CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Inorganic oxides of sulfur.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
14-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A genus of poisonous snakes of the subfamily Elapinae of the family ELAPIDAE. They comprise the kraits. Twelve species are recognized and all inhabit southeast Asia. They are considered extremely dangerous. (Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p120)
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
A saturated 14-carbon fatty acid occurring in most animal and vegetable fats, particularly butterfat and coconut, palm, and nutmeg oils. It is used to synthesize flavor and as an ingredient in soaps and cosmetics. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A family of calcium-binding alpha-globulins that are synthesized in the LIVER and play an essential role in maintaining the solubility of CALCIUM in the BLOOD. In addition the fetuins contain aminoterminal cystatin domains and are classified as type 3 cystatins.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
An obsolete concept, historically used for childhood mental disorders thought to be a form of schizophrenia. It was in earlier versions of DSM but is now included within the broad concept of PERVASIVE DEVELOPMENT DISORDERS.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A common saturated fatty acid found in fats and waxes including olive oil, palm oil, and body lipids.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A group of 16-carbon fatty acids that contain no double bonds.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Compounds containing carbohydrate or glycosyl groups linked to phosphatidylinositols. They anchor GPI-LINKED PROTEINS or polysaccharides to cell membranes.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC 3.1.1.7.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Cell surface proteins that bind gastrointestinal hormones with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Most gastrointestinal hormones also act as neurotransmitters so these receptors are also present in the central and peripheral nervous systems.
Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of a single fatty acid ester bond in lysoglycerophosphatidates with the formation of glyceryl phosphatidates and a fatty acid. EC 3.1.1.5.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
An enzyme of the transferase class that uses ATP to catalyze the phosphorylation of diacylglycerol to a phosphatidate. EC 2.7.1.107.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Physiologically inactive substances that can be converted to active enzymes.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A phosphorus-oxygen lyase found primarily in BACTERIA. The enzyme catalyzes the cleavage of a phosphoester linkage in 1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol to form 1D-myo-inositol 1,2-cyclic phosphate and diacylglycerol. The enzyme was formerly classified as a phosphoric diester hydrolase (EC 3.1.4.10) and is often referred to as a TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. However it is now known that a cyclic phosphate is the final product of this enzyme and that water does not enter into the reaction.
An enzyme that catalyzes the HYDROLYSIS of terminal, non-reducing alpha-D-mannose residues in alpha-D-mannosides. The enzyme plays a role in the processing of newly formed N-glycans and in degradation of mature GLYCOPROTEINS. There are multiple isoforms of alpha-mannosidase, each having its own specific cellular location and pH optimum. Defects in the lysosomal form of the enzyme results in a buildup of mannoside intermediate metabolites and the disease ALPHA-MANNOSIDOSIS.
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Regions of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE similarity in the SRC-FAMILY TYROSINE KINASES that fold into specific functional tertiary structures. The SH1 domain is a CATALYTIC DOMAIN. SH2 and SH3 domains are protein interaction domains. SH2 usually binds PHOSPHOTYROSINE-containing proteins and SH3 interacts with CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.
An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of CYCLIC AMP to form adenosine 5'-phosphate. The enzymes are widely distributed in animal tissue and control the level of intracellular cyclic AMP. Many specific enzymes classified under this heading demonstrate additional spcificity for 3',5'-cyclic IMP and CYCLIC GMP.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of single-stranded regions of DNA or RNA molecules while leaving the double-stranded regions intact. They are particularly useful in the laboratory for producing "blunt-ended" DNA molecules from DNA with single-stranded ends and for sensitive GENETIC TECHNIQUES such as NUCLEASE PROTECTION ASSAYS that involve the detection of single-stranded DNA and RNA.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of fucose from a nucleoside diphosphate fucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid molecule. Elevated activity of some fucosyltransferases in human serum may serve as an indicator of malignancy. The class includes EC 2.4.1.65; EC 2.4.1.68; EC 2.4.1.69; EC 2.4.1.89.
The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Glycoside hydrolases that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha or beta linked MANNOSE.
Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
Endogenous glycoproteins from which SIALIC ACID has been removed by the action of sialidases. They bind tightly to the ASIALOGLYCOPROTEIN RECEPTOR which is located on hepatocyte plasma membranes. After internalization by adsorptive ENDOCYTOSIS they are delivered to LYSOSOMES for degradation. Therefore receptor-mediated clearance of asialoglycoproteins is an important aspect of the turnover of plasma glycoproteins. They are elevated in serum of patients with HEPATIC CIRRHOSIS or HEPATITIS.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A cultured line of C3H mouse FIBROBLASTS that do not adhere to one another and do not express CADHERINS.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
A fungal metabolite which is a macrocyclic lactone exhibiting a wide range of antibiotic activity.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Neurotoxic proteins from the venom of the banded or Formosan krait (Bungarus multicinctus, an elapid snake). alpha-Bungarotoxin blocks nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and has been used to isolate and study them; beta- and gamma-bungarotoxins act presynaptically causing acetylcholine release and depletion. Both alpha and beta forms have been characterized, the alpha being similar to the large, long or Type II neurotoxins from other elapid venoms.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL which, in addition to being a potent skin tumor promoter, is also an effective activator of calcium-activated, phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase C). Due to its activation of this enzyme, phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate profoundly affects many different biological systems.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.
A type of mutation in which a number of NUCLEOTIDES deleted from or inserted into a protein coding sequence is not divisible by three, thereby causing an alteration in the READING FRAMES of the entire coding sequence downstream of the mutation. These mutations may be induced by certain types of MUTAGENS or may occur spontaneously.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.
A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)
A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A representation, generally small in scale, to show the structure, construction, or appearance of something. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).

Sonic hedgehog signaling by the patched-smoothened receptor complex. (1/15431)

BACKGROUND: The Hedgehog (Hh) family of secreted proteins is involved in a number of developmental processes as well as in cancer. Genetic and biochemical data suggest that the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) receptor is composed of at least two proteins: the tumor suppressor protein Patched (Ptc) and the seven-transmembrane protein Smoothened (Smo). RESULTS: Using a biochemical assay for activation of the transcription factor Gli, a downstream component of the Hh pathway, we show here that Smo functions as the signaling component of the Shh receptor, and that this activity can be blocked by Ptc. The inhibition of Smo by Ptc can be relieved by the addition of Shh. Furthermore, oncogenic forms of Smo are insensitive to Ptc repression in this assay. Mapping of the Smo domains required for binding to Ptc and for signaling revealed that the Smo-Ptc interaction involves mainly the amino terminus of Smo, and that the third intracellular loop and the seventh transmembrane domain are required for signaling. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that Smo is the signaling component of a multicomponent Hh receptor complex and that Ptc is a ligand-regulated inhibitor of Smo. Different domains of Smo are involved in Ptc binding and activation of a Gli reporter construct. The latter requires the third intracellular loop and the seventh transmembrane domain of Smo, regions often involved in coupling to G proteins. No changes in the levels of cyclic AMP or calcium associated with such pathways could be detected following receptor activation, however.  (+info)

Concomitant activation of pathways downstream of Grb2 and PI 3-kinase is required for MET-mediated metastasis. (2/15431)

The Met tyrosine kinase - the HGF receptor - induces cell transformation and metastasis when constitutively activated. Met signaling is mediated by phosphorylation of two carboxy-terminal tyrosines which act as docking sites for a number of SH2-containing molecules. These include Grb2 and p85 which couple the receptor, respectively, with Ras and PI 3-kinase. We previously showed that a Met mutant designed to obtain preferential coupling with Grb2 (Met2xGrb2) is permissive for motility, increases transformation, but - surprisingly - is impaired in causing invasion and metastasis. In this work we used Met mutants optimized for binding either p85 alone (Met2xPI3K) or p85 and Grb2 (MetPI3K/Grb2) to evaluate the relative importance of Ras and PI 3-kinase as downstream effectors of Met. Met2xPI3K was competent in eliciting motility, but not transformation, invasion, or metastasis. Conversely, MetP13K/Grb2 induced motility, transformation, invasion and metastasis as efficiently as wild type Met. Furthermore, the expression of constitutively active PI 3-kinase in cells transformed by the Met2xGrb2 mutant, fully rescued their ability to invade and metastasize. These data point to a central role for PI 3-kinase in Met-mediated invasiveness, and indicate that simultaneous activation of Ras and PI 3-kinase is required to unleash the Met metastatic potential.  (+info)

Plasma membrane recruitment of RalGDS is critical for Ras-dependent Ral activation. (3/15431)

In COS cells, Ral GDP dissociation stimulator (RalGDS)-induced Ral activation was stimulated by RasG12V or a Rap1/Ras chimera in which the N-terminal region of Rap1 was ligated to the C-terminal region of Ras but not by Rap1G12V or a Ras/Rap1 chimera in which the N-terminal region of Ras was ligated to the C-terminal region of Rap1, although RalGDS interacted with these small GTP-binding proteins. When RasG12V, Ral and the Rap1/Ras chimera were individually expressed in NIH3T3 cells, they localized to the plasma membrane. Rap1Q63E and the Ras/Rap1 chimera were detected in the perinuclear region. When RalGDS was expressed alone, it was abundant in the cytoplasm. When coexpressed with RasG12V or the Rap1/Ras chimera, RalGDS was detected at the plasma membrane, whereas when coexpressed with Rap1Q63E or the Ras/Rap1 chimera, RalGDS was observed in the perinuclear region. RalGDS which was targeted to the plasma membrane by the addition of Ras farnesylation site (RalGDS-CAAX) activated Ral in the absence of RasG12V. Although RalGDS did not stimulate the dissociation of GDP from Ral in the absence of the GTP-bound form of Ras in a reconstitution assay using the liposomes, RalGDS-CAAX could stimulate it without Ras. RasG12V activated Raf-1 when they were coexpressed in Sf9 cells, whereas RasG12V did not affect the RalGDS activity. These results indicate that Ras recruits RalGDS to the plasma membrane and that the translocated RalGDS induces the activation of Ral, but that Rap1 does not activate Ral due to distinct subcellular localization.  (+info)

Arrestin function in G protein-coupled receptor endocytosis requires phosphoinositide binding. (4/15431)

Internalization of agonist-activated G protein-coupled receptors is mediated by non-visual arrestins, which also bind to clathrin and are therefore thought to act as adaptors in the endocytosis process. Phosphoinositides have been implicated in the regulation of intracellular receptor trafficking, and are known to bind to other coat components including AP-2, AP180 and COPI coatomer. Given these observations, we explored the possibility that phosphoinositides play a role in arrestin's function as an adaptor. High-affinity binding sites for phosphoinositides in beta-arrestin (arrestin2) and arrestin3 (beta-arrestin2) were identified, and dissimilar effects of phosphoinositide and inositol phosphate on arrestin interactions with clathrin and receptor were characterized. Alteration of three basic residues in arrestin3 abolished phosphoinositide binding with complete retention of clathrin and receptor binding. Unlike native protein, upon agonist activation, this mutant arrestin3 expressed in COS1 cells neither supported beta2-adrenergic receptor internalization nor did it concentrate in coated pits, although it was recruited to the plasma membrane. These findings indicate that phosphoinositide binding plays a critical regulatory role in delivery of the receptor-arrestin complex to coated pits, perhaps by providing, with activated receptor, a multi-point attachment of arrestin to the plasma membrane.  (+info)

The MAP kinase ERK2 inhibits the cyclic AMP-specific phosphodiesterase HSPDE4D3 by phosphorylating it at Ser579. (5/15431)

The extracellular receptor stimulated kinase ERK2 (p42(MAPK))-phosphorylated human cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase PDE4D3 at Ser579 and profoundly reduced ( approximately 75%) its activity. These effects could be reversed by the action of protein phosphatase PP1. The inhibitory state of PDE4D3, engendered by ERK2 phosphorylation, was mimicked by the Ser579-->Asp mutant form of PDE4D3. In COS1 cells transfected to express PDE4D3, challenge with epidermal growth factor (EGF) caused the phosphorylation and inhibition of PDE4D3. This effect was blocked by the MEK inhibitor PD98059 and was not apparent using the Ser579-->Ala mutant form of PDE4D3. Challenge of HEK293 and F442A cells with EGF led to the PD98059-ablatable inhibition of endogenous PDE4D3 and PDE4D5 activities. EGF challenge of COS1 cells transfected to express PDE4D3 increased cAMP levels through a process ablated by PD98059. The activity of the Ser579-->Asp mutant form of PDE4D3 was increased by PKA phosphorylation. The transient form of the EGF-induced inhibition of PDE4D3 is thus suggested to be due to feedback regulation by PKA causing the ablation of the ERK2-induced inhibition of PDE4D3. We identify a novel means of cross-talk between the cAMP and ERK signalling pathways whereby cell stimuli that lead to ERK2 activation may modulate cAMP signalling.  (+info)

p50(cdc37) acting in concert with Hsp90 is required for Raf-1 function. (6/15431)

Genetic screens in Drosophila have identified p50(cdc37) to be an essential component of the sevenless receptor/mitogen-activated kinase protein (MAPK) signaling pathway, but neither the function nor the target of p50(cdc37) in this pathway has been defined. In this study, we examined the role of p50(cdc37) and its Hsp90 chaperone partner in Raf/Mek/MAPK signaling biochemically. We found that coexpression of wild-type p50(cdc37) with Raf-1 resulted in robust and dose-dependent activation of Raf-1 in Sf9 cells. In addition, p50(cdc37) greatly potentiated v-Src-mediated Raf-1 activation. Moreover, we found that p50(cdc37) is the primary determinant of Hsp90 recruitment to Raf-1. Overexpression of a p50(cdc37) mutant which is unable to recruit Hsp90 into the Raf-1 complex inhibited Raf-1 and MAPK activation by growth factors. Similarly, pretreatment with geldanamycin (GA), an Hsp90-specific inhibitor, prevented both the association of Raf-1 with the p50(cdc37)-Hsp90 heterodimer and Raf-1 kinase activation by serum. Activation of Raf-1 via baculovirus coexpression with oncogenic Src or Ras in Sf9 cells was also strongly inhibited by dominant negative p50(cdc37) or by GA. Thus, formation of a ternary Raf-1-p50(cdc37)-Hsp90 complex is crucial for Raf-1 activity and MAPK pathway signaling. These results provide the first biochemical evidence for the requirement of the p50(cdc37)-Hsp90 complex in protein kinase regulation and for Raf-1 function in particular.  (+info)

Dominant activity of activation function 1 (AF-1) and differential stoichiometric requirements for AF-1 and -2 in the estrogen receptor alpha-beta heterodimeric complex. (7/15431)

