A genus of asporogenous bacteria that is widely distributed in nature. Its organisms appear as straight to slightly curved rods and are known to be human and animal parasites and pathogens.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CORYNEBACTERIUM.
A species of gram-positive, asporogenous, non-pathogenic, soil bacteria that produces GLUTAMIC ACID.
A species of gram-positive, asporogenous bacteria in which three cultural types are recognized. These types (gravis, intermedius, and mitis) were originally given in accordance with the clinical severity of the cases from which the different strains were most frequently isolated. This species is the causative agent of DIPHTHERIA.
A species of gram-positive, asporogenous bacteria that was originally isolated from necrotic areas in the kidney of a sheep. It may cause ulcerative lymphangitis, abscesses, and other chronic purulent infections in sheep, horses, and other warm-blooded animals. Human disease may form from contact with infected animals.
A bacteria isolated from normal skin, intestinal contents, wounds, blood, pus, and soft tissue abscesses. It is a common contaminant of clinical specimens, presumably from the skin of patients or attendants.
A localized infection of mucous membranes or skin caused by toxigenic strains of CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE. It is characterized by the presence of a pseudomembrane at the site of infection. DIPHTHERIA TOXIN, produced by C. diphtheriae, can cause myocarditis, polyneuritis, and other systemic toxic effects.
A species of CORYNEBACTERIUM isolated from abscesses of warm-blooded animals.
An ADP-ribosylating polypeptide produced by CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE that causes the signs and symptoms of DIPHTHERIA. It can be broken into two unequal domains: the smaller, catalytic A domain is the lethal moiety and contains MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASES which transfers ADP RIBOSE to PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTOR 2 thereby inhibiting protein synthesis; and the larger B domain that is needed for entry into cells.
A gram-positive organism found in dairy products, fresh and salt water, marine organisms, insects, and decaying organic matter.
Mycolic acids are complex, long-chain fatty acids that are a major component of the cell wall of Mycobacterium species, including the causative agents of tuberculosis and leprosy, providing them with unique characteristics such as resistance to acid-alkali stability, pigmentation, and protection against host immune responses.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
Inflammation of the lymph nodes.
An antitoxin produced against the toxin of CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE that is used for the treatment of DIPHTHERIA.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Methods and techniques used to genetically modify cells' biosynthetic product output and develop conditions for growing the cells as BIOREACTORS.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
An enzyme of the PHOSPHORYLASES family that catalyzes the degradation of starch, a mixture of unbranched AMYLOSE and branched AMYLOPECTIN compounds. This phosphorylase from plants is the counterpart of GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE in animals that catalyzes the reaction of inorganic phosphate on the terminal alpha-1,4-glycosidic bond at the non-reducing end of glucans resulting in the release of glucose-1-phosphate.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
Inflammation of the KIDNEY PELVIS and KIDNEY CALICES where urine is collected before discharge, but does not involve the renal parenchyma (the NEPHRONS) where urine is processed.
A nutritious food consisting primarily of the curd or the semisolid substance formed when milk coagulates.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Diseases of domestic and mountain sheep of the genus Ovis.
An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.
A family of bacteria including numerous parasitic and pathogenic forms.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A genus of facultatively anaerobic, gram-positive bacteria in the family ACTINOMYCETACEAE, order ACTINOMYCETALES. They are obligate parasites of the PHARYNX in humans and farm animals.

Corynebacterium terpenotabidum sp. nov., a bacterium capable of degrading squalene. (1/951)

The taxonomic status of Arthrobacter sp. Y-11T, which was described as a squalene-degrading bacterium, was investigated by chemotaxonomic and genetic methods. The strain possesses wall chemotype IV, MK-9(H2) as the predominant menaquinone, mycolic acids, and straight-chain, saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, with considerable amounts of tuberculostearic acid. The DNA G+C content is 67.5 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and quantitative DNA-DNA hybridization experiments provided strong evidence that strain Y-11T represents a new species within the genus Corynebacterium, for which the name Corynebacterium terpenotabidum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of C. terpenotabidum is strain Y-11T (= IFO 14764T).  (+info)

Identification of mechanosensitive ion channels in the cytoplasmic membrane of Corynebacterium glutamicum. (2/951)

Patch-clamp experiments performed on membrane fragments of Corynebacterium glutamicum fused into giant liposomes revealed the presence of two different stretch-activated conductances, 600 to 700 pS and 1,200 to 1,400 pS in 0.1 M KCl, that exhibited the same characteristics in terms of kinetics, ion selectivity, and voltage dependence.  (+info)

