A species of gram-positive, asporogenous, non-pathogenic, soil bacteria that produces GLUTAMIC ACID.
A genus of asporogenous bacteria that is widely distributed in nature. Its organisms appear as straight to slightly curved rods and are known to be human and animal parasites and pathogens.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CORYNEBACTERIUM.
A species of gram-positive, asporogenous bacteria in which three cultural types are recognized. These types (gravis, intermedius, and mitis) were originally given in accordance with the clinical severity of the cases from which the different strains were most frequently isolated. This species is the causative agent of DIPHTHERIA.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A species of gram-positive, asporogenous bacteria that was originally isolated from necrotic areas in the kidney of a sheep. It may cause ulcerative lymphangitis, abscesses, and other chronic purulent infections in sheep, horses, and other warm-blooded animals. Human disease may form from contact with infected animals.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Methods and techniques used to genetically modify cells' biosynthetic product output and develop conditions for growing the cells as BIOREACTORS.
A bacteria isolated from normal skin, intestinal contents, wounds, blood, pus, and soft tissue abscesses. It is a common contaminant of clinical specimens, presumably from the skin of patients or attendants.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Mycolic acids are complex, long-chain fatty acids that are a major component of the cell wall of Mycobacterium species, including the causative agents of tuberculosis and leprosy, providing them with unique characteristics such as resistance to acid-alkali stability, pigmentation, and protection against host immune responses.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A gram-positive organism found in dairy products, fresh and salt water, marine organisms, insects, and decaying organic matter.
A dicarboxylic acid ketone that is an important metabolic intermediate of the CITRIC ACID CYCLE. It can be converted to ASPARTIC ACID by ASPARTATE TRANSAMINASE.
Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.
A naturally occurring compound that has been of interest for its role in osmoregulation. As a drug, betaine hydrochloride has been used as a source of hydrochloric acid in the treatment of hypochlorhydria. Betaine has also been used in the treatment of liver disorders, for hyperkalemia, for homocystinuria, and for gastrointestinal disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1341)
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
The study, utilization, and manipulation of those microorganisms capable of economically producing desirable substances or changes in substances, and the control of undesirable microorganisms.
A water-soluble, colorless crystal with an acid taste that is used as a chemical intermediate, in medicine, the manufacture of lacquers, and to make perfume esters. It is also used in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and a neutralizing agent. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p1099; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1851)
A localized infection of mucous membranes or skin caused by toxigenic strains of CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE. It is characterized by the presence of a pseudomembrane at the site of infection. DIPHTHERIA TOXIN, produced by C. diphtheriae, can cause myocarditis, polyneuritis, and other systemic toxic effects.
A species of CORYNEBACTERIUM isolated from abscesses of warm-blooded animals.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
Salts and esters of gentisic acid.
Diamino acids are a type of modified amino acids containing two amino groups, which can be found in various biological molecules and play important roles in various cellular processes, such as nitrogen fixation and protein synthesis.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Sets of enzymatic reactions occurring in organisms and that form biochemicals by making new covalent bonds.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
An enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of aspartic beta-semialdehyde to homoserine, which is the branch point in biosynthesis of methionine, lysine, threonine and leucine from aspartic acid. EC
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Benzoate derivatives substituted by one or more hydroxy groups in any position on the benzene ring.
An oxidative decarboxylation process that converts GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE to D-ribose-5-phosphate via 6-phosphogluconate. The pentose product is used in the biosynthesis of NUCLEIC ACIDS. The generated energy is stored in the form of NADPH. This pathway is prominent in tissues which are active in the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS and STEROIDS.
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.
The use of genetic methodologies to improve functional capacities of an organism rather than to treat disease.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of prephenate to phenylpyruvate with the elimination of water and carbon dioxide. In the enteric bacteria this enzyme also possesses chorismate mutase activity, thereby catalyzing the first two steps in the biosynthesis of phenylalanine. EC
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of (R)-2,3-dihydroxy-3-methylbutanoate to (S)-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-3-oxobutanoate in the presence of NADP. It is involved in the biosynthesis of VALINE; LEUCINE; ISOLEUCINE; pentothenate and COENZYME A. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC
A group of compounds that are derivatives of heptanedioic acid with the general formula R-C7H11O4.
Polysaccharides composed of repeating galactose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.
An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.
An important enzyme in the glyoxylic acid cycle which reversibly catalyzes the synthesis of L-malate from acetyl-CoA and glyoxylate. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The in vitro fusion of GENES by RECOMBINANT DNA techniques to analyze protein behavior or GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, or to merge protein functions for specific medical or industrial uses.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
In eukaryotes, a genetic unit consisting of a noncontiguous group of genes under the control of a single regulator gene. In bacteria, regulons are global regulatory systems involved in the interplay of pleiotropic regulatory domains and consist of several OPERONS.
An isomerase that catalyzes the conversion of chorismic acid to prephenic acid. EC
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
An aldotriose which is an important intermediate in glycolysis and in tryptophan biosynthesis.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A species of METHYLOPHILUS which is motile by single flagella. In addition to growth on methanol as a sole carbon source, growth also occurs on glucose. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
A key enzyme in the glyoxylate cycle. It catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate to succinate and glyoxylate. EC
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
An ADP-ribosylating polypeptide produced by CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE that causes the signs and symptoms of DIPHTHERIA. It can be broken into two unequal domains: the smaller, catalytic A domain is the lethal moiety and contains MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASES which transfers ADP RIBOSE to PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTOR 2 thereby inhibiting protein synthesis; and the larger B domain that is needed for entry into cells.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The bacterial sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) that catalyzes the transfer of the phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate to its sugar substrates (the PTS sugars) concomitant with the translocation of these sugars across the bacterial membrane. The phosphorylation of a given sugar requires four proteins, two general proteins, Enzyme I and HPr and a pair of sugar-specific proteins designated as the Enzyme II complex. The PTS has also been implicated in the induction of synthesis of some catabolic enzyme systems required for the utilization of sugars that are not substrates of the PTS as well as the regulation of the activity of ADENYLYL CYCLASES. EC 2.7.1.-.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of acetylphosphate from acetyl-CoA and inorganic phosphate. Acetylphosphate serves as a high-energy phosphate compound. EC
Glyoxylates are organic compounds that are intermediate products in the metabolic pathways responsible for the breakdown and synthesis of various molecules, including amino acids and carbohydrates, and are involved in several biochemical processes such as the glyoxylate cycle.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetolactate from 2 moles of PYRUVATE in the biosynthesis of VALINE and the formation of acetohydroxybutyrate from pyruvate and alpha-ketobutyrate in the biosynthesis of ISOLEUCINE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of mannose from a nucleoside diphosphate mannose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. The group includes EC, EC, EC, and EC

Evolutionary process of amino acid biosynthesis in Corynebacterium at the whole genome level. (1/403)

Corynebacterium glutamicum, which is the closest relative of Corynebacterium efficiens, is widely used for the large scale production of many kinds of amino acids, particularly glutamic acid and lysine, by fermentation. Corynebacterium diphtheriae, which is well known as a human pathogen, is also closely related to these two species of Corynebacteria, but it lacks such productivity of amino acids. It is an important and interesting question to ask how those closely related bacterial species have undergone such significant functional differentiation in amino acid biosynthesis. The main purpose of the present study is to clarify the evolutionary process of functional differentiation among the three species of Corynebacteria by conducting a comparative analysis of genome sequences. When Mycobacterium and Streptomyces were used as out groups, our comparative study suggested that the common ancestor of Corynebacteria already possessed almost all of the gene sets necessary for amino acid production. However, C. diphtheriae was found to have lost the genes responsible for amino acid production. Moreover, we found that the common ancestor of C. efficiens and C. glutamicum have acquired some of genes responsible for amino acid production by horizontal gene transfer. Thus, we conclude that the evolutionary events of gene loss and horizontal gene transfer must have been responsible for functional differentiation in amino acid biosynthesis of the three species of Corynebacteria.  (+info)

Purification and characterization of O-Acetylserine sulfhydrylase of Corynebacterium glutamicum. (2/403)

We highly purified O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase from the glutamate-producing bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum. The molecular mass of the purified enzyme was 34,500 as determined by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and 70,800 as determined by gel filtration chromatography. It had an apparent Km of 7.0 mM for O-acetylserine and a Vmax of 435 micromol min-1 (mg x protein)-1. This is the first report of the cysteine biosynthetic enzyme of C. glutamicum in purified form.  (+info)

BetP of Corynebacterium glutamicum, a transporter with three different functions: betaine transport, osmosensing, and osmoregulation. (3/403)

In order to circumvent deleterious effects of hypo- and hyperosmotic conditions in its environment, Corynebacterium glutamicum has developed a number of mechanisms to counteract osmotic stress. The first response to an osmotic upshift is the activation of uptake mechanisms for the compatible solutes betaine, proline, or ectoine, namely BetP, EctP, ProP, LcoP and PutP. BetP, the most important uptake system responds to osmotic stress by regulation at the level of both protein activity and gene expression. BetP was shown to harbor three different properties, i.e. catalytic activity (betaine transport), sensing of appropriate stimuli (osmosensing) and signal transduction to the catalytic part of the carrier protein which adapts its activity to the extent of osmotic stress (osmoregulation). BetP is comprised of 12 transmembrane segments and carries N- and C-terminal domains, which are involved in osmosensing and/or osmoregulation. Recent results on molecular properties of these domains indicate the significance of particular amino acids within the terminal 25 amino acids of the C-terminal domain of BetP for the process of osmosensing and osmoregulation.  (+info)

Acyl-CoA carboxylases (accD2 and accD3), together with a unique polyketide synthase (Cg-pks), are key to mycolic acid biosynthesis in Corynebacterianeae such as Corynebacterium glutamicum and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (4/403)

The Corynebacterianeae such as Corynebacterium glutamicum and Mycobacterium tuberculosis possess several unique and structurally diverse lipids, including the genus-specific mycolic acids. Although the function of a number of genes involved in fatty acid and mycolic acid biosynthesis is known, information relevant to the initial steps within these biosynthetic pathways is relatively sparse. Interestingly, the genomes of Corynebacterianeae possess a high number of accD genes, whose gene products resemble the beta-subunit of the acetyl-CoA carboxylase of Escherichia coli, providing the activated intermediate for fatty acid synthesis. We present here our studies on four putative accD genes found in C. glutamicum. Although growth of the accD4 mutant remained unchanged, growth of the accD1 mutant was strongly impaired and partially recovered by the addition of exogenous oleic acid. Overexpression of accD1 and accBC, encoding the carboxylase alpha-subunit, resulted in an 8-fold increase in malonyl-CoA formation from acetyl-CoA in cell lysates, providing evidence that accD1 encodes a carboxyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of malonyl-CoA. Interestingly, fatty acid profiles remained unchanged in both our accD2 and accD3 mutants, but a complete loss of mycolic acids, either as organic extractable trehalose and glucose mycolates or as cell wall-bound mycolates, was observed. These two carboxyltransferases are also retained in all Corynebacterianeae, including Mycobacterium leprae, constituting two distinct groups of orthologs. Furthermore, carboxyl fixation assays, as well as a study of a Cg-pks deletion mutant, led us to conclude that accD2 and accD3 are key to mycolic acid biosynthesis, thus providing a carboxylated intermediate during condensation of the mero-chain and alpha-branch directed by the pks-encoded polyketide synthase. This study illustrates that the high number of accD paralogs have evolved to represent specific variations on the well known basic theme of providing carboxylated intermediates in lipid biosynthesis.  (+info)