Estrogenic responses are now known to be mediated by two forms of estrogen receptors (ER), ERalpha and ERbeta, that can function as homodimers or heterodimers. As homodimers the two have been recently shown to exhibit distinct transcriptional responses to estradiol (E2), antiestrogens, and coactivators, suggesting that the ER complexes are not functionally equivalent. However, because the three possible configurations of ER complexes all recognize the same estrogen response element, it has not been possible to evaluate the transcriptional properties of the ER heterodimer complex by transfection assays. Using ER subunits with modified DNA recognition specificity, we were able to measure the transcriptional properties of ERalpha-ERbeta heterodimers in transfected cells without interference from the two ER homodimer complexes. We first demonstrated that the individual activation function 1 (AF-1) domains act in a dominant manner within the ERalpha-ERbeta heterodimer: the mixed agonist-antagonist 4-hydroxytamoxifen acts as an agonist in a promoter- and cell context-dependent manner via the ERalpha AF-1, while activation of the complex by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway requires only the ERalpha- or ERbeta-responsive MAPK site. Using ligand-binding and AF-2-defective mutants, we further demonstrated that while the ERalpha-ERbeta heterodimer can be activated when only one E2-binding competent partner is present per dimer, two functional AF-2 domains are required for transcriptional activity. Taken together, the results of this study of a retinoid X receptor-independent heterodimer complex, the first such study, provide evidence of different stoichiometric requirements for AF-1 and -2 activity and demonstrate that AF-1 receptor-specific properties are maintained within the ERalpha-ERbeta heterodimer.  (+info)

A human sequence homologue of Staufen is an RNA-binding protein that is associated with polysomes and localizes to the rough endoplasmic reticulum. (8/15431)

In the course of a two-hybrid screen with the NS1 protein of influenza virus, a human clone capable of coding for a protein with high homology to the Staufen protein from Drosophila melanogaster (dmStaufen) was identified. With these sequences used as a probe, cDNAs were isolated from a lambda cDNA library. The encoded protein (hStaufen-like) contained four double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-binding domains with 55% similarity and 38% identity to those of dmStaufen, including identity at all residues involved in RNA binding. A recombinant protein containing all dsRNA-binding domains was expressed in Escherichia coli as a His-tagged polypeptide. It showed dsRNA binding activity in vitro, with an apparent Kd of 10(-9) M. Using a specific antibody, we detected in human cells a major form of the hStaufen-like protein with an apparent molecular mass of 60 to 65 kDa. The intracellular localization of hStaufen-like protein was investigated by immunofluorescence using a series of markers for the cell compartments. Colocalization was observed with the rough endoplasmic reticulum but not with endosomes, cytoskeleton, or Golgi apparatus. Furthermore, sedimentation analyses indicated that hStaufen-like protein associates with polysomes. These results are discussed in relation to the possible functions of the protein.  (+info)

