the Red Blood Cell to the plasma. HCO3- doers not diffuse across cell membranes and, in the absence of CA ... CO2 in the plasma diffuses into the Red Blood Cell. CA is present within the Red Blood Cell, facilitating the conversion of CO2 ... It is traditionally thought that HCO3- is returned to the interior of the Red Blood Cell by a reversal of the HCO3-/CO2- ...

*GABAA-rho receptor

"Pharmacology of GABA ρ1 and GABA α/β receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes and COS cells". Br. J. Pharmacol. 109 (1): 200-6. ... Native responses of the GABAC receptor type occur in retinal bipolar or horizontal cells across vertebrate species. GABAС ... Feigenspan A, Wässle H, Bormann J (January 1993). "Pharmacology of GABA receptor Cl− channels in rat retinal bipolar cells". ... Qian H, Dowling JE (January 1993). "Novel GABA responses from rod-driven retinal horizontal cells". Nature. 361 (6408): 162-4. ...

*Insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor

Cloning and sequence of the full-length cDNA and expression of functional receptor in COS cells". J. Biol. Chem. 263 (5): 2553- ... Cloning and sequence of the full-length cDNA and expression of functional receptor in COS cells". J. Biol. Chem. 263 (5): 2553- ... Cell Genet. 66 (4): 272-3. doi:10.1159/000133710. PMID 8162705. Ishiwata T, Bergmann U, Kornmann M, Lopez M, Beger HG, Korc M ( ... Cell Biol. 30 (7): 767-71. doi:10.1016/S1357-2725(98)00048-X. PMID 9722981. Hawkes C, Kar S (2004). "The insulin-like growth ...

*GABA receptor

"Pharmacology of GABA rho 1 and GABA alpha/beta receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes and COS cells". Br. J. Pharmacol. 109 (1 ... After this period of development, a chloride pump is upregulated and inserted into the cell membrane, pumping Cl− ions into the ... Native responses of the GABAC receptor type occur in retinal bipolar or horizontal cells across vertebrate species. GABAС ... Tomiko SA, Taraskevich PS, Douglas WW (February 1983). "GABA acts directly on cells of pituitary pars intermedia to alter ...

*Peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase

... cloning and functional expression of a truncated form in COS cells". Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 169 (2): 551-8. doi:10.1016/ ... Cell. Biochem. 55 Suppl (S1994A): 19-28. doi:10.1002/jcb.240550004. PMID 7929615. Ouafik LH, Stoffers DA, Campbell TA, Johnson ...

*CD7

Aruffo A, Seed B (November 1987). "Molecular cloning of two CD7 (T-cell leukemia antigen) cDNAs by a COS cell expression system ... This protein is found on thymocytes and mature T cells. It plays an essential role in T-cell interactions and also in T-cell/B- ... Baker E, Sandrin MS, Garson OM, Sutherland GR, McKenzie IF, Webber LM (1990). "Localization of the cell surface antigen CD7 by ... Subrahmanyam G, Rudd CE, Schneider H (January 2003). "Association of T cell antigen CD7 with type II phosphatidylinositol-4 ...

*MAN1A1

cDNA cloning and expression of the enzyme in COS 1 cells". Eur. J. Biochem. 246 (3): 681-9. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1997.t01-1- ... Bieberich E, Bause E (1995). "Man9-mannosidase from human kidney is expressed in COS cells as a Golgi-resident type II ... expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells". J. Biol. Chem. 265 (18): 10373-82. PMID 2355006. Stein BS, Engleman EG (1990). " ...

*Structure and genome of HIV

It does not appear to require Vif for the same process in HeLa cells or COS cells, among others. nef- Nef, negative factor, is ... allows it to infect human immune cells by binding to a cytokine receptor on the target human immune cell, such as a CCR5 cell ... This is in turn surrounded by an envelope of host-cell origin. The envelope is formed when the capsid buds from the host cell, ... Vpr also appears to cause its host cells to arrest their cell cycle in the G2 phase. This arrest activates the host DNA repair ...

*Glycogenin-1

... mechanisms for the phosphorylation of C-terminal regulatory sites in rabbit muscle glycogen synthase expressed in COS cells". ... It is the way all the animal cells have to store glucose. In the human body, the two main tissues of glycogen accumulation are ...

*Myotonin-protein kinase

... cDNA clone which encodes a protein with a thymopoietin-like domain in COS cells". FEBS Letters. 351 (1): 22-6. doi:10.1016/0014 ... or cytosol in transfected COS-1 cells. Among the substrates for DMPK proposed by in vitro studies are phospholemman, the ... and brain cells. This protein may be involved in communication within cells. It also appears to regulate the production and ... The persistent activation of serine/threonine kinases has been shown to play a role in the determination of cell fate as well ...

*Enteropeptidase

... chain is subtle whether prepared by limited reduction of the natural protein or by mutagenesis and expression in COS cells. ... Enteropeptidase (also called enterokinase) is an enzyme produced by cells of the duodenum and is involved in digestion in ... Insights into an emerging class of cell surface proteolytic enzymes". J Biol Chem. 276 (2): 857-60. doi:10.1074/jbc.r000020200 ...

*Floor plate

Moreover, Isolation and transfection of Netrin-1 and Netrin-2, two secreted proteins, into Cos cells has similar effects. ... These cells are a neural stem cell population responsible for repopulating lost cells during injury. These cells have the ... An alternative view proposes that neural tube floor plate cells stem from precursor cells which migrate directly from axial ... During spinal cord development, Akhirin is expressed solely on ependymal stem cells with latent stem cell properties and plays ...

*Tony Minson

... and gHgL of herpes simplex virus type 1 are necessary and sufficient to mediate membrane fusion in a Cos cell transfection ... One or more of the genes absolutely required for replication is deleted and the virus is grown in a cell line engineered to ... His work has contributed to understanding the processes by which HSV fuses with the cell membrane and acquires its envelope. As ... The resulting virus can infect normal human cells, but should be safe because it cannot replicate in them. Such replication- ...

*Synapsin I

... and synapsin III with each other to create heterodimers of the proteins in COS cells. Synapsin I is present in the nerve ... Its association with synaptic vesicles studied in a highly purified synaptic vesicle preparation". J. Cell Biol. 96 (5): 1374- ... Cell Biol. 96 (5): 1337-54. doi:10.1083/jcb.96.5.1337. PMC 2112636 . PMID 6404910. Ueda T, Maeno H, Greengard P (December 1973 ...

*UGT2B7

"Cloning and expression of human liver UDP-glucuronosyltransferase in COS-1 cells. 3,4-catechol estrogens and estriol as primary ... This enzyme is located on the endoplasmic reticulum and nuclear membranes of cells. Its function is to catalyse the conjugation ... epithelial cells of the lower gastrointestinal tract and also has been reported in the brain. In humans, UDP- ...

*EPHX1

Complementary DNA sequence, complementary DNA-directed expression in COS-1 cells, and chromosomal localization". J. Biol. Chem ... Cell Genet. 83 (1-2): 44-5. doi:10.1159/000015164. PMID 9925921. Lu AY, Thomas PE, Ryan D, Jerina DM, Levin W (1979). " ... Cell Genet. 83 (1-2): 44-5. doi:10.1159/000015164. PMID 9925921. "Entrez Gene: EPHX1 epoxide hydrolase 1, microsomal ( ... EPHX1 protein can be found predominantly in membrane fraction of the endoplasmic reticulum of eucaryotic cells. Its expression ...

