A species of gram-positive, asporogenous bacteria in which three cultural types are recognized. These types (gravis, intermedius, and mitis) were originally given in accordance with the clinical severity of the cases from which the different strains were most frequently isolated. This species is the causative agent of DIPHTHERIA.
A genus of asporogenous bacteria that is widely distributed in nature. Its organisms appear as straight to slightly curved rods and are known to be human and animal parasites and pathogens.
A localized infection of mucous membranes or skin caused by toxigenic strains of CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE. It is characterized by the presence of a pseudomembrane at the site of infection. DIPHTHERIA TOXIN, produced by C. diphtheriae, can cause myocarditis, polyneuritis, and other systemic toxic effects.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CORYNEBACTERIUM.
An ADP-ribosylating polypeptide produced by CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE that causes the signs and symptoms of DIPHTHERIA. It can be broken into two unequal domains: the smaller, catalytic A domain is the lethal moiety and contains MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASES which transfers ADP RIBOSE to PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTOR 2 thereby inhibiting protein synthesis; and the larger B domain that is needed for entry into cells.
A species of gram-positive, asporogenous, non-pathogenic, soil bacteria that produces GLUTAMIC ACID.
An antitoxin produced against the toxin of CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE that is used for the treatment of DIPHTHERIA.
A species of gram-positive, asporogenous bacteria that was originally isolated from necrotic areas in the kidney of a sheep. It may cause ulcerative lymphangitis, abscesses, and other chronic purulent infections in sheep, horses, and other warm-blooded animals. Human disease may form from contact with infected animals.
RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM analysis of rRNA genes that is used for differentiating between species or strains.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
A mixed function oxidase enzyme which during hemoglobin catabolism catalyzes the degradation of heme to ferrous iron, carbon monoxide and biliverdin in the presence of molecular oxygen and reduced NADPH. The enzyme is induced by metals, particularly cobalt. EC 1.14.99.3.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Low-molecular-weight compounds produced by microorganisms that aid in the transport and sequestration of ferric iron. (The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Russia" is a country and not a medical term. Therefore, it doesn't have a medical definition.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The formaldehyde-inactivated toxin of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It is generally used in mixtures with TETANUS TOXOID and PERTUSSIS VACCINE; (DTP); or with tetanus toxoid alone (DT for pediatric use and Td, which contains 5- to 10-fold less diphtheria toxoid, for other use). Diphtheria toxoid is used for the prevention of diphtheria; DIPHTHERIA ANTITOXIN is for treatment.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A bacteria isolated from normal skin, intestinal contents, wounds, blood, pus, and soft tissue abscesses. It is a common contaminant of clinical specimens, presumably from the skin of patients or attendants.
Skin diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, parasites, or viruses.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Technique that utilizes low-stringency polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with single primers of arbitrary sequence to generate strain-specific arrays of anonymous DNA fragments. RAPD technique may be used to determine taxonomic identity, assess kinship relationships, analyze mixed genome samples, and create specific probes.
The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.
Chloro(7,12-diethenyl-3,8,13,17-tetramethyl-21H,23H-porphine-2,18-dipropanoato(4-)-N(21),N(22),N(23),N(24)) ferrate(2-) dihydrogen.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Peptide elongation factor 1 is a multisubunit protein that is responsible for the GTP-dependent binding of aminoacyl-tRNAs to eukaryotic ribosomes. The alpha subunit (EF-1alpha) binds aminoacyl-tRNA and transfers it to the ribosome in a process linked to GTP hydrolysis. The beta and delta subunits (EF-1beta, EF-1delta) are involved in exchanging GDP for GTP. The gamma subunit (EF-1gamma) is a structural component.
A combined vaccine used to prevent infection with diphtheria and tetanus toxoid. This is used in place of DTP vaccine (DIPHTHERIA-TETANUS-PERTUSSIS VACCINE) when PERTUSSIS VACCINE is contraindicated.
A vaccine consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and whole-cell PERTUSSIS VACCINE. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.
A republic stretching from the Indian Ocean east to New Guinea, comprising six main islands: Java, Sumatra, Bali, Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo), Sulawesi (formerly known as the Celebes) and Irian Jaya (the western part of New Guinea). Its capital is Djakarta. The ethnic groups living there are largely Chinese, Arab, Eurasian, Indian, and Pakistani; 85% of the peoples are of the Islamic faith.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.

Control of corynebacteriophage reproduction by heteroimmune repression. (1/354)

Corynebacteriophages beta and gamma are closely related but heteroimmune; hence, gamma reproduces in C7(beta). A series of gamma mutants, designated gamma-bin (beta-inhibited), has been isolated. They reproduce in only 2 to 14% of infected C7(beta) cells, and, as a result, plaque with an efficiency of 10(-4) to 10(-5) on this strain. The proportion of C7(beta) cells in which gamma-bin phage can replicate is increased to 30 to 80% when immunity is lifted by UV induction of C7(beta) or by heat induction of C7(beta-tsr3). The gamma-bin mutants carry out a normal vegetative or lysogenic cycle in strain C7 and thus do not appear to be defective in any essential phage function. Infection of C7(beta) by gamma-bin results in cell killing whether the infection is productive or nonproductive. The data support the hypothesis that inhibition of gamma-bin is due to the direct or indirect action of a beta prophage gene. The simplest hypothesis is that gamma-bin phages have sustained mutations in an operator site and that beta repressor now combines with the mutated operator to inhibit normal replication in a significant proportion of infected cells.  (+info)

Use of molecular subtyping to document long-term persistence of Corynebacterium diphtheriae in South Dakota. (2/354)

Enhanced surveillance of patients with upper respiratory symptoms in a Northern Plains community revealed that approximately 4% of them were infected by toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae of both mitis and gravis biotypes, showing that the organism is still circulating in the United States. Toxigenic C. diphtheriae was isolated from five members of four households. Four molecular subtyping methods-ribotyping, multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MEE), random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and single-strand conformation polymorphism-were used to molecularly characterize these strains and compare them to 17 archival South Dakota strains dating back to 1973 through 1983 and to 5 isolates collected from residents of diverse regions of the United States. Ribotyping and RAPD clearly demonstrated the household transmission of isolates and provided precise information on the circulation of several distinct strains within three households. By MEE, most recent and archival South Dakota strains were identified as closely related and clustered within the newly identified ET (electrophoretic type) 215 complex. Furthermore, three recent South Dakota isolates and eight archival South Dakota isolates were indistinguishable by both ribotyping and RAPD. All of these molecular methods showed that recent South Dakota isolates and archival South Dakota isolates were more closely related to each other than to the C. diphtheriae strains isolated in other parts of the United States or worldwide. The data also supported the improbability of importation of C. diphtheriae into this area and rather strongly suggest the long-term persistence of the organism in this region.  (+info)

Quantitative studies on competitive activities of skin bacteria growing on solid media. (3/354)

Earlier quantitative investigations of antagonism between skin bacteria were based on the use of liquid cultures, but a more realistic model has now been devised, based on the use of the surfaces of solid media. Pure or mixed inocula were spread evenly over suitable agar media in Petri dishes marked out with a standard grid. Growth curves were constructed from viable counts of the surface bacteria after they had been removed from excised squares of the agar media and dispersed. The method was highly reproducible, and competitive interactions were revealed more clearly than in studies with liquid media. An antibiotic-producing strain of Staphylococcus epidermidis (S6+) readily suppressed strains of Micrococcus, Corynebacterium and Streptococcus species. However, a Staphylococcus aureus strain which was less sensitive to the antibiotic effect of S6+ interacted in a complex manner, depending on the absolute and relative size of the S6+ inoculum.  (+info)

Resurgent diphtheria--are we safe? (4/354)