Identification of AcnR, a TetR-type repressor of the aconitase gene acn in Corynebacterium glutamicum. (5/403)

In Corynebacterium glutamicum, the activity of aconitase is 2.5-4-fold higher on propionate, citrate, or acetate than on glucose. Here we show that this variation is caused by transcriptional regulation. In search for putative regulators, a gene (acnR) encoding a TetR-type transcriptional regulator was found to be encoded immediately downstream of the aconitase gene (acn) in C. glutamicum. Deletion of the acnR gene led to a 5-fold increased acn-mRNA level and a 5-fold increased aconitase activity, suggesting that AcnR functions as repressor of acn expression. DNA microarray analyses indicated that acn is the primary target gene of AcnR in the C. glutamicum genome. Purified AcnR was shown to be a homodimer, which binds to the acn promoter in the region from -11 to -28 relative to the transcription start. It thus presumably acts by interfering with the binding of RNA polymerase. The acn-acnR organization is conserved in all corynebacteria and mycobacteria with known genome sequence and a putative AcnR consensus binding motif (CAGNACnnncGTACTG) was identified in the corresponding acn upstream regions. Mutations within this motif inhibited AcnR binding. Because the activities of citrate synthase and isocitrate dehydrogenase were previously reported not to be increased during growth on acetate, our data indicate that aconitase is a major control point of tricarboxylic acid cycle activity in C. glutamicum, and they identify AcnR as the first transcriptional regulator of a tricarboxylic acid cycle gene in the Corynebacterianeae.  (+info)

Molecular identification of the urea uptake system and transcriptional analysis of urea transporter- and urease-encoding genes in Corynebacterium glutamicum. (6/403)

The molecular identification of the Corynebacterium glutamicum urea uptake system is described. This ABC-type transporter is encoded by the urtABCDE operon, which is transcribed in response to nitrogen limitation. Expression of the urt genes is regulated by the global nitrogen regulator AmtR, and an amtR deletion strain showed constitutive expression of the urtABCDE genes. The AmtR repressor protein also controls transcription of the urease-encoding ureABCEFGD genes in C. glutamicum. The ure gene cluster forms an operon which is mainly transcribed in response to nitrogen starvation. To confirm the increased synthesis of urease subunits under nitrogen limitation, proteome analyses of cytoplasmic protein extracts from cells grown under nitrogen surplus and nitrogen limitation were carried out, and five of the seven urease subunits were identified.  (+info)

Integration of E. coli aroG-pheA tandem genes into Corynebacterium glutamicum tyrA locus and its effect on L-phenylalanine biosynthesis. (7/403)

AIM: To study the effect of integration of tandem aroG-pheA genes into the tyrA locus of Corynebacterium glutamicum (C. glutamicum) on the production of L-phenylalanine. METHODS: By nitrosoguanidine mutagenesis, five p-fluorophenylalanine (FP)-resistant mutants of C.glutamicum FP were selected. The tyrA gene encoding prephenate dehydrogenase (PDH) of C.glutamicum was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and cloned on the plasmid pPR. Kanamycin resistance gene (Km) and the P(BF) -aroG-pheA-T (GA) fragment of pGA were inserted into tyrA gene to form targeting vectors pTK and pTGAK, respectively. Then, they were transformed into C.glutamicum FP respectively by electroporation. Cultures were screened by a medium containing kanamycin and detected by PCR and phenotype analysis. The transformed strains were used for L-phenylalanine fermentation and enzyme assays. RESULTS: Engineering strains of C.glutamicum (Tyr(-)) were obtained. Compared with the original strain, the transformed strain C. glutamicum GAK was observed to have the highest elevation of L-phenylalanine production by a 1.71-fold, and 2.9-, 3.36-, and 3.0-fold in enzyme activities of chorismate mutase, prephenate dehydratase and 3-deoxy-D-arabinoheptulosonate-7-phosphate synthase, respectively. CONCLUSION: Integration of tandem aroG-pheA genes into tyrA locus of C. glutamicum chromosome can disrupt tyrA gene and increase the yield of L-phenylalanine production.  (+info)

Cometabolism of a nongrowth substrate: L-serine utilization by Corynebacterium glutamicum. (8/403)

Despite its key position in central metabolism, L-serine does not support the growth of Corynebacterium glutamicum. Nevertheless, during growth on glucose, L-serine is consumed at rates up to 19.4 +/- 4.0 nmol min(-1) (mg [dry weight])(-1), resulting in the complete consumption of 100 mM L-serine in the presence of 100 mM glucose and an increased growth yield of about 20%. Use of 13C-labeled L-serine and analysis of cellularly derived metabolites by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed that the carbon skeleton of L-serine is mainly converted to pyruvate-derived metabolites such as L-alanine. The sdaA gene was identified in the genome of C. glutamicum, and overexpression of sdaA resulted in (i) functional L-serine dehydratase (L-SerDH) activity, and therefore conversion of L-serine to pyruvate, and (ii) growth of the recombinant strain on L-serine as the single substrate. In contrast, deletion of sdaA decreased the L-serine cometabolism rate with glucose by 47% but still resulted in degradation of L-serine to pyruvate. Cystathionine beta-lyase was additionally found to convert L-serine to pyruvate, and the respective metC gene was induced 2.4-fold under high internal L-serine concentrations. Upon sdaA overexpression, the growth rate on glucose is reduced 36% from that of the wild type, illustrating that even with glucose as a single substrate, intracellular L-serine conversion to pyruvate might occur, although probably the weak affinity of L-SerDH (apparent Km, 11 mM) prevents substantial L-serine degradation.  (+info)

'Corynebacterium glutamicum' is a species of Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in the environment, particularly in soil and water. It is a facultative anaerobe, which means it can grow with or without oxygen. The bacterium is non-pathogenic and has been widely studied and used in biotechnology due to its ability to produce various amino acids and other industrially relevant compounds.

The name 'Corynebacterium glutamicum' comes from its discovery as a bacterium that can ferment the amino acid glutamate, which is why it has been extensively used in the industrial production of L-glutamate, an important ingredient in many food products and feed additives.

In recent years, 'Corynebacterium glutamicum' has also gained attention as a potential platform organism for the production of various biofuels and biochemicals, including alcohols, organic acids, and hydrocarbons. Its genetic tractability and ability to utilize a wide range of carbon sources make it an attractive candidate for biotechnological applications.

Corynebacterium is a genus of Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found on the skin and mucous membranes of humans and animals. Some species of Corynebacterium can cause disease in humans, including C. diphtheriae, which causes diphtheria, and C. jeikeium, which can cause various types of infections in immunocompromised individuals. Other species are part of the normal flora and are not typically pathogenic. The bacteria are characterized by their irregular, club-shaped appearance and their ability to form characteristic arrangements called palisades. They are facultative anaerobes, meaning they can grow in the presence or absence of oxygen.

Corynebacterium infections are caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Corynebacterium, which are gram-positive, rod-shaped organisms that commonly inhabit the skin and mucous membranes of humans and animals. While many species of Corynebacterium are harmless commensals, some can cause a range of infections, particularly in individuals with compromised immune systems or underlying medical conditions.

The most common Corynebacterium species that causes infection is C. diphtheriae, which is responsible for diphtheria, a potentially life-threatening respiratory illness characterized by the formation of a thick, grayish membrane in the throat and upper airways. Other Corynebacterium species, such as C. jeikeium, C. urealyticum, and C. striatum, can cause various types of healthcare-associated infections, including bacteremia, endocarditis, pneumonia, and skin and soft tissue infections.

Corynebacterium infections are typically treated with antibiotics, such as penicillin, erythromycin, or vancomycin, depending on the species of bacteria involved and the patient's medical history. In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to drain abscesses or remove infected tissue. Preventive measures, such as vaccination against C. diphtheriae and good hygiene practices, can help reduce the risk of Corynebacterium infections.

'Corynebacterium diphtheriae' is a gram-positive, rod-shaped, aerobic bacteria that can cause the disease diphtheria. It is commonly found in the upper respiratory tract and skin of humans and can be transmitted through respiratory droplets or direct contact with contaminated objects. The bacterium produces a potent exotoxin that can cause severe inflammation and formation of a pseudomembrane in the throat, leading to difficulty breathing and swallowing. In severe cases, the toxin can spread to other organs, causing serious complications such as myocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle) and peripheral neuropathy (damage to nerves outside the brain and spinal cord). The disease is preventable through vaccination with the diphtheria toxoid-containing vaccine.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

'Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis' is a gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, diphtheroid bacterium that is the causative agent of caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) in sheep and goats. It can also cause chronic, granulomatous infections in other animals, including horses, cattle, and humans. The bacteria are typically transmitted through contact with infected animals or contaminated environmental sources, such as soil or water. Infection can lead to the formation of abscesses in the lymph nodes, particularly in the head and neck region, as well as other organs.

In humans, 'Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis' infection is rare but can cause a variety of clinical manifestations, including chronic lymphadenitis, osteomyelitis, pneumonia, and septicemia. The disease is often referred to as "pseudotuberculosis" or "pigeon breast" in humans, due to the characteristic swelling of the chest that can occur with infection.

Diagnosis of 'Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis' infection typically involves the isolation and identification of the bacteria from clinical samples, such as pus or tissue biopsies. Treatment may involve surgical drainage of abscesses, along with antibiotic therapy. The choice of antibiotics depends on the severity and location of the infection, as well as the susceptibility of the bacterial strain.

Gene expression regulation in bacteria refers to the complex cellular processes that control the production of proteins from specific genes. This regulation allows bacteria to adapt to changing environmental conditions and ensure the appropriate amount of protein is produced at the right time.

Bacteria have a variety of mechanisms for regulating gene expression, including:

1. Operon structure: Many bacterial genes are organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule. The expression of these genes can be coordinately regulated by controlling the transcription of the entire operon.
2. Promoter regulation: Transcription is initiated at promoter regions upstream of the gene or operon. Bacteria have regulatory proteins called sigma factors that bind to the promoter and recruit RNA polymerase, the enzyme responsible for transcribing DNA into RNA. The binding of sigma factors can be influenced by environmental signals, allowing for regulation of transcription.
3. Attenuation: Some operons have regulatory regions called attenuators that control transcription termination. These regions contain hairpin structures that can form in the mRNA and cause transcription to stop prematurely. The formation of these hairpins is influenced by the concentration of specific metabolites, allowing for regulation of gene expression based on the availability of those metabolites.
4. Riboswitches: Some bacterial mRNAs contain regulatory elements called riboswitches that bind small molecules directly. When a small molecule binds to the riboswitch, it changes conformation and affects transcription or translation of the associated gene.
5. CRISPR-Cas systems: Bacteria use CRISPR-Cas systems for adaptive immunity against viruses and plasmids. These systems incorporate short sequences from foreign DNA into their own genome, which can then be used to recognize and cleave similar sequences in invading genetic elements.