Expression of the 7C8 antigen in COS cells. (A) Homogenates of COS cells transfected with two of the pcDM8 expression plasmids isolated from immunoreactive
def z1y2x3(alpha, beta, gamma): Rotation matrix given Euler angles return np.array([[np.cos(alpha) * np.cos(beta), np.cos(alpha) * np.sin(beta) * np.sin(gamma) - np.cos(gamma) * np.sin(alpha), np.sin(alpha) * np.sin(gamma) + np.cos(alpha) * np.cos(gamma) * np.sin(beta)], [np.cos(beta) * np.sin(alpha), np.cos(alpha) * np.cos(gamma) + np.sin(alpha) * np.sin(beta) * np.sin(gamma), np.cos(gamma) * np.sin(alpha) * np.sin(beta) - np.cos(alpha) * np.sin(gamma)], [-np.sin(beta), np.cos(beta) * np.sin(gamma), np.cos(beta) * np.cos(gamma)]]) which given alpha, beta, gamma as: angles = np.radians(np.array([30, 20, 10])) returns the following matrix: In [31]: z1y2x3(angles[0], angles[1], angles[2]) Out[31]: array([[ 0.81379768, -0.44096961, 0.37852231], [ 0.46984631, 0.88256412, 0.01802831], [-0.34202014, 0.16317591, 0.92541658]]) If I understand correctly, one should be able to compose this matrix by multiplying the rotation matrices that it is made of. However, I cannot reproduce this matrix via ...
Find sin(s+t) and (s-t) if cos(s)= 1/5 and sin(t) = 3/5 and s and t are in quadrant 1. =Sin(s)cos(t) + Cos(s)Sin(t) =Sin(1/5)Cos(3/5) + Cos(-1/5)Sin(3/5) = 0.389418 Sin(s-t) =sin(s)cos(t) - cos(s)sin(t) =sin(-3/5)cos(1/5) - cos(1/5)sin(3/5) =Sin-3/5 cos-3/5 = -0.46602 HELP ... ...
This is a collection of ImplicitCAD files for an assortment of objects. Enjoy! module box1(BT,FH,H,PL,PB,SW,TT,UL,W,WT,G,cos,sin) /*type 32*/ {difference()/*remove inside & notch*/ {linear_extrude(H)/*make solid*/ polygon/*outside*/([(0,SW+PB+PL*cos/sin),(PL,SW+PB),(PL,SW/2+TT/2),(0,SW/2+TT/2),(0,SW/2-TT/2),(PL,SW/2-TT/2),(PL+SW/2-TT/2,0),(W-PL-SW/2+TT/2,0),(W-PL,SW/2-TT/2),(W,SW/2-TT/2),(W,SW/2+TT/2),(W-PL,SW/2+TT/2),(W-PL,SW+PB),(W,SW+PB+PL*cos/sin)/*back*/,(W,UL-PB-PL*cos/sin),(W-PL-PB*sin/cos+G*sin/cos,UL-G),(PL+PB*sin/cos-G*sin/cos,UL-G),(0,UL-PB-PL*cos/sin)/*front*/]); translate(0,0,BT)/*move up to leave bottom*/ linear_extrude(H)/*make solid*/ difference()/*round off inside corners*/ ...
(A): There is no significant difference between the cost of resistance measured by a proxy (such as growth rate, density at a set time, etc.) (grey bars, mean
COS are fibroblast-like cell lines derived from monkey kidney tissue. COS cells are obtained by immortalizing CV-1 cells with a version of the SV40 virus that can produce large T antigen but has a defect in genomic replication. The CV-1 cell line in turn was derived from the kidney of the African green monkey. The acronym COS is derived from the cells being CV-1 (simian) in Origin, and carrying the SV40 genetic material. Two forms of COS cell lines commonly used are COS-1 and COS-7. The COS cell lines are often used by biologists when studying the monkey virus SV40. Cells from these lines are also often transfected to produce recombinant proteins for molecular biology, biochemistry, and cell biology experiments. When an expression construct with an SV40 promoter is introduced into COS cells, the vector can be replicated substantially by the large T antigen. These COS cells are genetically modified to produce the T antigen from their own genome. Jensen FC, Girardi AJ, Gilden RV, Koprowski H ...
displaystyle {\begin{aligned}P_{0}^{0}(\cos \theta )&=1\\[8pt]P_{1}^{0}(\cos \theta )&=\cos \theta \\[8pt]P_{1}^{1}(\cos \theta )&=-\sin \theta \\[8pt]P_{2}^{0}(\cos \theta )&={\tfrac {1}{2}}(3\cos ^{2}\theta -1)\\[8pt]P_{2}^{1}(\cos \theta )&=-3\cos \theta \sin \theta \\[8pt]P_{2}^{2}(\cos \theta )&=3\sin ^{2}\theta \\[8pt]P_{3}^{0}(\cos \theta )&={\tfrac {1}{2}}(5\cos ^{3}\theta -3\cos \theta )\\[8pt]P_{3}^{1}(\cos \theta )&=-{\tfrac {3}{2}}(5\cos ^{2}\theta -1)\sin \theta \\[8pt]P_{3}^{2}(\cos \theta )&=15\cos \theta \sin ^{2}\theta \\[8pt]P_{3}^{3}(\cos \theta )&=-15\sin ^{3}\theta \\[8pt]P_{4}^{0}(\cos \theta )&={\tfrac {1}{8}}(35\cos ^{4}\theta -30\cos ^{2}\theta +3)\\[8pt]P_{4}^{1}(\cos \theta )&=-{\tfrac {5}{2}}(7\cos ^{3}\theta -3\cos \theta )\sin \theta \\[8pt]P_{4}^{2}(\cos \theta )&={\tfrac {15}{2}}(7\cos ^{2}\theta -1)\sin ^{2}\theta \\[8pt]P_{4}^{3}(\cos \theta )&=-105\cos \theta \sin ^{3}\theta \\[8pt]P_{4}^{4}(\cos \theta )&=105\sin ^{4}\theta \end{aligned ...
We approximate the following analytical solutions: \begin{align*} H_r(r,\theta,z,t) &= \frac{\alpha z}{\mu^c} \left( \cos(\theta) + \frac{r}{4}\cos(2\theta)+ \frac{r^2}{9}\cos(3\theta) \right)\cos(t) + \frac{\beta z}{\mu^c} \left(\sin(\theta) + \frac{r}{4}\sin(2\theta)+ \frac{r^2}{9}\sin(3\theta) \right)\cos(t), \\ H_{\theta}(r,\theta,z,t) &= \frac{\beta z}{\mu^c} \left( \cos(\theta) + \frac{r}{4}\cos(2\theta)+\frac{r^2}{9}\cos(3\theta) \right)\cos(t) -\frac{\alpha z}{\mu^c} \left(\sin(\theta) + \frac{r}{4}\sin(2\theta)+\frac{r^2}{9}\sin(3\theta) \right)\cos(t), \\ H_z(r,\theta,z,t) &= \frac{\alpha}{\mu^c} \left(r\cos(\theta) +\frac{r^2}{8}\cos(2\theta) + \frac{r^3}{27}\cos(3\theta) \right) \cos(t) + \frac{\beta}{\mu^c} \left(r\sin(\theta) +\frac{r^2}{8}\sin(2\theta) + \frac{r^3}{27}\sin(3\theta) \right) \cos(t), \end{align*} where \(\alpha\) and \(\beta\) are parameters. We also set the given velocity field as follows: \begin{align*} u^\text{given}_r(r,\theta,z,t) &= \alpha z \left(\cos(\theta) ...
Prove that each equation is an identity. I tried to do the problems, but I am stuck. 1. cos^4 t-sin^4 t=1-2sin^2 t 2. 1/cos s= csc^2 s - csc s cot s 3. (cos x/ sec x -1)- (cos x/ tan^2x)=cot^2 x 4. sin^3 z cos^2 z= sin^3 z - sin^5 ...
In article ,juhnn-0905961423450001 at 147.46.161.102,, juhnn at plaza.snu.ac.kr (YONG-SUNG JUHNN) wrote: @--, Colleagues, @--, @--, I am planning to work on signal transduction with COS-1 cell line. @--, I need to know what kinds of membrane receptors are endogeneously @--, expressed on this cell line or COS-7 cells. @--, I would be grateful, if you can tell me the expressed receptor types and @--, the related reference by e.mail. @--, My address is juhnn at plaza.snu.ac.kr @--, @--, Thank you. Along those lines, can anyone explain the difference between COS-1 and COS-7 cells? Im especially interested in receptors and signalling proteins. -- Still Trying to Avoid the Drunk Monkey :-Peter ...
Hello, I have isolated a gene from the mouse, with which I would like to do some promoter studies. Questions: should I now use a cell line from a mouse tumor to carry out these studies, or could I use cos cells (f.i.) also. What do most people do in this case? Are cos cells homologous enough ? Clemens, Heidelberg ...
Tante strategie sulle opzioni binarie con grafici, analisi, money management e sistemi di trading per guadagnare con le opzioni - cos e iq option.
Contains HXB2 env fragment from pHXB2 gpt. HIV-1 gp160 is expressed, though no other viral products. Provides high levels of gp160 in COS cells ...
It is also measure of time ie. in EE with phasors (f=constant) if we get philosophical P=U*I*Cos(Phi), as it is there for the difference of the phase of the I and U in timedomain. Now when phasors are mentioned, will there be traditional non-tagged method of using angles, by just using bare numbers. I think these two methods cant be separated in discussion they must work together and I go as far as saying that tagging should be more like an option to those who are jumping between O/(decided slicing method ...
I am excited and absolutely terrified at the same time! My injection has just run out but I feel it will take a while for me to get pregnant cos Ive
Read more about Top 10 biz headlines: Indian cos step up dollar-raising, Voda Idea Q3 loss on Business Standard. The Income-Tax Department has identified at least 50 central and state PSUs to be covered under the Vivad se Vishwas Bill
Get Solution of Question no 69145, prove that- i)cos?cosec?-sin?sec?/cos?+sin?=cosec?-sec? ii)cot^2?(sec?-1)/(1+sin?)=sec^2?(1-sin?)/(1+sec?) iii)(1-cos?)^1/2/(1+
This study offers an edition and fresh analysis of the fragmentary evidence for the views of Praxagoras of Cos (4th-3rd c. BC) on arteries, pulsation and pneuma. It presents the relevant fragments and draws new conclusions on Praxagoras views and sources.
Learn about Cos winery and shop the best selection at Wine.com. Get expert advice on wine you buy online. Free shipping with StewardShip and FedEx pickup available....
Learn about Cos winery and shop the best selection at Wine.com. Get expert advice on wine you buy online. Free shipping with StewardShip and FedEx pickup available....
Rimhub is a boutique managed services company offering customized remote infrastructure management solutions to telecoms and enterprises. We excel in
Determine whether or not the given function is periodic. Find the fundamental period. (h) sinh x (q) cos(sin x) Please see the attached file for the fully formatted.
documentclass{article} \usepackage{newtxtext,newtxmath} \usepackage{amsmath} \DeclareMathOperator{\sn}{sn} \DeclareMathOperator{\cn}{cn} \DeclareMathOperator{\dn}{dn} \begin{document} \begin{equation} \begin{gathered} \omega^3x_{4}(s) = \begin{minipage}[t]{.7\displaywidth} \raggedright\linespread{1.2}\selectfont \begin{math} x_4(\varphi_0) -2 \cos^3 ( \phi )sk^2 +2k^2x_1(\varphi_0) \cos^2( \phi ) +4 \cos^3 ( \phi )E ( s ) k^2+x_3(\varphi_0)\sin ( \phi ) s - \cos^3( \phi ){s}^2E( s ) +2 \cos^3 ( \phi )s ( E (s) ^2 +\cos ( \phi ) {s}^2E ( s ) - 2x_3(\varphi_0)\sin ( \phi ) E ( s ) -1/6\cos ( \phi ) {s}^3-4/3 \cos^3 ( \phi ) E ( s ) ^3 -1/2 x_1(\varphi_0) \cos^2 ( \phi ){s}^2-2 x_1(\varphi_0) \cos^2 ( \phi ) E ( s ) ^2 -2\cos ( \phi) s E ( s ) ^2 -2x_1(\varphi_0)sE( s ) + k\sin (\phi ) \cn(s) {s}^2 \cos^2( \phi ) +2 \cos^3 ( \phi )sk^2 \sn(s) ^2 -2/3\cos ( \phi) E ( s) +4/3k^3\cn(s) \sn(s) ^2\sin( \phi ) \cos^2 ( \phi )+2k\sin ( \phi ) \cn(s) +2/3\cos ( \phi ) s-8/3\cos ( \phi ) k^2\dn (s) \sn(s) ...
Get Solution of Question no 69424, prove that 2/2cos2A- 1/cos4A- 2/sin2A+1/sin4A=cot4A - tan4A, Mathematics, Introduction to Trigonometry
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Cos2 of individuals #::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: # 1. square of the distance between an individual and the # PCA center of gravity center
Let new ending coordinates of the line after rotation = (Xnew, Ynew).. Applying the rotation equations, we have-. Xnew. = Xold x cosθ - Yold x sinθ. = 4 x cos30º - 4 x sin30º. = 4 x (√3 / 2) - 4 x (1 / 2). = 2√3 - 2. = 2(√3 - 1). = 2(1.73 - 1). = 1.46. Ynew. = Xold x sinθ + Yold x cosθ. = 4 x sin30º + 4 x cos30º. = 4 x (1 / 2) + 4 x (√3 / 2). = 2 + 2√3. = 2(1 + √3). = 2(1 + 1.73). = 5.46. Thus, New ending coordinates of the line after rotation = (1.46, 5.46).. Alternatively,. In matrix form, the new ending coordinates of the line after rotation may be obtained as-. ...
case 2: Block A tends to slide up: Block B is large (10 minutes). Conclusion: (b) Block B is large: m A gsinT F T F fr 0 m kg m m m m B B B A S A 9 .2 10sin37 0.40 10 cos37 sin cos q q T P T 2.8 kg m B 9 .2kg Now m B 10kg! 9 .2kg T B B x N A A T fr A x F m g m a F m g m g F F m a cos 0 sin T T. Get Price ...
TJX Cos. had a 25.9 percent decline in fourth-quarter profit, hurt by big promotions at several off-price units and a $19.3 million one-time charge.
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We have used 3 main methods to disrupt endocytosis in cells: use of inhibitory peptides, overexpression of protein domains and RNAi. Each method has advantages and disadvantages and thus it is preferable if a number of approaches can be used. We first used the peptide approach in Marks et al 1998 where a dynamin peptide was made membrane permeable and used to inhibit synaptic vesicle recycling. This peptide is now available from Tocris. We are currently developing more potent tools ...
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For acute angles α and β, whose sum is non-obtuse, a concise diagram (shown) illustrates the angle sum formulae for sine and cosine: The bold segment labeled 1 has unit length and serves as the hypotenuse of a right triangle with angle β; the opposite and adjacent legs for this angle have respective lengths sin β and cos β. The cos β leg is itself the hypotenuse of a right triangle with angle α; that triangles legs, therefore, have lengths given by sin α and cos α, multiplied by cos β. The sin β leg, as hypotenuse of another right triangle with angle α, likewise leads to segments of length cos α sin β and sin α sin β. Now, we observe that the 1 segment is also the hypotenuse of a right triangle with angle α + β; the leg opposite this angle necessarily has length sin(α + β), while the leg adjacent has length cos(α + β). Consequently, as the opposing sides of the diagrams outer rectangle are equal, we deduce ...
10 most-read articles: PODs under attack-5 key points , 5 spine device cos ready for prime time , Only 70 Spots Remain - Come Hear Keynote Terry Bradshaw at Beckers ASC 21st Annual ...
Page contains details about CoS2 nanoparticles/nanoplates . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
La Commissione Europea ha ricevuto oltre 700 proposte di alto livello arrivate da tutta Europa. Date unocchiata agli articoli vincitori!
3 Azimuthal distribution w.r.t the reaction plane N(φ ) = N 0 (1+2v 2 cos(2φ)+2v 4 cos(4φ)+ 2a 1 sin(φ)) For parity violation |a1|>0 and has opposite sign for positive and negative charges in an event
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11 days after egg pick up. Mine is different I think cos the doctor has advice me to do frozen instead of fresh before my egg pick up. Haiz I cried in the...
Jakies straszne cos mnie dopadło i nie chce popuścić, cały czas chora jestem. Juz sie wydaje że za chwile koniec a tu znowu w gardle jakieś stado dzikich bestii ...
Acts 21 - After we tore ourselves away from them, we set sail straight for Cos, the next day to Rhodes, and from there to Patara.
germinate.01: GERMINATE-V NOTES: Frame by Jena based on ECTB2, VNcls entity_specific_cos-45.5, sprout. Member of VNcls . entity_specific_cos-45.5, entity_specific_modes_being-47.2. (from germinate.01-v) GERMINATION-N NOTES: Corresponds with germinate.01. Framed by anwen april 2011 (from germination.01-n) ...
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) causes severe diseases in avian species. Its fusion protein cleavage site (Fcs) is a major contributor to virulence and membrane fusion. Previous studies showed that a change from phenylalanine (F) to lysine (L) at position 117 of the virulent strain fusion protein, which has the polybasic amino acid Fcs motif
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Biochemical Society Transactions.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Biochemical Society Transactions.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
April 30, 2013: Further to AAVSO Alert Notice 471 (http://www.aavso.org/aavso-alert-notice-471), HST/COS is scheduled to observe the eclipsing WZ Sge-type cataclysmic variable 1RXS J105010.3-140431:. 1RXS J105010.3-140431 2013 May 10 07:51:01 through 12:01:57 UT. The HST team will be making a final decision on observing 1RXS J105010.3-140431 based on the observations of May 8/9, and observations from the following night will also be essential. Close monitoring of 1RXS J105010.3-140431 through May 11 is requested to be sure it is below the threshold brightness and to have a good magnitude value for correlation with the HST observations. 1RXS J105010.3-140431 is V=17 at minimum; its magnitude at maximum is unknown.. After 1RXS J105010.3-140431, the next target will be the dwarf nova SDSS J153817.35+512338.0:. SDSS J153817.35+512338.0 2013 May 13 UT (time to be announced later). Giving 1RXS J105010.3-140431 highest priority, please begin covering SDSS J153817.35+512338.0 now; close monitoring ...
An aqueous solution containing from 0.81 to 1.3 moles of piperazine per liter is used as a washing agent for removing impurities such as H.sub.2 S, CO.sub.2 and COS from gases. Piperazine can also be
I have a drug that reduces the level of a certain gene X when compared to control. Now, when I used the antagonist of the drug along with the drug itself, I see a huge increase in the mRNA levels of this gene, even higher than control itself. I know for sure that this antagonist does not have any inverse agonist activity. What other reasons could there be for this effect ...
oooh i want to second that i have been meaning to post for agesssss cos i get it delivered and when i read it i was like ooh i know her :lol: its funny cos i dont know u as such but then i do from here :lol: beautiful girls and i love their names ....(this may be cos i have a sophia too ...
Notable confusion has occurred here (caused, or made worse for copyists, by the need to straddle adjoining parchments); what there is of the route linework may not be drawn reliably. From BAtlas 45 I infer that the mapmaker made the Foro popili stretch proceed in two directions, moving in one to Cos[..]ianvm (distance figure XVI) and in the other to Vico mendicoleo (no distance figure preserved). On this view, the direct linkage between Cos[..]ianvm and Vico mendicoleo implied by the map is to be regarded as a copyists slip ...
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"Intracellular coupling of bikunin and the heavy chain of rat pre-alpha-inhibitor in COS-1 cells". Biochem. J. 328 (1): 185-91. ...
... and membrane association in COS cells". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87 (2): 728-32. doi:10.1073/pnas.87.2.728. PMC 53339 . ... Cell. Biochem. 204 (1-2): 135-55. doi:10.1023/A:1007012622030. PMID 10718634. Geyer M, Fackler OT, Peterlin BM (2001). " ... Wice BM, Gordon JI (1992). "A strategy for isolation of cDNAs encoding proteins affecting human intestinal epithelial cell ... "Antimyristoylation of the gag proteins in the human immunodeficiency virus-infected cells with N-myristoyl glycinal ...