Diphtheria, one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the past, seemed nearly eliminated from industrialized countries, thanks to improved hygienic conditions and large scale vaccinations. In 1990, a large epidemic started in Eastern Europe, mainly in Russia and Ukraine, with over 70,000 cases reported within a 5 year period. The main factors leading to the epidemic included low immunization coverage among infants and children, waning immunity to diphtheria among adults, and profound social changes in the former Soviet Union. The possibility of new virulence factors in the epidemic strain has not yet been ruled out. Even though immunity among adults is far from complete in Western Europe, the epidemic did not spread there. The main reason for this might be the good immune status of children and lack of social turbulence favouring the spread of infection. Several countries have also taken preventive measures, which may also have played a role in protection against the potential epidemic.  (+info)

Emergence of related nontoxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae biotype mitis strains in Western Europe. (5/354)

We report on 17 isolates of Corynebacterium diphtheriae biotype mitis with related ribotypes from Switzerland, Germany, and France. Isolates came from skin and subcutaneous infections of injecting drug users, homeless persons, prisoners, and elderly orthopedic patients with joint prostheses or primary joint infections. Such isolates had only been observed in Switzerland.  (+info)

Heme degradation as catalyzed by a recombinant bacterial heme oxygenase (Hmu O) from Corynebacterium diphtheriae. (6/354)

Hmu O, a heme degradation enzyme in the pathogen Corynebacterium diphtheriae, catalyzes the oxygen-dependent conversion of hemin to biliverdin, carbon monoxide, and free iron. A bacterial expression system using a synthetic gene coding for the 215-amino acid, full-length Hmu O has been constructed. Expressed at very high levels in Escherichia coli BL21, the enzyme binds hemin stoichiometrically to form a hexacoordinate high spin hemin-Hmu O complex. When ascorbic acid is used as the electron donor, Hmu O converts hemin to biliverdin with alpha-hydroxyhemin and verdoheme as intermediates. The overall conversion rate to biliverdin is approximately 4-fold slower than that by rat heme oxygenase (HO) isoform 1. Reaction of the hemin-Hmu O complex with hydrogen peroxide yields a verdoheme species, the recovery of which is much less compared with rat HO-1. Reaction of the hemin complex with meta-chloroperbenzoic acid generates a ferryl oxo species. Thus, the catalytic intermediate species and the nature of the active form in the first oxygenation step of Hmu O appear to be similar to those of the mammalian HO. However, the considerably slow catalytic rate and low level of verdoheme recovery in the hydrogen peroxide reaction suggest that the active-site structure of Hmu O is different from that of its mammalian counterpart.  (+info)

The heme complex of Hmu O, a bacterial heme degradation enzyme from Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Structure of the catalytic site. (7/354)

Hmu O, a heme degradation enzyme in Corynebacterium diphtheriae, forms a stoichiometric complex with iron protoporphyrin IX and catalyzes the oxygen-dependent conversion of hemin to biliverdin, carbon monoxide, and free iron. Using a multitude of spectroscopic techniques, we have determined the axial ligand coordination of the heme-Hmu O complex. The ferric complex shows a pH-dependent reversible transition between a water-bound hexacoordinate high spin neutral pH form and an alkaline form, having high spin and low spin states, with a pK(a) of 9. (1)H NMR, EPR, and resonance Raman of the heme-Hmu O complex establish that a neutral imidazole of a histidine residue is the proximal ligand of the complex, similar to mammalian heme oxygenase. EPR of the deoxy cobalt porphyrin IX-Hmu O complex confirms this proximal histidine coordination. Oxy cobalt-Hmu O EPR reveals a hydrogen-bonding interaction between the O(2) and an exchangeable proton in the Hmu O distal pocket and two distinct orientations for the bound O(2). Mammalian heme oxygenase has only one O(2) orientation. This difference and the mixed spin states at alkaline pH indicate structural differences in the distal environment between Hmu O and its mammalian counterpart.  (+info)

Identification of a two-component signal transduction system from Corynebacterium diphtheriae that activates gene expression in response to the presence of heme and hemoglobin. (8/354)

Corynebacterium diphtheriae, the causative agent of diphtheria, utilizes various host compounds to acquire iron. The C. diphtheriae hmuO gene encodes a heme oxygenase that is involved in the utilization of heme and hemoglobin as iron sources. Transcription of the hmuO gene in C. diphtheriae is controlled under a dual regulatory mechanism in which the diphtheria toxin repressor protein (DtxR) and iron repress expression while either heme or hemoglobin is needed to activate transcription. In this study, two clones isolated from a C. diphtheriae chromosomal library were shown to activate transcription from the hmuO promoter in Escherichia coli. Sequence analysis revealed that these activator clones each carried distinct genes whose products had significant homology to response regulators of two-component signal transduction systems. Located upstream from each of these response regulator homologs are partial open reading frames that are predicted to encode the C-terminal portions of sensor kinases. The full-length sensor kinase gene for each of these systems was cloned from the C. diphtheriae chromosome, and constructs each carrying one complete sensor kinase gene and its cognate response regulator were constructed. One of these constructs, pTSB20, which carried the response regulator (chrA) and its cognate sensor kinase (chrS), was shown to strongly activate transcription from the hmuO promoter in a heme-dependent manner in E. coli. A mutation in chrA (chrAD50N), which changed a conserved aspartic acid residue at position 50, the presumed site of phosphorylation by ChrS, to an asparagine, abolished heme-dependent activation. These findings suggest that the sensor kinase ChrS is involved in the detection of heme and the transduction of this signal, via a phosphotransfer mechanism, to the response regulator ChrA, which then activates transcription of the hmuO promoter. This is the first report of a bacterial two-component signal transduction system that controls gene expression through a heme-responsive mechanism.  (+info)

'Corynebacterium diphtheriae' is a gram-positive, rod-shaped, aerobic bacteria that can cause the disease diphtheria. It is commonly found in the upper respiratory tract and skin of humans and can be transmitted through respiratory droplets or direct contact with contaminated objects. The bacterium produces a potent exotoxin that can cause severe inflammation and formation of a pseudomembrane in the throat, leading to difficulty breathing and swallowing. In severe cases, the toxin can spread to other organs, causing serious complications such as myocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle) and peripheral neuropathy (damage to nerves outside the brain and spinal cord). The disease is preventable through vaccination with the diphtheria toxoid-containing vaccine.

Corynebacterium is a genus of Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found on the skin and mucous membranes of humans and animals. Some species of Corynebacterium can cause disease in humans, including C. diphtheriae, which causes diphtheria, and C. jeikeium, which can cause various types of infections in immunocompromised individuals. Other species are part of the normal flora and are not typically pathogenic. The bacteria are characterized by their irregular, club-shaped appearance and their ability to form characteristic arrangements called palisades. They are facultative anaerobes, meaning they can grow in the presence or absence of oxygen.

Diphtheria is a serious bacterial infection caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It typically affects the respiratory system, including the nose, throat, and windpipe (trachea), causing a thick gray or white membrane to form over the lining of these areas. This can lead to breathing difficulties, heart complications, and neurological problems if left untreated.

The bacteria can also produce a powerful toxin that can cause damage to other organs in the body. Diphtheria is usually spread through respiratory droplets from an infected person's cough or sneeze, or by contact with contaminated objects or surfaces. The disease is preventable through vaccination.

Corynebacterium infections are caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Corynebacterium, which are gram-positive, rod-shaped organisms that commonly inhabit the skin and mucous membranes of humans and animals. While many species of Corynebacterium are harmless commensals, some can cause a range of infections, particularly in individuals with compromised immune systems or underlying medical conditions.

The most common Corynebacterium species that causes infection is C. diphtheriae, which is responsible for diphtheria, a potentially life-threatening respiratory illness characterized by the formation of a thick, grayish membrane in the throat and upper airways. Other Corynebacterium species, such as C. jeikeium, C. urealyticum, and C. striatum, can cause various types of healthcare-associated infections, including bacteremia, endocarditis, pneumonia, and skin and soft tissue infections.

Corynebacterium infections are typically treated with antibiotics, such as penicillin, erythromycin, or vancomycin, depending on the species of bacteria involved and the patient's medical history. In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to drain abscesses or remove infected tissue. Preventive measures, such as vaccination against C. diphtheriae and good hygiene practices, can help reduce the risk of Corynebacterium infections.