Sex differences in susceptibility of ICR mice to oral infection with Corynebacterium kutscheri. (3/951)

Sex difference in susceptibility to oral infection with Corynebacterium (C.) kutscheri was experimentally studied in ICR mice. Immature (4-week-old) and adult (14-week-old) mice were inoculated with two infecting doses of C. kutscheri, and necropsied for bacteriological and serological survey 4 weeks after the bacterial infection. No macroscopic lesions at necropsy were demonstrated, except for one adult male given 10(9) bacteria. In immature mice, C. Kutscheri isolated from the oral cavity and cecum with FNC agar, were recovered in only 40.0% of female mice but in 90.0% of male mice given 10(6) bacteria (p < 0.05), and in only 55.6% of female mice but in 80.0% male mice given 10(8) bacteria. In adult mice given 10(9) bacteria, the organism were recovered in only 45.5% of female mice but in 90.9% of male mice (p < 0.05), furthermore, the mean number of organisms in the cecum of male mice harboring the organism was significantly higher than that in females (p < 0.01). Castration caused an increase in host resistance in adult male mice. These results indicated that ICR male mice were more susceptible than females, in terms of bacterial colonization in the cecum and the oral cavity, to oral infection with C. kutscheri.  (+info)

Identification of nonlipophilic corynebacteria isolated from dairy cows with mastitis. (4/951)

Nonlipophilic corynebacteria associated with clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy cows were found to belong to four species: Corynebacterium amycolatum, Corynebacterium ulcerans, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, and Corynebacterium minutissimum. These species may easily be confused. However, clear-cut differences between C. ulcerans and C. pseudotuberculosis were found in their acid production from maltotriose and ethylene glycol, susceptibility to vibriostatic agent O129, and alkaline phosphatase. Absence of growth at 20 degrees C and lack of alpha-glucosidase and 4MU-alpha-D-glycoside hydrolysis activity differentiated C. amycolatum from C. pseudotuberculosis and C. ulcerans. The mastitis C. pseudotuberculosis strains differed from the biovar equi and ovis reference strains and from caprine field strains in their colony morphologies and in their reduced inhibitory activity on staphylococcal beta-hemolysin. C. amycolatum was the most frequently isolated nonlipophilic corynebacterium.  (+info)

Cloning, sequence analysis, expression and inactivation of the Corynebacterium glutamicum pta-ack operon encoding phosphotransacetylase and acetate kinase. (5/951)

The Corynebacterium glutamicum ack and pta genes encoding the acetate-activating enzymes acetate kinase and phosphotransacetylase were isolated, subcloned on a plasmid and re-introduced into Corynebacterium glutamicum. Relative to the wild-type, the recombinant strains showed about tenfold higher specific activities of both enzymes. Sequence analysis of a 3657 bp DNA fragment revealed that the ack and pta genes are contiguous in the corynebacterial chromosome, with pta upstream and the last nucleotide of the pta stop codon (TAA) overlapping the first of the ack start codon (ATG). The predicted gene product of pta consists of 329 amino acids (Mr 35242), that of ack consists of 397 amino acids (Mr 43098) and the amino acid sequences of the two polypeptides show up to 60 % (phosphotransacetylase) and 53% (acetate kinase) identity in comparison with respective enzymes from other organisms. Northern (RNA) blot hybridizations using pta- and ack-specific probes and transcriptional cat fusion experiments revealed that the two genes are transcribed as a 2.5 kb bicistronic mRNA and that the expression of this operon is induced when Corynebacterium glutamicum grows on acetate instead of glucose as a carbon source. Directed inactivation of the chromosomal pta and ack genes led to the absence of detectable phosphotransacetylase and acetate kinase activity in the respective mutants and to their inability to grow on acetate. These data indicate that no isoenzymes of acetate kinase and phosphotransacetylase are present in Corynebacterium glutamicum and that a functional acetate kinase/phosphotransacetylase pathway is essential for growth of this organism on acetate.  (+info)

Expression of the Corynebacterium glutamicum panD gene encoding L-aspartate-alpha-decarboxylase leads to pantothenate overproduction in Escherichia coli. (6/951)

