A species of gram-positive, asporogenous bacteria in which three cultural types are recognized. These types (gravis, intermedius, and mitis) were originally given in accordance with the clinical severity of the cases from which the different strains were most frequently isolated. This species is the causative agent of DIPHTHERIA.
A genus of asporogenous bacteria that is widely distributed in nature. Its organisms appear as straight to slightly curved rods and are known to be human and animal parasites and pathogens.
A localized infection of mucous membranes or skin caused by toxigenic strains of CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE. It is characterized by the presence of a pseudomembrane at the site of infection. DIPHTHERIA TOXIN, produced by C. diphtheriae, can cause myocarditis, polyneuritis, and other systemic toxic effects.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CORYNEBACTERIUM.
An ADP-ribosylating polypeptide produced by CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE that causes the signs and symptoms of DIPHTHERIA. It can be broken into two unequal domains: the smaller, catalytic A domain is the lethal moiety and contains MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASES which transfers ADP RIBOSE to PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTOR 2 thereby inhibiting protein synthesis; and the larger B domain that is needed for entry into cells.
A species of gram-positive, asporogenous, non-pathogenic, soil bacteria that produces GLUTAMIC ACID.
An antitoxin produced against the toxin of CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE that is used for the treatment of DIPHTHERIA.
A species of gram-positive, asporogenous bacteria that was originally isolated from necrotic areas in the kidney of a sheep. It may cause ulcerative lymphangitis, abscesses, and other chronic purulent infections in sheep, horses, and other warm-blooded animals. Human disease may form from contact with infected animals.
RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM analysis of rRNA genes that is used for differentiating between species or strains.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
A mixed function oxidase enzyme which during hemoglobin catabolism catalyzes the degradation of heme to ferrous iron, carbon monoxide and biliverdin in the presence of molecular oxygen and reduced NADPH. The enzyme is induced by metals, particularly cobalt. EC 1.14.99.3.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Low-molecular-weight compounds produced by microorganisms that aid in the transport and sequestration of ferric iron. (The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The formaldehyde-inactivated toxin of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It is generally used in mixtures with TETANUS TOXOID and PERTUSSIS VACCINE; (DTP); or with tetanus toxoid alone (DT for pediatric use and Td, which contains 5- to 10-fold less diphtheria toxoid, for other use). Diphtheria toxoid is used for the prevention of diphtheria; DIPHTHERIA ANTITOXIN is for treatment.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A bacteria isolated from normal skin, intestinal contents, wounds, blood, pus, and soft tissue abscesses. It is a common contaminant of clinical specimens, presumably from the skin of patients or attendants.
Skin diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, parasites, or viruses.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Technique that utilizes low-stringency polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with single primers of arbitrary sequence to generate strain-specific arrays of anonymous DNA fragments. RAPD technique may be used to determine taxonomic identity, assess kinship relationships, analyze mixed genome samples, and create specific probes.
The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.
Chloro(7,12-diethenyl-3,8,13,17-tetramethyl-21H,23H-porphine-2,18-dipropanoato(4-)-N(21),N(22),N(23),N(24)) ferrate(2-) dihydrogen.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Peptide elongation factor 1 is a multisubunit protein that is responsible for the GTP-dependent binding of aminoacyl-tRNAs to eukaryotic ribosomes. The alpha subunit (EF-1alpha) binds aminoacyl-tRNA and transfers it to the ribosome in a process linked to GTP hydrolysis. The beta and delta subunits (EF-1beta, EF-1delta) are involved in exchanging GDP for GTP. The gamma subunit (EF-1gamma) is a structural component.
Protein factors uniquely required during the elongation phase of protein synthesis.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
3-((4-Amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl)-5-(2- hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazolium chloride.
A disorder of neuromuscular transmission characterized by weakness of cranial and skeletal muscles. Autoantibodies directed against acetylcholine receptors damage the motor endplate portion of the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION, impairing the transmission of impulses to skeletal muscles. Clinical manifestations may include diplopia, ptosis, and weakness of facial, bulbar, respiratory, and proximal limb muscles. The disease may remain limited to the ocular muscles. THYMOMA is commonly associated with this condition. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1459)
Proteins that are structural components of bacterial fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) or sex pili (PILI, SEX).
Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the STREPTOCOCCUS MILLERI GROUP. It is commonly found in the oropharynx flora and has a proclivity for abscess formation, most characteristically in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and LIVER.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.

Control of corynebacteriophage reproduction by heteroimmune repression. (1/354)

Corynebacteriophages beta and gamma are closely related but heteroimmune; hence, gamma reproduces in C7(beta). A series of gamma mutants, designated gamma-bin (beta-inhibited), has been isolated. They reproduce in only 2 to 14% of infected C7(beta) cells, and, as a result, plaque with an efficiency of 10(-4) to 10(-5) on this strain. The proportion of C7(beta) cells in which gamma-bin phage can replicate is increased to 30 to 80% when immunity is lifted by UV induction of C7(beta) or by heat induction of C7(beta-tsr3). The gamma-bin mutants carry out a normal vegetative or lysogenic cycle in strain C7 and thus do not appear to be defective in any essential phage function. Infection of C7(beta) by gamma-bin results in cell killing whether the infection is productive or nonproductive. The data support the hypothesis that inhibition of gamma-bin is due to the direct or indirect action of a beta prophage gene. The simplest hypothesis is that gamma-bin phages have sustained mutations in an operator site and that beta repressor now combines with the mutated operator to inhibit normal replication in a significant proportion of infected cells.  (+info)

Use of molecular subtyping to document long-term persistence of Corynebacterium diphtheriae in South Dakota. (2/354)

Enhanced surveillance of patients with upper respiratory symptoms in a Northern Plains community revealed that approximately 4% of them were infected by toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae of both mitis and gravis biotypes, showing that the organism is still circulating in the United States. Toxigenic C. diphtheriae was isolated from five members of four households. Four molecular subtyping methods-ribotyping, multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MEE), random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and single-strand conformation polymorphism-were used to molecularly characterize these strains and compare them to 17 archival South Dakota strains dating back to 1973 through 1983 and to 5 isolates collected from residents of diverse regions of the United States. Ribotyping and RAPD clearly demonstrated the household transmission of isolates and provided precise information on the circulation of several distinct strains within three households. By MEE, most recent and archival South Dakota strains were identified as closely related and clustered within the newly identified ET (electrophoretic type) 215 complex. Furthermore, three recent South Dakota isolates and eight archival South Dakota isolates were indistinguishable by both ribotyping and RAPD. All of these molecular methods showed that recent South Dakota isolates and archival South Dakota isolates were more closely related to each other than to the C. diphtheriae strains isolated in other parts of the United States or worldwide. The data also supported the improbability of importation of C. diphtheriae into this area and rather strongly suggest the long-term persistence of the organism in this region.  (+info)

Quantitative studies on competitive activities of skin bacteria growing on solid media. (3/354)

Earlier quantitative investigations of antagonism between skin bacteria were based on the use of liquid cultures, but a more realistic model has now been devised, based on the use of the surfaces of solid media. Pure or mixed inocula were spread evenly over suitable agar media in Petri dishes marked out with a standard grid. Growth curves were constructed from viable counts of the surface bacteria after they had been removed from excised squares of the agar media and dispersed. The method was highly reproducible, and competitive interactions were revealed more clearly than in studies with liquid media. An antibiotic-producing strain of Staphylococcus epidermidis (S6+) readily suppressed strains of Micrococcus, Corynebacterium and Streptococcus species. However, a Staphylococcus aureus strain which was less sensitive to the antibiotic effect of S6+ interacted in a complex manner, depending on the absolute and relative size of the S6+ inoculum.  (+info)

Resurgent diphtheria--are we safe? (4/354)