... and synapsin III with each other to create heterodimers of the proteins in COS cells. Synapsin I is present in the nerve ... Its association with synaptic vesicles studied in a highly purified synaptic vesicle preparation". J. Cell Biol. 96 (5): 1374- ... Cell Biol. 96 (5): 1337-54. doi:10.1083/jcb.96.5.1337. PMC 2112636. PMID 6404910. Ueda T, Maeno H, Greengard P (December 1973 ...
"Cloning and substrate specificity of a human phenol UDP glucuronosyltransferase expressed in COS-7 cells". David Harding, ... Browning associated with oxidation of phenolic compounds has also been given as the cause of cells death in calli formed in in ... In conifers (Pinophyta), phenolics are stored in polyphenolic parenchyma cells, a tissue abundant in the phloem of all conifers ... Carnachan, S. M.; Harris, P. J. (2000). "Ferulic acid is bound to the primary cell walls of all gymnosperm families". ...
This is supported by the evidence that Cos-1 cells transfected with the mannose receptor lacking its C-terminal tail are unable ... immature dendritic cells and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, but is also expressed on the surface of skin cells such as ... The CRD regions of the mannose receptor on liver sinusoidal endothelial cells remove a number of waste material ranging from ... Furthermore, other receptors present on the surface of phagocytic cells, such as DC-SIGN, SIGNR1 and Endo180, exhibit similar ...
Messier TL, Pittman DD, Long GL, Kaufman RJ, Church WR (March 1991). "Cloning and expression in COS-1 cells of a full-length ... positive regulation of cell migration. • blood coagulation. • proteolysis. • ER to Golgi vesicle-mediated transport. • blood ... In stage 1, Factor VII binds to the transmembrane protein TF on the surface of cells and is converted to Factor VIIa. The ... Factor Xa formed on the surface of the TF-bearing cell interacts with Factor Va to form the prothrombinase complex which ...
COs), transmission stations, cell-tower sites, and other remote sites. These environments are normally dry, but cables may be ... criteria and QMS programs are given in GR-347 for telecommunications power cables for telecommunications equipment in COs and ...
China COS cells, cell lines COS-1 and COS-7 Cosine, a trigonometric function Cosmic Origins Spectrograph, on the Hubble Space ... Cos, COS, CoS, coS or Cos. may refer to: Carbonyl sulfide Class of service (CoS), a field in IEEE 802.1p Class of service (COS ... US COS (clothing), a British fashion brand Cos lettuce Martín Perfecto de Cos (1800-1854), Mexican general Cos (television ... France Cos or Kos, a Greek island Colorado Springs Airport, IATA code Gulf of Cos, Aegean Sea Villa de Cos, Zacatecas, Mexico ...
Three COS lines were created (COS-1, COS-3 and COS-7), of which two are commonly used (COS-1 and COS-7). The COS cell lines are ... COS are fibroblast-like cell lines derived from monkey kidney tissue. COS cells are obtained by immortalizing CV-1 cells with a ... The CV-1 cell line in turn was derived from the kidney of the African green monkey. The acronym "COS" is derived from the cells ... Cellosaurus entry for COS-1 Cellosaurus entry for COS-3 Cellosaurus entry for COS-7. ...
Reconstitution of interleukin-2-induced Stat5A and Stat5B DNA binding activity in COS-7 cells.. J. Biol. Chem. 271: 10738 - ... mast cell migration. • positive regulation of mitotic cell cycle. • lipid storage. • development of secondary female sexual ... positive regulation of cell proliferation. • oxaloacetate metabolic process. • regulation of epithelial cell differentiation. • ... positive regulation of B cell differentiation. • T cell homeostasis. • creatine metabolic process. • cellular response to ...
COS 1) cells". Science. 234 (4781): 1258-61. Bibcode:1986Sci...234.1258Z. doi:10.1126/science.3535074. PMID 3535074.. ... In males, testosterone is synthesized primarily in Leydig cells. The number of Leydig cells in turn is regulated by luteinizing ... testosterone is produced by the Leydig cells.[123] The male generative glands also contain Sertoli cells, which require ... Cell Biol. 42 (6): 813-27. doi:10.1016/j.biocel.2009.11.013. PMID 19931639.. ...
Yamamoto R (1993). "[Localization of human sterol carrier protein 2 gene and cDNA expression in COS-7 cell]". Hokkaido Igaku ... DNA Cell Biol. 10 (9): 695-8. PMID 1755959. doi:10.1089/dna.1991.10.695. ... DNA Cell Biol. 10 (8): 559-69. PMID 1718316. doi:10.1089/dna.1991.10.559. .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}. ...
"Pharmacology of GABA rho 1 and GABA alpha/beta receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes and COS cells". Br. J. Pharmacol. 109 (1 ... Qian H, Dowling JE (January 1993). "Novel GABA responses from rod-driven retinal horizontal cells". Nature. 361 (6408): 162-4. ... Feigenspan A, Wässle H, Bormann J (January 1993). "Pharmacology of GABA receptor Cl- channels in rat retinal bipolar cells". ... Tomiko SA, Taraskevich PS, Douglas WW (February 1983). "GABA acts directly on cells of pituitary pars intermedia to alter ...
Messier TL, Pittman DD, Long GL, et al. (1991). „Cloning and expression in COS-1 cells of a full-length cDNA encoding human ...
Cloning and sequence of the full-length cDNA and expression of functional receptor in COS cells". J. Biol. Chem. 263 (5): 2553- ... Cloning and sequence of the full-length cDNA and expression of functional receptor in COS cells". J. Biol. Chem. 263 (5): 2553- ... "J. Cell Biol. 141 (3): 815-28. PMC 2132758. PMID 9566979. doi:10.1083/jcb.141.3.815. CS1 održavanje: Eksplicitna upotreba et al ... Cell Genet. 66 (4): 272-3. PMID 8162705. doi:10.1159/000133710. CS1 održavanje: Eksplicitna upotreba et al. (link) ...
In COS-1 cells, DC-SCRIPT was shown to interact with the estrogen receptor DNA-binding domain (ERDBD) and represses ER activity ... cell nucleus. Biological process. • negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • negative regulation ... Zinc finger protein 366, also known as DC-SCRIPT (Dendritic cell-specific transcript), is a protein that in humans is encoded ... In the immune system of both mice and humans, DC-SCRIPT was found to be specifically expressed in dendritic cells (DCs).[8] ...
"The cloning of the human follicle stimulating hormone receptor and its expression in COS-7, CHO, and Y-1 cells.". Mol. Cell. ...
Cultured mammalian cell lines such as the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO), COS, including human cell lines such as HEK and HeLa may ... Eukaryotic cell extracts may also be used in other cell-free systems, for example, the wheat germ cell-free expression systems ... Insect cell lines derived from Lepidopterans (moths and butterflies), such as Spodoptera frugiperda, are used as host. A cell ... The vector is used to introduce a specific gene into a target cell, and can commandeer the cell's mechanism for protein ...
3-kinase and for c-kit-associated PI 3-kinase activity in COS-1 cells". J. Biol. Chem. 269 (8): 6026-30. PMID 7509796.. ... Cell. Biol. 18 (4): 2089-99. PMC 121439 . PMID 9528781.. *↑ Yi T, Ihle JN (1993). „Association of hematopoietic cell ... Linnekin D (2000). „Early signaling pathways activated by c-Kit in hematopoietic cells". Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 31 (10): ... Rönnstrand L (2004). „Signal transduction via the stem cell factor receptor/c-Kit". Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 61 (19-20): 2535-2548 ...
Each transformed host cell of a library will contain only one vector with one insert of DNA. The whole library can be plated ... Cosmid vectors are plasmids that contain a small region of bacteriophage λ DNA called the cos sequence. This sequence allows ... Using a host cell to carry the vector allows for easy amplification and retrieval of specific clones from the library for ... Next, the vector DNA can be taken up by a host organism - commonly a population of Escherichia coli or yeast - with each cell ...
... θ cos ⁡ 6 ϕ , {\displaystyle E/V=K_{1}\cos ^{2}\theta +K_{2}\sin ^{4}\theta +K_{3}\sin ^{6}\theta \cos 6\phi ,} The uniaxial ... The hexagonal lattice cell. The tetragonal lattice cell. The rhombohedral lattice cell. In a hexagonal system the c axis is an ... θ cos ⁡ 3 ϕ {\displaystyle \displaystyle E/V=K_{1}\sin ^{2}\theta +K_{2}\sin ^{4}\theta +K_{3}\cos \theta \sin ^{3}\theta \cos ... cos ϕ {\displaystyle \phi } sin θ, β = sin ϕ {\displaystyle \phi } sin θ, and γ = cos θ: E / V = K 1 sin 2 ⁡ θ . {\displaystyle ...
It has 10 vertices, 45 edges, 120 triangle faces, 210 tetrahedral cells, 252 5-cell 4-faces, 210 5-simplex 5-faces, 120 6- ... Its dihedral angle is cos−1(1/9), or approximately 83.62°. It can also be called a decayotton, or deca-9-tope, as a 10-facetted ...
... cos ⁡ ( y ) sin ⁡ ( z ) = 0. {\displaystyle \sin(x)\sin(y)\sin(z)+\sin(x)\cos(y)\cos(z)+\cos(x)\sin(y)\cos(z)+\cos(x)\cos(y)\ ... While the standard P surface has cubic symmetry the unit cell can be any rectangular box, producing a family of minimal ... It can be approximated by the implicit surface cos ⁡ ( x ) + cos ⁡ ( y ) + cos ⁡ ( z ) = 0 {\displaystyle \cos(x)+\cos(y)+\cos( ... cos ⁡ ( z ) + cos ⁡ ( x ) sin ⁡ ( y ) cos ⁡ ( z ) + cos ⁡ ( x ) ...
Redding finds out the information regarding Daniels from his cell mate, a marine colonel imprisoned for rape, Edward Galson, ... and murders Daniels in the gym after Poet pays off the COs. Poet is later told by Hill about Supreme's severe allergy to eggs, ...
Permissions for a group of extensions can be changed by modifying a COS variable applied to the entire group. COS is also used ... may have a need for extended voicemail message retention while another group may need the ability to forward calls to a cell ... The Class of Service acronym is normally written as COS vs. CoS as is often used in data networking parlance.[citation needed] ... can be configured to use existing CoS values on incoming packets from other devices (trust mode), or can rewrite the CoS value ...
cos. ⁡. β. +. 2. h. k. a. b. cos. ⁡. γ. 1. −. cos. 2. ⁡. α. −. cos. 2. ⁡. β. −. cos. 2. ⁡. γ. +. 2. cos. ⁡. α. cos. ⁡. β. cos. ... Unit cell[edit]. Crystal structure is described in terms of the geometry of arrangement of particles in the unit cell. The unit ... cos \beta +{\frac {2hk}{ab}}\cos \gamma }{1-\cos ^{2}\alpha -\cos ^{2}\beta -\cos ^{2}\gamma +2\cos \alpha \cos \beta \cos \ ... cos. 2. ⁡. α. −. cos. ⁡. α. ). a. 2. (. 1. −. 3. cos. 2. ⁡. α. +. 2. cos. 3. ⁡. α. ). {\displaystyle {\frac {1}{d^{2}}}={\frac ...
cos. ⁡. (. ω. t. ). ,. {\displaystyle \mathbf {E} =\mathbf {E} _{\omega }\cos(\omega t),}. where Eω is the amplitude of the ... A glass cell filled with one of these liquids is called a Kerr cell. These are frequently used to modulate light, since the ... cos. ⁡. (. ω. t. ). ,. {\displaystyle \mathbf {E} =\mathbf {E} _{0}+\mathbf {E} _{\omega }\cos(\omega t),}. where Eω is the ... This is in contrast to Pockels cells, which can operate at much lower voltages. Another disadvantage of Kerr cells is that the ...
... cos(ix * 23157.f * iy * 217832.f + 9758.f); return (vector2) { .x = cos(random), .y = sin(random) }; } // Computes the dot ... first find the unique grid cell in which the point lies. Then the 2 n {\displaystyle 2^{n}} corners of that cell, and their ... Determine grid cell coordinates int x0 = (int)x; int x1 = x0 + 1; int y0 = (int)y; int y1 = y0 + 1; // Determine interpolation ... the dot product of the position and gradient vectors must be evaluated at each node of the containing grid cell. Perlin noise ...
3-kinase and for c-kit-associated PI 3-kinase activity in COS-1 cells. », J. Biol. Chem., vol. 269, no 8,‎ février 1994. , p. ... Association of hematopoietic cell phosphatase with c-Kit after stimulation with c-Kit ligand. », Mol. Cell. Biol., vol. 13, no ... c-Kit--a hematopoietic cell essential receptor tyrosine kinase. », Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol., vol. 39, no 11,‎ 2007. , p. ... Signal transduction via the stem cell factor receptor/c-Kit. », Cell. Mol. Life Sci., vol. 61, nos 19-20,‎ 2004. , p. 2535-2548 ...
... cos \varphi +n_{e}^{2}\sin ^{2}\varphi }}}} ( 8 ) f i ( φ ) = ν λ [ n φ cos ⁡ ( φ + α ) ± n 0 2 − n φ 2 ( φ ) sin 2 ⁡ ( φ + α ... the wedge angle between the input and output faces of the filter cell (the wedge angle is necessary for eliminating the angular ... Δ n cos ⁡ ( Ω t − K z ) , {\displaystyle (2)\ n(z,t)=n_{0}+\Delta n\cos(\Omega t-Kz),\,} where n 0 {\displaystyle n_{0}} is the ... The sound velocity, v {\displaystyle v} , depends on the angle α, such that, ( 9 ) ν ( α ) = ν 110 cos 2 ⁡ α + ( ν 001 ν 110 ) ...
cos. 2. ⁡. θ. 2. R. 2. (. 2. π. λ. ). 4. (. n. 2. −. 1. n. 2. +. 2. ). 2. (. d. 2. ). 6. {\displaystyle I=I_{0}{\frac {1+\cos ... The moonlit sky is not perceived as blue, however, because at low light levels human vision comes mainly from rod cells that do ... cos. 2. ⁡. θ. ). {\displaystyle I=I_{0}{\frac {\pi ^{2}V^{2}\sigma _{\epsilon }^{2}}{2\lambda ^{4}R^{2}}}{\left(1+\cos ^{2}\ ... cos. 2. ⁡. θ. ). .. {\displaystyle I=I_{0}{\frac {8\pi ^{4}\alpha ^{2}}{\lambda ^{4}R^{2}}}(1+\cos ^{2}\theta ).}. ...
cos. ⁡. α. ). 2. +. p. 2. =. p. 2. ⋅. (. (. 1. +. cos. ⁡. α. ). 2. sin. 2. ⁡. α. +. 1. ). {\displaystyle {\begin{aligned}(2D)^{ ... If we consider a cell of the lattice formed, we can see that it is a rhombus with the four sides equal to d = p/sin α; (we have ... cos. ⁡. α. ). 2. +. p. 2. {\displaystyle (2D)^{2}=d^{2}(1+\cos \alpha )^{2}+p^{2}}. that is: (. 2. D. ). 2. =. p. 2. sin. 2. ⁡ ... cos. ⁡. α. sin. 2. ⁡. α. D. =. p. 2. sin. ⁡. α. 2. .. {\displaystyle {\begin{aligned}(2D)^{2}&=2p^{2}\cdot {\frac {1+\cos \ ...
This idea, that electrical synapses couple groups of cells into functional units, lead to Bullock's lifelong interest in field ... Bullock's UCSD profile page, with a list of his publications: https://web.archive.org/web/20060525151009/http://myprofile.cos. ... potentials, which are generated by the summated electrical activity of millions of brain cells. Bullock was a respected teacher ...
Konradt C, Ueno N, Christian DA, Delong JH, et al «Endothelial cells are a replicative niche for entry of Toxoplasma gondii to ... Els paràsits entren als macròfags de la paret intestinal per després distribuir-se per la circulació sanguínia i el cos sencer ...
cos. ⁡. (. θ. ). {\displaystyle F=2(t_{p}+w_{p})\gamma _{LV}\cos(\theta )\,}. The surface pressure is then the change in ... to improve cell adhesion or study the properties of biofilms. An example of Langmuir-Blodgett troughs' utility in ... cos. ⁡. (. θ. ). −. ρ. l. V. p. g. {\displaystyle {\begin{aligned}\mathrm {[Force\ on\ Plate]} &=\mathrm {[Weight\ of\ plate ... Assuming that perfect wetting of the plate occurs (θ = 0, cos(θ) = 1), then the surface tension can be calculated.[5] ...
Así, en S. cerevisiae, unha segregación cromosómica correcta aparentemente non depende enteiramente dos sobrecruzamentos cos ... Experimental Cell Research 313 (17): 3680-93. PMID 17869244. doi:10.1016/j.yexcr.2007.08.010.. ... Molecular Cell 15 (3): 437-51. PMID 15304223. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2004.06.040.. ... "The DNA mismatch-repair MLH3 protein interacts with MSH4 in meiotic cells, supporting a role for this MutL homolog in mammalian ...
Ray WJ, Yao M, Mumm J, Schroeter EH, Saftig P, Wolfe M, Selkoe DJ, Kopan R, Goate AM (December 1999). "Cell surface presenilin- ... A expresión de ZnT3 é significativamente máis baixa nos pacientes de Alzheimer comparados cos pacientes sans. Os ratos sen ZnT3 ... Baruch-Suchodolsky R, Fischer B (May 2009). "Abeta40, either soluble or aggregated, is a remarkably potent antioxidant in cell- ... "Effect of melatonin and melatonylvalpromide on beta-amyloid and neurofilaments in N2a cells". Neurochem. Res. 33 (6): 1138-44. ...
56,0 56,1 56,2 Fitt WK, Trench RK (1983) The relation of diel patterns of cell division to diel patterns of motility in the ... As súas relacións mutualistas cos corais construtores de arrecifes constitúen a base dun ecosistema moi produtivo e diverso. Os ... Markell DA, Trench RK, Iglesias-Prieto R (1992) Macromolecules associated with the cell-walls of symbiotic dinoflagellates. ... Tamén asociados cos tilacoides están as xantofilas dinoxantina, diadinoxantina, diatoxantina e o caroteno beta-caroteno. O ...
doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.09.022.. (subscription required) *↑ Sharp, P. M.; Bailes, E.; Chaudhuri, R. R.; Rodenburg, C. M.; ... e diabetes mellitus especialmente cos inhibidores da protease.[11] Outros síntomas comúns son diarrea,[127][128] e un ... 2004). "The glutamine-rich region of the HIV-1 Tat protein is involved in T-cell apoptosis". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (46): 48197- ... Alimonti JB, Ball TB, Fowke KR (2003). "Mechanisms of CD4+ T lymphocyte cell death in human immunodeficiency virus infection ...
... named COS-2, was experimentally deployed in two lines (9 km) in Turin, for the first time in a big city, at a speed of 140 Mbit ... Stem-cell therapy. *Tissue engineering. *Robot-assisted surgery. *Synthetic biology *Synthetic genomics ...
cos. ⁡. (. 2. π. d. n. −. 3. 365. ). ). ,. {\displaystyle E_{\rm {ext}}=E_{\rm {sc}}\cdot \left(1+0.033412\cdot \cos \left(2\pi ... Skin tanning is achieved by an increase in the dark pigment inside skin cells called melanocytes, and is an automatic response ...