Diphtheria toxin is a potent exotoxin produced by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae, which causes the disease diphtheria. This toxin is composed of two subunits: A and B. The B subunit helps the toxin bind to and enter host cells, while the A subunit inhibits protein synthesis within those cells, leading to cell damage and tissue destruction.

The toxin can cause a variety of symptoms depending on the site of infection. In respiratory diphtheria, it typically affects the nose, throat, and tonsils, causing a thick gray or white membrane to form over the affected area, making breathing and swallowing difficult. In cutaneous diphtheria, it infects the skin, leading to ulcers and necrosis.

Diphtheria toxin can also have systemic effects, such as damage to the heart, nerves, and kidneys, which can be life-threatening if left untreated. Fortunately, diphtheria is preventable through vaccination with the diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (DTaP or Tdap) vaccine.

'Corynebacterium glutamicum' is a species of Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in the environment, particularly in soil and water. It is a facultative anaerobe, which means it can grow with or without oxygen. The bacterium is non-pathogenic and has been widely studied and used in biotechnology due to its ability to produce various amino acids and other industrially relevant compounds.

The name 'Corynebacterium glutamicum' comes from its discovery as a bacterium that can ferment the amino acid glutamate, which is why it has been extensively used in the industrial production of L-glutamate, an important ingredient in many food products and feed additives.

In recent years, 'Corynebacterium glutamicum' has also gained attention as a potential platform organism for the production of various biofuels and biochemicals, including alcohols, organic acids, and hydrocarbons. Its genetic tractability and ability to utilize a wide range of carbon sources make it an attractive candidate for biotechnological applications.

Diphtheria Antitoxin is a medication used to treat diphtheria, a serious bacterial infection that can affect the nose, throat, and skin. It is made from the serum of animals (such as horses) that have been immunized against diphtheria. The antitoxin works by neutralizing the harmful effects of the diphtheria toxin produced by the bacteria, which can cause tissue damage and other complications.

Diphtheria Antitoxin is usually given as an injection into a muscle or vein, and it should be administered as soon as possible after a diagnosis of diphtheria has been made. It is important to note that while the antitoxin can help prevent further damage caused by the toxin, it does not treat the underlying infection itself, which requires antibiotics for proper treatment.

Like any medication, Diphtheria Antitoxin can have side effects, including allergic reactions, serum sickness, and anaphylaxis. It should only be administered under the supervision of a healthcare professional who is experienced in its use and can monitor the patient for any adverse reactions.

'Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis' is a gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, diphtheroid bacterium that is the causative agent of caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) in sheep and goats. It can also cause chronic, granulomatous infections in other animals, including horses, cattle, and humans. The bacteria are typically transmitted through contact with infected animals or contaminated environmental sources, such as soil or water. Infection can lead to the formation of abscesses in the lymph nodes, particularly in the head and neck region, as well as other organs.

In humans, 'Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis' infection is rare but can cause a variety of clinical manifestations, including chronic lymphadenitis, osteomyelitis, pneumonia, and septicemia. The disease is often referred to as "pseudotuberculosis" or "pigeon breast" in humans, due to the characteristic swelling of the chest that can occur with infection.

Diagnosis of 'Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis' infection typically involves the isolation and identification of the bacteria from clinical samples, such as pus or tissue biopsies. Treatment may involve surgical drainage of abscesses, along with antibiotic therapy. The choice of antibiotics depends on the severity and location of the infection, as well as the susceptibility of the bacterial strain.

Ribotyping is a molecular technique used in microbiology to identify and differentiate bacterial strains based on their specific PCR-amplified ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. This method involves the use of specific DNA probes or primers to target conserved regions of the rRNA operon, followed by hybridization or sequencing to analyze the resulting patterns. These patterns, known as "ribotypes," are unique to different bacterial species and strains, making ribotyping a valuable tool in epidemiological studies, outbreak investigations, and taxonomic classification of bacteria.

In the context of medicine, iron is an essential micromineral and key component of various proteins and enzymes. It plays a crucial role in oxygen transport, DNA synthesis, and energy production within the body. Iron exists in two main forms: heme and non-heme. Heme iron is derived from hemoglobin and myoglobin in animal products, while non-heme iron comes from plant sources and supplements.

The recommended daily allowance (RDA) for iron varies depending on age, sex, and life stage:

* For men aged 19-50 years, the RDA is 8 mg/day
* For women aged 19-50 years, the RDA is 18 mg/day
* During pregnancy, the RDA increases to 27 mg/day
* During lactation, the RDA for breastfeeding mothers is 9 mg/day

Iron deficiency can lead to anemia, characterized by fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath. Excessive iron intake may result in iron overload, causing damage to organs such as the liver and heart. Balanced iron levels are essential for maintaining optimal health.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

Siderophores are low-molecular-weight organic compounds that are secreted by microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi, to chelate and solubilize iron from their environment. They are able to bind ferric iron (Fe3+) with very high affinity and form a siderophore-iron complex, which can then be taken up by the microorganism through specific transport systems. This allows them to acquire iron even in environments where it is present at very low concentrations or in forms that are not readily available for uptake. Siderophores play an important role in the survival and virulence of many pathogenic microorganisms, as they help them to obtain the iron they need to grow and multiply.

Lysogeny is a process in the life cycle of certain viruses, known as bacteriophages or phages, which can infect bacteria. In lysogeny, the viral DNA integrates into the chromosome of the host bacterium and replicates along with it, remaining dormant and not producing any new virus particles. This state is called lysogeny or the lysogenic cycle.

The integrated viral DNA is known as a prophage. The bacterial cell that contains a prophage is called a lysogen. The lysogen can continue to grow and divide normally, passing the prophage onto its daughter cells during reproduction. This dormant state can last for many generations of the host bacterium.

However, under certain conditions such as DNA damage or exposure to UV radiation, the prophage can be induced to excise itself from the bacterial chromosome and enter the lytic cycle. In the lytic cycle, the viral DNA replicates rapidly, producing many new virus particles, which eventually leads to the lysis (breaking open) of the host cell and the release of the newly formed virions.

Lysogeny is an important mechanism for the spread and survival of bacteriophages in bacterial populations. It also plays a role in horizontal gene transfer between bacteria, as genes carried by prophages can be transferred to other bacteria during transduction.

Bacteriophages, often simply called phages, are viruses that infect and replicate within bacteria. They consist of a protein coat, called the capsid, that encases the genetic material, which can be either DNA or RNA. Bacteriophages are highly specific, meaning they only infect certain types of bacteria, and they reproduce by hijacking the bacterial cell's machinery to produce more viruses.

Once a phage infects a bacterium, it can either replicate its genetic material and create new phages (lytic cycle), or integrate its genetic material into the bacterial chromosome and replicate along with the bacterium (lysogenic cycle). In the lytic cycle, the newly formed phages are released by lysing, or breaking open, the bacterial cell.

Bacteriophages play a crucial role in shaping microbial communities and have been studied as potential alternatives to antibiotics for treating bacterial infections.

The pharynx is a part of the digestive and respiratory systems that serves as a conduit for food and air. It is a musculo-membranous tube extending from the base of the skull to the level of the sixth cervical vertebra where it becomes continuous with the esophagus.

The pharynx has three regions: the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx. The nasopharynx is the uppermost region, which lies above the soft palate and is connected to the nasal cavity. The oropharynx is the middle region, which includes the area between the soft palate and the hyoid bone, including the tonsils and base of the tongue. The laryngopharynx is the lowest region, which lies below the hyoid bone and connects to the larynx.

The primary function of the pharynx is to convey food from the oral cavity to the esophagus during swallowing and to allow air to pass from the nasal cavity to the larynx during breathing. It also plays a role in speech, taste, and immune defense.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Russia" is not a medical term or concept. Russia is the largest country in the world by land area, located primarily in Asia with a smaller portion extending into Europe. It is a nation rich in history and culture, known for its diverse landscapes, from tundra and forests to subtropical beaches.