Overall, gene expression regulation in bacteria is a complex process that allows them to respond quickly and efficiently to changing environmental conditions. Understanding these regulatory mechanisms can provide insights into bacterial physiology and help inform strategies for controlling bacterial growth and behavior.

Metabolic engineering is a branch of biotechnology that involves the modification and manipulation of metabolic pathways in organisms to enhance their production of specific metabolites or to alter their flow of energy and carbon. This field combines principles from genetics, molecular biology, biochemistry, and chemical engineering to design and construct novel metabolic pathways or modify existing ones with the goal of optimizing the production of valuable compounds or improving the properties of organisms for various applications.

Examples of metabolic engineering include the modification of microorganisms to produce biofuels, pharmaceuticals, or industrial chemicals; the enhancement of crop yields and nutritional value in agriculture; and the development of novel bioremediation strategies for environmental pollution control. The ultimate goal of metabolic engineering is to create organisms that can efficiently and sustainably produce valuable products while minimizing waste and reducing the impact on the environment.

Propionibacterium acnes is a gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterium that naturally colonizes the skin, predominantly in areas with a high density of sebaceous glands such as the face, back, and chest. It is part of the normal skin flora but can contribute to the development of acne vulgaris when it proliferates excessively and clogs the pilosebaceous units (hair follicles).

The bacterium metabolizes sebum, producing propionic acid and other short-chain fatty acids as byproducts. In acne, these byproducts can cause an inflammatory response in the skin, leading to the formation of papules, pustules, and nodules. Propionibacterium acnes has also been implicated in various other skin conditions and occasionally in opportunistic infections in other parts of the body, particularly in immunocompromised individuals or following surgical procedures.

A bacterial gene is a segment of DNA (or RNA in some viruses) that contains the genetic information necessary for the synthesis of a functional bacterial protein or RNA molecule. These genes are responsible for encoding various characteristics and functions of bacteria such as metabolism, reproduction, and resistance to antibiotics. They can be transmitted between bacteria through horizontal gene transfer mechanisms like conjugation, transformation, and transduction. Bacterial genes are often organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that the term "bacterial gene" is used to describe genetic elements found in bacteria, but not all genetic elements in bacteria are considered genes. For example, some DNA sequences may not encode functional products and are therefore not considered genes. Additionally, some bacterial genes may be plasmid-borne or phage-borne, rather than being located on the bacterial chromosome.

Gene deletion is a type of mutation where a segment of DNA, containing one or more genes, is permanently lost or removed from a chromosome. This can occur due to various genetic mechanisms such as homologous recombination, non-homologous end joining, or other types of genomic rearrangements.

The deletion of a gene can have varying effects on the organism, depending on the function of the deleted gene and its importance for normal physiological processes. If the deleted gene is essential for survival, the deletion may result in embryonic lethality or developmental abnormalities. However, if the gene is non-essential or has redundant functions, the deletion may not have any noticeable effects on the organism's phenotype.

Gene deletions can also be used as a tool in genetic research to study the function of specific genes and their role in various biological processes. For example, researchers may use gene deletion techniques to create genetically modified animal models to investigate the impact of gene deletion on disease progression or development.

Mycolic acids are complex, long-chain fatty acids that are a major component of the cell wall in mycobacteria, including the bacteria responsible for tuberculosis and leprosy. These acids contribute to the impermeability and resistance to chemical agents of the mycobacterial cell wall, making these organisms difficult to eradicate. Mycolic acids are unique to mycobacteria and some related actinomycetes, and their analysis can be useful in the identification and classification of these bacteria.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

Brevibacterium is a genus of Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in nature, particularly in soil, water, and various types of decaying organic matter. Some species of Brevibacterium can also be found on the skin of animals and humans, where they play a role in the production of body odor.

Brevibacterium species are known for their ability to produce a variety of enzymes that allow them to break down complex organic compounds into simpler molecules. This makes them useful in a number of industrial applications, such as the production of cheese and other fermented foods, as well as in the bioremediation of contaminated environments.

In medical contexts, Brevibacterium species are rarely associated with human disease. However, there have been occasional reports of infections caused by these bacteria, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems or who have undergone surgical procedures. These infections can include bacteremia (bloodstream infections), endocarditis (inflammation of the heart valves), and soft tissue infections. Treatment typically involves the use of antibiotics that are effective against Gram-positive bacteria, such as vancomycin or teicoplanin.

Oxaloacetic acid is a chemical compound that plays a significant role in the Krebs cycle, also known as the citric acid cycle. It is a key metabolic intermediate in both glucose and fatty acid catabolism. Oxaloacetic acid is a four-carbon carboxylic acid that has two carboxyl groups and one ketone group.

In the Krebs cycle, oxaloacetic acid reacts with acetyl-CoA (an activated form of acetic acid) to form citric acid, releasing CoA and initiating the cycle. Throughout the cycle, oxaloacetic acid is continuously regenerated from malate, another intermediate in the cycle.

Additionally, oxaloacetic acid plays a role in amino acid metabolism as it can accept an amino group (NH3) to form aspartic acid, which is an essential component of several biochemical processes, including protein synthesis and the urea cycle.

Biotechnology is defined in the medical field as a branch of technology that utilizes biological processes, organisms, or systems to create products that are technologically useful. This can include various methods and techniques such as genetic engineering, cell culture, fermentation, and others. The goal of biotechnology is to harness the power of biology to produce drugs, vaccines, diagnostic tests, biofuels, and other industrial products, as well as to advance our understanding of living systems for medical and scientific research.

The use of biotechnology has led to significant advances in medicine, including the development of new treatments for genetic diseases, improved methods for diagnosing illnesses, and the creation of vaccines to prevent infectious diseases. However, it also raises ethical and societal concerns related to issues such as genetic modification of organisms, cloning, and biosecurity.

Betaine, also known as trimethylglycine, is a naturally occurring compound that can be found in various foods such as beets, spinach, and whole grains. In the body, betaine functions as an osmolyte, helping to regulate water balance in cells, and as a methyl donor, contributing to various metabolic processes including the conversion of homocysteine to methionine.

In medical terms, betaine is also used as a dietary supplement and medication. Betaine hydrochloride is a form of betaine that is sometimes used as a supplement to help with digestion by providing additional stomach acid. Betaine anhydrous, on the other hand, is often used as a supplement for improving athletic performance and promoting liver health.

Betaine has also been studied for its potential role in protecting against various diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and neurological disorders. However, more research is needed to fully understand its mechanisms of action and therapeutic potential.

An operon is a genetic unit in prokaryotic organisms (like bacteria) consisting of a cluster of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule, which then undergoes translation to produce multiple proteins. This genetic organization allows for the coordinated regulation of genes that are involved in the same metabolic pathway or functional process. The unit typically includes promoter and operator regions that control the transcription of the operon, as well as structural genes encoding the proteins. Operons were first discovered in bacteria, but similar genetic organizations have been found in some eukaryotic organisms, such as yeast.

Lysine is an essential amino acid, which means that it cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through the diet. Its chemical formula is (2S)-2,6-diaminohexanoic acid. Lysine is necessary for the growth and maintenance of tissues in the body, and it plays a crucial role in the production of enzymes, hormones, and antibodies. It is also essential for the absorption of calcium and the formation of collagen, which is an important component of bones and connective tissue. Foods that are good sources of lysine include meat, poultry, fish, eggs, and dairy products.

Industrial microbiology is not strictly a medical definition, but it is a branch of microbiology that deals with the use of microorganisms for the production of various industrial and commercial products. In a broader sense, it can include the study of microorganisms that are involved in diseases of animals, humans, and plants, as well as those that are beneficial in industrial processes.

In the context of medical microbiology, industrial microbiology may involve the use of microorganisms to produce drugs, vaccines, or other therapeutic agents. For example, certain bacteria and yeasts are used to ferment sugars and produce antibiotics, while other microorganisms are used to create vaccines through a process called attenuation.

Industrial microbiology may also involve the study of microorganisms that can cause contamination in medical settings, such as hospitals or pharmaceutical manufacturing facilities. These microorganisms can cause infections and pose a risk to patients or workers, so it is important to understand their behavior and develop strategies for controlling their growth and spread.

Overall, industrial microbiology plays an important role in the development of new medical technologies and therapies, as well as in ensuring the safety and quality of medical products and environments.

Succinic acid, also known as butanedioic acid, is an organic compound with the chemical formula HOOC(CH2)2COOH. It is a white crystalline powder that is soluble in water and has a slightly acerbic taste. In medicine, succinic acid is not used as a treatment for any specific condition. However, it is a naturally occurring substance found in the body and plays a role in the citric acid cycle, which is a key process in energy production within cells. It can also be found in some foods and is used in the manufacturing of various products such as pharmaceuticals, resins, and perfumes.

Diphtheria is a serious bacterial infection caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It typically affects the respiratory system, including the nose, throat, and windpipe (trachea), causing a thick gray or white membrane to form over the lining of these areas. This can lead to breathing difficulties, heart complications, and neurological problems if left untreated.

The bacteria can also produce a powerful toxin that can cause damage to other organs in the body. Diphtheria is usually spread through respiratory droplets from an infected person's cough or sneeze, or by contact with contaminated objects or surfaces. The disease is preventable through vaccination.

Corynebacterium pyogenes is a gram-positive, catalase-positive, non-motile, and non-spore-forming rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in the respiratory tract and on the skin of animals. It can cause purulent infections such as abscesses, mastitis, pneumonia, and septicemia in various animal species, including cattle, sheep, goats, and swine.

In humans, Corynebacterium pyogenes is considered a rare cause of infection, and it has been isolated from cases of endocarditis, meningitis, and soft tissue infections. However, its clinical significance in human infections remains unclear, and further studies are needed to establish its role as a human pathogen.

It's important to note that Corynebacterium pyogenes is different from Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A streptococcus), which is a major human pathogen causing various infections such as pharyngitis, impetigo, and necrotizing fasciitis.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

A genetic complementation test is a laboratory procedure used in molecular genetics to determine whether two mutated genes can complement each other's function, indicating that they are located at different loci and represent separate alleles. This test involves introducing a normal or wild-type copy of one gene into a cell containing a mutant version of the same gene, and then observing whether the presence of the normal gene restores the normal function of the mutated gene. If the introduction of the normal gene results in the restoration of the normal phenotype, it suggests that the two genes are located at different loci and can complement each other's function. However, if the introduction of the normal gene does not restore the normal phenotype, it suggests that the two genes are located at the same locus and represent different alleles of the same gene. This test is commonly used to map genes and identify genetic interactions in a variety of organisms, including bacteria, yeast, and animals.