natural killer cell differentiation. • positive regulation of natural killer cell proliferation. • cell-cell signaling. • ... Pérez-López A, Valadés D, Vázquez Martínez C, de Cos Blanco AI, Bujan J, García-Honduvilla N (March 2018). "Serum IL-15 and IL- ... and some other cells) following infection by virus(es). This cytokine induces cell proliferation of natural killer cells; cells ... cell maturation. • extrathymic T cell selection. • positive regulation of T cell proliferation. • regulation of defense ...
Sompol P.; LIU X.; BABA K.; PAUL KN.; TOSINI G.; IUVONE PM.; YE K. N-acetylserotonin promotes hippocampal neuroprogenitor cell ... Inhibition by N-acetyl-5-hydroxytryptamine of nitric oxide synthase expression in cultured cells and in the anaesthetized rat ...
Cell Biol. 6 (2): 97-105. PMID 14743216. doi:10.1038/ncb1086.. *↑ Micheau O, Tschopp J (July 2003). "Induction of TNF receptor ... tumor maligno e ten efectos similares aos da hormona paratiroide tanto en causar hipercalcemia secundaria coma nos cancros cos ... Wajant H, Pfizenmaier K, Scheurich P (2003). "Tumor necrosis factor signaling". Cell Death Differ. 10 (1): 45-65. PMID 12655295 ... Kriegler M, Perez C, DeFay K, Albert I, Lu SD (1988). "A novel form of TNF/cachectin is a cell surface cytotoxic transmembrane ...
There is a theory that, in some nerve cell synapses, when long-term memories are being laid down, the receiving cell makes ... Carbonyl sulfide (COS). *Nitrous oxide (N2O). *Sulfur dioxide (SO2) ... Some such nerve cells have been shown to contain guanylate cyclase, an enzyme that is activated by carbon monoxide.[15] ... Carbon monoxide can also be produced by high-temperature electrolysis of carbon dioxide with solid oxide electrolyzer cells:[72 ...
cos. ⁡. θ. +. cos. ⁡. ϕ. ). (. 1. −. d. h. d. D. ). {\displaystyle f_{m}=-2\pi R\gamma _{L}(\cos \theta +\cos \phi )(1-{\frac { ... In cellular biology, AFM can be used to attempt to distinguish cancer cells and normal cells based on a hardness of cells, and ... cos. ⁡. δ. (. cos. ⁡. θ. +. sin. ⁡. δ. ). (. h. D. ). (. 1. −. d. h. d. D. ). {\displaystyle f_{m}=-2\pi R\gamma _{L}{\frac {\ ... cos. ⁡. δ. +. sin. ⁡. δ. ). (. r. 0. ). (. d. r. 0. d. D. ). {\displaystyle f_{m}=-2\pi R\gamma _{L}({\frac {1}{\cos \delta ...
... as they possess a convergently evolved adaptive immunity with cells that function like the T cells and B cells seen in higher ... Lucius Licinius Crassus was mocked by Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus (cos. 54 BC) for weeping over the death of his pet lamprey: ... International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology. 2016-09-30. ISBN 9780128052204.. ... Another trait is the ability to delete several genes from their somatic cell lineages, about 20% of their DNA, which are vital ...
In a cellular automaton, each cell in an infinite grid of cells may have one of a finite set of states, and all cells update ... cos. ⁡. 2. θ. −. coth. ⁡. 2. t. {\displaystyle k(\theta ,t)={\sqrt {\cos 2\theta -\operatorname {coth} 2t}}}. and have as their ... cos. ⁡. x. =. 0.. {\displaystyle \cosh y-e^{-t}\cos x=0.}. In the physics literature, the same shapes are known as the ... the update rule sets the new value for each cell to be the majority among the nine cells given by it and its eight neighbors, ...
Lian S, Jakymiw A, Eystathioy T, Hamel J, Fritzler M, Chan E (2006). "GW bodies, microRNAs and the cell cycle". Cell Cycle 5 (3 ... están implicados na carreira armamentística evolutiva cos xenes virais. Nalgúns virus evolucionaron mecanismos para suprimir a ... Cullen L, Arndt G (2005). "Genome-wide screening for gene function using RNAi in mammalian cells". Immunol Cell Biol 83 (3): ... Molecular Cell Biology (5th ed.). ISBN 978-0716743668.. [1] *↑ Matranga C, Tomari Y, Shin C, Bartel D, Zamore P (2005). " ...
Cell. Biol. 23 (6): 2135-50. PMC 149467. PMID 12612084. doi:10.1128/MCB.23.6.2135-2150.2003.. ... á familia dos factores reguladores transcricionais que actúan en trans e mostran unha similitude de secuencia cos receptores de ... Cell. Biol. 22 (8): 2777-87. PMC 133712. PMID 11909970. doi:10.1128/MCB.22.8.2777-2787.2002.. ... Luderer HF, Demay MB (July 2010). "The vitamin D receptor, the skin and stem cells". J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 121 (1-2): ...
Dannelsen af peptider katalyseret af COS og metalioner i vulkanske miljøer ved hydrotermiske væld kan have været første trin på ... Xenophyophores are single cell animals called Protists. As benthic particulate feeders, xenophyophores normally sift through ... BBCNews, 19 June, 2003, Ancient organism challenges cell evolution Citat: "..."It appears that this organelle has been ... Viruses ARE alive, and they're older than modern cells, new study suggests. Science Alert 2015 ...
"Cell. 159 (2): 295-305. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2014.09.020. PMC 4206218 . PMID 25303526. Lay summary - SciGuru Science News.. ... Carbonyl sulfide (COS). *Nitrous oxide (N2O). *Sulfur dioxide (SO2) ... The magnocellular neurosecretory cells that make oxytocin are adjacent to magnocellular neurosecretory cells that make ... "Mechanisms by which hypoxia augments Leydig cell viability and differentiated cell function in vitro". Digital Library and ...
cos. ⁡. (. ω. 1. t. ). +. E. 2. cos. ⁡. (. ω. 2. t. ). ,. {\displaystyle \mathbf {E} (t)=E_{1}\cos(\omega _{1}t)+E_{2}\cos(\ ... High-order harmonic generation has been observed in noble gas jets, cells, and gas-filled capillary waveguides. ... "Resonance Raman probes for organelle-specific labeling in live cells". Scientific Reports. 6: 28483. Bibcode:2016NatSR... ...
cos. ⁡. t. (. 8. cos. 4. ⁡. t. −. 10. cos. 2. ⁡. t. +. 5. ). (. 232. cos. 4. ⁡. t. −. 97. cos. 2. ⁡. t. +. 13. −. 144. cos. 6. ... A migrating wild-type Dictyostelium discoideum cell whose boundary is colored by curvature. Scale bar: 5 µm. ... displaystyle k(t)={\frac {6\cos t\left(8\cos ^{4}t-10\cos ^{2}t+5\right)}{\left(232\cos ^{4}t-97\cos ^{2}t+13-144\cos ^{6}t\ ... cos. ⁡. 3. t. sin. ⁡. 2. t. ). .. {\displaystyle {\boldsymbol {\gamma }}(t)={\begin{pmatrix}\cos 3t\\\sin 2t\end{pmatrix}}\,.} ...
There is increased activity of the inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system, and the energy supply to other brain cells is ... The occurrence of disturbed behaviour in people with jaundice may have been described in antiquity by Hippocrates of Cos (ca. ... This process is impaired in all subtypes of hepatic encephalopathy, either because the hepatocytes (liver cells) are incapable ... a population of cells in the brain that constitutes 30% of the cerebral cortex. Astrocytes use ammonia when synthesising ...
The corpus may be the remains of a library of Cos, or a collection compiled in the third century BC in Alexandria. However, the ... another common complication was that of the cells of the testes dying due to the spermatic cord inadvertently being cut during ... The whole corpus is written in Ionic Greek, though the island of Cos was in a region that spoke Doric Greek. ...
A) Homogenates of COS cells transfected with two of the pcDM8 expression plasmids isolated from immunoreactive ... Expression of the 7C8 antigen in COS cells. ( ... but untransfected COS cells (−) and cells transfected with ... Figure 4: Expression of the 7C8 antigen in COS cells. (A) Homogenates of COS cells transfected with two of the pcDM8 expression ... Figure 4: Expression of the 7C8 antigen in COS cells. (A) Homogenates of COS cells transfected with two of the pcDM8 expression ...
PL*cos/sin)/*back*/,(W,UL-PB-PL*cos/sin),(W-PL-PB*sin/cos+G*sin/cos,UL-G),(PL+PB*sin/cos-G*sin/cos,UL-G),(0,UL-PB-PL*cos/sin)/* ... which takes the cell more raw material to produce) instead of U (hint: C can occasionally degrade to U)? DNA contains the ... PL*cos/sin)/*back*/,(W,UL-PB-PL*cos/sin),(W-PL-PB*sin/cos+G*sin/cos,UL-G),(PL+PB*sin/cos-G*sin/cos,UL-G),(0,UL-PB-PL*cos/sin)/* ... PL*cos/sin)/*right*/,(W,2*UL-PB-PL*cos/sin),(W-PL-PB*sin/cos+G*sin/cos,2*UL-G),(PL+PB*sin/cos-G*sin/cos,2*UL-G),(0,2*UL-PB-PL* ...
Three COS lines were created (COS-1, COS-3 and COS-7), of which two are commonly used (COS-1 and COS-7). The COS cell lines are ... COS are fibroblast-like cell lines derived from monkey kidney tissue. COS cells are obtained by immortalizing CV-1 cells with a ... The CV-1 cell line in turn was derived from the kidney of the African green monkey. The acronym "COS" is derived from the cells ... Cellosaurus entry for COS-1 Cellosaurus entry for COS-3 Cellosaurus entry for COS-7. ...
I need to know what kinds of membrane receptors are endogeneously @--, expressed on this cell line or COS-7 cells. @--, I would ... Along those lines, can anyone explain the difference between COS-1 and COS-7 cells? Im especially interested in receptors and ... receptors on COS cell membrane. :-Peter obrien at pharm.med.upenn.edu Thu May 9 09:48:53 EST 1996 *Previous message: receptors ... I am planning to work on signal transduction with COS-1 cell line. @--, ...
... Kevin Mulcahy K.Mulcahy at sheffield.ac.uk Fri Oct 25 09:33:10 EST 1996 *Previous ... I have recently stably-transfected COS-7 cells with cDNA cloned in the eukaryotic expression vector pREP9 (Invitrogen) which ... COS-7 cells in the presence of G418 so I cant see why the selection conditions would be incorrect. Therefore, I am at a loss! ... COS-7 cells with another cDNA cloned in another plasmid which confers resistance to hygromycin. Such a double-transfectant ...
Palmitoylation of bovine opsin and its cysteine mutants in COS cells. S S Karnik, K D Ridge, S Bhattacharya, and H G Khorana ... Palmitoylation of bovine opsin and its cysteine mutants in COS cells Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... Here we report on palmitoylation of bovine opsin in COS-1 cells following expression of the synthetic wild-type opsin gene and ...
GIBCO brand cell line is a clonal isolate (COS-7L) adapted to serum-free monolayer culture.. ... Every Step of the Way, a Wide Range of Cell Health Products. Maintaining healthy cells is the key to experimental success and ... Cell Culture / Growth Conditions,Protein Expression,Stable Cell Transfection,Transfection: Gene Expression,Transfection: Gene ... weve highlighted the technologies and products within cell biology that are critical to maintaining optimal cell health. No ...
"COS Cells" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "COS Cells" was a major or minor topic of these ... "COS Cells" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which ... Below are the most recent publications written about "COS Cells" by people in Profiles. ...
... October 7, 2013 - Articles Law360 By Levin V. Czubaroff Share This Page ... Levin V. Czubaraoffs article "The Takeaway From Penn Township For Cell Tower Cos." was published in the October 7, 2013 issue ... As seen in a recent Pennsylvania Commonwealth Court case, it is imperative for cell tower companies to prepare their expert ... The zoning process for constructing new cellular telecommunications towers is very controversial, and often times, cell tower ...
Intracellular dynamics of sst5 receptors in transfected COS-7 cells: maintenance of cell surface receptors during ligand- ... The preservation of cell surface receptors was confirmed by binding experiments on whole cells revealing a lack of saturability ... we characterized its internalization properties in transfected COS-7 cells using biochemical, confocal microscopic, and ... To elucidate the mechanisms regulating cell surface availability of the somatostatin (SRIF) receptor subtype sst5, ...
The culture of transformed African green monkey kidney cells featured in this section was labeled with Alexa Fluor 350 ... Sialic Acid Residue Distribution in COS-7 Cell Cultures - Similar to the culture of COS-7 cells presented in the digital image ... Transformed African Green Monkey Kidney Fibroblast Cells (COS-7 Line). The COS-7 cell line was derived by Yakov Gluzman in the ... COS-7 Cells with MitoTracker Red CMXRos, Alexa Fluor 488, and Hoechst 33258 - A culture of COS-7 fibroblasts was labeled for ...
... cells displayed in this section was immunofluorescently labeled with primary anti-tubulin mouse monoclonal antibodies followed ... View a smaller image of the African green monkey kidney (COS-7) cells. ... Transformed African Green Monkey Kidney Fibroblast Cells (COS-7). In contrast to quenching, photobleaching (also termed fading ... The culture of transformed African green monkey kidney (COS-7) cells displayed in the digital image presented above was ...
... this plate-based immunofluorescent assay was used to measure the response of COS-7 cells to hydroxyurea. ... Detecting phospho-p53 in COS cells in response to Hydroxyurea. In this In-Cell Western assay application, the response of COS-7 ... In-Cell Western™ Assay Application: Response of COS-7 Cells to Hydroxyurea. June 15, 2012. Cancer Research, IRDye Reagents, ... Odyssey Imaging Systems, Proteomics Applicationscell based assays, immunofluorescent assays, in-cell ELISA, licor odyssey ...
COS-7 cells were used in this study as they are a well-established model cell line for gene transfer research. Both pDMAEMA and ... COS-7 cells were incubated with pDMAEMA- or PEI-based polyplexes for 60 minutes at 4°C. Subsequently, the cells were incubated ... Cell Culture. COS-7 African green monkey cells were grown in DMEM (Gibco BRL, Breda, The Netherlands) supplemented with ... COS-7 cells were incubated with polyplexes in the absence and presence of a variety of endocytosis inhibitors. Cells were pre- ...
Cells derived from the simian kidney, COS-7 cells, were transfected with a eucaryotic expression vector (pEUK-C1) containing ... Expression and characterization of the intestinal Na+/glucose cotransporter in COS-7 cells.. Birnir, Bryndis Department of ... Neither control cells nor cells transfected with vector lacking cloned cDNA expressed the cotransporter. Na(+)-dependent MeGlc ... We conclude that the rabbit intestinal Na+/glucose cotransporter expressed in COS-7 cell exhibits very similar kinetic ...
Confocal laser scanning microscopic images of COS-7 cells expressing C580 Tiam1 (A), MS-C580 T ... Confocal images of COS-7 cells expressing mutant Tiam1 proteins. ... Here we show that both in fibroblasts and COS cells, membrane ... Confocal images of COS-7 cells expressing mutant Tiam1 proteins. Confocal laser scanning microscopic images of COS-7 cells ... Confocal images of COS-7 cells expressing mutant Tiam1 proteins. Confocal laser scanning microscopic images of COS-7 cells ...
Plant Extracts of Winter Savory, Purple Coneflower, Buckwheat and Black Elder Activate PPAR-γ in COS-1 Cells but do not Lower ... Although dose-dependent peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ activity could be shown in COS-1 cells, the experiments in ... dose-dependently activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ was determined in a reporter gene assay in COS-1 cells. ... mice lacked to confirm any anti-diabetic effect of the plant extracts in vivo and emphasizes the importance of verifying cell ...
Cytoplasmic volume of COS-7 cell. Value. 2400 µm^3 Range: Table - link µm^3 ... P.8918 right column bottom paragraph: HeLa and COS-7 cells expressing RFP fused to a nuclear localization signal were ... Thirty cells for each were imaged for differential interference contrast and fluorescence to measure the diameters of cells and ... Diameter and volume of cells and nuclei of HeLa and COS7 cell. ... Volume of COS-7 cell. Mammalian tissue culture cell. ID: 101666 ...
Analysis of molecular domains of epitope-tagged merlin isoforms in Cos-7 cells and primary rat Schwann cells. Xu L, Gonzalez- ...
Cultured meat cos agree to replace term clean meat with cell-based meat and form trade association. By Elaine Watson ... Cell-based meat cos: Please stop calling us lab-grown meat… and we dont use antibiotics in full-scale production ... We can help them transition from industrial animal agriculture to cell-based meat. Cell-based meat is a better label to bring ... Cell-based and plant-based meat companies assembled at the GFIs Good Food Conference at UC Berkeley last week. Related tags: ...
COS-7 kidney cells were transfected by a plasmid pEGFP-N1 plasmid followed by incubation for 15 hours for gen expression. At ... Multipixel spectral imaging of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in COS-7 cells: folding kinetics and chromophore formation ... Spectrally resolved imaging of Green fluorescent protein (GFP) expressed in living COS-7 kidney cells distinguished the ... different intervals the cells were examined by fluorescence microscopy and analyzed by a spectral imaging system. After 7 hours ...
Transport of purine nucleobases by COS-1 cells occurs via a nitrobenzylthioinosine-insensitive (ei) nucleoside transporter. ... Transport of purine nucleobases by COS-1 cells occurs via a nitrobenzylthioinosine-insensitive (ei) nucleoside transporter ... Transport of purine nucleobases by COS-1 cells occurs via a nitrobenzylthioinosine-insensitive (ei) nucleoside transporter ... Transport of purine nucleobases by COS-1 cells occurs via a nitrobenzylthioinosine-insensitive (ei) nucleoside transporter ...
Cell culture and transient transfection.. Monkey kidney COS-1 cells (from the European Collection of Cell Cultures) were grown ... Time course of human Na+-dependent vitamin C transporter hSVCT1 and hSVCT2 expression in COS-1 cells. A: COS-1 cells were ... Effect of PMA on the localization of hSVCT1 and hSVCT2 in COS-1 cells. COS-1 cells were transfected with either hSVCT1vh (A) or ... Expression and N-glycosylation of hSVCT1 and hSVCT2 in PMA-treated and nontreated transfected COS-1 cells. COS-1 cells were ...