The Corynebacterium glutamicum panD gene was identified by functional complementation of an Escherichia coli panD mutant strain. Sequence analysis revealed that the coding region of panD comprises 411 bp and specifies a protein of 136 amino acid residues with a deduced molecular mass of 14.1 kDa. A defined C. glutamicum panD mutant completely lacked L-aspartate-alpha-decarboxylase activity and exhibited beta-alanine auxotrophy. The C. glutamicum panD (panDC. g.) as well as the E. coli panD (panDE.c.) genes were cloned into a bifunctional expression plasmid to allow gene analysis in C. glutamicum as well as in E. coli. The enhanced expression of panDC.g. in C. glutamicum resulted in the formation of two distinct proteins in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, leading to the assumption that the panDC.g. gene product is proteolytically processed into two subunits. By increased expression of panDC.g. in C. glutamicum, the activity of L-aspartate-alpha-decarboxylase was 288-fold increased, whereas the panDE.c. gene resulted only in a 4-fold enhancement. The similar experiment performed in E. coli revealed that panDC.g. achieved a 41-fold increase and that panDE.c. achieved a 3-fold increase of enzyme activity. The effect of the panDC.g. and panDE.c. gene expression in E. coli was studied with a view to pantothenate accumulation. Only by expression of the panDC.g. gene was sufficient beta-alanine produced to abolish its limiting effect on pantothenate production. In cultures expressing the panDE.c. gene, the maximal pantothenate production was still dependent on external beta-alanine supplementation. The enhanced expression of panDC.g. in E. coli yielded the highest amount of pantothenate in the culture medium, with a specific productivity of 140 ng of pantothenate mg (dry weight)-1 h-1.  (+info)

Microbiological degradation of bile acids. The conjugation of a certain cholic acid metabolite with amino acids in Corynebacterium equi. (7/951)

1. (4R)-4[4alpha-(2-Carboxyethyl)-3aalpha-hexahydro-7abeta-methyl-5-oxoindan-1beta-y l]valeric acid (II) could not be utilized by Arthrobacter simplex, even though the acid was one of the metabolites formed from cholic acid (I) by this organism. Therefore the further degradation of the acid (II) by Corynebacterium equi was investigated to identify the intermediates involved in the cholic acid degradation. 2. The organism, cultured in a medium containing the acid (II) as the sole source of carbon, produced unexpected metabolites, the conjugates of this original acid (II) with amino acids or their derivatives, although the yield was very low. These new metabolites were isolated and identified by chemical synthesis as the Na-((4R)-4-[4alpha-(2-carboxyethyl)-3a alpha-hexahydro-7a beta-methyl-5-oxoindan-1 beta-yl]-valeryl) derivatives of L-alanine, glutamic acid, O-acetylhomoserine and glutamine, i.e. compounds (IIIa), (IIIb), (IIId) respectively. 3. The possibility that the bacterial synthetic reaction observed in the acid (II) metabolism with C. equi is analogous to peptide conjugation known in both animals and higher plants is discussed. A possible mechanism for this bacterial conjugation is also considered.  (+info)

Site-specific integration of corynephage phi16: construction of an integration vector. (8/951)

Phi16, a temperate phage induced from Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 21792, lysogenizes its host via site-specific recombination. The phage attachment site, attP, was located to a 6.5 kb BamHI fragment of the phi16 genome. This fragment also contained phi16 integrative functions. The minimal phage DNA fragment required for integration was defined. This 1630 bp region contained a large open reading frame, int, encoding a protein of 416 amino acids with similarity in its carboxyl-terminal domain to tyrosine recombinases and particularly to the Xer recombinases. The comparison of the nucleotide sequences of attB, attL, attR, and attP identified a common 29 bp sequence, the core sequence. It lies 11 bp downstream of the 3' end of the integrase gene. phi16 integrase was shown to catalyse site-specific integration in trans to attP with an efficiency of 5x10(3) integrants per microg DNA. The integrating fragment catalysed integration in several Corynebacterium strains that are not infected by phi16, thus enlarging the host spectrum of integrating vectors derived from phi16. In these strains, the phi16 attB site was located in a conserved intergenic region and lies downstream of a clp gene.  (+info)

Corynebacterium is a genus of Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found on the skin and mucous membranes of humans and animals. Some species of Corynebacterium can cause disease in humans, including C. diphtheriae, which causes diphtheria, and C. jeikeium, which can cause various types of infections in immunocompromised individuals. Other species are part of the normal flora and are not typically pathogenic. The bacteria are characterized by their irregular, club-shaped appearance and their ability to form characteristic arrangements called palisades. They are facultative anaerobes, meaning they can grow in the presence or absence of oxygen.

Corynebacterium infections are caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Corynebacterium, which are gram-positive, rod-shaped organisms that commonly inhabit the skin and mucous membranes of humans and animals. While many species of Corynebacterium are harmless commensals, some can cause a range of infections, particularly in individuals with compromised immune systems or underlying medical conditions.