If you have any medical questions or terms that you would like me to define, please feel free to ask!

Gene expression regulation in bacteria refers to the complex cellular processes that control the production of proteins from specific genes. This regulation allows bacteria to adapt to changing environmental conditions and ensure the appropriate amount of protein is produced at the right time.

Bacteria have a variety of mechanisms for regulating gene expression, including:

1. Operon structure: Many bacterial genes are organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule. The expression of these genes can be coordinately regulated by controlling the transcription of the entire operon.
2. Promoter regulation: Transcription is initiated at promoter regions upstream of the gene or operon. Bacteria have regulatory proteins called sigma factors that bind to the promoter and recruit RNA polymerase, the enzyme responsible for transcribing DNA into RNA. The binding of sigma factors can be influenced by environmental signals, allowing for regulation of transcription.
3. Attenuation: Some operons have regulatory regions called attenuators that control transcription termination. These regions contain hairpin structures that can form in the mRNA and cause transcription to stop prematurely. The formation of these hairpins is influenced by the concentration of specific metabolites, allowing for regulation of gene expression based on the availability of those metabolites.
4. Riboswitches: Some bacterial mRNAs contain regulatory elements called riboswitches that bind small molecules directly. When a small molecule binds to the riboswitch, it changes conformation and affects transcription or translation of the associated gene.
5. CRISPR-Cas systems: Bacteria use CRISPR-Cas systems for adaptive immunity against viruses and plasmids. These systems incorporate short sequences from foreign DNA into their own genome, which can then be used to recognize and cleave similar sequences in invading genetic elements.

Overall, gene expression regulation in bacteria is a complex process that allows them to respond quickly and efficiently to changing environmental conditions. Understanding these regulatory mechanisms can provide insights into bacterial physiology and help inform strategies for controlling bacterial growth and behavior.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

Diphtheria toxoid is a modified form of the diphtheria toxin that has been made harmless but still stimulates an immune response. It is used in vaccines to provide immunity against diphtheria, a serious bacterial infection that can cause breathing difficulties, heart failure, and paralysis. The toxoid is typically combined with other components in a vaccine, such as tetanus toxoid and pertussis vaccine, to form a combination vaccine that protects against multiple diseases.

The diphtheria toxoid is made by treating the diphtheria toxin with formaldehyde, which modifies the toxin's structure and makes it nontoxic while still retaining its ability to stimulate an immune response. When the toxoid is introduced into the body through vaccination, the immune system recognizes it as a foreign substance and produces antibodies against it. These antibodies then provide protection against future infections with the diphtheria bacteria.

The diphtheria toxoid vaccine is usually given as part of a routine childhood immunization schedule, starting at 2 months of age. Booster shots are recommended throughout childhood and adolescence, and adults may also need booster shots if they have not received them previously or if their immune status has changed.

A bacterial gene is a segment of DNA (or RNA in some viruses) that contains the genetic information necessary for the synthesis of a functional bacterial protein or RNA molecule. These genes are responsible for encoding various characteristics and functions of bacteria such as metabolism, reproduction, and resistance to antibiotics. They can be transmitted between bacteria through horizontal gene transfer mechanisms like conjugation, transformation, and transduction. Bacterial genes are often organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that the term "bacterial gene" is used to describe genetic elements found in bacteria, but not all genetic elements in bacteria are considered genes. For example, some DNA sequences may not encode functional products and are therefore not considered genes. Additionally, some bacterial genes may be plasmid-borne or phage-borne, rather than being located on the bacterial chromosome.

Propionibacterium acnes is a gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterium that naturally colonizes the skin, predominantly in areas with a high density of sebaceous glands such as the face, back, and chest. It is part of the normal skin flora but can contribute to the development of acne vulgaris when it proliferates excessively and clogs the pilosebaceous units (hair follicles).

The bacterium metabolizes sebum, producing propionic acid and other short-chain fatty acids as byproducts. In acne, these byproducts can cause an inflammatory response in the skin, leading to the formation of papules, pustules, and nodules. Propionibacterium acnes has also been implicated in various other skin conditions and occasionally in opportunistic infections in other parts of the body, particularly in immunocompromised individuals or following surgical procedures.

Infectious skin diseases are conditions characterized by an infection or infestation of the skin caused by various microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites. These organisms invade the skin, causing inflammation, redness, itching, pain, and other symptoms. Examples of infectious skin diseases include:

1. Bacterial infections: Cellulitis, impetigo, folliculitis, and MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) infections are examples of bacterial skin infections.
2. Viral infections: Herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), human papillomavirus (HPV), and molluscum contagiosum are common viruses that can cause skin infections.
3. Fungal infections: Tinea pedis (athlete's foot), tinea corporis (ringworm), candidiasis (yeast infection), and pityriasis versicolor are examples of fungal skin infections.
4. Parasitic infestations: Scabies, lice, and bed bugs are examples of parasites that can cause infectious skin diseases.

Treatment for infectious skin diseases depends on the underlying cause and may include topical or oral antibiotics, antiviral medications, antifungal treatments, or insecticides to eliminate parasitic infestations. Proper hygiene, wound care, and avoiding contact with infected individuals can help prevent the spread of infectious skin diseases.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique is a type of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)-based method used in molecular biology for DNA fingerprinting and genetic diversity analysis. This technique utilizes random primers of arbitrary nucleotide sequences to amplify random segments of genomic DNA. The amplified products are then separated by electrophoresis, and the resulting banding patterns are analyzed.

In RAPD analysis, the randomly chosen primers bind to multiple sites in the genome, and the intervening regions between the primer binding sites are amplified. Since the primer binding sites can vary among individuals within a species or among different species, the resulting amplicons will also differ. These differences in amplicon size and pattern can be used to distinguish between individuals or populations at the DNA level.

RAPD is a relatively simple and cost-effective technique that does not require prior knowledge of the genome sequence. However, it has some limitations, such as low reproducibility and sensitivity to experimental conditions. Despite these limitations, RAPD remains a useful tool for genetic analysis in various fields, including forensics, plant breeding, and microbial identification.

Heme is not a medical term per se, but it is a term used in the field of medicine and biology. Heme is a prosthetic group found in hemoproteins, which are proteins that contain a heme iron complex. This complex plays a crucial role in various biological processes, including oxygen transport (in hemoglobin), electron transfer (in cytochromes), and chemical catalysis (in peroxidases and catalases).

The heme group consists of an organic component called a porphyrin ring, which binds to a central iron atom. The iron atom can bind or release electrons, making it essential for redox reactions in the body. Heme is also vital for the formation of hemoglobin and myoglobin, proteins responsible for oxygen transport and storage in the blood and muscles, respectively.

In summary, heme is a complex organic-inorganic structure that plays a critical role in several biological processes, particularly in electron transfer and oxygen transport.

Hemin is defined as the iron(III) complex of protoporphyrin IX, which is a porphyrin derivative. It is a naturally occurring substance that is involved in various biological processes, most notably in the form of heme, which is a component of hemoglobin and other hemoproteins. Hemin is also used in medical research and therapy, such as in the treatment of methemoglobinemia and lead poisoning.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

Peptide Elongation Factor 1 (PEF1) is not a commonly used medical term, but it is a term used in biochemistry and molecular biology. Here's the definition:

Peptide Elongation Factor 1 (also known as EF-Tu in prokaryotes or EFT1A/EFT1B in eukaryotes) is a protein involved in the elongation phase of protein synthesis, specifically during translation. It plays a crucial role in delivering aminoacyl-tRNAs to the ribosome, enabling the addition of new amino acids to the growing polypeptide chain.