Diphtheria, one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the past, seemed nearly eliminated from industrialized countries, thanks to improved hygienic conditions and large scale vaccinations. In 1990, a large epidemic started in Eastern Europe, mainly in Russia and Ukraine, with over 70,000 cases reported within a 5 year period. The main factors leading to the epidemic included low immunization coverage among infants and children, waning immunity to diphtheria among adults, and profound social changes in the former Soviet Union. The possibility of new virulence factors in the epidemic strain has not yet been ruled out. Even though immunity among adults is far from complete in Western Europe, the epidemic did not spread there. The main reason for this might be the good immune status of children and lack of social turbulence favouring the spread of infection. Several countries have also taken preventive measures, which may also have played a role in protection against the potential epidemic.  (+info)

Emergence of related nontoxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae biotype mitis strains in Western Europe. (5/354)

We report on 17 isolates of Corynebacterium diphtheriae biotype mitis with related ribotypes from Switzerland, Germany, and France. Isolates came from skin and subcutaneous infections of injecting drug users, homeless persons, prisoners, and elderly orthopedic patients with joint prostheses or primary joint infections. Such isolates had only been observed in Switzerland.  (+info)

Heme degradation as catalyzed by a recombinant bacterial heme oxygenase (Hmu O) from Corynebacterium diphtheriae. (6/354)

Hmu O, a heme degradation enzyme in the pathogen Corynebacterium diphtheriae, catalyzes the oxygen-dependent conversion of hemin to biliverdin, carbon monoxide, and free iron. A bacterial expression system using a synthetic gene coding for the 215-amino acid, full-length Hmu O has been constructed. Expressed at very high levels in Escherichia coli BL21, the enzyme binds hemin stoichiometrically to form a hexacoordinate high spin hemin-Hmu O complex. When ascorbic acid is used as the electron donor, Hmu O converts hemin to biliverdin with alpha-hydroxyhemin and verdoheme as intermediates. The overall conversion rate to biliverdin is approximately 4-fold slower than that by rat heme oxygenase (HO) isoform 1. Reaction of the hemin-Hmu O complex with hydrogen peroxide yields a verdoheme species, the recovery of which is much less compared with rat HO-1. Reaction of the hemin complex with meta-chloroperbenzoic acid generates a ferryl oxo species. Thus, the catalytic intermediate species and the nature of the active form in the first oxygenation step of Hmu O appear to be similar to those of the mammalian HO. However, the considerably slow catalytic rate and low level of verdoheme recovery in the hydrogen peroxide reaction suggest that the active-site structure of Hmu O is different from that of its mammalian counterpart.  (+info)

The heme complex of Hmu O, a bacterial heme degradation enzyme from Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Structure of the catalytic site. (7/354)

Hmu O, a heme degradation enzyme in Corynebacterium diphtheriae, forms a stoichiometric complex with iron protoporphyrin IX and catalyzes the oxygen-dependent conversion of hemin to biliverdin, carbon monoxide, and free iron. Using a multitude of spectroscopic techniques, we have determined the axial ligand coordination of the heme-Hmu O complex. The ferric complex shows a pH-dependent reversible transition between a water-bound hexacoordinate high spin neutral pH form and an alkaline form, having high spin and low spin states, with a pK(a) of 9. (1)H NMR, EPR, and resonance Raman of the heme-Hmu O complex establish that a neutral imidazole of a histidine residue is the proximal ligand of the complex, similar to mammalian heme oxygenase. EPR of the deoxy cobalt porphyrin IX-Hmu O complex confirms this proximal histidine coordination. Oxy cobalt-Hmu O EPR reveals a hydrogen-bonding interaction between the O(2) and an exchangeable proton in the Hmu O distal pocket and two distinct orientations for the bound O(2). Mammalian heme oxygenase has only one O(2) orientation. This difference and the mixed spin states at alkaline pH indicate structural differences in the distal environment between Hmu O and its mammalian counterpart.  (+info)

Identification of a two-component signal transduction system from Corynebacterium diphtheriae that activates gene expression in response to the presence of heme and hemoglobin. (8/354)

Corynebacterium diphtheriae, the causative agent of diphtheria, utilizes various host compounds to acquire iron. The C. diphtheriae hmuO gene encodes a heme oxygenase that is involved in the utilization of heme and hemoglobin as iron sources. Transcription of the hmuO gene in C. diphtheriae is controlled under a dual regulatory mechanism in which the diphtheria toxin repressor protein (DtxR) and iron repress expression while either heme or hemoglobin is needed to activate transcription. In this study, two clones isolated from a C. diphtheriae chromosomal library were shown to activate transcription from the hmuO promoter in Escherichia coli. Sequence analysis revealed that these activator clones each carried distinct genes whose products had significant homology to response regulators of two-component signal transduction systems. Located upstream from each of these response regulator homologs are partial open reading frames that are predicted to encode the C-terminal portions of sensor kinases. The full-length sensor kinase gene for each of these systems was cloned from the C. diphtheriae chromosome, and constructs each carrying one complete sensor kinase gene and its cognate response regulator were constructed. One of these constructs, pTSB20, which carried the response regulator (chrA) and its cognate sensor kinase (chrS), was shown to strongly activate transcription from the hmuO promoter in a heme-dependent manner in E. coli. A mutation in chrA (chrAD50N), which changed a conserved aspartic acid residue at position 50, the presumed site of phosphorylation by ChrS, to an asparagine, abolished heme-dependent activation. These findings suggest that the sensor kinase ChrS is involved in the detection of heme and the transduction of this signal, via a phosphotransfer mechanism, to the response regulator ChrA, which then activates transcription of the hmuO promoter. This is the first report of a bacterial two-component signal transduction system that controls gene expression through a heme-responsive mechanism.  (+info)