Genetic engineering, also known as genetic modification, is a scientific process where the DNA or genetic material of an organism is manipulated to bring about a change in its characteristics. This is typically done by inserting specific genes into the organism's genome using various molecular biology techniques. These new genes may come from the same species (cisgenesis) or a different species (transgenesis). The goal is to produce a desired trait, such as resistance to pests, improved nutritional content, or increased productivity. It's widely used in research, medicine, and agriculture. However, it's important to note that the use of genetically engineered organisms can raise ethical, environmental, and health concerns.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Gentisates" does not appear to be a recognized term in medical or physiological sciences. It is possible that you may have misspelled or misremembered the term. If you meant "Gentiates," then it refers to a class of enzymes (also known as beta-galactosidases) that can break down certain complex carbohydrates, such as the disaccharide melibiose into galactose and glucose. However, I would recommend double-checking the spelling or context to ensure you have the correct term, as my response is based on the assumption that "Gentiates" was the intended word.

Diamino acids are a type of modified amino acids that contain two amino groups (-NH2) in their side chain. In regular amino acids, the side chain is composed of a specific arrangement of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and sometimes sulfur atoms. However, in diamino acids, one or both of the hydrogen atoms attached to the central carbon atom (alpha carbon) are replaced by amino groups.

There are two types of diamino acids: symmetric and asymmetric. Symmetric diamino acids have identical side chains on both sides of the alpha carbon atom, while asymmetric diamino acids have different side chains on each side.

Diamino acids play a crucial role in various biological processes, such as protein synthesis, cell signaling, and neurotransmission. They can be found naturally in some proteins or can be synthesized artificially for use in research and medical applications.

It is important to note that diamino acids are not one of the twenty standard amino acids that make up proteins. Instead, they are considered non-proteinogenic amino acids, which means they are not typically encoded by DNA and are not directly involved in protein synthesis. However, some modified forms of diamino acids can be found in certain proteins as a result of post-translational modifications.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Biosynthetic pathways refer to the series of biochemical reactions that occur within cells and living organisms, leading to the production (synthesis) of complex molecules from simpler precursors. These pathways involve a sequence of enzyme-catalyzed reactions, where each reaction builds upon the product of the previous one, ultimately resulting in the formation of a specific biomolecule.

Examples of biosynthetic pathways include:

1. The Krebs cycle (citric acid cycle) - an essential metabolic pathway that generates energy through the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.
2. Glycolysis - a process that breaks down glucose into pyruvate to generate ATP and NADH.
3. Gluconeogenesis - the synthesis of glucose from non-carbohydrate precursors such as lactate, pyruvate, glycerol, and certain amino acids.
4. Fatty acid synthesis - a process that produces fatty acids from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA through a series of reduction reactions.
5. Amino acid synthesis - the production of various amino acids from simpler precursors, often involving intermediates in central metabolic pathways like the Krebs cycle or glycolysis.
6. Steroid biosynthesis - the formation of steroids from simple precursors such as cholesterol and its derivatives.
7. Terpenoid biosynthesis - the production of terpenes, terpenoids, and sterols from isoprene units (isopentenyl pyrophosphate).
8. Nucleotide synthesis - the generation of nucleotides, the building blocks of DNA and RNA, through complex biochemical pathways involving various precursors and cofactors.

Understanding biosynthetic pathways is crucial for comprehending cellular metabolism, developing drugs that target specific metabolic processes, and engineering organisms with desired traits in synthetic biology and metabolic engineering applications.

Molecular cloning is a laboratory technique used to create multiple copies of a specific DNA sequence. This process involves several steps:

1. Isolation: The first step in molecular cloning is to isolate the DNA sequence of interest from the rest of the genomic DNA. This can be done using various methods such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, or hybridization.
2. Vector construction: Once the DNA sequence of interest has been isolated, it must be inserted into a vector, which is a small circular DNA molecule that can replicate independently in a host cell. Common vectors used in molecular cloning include plasmids and phages.
3. Transformation: The constructed vector is then introduced into a host cell, usually a bacterial or yeast cell, through a process called transformation. This can be done using various methods such as electroporation or chemical transformation.
4. Selection: After transformation, the host cells are grown in selective media that allow only those cells containing the vector to grow. This ensures that the DNA sequence of interest has been successfully cloned into the vector.
5. Amplification: Once the host cells have been selected, they can be grown in large quantities to amplify the number of copies of the cloned DNA sequence.

Molecular cloning is a powerful tool in molecular biology and has numerous applications, including the production of recombinant proteins, gene therapy, functional analysis of genes, and genetic engineering.

Homoserine dehydrogenase is an enzyme involved in the metabolism of certain amino acids. Specifically, it catalyzes the conversion of homoserine to aspartate semialdehyde, which is a key step in the biosynthesis of several essential amino acids, including threonine, methionine, and isoleucine. The reaction catalyzed by homoserine dehydrogenase involves the oxidation of homoserine to form aspartate semialdehyde, using NAD or NADP as a cofactor. There are several isoforms of this enzyme found in different organisms, and it has been studied extensively due to its importance in amino acid metabolism and potential as a target for antibiotic development.

A bacterial genome is the complete set of genetic material, including both DNA and RNA, found within a single bacterium. It contains all the hereditary information necessary for the bacterium to grow, reproduce, and survive in its environment. The bacterial genome typically includes circular chromosomes, as well as plasmids, which are smaller, circular DNA molecules that can carry additional genes. These genes encode various functional elements such as enzymes, structural proteins, and regulatory sequences that determine the bacterium's characteristics and behavior.

Bacterial genomes vary widely in size, ranging from around 130 kilobases (kb) in Mycoplasma genitalium to over 14 megabases (Mb) in Sorangium cellulosum. The complete sequencing and analysis of bacterial genomes have provided valuable insights into the biology, evolution, and pathogenicity of bacteria, enabling researchers to better understand their roles in various diseases and potential applications in biotechnology.

Bacterial RNA refers to the genetic material present in bacteria that is composed of ribonucleic acid (RNA). Unlike higher organisms, bacteria contain a single circular chromosome made up of DNA, along with smaller circular pieces of DNA called plasmids. These bacterial genetic materials contain the information necessary for the growth and reproduction of the organism.

Bacterial RNA can be divided into three main categories: messenger RNA (mRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), and transfer RNA (tRNA). mRNA carries genetic information copied from DNA, which is then translated into proteins by the rRNA and tRNA molecules. rRNA is a structural component of the ribosome, where protein synthesis occurs, while tRNA acts as an adapter that brings amino acids to the ribosome during protein synthesis.

Bacterial RNA plays a crucial role in various cellular processes, including gene expression, protein synthesis, and regulation of metabolic pathways. Understanding the structure and function of bacterial RNA is essential for developing new antibiotics and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

Culture media is a substance that is used to support the growth of microorganisms or cells in an artificial environment, such as a petri dish or test tube. It typically contains nutrients and other factors that are necessary for the growth and survival of the organisms being cultured. There are many different types of culture media, each with its own specific formulation and intended use. Some common examples include blood agar, which is used to culture bacteria; Sabouraud dextrose agar, which is used to culture fungi; and Eagle's minimum essential medium, which is used to culture animal cells.

Hydroxybenzoates are the salts or esters of hydroxybenzoic acids. They are commonly used as preservatives in food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products due to their antimicrobial and antifungal properties. The most common examples include methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, and butylparaben. These compounds work by inhibiting the growth of bacteria and fungi, thereby increasing the shelf life and safety of various products. However, there has been some concern about their potential health effects, including possible hormonal disruption, and their use in certain applications is being re-evaluated.

The Pentose Phosphate Pathway (also known as the Hexose Monophosphate Shunt or HMP Shunt) is a metabolic pathway that runs parallel to glycolysis. It serves two major functions:

1. Providing reducing equivalents in the form of NADPH for reductive biosynthesis and detoxification processes.
2. Generating ribose-5-phosphate, a pentose sugar used in the synthesis of nucleotides and nucleic acids (DNA and RNA).

This pathway begins with the oxidation of glucose-6-phosphate to form 6-phosphogluconolactone, catalyzed by the enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. The resulting NADPH is used in various anabolic reactions and antioxidant defense systems.

The Pentose Phosphate Pathway also includes a series of reactions called the non-oxidative branch, which interconverts various sugars to meet cellular needs for different types of monosaccharides. These conversions are facilitated by several enzymes including transketolase and transaldolase.

Metabolic networks and pathways refer to the complex interconnected series of biochemical reactions that occur within cells to maintain life. These reactions are catalyzed by enzymes and are responsible for the conversion of nutrients into energy, as well as the synthesis and breakdown of various molecules required for cellular function.

A metabolic pathway is a series of chemical reactions that occur in a specific order, with each reaction being catalyzed by a different enzyme. These pathways are often interconnected, forming a larger network of interactions known as a metabolic network.

Metabolic networks can be represented as complex diagrams or models, which show the relationships between different pathways and the flow of matter and energy through the system. These networks can help researchers to understand how cells regulate their metabolism in response to changes in their environment, and how disruptions to these networks can lead to disease.

Some common examples of metabolic pathways include glycolysis, the citric acid cycle (also known as the Krebs cycle), and the pentose phosphate pathway. Each of these pathways plays a critical role in maintaining cellular homeostasis and providing energy for cellular functions.

Genetic enhancement is not a term that is widely used in the medical community, and its definition can vary depending on the context. However, in general, genetic enhancement refers to the use of genetic engineering technologies to modify or improve certain traits or characteristics beyond their normal range for the purpose of improving an individual's capabilities, performance, or appearance. This may involve altering the genes of embryos, sperm, eggs, or adult cells to create individuals with enhanced physical, cognitive, or behavioral abilities.

It is important to note that genetic enhancement is a controversial topic and is not currently practiced in humans due to ethical concerns and scientific limitations. While some argue that genetic enhancement could lead to significant benefits for society, such as improved health, intelligence, and athletic performance, others worry about the potential risks and negative consequences, including increased inequality, loss of individuality, and unintended health effects.

Prephenate Dehydratase is not a medical term per se, but rather a biochemical term. It's a type of enzyme involved in the metabolic pathway known as the shikimate pathway, which is responsible for the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids in bacteria, fungi, and plants.

Prephenate Dehydratase specifically catalyzes the conversion of prephenate to phenylpyruvate and water in this pathway. This reaction is a key step in the synthesis of phenylalanine, one of the aromatic amino acids.

In a medical context, understanding the function of Prephenate Dehydratase may be relevant in fields such as microbiology or plant biochemistry, but it does not have direct clinical significance for human health diagnoses or treatments.

Ketol-acid reductoisomerase (KARI) is an enzyme involved in the second step of the heterofuran biosynthesis pathway. It catalyzes the conversion of 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptonic acid (KDHA) to 2,3,4-trihydroxy-heptanoic acid (THHA) through an intermediate ketol form. This enzyme is important for the biosynthesis of certain antibiotics and other natural products. The reaction catalyzed by KARI involves the reduction of a keto group to a hydroxyl group, as well as the isomerization of the carbonyl group.