The most common Corynebacterium species that causes infection is C. diphtheriae, which is responsible for diphtheria, a potentially life-threatening respiratory illness characterized by the formation of a thick, grayish membrane in the throat and upper airways. Other Corynebacterium species, such as C. jeikeium, C. urealyticum, and C. striatum, can cause various types of healthcare-associated infections, including bacteremia, endocarditis, pneumonia, and skin and soft tissue infections.

Corynebacterium infections are typically treated with antibiotics, such as penicillin, erythromycin, or vancomycin, depending on the species of bacteria involved and the patient's medical history. In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to drain abscesses or remove infected tissue. Preventive measures, such as vaccination against C. diphtheriae and good hygiene practices, can help reduce the risk of Corynebacterium infections.

'Corynebacterium glutamicum' is a species of Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in the environment, particularly in soil and water. It is a facultative anaerobe, which means it can grow with or without oxygen. The bacterium is non-pathogenic and has been widely studied and used in biotechnology due to its ability to produce various amino acids and other industrially relevant compounds.

The name 'Corynebacterium glutamicum' comes from its discovery as a bacterium that can ferment the amino acid glutamate, which is why it has been extensively used in the industrial production of L-glutamate, an important ingredient in many food products and feed additives.

In recent years, 'Corynebacterium glutamicum' has also gained attention as a potential platform organism for the production of various biofuels and biochemicals, including alcohols, organic acids, and hydrocarbons. Its genetic tractability and ability to utilize a wide range of carbon sources make it an attractive candidate for biotechnological applications.

'Corynebacterium diphtheriae' is a gram-positive, rod-shaped, aerobic bacteria that can cause the disease diphtheria. It is commonly found in the upper respiratory tract and skin of humans and can be transmitted through respiratory droplets or direct contact with contaminated objects. The bacterium produces a potent exotoxin that can cause severe inflammation and formation of a pseudomembrane in the throat, leading to difficulty breathing and swallowing. In severe cases, the toxin can spread to other organs, causing serious complications such as myocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle) and peripheral neuropathy (damage to nerves outside the brain and spinal cord). The disease is preventable through vaccination with the diphtheria toxoid-containing vaccine.

'Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis' is a gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, diphtheroid bacterium that is the causative agent of caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) in sheep and goats. It can also cause chronic, granulomatous infections in other animals, including horses, cattle, and humans. The bacteria are typically transmitted through contact with infected animals or contaminated environmental sources, such as soil or water. Infection can lead to the formation of abscesses in the lymph nodes, particularly in the head and neck region, as well as other organs.

In humans, 'Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis' infection is rare but can cause a variety of clinical manifestations, including chronic lymphadenitis, osteomyelitis, pneumonia, and septicemia. The disease is often referred to as "pseudotuberculosis" or "pigeon breast" in humans, due to the characteristic swelling of the chest that can occur with infection.

Diagnosis of 'Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis' infection typically involves the isolation and identification of the bacteria from clinical samples, such as pus or tissue biopsies. Treatment may involve surgical drainage of abscesses, along with antibiotic therapy. The choice of antibiotics depends on the severity and location of the infection, as well as the susceptibility of the bacterial strain.

Propionibacterium acnes is a gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterium that naturally colonizes the skin, predominantly in areas with a high density of sebaceous glands such as the face, back, and chest. It is part of the normal skin flora but can contribute to the development of acne vulgaris when it proliferates excessively and clogs the pilosebaceous units (hair follicles).

The bacterium metabolizes sebum, producing propionic acid and other short-chain fatty acids as byproducts. In acne, these byproducts can cause an inflammatory response in the skin, leading to the formation of papules, pustules, and nodules. Propionibacterium acnes has also been implicated in various other skin conditions and occasionally in opportunistic infections in other parts of the body, particularly in immunocompromised individuals or following surgical procedures.

Diphtheria is a serious bacterial infection caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It typically affects the respiratory system, including the nose, throat, and windpipe (trachea), causing a thick gray or white membrane to form over the lining of these areas. This can lead to breathing difficulties, heart complications, and neurological problems if left untreated.

The bacteria can also produce a powerful toxin that can cause damage to other organs in the body. Diphtheria is usually spread through respiratory droplets from an infected person's cough or sneeze, or by contact with contaminated objects or surfaces. The disease is preventable through vaccination.

Corynebacterium pyogenes is a gram-positive, catalase-positive, non-motile, and non-spore-forming rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in the respiratory tract and on the skin of animals. It can cause purulent infections such as abscesses, mastitis, pneumonia, and septicemia in various animal species, including cattle, sheep, goats, and swine.