[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Summary, edited.] Volume 25, Number 7-July 2019 / Letter Nontoxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae Infections, Europe ___ To the Editor: We read with interest the article by Dangel et al. analyzing nontoxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae infections in northern Germany during 2016-2017 (1). Among the cases, 2 patients originated…
Diphtheria has been reported as an outbreak in some regions in Indonesia, most especially in East Java Province. Resistance to penicillin, erythromycin, and other antibiotics, single or multiple, has been reported in several studies. This study aims to evaluate the first-line antibiotic susceptibility pattern of toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae isolates. This descriptive observational study was performed from August to November 2018. C. diphtheriae isolates were collected from diphtheria patients and carriers in East Java from 2012 to 2017 and kept at the Balai Besar Laboratorium Kesehatan Daerah Surabaya or the Public Health Laboratory of Surabaya. Sample selection was done by random cluster sampling. The sensitivity test by E-test®of the five antibiotics (penicillin, oxacillin, erythromycin, azithromycin, and clarithromycin) was done to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute M45A (2015) Corynebacterium spp. for penicillin and
BACKGROUND: The reemergence of epidemic diphtheria in Belarus in 1990s has provided us with important information on the biology of the disease and the diversity of the causative agent Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Molecular investigations were conducted with the aim to analyze the genetic variability of C diphtheriae during the post-epidemic period. METHODS: The biotype and toxigenicity status of 3513 C. diphtheriae strains isolated from all areas in Belarus during a declining period of diphtheria morbidity (1996-2005) was undertaken. Of these, 384 strains were isolated from diphtheria cases, 1968 from tonsillitis patients, 426 from contacts and 735 from healthy carriers. Four hundred and thirty two selected strains were ribotyped. RESULTS: The C diphtheriae gravis biotype, which was prevalent during 1996-2000, was replaced by the mitis biotype during 2001-2005. The distribution of toxigenic C. diphtheriae strains also decreased from 47.1% (1996) to 5.8% (2005). Changes in the distribution of the
Catalyzes the attachment of glutamate to tRNA(Glu) in a two-step reaction: glutamate is first activated by ATP to form Glu-AMP and then transferred to the acceptor end of tRNA(Glu).
In 2015, the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) updated its breakpoints for penicillin susceptibility in Corynebacterium species from <1 mg/L to <0.12 mg/L. We assessed the effect of this change on C. diphtheriae susceptibility reported at an inner city, tertiary care center in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, during 2015-2018 and performed whole-genome sequencing to investigate phenotypic and genotypic resistance to penicillin. We identified 44/45 isolates that were intermediately susceptible to penicillin by the 2015 breakpoint, despite meeting previous CLSI criteria for susceptibility. Sequencing did not reveal β-lactam resistance genes. Multilocus sequence typing revealed a notable predominance of sequence type 76. Overall, we saw no evidence of penicillin nonsusceptibility at the phenotypic or genotypic level in C. diphtheriae isolates from our institution. The 2015 CLSI breakpoint change could cause misclassification of penicillin susceptibility in C. diphtheriae
Four subspecies are recognized: C. d. mitis, C. d. intermedius, C. d. gravis, and C. d. belfanti. The four subspecies differ slightly in their colonial morphology and biochemical properties, such as the ability to metabolize certain nutrients, but all may be toxigenic (and therefore cause diphtheria) or not toxigenic. C. diphtheriae produces diphtheria toxin which alters protein function in the host by inactivating the elongation factor EF-2. This causes pharyngitis and pseudomembrane in the throat. The diphtheria toxin gene is encoded by a bacteriophage found in toxigenic strains, integrated into the bacterial chromosome. To accurately identify C. diphtheriae, a Gram stain is performed to show Gram-positive, highly pleomorphic organisms with no particular arrangement. Special stains like Alberts stain and Ponders stain are used to demonstrate the metachromatic granules formed in the polar regions. The granules are called polar granules, Babes Ernst granules, volutin, etc. An enrichment ...
We report an annotated draft genome of the human pathogen Corynebacterium diphtheriae bv. intermedius NCTC 5011. This strain is the first C. diphtheriae bv. intermedius strain to be sequenced, and our results provide a useful comparison to the other primary disease-causing biovars, C. diphtheriae bv. gravis and C. diphtheriae bv. mitis. The sequence has been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank with the accession number AJVH01000000.. ...
Novel nontoxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae was isolated from a domestic cat with severe otitis. Contact investigation and carrier study of human and animal contacts yielded 3 additional, identical isolates from cats, although no evidence of zoonotic transmission was identified. Molecular methods distinguished the feline isolates from known C. diphtheriae.. ...
Sangal, Vartul, Blom, Jochen, Sutcliffe, Iain, von Hunolstein, Christina, Burkovski, Andreas and Hoskisson, Paul (2015) Adherence and invasive properties of Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains correlates with the predicted membrane-associated and secreted proteome. BMC Genomics, 16 (1). p. 765. ISSN 1471-2164 Sangal, Vartul, Burkovski, Andreas, Hunt, Alison, Edwards, Becky, Blom, Jochen and Hoskisson, Paul (2014) A lack of genetic basis for biovar differentiation in clinically important Corynebacterium diphtheriae from whole genome sequencing. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 21. pp. 54-57. ISSN 1567-1348 Sangal, Vartul, Fineran, Peter and Hoskisson, Paul (2013) Novel configurations of type I and II CRISPR-Cas systems in Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Microbiology, 159 (Pt 10). pp. 2118-26. ISSN 1465-2080 Sangal, Vartul, Girvan, Kirsty, Jadhav, Sagar, Lawes, Timothy, Robb, Andrew, Vali, Leila, Edwards, Giles, Yu, Jun and Gould, Ian (2012) Impacts of a long-term programme of active surveillance ...
Corynebacterium diphtheriae answers are found in the Johns Hopkins ABX Guide powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, Android, and Web.
In this study, different non-toxigenic C. diphtheriae and a toxin-producing strain were characterized in respect to adhesion to and invasion of epithelial cells. All strains were able to attach to host cells and immuno-fluorescence microscopy revealed internalization and growth of C. diphtheriae within epithelial cells. We could show that adhesion and invasion are not strictly coupled, indicating that different proteins and mechanisms play a role in these processes. Despite the fact that the number of internalized bacteria decreased over time for all investigated strains, a considerable number of bacteria survived prolonged internalization for more than 18 h. Furthermore, V-shaped division forms as well as formation of microcolonies were observed by fluorescence microscopy, suggesting that the epithelial cells might support growth of C. diphtheriae.. While proteins responsible for invasion and intracellular persistence are completely unknown for C. diphtheriae, for the sequenced strain NCTC13129 ...
Four subspecies are recognized: C. d. mitis, C. d. intermedius, C. d. gravis, and C. d. belfanti. The four subspecies differ slightly in their colonial morphology and biochemical properties, such as the ability to metabolize certain nutrients, but all may be toxigenic (and therefore cause diphtheria) or not toxigenic. C. diphtheriae produces diphtheria toxin which alters protein function in the host by inactivating the elongation factor EF-2. This causes pharyngitis and pseudomembrane in the throat. The diphtheria toxin gene is encoded by a bacteriophage found in toxigenic strains, integrated into the bacterial chromosome. To accurately identify C. diphtheriae, a Gram stain is performed to show Gram-positive, highly pleomorphic organisms with no particular arrangement. Special stains like Alberts stain and Ponders stain are used to demonstrate the metachromatic granules formed in the polar regions. The granules are called polar granules, Babes Ernst granules, volutin, etc. An enrichment ...