Ketol-acid reductoisomerase is also known as D-1-deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR) and it plays a crucial role in the non-mevalonate pathway of isoprenoid biosynthesis, which is present in many bacteria, algae, and plants. In this pathway, KARI catalyzes the conversion of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate (DXP) to 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP), which is a key intermediate in the biosynthesis of isoprenoids, such as sterols, carotenoids, and terpenes.

Ketol-acid reductoisomerase is a target for the development of antibiotics and herbicides because of its essential role in the biosynthesis of important natural products. Inhibitors of KARI have been shown to have antibacterial and herbicidal activity.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Pimelic Acids" is not a recognized medical term or concept in physiology, pathology, or pharmacology. It appears to be a term used in chemistry and biochemistry, referring to a specific type of organic compound known as a dicarboxylic acid with a seven-carbon backbone.

In biochemistry, pimelic acid may be involved in various metabolic processes, such as the synthesis of certain amino acids and lipids. However, it is not typically considered a medical term or diagnostic marker in clinical settings. If you're looking for information related to a specific medical condition or treatment, I would be happy to help if you could provide more context!

Galactans are a type of complex carbohydrates known as oligosaccharides that are composed of galactose molecules. They can be found in certain plants, including beans, lentils, and some fruits and vegetables. In the human body, galactans are not digestible and can reach the colon intact, where they may serve as a substrate for fermentation by gut bacteria. This can lead to the production of short-chain fatty acids, which have been shown to have various health benefits. However, in some individuals with irritable bowel syndrome or other functional gastrointestinal disorders, consumption of galactans may cause digestive symptoms such as bloating, gas, and diarrhea.

A plasmid is a small, circular, double-stranded DNA molecule that is separate from the chromosomal DNA of a bacterium or other organism. Plasmids are typically not essential for the survival of the organism, but they can confer beneficial traits such as antibiotic resistance or the ability to degrade certain types of pollutants.

Plasmids are capable of replicating independently of the chromosomal DNA and can be transferred between bacteria through a process called conjugation. They often contain genes that provide resistance to antibiotics, heavy metals, and other environmental stressors. Plasmids have also been engineered for use in molecular biology as cloning vectors, allowing scientists to replicate and manipulate specific DNA sequences.

Plasmids are important tools in genetic engineering and biotechnology because they can be easily manipulated and transferred between organisms. They have been used to produce vaccines, diagnostic tests, and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for various applications, including agriculture, medicine, and industry.

Sequence homology, amino acid, refers to the similarity in the order of amino acids in a protein or a portion of a protein between two or more species. This similarity can be used to infer evolutionary relationships and functional similarities between proteins. The higher the degree of sequence homology, the more likely it is that the proteins are related and have similar functions. Sequence homology can be determined through various methods such as pairwise alignment or multiple sequence alignment, which compare the sequences and calculate a score based on the number and type of matching amino acids.

Isoleucine is an essential branched-chain amino acid, meaning it cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through dietary sources. Its chemical formula is C6H13NO2. Isoleucine is crucial for muscle protein synthesis, hemoglobin formation, and energy regulation during exercise or fasting. It is found in various foods such as meat, fish, eggs, dairy products, legumes, and nuts. Deficiency of isoleucine may lead to various health issues like muscle wasting, fatigue, and mental confusion.

An Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA) is a laboratory technique used to detect and analyze protein-DNA interactions. In this assay, a mixture of proteins and fluorescently or radioactively labeled DNA probes are loaded onto a native polyacrylamide gel matrix and subjected to an electric field. The negatively charged DNA probe migrates towards the positive electrode, and the rate of migration (mobility) is dependent on the size and charge of the molecule. When a protein binds to the DNA probe, it forms a complex that has a different size and/or charge than the unbound probe, resulting in a shift in its mobility on the gel.

The EMSA can be used to identify specific protein-DNA interactions, determine the binding affinity of proteins for specific DNA sequences, and investigate the effects of mutations or post-translational modifications on protein-DNA interactions. The technique is widely used in molecular biology research, including studies of gene regulation, DNA damage repair, and epigenetic modifications.

In summary, Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA) is a laboratory technique that detects and analyzes protein-DNA interactions by subjecting a mixture of proteins and labeled DNA probes to an electric field in a native polyacrylamide gel matrix. The binding of proteins to the DNA probe results in a shift in its mobility on the gel, allowing for the detection and analysis of specific protein-DNA interactions.

Malate Synthase is a key enzyme in the gluconeogenesis pathway and the glyoxylate cycle, which are present in many organisms including plants, bacteria, and parasites. The glyoxylate cycle is a variation of the citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle) that allows these organisms to convert two-carbon molecules into four-carbon molecules, bypassing steps that require oxygen.

Malate Synthase catalyzes the reaction between glyoxylate and acetyl-CoA to produce malate, a four-carbon compound. This enzyme plays a crucial role in enabling these organisms to utilize fatty acids as a carbon source for growth and energy production, particularly under conditions where oxygen is limited or absent. In humans, Malate Synthase is not typically found, but its presence can indicate certain parasitic infections or metabolic disorders.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

Artificial gene fusion refers to the creation of a new gene by joining together parts or whole sequences from two or more different genes. This is achieved through genetic engineering techniques, where the DNA segments are cut and pasted using enzymes called restriction endonucleases and ligases. The resulting artificial gene may encode for a novel protein with unique functions that neither of the parental genes possess. This approach has been widely used in biomedical research to study gene function, create new diagnostic tools, and develop gene therapies.

Glucose is a simple monosaccharide (or single sugar) that serves as the primary source of energy for living organisms. It's a fundamental molecule in biology, often referred to as "dextrose" or "grape sugar." Glucose has the molecular formula C6H12O6 and is vital to the functioning of cells, especially those in the brain and nervous system.

In the body, glucose is derived from the digestion of carbohydrates in food, and it's transported around the body via the bloodstream to cells where it can be used for energy. Cells convert glucose into a usable form through a process called cellular respiration, which involves a series of metabolic reactions that generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP)—the main currency of energy in cells.

Glucose is also stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen, a polysaccharide (multiple sugar) that can be broken down back into glucose when needed for energy between meals or during physical activity. Maintaining appropriate blood glucose levels is crucial for overall health, and imbalances can lead to conditions such as diabetes mellitus.

Valine is an essential amino acid, meaning it cannot be produced by the human body and must be obtained through diet. It is a hydrophobic amino acid, with a branched side chain, and is necessary for the growth, repair, and maintenance of tissues in the body. Valine is also important for muscle metabolism, and is often used by athletes as a supplement to enhance physical performance. Like other essential amino acids, valine must be obtained through foods such as meat, fish, dairy products, and legumes.

Glutamic acid is an alpha-amino acid, which is one of the 20 standard amino acids in the genetic code. The systematic name for this amino acid is (2S)-2-Aminopentanedioic acid. Its chemical formula is HO2CCH(NH2)CH2CH2CO2H.

Glutamic acid is a crucial excitatory neurotransmitter in the human brain, and it plays an essential role in learning and memory. It's also involved in the metabolism of sugars and amino acids, the synthesis of proteins, and the removal of waste nitrogen from the body.

Glutamic acid can be found in various foods such as meat, fish, beans, eggs, dairy products, and vegetables. In the human body, glutamic acid can be converted into gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), another important neurotransmitter that has a calming effect on the nervous system.

A regulon is a group of genes that are regulated together in response to a specific signal or stimulus, often through the action of a single transcription factor or regulatory protein. This means that when the transcription factor binds to specific DNA sequences called operators, it can either activate or repress the transcription of all the genes within the regulon.

This type of gene regulation is important for coordinating complex biological processes, such as cellular metabolism, stress responses, and developmental programs. By regulating a group of genes together, cells can ensure that they are all turned on or off in a coordinated manner, allowing for more precise control over the overall response to a given signal.

It's worth noting that the term "regulon" is not commonly used in clinical medicine, but rather in molecular biology and genetics research.

Chorismate mutase is an important enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of aromatic amino acids in bacteria, fungi, and plants. This enzyme catalyzes the conversion of chorismate to prephenate, which is a key step in the synthesis of phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan.

The reaction catalyzed by chorismate mutase is as follows:

chorismate → prephenate

Inhibition of this enzyme has been explored as a potential target for the development of antibiotics and herbicides, as interrupting the synthesis of aromatic amino acids can be lethal to bacteria and plants. In humans, the equivalent reaction is catalyzed by a different set of enzymes, so chorismate mutase inhibitors are not expected to have toxic effects on human cells.

Membrane transport proteins are specialized biological molecules, specifically integral membrane proteins, that facilitate the movement of various substances across the lipid bilayer of cell membranes. They are responsible for the selective and regulated transport of ions, sugars, amino acids, nucleotides, and other molecules into and out of cells, as well as within different cellular compartments. These proteins can be categorized into two main types: channels and carriers (or pumps). Channels provide a passive transport mechanism, allowing ions or small molecules to move down their electrochemical gradient, while carriers actively transport substances against their concentration gradient, requiring energy usually in the form of ATP. Membrane transport proteins play a crucial role in maintaining cell homeostasis, signaling processes, and many other physiological functions.

Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P) is a crucial intermediate in both glycolysis and gluconeogenesis metabolic pathways. It is an triose sugar phosphate, which means it contains three carbon atoms and has a phosphate group attached to it.

In the glycolysis process, G3P is produced during the third step of the process from the molecule dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) via the enzyme triosephosphate isomerase. In the following steps, G3P is converted into 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate, which eventually leads to the production of ATP and NADH.

In gluconeogenesis, G3P is produced from the reverse reaction of the glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, using the molecule dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) as a starting point. G3P is then converted into glucose-6-phosphate, which can be further metabolized or released from the cell.

It's important to note that Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate plays a key role in energy production and carbohydrate metabolism.

Promoter regions in genetics refer to specific DNA sequences located near the transcription start site of a gene. They serve as binding sites for RNA polymerase and various transcription factors that regulate the initiation of gene transcription. These regulatory elements help control the rate of transcription and, therefore, the level of gene expression. Promoter regions can be composed of different types of sequences, such as the TATA box and CAAT box, and their organization and composition can vary between different genes and species.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Methylophilus methylotrophus" is not a medical term. It is a species of bacteria that is capable of growth on reduced carbon compounds such as methanol and methylamine as the sole source of carbon and energy. This bacterium is often used in research and industrial applications related to bioremediation, wastewater treatment, and production of single-cell proteins.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health conditions, I would be happy to help with those instead.

Isocitrate lyase is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the glyoxylate cycle, a metabolic pathway found in plants, bacteria, fungi, and parasites. This cycle bypasses two steps of the citric acid cycle (TCA cycle) and allows these organisms to grow on two-carbon compounds as their sole carbon source.

Isocitrate lyase specifically catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate into succinate and glyoxylate, which are further processed in the glyoxylate cycle to generate oxaloacetate and other metabolic intermediates. In humans, isocitrate lyase is not typically found in healthy tissues but has been observed in certain pathological conditions such as tumor growth and during periods of nutrient deprivation. It is also involved in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and steroids in some organisms.