In humans, Corynebacterium pyogenes is considered a rare cause of infection, and it has been isolated from cases of endocarditis, meningitis, and soft tissue infections. However, its clinical significance in human infections remains unclear, and further studies are needed to establish its role as a human pathogen.

It's important to note that Corynebacterium pyogenes is different from Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A streptococcus), which is a major human pathogen causing various infections such as pharyngitis, impetigo, and necrotizing fasciitis.

Diphtheria toxin is a potent exotoxin produced by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae, which causes the disease diphtheria. This toxin is composed of two subunits: A and B. The B subunit helps the toxin bind to and enter host cells, while the A subunit inhibits protein synthesis within those cells, leading to cell damage and tissue destruction.

The toxin can cause a variety of symptoms depending on the site of infection. In respiratory diphtheria, it typically affects the nose, throat, and tonsils, causing a thick gray or white membrane to form over the affected area, making breathing and swallowing difficult. In cutaneous diphtheria, it infects the skin, leading to ulcers and necrosis.

Diphtheria toxin can also have systemic effects, such as damage to the heart, nerves, and kidneys, which can be life-threatening if left untreated. Fortunately, diphtheria is preventable through vaccination with the diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (DTaP or Tdap) vaccine.

Brevibacterium is a genus of Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in nature, particularly in soil, water, and various types of decaying organic matter. Some species of Brevibacterium can also be found on the skin of animals and humans, where they play a role in the production of body odor.

Brevibacterium species are known for their ability to produce a variety of enzymes that allow them to break down complex organic compounds into simpler molecules. This makes them useful in a number of industrial applications, such as the production of cheese and other fermented foods, as well as in the bioremediation of contaminated environments.

In medical contexts, Brevibacterium species are rarely associated with human disease. However, there have been occasional reports of infections caused by these bacteria, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems or who have undergone surgical procedures. These infections can include bacteremia (bloodstream infections), endocarditis (inflammation of the heart valves), and soft tissue infections. Treatment typically involves the use of antibiotics that are effective against Gram-positive bacteria, such as vancomycin or teicoplanin.

Mycolic acids are complex, long-chain fatty acids that are a major component of the cell wall in mycobacteria, including the bacteria responsible for tuberculosis and leprosy. These acids contribute to the impermeability and resistance to chemical agents of the mycobacterial cell wall, making these organisms difficult to eradicate. Mycolic acids are unique to mycobacteria and some related actinomycetes, and their analysis can be useful in the identification and classification of these bacteria.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

Gene expression regulation in bacteria refers to the complex cellular processes that control the production of proteins from specific genes. This regulation allows bacteria to adapt to changing environmental conditions and ensure the appropriate amount of protein is produced at the right time.

Bacteria have a variety of mechanisms for regulating gene expression, including:

1. Operon structure: Many bacterial genes are organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule. The expression of these genes can be coordinately regulated by controlling the transcription of the entire operon.
2. Promoter regulation: Transcription is initiated at promoter regions upstream of the gene or operon. Bacteria have regulatory proteins called sigma factors that bind to the promoter and recruit RNA polymerase, the enzyme responsible for transcribing DNA into RNA. The binding of sigma factors can be influenced by environmental signals, allowing for regulation of transcription.
3. Attenuation: Some operons have regulatory regions called attenuators that control transcription termination. These regions contain hairpin structures that can form in the mRNA and cause transcription to stop prematurely. The formation of these hairpins is influenced by the concentration of specific metabolites, allowing for regulation of gene expression based on the availability of those metabolites.
4. Riboswitches: Some bacterial mRNAs contain regulatory elements called riboswitches that bind small molecules directly. When a small molecule binds to the riboswitch, it changes conformation and affects transcription or translation of the associated gene.
5. CRISPR-Cas systems: Bacteria use CRISPR-Cas systems for adaptive immunity against viruses and plasmids. These systems incorporate short sequences from foreign DNA into their own genome, which can then be used to recognize and cleave similar sequences in invading genetic elements.

Overall, gene expression regulation in bacteria is a complex process that allows them to respond quickly and efficiently to changing environmental conditions. Understanding these regulatory mechanisms can provide insights into bacterial physiology and help inform strategies for controlling bacterial growth and behavior.