*Mie scattering

The intensity I of the scattered radiation is given by I = I 0 ( 1 + cos 2 ⁡ θ 2 R 2 ) ( 2 π λ ) 4 ( n 2 − 1 n 2 + 2 ) 2 ( d 2 ... Mie theory has been used to determine whether scattered light from tissue corresponds to healthy or cancerous cell nuclei using ... The extinction efficiency in this approximation is given by Q = 2 − 4 p sin ⁡ p + 4 p 2 ( 1 − cos ⁡ p ) , {\displaystyle Q=2-{\ ... and biological cells and cellular components, a more exact approach is necessary. The Mie solution is named after its developer ...
Expression of the 7C8 antigen in COS cells. (A) Homogenates of COS cells transfected with two of the pcDM8 expression plasmids isolated from immunoreactive
Find sin(s+t) and (s-t) if cos(s)= 1/5 and sin(t) = 3/5 and s and t are in quadrant 1. =Sin(s)cos(t) + Cos(s)Sin(t) =Sin(1/5)Cos(3/5) + Cos(-1/5)Sin(3/5) = 0.389418 Sin(s-t) =sin(s)cos(t) - cos(s)sin(t) =sin(-3/5)cos(1/5) - cos(1/5)sin(3/5) =Sin-3/5 cos-3/5 = -0.46602 HELP ... ...
This is a collection of ImplicitCAD files for an assortment of objects. Enjoy! module box1(BT,FH,H,PL,PB,SW,TT,UL,W,WT,G,cos,sin) /*type 32*/ {difference()/*remove inside & notch*/ {linear_extrude(H)/*make solid*/ polygon/*outside*/([(0,SW+PB+PL*cos/sin),(PL,SW+PB),(PL,SW/2+TT/2),(0,SW/2+TT/2),(0,SW/2-TT/2),(PL,SW/2-TT/2),(PL+SW/2-TT/2,0),(W-PL-SW/2+TT/2,0),(W-PL,SW/2-TT/2),(W,SW/2-TT/2),(W,SW/2+TT/2),(W-PL,SW/2+TT/2),(W-PL,SW+PB),(W,SW+PB+PL*cos/sin)/*back*/,(W,UL-PB-PL*cos/sin),(W-PL-PB*sin/cos+G*sin/cos,UL-G),(PL+PB*sin/cos-G*sin/cos,UL-G),(0,UL-PB-PL*cos/sin)/*front*/]); translate(0,0,BT)/*move up to leave bottom*/ linear_extrude(H)/*make solid*/ difference()/*round off inside corners*/ ...
(A): There is no significant difference between the cost of resistance measured by a proxy (such as growth rate, density at a set time, etc.) (grey bars, mean
COS are fibroblast-like cell lines derived from monkey kidney tissue. COS cells are obtained by immortalizing CV-1 cells with a version of the SV40 virus that can produce large T antigen but has a defect in genomic replication. The CV-1 cell line in turn was derived from the kidney of the African green monkey. The acronym "COS" is derived from the cells being CV-1 (simian) in Origin, and carrying the SV40 genetic material. Two forms of COS cell lines commonly used are COS-1 and COS-7. The COS cell lines are often used by biologists when studying the monkey virus SV40. Cells from these lines are also often transfected to produce recombinant proteins for molecular biology, biochemistry, and cell biology experiments. When an expression construct with an SV40 promoter is introduced into COS cells, the vector can be replicated substantially by the large T antigen. These COS cells are genetically modified to produce the T antigen from their own genome. Jensen FC, Girardi AJ, Gilden RV, Koprowski H ...
We approximate the following analytical solutions: \begin{align*} H_r(r,\theta,z,t) &= \frac{\alpha z}{\mu^c} \left( \cos(\theta) + \frac{r}{4}\cos(2\theta)+ \frac{r^2}{9}\cos(3\theta) \right)\cos(t) + \frac{\beta z}{\mu^c} \left(\sin(\theta) + \frac{r}{4}\sin(2\theta)+ \frac{r^2}{9}\sin(3\theta) \right)\cos(t), \\ H_{\theta}(r,\theta,z,t) &= \frac{\beta z}{\mu^c} \left( \cos(\theta) + \frac{r}{4}\cos(2\theta)+\frac{r^2}{9}\cos(3\theta) \right)\cos(t) -\frac{\alpha z}{\mu^c} \left(\sin(\theta) + \frac{r}{4}\sin(2\theta)+\frac{r^2}{9}\sin(3\theta) \right)\cos(t), \\ H_z(r,\theta,z,t) &= \frac{\alpha}{\mu^c} \left(r\cos(\theta) +\frac{r^2}{8}\cos(2\theta) + \frac{r^3}{27}\cos(3\theta) \right) \cos(t) + \frac{\beta}{\mu^c} \left(r\sin(\theta) +\frac{r^2}{8}\sin(2\theta) + \frac{r^3}{27}\sin(3\theta) \right) \cos(t), \end{align*} where \(\alpha\) and \(\beta\) are parameters. We also set the given velocity field as follows: \begin{align*} u^\text{given}_r(r,\theta,z,t) &= \alpha z \left(\cos(\theta) ...
Prove that each equation is an identity. I tried to do the problems, but I am stuck. 1. cos^4 t-sin^4 t=1-2sin^2 t 2. 1/cos s= csc^2 s - csc s cot s 3. (cos x/ sec x -1)- (cos x/ tan^2x)=cot^2 x 4. sin^3 z cos^2 z= sin^3 z - sin^5 ...
In article ,juhnn-0905961423450001 at 147.46.161.102,, juhnn at plaza.snu.ac.kr (YONG-SUNG JUHNN) wrote: @--, Colleagues, @--, @--, I am planning to work on signal transduction with COS-1 cell line. @--, I need to know what kinds of membrane receptors are endogeneously @--, expressed on this cell line or COS-7 cells. @--, I would be grateful, if you can tell me the expressed receptor types and @--, the related reference by e.mail. @--, My address is juhnn at plaza.snu.ac.kr @--, @--, Thank you. Along those lines, can anyone explain the difference between COS-1 and COS-7 cells? Im especially interested in receptors and signalling proteins. -- Still Trying to Avoid the Drunk Monkey :-Peter ...
Hello, I have isolated a gene from the mouse, with which I would like to do some promoter studies. Questions: should I now use a cell line from a mouse tumor to carry out these studies, or could I use cos cells (f.i.) also. What do most people do in this case? Are cos cells homologous enough ? Clemens, Heidelberg ...
Tante strategie sulle opzioni binarie con grafici, analisi, money management e sistemi di trading per guadagnare con le opzioni - cos e iq option.
Contains HXB2 env fragment from pHXB2 gpt. HIV-1 gp160 is expressed, though no other viral products. Provides high levels of gp160 in COS cells ...
It is also measure of time ie. in EE with phasors (f=constant) if we get philosophical P=U*I*Cos(Phi), as it is there for the difference of the phase of the I and U in timedomain. Now when phasors are mentioned, will there be traditional non-tagged method of using angles, by just using bare numbers. I think these two methods cant be separated in discussion they must work together and I go as far as saying that tagging should be more like an option to those who are jumping between O/(decided slicing method ...
I am excited and absolutely terrified at the same time! My injection has just run out but I feel it will take a while for me to get pregnant cos Ive
Read more about Top 10 biz headlines: Indian cos step up dollar-raising, Voda Idea Q3 loss on Business Standard. The Income-Tax Department has identified at least 50 central and state PSUs to be covered under the Vivad se Vishwas Bill
Get Solution of Question no 69145, prove that- i)cos?cosec?-sin?sec?/cos?+sin?=cosec?-sec? ii)cot^2?(sec?-1)/(1+sin?)=sec^2?(1-sin?)/(1+sec?) iii)(1-cos?)^1/2/(1+
This study offers an edition and fresh analysis of the fragmentary evidence for the views of Praxagoras of Cos (4th-3rd c. BC) on arteries, pulsation and pneuma. It presents the relevant fragments and draws new conclusions on Praxagoras views and sources.
Learn about Cos winery and shop the best selection at Wine.com. Get expert advice on wine you buy online. Free shipping with StewardShip and FedEx pickup available....
Learn about Cos winery and shop the best selection at Wine.com. Get expert advice on wine you buy online. Free shipping with StewardShip and FedEx pickup available....
Determine whether or not the given function is periodic. Find the fundamental period. (h) sinh x (q) cos(sin x) Please see the attached file for the fully formatted.
documentclass{article} \usepackage{newtxtext,newtxmath} \usepackage{amsmath} \DeclareMathOperator{\sn}{sn} \DeclareMathOperator{\cn}{cn} \DeclareMathOperator{\dn}{dn} \begin{document} \begin{equation} \begin{gathered} \omega^3x_{4}(s) = \begin{minipage}[t]{.7\displaywidth} \raggedright\linespread{1.2}\selectfont \begin{math} x_4(\varphi_0) -2 \cos^3 ( \phi )sk^2 +2k^2x_1(\varphi_0) \cos^2( \phi ) +4 \cos^3 ( \phi )E ( s ) k^2+x_3(\varphi_0)\sin ( \phi ) s - \cos^3( \phi ){s}^2E( s ) +2 \cos^3 ( \phi )s ( E (s) ^2 +\cos ( \phi ) {s}^2E ( s ) - 2x_3(\varphi_0)\sin ( \phi ) E ( s ) -1/6\cos ( \phi ) {s}^3-4/3 \cos^3 ( \phi ) E ( s ) ^3 -1/2 x_1(\varphi_0) \cos^2 ( \phi ){s}^2-2 x_1(\varphi_0) \cos^2 ( \phi ) E ( s ) ^2 -2\cos ( \phi) s E ( s ) ^2 -2x_1(\varphi_0)sE( s ) + k\sin (\phi ) \cn(s) {s}^2 \cos^2( \phi ) +2 \cos^3 ( \phi )sk^2 \sn(s) ^2 -2/3\cos ( \phi) E ( s) +4/3k^3\cn(s) \sn(s) ^2\sin( \phi ) \cos^2 ( \phi )+2k\sin ( \phi ) \cn(s) +2/3\cos ( \phi ) s-8/3\cos ( \phi ) k^2\dn (s) \sn(s) ...