... de Soft Cell descargas mp3 en 7digital España - Más de 25 millones de pistas de alta calidad en nuestra tienda ... Northern Lights / Guilty (Cos I Say You Are). Soft Cell Pre-escucha Northern Lights / Guilty (Cos I Say You Are)*16-bit FLAC ... Northern Lights / Guilty (Cos I Say You Are) (Remixes) Soft Cell 2018 Desde 4,49 € ... Guilty (Cos I Say You Are). Guilty (Cos I Say You Are) ... Northern Lights / Guilty (Cos I Say You Are). Descargas de ...
... whole cell lysate from Creative Biomart. COS-7 (African green monkey kidney) whole cell lysate can be used for research. ... COS-7 (African green monkey kidney) whole cell lysate. Download Datasheet See All COS-7 Products. Bring this labeled protein ... COS-7-386M)COS-7 (African green monkey kidney) whole cell lysate ... Other Cell Line. *COS-7 (African green monkey kidney) whole ... Cell lysate was prepared by homogenization in ice-cold modified RIPA Lysis Buffer with cocktail of protease inhibitors. Cell ...
Binding affinity for human androgen receptor transfected into mammalian COS-1 cells. ...
In contrast the PSSA-2 antigen on COS cells was stained very weakly by whole parasite antisera. Northern blot hybridization ... Fluorescent antibody staining of PSSA-1 transfected COS cells with a panel of procyclin-specific monoclonal antibodies ... Furthermore, the antigen on COS cells was insensitive to treatment with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C ... stage surface antigen cDNAs by transient expression in mammalian COS-7 fibroblasts and panning with a rabbit polyclonal ...
Stem Cell Research: Science: Biology: Wisconsin Technolgy Network: Governor Jim Doyles proposal to build a $375 million ... 10-year initiative to fund human embryonic stem cell research. ... Stem cells are so-called blank slate cells that may have the ... November 22, 2004: Headlines: COS - Tunisia: Politics: Medicine: Stem Cell Research: Science: Biology: Wisconsin Technolgy ... This story has been posted in the following forums: : Headlines; COS - Tunisia; Politics; Medicine; Stem Cell Research; Science ...
To characterize disease-causing mutations in the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) gene, COS cells are transfected with ... gene by overexpression in COS cells. Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskrift/Konferencebidrag i tidsskrift /Bidrag til avis › ... The receptor activity is measured by incubating the cells with fluorescence labeled LDL (Dil-labelled LDL) at 37 degrees C and ... Using antibodies against the LDL-receptor the amount of receptor protein on the cell surface is quantitated. ...
We have used 3 main methods to disrupt endocytosis in cells: use of inhibitory peptides, overexpression of protein domains and ...
We have demonstrated that monkey kidney (COS-1) cells have a single type of nucleobase transport process. The system is sodium- ... Hypoxanthine transport and transient expression of possible regulatory proteins in COS-1 cells ... Transfecting COS-1 cells with opossum kidney cDNA fractions resulted in similar to 70% inhibition of hypoxanthine influx ... Hypoxanthine transport and transient expression of possible regulatory proteins in COS-1 cells. International Congress Series, ...
Transient Expression in COS-1 Cells.. COS-1 cells cultured in DMEM with 10% FCS were transfected by the DEAE-dextran method (30 ... For further studies we selected a COS-1 cell clone with very low endogenous GRK expression (see below). In these intact cells, ... To measure phosphorylation of the HA-tagged PTH receptors in intact cells, transiently transfected COS-1 cells were labeled in ... The truncated receptor alone or in combination with GRK2-K220R was transfected into COS-1 cells, the cells were prestimulated ...
  • Thy-1, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked integral membrane protein of the immunoglobulin superfamily, is a component of both large dense-core and small clear vesicles in PC12 cells. (nih.gov)
  • Clone 112 expressed a protein that comigrated with the 7C8 antigen expressed by PC12 cells, but untransfected COS cells (−) and cells transfected with plasmid 11 did not. (nih.gov)
  • Cells from these lines are also often transfected to produce recombinant proteins for molecular biology, biochemistry, and cell biology experiments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hello All, What is the best way to extract expressed proteins from cos cells? (bio.net)
  • In primate cells, T-antigen usually controls SV40 DNA replication as well as the packaging of the virus into capsids, but in many other cells the protein binds to p53 and Rb proteins, which are important in the regulation of growth, essentially blocking their normal processes and resulting in the development of tumors. (fsu.edu)
  • Western blot and confocal microscopy analyses indicated that the total pool of hSVCT1 or hSVCT2 proteins expressed in the transfected COS-1 cells remained unaffected by PMA treatment. (physiology.org)
  • Further studies are required to clarify the nature of this inhibition, but the COS-1 expression system appears to be a useful tool for the possible identification of important regulatory proteins. (kent.ac.uk)
  • Surprisingly, in both COS-7 cells and hippocampal neurons, GKAP forms insoluble aggregates with Shank that colocalize with heat shock protein 70 and neurofilaments, two markers of the aggresomes in which misfolded proteins accumulate. (jneurosci.org)
  • However, the two proteins are organized in clusters in COS cells and synaptic clusters in neurons when both are overexpressed and associated with wild-type PSD-95, but not with palmitoylation-deficient PSD-95. (jneurosci.org)
  • The mutant apo A-I mRNA had a size similar to that of the normal mRNA, and both mutant and wild-type apo A-I proteins were secreted into the cell media. (ahajournals.org)
  • We used green flourescent protein-tagged SG-associated RNA-binding proteins (specifically, TIA-1 and poly[A] binding protein [PABP-I]) to monitor SG assembly, disassembly, and turnover in live cells. (rupress.org)
  • The localization of novel secretory and cell-surface proteins as determined by immunofluorescent staining, was confirmed by independent methods. (elsevier.com)
  • Watch as Chris Provost, of New England Biolabs, performs fluorescent imaging of live COS-7 cells expressing SNAP-tag ® fusion proteins. (nebiolabs.com.au)
  • Today we will show you a procedure for the fluorescent imaging of live COS-7 cells expressing SNAP-tag fusion proteins. (nebiolabs.com.au)
  • We use this procedure in our laboratory to study where proteins are localized in cells. (nebiolabs.com.au)
  • Cell interaction with adhesive proteins or growth factors in the extracellular matrix initiates Ras/ mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling. (rupress.org)
  • Inhibition of MAP kinase activity causes decreased MLCK function, MLC phosphorylation, and cell migration on extracellular matrix proteins. (rupress.org)
  • To obtain further insight into the Rh complex, we chose nonerythroid COS-1 cells instead of proerythroblast-like K562 cells, which produce endogenous Rh proteins as cell host, for the expression of both RhAG and RhD. (elsevier.com)
  • Human BMP-2 proteins are produced by culturing a cell transformed with a cDNA substantially as shown in Table II or Table III and recovering from the culture medium a protein containing the 97 amino acid sequence #299 to #396 of Table II or amino acid #311 to #408 of Table III, respectively. (google.com)
  • A growing family of regulatory proteins that deliver signals between cells of the immune system has been identified. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Simultaneous expression of both proteins has also been observed in HeLa cells, but in both proliferating and confluent cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Transfection of HEK-293 cells with Mdm2 siRNA qualified prospects to 98% knockdown of Mdm2 proteins (Fig. 3and and 0.01, control versus USP33, 2-method ANOVA. (biologycu.org)
  • In eukaryotic cells, only time consuming methods exist to study the topology of membrane proteins. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • The fusion proteins were expressed in E.coli and COS.M6 cells and immunoblot analyses and enzyme activity assays were performed to localize the protein domains in both cell types. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • Therefore, LacZ fusions can localize cytoplasmic loops in COS.M6 cells by means of a simple enzymatic assay with high reliability and may be used in future studies to develop topological models of other eukaryotic membrane proteins in their authentic cell systems. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • It is also often used to transfect cells to produce recombinant proteins for molecular biology, biochemistry, and cell biology experiments. (signagen.com)
  • The Cellular Imaging and Analysis brochure provides information on the labeling technologies offered by NEB for studying the function and localization of proteins in cells. (neb.com)
  • Characterization of the domains of hsp90 required to bind eNOS, using yeast 2-hybrid, cell-based coprecipitation experiments, and GST-fusion proteins, revealed that the M region of hsp90 interacts with the amino terminus of eNOS and Akt. (ahajournals.org)
  • Assigning functions to the vast array of proteins present in eukaryotic cells remains challenging. (nature.com)
  • The In-Cell Western™ Assay is an immunocytochemical assay that uses near-infrared fluorescence to detect and quantify proteins in fixed cells. (licor.com)
  • Proteins in fixed, cultured cells are detected directly in microplates, which yields higher throughput compared to Western blotting and eliminates typical Western blotting steps such as cell lysate preparation, electrophoresis, and membrane transfer. (licor.com)
  • The second is that hCTR2 couples to different G proteins for calcitonin and amylin function in different cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • PPP2R2A plays an important role in the modulation of the phosphorylation state of pocket proteins and mitotic CDK substrates throughout the cell cycle and in quiescent cells [ 18 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In this cell type, protein 4.1R stabilizes the spectrin-actin network and mediates the attachment of the underlying cytoskeleton to the overlaying lipid bilayer through interactions with lipids (phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate) [ 1 , 2 ] as well as with integral membrane proteins [ 3 ]. (portlandpress.com)
  • Subsequent studies showed that multiple immunoreactive 4.1R proteins, varying in size from 30 to 210 kDa, are present in nucleated cells [ 4 , 5 ]. (portlandpress.com)
  • Examples of such experiments include: Effects of a drug on sodium channels Inducible RNA interference system Isoform-selective protein kinase C agonist Interaction between two proteins Nuclear export signal in a protein A more specific use of HEK 293 cells is in the propagation of adenoviral vectors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells transfected with vector containing the cDNA for the Na+/glucose cotransporter expressed Na(+)-dependent MeGlc transport. (diva-portal.org)
  • Neither control cells nor cells transfected with vector lacking cloned cDNA expressed the cotransporter. (diva-portal.org)
  • Trypanosoma brucei cDNA libraries constructed in the vector pCDM8 were screened selectively for insect (procyclic) stage surface antigen cDNAs by transient expression in mammalian COS-7 fibroblasts and "panning" with a rabbit polyclonal antiserum. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Transfecting COS-1 cells with opossum kidney cDNA fractions resulted in similar to 70% inhibition of hypoxanthine influx suggesting the possible presence of genes within the library that act as apparent inhibitors of hypoxanthine transport. (kent.ac.uk)
  • Homogenates from COS cells transfected with the cDNA insert in the sense (S) but not the antisense (A) of the Thy-1 cDNA reacted with the 7C8 antibody. (nih.gov)
  • Transient expression of the mutant LCAT Fin cDNA in COS cells disclosed markedly diminished LCAT enzyme activity. (ahajournals.org)
  • The RhAG cDNA was subcloned into a retroviral vector, and a stable COS-1 cell line was then established via retroviral transduction. (elsevier.com)
  • Using the same strategy, however, we could not express RhD epitopes on COS-1 cells even in the presence of RhAG cDNA, suggesting that other factors might be required for the surface expression of RhD antigen. (elsevier.com)
  • Screening of cDNA libraries from the leukemia Jurkat cell line and from the adult human thymus resulted in the isolation of a novel protein of 793 amino acids (89,758 Da). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In this paper we describe the function of SLC19A3, another member of this transporter family most recently cloned, after transient transfection of the cDNA into HeLa cells. (chemweb.com)
  • In endothelial cells and cells transfected with the eNOS cDNA, eNOS behaves as a peripheral membrane protein that is regulated by the allosteric activator, calmodulin (CaM). (ahajournals.org)
  • We describe the expression cloning of the 125 I-AC512 binding site from an MCF-7 cell cDNA library and the subsequent identification of the gene products as previously classified CTRs ( 10 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • A) cDNA libraries from mouse embryos 9.5 to 10.5 days postcoitum or Jurkat cells were screened in yeast against the LexA-Eed bait construct as described in Materials and Methods. (asm.org)
  • This is an African green monkey kidney fibroblast-like cell line suitable for transfection by vectors requiring expression of SV40 T antigen. (thermofisher.com)
  • Because of this susceptibility, COS-7 cells have been utilized extensively in research, and the cell line is often an excellent choice for transfection experiments with recombinant plasmids. (fsu.edu)
  • The effects of several inhibitors of particular cellular uptake routes on the uptake of polyplexes and subsequent gene expression in COS-7 cells were investigated using FACS and transfection. (springer.com)
  • Transient transfection of GRKs with the PTH receptor into COS-1 cells inhibited PTH-stimulated inositol phosphate generation. (pnas.org)
  • Methodology: Forced expression of Hr by transfection decreased the number of apoptotic nuclei, levels of caspase-3activity, and cytosolic cytochrome C in COS cells exposed to staurosporine and tunicamyc in. (elsevier.com)
  • Caras, Ingrid W. / Determining subcellular localization of novel drug targets by transient transfection in COS cells . (elsevier.com)
  • To prepare COS-7 cells for transfection, trypsinize them according to standard protocols and add 50 to 100 microliters of cells to six milliliters of complete DMEM medium. (nebiolabs.com.au)
  • Refer to the following optimal transfection conditions for maximal transfection efficiency on both COS-1 and COS-7 cells. (signagen.com)
  • Cells were then assayed for inositol phosphate hydrolysis 48 h post-transfection. (elsevier.com)
  • Northern analyses of total cellular RNA prepared from COS-1 fibroblasts 65 h after transfection with pCMV-alpha or pCMV-beta or with both expression constructs showed marked specific increases in corresponding alpha and beta subunit RNAs. (umassmed.edu)
  • By cell proliferation assay and cell cycle analysis, we found that reintroduction of miR-136 by transfection, as well as PPP2R2A silencing, counteracted TGF- β -induced proliferation arrest in HaCaT cells. (hindawi.com)
  • HEK 293 cells have been widely used in cell biology research for many years, because of their reliable growth and propensity for transfection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Combined immunocytochemical detection of sst5 and visualization of a fluorescent SRIF analog by confocal microscopy revealed that whereas the internalized ligand progressively clustered toward the cell center with time, immunoreactive receptors remained predominantly associated with the plasma membrane. (nih.gov)
  • Due to the net positive surface charge these polyplexes efficiently bind to the cell through electrostatic interactions with negatively charged membrane components. (springer.com)
  • Macropinocytosis is a triggered process used by the cell to internalize large amounts of fluid and membrane. (springer.com)
  • Here we show that both in fibroblasts and COS cells, membrane localization of Tiam1 is required for the induction of membrane ruffling. (nih.gov)
  • For vitamin C to act inside cells, it must be first transported across the plasma membrane, and the transport of ascorbate into mammalian cells is mediated by Na + -dependent uptake systems ( 12 ). (physiology.org)
  • Membrane IgG H chains turn over considerably more rapidly than secretory Ig H chains in the 18-81 A2 pre-B cell line. (jimmunol.org)
  • Accelerated proteasomal degradation of membrane Ig H chains was also observed in transfected nonlymphoid cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • We have previously described a pre-B cell line in which the membrane form of the Ig H chain is rapidly degraded in a prelysosomal compartment, whereas the secretory form is relatively stable ( 35 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The process by which a cell receives and acts on some external chemical or physical signal, such as a hormone, including receiving the information at specific receptors in the plasma membrane, conveying the signal across the plasma membrane into the cell, and subsequently inducing an intracellular chain of other signalling molecules, thereby stimulating a specific cellular response. (ndif.org)