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a type of RNA that combines with proteins to form ribosomes, which are complex structures inside cells where protein synthesis occurs. The "16S" refers to the sedimentation coefficient of the rRNA molecule, which is a measure of its size and shape. In particular, 16S rRNA is a component of the smaller subunit of the prokaryotic ribosome (found in bacteria and archaea), and is often used as a molecular marker for identifying and classifying these organisms due to its relative stability and conservation among species. The sequence of 16S rRNA can be compared across different species to determine their evolutionary relationships and taxonomic positions.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) refers to the specific regions of DNA in a cell that contain the genes for ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Ribosomes are complex structures composed of proteins and rRNA, which play a crucial role in protein synthesis by translating messenger RNA (mRNA) into proteins.

In humans, there are four types of rRNA molecules: 18S, 5.8S, 28S, and 5S. These rRNAs are encoded by multiple copies of rDNA genes that are organized in clusters on specific chromosomes. In humans, the majority of rDNA genes are located on the short arms of acrocentric chromosomes 13, 14, 15, 21, and 22.

Each cluster of rDNA genes contains both transcribed and non-transcribed spacer regions. The transcribed regions contain the genes for the four types of rRNA, while the non-transcribed spacers contain regulatory elements that control the transcription of the rRNA genes.

The number of rDNA copies varies between species and even within individuals of the same species. The copy number can also change during development and in response to environmental factors. Variations in rDNA copy number have been associated with various diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders.

Lymphadenitis is a medical term that refers to the inflammation of one or more lymph nodes, which are small, bean-shaped glands that are part of the body's immune system. Lymph nodes contain white blood cells called lymphocytes, which help fight infection and disease.

Lymphadenitis can occur as a result of an infection in the area near the affected lymph node or as a result of a systemic infection that has spread through the bloodstream. The inflammation causes the lymph node to become swollen, tender, and sometimes painful to the touch.

The symptoms of lymphadenitis may include fever, fatigue, and redness or warmth in the area around the affected lymph node. In some cases, the overlying skin may also appear red and inflamed. Lymphadenitis can occur in any part of the body where there are lymph nodes, including the neck, armpits, groin, and abdomen.

The underlying cause of lymphadenitis must be diagnosed and treated promptly to prevent complications such as the spread of infection or the formation of an abscess. Treatment may include antibiotics, pain relievers, and warm compresses to help reduce swelling and discomfort.

Diphtheria Antitoxin is a medication used to treat diphtheria, a serious bacterial infection that can affect the nose, throat, and skin. It is made from the serum of animals (such as horses) that have been immunized against diphtheria. The antitoxin works by neutralizing the harmful effects of the diphtheria toxin produced by the bacteria, which can cause tissue damage and other complications.

Diphtheria Antitoxin is usually given as an injection into a muscle or vein, and it should be administered as soon as possible after a diagnosis of diphtheria has been made. It is important to note that while the antitoxin can help prevent further damage caused by the toxin, it does not treat the underlying infection itself, which requires antibiotics for proper treatment.

Like any medication, Diphtheria Antitoxin can have side effects, including allergic reactions, serum sickness, and anaphylaxis. It should only be administered under the supervision of a healthcare professional who is experienced in its use and can monitor the patient for any adverse reactions.

A bacterial gene is a segment of DNA (or RNA in some viruses) that contains the genetic information necessary for the synthesis of a functional bacterial protein or RNA molecule. These genes are responsible for encoding various characteristics and functions of bacteria such as metabolism, reproduction, and resistance to antibiotics. They can be transmitted between bacteria through horizontal gene transfer mechanisms like conjugation, transformation, and transduction. Bacterial genes are often organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that the term "bacterial gene" is used to describe genetic elements found in bacteria, but not all genetic elements in bacteria are considered genes. For example, some DNA sequences may not encode functional products and are therefore not considered genes. Additionally, some bacterial genes may be plasmid-borne or phage-borne, rather than being located on the bacterial chromosome.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

Metabolic engineering is a branch of biotechnology that involves the modification and manipulation of metabolic pathways in organisms to enhance their production of specific metabolites or to alter their flow of energy and carbon. This field combines principles from genetics, molecular biology, biochemistry, and chemical engineering to design and construct novel metabolic pathways or modify existing ones with the goal of optimizing the production of valuable compounds or improving the properties of organisms for various applications.

Examples of metabolic engineering include the modification of microorganisms to produce biofuels, pharmaceuticals, or industrial chemicals; the enhancement of crop yields and nutritional value in agriculture; and the development of novel bioremediation strategies for environmental pollution control. The ultimate goal of metabolic engineering is to create organisms that can efficiently and sustainably produce valuable products while minimizing waste and reducing the impact on the environment.