Diphtheria toxin (DT) is produced by toxigenic strains of the human pathogen Corynebacterium diphtheriae as well as zoonotic C. ulcerans and C. pseudotuberculosis. Toxigenic strains may cause severe respiratory diphtheria, myocarditis, neurological damage or cutaneous diphtheria. The DT encoding tox gene is located in a mobile genomic region and tox variability between C. diphtheriae and C. ulcerans has been postulated based on sequences of a few isolates. In contrast, species-specific sequence analysis of the diphtheria toxin repressor gene (dtxR), occurring both in toxigenic and non-toxigenic Corynebacterium species, has not been done yet. We used whole genome sequencing data from 91 toxigenic and 46 non-toxigenic isolates of different pathogenic Corynebacterium species of animal or human origin to elucidate differences in extracted DT, DtxR and tox-surrounding genetic elements by a phylogenetic analysis in a large sample set. Sequences of both DT and DtxR, extracted from whole genome sequencing data,
Previous reports of the excellent correlation between MEE, ribotyping, and epidemiologic data prompted us to use these methods in our study (8, 17; A. De Zoysa, A. Efstratiou, R. C. George, A. McNiff, J. Vuopio-Varkila, I. Mazurova, G. Tseneva, W. Thilo, C. Andronescu, and C. Roure, Prog. Abstr. 2nd Int. Meet. Eur. Lab. Working Group Diphtheria, p. 22, 1995). The inclusion of the Canadian strains has expanded the previously documented ET 215 complex to include 21 ETs and 28 isolates (previously 12 ETs and 15 isolates) (16). Unlike the ET 8 complex, which is associated with the recent epidemic in Russia and the former Soviet Republics (New Independent States) and contains only biotype gravis strains (17), the ET 215 complex contains strains of biotypes gravis, mitis, and belfanti. The existence of toxigenic biotype belfanti strains is unusual because strains of this biotype are generally nontoxigenic (1). Interestingly, isolation of toxigenic strains of biotype belfanti was reported among the ...
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for Q6NJD2 (RL23_CORDI), 50S ribosomal protein L23. Corynebacterium diphtheriae (strain ATCC 700971 / NCTC 13129 / Biotypegravis)
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for Q6NJ91 (NAGB_CORDI), Glucosamine-6-phosphate deaminase. Corynebacterium diphtheriae (strain ATCC 700971 / NCTC 13129 / Biotypegravis)
Catalyzes the rearrangement of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate (DXP) to produce the thiazole phosphate moiety of thiamine. Sulfur is provided by the thiocarboxylate moiety of the carrier protein ThiS. In vitro, sulfur can be provided by H(2)S.
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For 2017, 39 cases of diphtheria due to toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae or C. ulcerans were reported to ECDC. The highest proportion of C. ulcerans cases was among adults 45 years of age and above, whereas C. diphtheriae cases were more common in younger age groups. Among C. diphtheriae cases, 50% were reported as imported. High vaccination coverage is crucial to prevent diphtheria. ...
Classic diphtheria is characterized by the formation of a pseudomembrane on respiratory mucous membranes. Initial testing includes CBC and a rapid strep test. A diphtheria culture is usually diagnostic if disease symptoms are present.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
An 11-year old child presented with a sore throat due to diphtheria, and died in hospital two days later from the disease. Only four cases of diphtheria have been reported in South Africa since 2000, and none since 2005. The clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, diagnosis, and management of diphtheria are discussed. Despite an established immunisation programme, isolated cases of diphtheria still occur in South Africa, and with international travel, should form part of the differential diagnosis of sore throats anywhere, as treatment has to be instituted promptly to ensure a favourable outcome.
During March-June 2015, a cluster of 15 respiratory diphtheria patients with a case-fatality ratio of 27% was reported from KwaZulu-Natal Province in South Africa (11). In 2014, before the outbreak, a KwaZulu-Natal official reported that the province had 96% coverage for the primary series of diphtheria vaccinations and 83% coverage for the 18-month booster (N. McKerrow, KwaZulu-Natal Department of Health, pers. comm., 2015 Jun 8). However, the tetanus-diphtheria booster coverage rates were 54% for 6-year-olds and 20% for 12-year-olds. In response to the outbreak of diphtheria, contact tracing was conducted and postexposure prophylaxis was given to family members and school and clinic contacts (11). Educational leaflets about social mobilization and health promotion activities were distributed in affected communities. The KwaZulu-Natal Department of Health embarked on a catch-up vaccination campaign for schoolgoing children 6-15 years of age in the affected districts. National guidelines for the ...
As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
The essential lysine, Lys179 in SpaD, is in the floor of the groove and is mostly covered by the mobile β1-β2 loop. A similar β1-β2 loop is present in all major pilins for which full-length structures are available, except for Spy0128, which lacks an equivalent YPKN pilin motif. This β1-β2 loop flanks a similar groove in each case, but is usually disordered. In SpaD it is disordered in one molecule and ordered but with high B factors in the other. This flexibility may have a role in pilus polymerization, with the loop preventing unwanted inter-actions by covering the groove and then opening up to allow binding of the sortase-recognition segment of another molecule.. Our results showing a mixture of SpaD species, with the D1 internal isopeptide bond either formed or not formed, indicate that the bond in the N domain may not be fully formed in a SpaD monomer. An energy barrier clearly exists, possibly conformational in nature as shown for RrgB, and this can be overcome in vitro by warming. ...
Cells from your throat, nose, or skin may be collected for this test. Mucus from your throat also may be collected[1][2][3]. Throat cells/mucus: A throat culture is done to collect mucus and cells from the back of your throat. For a throat culture, you will need to open your mouth wide. The person doing the test will use a long, sterile cotton swab to swab the back of your throat, near your tonsils. The swab may be rubbed several times to obtain the sample. Do not close your mouth when the sample is being collected. After the sample has been collected, the swab will be taken out and tested. Nasopharyngeal cells: A nasopharyngeal swab, aspirate, or wash is done to collect cell samples from the upper part of your nose and throat. For a nasopharyngeal swab, you will be asked to tilt your head back. The person doing the test will use a special kind of swab and insert it into one of your nostrils. The swab will be rotated gently and then remain still for a few seconds before it is removed. This is to ...
The phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS) is a major mechanism used by bacteria for uptake of carbohydrates, particularly hexoses, hexitols, and disaccharides, where the source of energy is from PEP. The PTS consists of two general components, enzyme I (EI) and histidine phosphocarrier protein (HPr), and of membrane-bound sugar specific permeases (enzymes II). Each enzyme II (EII) complex consists of one or two hydrophobic integral membrane domains (domains C and D) and two hydrophilic domains (domains A and B). EII complexes may exist as distinct proteins or as a single multidomain protein. The PTS catalyzes the uptake of carbohydrates and their conversion into their respective phosphoesters during transport. There are four successive phosphoryl transfers in the PTS. Initial autophosphorylation of EI, using PEP as a substrate, is followed by transfer of the phosphoryl group from EI to HPr. EIIA catalyzes the self-phosphoryl transfer from HPr after which the ...
The citrate cycle (TCA cycle, Krebs cycle) is an important aerobic pathway for the final steps of the oxidation of carbohydrates and fatty acids. The cycle starts with acetyl-CoA, the activated form of acetate, derived from glycolysis and pyruvate oxidation for carbohydrates and from beta oxidation of fatty acids. The two-carbon acetyl group in acetyl-CoA is transferred to the four-carbon compound of oxaloacetate to form the six-carbon compound of citrate. In a series of reactions two carbons in citrate are oxidized to CO2 and the reaction pathway supplies NADH for use in the oxidative phosphorylation and other metabolic processes. The pathway also supplies important precursor metabolites including 2-oxoglutarate. At the end of the cycle the remaining four-carbon part is transformed back to oxaloacetate. According to the genome sequence data, many organisms seem to lack genes for the full cycle [MD:M00009], but contain genes for specific segments [MD:M00010 M00011 ...