A cell wall is a rigid layer found surrounding the plasma membrane of plant cells, fungi, and many types of bacteria. It provides structural support and protection to the cell, maintains cell shape, and acts as a barrier against external factors such as chemicals and mechanical stress. The composition of the cell wall varies among different species; for example, in plants, it is primarily made up of cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin, while in bacteria, it is composed of peptidoglycan.

Diphtheria toxin is a potent exotoxin produced by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae, which causes the disease diphtheria. This toxin is composed of two subunits: A and B. The B subunit helps the toxin bind to and enter host cells, while the A subunit inhibits protein synthesis within those cells, leading to cell damage and tissue destruction.

The toxin can cause a variety of symptoms depending on the site of infection. In respiratory diphtheria, it typically affects the nose, throat, and tonsils, causing a thick gray or white membrane to form over the affected area, making breathing and swallowing difficult. In cutaneous diphtheria, it infects the skin, leading to ulcers and necrosis.

Diphtheria toxin can also have systemic effects, such as damage to the heart, nerves, and kidneys, which can be life-threatening if left untreated. Fortunately, diphtheria is preventable through vaccination with the diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (DTaP or Tdap) vaccine.

Fermentation is a metabolic process in which an organism converts carbohydrates into alcohol or organic acids using enzymes. In the absence of oxygen, certain bacteria, yeasts, and fungi convert sugars into carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and various end products, such as alcohol, lactic acid, or acetic acid. This process is commonly used in food production, such as in making bread, wine, and beer, as well as in industrial applications for the production of biofuels and chemicals.

A multigene family is a group of genetically related genes that share a common ancestry and have similar sequences or structures. These genes are arranged in clusters on a chromosome and often encode proteins with similar functions. They can arise through various mechanisms, including gene duplication, recombination, and transposition. Multigene families play crucial roles in many biological processes, such as development, immunity, and metabolism. Examples of multigene families include the globin genes involved in oxygen transport, the immune system's major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes, and the cytochrome P450 genes associated with drug metabolism.

The Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) is not exactly a "sugar," but rather a complex molecular machinery used by certain bacteria for the transport and phosphorylation of sugars. The PTS system is a major carbohydrate transport system in many gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, which allows them to take up and metabolize various sugars for energy and growth.

The PTS system consists of several protein components, including the enzyme I (EI), histidine phosphocarrier protein (HPr), and sugar-specific enzymes II (EII). The process begins when PEP transfers a phosphate group to EI, which then passes it on to HPr. The phosphorylated HPr then interacts with the sugar-specific EII complex, which is composed of two domains: the membrane-associated domain (EIIA) and the periplasmic domain (EIIC).

When a sugar molecule binds to the EIIC domain, it induces a conformational change that allows the phosphate group from HPr to be transferred to the sugar. This phosphorylation event facilitates the translocation of the sugar across the membrane and into the cytoplasm, where it undergoes further metabolic reactions.

In summary, the Phosphoenolpyruvate Sugar Phosphotransferase System (PEP-PTS) is a bacterial transport system that utilizes phosphoryl groups from phosphoenolpyruvate to facilitate the uptake and phosphorylation of sugars, allowing bacteria to efficiently metabolize and utilize various carbon sources for energy and growth.

Genetic transcription is the process by which the information in a strand of DNA is used to create a complementary RNA molecule. This process is the first step in gene expression, where the genetic code in DNA is converted into a form that can be used to produce proteins or functional RNAs.

During transcription, an enzyme called RNA polymerase binds to the DNA template strand and reads the sequence of nucleotide bases. As it moves along the template, it adds complementary RNA nucleotides to the growing RNA chain, creating a single-stranded RNA molecule that is complementary to the DNA template strand. Once transcription is complete, the RNA molecule may undergo further processing before it can be translated into protein or perform its functional role in the cell.

Transcription can be either "constitutive" or "regulated." Constitutive transcription occurs at a relatively constant rate and produces essential proteins that are required for basic cellular functions. Regulated transcription, on the other hand, is subject to control by various intracellular and extracellular signals, allowing cells to respond to changing environmental conditions or developmental cues.

Pyruvic acid, also known as 2-oxopropanoic acid, is a key metabolic intermediate in both anaerobic and aerobic respiration. It is a carboxylic acid with a ketone functional group, making it a β-ketoacid. In the cytosol, pyruvate is produced from glucose during glycolysis, where it serves as a crucial link between the anaerobic breakdown of glucose and the aerobic process of cellular respiration in the mitochondria.

During low oxygen availability or high energy demands, pyruvate can be converted into lactate through anaerobic glycolysis, allowing for the continued production of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) without oxygen. In the presence of adequate oxygen and functional mitochondria, pyruvate is transported into the mitochondrial matrix where it undergoes oxidative decarboxylation to form acetyl-CoA by the enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC). This reaction also involves the reduction of NAD+ to NADH and the release of CO2. Acetyl-CoA then enters the citric acid cycle, where it is further oxidized to produce energy in the form of ATP, NADH, FADH2, and GTP (guanosine triphosphate) through a series of enzymatic reactions.

In summary, pyruvic acid is a vital metabolic intermediate that plays a significant role in energy production pathways, connecting glycolysis to both anaerobic and aerobic respiration.

Phosphate Acetyltransferase (PAT) is an enzyme involved in the metabolism of certain amino acids. It catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group from acetyl phosphate to a variety of acceptor molecules, including carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur nucleophiles. This reaction plays a crucial role in several biochemical pathways, such as the biosynthesis of certain amino acids, vitamins, and cofactors.

The systematic name for this enzyme is acetylphosphate-protein phosphotransferase. It belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring phosphorus-containing groups. The gene that encodes this enzyme in humans is called PAT1 or CABYR. Defects in this gene have been associated with certain neurological disorders.

Glyoxylates are organic compounds that are intermediates in various metabolic pathways, including the glyoxylate cycle. The glyoxylate cycle is a modified version of the Krebs cycle (also known as the citric acid cycle) and is found in plants, bacteria, and some fungi.

Glyoxylates are formed from the breakdown of certain amino acids or from the oxidation of one-carbon units. They can be converted into glycine, an important amino acid involved in various metabolic processes. In the glyoxylate cycle, glyoxylates are combined with acetyl-CoA to form malate and succinate, which can then be used to synthesize glucose or other organic compounds.

Abnormal accumulation of glyoxylates in the body can lead to the formation of calcium oxalate crystals, which can cause kidney stones and other health problems. Certain genetic disorders, such as primary hyperoxaluria, can result in overproduction of glyoxylates and increased risk of kidney stone formation.

Repressor proteins are a type of regulatory protein in molecular biology that suppress the transcription of specific genes into messenger RNA (mRNA) by binding to DNA. They function as part of gene regulation processes, often working in conjunction with an operator region and a promoter region within the DNA molecule. Repressor proteins can be activated or deactivated by various signals, allowing for precise control over gene expression in response to changing cellular conditions.

There are two main types of repressor proteins:

1. DNA-binding repressors: These directly bind to specific DNA sequences (operator regions) near the target gene and prevent RNA polymerase from transcribing the gene into mRNA.
2. Allosteric repressors: These bind to effector molecules, which then cause a conformational change in the repressor protein, enabling it to bind to DNA and inhibit transcription.

Repressor proteins play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as development, metabolism, and stress response, by controlling gene expression patterns in cells.

Acetolactate synthase (ALS), also known as acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS), is a key enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of branched-chain amino acids (valine, leucine, and isoleucine) in bacteria, fungi, and plants. It catalyzes the first step in the pathway, which is the condensation of two molecules of pyruvate to form acetolactate.

Inhibitors of ALS, such as sulfonylureas and imidazolinones, are widely used as herbicides because they disrupt the biosynthesis of amino acids that are essential for plant growth and development. These inhibitors work by binding to the active site of the enzyme and preventing the substrate from accessing it.

In humans, ALS is not involved in the biosynthesis of branched-chain amino acids, but a homologous enzyme called dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHOD) plays a crucial role in the synthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides. Inhibitors of DHOD are used as immunosuppressants to treat autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis.

Mannosyltransferases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of mannose (a type of sugar) to specific acceptor molecules during the process of glycosylation. Glycosylation is the attachment of carbohydrate groups, or glycans, to proteins and lipids, which plays a crucial role in various biological processes such as protein folding, quality control, trafficking, and cell-cell recognition.

In particular, mannosyltransferases are involved in the addition of mannose residues to the core oligosaccharide structure of N-linked glycans in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus of eukaryotic cells. These enzymes use a donor substrate, typically dolichol-phosphate-mannose (DPM), to add mannose molecules to the acceptor substrate, which is an asparagine residue within a growing glycan chain.

There are several classes of mannosyltransferases, each responsible for adding mannose to specific positions within the glycan structure. Defects in these enzymes can lead to various genetic disorders known as congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG), which can affect multiple organ systems and result in a wide range of clinical manifestations.