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

Bacterial RNA refers to the genetic material present in bacteria that is composed of ribonucleic acid (RNA). Unlike higher organisms, bacteria contain a single circular chromosome made up of DNA, along with smaller circular pieces of DNA called plasmids. These bacterial genetic materials contain the information necessary for the growth and reproduction of the organism.

Bacterial RNA can be divided into three main categories: messenger RNA (mRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), and transfer RNA (tRNA). mRNA carries genetic information copied from DNA, which is then translated into proteins by the rRNA and tRNA molecules. rRNA is a structural component of the ribosome, where protein synthesis occurs, while tRNA acts as an adapter that brings amino acids to the ribosome during protein synthesis.

Bacterial RNA plays a crucial role in various cellular processes, including gene expression, protein synthesis, and regulation of metabolic pathways. Understanding the structure and function of bacterial RNA is essential for developing new antibiotics and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

Starch phosphorylase is an enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorolytic cleavage of alpha-1,4 glycosidic bonds in starch and related polysaccharides, releasing alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate molecules. It is found in various tissues, including muscle and liver, and plays a role in carbohydrate metabolism by helping to regulate the breakdown and synthesis of glycogen, which is a storage form of glucose.

The enzyme works by transferring a phosphate group from inorganic phosphate to the terminal alpha-1,4 linked glucosyl residue of the substrate, resulting in the formation of glucose 1-phosphate and a shortened polysaccharide chain. This reaction is reversible, allowing the enzyme to also participate in glycogen synthesis by adding glucose units to the non-reducing end of the glycogen molecule.

Starch phosphorylase is important for maintaining normal blood glucose levels and providing energy to cells during periods of fasting or exercise. Deficiencies in this enzyme can lead to metabolic disorders, such as glycogen storage disease type VI (Hers disease), which is characterized by the accumulation of abnormal glycogen molecules in the liver and muscle tissue.

Bacterial typing techniques are methods used to identify and differentiate bacterial strains or isolates based on their unique characteristics. These techniques are essential in epidemiological studies, infection control, and research to understand the transmission dynamics, virulence, and antibiotic resistance patterns of bacterial pathogens.

There are various bacterial typing techniques available, including:

1. **Bacteriophage Typing:** This method involves using bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria) to identify specific bacterial strains based on their susceptibility or resistance to particular phages.
2. **Serotyping:** It is a technique that differentiates bacterial strains based on the antigenic properties of their cell surface components, such as capsules, flagella, and somatic (O) and flagellar (H) antigens.
3. **Biochemical Testing:** This method uses biochemical reactions to identify specific metabolic pathways or enzymes present in bacterial strains, which can be used for differentiation. Commonly used tests include the catalase test, oxidase test, and various sugar fermentation tests.
4. **Molecular Typing Techniques:** These methods use genetic markers to identify and differentiate bacterial strains at the DNA level. Examples of molecular typing techniques include:
* **Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE):** This method uses restriction enzymes to digest bacterial DNA, followed by electrophoresis in an agarose gel under pulsed electrical fields. The resulting banding patterns are analyzed and compared to identify related strains.
* **Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST):** It involves sequencing specific housekeeping genes to generate unique sequence types that can be used for strain identification and phylogenetic analysis.
* **Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS):** This method sequences the entire genome of a bacterial strain, providing the most detailed information on genetic variation and relatedness between strains. WGS data can be analyzed using various bioinformatics tools to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), gene deletions or insertions, and other genetic changes that can be used for strain differentiation.

These molecular typing techniques provide higher resolution than traditional methods, allowing for more accurate identification and comparison of bacterial strains. They are particularly useful in epidemiological investigations to track the spread of pathogens and identify outbreaks.

Culture media is a substance that is used to support the growth of microorganisms or cells in an artificial environment, such as a petri dish or test tube. It typically contains nutrients and other factors that are necessary for the growth and survival of the organisms being cultured. There are many different types of culture media, each with its own specific formulation and intended use. Some common examples include blood agar, which is used to culture bacteria; Sabouraud dextrose agar, which is used to culture fungi; and Eagle's minimum essential medium, which is used to culture animal cells.

Species specificity is a term used in the field of biology, including medicine, to refer to the characteristic of a biological entity (such as a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism) that allows it to interact exclusively or preferentially with a particular species. This means that the biological entity has a strong affinity for, or is only able to infect, a specific host species.

For example, HIV is specifically adapted to infect human cells and does not typically infect other animal species. Similarly, some bacterial toxins are species-specific and can only affect certain types of animals or humans. This concept is important in understanding the transmission dynamics and host range of various pathogens, as well as in developing targeted therapies and vaccines.