COS Hydrolysis Catalyst for sale, new 98% Purity COS Hydrolysis Catalyst Component Part Al2O3 And Special Additives of Hubei Hatel Purification Technology Co., Ltd from China.
Cos2 of individuals #::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: # 1. square of the distance between an individual and the # PCA center of gravity center <- res.pca$center scale<- res.pca$scale getdistance <- function(ind_row, center, scale){ return(sum(((ind_row-center)/scale)^2)) } d2 <- apply(decathlon2.active,1,getdistance, center, scale) # 2. Compute the cos2. The sum of each row is 1 cos2 <- function(ind.coord, d2){return(ind.coord^2/d2)} ind.cos2 <- apply(ind.coord, 2, cos2, d2) head(ind.cos2[, 1:4 ...
TJX Cos. had a 25.9 percent decline in fourth-quarter profit, hurt by big promotions at several off-price units and a $19.3 million one-time charge.
EMMX proudly develops novel molecules and reagents to drug discovery and cancer research. We are scientists driven by a devotion to discovery and innovation, and we work hard every day to find new ways to streamline life science research.. ...
I consent to COS using my personal data to deliver email newsletters, and as otherwise set out in the COS privacy policy. I can unsubscribe at any time via a link in the newsletter or by contacting COS at: [email protected] ...
We have used 3 main methods to disrupt endocytosis in cells: use of inhibitory peptides, overexpression of protein domains and RNAi. Each method has advantages and disadvantages and thus it is preferable if a number of approaches can be used. We first used the peptide approach in Marks et al 1998 where a dynamin peptide was made membrane permeable and used to inhibit synaptic vesicle recycling. This peptide is now available from Tocris. We are currently developing more potent tools ...
10 most-read articles: PODs under attack-5 key points , 5 spine device cos ready for prime time , Only 70 Spots Remain - Come Hear Keynote Terry Bradshaw at Beckers ASC 21st Annual ...
Page contains details about CoS2 nanoparticles/nanoplates . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
3 Azimuthal distribution w.r.t the reaction plane N(φ ) = N 0 (1+2v 2 cos(2φ)+2v 4 cos(4φ)+ 2a 1 sin(φ)) For parity violation |a1|>0 and has opposite sign for positive and negative charges in an event
11 days after egg pick up. Mine is different I think cos the doctor has advice me to do frozen instead of fresh before my egg pick up. Haiz I cried in the...
Jakies straszne cos mnie dopadło i nie chce popuścić, cały czas chora jestem. Juz sie wydaje że za chwile koniec a tu znowu w gardle jakieś stado dzikich bestii ...
germinate.01: GERMINATE-V NOTES: Frame by Jena based on ECTB2, VNcls entity_specific_cos-45.5, sprout. Member of VNcls . entity_specific_cos-45.5, entity_specific_modes_being-47.2. (from germinate.01-v) GERMINATION-N NOTES: Corresponds with germinate.01. Framed by anwen april 2011 (from germination.01-n) ...
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) causes severe diseases in avian species. Its fusion protein cleavage site (Fcs) is a major contributor to virulence and membrane fusion. Previous studies showed that a change from phenylalanine (F) to lysine (L) at position 117 of the virulent strain fusion protein, which has the polybasic amino acid Fcs motif
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Biochemical Society Transactions.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Biochemical Society Transactions.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
April 30, 2013: Further to AAVSO Alert Notice 471 (http://www.aavso.org/aavso-alert-notice-471), HST/COS is scheduled to observe the eclipsing WZ Sge-type cataclysmic variable 1RXS J105010.3-140431:. 1RXS J105010.3-140431 2013 May 10 07:51:01 through 12:01:57 UT. The HST team will be making a final decision on observing 1RXS J105010.3-140431 based on the observations of May 8/9, and observations from the following night will also be essential. Close monitoring of 1RXS J105010.3-140431 through May 11 is requested to be sure it is below the threshold brightness and to have a good magnitude value for correlation with the HST observations. 1RXS J105010.3-140431 is V=17 at minimum; its magnitude at maximum is unknown.. After 1RXS J105010.3-140431, the next target will be the dwarf nova SDSS J153817.35+512338.0:. SDSS J153817.35+512338.0 2013 May 13 UT (time to be announced later). Giving 1RXS J105010.3-140431 highest priority, please begin covering SDSS J153817.35+512338.0 now; close monitoring ...
An aqueous solution containing from 0.81 to 1.3 moles of piperazine per liter is used as a washing agent for removing impurities such as H.sub.2 S, CO.sub.2 and COS from gases. Piperazine can also be
I have a drug that reduces the level of a certain gene X when compared to control. Now, when I used the antagonist of the drug along with the drug itself, I see a huge increase in the mRNA levels of this gene, even higher than control itself. I know for sure that this antagonist does not have any inverse agonist activity. What other reasons could there be for this effect ...
oooh i want to second that i have been meaning to post for agesssss cos i get it delivered and when i read it i was like "ooh i know her" :lol: its funny cos i dont know u as such but then i do from here :lol: beautiful girls and i love their names ....(this may be cos i have a sophia too ...
Notable confusion has occurred here (caused, or made worse for copyists, by the need to straddle adjoining parchments); what there is of the route linework may not be drawn reliably. From BAtlas 45 I infer that the mapmaker made the Foro popili stretch proceed in two directions, moving in one to Cos[..]ianvm (distance figure XVI) and in the other to Vico mendicoleo (no distance figure preserved). On this view, the direct linkage between Cos[..]ianvm and Vico mendicoleo implied by the map is to be regarded as a copyists slip ...
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fa cos : recupera un indirizzo di ppstream, (quelli che iniziano con ppstream ://) , Fai Start-|esegui, incolli lindirizzo e dai ok, dimmi cosa
Kenda K610 Kinetics hos Tirendo ��Stort udvalg ��Gratis forsendelse ��30 dages returret ��Bestil nu - du sparer op til 30%!
I should add that your expression in #1 represents a standing wave CP (sum of two counter-propagating CP waves of opposite CP polarization) not propagating one. For a single propagating CP wave, the sin(kz) term is absent and the cos(ωt), cos(ωt-π/2) arguments are replaced with cos(ωt-kz-θ), cos(ωt-π/2-kz-θ) respectively, with θ determined by the given t=0 temporal phase conditions at z=0. That may represent a LCP wave (left circularly polarized) - counterclockwise rotation of field as viewed along propagation axis with wave receding. For a RCP wave, an extra phase angle of π is added to either one, but not both, of the above arguments for cos. Convention for handedness can vary, but I believe above is the more standard one ...
June 12, 2013: Among the research options in the HST/COS CV campaign underway are observing two VY Scl stars in the low state, the only time the white dwarf is observable. OR And is now in its low state, at 18th V magnitude as of 2013 June 11 UT.. Dr. Boris Gaensicke et al. are obtaining a Swift observation of OR And to determine its UV brightness and then will schedule the HST observations. It is essential to know if OR And stays in its low state or returns to its high state at visual magnitude ~14.5-15.5. If it returns to the high state, the HST observations will not proceed.. Dr. Gaensicke writes: "As usual, we will need your help to make this work. Please monitor OR And over the next few weeks. One measurement per night will be sufficient. Given how faint OR And is now, it will probably need stacking of several images, and possibly going for unfiltered photometry rather than V-band.". When the HST observations have been scheduled, the observing dateand time will be announced.. Coordinates ...