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Diphtheria is caused by the bacteria Corynebacterium diphtheriae and mainly affects the nose and throat. The bacteria spreads through airborne droplets and shared personal items. C. diphtheriae creates a toxin in the body that produces a thick, gray or black coating in the nose, throat or airway, which can also affect the heart and nervous system. Even with proper antibiotic treatment, diphtheria kills about 10 percent of the people who contract it. The first diphtheria vaccine was unveiled in 1913, and although vaccination has made a major dent in mortality rates, the disease still exists in developing countries and other areas where people are not regularly vaccinated. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that worldwide there are about 5,000 deaths from diphtheria annually, but the disease is quite rare in the United States, with fewer than five cases reported each year.. ...
Toxin-producing Corynebacterium diphtheriae was identified in cutaneous wounds from four U.S. residents after return from international travel. Public health response for toxin-producing diphtheria includes treating patients, providing chemoprophylaxis to close contacts, testing patients and close contacts for C. diphtheriae carriage, and providing diphtheria toxoid-containing vaccine to incompletely immunized patients and close contacts.
The infectious disease hospital in Batumi, with the assistance of MSF, treated over 300 cases of diphtheria from 1993 to 1995 and recorded a case-fatality rate of about 8%.. Diphtheria is most common in areas where there is overcrowding, poor hygiene and low immunity owing to waning immunization in adults and gaps in universal vaccination coverage in children.1 Corynebacterium diphtheriae is transmitted directly or indirectly from a case or carrier through respiratory droplets or skin infections involving C. diphtheriae.2 Patients typically present, after a brief incubation period of 1 to 7 days, with a mild sore throat and low-grade fever. The characteristic thick, adherent, green-black pharyngeal or laryngeal membrane spreads rapidly, and the microorganisms invade the neck tissues, producing marked swelling and a bullneck appearance.3 In laryngeal diphtheria, primarily seen in children, the membrane may spread over the airway and result in severe respiratory obstruction. In addition, an ...
Wagner KS, White JM, Neal S, Crowcroft NS, Kuprevičiene N, Paberza R, Lucenko I, Jõks U, Akbaş E, Alexandrou-Athanassoulis H, Detcheva A, Vuopio J, von Hunolstein C, Murphy PG, Andrews N; Members of the Diphtheria Surveillance Network (DIPNET), Efstratiou A., Screening for Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Corynebacterium ulcerans in patients with upper respiratory tract infections 2007-2008: a multicentre European study., Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 17, (4), 2011, p519-525 Journal Article, 2011 DOI ...
The genus of Gram positive bacilli including Corynebacterium diphtheriae, the cause of diphtheria in humans. Genus also includes C. minutissimum, the cause of erythrasma in humans and the diphtheroids which are commensal corynebacteria making up part of the human respiratory tract normal flora.. ...
The symptoms of diphtheria are caused by toxins produced by the diphtheria bacillus, Corynebacterium diphtheriae (from the Greek for rubber membrane). In fact, toxin production is related to infections of the bacillus itself with a particular bacteria virus called a phage (from bacteriophage, a virus that infects bacteria). The intoxication destroys healthy tissue in the upper area of the throat around the tonsils or in open wounds in the skin. Fluid from the dying cells then coagulates to form the telltale gray or grayish green membrane. Inside the membrane, the bacteria produce an exotoxin, which is a poisonous secretion that causes the life-threatening symptoms of diphtheria. The exotoxin is carried throughout the body in the bloodstream, destroying healthy tissue in other parts of the body. The most serious complications caused by the exotoxin are inflammations of the heart muscle (myocarditis) and damage to the nervous system. The risk of serious complications is increased as the time ...
Diphtheria is a dangerous respiratory disease is caused by a potent toxin produced by certain strains of the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Diphtheria is extremely contagious through coughing or sneezing. Risk factors include crowding, poor hygiene, and lack of immunization.. Symptoms usually appear within a week of infection. This infection is characterized by a sore throat, coughing and fever very similar to many common diseases like strep throat. Additional symptoms may be bloody, watery discharge from the nose and rapid breathing. However, a presumptive diagnosis can be made by observing a characteristic thick grayish patch (membrane) found in the throat. In more severe cases, neck swelling and airway obstruction may be observed. In the tropics, cutaneous and wound diphtheria is much more common and can be a source of transmission.. Vacation Home Rentals in beautiful St. Pete - Clearwater, Florida starting from $90 at TurnKey Vacation Rentals.. The real serious danger is when the ...
Löfflers medium is a special substance used to grow diphtheria bacilli to confirm the diagnosis. In 1887, Friedrich Loeffler devised a culture medium containing horse serum, meat infusion, and dextrose for use in the cultivation of corynebacteria and for differentiating them from other organisms. Perry and Petran suggested modification of the original formulation. Buck, in 1949, described a modified Loefflers medium for cultivating Corynebacterium diphtheriae. This medium has a variety of uses in microbiological investigations. The current formulation incorporated these later modifications: The primary value of Loeffler medium is in the growth and morphological characterization of members of the genus Corynebacterium. This formulation enhances the formation of metachromatic granules within the cells of the organisms. Due to its serum content, Loeffler medium can be used for the determination of proteolytic activities of microorganisms. The gray-white surface of the medium provides an ...
Diphtheria is caused by corynebacterium diphtheriae. Diphtheria may lead to neurological disturbance and myocardium disturbance due to the effects of toxin. The toxin is originated from the pseudomembrane consists of fibrin, bacteria and necrotic cells.
Diphtheria is disease that affects primarily the upper respiratory system and is caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae. The bacterium is most commonly spread through person-to-person contact. Diphtheria can be prevented by a vaccine. Canada has included diphtheria in its infant immunization schedule since the 1930s. The success of this program led to a dramatic decline in the number of cases, with very few occurring in Canada since the early 1950s. The National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI) recommends immunization against diphtheria ...
Background Diphtheria is an acute infectious disease caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae affects primarily the upper respiratory tract with the formation of greyish white pseudomembrane. Diphtheria can lead to a characteristic swollen neck and throat, or Bull-neck. The swollen throat is often accompanied by a serious respiratory condition. Delay in treatment increases morbidity and mortality. Management consists of the use of specific antitoxins and elimination of the causative organism. Objective We report a case of tonsilopharyngeal and laryngeal diphtheria accompanied by bull neck in an 7 year 1 month old boy Case A 7-year 1 month old boy was referred to the Dr. Wahidin Sudirohusodo Hospital with a low-grade fever, sore throat due to painfull swallowing for 5 days. On examining the patient, we found his to be fever, tachypnea and in severe stridor. An examination of the oral cavity he had bilateral grade III tonsils covered by a dirty greyish white membrane. Removal of this membrane ...
This situation is highlighted in a case described in the January 13, 2017 issue of Science magazine. A three-year-old girl was admitted to a hospital in Antwerp, Belgium in March of 2016. She was diagnosed with having severe tonsillitis, but physicians noted an unusual thick layer of grey dead cells covering her throat. It was a hallmark symptom for diphtheria known as a pseudomembrane. Diphtheria is caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae. The initial symptoms present as a sore throat and fever, and can progress to blocking the lungs if left untreated. The exotoxin secreted by the bacteria can also cause damage to the heart and liver. ...
Azevedo Antunes, Camila, Richardson, Emily J., Quick, Joshua, Fuentes-Utrilla, Pablo, Isom, Georgia L., Goodall, Emily C., Möller, Jens, Hoskisson, Paul A., Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana Luiza, Cunningham, Adam F., Loman, Nicholas J., Sangal, Vartul, Burkovski, Andreas and Henderson, Ian R. (2018) Complete Closed Genome Sequence of Nontoxigenic Invasive Corynebacterium diphtheriae bv. mitis Strain ISS 3319. Genome Announcements, 6 (5). e01566-17. ISSN 2169-8287 ...