In eukaryotic cells, EF1A and EF1B (also known as EF-Ts) form a complex that helps facilitate the binding of aminoacyl-tRNAs to the ribosome. In prokaryotic cells, EF-Tu forms a complex with GTP and aminoacyl-tRNA, which then binds to the ribosome. Once bound, GTP is hydrolyzed to GDP, causing a conformational change that releases the aminoacyl-tRNA into the acceptor site of the ribosome, allowing for peptide bond formation. The EF-Tu/GDP complex then dissociates from the ribosome and is recycled by another protein called EF-G (EF-G in prokaryotes or EFL1 in eukaryotes).

Therefore, Peptide Elongation Factor 1 plays a critical role in ensuring that the correct amino acids are added to the growing peptide chain during protein synthesis.

The Diphtheria-Tetanus vaccine, also known as the DT vaccine or Td vaccine (if diphtheria toxoid is not included), is a combination vaccine that protects against two potentially serious bacterial infections: diphtheria and tetanus.

Diphtheria is a respiratory infection that can cause breathing difficulties, heart problems, and nerve damage. Tetanus, also known as lockjaw, is a bacterial infection that affects the nervous system and causes muscle stiffness and spasms, particularly in the jaw and neck.

The vaccine contains small amounts of inactivated toxins (toxoids) from the bacteria that cause diphtheria and tetanus. When the vaccine is administered, it stimulates the immune system to produce antibodies that provide protection against these diseases.

In addition to protecting against diphtheria and tetanus, some formulations of the vaccine may also include protection against pertussis (whooping cough), polio, or hepatitis B. The DTaP vaccine is a similar combination vaccine that includes protection against diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis, but uses acellular pertussis components instead of the whole-cell pertussis component used in the DT vaccine.

The Diphtheria-Tetanus vaccine is typically given as a series of shots in childhood, with booster shots recommended every 10 years to maintain immunity. It is an important part of routine childhood vaccination and is also recommended for adults who have not received the full series of shots or whose protection has waned over time.

The Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis (DTaP) vaccine is a combination immunization that protects against three bacterial diseases: diphtheria, tetanus (lockjaw), and pertussis (whooping cough).

Diphtheria is an upper respiratory infection that can lead to breathing difficulties, heart failure, paralysis, or even death. Tetanus is a bacterial infection that affects the nervous system and causes muscle stiffness and spasms, leading to "lockjaw." Pertussis is a highly contagious respiratory infection characterized by severe coughing fits, which can make it difficult to breathe and may lead to pneumonia, seizures, or brain damage.

The DTaP vaccine contains inactivated toxins (toxoids) from the bacteria that cause these diseases. It is typically given as a series of five shots, with doses administered at 2 months, 4 months, 6 months, 15-18 months, and 4-6 years of age. The vaccine helps the immune system develop protection against the diseases without causing the actual illness.

It is important to note that there are other combination vaccines available that protect against these same diseases, such as DT (diphtheria and tetanus toxoids) and Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis), which contain higher doses of the diphtheria and pertussis components. These vaccines are recommended for different age groups and may be used as booster shots to maintain immunity throughout adulthood.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Indonesia" is not a medical term. It is a country located in Southeast Asia and Oceania, between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It is the world's largest island country, with more than thirteen thousand islands. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

Anti-bacterial agents, also known as antibiotics, are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria. These agents work by either killing the bacteria or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. There are several different classes of anti-bacterial agents, including penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and tetracyclines, among others. Each class of antibiotic has a specific mechanism of action and is used to treat certain types of bacterial infections. It's important to note that anti-bacterial agents are not effective against viral infections, such as the common cold or flu. Misuse and overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which is a significant global health concern.