Material Handler. Summary. Under general supervision, loads and unloads stock by hand or manual pallet truck, and stores received materials in required locations or cells. Processes requisitions from manufacturing cells and transports material to and from appropriate area with proper handling equipment. Will at times work with Service personnel to fulfill customer material needs. Responsibilities:. ...
An elevated wardrobe essential. These tights are made from a durable modal fabric designed to hold shape. Light and breathable, youll reach for these season after season. - Close fit - Slip-on style - Ribbed design - Tightly ribbed edge for added comfort 70% Modal, 25% Polyamide, 5% Elastane / Machine washable
Looking over top logs it doesnt seem like horn of valor+CoS outperforms other trinket+CoS in any meaningful way. Do the sims overvalue horn of valor? Is it related to not having a proper sim for BoS?
This year, shes quite far away cos of her job. I think her job is quite cool. You never know where youll be working for a few weeks and some other weeks in somewhere else. Dont have to sit and stuck at one place the whole time. Or maybe cos I need a vacation haha! *merepek lagi ...
The buoyant sentiment in the secondary market is having a rub-off effect on the activity in unlisted stocks. Oil India, BSE, Orissa Mineral, DSE, Sistema Shyam Tele are some such stocks, which are seeing renewed trading interest.
Un ci credo neanche un po che i dialoghi della storia partigiana di questo mese siano farina del tuo sacco......in caso contrario allora mi scappa lapplauso, non ci avrei scommesso un centesimo bucato ma finalmente hai partorito qualcosa di carino. Continua così e forse mi sparirà quella mossa di corpo che sento quando mi cascano gli occhi su una tavola "by Premiata Officina Pagliaro ...
I POAS this morning 2days before af is due, just to put myself out of my misery, it was a very faint BFP!!! trying no to get excited but when i have tested before have had nothing in that window!! keeping legs crossed until 2moro so i can test again, how hard will that be, am so shocked cos was convinced otherwise!!!good luck to everyone!!x ...
En aquesta tesi es construeix un simulador numèric de la paret abdominal inferior, per tal de determinar la gènesis i les causes de les hernies inguinal humanes. Així, un model amb dades reals daquesta regió del cos humà ...
Not the first post actually, cos I have another blog but the blogs quite boring. Cant fiddle with it much, so I created a new one : ...
Aarhus Demping Nettbutikk Spar Nå Med Alle Våre Eksklusive Rabatter. Demping Salg, Demping Kjøpe Kjøp Nye i Norges Største Butikk På Nett. Velg Blant 100-Talls.
There are no specific protocols for Human Glucocorticoid Receptor alpha peptide (ab39764). Please download our general protocols booklet
See ratings and reviews, wine tasting notes, food pairings, and find where to buy Vintage 2002 Azienda Agricola Cos Nero dAvola Sicilia IGT Contrada Labirinto
Example: Lets assume A and B are two uncorrelated random variables. (That is, \text{Cov}(A,B) = 0). Assume the mean of both A and B is 0 (E[A] = E[B] = 0), and the variance of A and B is 1. (\text{Var}[A] = \text{Var}[B] = 1). Suppose the angle \theta \in [-\pi, \pi], and the random process is given by X_{t} = A\cos(\theta t) + B\sin(\theta t). Is \{X_{t}\} stationary?. First, note that A and B are the only random variables here. The mean of both is 0, and both cosine and sin stay between \pm 1, so we will definitely have part (i) of our definition. Next, we have to make sure the mean is the same for all X_{t}:. \begin{aligned}E[X_{t}] &= E[A\cos(\theta t) + B\sin(\theta t)]\end{aligned} Now, \cos(\theta t) and \sin(\theta t) arent random at all, so the expectation of them is just…well…them. We also know that the expectation is a linear operator5, so. \begin{aligned}E[X_{t}] &= E[A\cos(\theta t) + B\sin(\theta t)]\\&= E[A]\cos(\theta t) + E[B]\sin(\theta t)\\&= 0 + 0\end{aligned} because ...
A system and method for upgrading service class of a connection in a wireless network includes identifying a congested CoS in a sector of a wireless network. Bandwidth availability in the sector is determined at an enhanced CoS in relation to the congested CoS. A communications session is selected in the congested CoS for upgrading. The communications session is upgraded to the enhanced CoS.
Download this Green Cos Lettuce At Hydroponics Vegetable Farm photo now. And search more of the webs best library of royalty-free stock images from iStock.
yes the guy has a small penis. yes there is most likely something wrong w/ him to cause this. yes he did NOT listen to the cops. YES the cops over reacted. TO THE JARHEAD/COP..... and i say Jar head not to offend you but mainly cos i cos i know it will get your attention. **** many friends and family in the military and support all branchs**** you are right in daring someone to tell a cop that they shouldnt be one to their face. not many people will. HOWEVER weather or not you are ment to be a cop and weather or not as a cop you made a BAD decision are 2 different things. i have spoken w/ 3 cops and 2 corrections officers and they all agree that the cops did over react. and if you actually think about it, and take the time not to be pissed off cos of everyone elses reactions you would know that as well. if you dont then that would be one of those bad decisions as a cop. and by the way to everyone else that is saying he should have gotten worse or anything similar, you guys clearly know nothing ...
yes the guy has a small penis. yes there is most likely something wrong w/ him to cause this. yes he did NOT listen to the cops. YES the cops over reacted. TO THE JARHEAD/COP..... and i say Jar head not to offend you but mainly cos i cos i know it will get your attention. **** many friends and family in the military and support all branchs**** you are right in daring someone to tell a cop that they shouldnt be one to their face. not many people will. HOWEVER weather or not you are ment to be a cop and weather or not as a cop you made a BAD decision are 2 different things. i have spoken w/ 3 cops and 2 corrections officers and they all agree that the cops did over react. and if you actually think about it, and take the time not to be pissed off cos of everyone elses reactions you would know that as well. if you dont then that would be one of those bad decisions as a cop. and by the way to everyone else that is saying he should have gotten worse or anything similar, you guys clearly know nothing ...
There are a lot of things that I in particular should be really-very-much thankful for the past year! Whew! This year is like a journey cos a lot for things happened, conquered some impossibilities, and miracles found.. Okay, first of all, I would like to thank God for the pleasant things that had happened this year! Woot woot!. There are a lot of things I am very grateful that happened as I wanted them to happen. Theres this passing the dreaded Pharmacology subject. I am sooo thankful that everything Ive sacrificed paid off! A lot from the batch took the remedial exam, and a number of them flunked. Although it was something I should really celebrate, it wasnt pure happiness cos a lot of my batchmates were delayed for a year. Whats more saddening is that one of them is a very good friend of mine.. I am also very thankful for the things that happened more than I wanted them. Remember my recent travel to the US? My parents decided to send me to the states last summer. I was shocked! I wasnt ...