We have previously described sigma A and sigma B and their structural genes, mysA and mysB, respectively, in Mycobacterium smegmatis. We have now sequenced the corresponding regions in the M. tuberculosis and M. leprae chromosomes, and have found the two homologous genes. The chromosomal linkage and the deduced amino acid (aa) sequences of the two genes show very high similarity in the three species of mycobacteria. We also report the finding of two other open reading frames (ORF) in these clusters. orfX, which has an unknown function, is located between mysA and mysB. The other ORF, located downstream from mysB, encodes a homolog of DtxR, the iron regulatory protein from Corynebacterium diphtheriae (Cd). Doukhan, L; Predich, M; Nair, G; Dussurget, O; Mandic-Mulec, I; Cole, S T; Smith, D R; Smith, I
Trost,E., Blom,J., de Castro Soares,S., Huang,I.H., Al-Dilaimi,A., Schroder,J., Jaenicke,S., Dorella,F.A., Rocha,F.S., Miyoshi,A., Azevedo,V., Schneider,M.P., Silva,A., Camello,T.C., Sabbadini,P.S., Santos,C.S., Santos,L.S., Hirata,R. Jr., Mattos-Guaraldi, Pangenomic Study of Corynebacterium diphtheriae That Provides Insights into the Genomic Diversity of Pathogenic Isolates from Cases of Classical Diphtheria, Endocarditis, and Pneumonia, J. Bacteriol. 194 (12), 3199-3215 (2012) PUBMED 22505676 ...
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Sodium atom in PDB 2g2c: Putative Molybdenum Cofactor Biosynthesis Protein From Corynebacterium Diphtheriae.
Subjects with a previous or suspected disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Clostridium tetani, Poliovirus, Hepatitis B, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), Pneumococcus or Bordetella pertussis; previous immunization with a meningococcal vaccine or vaccine containing meningococcal antigen(s) or prior vaccination with Diptheria, Tetanus, Pertussis (acellular or whole cell), inactivated polio vaccineIPV or oral polio vaccineOPV, H. influenzae type b (Hib) or Pneumococcus; who have had household contact with and/or intimate exposure to an individual with laboratory confirmed N. meningitidis (serogroups A, C, W-135, or Y), B. pertussis, Hib, C. diphtheriae, Polio, or pneumococcal infection at any time since birth; Any serious acute, chronic or progressive ...
Diphtheria toxin, molecular model. Diphtheria is caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Symptoms include sore throat, fever and breathing difficulties. - Stock Image F009/6155
Antisera prepared from hyperimmune horse blood are still used as drugs against diphtheria toxin (DT) in emergency situations. Since equine antisera could induce serious side effects such as serum sickness, there is a strong need to develop a human monoclonal antibody (Ab) against DT. DT excreted by Corynebacterium diphtheriae has been well characterized (12). It is a single polypeptide chain (Mr, 58,000) composed of two structurally distinct regions with three functional domains and contains a protease-sensitive site. The nicked toxin produced upon limited proteolysis consists of two polypeptides that are held together by a disulfide bond. The NH2-terminal region, fragment A, catalyzes the transfer of the ADP-ribose moiety from NAD to elongation factor 2 and thus blocks protein synthesis (4). The COOH-terminal region, fragment B, binds to a specific receptor on the cell surface and mediates transfer of fragment A to the cytoplasm (6, 11, 14). DT is lethal for susceptible animals, including ...
|strong|Mouse anti Diptheria toxin antibody, clone 8G1|/strong| recognises diphtheria toxin (DT), secreted by certain strains of |em|Corynebacterium diphtheriae|/em|. DT catalyzes the ADP-ribosylation…
Genomics: Corynebacterium diphtheriae: chromosome 2,488,635 bp; 2320 predicted ORFs (Cerdeno-Tarraga et al. 2003) Cell morphology: Rod-shaped cells; irregular, club-shaped ( Coryne), or V-shaped...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Transcriptional control of the iron-responsive fxbA gene by the mycobacterial regulator IdeR. AU - Dussurget, Olivier. AU - Timm, Juliano. AU - Gomez, Manuel. AU - Gold, Benjamin. AU - Yu, Shengwei. AU - Sabol, Sue Z.. AU - Holmes, Randall K.. AU - Jacobs, William R.. AU - Smith, Issar. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2020 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1999/6. Y1 - 1999/6. N2 - Exochelin is the primary extracellular siderophore of Mycobacterium smegmatis, and the iron-regulated fxbA gene encodes a putative formyltransferase, an essential enzyme in the exochelin biosynthetic pathway (E. H. Fiss, Y. Yu, and W. R. Jacobs, Jr., Mol. Microbiol. 14:557-569, 1994). We investigated the regulation of fxbA by the mycobacterial IdeR, a homolog of the Corynebacterium diphtheriae iron regulator DtxR (M.P. Schmitt, M. Predich, L. Doukhan, I. Smith, and R. K. Holmes, Infect. Immun. 63:4284- 4289, 1995). Gel mobility shift experiments showed that IdeR binds to the fxbA regulatory region in ...
Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is a Gram-positive bacterium that belongs to the class Actinobacteria. This bacterium is a facultative intracellular pathogen that causes the disease caseous lymphadenitis (CL) in sheep and goats. During the process of infection by these bacteria are contained cells of the innate immune response, among which the main effectors defensives cells are neutrophils and macrophages. This work has been proposed with the aim of assessing the response of murine bone marrow monocyte-derived macrophages in in vitro infection with the CP13 strain of C. pseudotuberculosis - a knockout mutant for a gene related to the transportation of iron in Corynebacterium diphtheriae that generated good levels of protection against subsequent infections C. pseudotuberculosis - and observe the response profile generated by these cultures. This type of characterization allows the inference of the involvement of innate immune response against infections caused by this bacterium. So far, it ...
Cephalexin is attributed as antibiotic of cephalosporins group which acts against bacteria preventing formation of their cell walls. It is enough resistant to penicillinases of gram positive microorganisms but can be destroyed by beta-lactamases of gram negative ones. It shows broad spectrum activity against gram positive microorganisms such as Staphylococcus, Staphylococcus epidermidis; Streptococcus, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Clostridium, Actinomyces israelii, Bacillus anthracis, gram negative microorganisms like Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Proteus mirabilis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Neisseria meningitidis, Shigella, Salmonella. Common infections that are treated with Cephalexin include infections of the middle ear, tonsils, throat, larynx (laryngitis), bronchi (bronchitis) and pneumonia as well as in urinary tract, skin, and bones ...
Cephalexin is attributed as antibiotic of cephalosporins group which acts against bacteria preventing formation of their cell walls. It is enough resistant to penicillinases of gram positive microorganisms but can be destroyed by beta-lactamases of gram negative ones. It shows broad spectrum activity against gram positive microorganisms such as Staphylococcus, Staphylococcus epidermidis; Streptococcus, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Clostridium, Actinomyces israelii, Bacillus anthracis, gram negative microorganisms like Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Proteus mirabilis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Neisseria meningitidis, Shigella, Salmonella. Common infections that are treated with Cephalexin include infections of the middle ear, tonsils, throat, larynx (laryngitis), bronchi (bronchitis) and pneumonia as well as in urinary tract, skin, and bones ...
Cephalexin is attributed as antibiotic of cephalosporins group which acts against bacteria preventing formation of their cell walls. It is enough resistant to penicillinases of gram positive microorganisms but can be destroyed by beta-lactamases of gram negative ones. It shows broad spectrum activity against gram positive microorganisms such as Staphylococcus, Staphylococcus epidermidis; Streptococcus, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Clostridium, Actinomyces israelii, Bacillus anthracis, gram negative microorganisms like Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Proteus mirabilis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Neisseria meningitidis, Shigella, Salmonella. Common infections that are treated with Cephalexin include infections of the middle ear, tonsils, throat, larynx (laryngitis), bronchi (bronchitis) and pneumonia as well as in urinary tract, skin, and bones ...