"Corynebacterium". LPSN. Hoskisson PA (June 2018). "Microbe Profile: Corynebacterium diphtheriae - an old foe always ready to ... C. diphtheriae does not produce pyrazinamidase which differentiates from Corynebacterium striatum and Corynebacterium jeikeium ... Transcription Factors and Regulatory Networks Corynebacterium diphtheriae genome Type strain of Corynebacterium diphtheriae at ... The Corynebacterium diphtheriae genome is a single circular chromosome that has no plasmids. These chromosomes have a high G+C ...
... is an exotoxin secreted mainly by Corynebacterium diphtheriae but also by Corynebacterium ulcerans and ... Murphy JR (1996). "Corynebacterium Diphtheriae: Diphtheria Toxin Production". In Baron S, et al. (eds.). Medical microbiology ( ... Freeman VJ (June 1951). "Studies on the virulence of bacteriophage-infected strains of Corynebacterium diphtheriae". Journal of ... "Further observations on the change to virulence of bacteriophage-infected a virulent strains of Corynebacterium diphtheria". ...
... the diphtheria toxin of Corynebacterium diphtheriae was shown to be dependent on NAD+ in order for it to be completely ... and diphtheria toxin of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Histone code Cell signaling PARP-1 Cholera toxin NAD+ ADP- ...
Not all strains of a bacteria species are virulent; there are some strains of Corynebacterium diphtheriae that do not produce ... Diphtheria toxin Diphtheria toxin is produced by virulent Corynebacterium diphtheriae that infect the mucosal membranes of the ... Murphy, John R. (1996), Baron, Samuel (ed.), "Corynebacterium Diphtheriae", Medical Microbiology (4th ed.), Galveston (TX): ... produced by lysogenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains infected with corynephage ß Several staphylococci toxins ( ...
Rarely bacteria such as Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, or Haemophilus influenzae may be the cause. ... Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Treponema pallidum, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Anaerobic bacteria have been implicated in ...
This modification is a target for the powerful toxins of disparate bacteria, e.g., Vibrio cholerae, Corynebacterium diphtheriae ...
Buck, in 1949, described a modified Loeffler's medium for cultivating Corynebacterium diphtheriae. This medium has a variety of ... Buck, T.C. (1949). "A modified Loeffler's medium for cultivating Corynebacterium diphtheriae". Translational Research. 34 (4): ... Perry, C.A.; Petran, E.I. (1939). "Routine laboratory examinations for C. diphtheriae". Translational Research. 25: 71-78. ... primary value of Loeffler medium is in the growth and morphological characterization of members of the genus Corynebacterium. ...
belfanti, synonym for Corynebacterium belfantii Corynebacterium diphtheriae bv. intermedius Corynebacterium diphtheriae bv. ... biovar 4280, synonym for Citrobacter rodentium Corynebacterium diphtheriae bv. ... mitis Corynebacterium ulcerans bv. belfanti Francisella tularensis Biovar A str. SCHU S4, synonym for Francisella tularensis ...
Kang HJ, Paterson NG, Gaspar AH, Ton-That H, Baker EN (October 2009). "The Corynebacterium diphtheriae shaft pilin SpaA is ... Mandlik A, Swierczynski A, Das A, Ton-That H (April 2007). "Corynebacterium diphtheriae employs specific minor pilins to target ... Gaspar AH, Ton-That H (February 2006). "Assembly of distinct pilus structures on the surface of Corynebacterium diphtheriae". ... Ton-That H, Schneewind O (November 2003). "Assembly of pili on the surface of Corynebacterium diphtheriae". Molecular ...
... or the Elek plate test is an in vitro test of virulence performed on specimens of Corynebacterium diphtheriae, the ... "Tissue culture method for toxigenicity testing of Corynebacterium diphtheriae". Appl Microbiol. 16 (11): 1748-52. PMC 547753. ... It is used to test for toxigenicity of C. diphtheriae strains. The test uses immunodiffusion. A strip of filter paper ... diphtheriae specimens compared with previous tests. It also allowed an in vitro test to replace a clinical test on laboratory ...
Examples are the conversion of harmless strains of Corynebacterium diphtheriae or Vibrio cholerae by bacteriophages to highly ... ISBN 978-0-07-893649-4. Mokrousov I (January 2009). "Corynebacterium diphtheriae: genome diversity, population structure and ...
Examples: Corynebacterium diphtheriae produces the toxin of diphtheria only when it is infected by the phage β. In this case, ... Mokrousov I (January 2009). "Corynebacterium diphtheriae: genome diversity, population structure and genotyping perspectives". ...
It works by neutralizing the toxins produced by Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Diphtheria antitoxin was developed and came into ...
Loeffler also discovers the causative organism for diphtheria, Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Ophthalmologist Karl Koller ...
... and Mycobacterium diphtheriae. Current nomenclature is Corynebacterium diphtheriae.[citation needed] In 1884, German ... Diphtheria is an infection caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Most infections are asymptomatic or have a mild ... Freeman, Victor J (1951). "Studies on the Virulence of Bacteriophage-Infected Strains of Corynebacterium Diphtheriae". Journal ... Corynebacterium diphtheriae) 1995 Case Definition" Archived 20 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine. As a work of an agency of ...
Well-known exotoxins include: botulinum toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum; Corynebacterium diphtheriae toxin, produced ... Clostridium tetani and Corynebacterium diphtheriae respectively. Vaccination with the toxoids generates antibodies against the ...
Cutaneous diphtheria is an infection of the skin by Corynebacterium diphtheriae.: 265 It is also known as "desert sore". ...
2003). "The complete genome sequence and analysis of Corynebacterium diphtheriae NCTC13129". Nucleic Acids Res. 31 (22): 6516- ... 2005). "Complete genome sequence and analysis of the multiresistant nosocomial pathogen Corynebacterium jeikeium K411, a lipid- ... complete genome sequence analysis of the amino acid replacements responsible for the thermostability of Corynebacterium ...
Cohen, S.; Snyder, J. C.; Mueller, J. H. (1941). "Factors Concerned in the Growth of Corynebacterium diphtheriae from Minute ...
Freeman VJ (June 1951). "Studies on the virulence of bacteriophage-infected strains of Corynebacterium diphtheriae". Journal of ... in a paper demonstrating that the transfer of a viral gene into Corynebacterium diphtheriae created a virulent strain from a ...
For example, staphylococcus, streptococcus, and diphtheria bacillus (Corynebacterium diphtheriae) were easily killed; but there ...
Without it municipality and state can do nothing." The laboratory began culturing Corynebacterium diphtheriae from throat swabs ...
... is a toxoid vaccine against diphtheria, an illness caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Its use has ...
One of its best known relatives is Corynebacterium diphtheriae, the causative agent of diphtheria. C. amycolatum is a common ... Corynebacterium endocarditis usually infects the left side of the heart in males, though C. amycolatum has shown a predilection ... Corynebacterium amycolatum is a gram-positive, non-spore-forming, aerobic or facultatively anaerobic bacillus capable of ... Berner, R; K Pelz; C Wilhelm; A Funke; J U Leititis; M Brandis (April 1997). "Fatal sepsis caused by Corynebacterium amycolatum ...
Dipthamide is named after the toxin produced by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae, which targets diphthamide. Besides ...
In 1883, Klebs successfully identified the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae as the etiological agent of diphtheria. This ... now Corynebacterium diphtheriae). He was the father of physician Arnold Klebs. Klebs was born in Königsberg, Province of ...
It is the target of diphtheria toxin (from Corynebacterium diphtheriae), and exotoxin A (from Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The ...
Corynebacterium diphtheriae) in 1884; and Georg Theodor August Gaffky, the bacterium of typhoid (Salmonella enterica) in 1884. ...
Corynebacterium diphtheriae) in 1884; and Georg Theodor August Gaffky, the bacterium of typhoid (Salmonella enterica) in 1884. ...
The gene for CRM197 has been cloned into Corynebacterium diphtheriae, the bacteria that produces the native toxin. Like the ...
"Corynebacterium". LPSN. Hoskisson PA (June 2018). "Microbe Profile: Corynebacterium diphtheriae - an old foe always ready to ... C. diphtheriae does not produce pyrazinamidase which differentiates from Corynebacterium striatum and Corynebacterium jeikeium ... Transcription Factors and Regulatory Networks Corynebacterium diphtheriae genome Type strain of Corynebacterium diphtheriae at ... The Corynebacterium diphtheriae genome is a single circular chromosome that has no plasmids. These chromosomes have a high G+C ...
... MMWR 46(22);506-510 Publication ... Patients with Corynebacterium diptheriae isolates .... Household contacts with Corynebacterium diptheriae isolates .... Article ... Fatal respiratory disease due to Corynebacterium diphtheriae: case report and review of guidelines for management, ... TABLE 2. Household contacts with Corynebacterium diphtheriae isolates -- Northern Plains Indian community, August-October 1996 ...
CCUG5864 - Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Deposit Date: 1977-03-20
Learn and reinforce your understanding of Corynebacterium diphtheriae (Diphtheria). ... Corynebacterium diphtheriae (Diphtheria) Videos, Flashcards, High Yield Notes, & Practice Questions. ...
Background Corynebacterium diphtheriae is highly transmissible and can cause large diphtheria outbreaks where vaccination ... diphtheriae. The unified genomic taxonomy of C. diphtheriae strains provides a common language for studies into the ecology, ... Results The cgMLST scheme showed high allele call rate in C. diphtheriae and the closely related species C. belfantii and C. ... The phylogeography and short timescale evolution of C. diphtheriae are not well understood, in part due to a lack of harmonized ...
Corynebacterium diphtheriae. C. diphtheriae is an aerobic gram-positive bacillus. Toxin production (toxigenicity) occurs only ... Diphtheria is an acute, bacterial disease caused by toxin-producing strains of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Infection can ... Two other Corynebacterium species (C. ulcerans and C. pseudotuberculosis) may produce diphtheria toxin; both species are ... When C. diphtheriae is identified, it is critical that state and local public health laboratories submit specimens or isolates ...