Genome sequence for C. glutamicum from NCBI. Type strain of Corynebacterium glutamicum at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity ... Corynebacterium glutamicum is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterium that is used industrially for large-scale production of ... 4 September 2003). "The complete Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 genome sequence and its impact on the production of l- ... Zahoor A; Lindner SN; Wendisch VF (October 2012). "Metabolic Engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum Aimed at Alternative ...
"Genomic analyses of transporter proteins in Corynebacterium glutamicum and Corynebacterium efficiens". In Eggeling, Lothar; ... "The individual and common repertoire of DNA-binding transcriptional regulators of Corynebacterium glutamicum, Corynebacterium ... "Corynebacterium efficiens" at the Encyclopedia of Life LPSN Type strain of Corynebacterium efficiens at BacDive - the Bacterial ... Handbook of Corynebacterium glutamicum. pp. 149-86. ISBN 978-1-4200-3969-6. Zhang, R.; Zhang, C.-T. (2005). "Genomic Islands in ...
Kjeldsen, Kjeld Raunkjær (2009). Optimization of an industrial L-lysine producing Corynebacterium glutamicum strain (PhD Thesis ... 1998). "Note: Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii sp. nov., a novel corynebacterium that does not contain mycolic acids". ... "Topology and mutational analysis of the single Emb arabinofuranosyltransferase of Corynebacterium glutamicum as a model of Emb ... "Secretion of human epidermal growth factor by Corynebacterium glutamicum". Letters in Applied Microbiology. 42 (1): 66-70. doi: ...
"Formation of volutin granules in Corynebacterium glutamicum". FEMS Microbiology Letters. Institut fr Biotechnologie (IBT-1), ... the production of which is used as one of the identifying criteria when attempting to isolate Corynebacterium diphtheriae on ...
Suzuki N, Inui M, Yukawa H (2011). "High-Throughput Transposon Mutagenesis of Corynebacterium glutamicum". Strain Engineering. ...
Porins B and C are cell wall channel-forming proteins from Corynebacterium. Porin B from Corynebacterium glutamicum ( ... Ziegler K, Benz R, Schulz GE (June 2008). "A putative alpha-helical porin from Corynebacterium glutamicum". J. Mol. Biol. 379 ( ...
Chen R, Yang H (November 2000). "A highly specific monomeric isocitrate dehydrogenase from Corynebacterium glutamicum". ... C. glutamicum favored NADP+ over NAD+. In terms of stability with response to temperature, both enzymes had a similar Tm or ... glutamicum was recorded as having ten times as much activity than E. coli and seven times more affinitive/specific for NADP. ... glutamicum and E. coli, monomer and dimer, respectively, both enzymes were found to "efficiently catalyze identical reactions ...
Jetten MS, Sinskey AJ (1995). "Purification and properties of oxaloacetate decarboxylase from Corynebacterium glutamicum". ... decarboxylase from the family of divalent cation dependent decarboxylases was isolated from Corynebacterium glutamicum in 1995 ... Found in different microorganisms such as Pseudomonas, Acetobacter, C. glutamicum, Veillonella parvula, and A. vinelandii, ...
Date M, Itaya H, Matsui H, Kikuchi Y (January 2006). "Secretion of human epidermal growth factor by Corynebacterium glutamicum ... "The transcriptional regulatory repertoire of Corynebacterium glutamicum: reconstruction of the network controlling pathways ... The C. glutamicum species is widely used for producing glutamate and lysine, components of human food, animal feed and ... Non-pathogenic species of the gram-positive Corynebacterium are used for the commercial production of various amino acids. ...
"Characteristics of methionine production by an engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum strain". Metab. Eng. 9 (4): 327-336. doi: ...
... its regulation and biotechnological application in Corynebacterium glutamicum". Microbial Biotechnology. 7 (1): 5-25. doi: ...
"Modification of histidine biosynthesis pathway genes and the impact on production of L-histidine in Corynebacterium glutamicum ... its regulation and biotechnological application in Corynebacterium glutamicum". Microbial Biotechnology. 7 (1): 5-25. doi: ...
In Corynebacterium glutamicum, it achieves this by antisense pairing with the mRNA of RepB, a replication initiation protein. ... "Control of rep gene expression in plasmid pGA1 from Corynebacterium glutamicum". J Bacteriol. 185 (8): 2402-2409. doi:10.1128/ ...
Vetting MW, Frantom PA, Blanchard JS (June 2008). "Structural and enzymatic analysis of MshA from Corynebacterium glutamicum: ...
Hwang, B. J.; Yeom, H. J.; Kim, Y.; Lee, H. S. (2002). "Corynebacterium glutamicum utilizes both transsulfuration and direct ...
"Efflux permease CgAcr3-1 of Corynebacterium glutamicum is an arsenite-specific antiporter". The Journal of Biological Chemistry ... from Alkaliphilus metalliredigens and Corynebacterium glutamicum". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 284 (30): 19887-95. doi ...
Metabolic Engineering of the Valine Pathway in Corynebacterium Glutamicum - Analysis and Modelling. Germany: Forschungszentrum ...
"Generation of Minicells from an Endotoxin-Free Gram-Positive Strain Corynebacterium glutamicum". Journal of Microbiology and ...
The production of these amino acids is due to Corynebacterium glutamicum and fermentation. C.glutamicum was engineered to be ... L-Lysine was originally produced from diaminopimelic acid (DAP) by E.coli, but once the C.glutamicum was discovered for the ... L-Tryptophan is also produced through fermentation and by Corynebacterium and E.coli, though the production is not as large as ... "Corynebacterium species , Johns Hopkins ABX Guide". www.hopkinsguides.com. Retrieved 2019-11-11. Singhania, Reeta Rani; Patel, ...
"The small 6C RNA of Corynebacterium glutamicum is involved in the SOS response". RNA Biol. 13 (9): 848-60. doi:10.1080/ ...
Becker J, Wittmann C (2012). "Bio-based production of chemicals, materials and fuels -Corynebacterium glutamicum as versatile ... glutamicum or E. coli. These strains carry mutations that prevent the reuptake of aromatic amino acids or multiple/ ...
January 2018). "Reduction of Feedback Inhibition in Homoserine Kinase (ThrB) of Corynebacterium glutamicum Enhances l-Threonine ...
... a channel forming peptide from Corynebacterium glutamicum". FEBS Letters. 587 (22): 3687-91. doi:10.1016/j.febslet.2013.09.032 ...
Manufacturers, such as Ajinomoto, use selected strains of Corynebacterium glutamicum bacteria in a nutrient-rich medium. The ...
It is found in a variety of bacteria, including Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Corynebacterium glutamicum. It is ...
The industrial process includes the fermentative culturing of Corynebacterium glutamicum and the subsequent purification of ... "Development of an L-Lysine Enriched Bran for Animal Nutrition via Submerged Fermentation by Corynebacterium glutamicum using ...
Lysine Synthesis in Corynebacterium glutamicum". ACS Synthetic Biology. 4 (6): 729-734. doi:10.1021/sb500332c. ISSN 2161-5063. ...
The superfamily was named based on the early discovery of the LysE carrier protein of Corynebacterium glutamicum. 2.A.75 - The ... LysE of Corynebacterium glutamicum (TC# 2.A.75.1.1) and ArgO of E. coli) have been functionally characterized, but functionally ... topology of the lysine exporter LysE of Corynebacterium glutamicum, a paradyme for a novel superfamily of transmembrane solute ... L-lysine export from Corynebacterium glutamicum". Molecular Microbiology. 22 (5): 815-26. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2958.1996.01527.x ...
"E1 Enzyme of the Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex in Corynebacterium glutamicum: Molecular Analysis of the Gene and Phylogenetic ...
"High level expression of Streptomyces mobaraensis transglutaminase in Corynebacterium glutamicum using a chimeric pro-region ...
Genome sequence for C. glutamicum from NCBI. Type strain of Corynebacterium glutamicum at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity ... Corynebacterium glutamicum is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterium that is used industrially for large-scale production of ... 4 September 2003). "The complete Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 genome sequence and its impact on the production of l- ... Zahoor A; Lindner SN; Wendisch VF (October 2012). "Metabolic Engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum Aimed at Alternative ...
... Platform Host for Synthetic Biology and Industrial ... Recently, we created a library of 26 genome-reduced strains of Corynebacterium glutamicum carrying broad deletions in single ...
... Nanda A, Heyer A, Krämer C, Grünberger A, Kohlheyer D ... A. Nanda, et al., "SOS-induced spontaneous prophage induction in Corynebacterium glutamicum", Presented at the Jülich Biotech ... "SOS-induced spontaneous prophage induction in Corynebacterium glutamicum". Presented at the Jülich Biotech Day 2013, Jülich, ... SOS-induced spontaneous prophage induction in Corynebacterium glutamicum. Presented at the Jülich Biotech Day 2013, Jülich, ...
Corynebacterium glutamicum is an established industrial workhorse for the production of amino acids and has been investigated ... Construction of Recombinant Pdu Metabolosome Shells for Small Molecule Production in Corynebacterium glutamicum ... Construction of Recombinant Pdu Metabolosome Shells for Small Molecule Production in Corynebacterium glutamicum. ACS Synthetic ... bacterial microcompartments; C. glutamicum; metabolic engineering; propanediol utilization; protein encapsulation Subjects:. Q ...
Powered by cMonkey algorithm developed in Baliga lab at Institute for Systems Biology ...
Herein, we report the crystal structure of mannosyltransferase Corynebacterium glutamicum PimB′ in complex with nucleotide to a ... Herein, we report the crystal structure of mannosyltransferase Corynebacterium glutamicum PimB′ in complex with nucleotide to a ... Herein, we report the crystal structure of mannosyltransferase Corynebacterium glutamicum PimB′ in complex with nucleotide to a ... Herein, we report the crystal structure of mannosyltransferase Corynebacterium glutamicum PimB′ in complex with nucleotide to a ...
Combining Protein Engineering and Metabolic Engineering for High Production of L-Theanine in Corynebacterium glutamicum. 2 days ... The author found through homologous comparison that there is a ggt gene in Corynebacterium glutamicum that can hydrolyze ... Therefore, the ALAT involved in alanine synthesis in Corynebacterium glutamicum was knocked out to obtain strain Tea4, which ... Combining Protein Engineering and Metabolic Engineering for High Production of L-Theanine in Corynebacterium glutamicum. ...
By applying the validated workflow in three parallel rbALE runs, ethanol utilization by Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 ( ... In addition, our specific results will enable improved production processes with C. glutamicum from ethanol, which is of ... Ray D, Anand U, Jha NK, Korzeniewska E, Bontempi E, Proćków J, Dey A. The soil bacterium, Corynebacterium glutamicum, from ... Kohl TA, Tauch A. The GlxR regulon of the amino acid producer Corynebacterium glutamicum: detection of the corynebacterial core ...
pCGR2 copy number depends on the par locus that forms a ParC-ParB-DNA partition complex in Corynebacterium glutamicum. / Okibe ... pCGR2 copy number depends on the par locus that forms a ParC-ParB-DNA partition complex in Corynebacterium glutamicum. In: ... pCGR2 copy number depends on the par locus that forms a ParC-ParB-DNA partition complex in Corynebacterium glutamicum. ... title = "pCGR2 copy number depends on the par locus that forms a ParC-ParB-DNA partition complex in Corynebacterium glutamicum ...
Since the discovery of l-glutamate-producing Corynebacterium glutamicum, it has evolved to be an industrial workhorse. For ... Structure-Guided Protein Engineering of Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase from Corynebacterium glutamicum for Dual NAD/ ... In this study, we determined the crystal structure of GAPDH from C. glutamicum ATCC13032 (CgGAPDH). Based on the structural ...
2014). Engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum for minimized carbon loss during utilization of D-xylose containing substrates ... and Corynebacterium glutamicum (Radek et al., 2014) to grow on xylose as sole carbon and energy source. The direct conversion ... In P. putida and C. glutamicum, the accumulation of xylonate was observed in the supernatant. Xylonate accumulation strongly ... glutamicum (Radek et al., 2014) were low. In both cases, plasmid-based expression of the enzymes of the Weimberg pathway was ...