There are a lot of things that I in particular should be really-very-much thankful for the past year! Whew! This year is like a journey cos a lot for things happened, conquered some impossibilities, and miracles found.. Okay, first of all, I would like to thank God for the pleasant things that had happened this year! Woot woot!. There are a lot of things I am very grateful that happened as I wanted them to happen. Theres this passing the dreaded Pharmacology subject. I am sooo thankful that everything Ive sacrificed paid off! A lot from the batch took the remedial exam, and a number of them flunked. Although it was something I should really celebrate, it wasnt pure happiness cos a lot of my batchmates were delayed for a year. Whats more saddening is that one of them is a very good friend of mine.. I am also very thankful for the things that happened more than I wanted them. Remember my recent travel to the US? My parents decided to send me to the states last summer. I was shocked! I wasnt ...
xystep=0.05; x=-1:xystep:1; [xx yy]=meshgrid(x); in=sin(2*pi*xx).*cos(2*pi*yy); in(1,1)=2; in(end,end)=-2; % Mark the first and last pixels. figure(1); clf; colormap hot; set(1,defaultaxesfontsize,14); subplot(121); imagesc(x,x,in); axis square; axis xy; padval=0; title(In); shiftvec=[0.3 0.2]; %0.3 distance to right, 0.2 distance up. out=shiftmatrix(in,xystep,shiftvec,circular); subplot(122); imagesc(x,x,out); axis square; axis xy; title(Out ...
Mouse anti Human glucocorticoid receptor antibody, clone 8E9 recognizes the human glucocorticoid receptor (GR), also known as Nuclear rece
Aim: This study was performed to examine the role of Na+,K+-ATPase activity for the adaptive response to cell swelling induced by hypoosmoticity, i.e. the regulatory volume decrease (RVD). Methods: The studies were performed on COS-7 cells transfected with rat Na+,K+-ATPase. To study changes in cell volume, cells were loaded with the fluorescent dye calcein and the intensity of the dye, following exposure to a hypoosmotic medium, was recorded with confocal microscopy. Results: Ouabain-mediated inhibition of Na+,K+-ATPase resulted in a dose dependent decrease in the rate of RVD. Total Rb-86(+) uptake as well as ouabain dependent Rb-86(+) uptake, used as an index of Na+,K+-ATPase dependent K+ uptake, was significantly increased during the first 2 min following exposure to hypoosmoticity. Since protein kinase C (PKC) plays an important role in the modulation of RVD, a study was carried out on COS-7 cells expressing rat Na+,K+-ATPase, where Ser23 in the catalytic alpha1 subunit of rat Na+,K+-ATPase ...
The scientists analyzed a gas called carbonyl sulfide (COS). Its a cousin of CO2. Plants remove COS from the air through a process that is related to the plant uptake of CO2. While photosynthesis is closely related to the atmospheric COS level, other processes in oceans, ecosystems, and industry, can change the COS level, as well. To account for all of these processes, the inter-disciplinary team of scientists developed an Earth system model of COS sources and sinks. Although this COS analysis does not directly constrain models of future GPP growth, it does provide a global-scale benchmark for historical carbon-cycle simulations ...
XPLDHTNVTA PQASMMFQYF VKVVPTVYMK VDGEAPLPPQ VLRTNQFSVT RHEKVANGLL GDQGLPGVFV LYELSPMMVK LTEKHRSFTH FLTGVCAIIG GMFTVAGLID SLIYHSARAI QKKIDLGKTT ...
LE 300 is a potent and selective dopamine D1 receptor antagonist (Ki values are 0.08 - 1.9 nM and 6 - 45 nM for D1 and D2 receptors respectively), which also displays moderate affinity for the 5-HT2A receptor (Ki = 20 nM). Active in vivo. Learn More ...
Vasco Rossi - Va Bene Va Bene Cos.mid size: 47549 bytes | free MIDI download | miditune.com | .mid karaoke ringtone midfile style for midi keyboard. Instant downloader for your free midi file.
View Hbb/Hbb Tg(HBB-AR-HBA2,-HBB*)58Rub/0 Tg(LCR-HBA2,LCR-HBB)11Cos/0 involves: FVB/N * Swiss Webster: phenotypes, images, diseases, and references.
cAMP-dependent protein kinase R2. (Aliases: BcDNA:GM01761,pkA,Cos,PKA RII,cos1,Pka-RII,Dmel\CG15862,CG15862,pka-RII,PKa-R2,PKA,Cos1,RII,RII[[DR]],PKA-R2,PKA-RII,Cos-1,Epa) ...
In spite of the strong expression of Wnt-10b in melanomas, its role in melanoma cells has not been elucidated. In the present study, the biological effects of Wnt-10b on murine B16F10 (B16) melanoma cells were investigated using conditioned medium from Wnt-10b-producing COS cells (Wnt-CM). After 2 days of culture in the presence of Wnt-CM, proliferation of B16 melanoma cells was inhibited, whereas ...
Tony ,tony at magic101.freeserve.co.uk, wrote in message news:96asej$6f9 at smc.vnet.net... , I have a trial version of this software. , , Can anyone tell me how I plot a graph such as , , 1 + e to power of x , , I am damned if I can find out how to do this , , Please Please someone help , , Another 2 I am having difficulty with is plotting , , cos(pi x) Pi having its symbolic sign , , and , , ,x-1, Plot[{1+E^x,Cos[Pi x],Abs[1-x]},{x,-1,2}] -- Paul Lutus www.arachnoid.com ...
Were getting somewhere though, I had a cd in the drive which Ive take out. Now it loads upto the bit where it says Windows didnt start properly and I can choose to launch it normally or launch start up repair. Just gonna leave it a couple hours cos its lasting longer and longer before it switches itself off each time ...
woo! biopsy was grand, i feel grand! except Im limping a little cos Im afraid d stitches wil rip out!!!! they ended up doing 2 biopsys on my thigh because the doctor wasn't sure where to do it. ill probably be getting my results some time in december(thats the next time Ill be at the hosp...
For Healthcare logistics, there is no room for error. A patient is in need of your shipment, so it needs to be timely and accurate, yet cos
Finland: Brand new K-Supermarket Hertta is here!Kesko, one of the leading retailers in Finland has completely renovated and expanded K-Supermarket Hertta in Helsinki and the new Hertta opened its.....
Zoobio tilbyder Hundesenge billigt online. Opdag det store Senge og kurve Produktudvalg i online-butikken til kæledyr Zoobio. Køb nu og spar!
iframe,,\/div,,/div, ,div id="hs_cos_wrapper_widget_3306923064" class="hs_cos_wrapper hs_cos_wrapper_widget hs_cos_wrapper_type_cta" style="" data-hs-cos-general-type="widget" data-hs-cos-type="cta" ,,!--HubSpot Call-to-Action Code --,,span class="hs-cta-wrapper" id="hs-cta-wrapper-55fe1ef6-91e4-4a20-8420-8ad5b3e8dfd4",,span class="hs-cta-node hs-cta-55fe1ef6-91e4-4a20-8420-8ad5b3e8dfd4" id="hs-cta-55fe1ef6-91e4-4a20-8420-8ad5b3e8dfd4",,!--[if lte IE 8],,div id="hs-cta-ie-element",,/div,,![endif]--,,a href="https://cta-redirect.hubspot.com/cta/redirect/58291/55fe1ef6-91e4-4a20-8420-8ad5b3e8dfd4",,img class="hs-cta-img" id="hs-cta-img-55fe1ef6-91e4-4a20-8420-8ad5b3e8dfd4" style="border-width:0px;" src="https://no-cache.hubspot.com/cta/default/58291/55fe1ef6-91e4-4a20-8420-8ad5b3e8dfd4.png" alt="Harvard, Stanford, MIT, Columbia, Penn... See which universities our clients were accepted to.",,/a,,/span,,script charset="utf-8" src="https://js.hscta.net/cta/current.js",,/script,,script ...
68 days. [1952, named after Parris Island, SC.] Parris Island Cos has steadily gained in popularity since its introduction. It has resistance to tipburn, tolerance to mosaic, and is medium-to-slow-bolting. 10-12 in. heads of slightly savoyed leaves with a creamy white heart. (7 g)
Uno studio su decine di migliaia di persone che conclude un minor rischio di tumore al colon-retto per coloro che mangiano carne; può sembrare contrario a molti altri studi ed infatti è così: la realtà è che lo stile di vita e ciò che viene usato per sostituire o accompagnare la carne, o il tipo di cottura, laggiunta di ormoni e così via, ha un effetto con ogni probabilità molto superiore a ciò che pensiamo nellaumento (o protezione) dal rischio di cancro. Questo spiega perché così tanti studi siano da ambedue le parti, pro e contro alimentazione a base di carne e dei suoi legami col cancro). Insulina e ...
Everett Sakosko III is suing Muegele Construction Inc. and Anderson Construction Co. for injuries he sustained after falling off the roof of a home under construction in Mascoutah on Jan. 19.
Either way i feel awful! Ne one else? And tips for keeping toddlers entertained while im ill? My son has been ever so patient this week but i dont want him to miss out cos of my pregnancy :/ x
LIstituto federale di ricerca WSL esplora la foresta, il paesaggio, la biodiversità, i pericoli naturali così come neve e ghiaccio. Attiene al Settore dei PF.