  • These data support a role for a non-genomic action for P4 in OTR signaling via some mechanism other than by binding to a membrane progestin receptor in an immortalized, transfected cell. (elsevier.com)
  • Cells transformed with pBT116 (Vector), LexA-Eed, and LexA-T1040C plasmids were grown overnight in selective medium, lysed in SDS sample buffer, electrophoresed, transferred onto a polyvinylidene difluoride membrane, and stained with anti-LexA rabbit serum followed by anti-rabbit immunoglobulin G-alkaline phosphatase conjugate. (asm.org)
  • Addgene: Analysis of molecular domains of epitope-tagged merlin isoforms in Cos-7 cells and primary rat Schwann cells. (addgene.org)
  • Investments of $105 million over the next five years in research, education, and public health efforts at the University of Wisconsin Medical School and the Medical College of Wisconsin to make progress in areas such as regenerative medicine, stem cell research, molecular medicine, neuroscience, and cancer research. (peacecorpsonline.org)
  • A strong band of the 32 kd on SDS-PAGE was obtained, corresponding to the results obtained from other cultured cells (K562 cell and others), which always produce partially glycosylated RhAG with a molecular weight of 32 kd. (elsevier.com)
  • Molecular Cell Biol. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The results showed that pretreated low molecular weight sulfated chitosan oligosaccharides inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO) and inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-α in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW264.7 cells. (mdpi.com)
  • The recombinant PDE4A expressed in COS cells had a molecular mass of approx. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The molecular mechanisms involved in the variations in TopoIIα expression depend on the cell type. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Molecular analysis of the putative tumour-suppressor gene EXTL1 in neuroblastoma patients and cell lines. (cancerindex.org)
  • We investigated the molecular basis of desensitization and trafficking of the CysLT 1 receptor constitutively and transiently expressed in the human monocyte/macrophage-like U937 or COS-7 cells in response to LTD 4 or nucleotides. (biologists.org)
  • To elucidate the mechanisms regulating cell surface availability of the somatostatin (SRIF) receptor subtype sst5, we characterized its internalization properties in transfected COS-7 cells using biochemical, confocal microscopic, and electron microscopic techniques. (nih.gov)
  • The preservation of cell surface receptors was confirmed by binding experiments on whole cells revealing a lack of saturability of [125I]Tyr0-D-Trp8-SRIF binding at 37 C. Binding was rendered saturable by the drug monensin, showing that receptor recycling played a key role in the preservation of cell surface receptors. (nih.gov)
  • The ability of extracts of winter savory, purple coneflower, buckwheat and black elder to dose-dependently activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ was determined in a reporter gene assay in COS-1 cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Although dose-dependent peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ activity could be shown in COS-1 cells, the experiments in db/db mice lacked to confirm any anti-diabetic effect of the plant extracts in vivo and emphasizes the importance of verifying cell culture data using an appropriate in vivo model. (biomedsearch.com)
  • To characterize disease-causing mutations in the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) gene, COS cells are transfected with the mutant gene in an EBV-based expression vector and characterized by flow cytometry. (au.dk)
  • The receptor activity is measured by incubating the cells with fluorescence labeled LDL (Dil-labelled LDL) at 37 degrees C and 4 degrees C. The transfected cells stained with anti-LDL-R antibodies can also be analysed by immunofluorescence microscopy allowing the study of the intracellular location of variants of the receptor. (au.dk)
  • Calnexin has been reported to bind unassembled B cell receptor complexes ( 14 , 15 , 32 , 33 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The cell-surface RAGE [receptor for AGE (advanced glycation end-products)] is associated with the development of diabetic vascular complications, neurodegenerative disorders and inflammation. (portlandpress.com)
  • In this study, we investigated the phosphorylation and compartmentalization of PLD1 in terms of CCh signaling in M3 muscarinic receptor (M3R)-expressing COS-7 cells. (elsevier.com)
  • To determine whether extracellular Bad can be delivered into cells via cell surface receptor binding and induce apoptosis, we genetically fused the mouse Bad gene to the gene for the translocation and receptor-binding domains of diphtheria toxin (DTTR). (aacrjournals.org)
  • These signaling pathways were totally inhibited by different specific CysLT 1 -receptor antagonists, and no CysLT 2 receptor mRNA was detected, which indicates that in U937 cells LTD 4 -induced responses can be totally ascribed to a CysLT 1 receptor. (biologists.org)
  • To further define this receptor, we report results of expression cloning studies from an MCF-7 cell library. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The first is that amylin is a weak agonist for hCTR2 and that this receptor is unrelated to the amylin receptor found in this cell line. (aspetjournals.org)
  • These data raise the possibility that these cells contain a human amylin receptor, and this information would be of value in the study of the role of amylin in human type II diabetes. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The receptor pharmacology of these gene products in various host cells is described, as are data to suggest a relationship between the hCTR and the responses of human systems to amylin. (aspetjournals.org)
  • African Green Monkey Kidney Fibroblasts with Fluorescein, Alexa Fluor 568, and DAPI - An adherent COS-7 culture was immunofluorescently labeled with primary anti-bovine alpha -tubulin mouse monoclonal antibodies followed by goat anti-mouse Fab fragments conjugated to fluorescein. (fsu.edu)
  • COS-7 Cells with MitoTracker Red CMXRos, Alexa Fluor 488, and Hoechst 33258 - A culture of COS-7 fibroblasts was labeled for mitochondria with MitoTracker Red CMXRos, and for the cytoskeletal filamentous actin network with Alexa Fluor 488 conjugated to phalloidin, a cyclic peptide derived from the toxic death cap fungus ( Amanita phalloides ). (fsu.edu)
  • However, mRNA recovery was observed in both cases, nearly a two-fold increase for Sanfilippo B fibroblasts with G418 and around 1.5 fold increase for Sanfilippo C cells with RTC14 and PTC124. (plos.org)
  • We report here that in an in vitro model for oxidative stress, H2O2 treatment, overexpression of TorsinA was protective against cell death. (fu-berlin.de)
  • Overexpression of ICBP90 in COS-1-transfected cells induced an enhanced expression of endogenous topoisomerase IIα. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cell lysate was prepared by homogenization in ice-cold modified RIPA Lysis Buffer with cocktail of protease inhibitors. (creativebiomart.net)
  • To confirm the results, we isolated RhAG by immuno-precipitation from the lysate of the COS-1 cells, which were metabolically labeled with [ 35 S]-methionine. (elsevier.com)
  • Rapid isolation and single-molecule analysis of ribonucleoproteins from cell lysate by SNAP-SiMPull RNA . (neb.com)
  • WB: Jurkat whole cell lysate ( ab7899 ). (abcam.com)
  • To give you confidence in the health of your cells every step of the way, we've highlighted the technologies and products within cell biology that are critical to maintaining optimal cell health. (thermofisher.com)
  • Tunisia: Politics: Medicine: Stem Cell Research: Science: Biology: Wisconsin Technolgy Network: Governor Jim Doyle's proposal to build a $375 million interdisciplinary research center on the UW-Madison campus is characterized as a response to California, where voters passed a $3 billion, 10-year initiative to fund human embryonic stem cell research. (peacecorpsonline.org)
  • The mRNA expression levels of the AAT genes were determined using Revearse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) and its secretion into the medium by both cell types was determined using ELISA. (ijbiotech.com)
  • This expression system possesses key properties that ensure its application in the delivery of therapeutic genes into mammalian cultured cells. (ijbiotech.com)
  • Northern blot analysis reveals that the ezh2 and eed genes are coexpressed in cell lines and mouse tissues. (asm.org)
  • Viruses offer an efficient means of delivering genes into cells, which they evolved to do, and are thus of great use as experimental tools. (wikipedia.org)
  • This danger can be avoided by the use of viruses which lack key genes, and which are thus unable to replicate after entering a cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to propagate such viral vectors, a cell line that expresses the missing genes is required. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since HEK 293 cells express a number of adenoviral genes, they can be used to propagate adenoviral vectors in which these genes (typically, E1 and E3) are deleted, such as AdEasy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intracellular dynamics of sst5 receptors in transfected COS-7 cells: maintenance of cell surface receptors during ligand-induced endocytosis. (nih.gov)
  • Mouse CD1d has also been found to control the function of a subset of T lymphocytes expressing receptors for NK cells (NKT cells) in a ligand-independent fashion that could be, however, augmented by the presence of glycosylceramides ( 8 , 9 , 10 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • All isolated cDNAs encode functional receptors because their transient expression in COS-7 cells resulted in a ligand-dependent increase in inositol phosphate production. (mendeley.com)
  • Since these mediators accumulate at sites of inflammation, and inflammatory cells express both classes of receptors, their responses are likely to be crossregulated. (biologists.org)
  • These receptors were characterized by expression in different surrogate host cell systems. (aspetjournals.org)
  • These consist of receptors on the surface of activated T cells and their corresponding ligands on the surface of antigen presenting cells. (cellsignal.com)
  • The USDA and the FDA will host a joint meeting on October 23-24, 2018 on cell-based meat - meat produced by culturing animal cells outside of an animal - to thrash out how the sector might be regulated and how such products should be described on food labels. (foodnavigator-usa.com)
  • Released: Sep 28, 2018, Soft Cell released Electronic album Northern Lights / Guilty ('Cos I Say You Are) [Remixes]. (photographerspoint.com)
  • Synth-pop pioneers Soft Cell reunited for one last time at London's The O2 on Sunday 30th September 2018 - their first UK show for 15 years. (resident-music.com)
  • After a 17-year hiatus, Soft Cell returned in 2018 for a sold out show at London's O2 Arena, and are currently working on new material. (resident-music.com)
  • COS cells are obtained by immortalizing CV-1 cells with a version of the SV40 virus that can produce large T antigen but has a defect in genomic replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • When an expression construct with an SV40 promoter is introduced into COS cells, the vector can be replicated substantially by the large T antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • These COS cells are genetically modified to produce the T antigen from their own genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The line was derived from the CV-1 cell line (ATCC CCL-70) by transformation with an origin defective mutant of SV40 which codes for wild type T antigen. (thermofisher.com)
  • CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). (harvard.edu)
  • The COS-7 cell line was derived by Yakov Gluzman in the early 1980s from the previously established CV-1 African green monkey kidney line by transformation of the normal cells with an origin defective mutant of simian virus 40 ( SV40 ) that codes for the wild-type virus T-antigen. (fsu.edu)
  • Cloning of a novel surface antigen from the insect stages of Trypanosoma brucei by expression in COS cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Furthermore, the antigen on COS cells was insensitive to treatment with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C suggesting that the inositol of the glycosylinositol phospholipid-lipid anchor contained the same fatty acyl modification reported recently for the procyclin molecule in cultured procyclic trypanosomes. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In contrast the PSSA-2 antigen on COS cells was stained very weakly by whole parasite antisera. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Expression of the 7C8 antigen in COS cells. (nih.gov)
  • To determine which of these two plasmids encoded the 7C8 antigen, we transfected each plasmid separately into COS cells, and probed Western blots of the cell homogenates with the 7C8 antibody. (nih.gov)
  • The COS cell line was obtained by immortalizing a cell line derived from kidney cells of the African green monkey with a version of the SV40 genome that can produce large T antigen but has a defect in genomic replication. (signagen.com)
  • This study is to identify the preferred vaccine dosage (of antigen and adjuvant) and schedule (one or two administrations) of the cell-derived H1N1sw monovalent vaccine in healthy adults b. (bioportfolio.com)
  • To investigate the relative importance of these sites, the enzyme was over-expressed in COS M9 cells, and Ser → Ala mutations were introduced singly, or in combinations, at nine known phosphorylation sites. (elsevier.com)
  • and (iii) sites 3a and/or 3b can be phosphorylated in COS cells by mechanisms that do not depend on phosphorylation of site 5. (elsevier.com)
  • Evidence is provided that MAP kinase (ERK1 and ERK2) influences the cells' motility machinery by phosphorylating and, thereby, enhancing myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) activity leading to phosphorylation of myosin light chains (MLC). (rupress.org)
  • In contrast, expression of mutationally active MAP kinase kinase causes activation of MAP kinase leading to phosphorylation of MLCK and MLC and enhanced cell migration. (rupress.org)
  • We show here that MAP kinase activation is required for haptotaxis cell migration on a collagen substrate based on its ability to directly phosphorylate MLCK leading to the phosphorylation of MLC. (rupress.org)
  • CCh treatment of COS-7 cells transiently co-expressing PLD1 and M3R stimulated PLD1 activity and induced direct phosphorylation of PLD1 by PKC. (elsevier.com)
  • The CCh-induced activation and phosphorylation of PLD1 was completely blocked upon pretreatment of the cells with PKC-specific inhibitors. (elsevier.com)
  • These results demonstrate that stimulation of endothelial cells with vascular endothelial growth factor recruits eNOS and Akt to an adjacent region on the same domain of hsp90, thereby facilitating eNOS phosphorylation and enzyme activation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Both pDMAEMA- and PEI-complexed DNA showed colocalization with fluorescently-labeled transferrin and cholera toxin after internalization by COS-7 cells, which indicates uptake via the clathrin- and caveolae-dependent pathways. (springer.com)
  • Na(+)-dependent MeGlc uptake into transfected cells was saturable (Km 150 microM), phlorizin-sensitive (Ki 11 microM), and inhibited by sugar analogs (D-glucose greater than MeGlc greater than D-galactose greater than 3-O-methyl-D-glucoside greater than D-allose much greater than L-glucose). (diva-portal.org)
  • Expression of hSVCT1 and hSVCT2 in X enopus laevis oocytes or HRPE or COS-1 cells resulted in uptake of ascorbate that was absolutely dependent on Na + ( 4 , 12 , 19 , 27 , 28 ). (physiology.org)
  • Treatment of rabbit nonpigmented ciliary epithelial cells with phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate, an activator of PKC, resulted in the inhibition of ascorbate uptake ( 12 ). (physiology.org)
  • Functional consequences of the mutation were examined by expressing the mutated and wild-type apo A-I cDNAs in COS-7 cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • The use of COS cells transfected with mutant cDNAs gave positive results for most of the mutations with some of the drugs, although to a different extent. (plos.org)
  • P.8918 right column bottom paragraph: 'HeLa and COS-7 cells expressing RFP fused to a nuclear localization signal were trypsinized, suspended in phosphate-buffered saline, and observed under an inverted microscope. (harvard.edu)
  • Transient expression in COS cells combined with immunofluorescent staining provides a semi-high throughput method for determining the subcellular localization of multiple targets in parallel. (elsevier.com)
  • In hippocampal neurons, IQ-ArfGEF/BRAG1 mRNA was localized not only at neuronal cell bodies but also at dendritic processes, indicating its dendritic transport and localization. (nih.gov)
  • This mutant also had a dominant negative effect on the growth inhibition of HaCaT cells and on the expression of p3TP-lux reporter gene induced by TGF-beta. (nih.gov)