Corynebacterium diphtheriae) case definitions; uniform criteria used to define a disease for public health surveillance. ... Diphtheria (Corynebacterium diphtheriae) , 2019 Case Definition. *Diphtheria (Corynebacterium diphtheriae) , 2010 Case ... Diphtheria (Corynebacterium diphtheriae) , 1995 Case Definition. *Diphtheria (Corynebacterium diphtheriae) , 1990 Case ...
... and Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Streptococcus pyogenes (group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus) Adult dosage:... ... Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Extremely rare in the United States; diagnosis should be suspected in cases of pharyngitis with ...
... 26(9). Fuchs, Frieder et al. "Toxigenic Corynebacterium ... Molecular Characterization of Corynebacterium diphtheriae Outbreak Isolates, South Africa, March-June 2015 Cite ... "Toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae-Associated Genital Ulceration" vol. 26, no. 9, 2020. Export RIS Citation Information.. ... "Molecular Characterization of Corynebacterium diphtheriae Outbreak Isolates, South Africa, March-June 2015" 23, no. 8 (2017). ...
This study aims to evaluate the first-line antibiotic susceptibility pattern of toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae isolates ... C. diphtheriae isolates were collected from diphtheria patients and carriers in East Java from 2012 to 2017 and kept at the ... diphtheriae to erythromycin was better than that to penicillin. The E-test result for penicillin was 68.52% susceptible, 31.48 ... diphtheriae to erythromycin is higher than that to penicillin. The regular update of antibiotic selection to the national ...
Decrease quantity for Corynebacterium diphtheriae toxin IgG ELISA Increase quantity for Corynebacterium diphtheriae toxin IgG ... Corynebacterium diphtheriae toxin IgG ELISA. Corynebacterium diphtheriae toxin IgG ELISA SKU:DECORG0090 ...
termFormat EnglishLanguage CorynebacteriumDiphtheriae "corynebacterium diphtheriae"). domainEnglishFormat.kif 17434-17434. Show ... documentation CorynebacteriumDiphtheriae EnglishLanguage "The Bacterium that secretes a Toxin that causes Diphtheria."). WMD. ... termFormat ChineseLanguage CorynebacteriumDiphtheriae "白喉棒状杆菌"). domainEnglishFormat.kif 17436-17436. ... termFormat ChineseTraditionalLanguage CorynebacteriumDiphtheriae "白喉棒狀桿菌"). domainEnglishFormat.kif 17435-17435. ...
name=LexA regulon. species= Corynebacterium diphtheriae NCTC 13129. (optional)size=15. ...
Corynebacterium diphtheriae. *Corynebacterium diphtheriae, the cause of diphtheria in humans.. Nondiphtheriae Corynebacteria ( ... Corynebacterium parvum (also called Propionibacterium acnes). *Corynebacterium pseudodiptheriticum (also called Corynebacterium ... Corynebacterium striatum, (Axillary odor [2]). *Corynebacterium tenuis (Trichomycosis palmellina, Trichomycosis axillaris) [3] ... year by Corynebacterium. The metabolic pathways of Corynebacterium have been further manipulated to produce L-Lysine and L- ...
Corynebacterium diphtheriae. *Overview. *Timeline. With a peak of over 200,000 cases in 1921, this bacterial infection is now a ...
Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Lower gastrointestinal tract symptoms (abdominal cramps, diarrhea) occur first or predominate. 2- ...
Diphtheria is an acute infection caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae. ... Corynebacterium diphtheriae (diphtheria). In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennetts Principles ...
Find proteins for P0DJL7 (Corynebacterium diphtheriae (strain ATCC 700971 / NCTC 13129 / Biotype gravis)) ... The diphtheria toxin repressor (DtxR) from Corynebacterium diphtheriae regulates the expression of the gene on ...
Here, we included in the analysis novel spacers of the other CRISPR locus in C. diphtheriae (DRA); both loci were ... In the complete genome sequence of C. diphtheriae strain NCTC13129, we previously identified in silico two clustered, regularly ... underlined the importance of permanent surveillance of the circulating and emerging clones of Corynebacterium diphtheriae, and ... Corynebacterium diphtheriae spoligotyping based on combined use of two CRISPR loci.. Biotechnology Journal, 2007, 2 (7), pp.901 ...
Screening for Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Corynebacterium ulcerans in patients with upper respiratory tract infection 2007- ... Re-emergence of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses, Vol. 49, Issue. 6, p. 463. ... Vaccination coverage is similar in Hungary, Latvia and Slovakia, but the circulation of C. diphtheriae might be responsible for ... to diphtheria presumably involves both humoral and cell-mediated immunity to multiple antigens of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. ...
Corynebacterium diphtheriae 2p1z_b Q6NF12 99.50 3.20E-18 2.00E-22 113.60 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ...
Other organisms susceptible to penicillin G are N. gonorrhoeae , Corynebacterium diphtheriae , Bacillus anthracis , Clostridium ...
Corynebacterium diphtheriae Streptococcus pyogenes Viridans group streptococci. Anaerobic bacteria:. Clostridium tetani ...
Corynebacterium diphtheriae. G. *Gram stain. K. *Kochs postulates. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title= ...
Isolation of Corynebacterium diphtheriae from the nose or throat OR. *Epidemiologic linkage to a laboratory-confirmed case of ... Cases of laboratory-confirmed, non-toxin-producing C. diphtheriae (respiratory or non-respiratory) should not be reported by ... diphtheriae, when used alone, do not confirm toxin production. These tests, when used, should always be combined with a test ... diphtheriae is confirmed via laboratory testing (isolation and toxigenicity testing by modified Elek test or other validated ...
Corynebacterium diphtheriae The bacterium responsible for the disease diphtheria. Coxsackieviruses Viruses composed of about ...
The genus contains the species Corynebacterium diphtheriae and the nondiphtherial corynebacteria, collectively referred to as ... in cattle due to infection with Corynebacterium renale, Corynebacterium cystidis, Corynebacterium pilosum, and Corynebacterium ... Screening for Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Corynebacterium ulcerans in patients with upper respiratory tract infections 2007 ... Human clinical isolates of Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Corynebacterium ulcerans collected in Canada from 1999 to 2003 but ...
130 Corynebacterium Diphtheriae. * Authors Sarah S. Long, MD, Associate editor of The Journal of Pediatrics, as well as the Red ...
HtaA is an iron-regulated hemin binding protein involved in the utilization of heme iron in Corynebacterium diphtheriae. J ... Novel hemin binding domains in the Corynebacterium diphtheriae HtaA protein interact with hemoglobin and are critical for heme ... Corynebacterium diphtheriae utilizes a unique system for heme transport, which consists of HtaAB and HmuTUV. The cell-surface ... The gene arrangement is similar to that found for the HtaAB-HmuTUV gene cluster of Corynebacterium diphtheriae [32], whose ...
  • However, when it comes to the subtyping of C. diphtheriae, there is not a lot of useful or accurate classification due to the lack of publicly available resources to identify strains and therefore finding the origin of outbreaks. (wikipedia.org)
  • iphtheria, caused by toxigenic strains of the bac- Although these 3 strains contained the tox gene, they terium Corynebacterium diphtheriae , can result were not toxin producing. (cdc.gov)
  • We defined sublineages based on the phylogenetic structure within C. diphtheriae and strains based on the highest number of cgMLST mismatches within documented outbreaks. (pasteur.fr)
  • Diphtheria is an acute, bacterial disease caused by toxin-producing strains of Corynebacterium diphtheriae . (cdc.gov)
  • Non-toxin-producing strains of C. diphtheriae can also cause disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Invasive disease, including bacteremia and endocarditis, has been reported for non-toxin-producing strains of C. diphtheriae . (cdc.gov)
  • Vaccination is highly protective against disease caused by toxin-producing strains, but does not prevent carriage of C. diphtheriae , regardless of toxin production status. (cdc.gov)
  • Three strains of C diphtheriae are recognized, in decreasing order of virulence: gravis, intermedius, and mitis. (medscape.com)
  • Diphtheria is a severe infection caused in humans by toxigenic strains of Corynebacterium diphtheriae bacteria. (pasteur.fr)
  • Case series from Canada, consistent with global surveillance, have found that the disease burden is increasingly attributed to cutaneous, non-pseudomembranous respiratory and systemic disease from toxigenic and non-toxigenic strains of Corynebacterium diphtheriae and C. ulcerans Footnote 2 Footnote 3 Footnote 4 Footnote 5 Footnote 6 Footnote 7 Footnote 8 . (canada.ca)
  • Diphtheria is a serious infection caused by strains of bacteria called Corynebacterium diphtheriae that make a toxin (poison). (truewestmagazine.com)
  • C. diphtheriae produces diphtheria toxin which alters protein function in the host by inactivating the elongation factor EF-2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Toxigenicity is contingent on successful as a novel species, C. rouxii , because of biochemical and bacterial expression of diphtheria toxin, encoded by genetic differences with C. diphtheriae ( 10 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The diphtheria toxin repressor (DtxR) from Corynebacterium diphtheriae regulates the expression of the gene on corynebacteriophages that encodes diphtheria toxin (DT). (rcsb.org)
  • One such example is diphtheria toxin, which is produced by Corynebacterium diphtheriae and causes diphtheria, a serious and potentially fatal bacterial infection of the nose and throat. (scitechdaily.com)
  • The organism produces catalase but not urease, which differentiates it from Corynebacterium ulcerans. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, toxigenic recommendations exist for toxigenic diphtheria in Corynebacterium ulcerans is a zoonotic organism that animals because of its rarity, but health departments causes diphtheria-like illness in humans clinically may pursue interventions similar to those to prevent transmission in humans. (cdc.gov)