Expressed protein extraction from cos cells?Expressed protein extraction from cos cells?

... Daniel Meier dmeier at post.its.mcw.edu Wed Jun 9 15:55:06 EST 1993 *Previous ... Hello All, What is the best way to extract expressed proteins from cos cells? Should one use a polytron? sonication? What ...
more infohttp://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/methods/1993-June/005934.html

receptors on COS cell membranereceptors on COS cell membrane

I need to know what kinds of membrane receptors are endogeneously @--, expressed on this cell line or COS-7 cells. @--, I would ... Along those lines, can anyone explain the difference between COS-1 and COS-7 cells? Im especially interested in receptors and ... receptors on COS cell membrane. :-Peter obrien at pharm.med.upenn.edu Thu May 9 09:48:53 EST 1996 *Previous message: receptors ... I am planning to work on signal transduction with COS-1 cell line. @--, ...
more infohttp://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/cellbiol/1996-May/004471.html

COS cells - WikipediaCOS cells - Wikipedia

Two forms of COS cell lines commonly used are COS-1 and COS-7. The COS cell lines are often used by biologists when studying ... COS are fibroblast-like cell lines derived from monkey kidney tissue. COS cells are obtained by immortalizing CV-1 cells with a ... The CV-1 cell line in turn was derived from the kidney of the African green monkey. The acronym "COS" is derived from the cells ... and cell biology experiments. When an expression construct with an SV40 promoter is introduced into COS cells, the vector can ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/COS_cells

Palmitoylation of bovine opsin and its cysteine mutants in COS cells | PNASPalmitoylation of bovine opsin and its cysteine mutants in COS cells | PNAS

Palmitoylation of bovine opsin and its cysteine mutants in COS cells. S S Karnik, K D Ridge, S Bhattacharya, and H G Khorana ... Palmitoylation of bovine opsin and its cysteine mutants in COS cells Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... Here we report on palmitoylation of bovine opsin in COS-1 cells following expression of the synthetic wild-type opsin gene and ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/90/1/40?ijkey=8ee3ad3240f1a62f146413be411a4e5067fe7830&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

cos-7 Cells | Thermo Fisher Scientific - ARcos-7 Cells | Thermo Fisher Scientific - AR

GIBCO brand cell line is a clonal isolate (COS-7L) adapted to serum-free monolayer culture.. ... Every Step of the Way, a Wide Range of Cell Health Products. Maintaining healthy cells is the key to experimental success and ... Cell Culture / Growth Conditions,Protein Expression,Stable Cell Transfection,Transfection: Gene Expression,Transfection: Gene ... weve highlighted the technologies and products within cell biology that are critical to maintaining optimal cell health. No ...
more infohttps://www.thermofisher.com/ar/es/home/technical-resources/cell-lines/c/cell-lines-detail-5.html

cos-7 Cells | Thermo Fisher Scientific - CAcos-7 Cells | Thermo Fisher Scientific - CA

GIBCO brand cell line is a clonal isolate (COS-7L) adapted to serum-free monolayer culture.. ... Every Step of the Way, a Wide Range of Cell Health Products. Maintaining healthy cells is the key to experimental success and ... Cell Culture / Growth Conditions,Protein Expression,Stable Cell Transfection,Transfection: Gene Expression,Transfection: Gene ... weve highlighted the technologies and products within cell biology that are critical to maintaining optimal cell health. No ...
more infohttps://www.thermofisher.com/ca/en/home/technical-resources/cell-lines/c/cell-lines-detail-5.html

Overexpression of endocytic proteins in COS cellsOverexpression of endocytic proteins in COS cells

We have used 3 main methods to disrupt endocytosis in cells: use of inhibitory peptides, overexpression of protein domains and ...
more infohttps://endocytosis.org/techniqs/COScells/COScells.html

Cloning of a novel surface antigen from the insect stages of Trypanosoma brucei by expression in COS cells. - MRC Weatherall...Cloning of a novel surface antigen from the insect stages of Trypanosoma brucei by expression in COS cells. - MRC Weatherall...