Cephalexin is attributed as antibiotic of cephalosporins group which acts against bacteria preventing formation of their cell walls. It is enough resistant to penicillinases of gram positive microorganisms but can be destroyed by beta-lactamases of gram negative ones. It shows broad spectrum activity against gram positive microorganisms such as Staphylococcus, Staphylococcus epidermidis; Streptococcus, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Clostridium, Actinomyces israelii, Bacillus anthracis, gram negative microorganisms like Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Proteus mirabilis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Neisseria meningitidis, Shigella, Salmonella. Common infections that are treated with Cephalexin include infections of the middle ear, tonsils, throat, larynx (laryngitis), bronchi (bronchitis) and pneumonia as well as in urinary tract, skin, and bones ...
Cephalexin is attributed as antibiotic of cephalosporins group which acts against bacteria preventing formation of their cell walls. It is enough resistant to penicillinases of gram positive microorganisms but can be destroyed by beta-lactamases of gram negative ones. It shows broad spectrum activity against gram positive microorganisms such as Staphylococcus, Staphylococcus epidermidis; Streptococcus, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Clostridium, Actinomyces israelii, Bacillus anthracis, gram negative microorganisms like Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Proteus mirabilis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Neisseria meningitidis, Shigella, Salmonella. Common infections that are treated with Cephalexin include infections of the middle ear, tonsils, throat, larynx (laryngitis), bronchi (bronchitis) and pneumonia as well as in urinary tract, skin, and bones ...
Cephalexin is attributed as antibiotic of cephalosporins group which acts against bacteria preventing formation of their cell walls. It is enough resistant to penicillinases of gram positive microorganisms but can be destroyed by beta-lactamases of gram negative ones. It shows broad spectrum activity against gram positive microorganisms such as Staphylococcus, Staphylococcus epidermidis; Streptococcus, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Clostridium, Actinomyces israelii, Bacillus anthracis, gram negative microorganisms like Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Proteus mirabilis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Neisseria meningitidis, Shigella, Salmonella. Common infections that are treated with Cephalexin include infections of the middle ear, tonsils, throat, larynx (laryngitis), bronchi (bronchitis) and pneumonia as well as in urinary tract, skin, and bones ...
The formol toxoids are prepared from the toxins produced jamaica the growth of Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Clostridium tetani respectively. The significance of a short esophagus continues to be a controversial is- sue. 0 g complies with limit test Hindgra young people. Watt I, Stewart I, Anderson D, Bell G, Anderson JR.
Wyeth [back]. Parents Voice: Childrens Adverse Outcomes Following Vaccination DOH: MENINGITIS C VACCINE Meningitec Injection, suspension of capsular polysaccharide antigen of Neisseria meningitidis group C (conjugated to Corynebacterium diphtheriae protein), net price 0.5-mL vial = 17.95. Meningitis C vaccine damage (media stories UK). Meningitis Vaccine under Scrutiny in UK (2001). Dr David Goldblatt of the Institute of Child Health, has served on an expert advisory panel for Wyeth and received research grants from Wyeth and North American Vaccines, which produces a third meningitis C drug to be introduced this year.--Media. [2011 May] UK Government Documents on Aluminium in Vaccines by John Heptonstall It has been found that Calcium Gluconate solution in glass vials contains almost 200 times more aluminium than Calcium Gluconate in plastic vials; this is due to the solution leeching aluminium from the glass.....Many vaccines are packaged, and stored for long periods, in glass vials with ...
C diphtheriae is comprised of irregularly staining gram-positive, nonspore-forming, unencapsulated slender rods. Branching and clubbed ends result in a cuneiform appearance. Metachromatic granules are common. There are three phenotypes of the organism: gravis, intermedius, and mitis, differentiated by colony morphology, growth characteristics, and biochemical reactions. All are capable of elaborating a cytotoxic exotoxin, which interferes with protein synthesis in host cells. The ability of a strain of C diphtheriae to produce toxin is conferred by a lysogenic bacteriophage that carries the gene for toxin production. The clinical signs and symptoms depend on the primary site of infection. Toxins produced by the three types are qualitatively similar, but the gravis and intermedius strains produce more toxin than does the mitis strain. ...
A non-prone to be the assailant strain of clostridium difficile reduces the venture of recurrence of C. difficile pest, according to a JAMA study released May 5. CDI is answerable for 29,000 U.S. deaths harvested land year. It is one of the ~ly common and deadly healthcare-related infections and clinical CDI has a recurrence rate of 25% to 30% in the midst of affected patients, the study stated.. Over a brace-year period from 2011 to 2013, researchers randomly assigned 173 ripe patients aged 18 or older diagnosed at the same time that having CDI to receive one of four treatments: oral liquid formulation of nontoxigenic C. difficile over-work in three varied doses and durations, or placebo. Prior to enrollment, the patients had favorably completed treatment with metronidazole, oral vancomycin or the pair at 44 study centers in the U.S., Canada, and Europe.. Researchers set forth that gastrointestinal colonization by nontoxigenic C. difficile strains in the one and the other humans and hamsters ...
Temperature Content 99. Content 600 IU (180 Оg) to 2500 IU (750 Оg) of vitamin A per gram and 60 IU (1. Proceed as described for conventional-release dosage forms under Apparatus Buy Scilla 32 and 2. 770 Vaccinum diphtheriae, tetani, pertussis et poliomyelitidis inactivatum adsorbatum .
Tossounian, M-A., B. Pedre, K. Wahni, H. Erdogan, D. Vertommen, I. Van Molle, and J. Messens, Corynebacterium diphtheriae methionine sulfoxide reductase a exploits a unique mycothiol redox relay mechanism., J Biol Chem, vol. 290, issue 18, pp. 11365-75, 2015 May 01. ...
Tossounian, M-A., B. Pedre, K. Wahni, H. Erdogan, D. Vertommen, I. Van Molle, and J. Messens, Corynebacterium diphtheriae methionine sulfoxide reductase a exploits a unique mycothiol redox relay mechanism., J Biol Chem, vol. 290, issue 18, pp. 11365-75, 2015 May 01. ...
INTRODUCED BY M. SMITH, BELFANTI, BEYER, BRENNAN, BRIGGS, CALTAGIRONE, DONATUCCI, FABRIZIO, FREEMAN, GEORGE, GRUCELA, HARHAI, HARPER, HENNESSEY, KORTZ, MANN, McGEEHAN, McILVAINE SMITH, MICOZZIE, MILLARD, MOUL, M. OBRIEN, PALLONE, READSHAW, SAINATO, SEIP, SIPTROTH, K. SMITH AND YOUNGBLOOD, MARCH 25, 2009 ...
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Davenport, Iowa (PRWEB) May 28, 2016 -- Brian Bourke, CHRS, health care consulting manager at Honkamp Krueger & Co., P.C. (HK), will be speaking at the
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TaxLink: S950 (Corynebacterium diphtheriae (Kruse 1886) Lehmann and Neumann 1896) - Date of change: 5/02/2003 ... mitis(For a non-toxigenic strain see Corynebacterium diphtheriae var. mitis NCTC 10356) ... Bacteria Collection: Corynebacterium diphtheriae. NCTC Number:. NCTC 9823 Current Name:. Corynebacterium diphtheriae ...
2012) Multilocus sequence types of invasive Corynebacterium diphtheriae isolated in the Rio de Janeiro urban area, Brazil. ... 2013) Ion torrent-based transcriptional assessment of a Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis equi strain reveals denaturing high- ...
Diphtheria (Corynebacterium Diphtheriae). *Meningitis (Meningococcus). *Cancer (Bronchus) (Non-small cell lung cancer) ...
Diphtheria is caused by the Corynebacterium diphtheriae bacterium. As the bacteria multiply, they produce toxins that invade ...
For the production of native antigen, Diphtheria toxin (Corynebacterium diphtheriae tox+) is cultivated in broth culture. ... Diphtheria is an infectious disease caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Diphtheria toxin is responsible for pathogenicity. ...
... others such as the diphtheria bacilli Corynebacterium diphtheriae , are club shaped. Coconut tree essay for class 1 word essay ...
Diphtheria is a bacterial infection caused by a type of bacteria called Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Diphtheria can cause a ...
Diphtheria is an infection of the nose and throat caused by infection with Corynebacterium diphtheriae, an anaerobic Gram- ...
Detection tests on throat samples showed the presence of Corynebacterium diphtheriae bacteria and the ministry was waiting for ... respiratory disease is caused by a potent toxin produced by certain strains of the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae. ...
We report two cases of respiratory toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae infection in fully vaccinated UK born adults following ...
... including Corynebacterium ulcerans, aims at defining the diversity, ... Our research on Corynebacterium diphtheriae and related bacterial pathogenic species, ... Our research on Corynebacterium diphtheriae and related bacterial pathogenic species, including Corynebacterium ulcerans, aims ... the NRC for Corynebacteria of the diphtheriae complex; web pages in French). ...