  • To celebrate 40 years since the release of their first ever recording, Soft Cell are set to re-issue their seminal debut EP Mutant Moments. (resident-music.com)
  • For hSVCT1 the decrease in l -ascorbic acid correlated with a redistribution of the transporter from the cell surface to intracellular membranes. (physiology.org)
  • However, since fibrils form invaginations in cell membranes, small non-toxic IAPP fibrillar or amorphous accumulations could affect β-cell stimulus-secretion coupling. (chemweb.com)
  • We discuss the effects of varying this parameter in the context of improving gene delivery processes, such as serum stability and association with cell membranes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Transient expression of hCTR1 in COS cells yielded membranes that bound 125 I-AC512 and 125 I-salmon calcitonin with high affinity, but no high affinity binding was observed with 125 I-human calcitonin (hCAL) or 125 I-rAmylin. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In contrast, expression of hCTR2 in COS cells yielded membranes that bound 125 I-AC512, 125 I-hCAL, and 125 I-rAmylin with high affinity. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The culture of transformed African green monkey kidney cells featured in the digital image above was labeled with Alexa Fluor 350 conjugated to wheat germ agglutinin, a fluorescent lectin that selectively binds to sialic acid residues, which are found in both mucoproteins and glycoproteins. (fsu.edu)
  • Golgi Apparatus in African Green Monkey Kidney Cells - In this section, a culture of transformed African green monkey kidney (COS-7 line) cells is presented that was labeled with Alexa Fluor 488 conjugated to the lectin wheat germ agglutinin. (fsu.edu)
  • COS-7 kidney cells were transfected by a plasmid pEGFP-N1 plasmid followed by incubation for 15 hours for gen expression. (spie.org)
  • Human embryonic kidney cells 293, also often referred to as HEK 293, HEK-293, 293 cells, or less precisely as HEK cells, are a specific cell line originally derived from human embryonic kidney cells grown in tissue culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • HEK 293 cells were generated in 1973 by transformation of cultures of normal human embryonic kidney cells with sheared adenovirus 5 DNA in Alex van der Eb's laboratory in Leiden, the Netherlands. (wikipedia.org)
  • Graham and coworkers provided evidence that HEK 293 cells and other human cell lines generated by adenovirus transformation of human embryonic kidney cells have many properties of immature neurons, suggesting that the adenovirus preferentially transformed a neuronal lineage cell in the original kidney culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a consequence, HEK 293 cells should not be used as an in vitro model of typical kidney cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD1a, -b, and -c have been found on immature thymocytes, B lymphocytes, Langerhans cells, and activated monocytes whereas CD1d has been primarily located to epithelial cells and hepatocytes in addition to B lymphocytes and thymocytes ( 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Adenoviruses transform neuronal lineage cells much more efficiently than typical human kidney epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here we report on palmitoylation of bovine opsin in COS-1 cells following expression of the synthetic wild-type opsin gene and several of its cysteine mutants in the presence of [3H]palmitic acid. (pnas.org)
  • COS-7 cells are susceptible to SV40 ( tsA209 strain) at 40 degrees Celsius, and SV40 mutants with deletions in certain regions. (fsu.edu)
  • Expression of the most active mutants correlated with increased glycogen accumulation in the COS M9 cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Additionally, we expressed the three mutants in the COS-1 cells and compared their secretion rates and levels of AT activity with those of the wild-type (WT). (nih.gov)
  • While plant-based meat and dairy companies formed a trade association (the Washington DC-based Plant Based Foods Association ​ ​) in 2016, ​cell-based meat companies have not had a single point of contact with whom regulators at the FDA and the USDA and lawmakers on Capitol Hill can interact, noted Good Food Institute director of policy Jessica Almy during a panel debate on Friday. (foodnavigator-usa.com)
  • Cell 167 , 553-565.e12 (2016). (nature.com)
  • P.8919 left column top paragraph: 'The nuclear and cytoplasmic volumes of HeLa cells were 0.22 and 0.94 pl, respectively. (harvard.edu)
  • Based on experiments in various cell lines it is clear that the second-messenger-activated kinases PKC and PKA are involved in this process, but several findings suggest the presence of another component that might be GRK mediated ( 21 , 22 ). (pnas.org)
  • Rabbit skeletal muscle glycogenin, transiently expressed in COS cells, was found exclusively in the low speed supernatant fraction, with M r 37-38,000. (elsevier.com)
  • To investigate the effects of P4 on oxytocin (OT) signaling, cells were transiently transfected with the ovine OTR. (elsevier.com)
  • The acronym "COS" is derived from the cells being CV-1 (simian) in Origin, and carrying the SV40 genetic material. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1995). "Heterologous expression of rat liver microsomal glutathione transferase in simian COS cells and Escherichia coli" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells derived from the simian kidney, COS-7 cells, were transfected with a eucaryotic expression vector (pEUK-C1) containing the clone for the rabbit intestinal Na+/glucose cotransporter. (diva-portal.org)
  • The CV-1 cell line in turn was derived from the kidney of the African green monkey. (wikipedia.org)
  • I am planning to work on signal transduction with COS-1 cell line. (bio.net)
  • expressed on this cell line or COS-7 cells. (bio.net)
  • GIBCO brand cell line is a clonal isolate (COS-7L) adapted to serum-free monolayer culture. (thermofisher.com)
  • The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS). (harvard.edu)
  • Afterward, Sirion immediately moves into optimizing transduction conditions for your chosen cell line. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Once a cell line has been generated, knockdown levels are determined via qRT-PCR. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Two clones (B2C4 and B2D6) from the SP2/0 hybridoma cell line producing the IgG1κ m11-1F4 amyloid-reactive mAb were furnished to AERES Biomedical Ltd. (Mill Hill). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In line with preliminary studies we exposed cells to 10 µM, 50 µM, 100 µM, 1 mM, and 10 mM ketamine or xylazine. (nel.edu)
  • The purpose of this study was to assess whether a methanol extract isolated from the flower of Gentiana asclepiadea had potential cytotoxic or genotoxic effect on COS 1 (monkey kidney) cell line. (nel.edu)
  • After presumably adapting to tissue culture, cells from this clone developed into the relatively stable HEK 293 line. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the original adenovirus transformation was inefficient, suggesting that the cell that finally produced the HEK 293 line may have been unusual in some fashion. (wikipedia.org)
  • An embryonic adrenal precursor cell therefore seems the most likely origin cell of the HEK 293 line. (wikipedia.org)
  • Differential expression of TopoIIα according to the tumor tissue and to the cell type has been reported. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Beating heart surgery appears to decrease red blood cell haemolysis, and tissue damage during the operative procedures and thereby significantly decreases the risk of plasma iron overload associated with conventional bypass. (chemweb.com)
  • This event is cell- and tissue-specific and dependent on the growth and differentiation stages of the cell [ 24 - 30 ]. (portlandpress.com)
  • A comprehensive study of the genomes and transcriptomes of HEK 293 and five derivative cell lines compared the HEK 293 transcriptome with that of human kidney, adrenal, pituitary and central nervous tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rabbit skeletal muscle glycogen synthase expressed in COS cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Therefore, glycogenin interacts with glycogen synthase in the cell and redistributes the synthase to the soluble fraction. (elsevier.com)
  • We examined the involvement of the hairless (Hr) gene which has been suspected of having a role in cell cycle regulation and apoptosis in the hair follicle and is strongly regulated by the thyroidhorm one in the brain. (elsevier.com)
  • Hr expression lowered levels of p53, p53 mediated reporter gene activity, and lower levels of the pro-apoptoticBcl2 family member Bax in COS cells. (elsevier.com)
  • The results show that by employing a lentiviral vector, efficient genetic loading of CHO and COS-7 cells with the AAT gene was achieved. (ijbiotech.com)
  • We have extended in the first systematic study the PhoA/LacZ gene fusion system originally developed for E.coli for use in eukaryotic COS.M6 cells. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • Knockdown cell lines are particularly useful in gene function analysis, target discovery, target validation, assay development and compound screening. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Recently, the EXTL1 gene was suggested as a candidate neuroblastoma-suppressor gene and to evaluate this hypothesis, we performed 1p deletion analysis and mutation screening of the EXTL1-coding region on DNA from 22 primary neuroblastomas and 21 neuroblastoma cell lines. (cancerindex.org)
  • Deletions of the chromosome region 1p36.1, including the EXTL1 gene, were detected in several neuroblastoma cell lines and primary tumours. (cancerindex.org)
  • We conclude that the rabbit intestinal Na+/glucose cotransporter expressed in COS-7 cell exhibits very similar kinetic properties to that in the native brush border and to that expressed in Xenopus oocytes. (diva-portal.org)
  • He is a Rabbit aficionado (he has a dwarf rabbit named Peanut-who is the logo of Cos' Blog) and is a Golden Retriever connoisseur (he has two Goldens named Cassie and Chloe). (cosmelentertainment.com)
  • Skurat, AV , Cao, Y & Roach, PJ 1993, ' Glucose control of rabbit skeletal muscle glycogenin expressed in COS cells ', Journal of Biological Chemistry , vol. 268, no. 20, pp. 14701-14707. (elsevier.com)
  • Flow cytometric analysis of untreated SUP-M2 cells using PDL1 (E1L3N ® ) XP ® Rabbit mAb #13864 (blue) compared to concentration matched Rabbit (DA1E) mAb IgG XP ® Isotype Control #3900 (red). (cellsignal.com)
  • Ezh2 or Eed mRNAs were translated in a rabbit reticulocyte cell-free system in the presence of [ 35 S]methionine. (asm.org)
  • Thirty cells for each were imaged for differential interference contrast and fluorescence to measure the diameters of cells and nuclei, respectively. (harvard.edu)
  • At different intervals the cells were examined by fluorescence microscopy and analyzed by a spectral imaging system. (spie.org)
  • This transcription factor is involved in the Wnt signaling pathway, and it may function in hair cell differentiation and follicle morphogenesis. (avivasysbio.com)
  • This inhibition was specific to P4, because pre-treatment of cells with promegestone (R5020), testosterone, mifepristone (RU 486), or cortisol did not decrease OT-stimulated IP 3 levels. (elsevier.com)
  • IQ-ArfGEF/BRAG1 mRNA was abundantly expressed in the brain with higher levels in forebrain structures and cerebellar granule cells. (nih.gov)
  • Adult thymus, fetal thymus, fetal liver, and bone marrow, known as active tissues in terms of cell proliferation, are the tissues richest in ICBP90 mRNA. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In contrast, highly differentiated tissues and cells such as the central nervous system and peripheral leukocytes are free of ICBP90 mRNA. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cells were subjected to puromycin antibiotic selection leading to cell death of control cells and bulk cell cultures of transduced cells (A) . Cultures of the different transductants were analyzed for best mRNA knock down by qRT-PCR using SYBR ® Green I detection (B) showing that two sequences, shRNA #2 and shRNA #4, generated excellent silencing efficiencies of 95% and 94%, respectively. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Cytotoxic and genotoxic effect of methanolic flower extract from Gentiana asclepiadea on COS 1 cells. (nel.edu)
  • Cytotoxicity was determined using the proliferation (growth activity) and the plating efficiency (colony forming ability) assays after 24 hour incubation of COS 1 cells with different concentrations of methanolic flower extract from G. asclepiadea. (nel.edu)
  • The culture of transformed African green monkey kidney (COS-7) cells displayed in the digital image presented above was immunofluorescently labeled with primary anti-tubulin mouse monoclonal antibodies followed by goat anti-mouse Fab fragments conjugated to Cy3, targeting intracellular microtubules. (fsu.edu)
  • View a smaller image of the African green monkey kidney (COS-7) cells. (fsu.edu)
  • We have demonstrated that monkey kidney (COS-1) cells have a single type of nucleobase transport process. (kent.ac.uk)
  • For more uses of In-Cell Westerns Assays , visit our website. (licor.com)
  • For those of you that like to watch videos and listen to information, here is a great webinar on In-Cell Western Assays . (licor.com)
  • Watch an introductory webinar to In-Cell Western Assays. (licor.com)
  • Human recombinant AAT has been expressed in various yeasts, bacteria, animal and plant cells (Tamer and Chisti, 2001). (ijbiotech.com)
  • The present invention relates to a novel cytokine that stimulates the function of cells of the immune and hematopoietic systems, and to processes for obtaining the factor and producing it by recombinant genetic engineering techniques. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Asymmetric apportioning of aged mitochondria between daughter cells is required for stemness Science . (neb.com)
  • We therefore studied the intracellular trafficking of human CD1d in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) and COS cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • In this In-Cell Western assay application, the response of COS-7 cells to increasing doses of hydroxyurea was measured by a specific antibody ( Anti-phospho-p53 from Cell Signaling Technology, P/N 9286 ) that detects phosphorylated-p53 (Ser16). (licor.com)
  • A) Homogenates of COS cells transfected with two of the pcDM8 expression plasmids isolated from immunoreactive CHO cell clones were stained on a Western blot with the 7C8 antibody. (nih.gov)
  • Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP, amylin) is secreted from pancreatic islet β-cells and converted to amyloid deposits in type 2 diabetes. (chemweb.com)
  • Amylin is a peptide hormone that is synthesized and secreted from pancreatic β cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Two forms of COS cell lines commonly used are COS-1 and COS-7. (wikipedia.org)
  • The COS cell lines are often used by biologists when studying the monkey virus SV40. (wikipedia.org)
  • Along those lines, can anyone explain the difference between COS-1 and COS-7 cells? (bio.net)
  • Shares of companies developing stem cell therapies surged Wednesday on news that the federal government has cleared 13 new stem cell lines for testing, bringing to a close nearly a decade of restrictions. (gatech.edu)
  • The transgene AAT-Jred chimer was transferred to CHO and COS-7 cell lines using this vector and its expressions were visualized by fluorescent microscopy. (ijbiotech.com)
  • Packaging cell lines are not required. (selectscience.net)
  • Find tissues and cell lines supported by DNA array analysis to express LEF1 . (avivasysbio.com)
  • Generating these knockdown cell lines is most readily accomplished by using lentivirus harboring an shRNA of interest. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The customized cell lines, produced by Sirion, are based on Sigma's MISSION ® shRNA libraries, a highly functionally validated RNAi library developed by The RNAi Consortium (TRC). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Sirion then continues with an optimized transduction of the specific shRNA lentivirus clones, generating stable, knockdown cell lines after propagating under puromycin selection. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The cell lines, along with a comprehensive data sheet explaining the knockdown analysis and propagation instructions are sent directly to the customer to begin using immediately. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Three CHO dhfr -stable cell lines were transfected with a supervector DNA specifying the murine V H and V L and human C H and C L . The resulting c11-1F4 mAbs produced by these mammalian cells were harvested, purified, and tested for their capacity to interact with amyloid in several in vitro and in vivo experimental systems. (aacrjournals.org)
  • For more information on these plate-based fluorescent immunoassays, go to the In-Cell Western assay application page . (licor.com)
  • 5. The composition of claim 4 wherein said mammalian cell is CHO. (google.com)
  • Members of this family consist of two heavy chains (200 kD) and two sets of light chains (16-20 kD) and are widely distributed in eukaryotic cells. (rupress.org)