In contrast the PSSA-2 antigen on COS cells was stained very weakly by whole parasite antisera. Northern blot hybridization ... Fluorescent antibody staining of PSSA-1 transfected COS cells with a panel of procyclin-specific monoclonal antibodies ... Furthermore, the antigen on COS cells was insensitive to treatment with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C ... stage surface antigen cDNAs by transient expression in mammalian COS-7 fibroblasts and panning with a rabbit polyclonal ...
more infohttps://www.imm.ox.ac.uk/publications/102482

In-Cell Western Used to Measure Response of COS-7 Cells to HydroxyureaIn-Cell Western Used to Measure Response of COS-7 Cells to Hydroxyurea

... this plate-based immunofluorescent assay was used to measure the response of COS-7 cells to hydroxyurea. ... Detecting phospho-p53 in COS cells in response to Hydroxyurea. In this In-Cell Western assay application, the response of COS-7 ... In-Cell Western™ Assay Application: Response of COS-7 Cells to Hydroxyurea. June 15, 2012. Cancer Research, IRDye Reagents, ... Odyssey Imaging Systems, Proteomics Applicationscell based assays, immunofluorescent assays, in-cell ELISA, licor odyssey ...
more infohttp://www.licor.com/bio/blog/cancer-research/in-cell-western-assay-application-response-of-cos-7-cells-to-hydroxyurea/

Confocal images of COS-7 cells expressing mutant Tiam1  | Open-iConfocal images of COS-7 cells expressing mutant Tiam1 | Open-i

Confocal laser scanning microscopic images of COS-7 cells expressing C580 Tiam1 (A), MS-C580 T ... Confocal images of COS-7 cells expressing mutant Tiam1 proteins. ... Here we show that both in fibroblasts and COS cells, membrane ... Confocal images of COS-7 cells expressing mutant Tiam1 proteins. Confocal laser scanning microscopic images of COS-7 cells ... Confocal images of COS-7 cells expressing mutant Tiam1 proteins. Confocal laser scanning microscopic images of COS-7 cells ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC2139766_JCB.michiels6m&req=4

The Takeaway From Penn Township For Cell Tower Cos.The Takeaway From Penn Township For Cell Tower Cos.

... October 7, 2013 - Articles Law360 By Levin V. Czubaroff Share This Page ... Levin V. Czubaraoffs article "The Takeaway From Penn Township For Cell Tower Cos." was published in the October 7, 2013 issue ... As seen in a recent Pennsylvania Commonwealth Court case, it is imperative for cell tower companies to prepare their expert ... The zoning process for constructing new cellular telecommunications towers is very controversial, and often times, cell tower ...
more infohttp://www.foxrothschild.com/publications/the-takeaway-from-penn-township-for-cell-tower-cos/

Expression and characterization of the intestinal Na+/glucose cotransporter in COS-7 cells.Expression and characterization of the intestinal Na+/glucose cotransporter in COS-7 cells.

Cells derived from the simian kidney, COS-7 cells, were transfected with a eucaryotic expression vector (pEUK-C1) containing ... Expression and characterization of the intestinal Na+/glucose cotransporter in COS-7 cells.. Birnir, Bryndis Department of ... Neither control cells nor cells transfected with vector lacking cloned cDNA expressed the cotransporter. Na(+)-dependent MeGlc ... We conclude that the rabbit intestinal Na+/glucose cotransporter expressed in COS-7 cell exhibits very similar kinetic ...
more infohttp://uu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:560734

Intracellular dynamics of sst5 receptors in transfected COS-7 cells: maintenance of cell surface receptors during ligand...Intracellular dynamics of sst5 receptors in transfected COS-7 cells: maintenance of cell surface receptors during ligand...

Intracellular dynamics of sst5 receptors in transfected COS-7 cells: maintenance of cell surface receptors during ligand- ... The preservation of cell surface receptors was confirmed by binding experiments on whole cells revealing a lack of saturability ... we characterized its internalization properties in transfected COS-7 cells using biochemical, confocal microscopic, and ... To elucidate the mechanisms regulating cell surface availability of the somatostatin (SRIF) receptor subtype sst5, ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10614658

Expression of the  7C8 antigen in COS cells. (A)  Homog | Open-iExpression of the 7C8 antigen in COS cells. (A) Homog | Open-i

A) Homogenates of COS cells transfected with two of the pcDM8 expression plasmids isolated from immunoreactive ... Expression of the 7C8 antigen in COS cells. ( ... but untransfected COS cells (−) and cells transfected with ... Figure 4: Expression of the 7C8 antigen in COS cells. (A) Homogenates of COS cells transfected with two of the pcDM8 expression ... Figure 4: Expression of the 7C8 antigen in COS cells. (A) Homogenates of COS cells transfected with two of the pcDM8 expression ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC2140167_JCB29357.f4&req=4

Molecular Expressions Microscopy Primer: Specialized Microscopy Techniques - Fluorescence Digital Image Gallery - Transformed...Molecular Expressions Microscopy Primer: Specialized Microscopy Techniques - Fluorescence Digital Image Gallery - Transformed...

... cells displayed in this section was immunofluorescently labeled with primary anti-tubulin mouse monoclonal antibodies followed ... View a smaller image of the African green monkey kidney (COS-7) cells. ... Transformed African Green Monkey Kidney Fibroblast Cells (COS-7). In contrast to quenching, photobleaching (also termed fading ... The culture of transformed African green monkey kidney (COS-7) cells displayed in the digital image presented above was ...
more infohttp://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/techniques/fluorescence/gallery/cells/cos7/cos7cellsexlarge11.html

Molecular Expressions Microscopy Primer: Specialized Microscopy Techniques - Fluorescence Digital Image Gallery - Transformed...Molecular Expressions Microscopy Primer: Specialized Microscopy Techniques - Fluorescence Digital Image Gallery - Transformed...

... the mitochondria present in a culture of COS-7 kidney fibroblasts are easily observable due to staining with MitoTracker Red ... Transformed African Green Monkey Kidney Fibroblast Cells (COS-7). MitoTracker dyes are retained quite well after cell fixation ... View a larger image of the African green monkey kidney (COS-7) cells. ... The change in emission wavelength is useful in determining the ratio of active to non-active mitochondria in living cells. ...
more infohttps://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/techniques/fluorescence/gallery/cells/cos7/cos7cellslarge12.html

Cytoplasmic volume of COS-7 cell - Mammalian tissue culture cell - BNID 106662Cytoplasmic volume of COS-7 cell - Mammalian tissue culture cell - BNID 106662

Cytoplasmic volume of COS-7 cell. Value. 2400 µm^3 Range: Table - link µm^3 ... P.8918 right column bottom paragraph: HeLa and COS-7 cells expressing RFP fused to a nuclear localization signal were ... Thirty cells for each were imaged for differential interference contrast and fluorescence to measure the diameters of cells and ... Diameter and volume of cells and nuclei of HeLa and COS7 cell. ... Volume of COS-7 cell. Mammalian tissue culture cell. ID: 101666 ...
more infohttps://bionumbers.hms.harvard.edu/bionumber.aspx?id=106662&ver=4&trm=cell+size&org=

Cellular Uptake of Cationic Polymer-DNA Complexes Via Caveolae Plays a Pivotal Role in Gene Transfection in COS-7 Cells |...Cellular Uptake of Cationic Polymer-DNA Complexes Via Caveolae Plays a Pivotal Role in Gene Transfection in COS-7 Cells |...

COS-7 cells were used in this study as they are a well-established model cell line for gene transfer research. Both pDMAEMA and ... COS-7 cells were incubated with pDMAEMA- or PEI-based polyplexes for 60 minutes at 4°C. Subsequently, the cells were incubated ... Cell Culture. COS-7 African green monkey cells were grown in DMEM (Gibco BRL, Breda, The Netherlands) supplemented with ... COS-7 cells were incubated with polyplexes in the absence and presence of a variety of endocytosis inhibitors. Cells were pre- ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11095-007-9287-3

Plant Extracts of Winter Savory, Purple Coneflower, Buckwheat and Black Elder Activate PPAR-γ in COS-1 Cells but do not Lower...Plant Extracts of Winter Savory, Purple Coneflower, Buckwheat and Black Elder Activate PPAR-γ in COS-1 Cells but do not Lower...

Plant Extracts of Winter Savory, Purple Coneflower, Buckwheat and Black Elder Activate PPAR-γ in COS-1 Cells but do not Lower ... Although dose-dependent peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ activity could be shown in COS-1 cells, the experiments in ... dose-dependently activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ was determined in a reporter gene assay in COS-1 cells. ... mice lacked to confirm any anti-diabetic effect of the plant extracts in vivo and emphasizes the importance of verifying cell ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Plant-Extracts-Winter-Savory-Purple/23135898.html

Addgene: Analysis of molecular domains of epitope-tagged merlin isoforms in Cos-7 cells and primary rat Schwann cells.Addgene: Analysis of molecular domains of epitope-tagged merlin isoforms in Cos-7 cells and primary rat Schwann cells.