... an upper respiratory tract infection caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae. In the early stages, diphtheria mimics the symptoms ...
... pertains to a group of mutant diphtheria toxins obtained in the early 1970s from strain of Corynebacterium diphtheriae ...
... and all 48 have tested negative for toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae. The 21-year-old worker, who died on Aug 4, was ...
... with four members of the same family who were detected the bacteria Corynebacterium diphtheriae, - unfortunately, a five-year- ...
In 1888 Pierre Roux and Alexandre Yersin showed that the liquid in which the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae had been ... In 1888 Pierre Roux and Alexandre Yersin showed that the liquid in which the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae had been ... In 1888 Pierre Roux and Alexandre Yersin showed that the liquid in which the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae had been ...
Corynebacterium deserti * Corynebacterium diphtheriae * Corynebacterium doosanense * Corynebacterium durum * Corynebacterium ... Corynebacterium pelargi sp. nov., isolated from the trachea of white stork nestlings. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2015; 65:1415- ... Corynebacterium pelargi sp. nov., isolated from the trachea of white stork nestlings. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2015; 65:1415- ... Parent taxon: Corynebacterium Lehmann and Neumann 1896 (Approved Lists 1980) Assigned by: Kampfer P, Jerzak L, Bochenski M, ...
Corynebacterium deserti * Corynebacterium diphtheriae * Corynebacterium doosanense * Corynebacterium durum * Corynebacterium ... Reclassification of Corynebacterium flaccumfaciens, Corynebacterium betae, Corynebacterium oortii and Corynebacterium ... Reclassification of Corynebacterium flaccumfaciens, Corynebacterium betae, Corynebacterium oortii and Corynebacterium ... Reclassification of Corynebacterium flaccumfaciens, Corynebacterium betae, Corynebacterium oortii and Corynebacterium ...
Corynebacterium deserti * Corynebacterium diphtheriae * Corynebacterium doosanense * Corynebacterium durum * Corynebacterium ... Parent taxon: Corynebacterium Lehmann and Neumann 1896 (Approved Lists 1980) Assigned by: Blasche S, Kim Y, Patil KR. Draft ... Draft Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium kefirresidentii SB, Isolated from Kefir. Genome Announc 2017; 5:0. ... Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium kefirresidentii SB, Isolated from Kefir. Genome Announc 2017; 5:0. ...
Corynebacterium deserti * Corynebacterium diphtheriae * Corynebacterium doosanense * Corynebacterium durum * Corynebacterium ... So, according to Rule 37a, the name Corynebacterium lilium must be changed to Corynebacterium glutamicum. Publication: Parker ... The type strain of Corynebacterium lilium is transferred in the species Corynebacterium glutamicum. ... Name: Corynebacterium glutamicum (Kinoshita et al. 1958) Abe et al. 1967 (Approved Lists 1980) ...
Corynebacterium diphtheriae. -Cotinin. -Coxiella burnetii. -Coxsackie-Virus-Antikörper. -Crosslinks. -CRP. -Cryptococcus. - ...
Corynebacterium diphtheriae; Yersinia enterocolitica; Y. pestis; Burkholderia pseudomallei; Francisella tularensis; ... Corynebacterium diphtheriae; Yersinia enterocolitica; Y. pestis; Burkholderia pseudomallei; Francisella tularensis; ...
Corynebacterium diphtheriae toxoid antigen (formaldehyde inactivated). 3. Completed. 1. DB03756. Doconexent. 3. Completed. 1. ...
Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium tetani. ...
eubacterium eubacteria genus Corynebacterium C. diphtheriae true bacteria Klebs-Loeffler bacillus Corynebacterium diphtheriae ...
The toxigenicity tests of C diphtheriae is further performed determined by a variety of in vitro and in vivo tests. ... The Diphtheria Culture test is used to detect the presence of the bacteria called Corynebacterium diphtheria .. This test is ... This test enables the doctors to determine the possibility of the presence of the bacteria C diphtheriae which causes ...
  • We report two cases of respiratory toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae infection in fully vaccinated UK born adults following travel to Tunisia in October 2019. (mysciencework.com)
  • The Ministry of Health (MOH) said on Thursday (Aug 10) that it has screened the close contacts of the Bangladeshi worker who died of diphtheria, and all 48 have tested negative for toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae. (covaipost.com)
  • Diphtheria is a bacterial infection caused by a type of bacteria called Corynebacterium diphtheriae . (healthysolution.us)
  • Diphtheria is an infection of the nose and throat caused by infection with Corynebacterium diphtheriae, an anaerobic Gram-positive bacteria. (wbsmarketing.com)
  • Detection tests on throat samples showed the presence of Corynebacterium diphtheriae bacteria and the ministry was waiting for laboratory results for confirmation of diphtheria toxin. (outbreaknewstoday.com)
  • Luis Suárez Ognio, Deputy Minister of Public Health of the Minsa, explained that there is an outbreak focused on the district of La Victoria, with four members of the same family who were detected the bacteria Corynebacterium diphtheriae, - unfortunately, a five-year-old girl died - but to date no other case has been registered. (outbreaknewstoday.com)
  • This test enables the doctors to determine the possibility of the presence of the bacteria C diphtheriae which causes diphtheria When diphtheria bacilli are isolated they are tested for the presence of the toxin producing gene. (lybrate.com)
  • Diphtheria is caused by the Corynebacterium diphtheriae bacterium. (healthyinfodaily.com)
  • Diphtheria is a medical condition given to talk about a highly infectious disease caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae. (denznet.com)
  • Diphtheria is a dangerous respiratory disease is caused by a potent toxin produced by certain strains of the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae . (outbreaknewstoday.com)
  • others such as the diphtheria bacilli Corynebacterium diphtheriae , are club shaped. (schilderverbruggen.nl)
  • Our research on Corynebacterium diphtheriae and related bacterial pathogenic species, including Corynebacterium ulcerans , aims at defining the diversity, evolution and epidemiology of the agents of diphtheria and related infections. (pasteur.fr)
  • According to Collins and Jones (1983), this species is an earlier heterotypic synonym of Corynebacterium oortii Saaltink and Maas Geesteranus 1969 (Approved Lists 1980) . (dsmz.de)
  • According to Collins and Jones (1983), this species is an earlier heterotypic synonym of Corynebacterium poinsettiae (Starr and Pirone 1942) Burkholder 1948 (Approved Lists 1980) . (dsmz.de)
  • Corynebacterium flaccumfaciens is the correct name if this species is regarded as a separate species (i.e., if its nomenclatural type is not assigned to another species whose name is validly published, legitimate and not rejected and has priority) within a separate genus Corynebacterium . (dsmz.de)
  • 1991), this species is an earlier heterotypic synonym of Corynebacterium lilium Lee and Good 1963 (Approved Lists 1980) . (dsmz.de)
  • The type strain of Corynebacterium lilium is transferred in the species Corynebacterium glutamicum . (dsmz.de)
  • Riegel P, Ruimy R, de Briel D, Prevost G, Jehl F, Christen R, Monteil H. Taxonomy of Corynebacterium diphtheriae and related taxa, with recognition of Corynebacterium ulcerans sp. (dsmz.de)
  • mitis(For a non-toxigenic strain see Corynebacterium diphtheriae var. (phe-culturecollections.org.uk)
  • The CRM197 (Cross-reacting material 197) pertains to a group of mutant diphtheria toxins obtained in the early 1970s from strain of Corynebacterium diphtheriae lysogenized with β -phages carrying a mutated tox gene. (crm197.it)
  • Collins MD, Jones D. Reclassification of Corynebacterium flaccumfaciens , Corynebacterium betae , Corynebacterium oortii and Corynebacterium poinsettiae in the genus Curtobacterium , as Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens comb. (dsmz.de)
  • At first Dr. Welch was unsure of the cause, but as more and more children sickened over the next few weeks he began to suspect diphtheria - an upper respiratory tract infection caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae . (stonekettle.com)
  • For the production of native antigen, Diphtheria toxin ( Corynebacterium diphtheriae tox+) is cultivated in broth culture. (serion-immunologics.com)
  • Transfer of Brevibacterium divaricatum DSM 20297T, " Brevibacterium flavum " DSM 20411, " Brevibacterium lactofermentum " DSM 20412 and DSM 1412, and Corynebacterium glutamicum and their distinction by rRNA gene restriction patterns. (dsmz.de)

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