  • Toxin-producing C. ulcerans may cause disease indistinguishable from that caused by toxin-producing C. diphtheriae , but person-to-person spread has not been documented. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition to disease burden, other toxigenic Corynebacteria ( C. ulcerans or C. pseudotuberculosis ) and non-toxigenic C. diphtheriae may serve to maintain a reservoir for toxigenic respiratory diphtheria Footnote 2 Footnote 4 Footnote 8 . (canada.ca)
  • Five of the six culture-positive diphtheria cases reported in the United States since 1988 have been associated with importation of Corynebacterium diphtheriae, an organism believed to have become rare or to have disappeared from the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • In response to isolation of this organism, the South Dakota Department of Health (SDDOH), the Aberdeen Area Office of the IHS, and CDC initiated enhanced surveillance to evaluate the possibility of C. diphtheriae infections among other persons in the community where the patient lived. (cdc.gov)
  • The vaccine provides specific active immunization against infections caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Clostridium tetani, Bordetella pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae type B and the Hepatitis B virus in children from six weeks of age. (bvsalud.org)
  • The labo- consistent with diphtheria, but no signs or symptoms ratory isolated 2 bacteria, C. diphtheriae and M. farcino- were observed. (cdc.gov)
  • The tellurite reduction is colorimetrically indicated by brown colonies for most Cornyebacterium species or by a black halo around the C. diphtheriae colonies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Results The cgMLST scheme showed high allele call rate in C. diphtheriae and the closely related species C. belfantii and C. rouxii. (pasteur.fr)
  • Some nondiphtheria species of Corynebacterium produce disease in specific animal species, and some of these are also human pathogens . (wikidoc.org)
  • Some species of Corynebacterium have sequenced genomes that range in size from 2.5 - 3 Mbp. (wikidoc.org)
  • Species of Corynebacterium have been used in the mass production of various amino acids including L-Glutamic Acid , a popular food additive that is made at a rate of 1.5 million tons/ year by Corynebacterium. (wikidoc.org)
  • The genus contains the species Corynebacterium diphtheriae and the nondiphtherial corynebacteria, collectively referred to as diphtheroids. (medscape.com)
  • Nigéria, en décembre 2022 et publie depuis lors des rapports mensuels. (who.int)
  • C. diphtheriae does not produce pyrazinamidase which differentiates from Corynebacterium striatum and Corynebacterium jeikeium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on this reclassification, for example, Corynebacterium haemolyticum became Arcanobacterium haemolyticum and the JK group became Corynebacterium jeikeium . (medscape.com)
  • and urinary tract infections and mastitis (affecting milk production) in cattle due to infection with Corynebacterium renale , Corynebacterium cystidis , Corynebacterium pilosum , and Corynebacterium bovis . (medscape.com)
  • Nucleic acid testing confirmed that the C. diphtheriae was a toxigenic strain. (health.gov.au)
  • Diagnosis of diphtheria is confirmed by isolating C. diphtheriae and testing the isolate for toxin production by the Elek test, an in vitro immunoprecipitation (immunodiffusion) assay. (cdc.gov)
  • Individuals without evidence of clinical criteria as described by the diphtheria surveillance case definition but for whom toxin-producing C. diphtheriae is confirmed via laboratory testing (isolation and toxigenicity testing by modified Elek test or other validated test capable of confirming toxin-production) should not be classified as cases. (cdc.gov)
  • PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and MALDI-TOF (matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry) diagnostics for C. diphtheriae , when used alone, do not confirm toxin production. (cdc.gov)
  • Genomic epidemiology and strain taxonomy of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. (pasteur.fr)
  • The phylogeography and short timescale evolution of C. diphtheriae are not well understood, in part due to a lack of harmonized analytical approaches of genomic surveillance and strain tracking. (pasteur.fr)
  • In the complete genome sequence of C. diphtheriae strain NCTC13129, we previously identified in silico two clustered, regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) loci, and developed a macroarray-based method to study polymorphism in the larger DRB locus. (hal.science)
  • Oram DM, Must LM, Spinler JK, Twiddy EM, Holmes RK " Analysis of truncated variants of the iron dependent transcriptional regulators from Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. . (bcm.edu)
  • Cases of laboratory-confirmed, non-toxin-producing C. diphtheriae (respiratory or non-respiratory) should not be reported by state or local health departments to CDC as diphtheria cases. (cdc.gov)
  • C diphtheriae infection typically is characterized by a local inflammation, usually in the upper respiratory tract, associated with toxin-mediated cardiac and neural disease. (medscape.com)
  • After that, a differential plate known as tellurite agar, allows all Corynebacteria (including C. diphtheriae) to reduce tellurite to metallic tellurium. (wikipedia.org)
  • During August 1-October 7, all persons presenting to the IHS hospital and three satellite clinics for evaluation of pharyngitis, draining middle-ear infections, or skin ulcers were cultured for C. diphtheriae as part of their routine clinical care. (cdc.gov)
  • For more information about C diphtheriae infections, please see Diphtheria . (medscape.com)
  • C. diphtheriae was isolated from the swabs from six (5%) of the 133 patients ( Table 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • In some endemic locations, such as India, 44% of throat and nasal swabs tested positive for C diphtheriae and Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum . (medscape.com)
  • She was requested to submit nasal and throat swabs to assess C. diphtheriae carriage status. (health.gov.au)
  • Cutaneous diphtheria may present as a scaling rash or ulcers with clearly demarcated edges and membrane, but any chronic skin lesion may harbor C. diphtheriae along with other organisms. (cdc.gov)
  • C. diphtheriae is an aerobic gram-positive bacillus. (cdc.gov)
  • Reaction intermediate rotation during the decarboxylation of coproheme to heme b in C. diphtheriae. (boku.ac.at)
  • In addition to C. diphtheriae, three patients had culture-positive test results for beta-hemolytic Streptococcus (one each of Group A, Group C, and Group G), and one patient had culture-positive test results for C. pseudodiphtheriticum. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition to C. diphtheriae, Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A) and mixed anaerobes were isolated from the 1st swab of the lesion. (health.gov.au)
  • Background Corynebacterium diphtheriae is highly transmissible and can cause large diphtheria outbreaks where vaccination coverage is insufficient. (pasteur.fr)
  • To identify C. diphtheriae, a Gram stain is performed to show Gram-positive, highly pleomorphic organisms often looking like Chinese letters. (wikipedia.org)
  • A blood culture obtained from the patient on June 1 was sent to a regional reference laboratory, and C. diphtheriae, biotype mitis, was identified. (cdc.gov)
  • Diphtheria is an acute infection caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae . (medlineplus.gov)
  • C. diphtheriae isolates were collected from diphtheria patients and carriers in East Java from 2012 to 2017 and kept at the Balai Besar Laboratorium Kesehatan Daerah Surabaya or the Public Health Laboratory of Surabaya. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In April 2013, the Communicable Disease Control Branch (CDCB) of SA Health received notification from a laboratory of toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae in a clinical specimen collected from an Australian-born 18-year-old female. (health.gov.au)
  • Corynebacterium is a genus of Gram-positive , facultatively anaerobic , non- motile , rod-shaped actinobacteria . (wikidoc.org)
  • The susceptibility pattern of C. diphtheriae to erythromycin was better than that to penicillin. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The susceptibility rate of C. diphtheriae to erythromycin is higher than that to penicillin. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Penicillin and macrolide are groups of empirical antibiotics used to eradicate toxigenic C. diphtheriae based on the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines for the treatment of diphtheria [ 9 , 10 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This report describes a case of infection with toxigenic C. diphtheriae in an American Indian woman and presents the results of enhanced surveillance for diphtheria in the surrounding community. (cdc.gov)
  • A large diphtheria epidemic in the 1990s in Russia and neighboring countries underlined the importance of permanent surveillance of the circulating and emerging clones of Corynebacterium diphtheriae, and hence there is a need for highly discriminatory, simple and portable typing methods. (hal.science)
  • it may become a powerful tool for epidemiological monitoring and phylogenetic analysis of C. diphtheriae. (hal.science)
  • C. diphtheriae has shown to exclusively infect humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Corynebacterium diphtheriae , the cause of diphtheria in humans. (wikidoc.org)
  • Diphtheria is an acute infectious disease caused by a toxin from the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae . (who.int)
  • However, there has been extremely rare cases in which C. diphtheriae has been found in animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • A toxin-mediated disease caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae 2. (slideserve.com)
  • Some types of Corynebacterium diphtheriae release a potent toxin that can damage the heart, kidneys, and nervous system. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The metabolic pathways of Corynebacterium have been further manipulated to produce L-Lysine and L-Threonine . (wikidoc.org)