Analysis of molecular domains of epitope-tagged merlin isoforms in Cos-7 cells and primary rat Schwann cells. Xu L, Gonzalez- ...
more infohttps://www.addgene.org/browse/article/626/

Multipixel spectral imaging of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in COS-7 cells: folding kinetics and chromophore formation | ...Multipixel spectral imaging of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in COS-7 cells: folding kinetics and chromophore formation | ...

COS-7 kidney cells were transfected by a plasmid pEGFP-N1 plasmid followed by incubation for 15 hours for gen expression. At ... Multipixel spectral imaging of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in COS-7 cells: folding kinetics and chromophore formation ... Spectrally resolved imaging of Green fluorescent protein (GFP) expressed in living COS-7 kidney cells distinguished the ... different intervals the cells were examined by fluorescence microscopy and analyzed by a spectral imaging system. After 7 hours ...
more infohttp://spie.org/Publications/Proceedings/Paper/10.1117/12.410631

Transport of purine nucleobases by COS-1 cells occurs via a nitrobenzylthioinosine-insensitive (ei) nucleoside transporter |...Transport of purine nucleobases by COS-1 cells occurs via a nitrobenzylthioinosine-insensitive (ei) nucleoside transporter |...

Transport of purine nucleobases by COS-1 cells occurs via a nitrobenzylthioinosine-insensitive (ei) nucleoside transporter. ... Transport of purine nucleobases by COS-1 cells occurs via a nitrobenzylthioinosine-insensitive (ei) nucleoside transporter ... Transport of purine nucleobases by COS-1 cells occurs via a nitrobenzylthioinosine-insensitive (ei) nucleoside transporter ... Transport of purine nucleobases by COS-1 cells occurs via a nitrobenzylthioinosine-insensitive (ei) nucleoside transporter ...
more infohttp://www.biochemsoctrans.org/content/27/5/A149.3

Regulation of the human vitamin C transporters expressed in COS-1 cells by protein kinase C | Cell PhysiologyRegulation of the human vitamin C transporters expressed in COS-1 cells by protein kinase C | Cell Physiology

Cell culture and transient transfection.. Monkey kidney COS-1 cells (from the European Collection of Cell Cultures) were grown ... Time course of human Na+-dependent vitamin C transporter hSVCT1 and hSVCT2 expression in COS-1 cells. A: COS-1 cells were ... Effect of PMA on the localization of hSVCT1 and hSVCT2 in COS-1 cells. COS-1 cells were transfected with either hSVCT1vh (A) or ... Expression and N-glycosylation of hSVCT1 and hSVCT2 in PMA-treated and nontreated transfected COS-1 cells. COS-1 cells were ...
more infohttp://ajpcell.physiology.org/content/283/6/C1696

GenJet  In Vitro DNA Transfection Reagent for COS Cells [SL100489-COS] - $156.00 : SignaGen Laboratories, A Gene Delivery...GenJet In Vitro DNA Transfection Reagent for COS Cells [SL100489-COS] - $156.00 : SignaGen Laboratories, A Gene Delivery...

Description GenJet DNA In Vitro Transfection Reagent for COS Cells is pre-optimized for COS cell transfection. COS is a cell ... GenJet In Vitro DNA Transfection Reagent for COS Cells [SL100489-COS] - ... It is also often used to transfect cells to produce recombinant proteins for molecular biology, biochemistry, and cell biology ... Two forms of COS cell lines commonly used are COS-1 and COS-7. The COS cell line was obtained by immortalizing a cell line ...
more infohttp://signagen.com/index.php?main_page=product_info&products_id=704
  • To elucidate the mechanisms regulating cell surface availability of the somatostatin (SRIF) receptor subtype sst5, we characterized its internalization properties in transfected COS-7 cells using biochemical, confocal microscopic, and electron microscopic techniques. (nih.gov)
  • Combined immunocytochemical detection of sst5 and visualization of a fluorescent SRIF analog by confocal microscopy revealed that whereas the internalized ligand progressively clustered toward the cell center with time, immunoreactive receptors remained predominantly associated with the plasma membrane. (nih.gov)
  • Intracellular dynamics of sst5 receptors in transfected COS-7 cells: maintenance of cell surface receptors during ligand-induced endocytosis. (nih.gov)
  • The culture of transformed African green monkey kidney (COS-7) cells displayed in the digital image presented above was immunofluorescently labeled with primary anti-tubulin mouse monoclonal antibodies followed by goat anti-mouse Fab fragments conjugated to Cy3, targeting intracellular microtubules. (fsu.edu)
  • For hSVCT1 the decrease in l -ascorbic acid correlated with a redistribution of the transporter from the cell surface to intracellular membranes. (physiology.org)
  • The process by which a cell receives and acts on some external chemical or physical signal, such as a hormone, including receiving the information at specific receptors in the plasma membrane, conveying the signal across the plasma membrane into the cell, and subsequently inducing an intracellular chain of other signalling molecules, thereby stimulating a specific cellular response. (ndif.org)
  • Cell lysate was prepared by homogenization in ice-cold modified RIPA Lysis Buffer with cocktail of protease inhibitors. (creativebiomart.net)
  • To confirm the results, we isolated RhAG by immuno-precipitation from the lysate of the COS-1 cells, which were metabolically labeled with [ 35 S]-methionine. (elsevier.com)
  • P.8918 right column bottom paragraph: 'HeLa and COS-7 cells expressing RFP fused to a nuclear localization signal were trypsinized, suspended in phosphate-buffered saline, and observed under an inverted microscope. (harvard.edu)
  • The volumes of cells and nuclei were calculated assuming that they were spheres. (harvard.edu)
  • Under these conditions, we detected significant expression of RhAG on the cell surface, compared to stable COS-1 cells transduced with the vector alone. (elsevier.com)
  • The transgene AAT-Jred chimer was transferred to CHO and COS-7 cell lines using this vector and its expressions were visualized by fluorescent microscopy. (ijbiotech.com)
  • The results show that by employing a lentiviral vector, efficient genetic loading of CHO and COS-7 cells with the AAT gene was achieved. (ijbiotech.com)
  • At different intervals the cells were examined by fluorescence microscopy and analyzed by a spectral imaging system. (spie.org)
  • To give you confidence in the health of your cells every step of the way, we've highlighted the technologies and products within cell biology that are critical to maintaining optimal cell health. (thermofisher.com)
  • Plant Extracts of Winter Savory, Purple Coneflower, Buckwheat and Black Elder Activate PPAR-γ in COS-1 Cells but do not Lower Blood Glucose in Db/db Mice In vivo. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Due to the net positive surface charge these polyplexes efficiently bind to the cell through electrostatic interactions with negatively charged membrane components. (springer.com)
  • In contrast, the MitoFluor probes are designed specifically for actively respiring cells and are not suitable for fixation and counterstaining procedures. (fsu.edu)
  • Accordingly, apo A-I is the most potent activator of LCAT 3 and has a capacity to promote cholesterol efflux from peripheral cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • He expects the cell culture model recently developed in his laboratory to be very useful in the examination of the action of vasopressin and its reaction to experimental drug therapies. (ndif.org)
  • Whereas the latter is restricted to specialized cells, the other pathways can occur in any cell type. (springer.com)
  • The change in emission wavelength is useful in determining the ratio of active to non-active mitochondria in living cells. (fsu.edu)