Durchführungsverordnung (EU) 2024/997 der Kommission vom 3. April 2024 zur Zulassung von L-Valin aus Corynebacterium glutamicum ... 2024/997 of 3 April 2024 concerning the authorisation of L-valine produced by Corynebacterium glutamicum CGMCC 18932 as a feed ...
Crystal structure of the transcriptional factor CGL2915 from Corynebacterium glutamicum. 2dvw. Structure of the Oncoprotein ...
PubMed:The structures of transcription factor CGL2947 from Corynebacterium glutamicum in two crystal forms: a novel homodimer ... PubMed:The crystal structure and stereospecificity of levodione reductase from Corynebacterium aquaticum M-13.. ...
Антигенна спорідненість Corynebacterium flavescens та Corynebacterium terpenotabidum з іншими видами непатогенних ... glutamicum і С. terpenotabidum, менш спорідненими з останніми були види С. vitaeruminis, С. flavescens і С. variabile, тоді як ... ammoniagenes і Corynebacterium sp. УKM Ac-719 значно відрізнялись від інших досліджених видів. ...
Production strains of Corynebacterium glutamicum, which has been used safely for more than 50 years in food biotechnology, and ...
Corynebacterium glutamicum FAS1A was the most active in E. coli and this fatty acid synthase was leveraged to produce ...
... are key to mycolic acid biosynthesis in Corynebacterianeae such as Corynebacterium glutamicum and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J ...
Recombinant Corynebacterium glutamicum Phospho-N-acetylmuramoyl-pentapeptide-transferase (mraY), partial. CSB-YP390481CXG. CSB- ...
CAS SIBS develops efficient genome editing system for Corynebacterium glutamicum. By rscPosted on 28. June 2017. Posted in ... glutamicum. Using CRISPR-Cpf1, combined with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) recombineering, small changes could be precisely ...
Engineering Corynebacterium glutamicum for the production of 2,3-butanediolD. Rados, A. Carvalho, S. Wieschalka, A. Neves, B. ... Engineering Corynebacterium glutamicum for the production of 2,3-butanediolD. Radoš, A. Carvalho, S. Wieschalka, A. Neves, B. ... Engineering Corynebacterium glutamicum for the production of 2,3-butanediol. D. Rados, A. Carvalho, S. Wieschalka, A. Neves, B ... Stereospecificity of Corynebacterium glutamicum 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase and implications for the stereochemical purity of ...
Accumulation of β-Ketoadipate to Create Biopolymers Using Engineered Corynebacterium Glutamicum. The research team is trying to ...
Accumulation of β-Ketoadipate to Create Biopolymers Using Engineered Corynebacterium Glutamicum The goal of this research is to ... can be produced from an engineered strain of Corynebacterium glutamicum when fed lignin-derived aromatics. This study attempts ...
Abstract: Objective: In this study, Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 was used as the chassis cell for synthesizing L- ... Metabolic Transformation and Fermentation Condition of L-homoserine Synthesis by Corynebacterium glutamicum. * GUO Qiushuang, ... Results: Compared with Escherichia coli, C. glutamicum had a stronger tolerance to L-homoserine. In the study, C. glutamicum ... Metabolic Transformation and Fermentation Condition of L-homoserine Synthesis by Corynebacterium glutamicum[J]. Science and ...
Corynebacterium glutamicum. BAC00265. 24.1%. 53.8%. No. Streptomyces coelicolor. CAD55506. 33.3%. 62.1%. No. ...
Corynebacterium glutamicum / chemistry; Corynebacterium glutamicum / classification; Corynebacterium glutamicum / enzymology; ... TL;DR: The biochemical characterization of a novel NAL from a "GRAS" (General recognized as safe) strain C. glutamicum ATCC ...
Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 cg1290. metE. -272. 4.9. CAGACCGAGCAGTCTA. cg2678. cg2678. -112. 4.8. TAGACAGGTTGGTCTG. ...
Host Lineage: Corynebacterium glutamicum; Corynebacterium; Corynebacteriaceae; Actinomycetales; Actinobacteria; Bacteria. ... Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032, complete genome. hypothetical protein. 9e-110. 395. NC_015312:5579078:5580732. 5580732. ... Query: NC_003450:747000:757627 Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032, complete genome. Start: 757627, End: 758280, Length: 654 ...
MC-1); AAR33493 (Geobacter sulfurreducens); DCDA_CORGL (Corynebacterium glutamicum); CAE30181 (Rhodopseudomonas palustris); ... Structural basis for substrate specificity of meso-diaminopimelic acid decarboxylase from Corynebacterium glutamicum Biochem ...
  • Furthermore, small RNA data was obtained by RNA-Seq in C. glutamicum ATCC 13032. (wikipedia.org)
  • By applying the validated workflow in three parallel rbALE runs, ethanol utilization by Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 (WT) was significantly improved. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Objective: In this study, Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 was used as the chassis cell for synthesizing L-homoserine and analyzing the effect of dissolved oxygen on product synthesis. (spgykj.com)
  • Recently, we created a library of 26 genome-reduced strains of Corynebacterium glutamicum carrying broad deletions in single gene clusters and showing wild-type-like biological fitness. (researcher-app.com)
  • At present, researchers have identified and isolated various enzymes that can participate in theanine synthesis from microorganisms, among which γ- Glutamyl methylamine synthesis (GMAS) has received considerable attention due to its good affinity and tolerance to substrate ethylamine, and has been overexpressed in various industrial bacterial strains such as Corynebacterium glutamicum. (biosynsis.com)
  • The in-vitro susceptibilities of toxigenic retested 30 days posttransfusion to strains of Corynebacterium diphtheriae identify seroconversions. (cdc.gov)
  • The research results are published in the journal Biosource Technology under the title of Combining product and metabolic engineering strategies for high-level production of L-theanine in Corynebacterium glutamate. (biosynsis.com)
  • Within this study, we optimized genetic clusters for the expression of the shell components of the Citrobacter freundii propanediol utilization (Pdu) bacterial compartment, thereby facilitating heterologous compartment production in C. glutamicum. (kent.ac.uk)
  • Herein, we describe components for the establishment of bacterial microcompartments as production chambers in C. glutamicum. (kent.ac.uk)
  • Genome sequence for C. glutamicum from NCBI. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to providing a novel prokaryotic chassis strain, our results comprise a large strain library and a revised genome annotation list, which will be valuable sources for future systemic studies of C. glutamicum . (researcher-app.com)
  • The group of YANG Sheng at CAS SIBS Key Laboratory of Synthetic Biology developed a a Francisella novicida CRISPR-Cpf1-based genome-editing method for C. glutamicum. (window-to-china.de)
  • SOS-induced spontaneous prophage induction in Corynebacterium glutamicum", Presented at the Jülich Biotech Day 2013, Jülich, Germany, 2013. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Metabolic Transformation and Fermentation Condition of L-homoserine Synthesis by Corynebacterium glutamicum [J]. Science and Technology of Food Industry, 2023, 44(3): 133−140. (spgykj.com)
  • C. glutamicum recombinant strain H1 was successfully constructed for producing L-homoserine via blocking the synthesis of L-threonine. (spgykj.com)
  • Corynebacterium glutamicum is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterium that is used industrially for large-scale production of amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Corynebacterium glutamicum is an established industrial workhorse for the production of amino acids and has been investigated for the production of diamines, dicarboxylic acids, polymers and biobased fuels. (kent.ac.uk)
  • In addition, our specific results will enable improved production processes with C. glutamicum from ethanol, which is of particular interest for acetyl-CoA-derived products. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It was found that the using of shake flask with baffles to enhance the oxygen supply capacity during fermentation was an effective means to promote the production of L-homoserine by C. glutamicum . (spgykj.com)
  • Nevertheless, the usage of ethanol as feedstock for C. glutamicum is currently limited by its comparatively low tolerance, resulting in severe growth impairment at concentrations above 171 mM [ 12 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Methods: First, the product tolerance of C. glutamicum was analyzed by exogenously adding 0~40 g/L L-homoserine. (spgykj.com)
  • Results: Compared with Escherichia coli , C. glutamicum had a stronger tolerance to L-homoserine. (spgykj.com)
  • Second, the degradation pathway of L-homoserine was blocked by gene thrB knockout, namely C. glutamicum recombinant strain H1. (spgykj.com)
  • In the study, C. glutamicum recombinant strain H1 was constructed by deleting the gene thrB . (spgykj.com)
  • Due to its industrial importance, several clones of C. glutamicum have been sequenced by both industry and academic groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the discovery of l-glutamate -producing Corynebacterium glutamicum , it has evolved to be an industrial workhorse. (bvsalud.org)
  • Herein, we report the crystal structure of mannosyltransferase Corynebacterium glutamicum PimB′ in complex with nucleotide to a resolution of 2.0 Å. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • In this study, we determined the crystal structure of GAPDH from C. glutamicum ATCC13032 (CgGAPDH). (bvsalud.org)
  • Aims: To characterize the par system of Corynebacterium glutamicum pCGR2 and to manipulate the par components to effectively manipulate plasmid copy number. (elsevierpure.com)
  • The goal of this research is to determine if β-ketoadipate (βKA), a chemical compound, can be produced from an engineered strain of Corynebacterium glutamicum when fed lignin-derived aromatics. (asu.edu)
  • It was shown that this novel version of the integron promoter displays five times higher activity in both C. glutamicum and Escherichia coli than the original one. (nih.gov)
  • We study this fundamental process in the diderm model organisms Escherichia coli and Corynebacterium glutamicum. (unil.ch)
  • DRAGON: Harnessing the power of DNA repair for accelerating genome evolution in Corynebacterium glutamicum. (bvsalud.org)
  • Especie de bacteria grampositiva asporógena y no patógena que se encuentra en el suelo y produce ÁCIDO GLUTÁMICO. (bvsalud.org)
  • 1. Effect of transketolase modifications on carbon flow to the purine-nucleotide pathway in Corynebacterium ammoniagenes. (nih.gov)
  • 2. Significance of the non-oxidative route of the pentose phosphate pathway for supplying carbon to the purine-nucleotide pathway in Corynebacterium ammoniagenes. (nih.gov)
  • 13. Hyperproduction of tryptophan by Corynebacterium glutamicum with the modified pentose phosphate pathway. (nih.gov)
  • 3. Cloning of the transketolase gene and the effect of its dosage on aromatic amino acid production in Corynebacterium glutamicum. (nih.gov)
  • 5. [Corynebacterium pekinense transketolase: gene cloning, sequence analysis and expression]. (nih.gov)
  • 14. Molecular analysis of the Corynebacterium glutamicum transketolase gene. (nih.gov)
  • Corynebacterium the possibility of contamination in Soolingen D. Mycobacterium avium in diphtheriae is the agent of pharyngeal the environment by the aerosolized a shower linked to pulmonary disease. (cdc.gov)
  • The complete nucleotide sequence of the Corynebacterium glutamicum hom-thrB operon has been determined and the structural genes and promoter region mapped. (nih.gov)
  • This study demonstrates a biotechnological model for the production of animal feed supplements such as l-cysteine using metabolically engineered C. glutamicum. (korea.ac.kr)
  • Application of DEN refinement and automated model building to a difficult case of molecular-replacement phasing: the structure of a putative succinyl-diaminopimelate desuccinylase from Corynebacterium glutamicum. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Here, the process of determining and refining the structure of Cgl1109, a putative succinyl-diaminopimelate desuccinylase from Corynebacterium glutamicum, at ∼3 Å resolution is described using a combination of homology modeling with MODELLER, molecular-replacement phasing with Phaser, deformable elastic network (DEN) refinement and automated model building using AutoBuild in a semi-automated fashion, followed by final refinement cycles with phenix.refine and Coot. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Here, we provided a comprehensive survey of DNA repair systems to identify promising targets ensuring high DNA fidelity in Corynebacterium glutamicum . (bvsalud.org)