A bacterial genome is the complete set of genetic material, including both DNA and RNA, found within a single bacterium. It contains all the hereditary information necessary for the bacterium to grow, reproduce, and survive in its environment. The bacterial genome typically includes circular chromosomes, as well as plasmids, which are smaller, circular DNA molecules that can carry additional genes. These genes encode various functional elements such as enzymes, structural proteins, and regulatory sequences that determine the bacterium's characteristics and behavior.

Bacterial genomes vary widely in size, ranging from around 130 kilobases (kb) in Mycoplasma genitalium to over 14 megabases (Mb) in Sorangium cellulosum. The complete sequencing and analysis of bacterial genomes have provided valuable insights into the biology, evolution, and pathogenicity of bacteria, enabling researchers to better understand their roles in various diseases and potential applications in biotechnology.

Pyelitis is a medical term that refers to the inflammation of the renal pelvis, which is the part of the kidney where urine collects before flowing into the ureter. Pyelitis can occur as a result of a bacterial infection, and it is often associated with pyelonephritis, which is an inflammation of the kidney tissue itself.

The symptoms of pyelitis may include fever, chills, flank pain, nausea, vomiting, and frequent or painful urination. The condition can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including urinalysis, urine culture, and imaging studies such as ultrasound or CT scan. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to eliminate the underlying infection, as well as supportive care to manage any symptoms.

It is important to seek medical attention promptly if you experience symptoms of pyelitis, as untreated infections can lead to serious complications, including kidney damage and sepsis.

I am not a doctor, but I can provide some information about the term "cheese" in a general and food science context. Cheese is a dairy product made from the curdled milk of various animals, most commonly cows, goats, or sheep. The process involves enzymes (such as rennet) to coagulate milk proteins (casein), which then separate from the liquid whey. The curds are then aged, treated, and processed in various ways to create different types of cheese with unique flavors, textures, and appearances.

However, if you are looking for a medical definition related to health issues or conditions, I would recommend consulting a reliable medical resource or speaking with a healthcare professional.

Gene deletion is a type of mutation where a segment of DNA, containing one or more genes, is permanently lost or removed from a chromosome. This can occur due to various genetic mechanisms such as homologous recombination, non-homologous end joining, or other types of genomic rearrangements.

The deletion of a gene can have varying effects on the organism, depending on the function of the deleted gene and its importance for normal physiological processes. If the deleted gene is essential for survival, the deletion may result in embryonic lethality or developmental abnormalities. However, if the gene is non-essential or has redundant functions, the deletion may not have any noticeable effects on the organism's phenotype.

Gene deletions can also be used as a tool in genetic research to study the function of specific genes and their role in various biological processes. For example, researchers may use gene deletion techniques to create genetically modified animal models to investigate the impact of gene deletion on disease progression or development.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

I'm happy to help, but I want to clarify that the term "sheep diseases" refers to a wide range of health issues that can affect sheep populations. It's not a single medical condition with a specific definition. Here are some examples of common diseases that can affect sheep:

1. Ovine Johne's Disease (OJD): A chronic, infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. It affects the intestines and can cause weight loss, diarrhea, and death.
2. Footrot: A highly contagious bacterial infection that affects the feet of sheep, causing lameness, swelling, and pain. It's caused by the bacteria Dichelobacter nodosus.
3. Caseous Lymphadenitis (CL): A chronic infectious disease caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. It affects the lymph nodes and can cause abscesses, weight loss, and death.
4. Contagious Ecthyma (Orf): A highly contagious viral infection that affects the skin and mucous membranes of sheep, causing sores and lesions.
5. Mastitis: An inflammation of the mammary gland in sheep, usually caused by a bacterial infection. It can cause decreased milk production, fever, and loss of appetite.
6. Pneumonia: A respiratory infection that can affect sheep, causing coughing, difficulty breathing, and fever. It can be caused by various bacteria or viruses.
7. Enterotoxemia: A potentially fatal disease caused by the overproduction of toxins in the intestines of sheep, usually due to a bacterial infection with Clostridium perfringens.
8. Polioencephalomalacia (PEM): A neurological disorder that affects the brain of sheep, causing symptoms such as blindness, circling, and seizures. It's often caused by a thiamine deficiency or excessive sulfur intake.
9. Toxoplasmosis: A parasitic infection that can affect sheep, causing abortion, stillbirth, and neurological symptoms.
10. Blue tongue: A viral disease that affects sheep, causing fever, respiratory distress, and mouth ulcers. It's transmitted by insect vectors and is often associated with climate change.

Actinomycetales is an order of Gram-positive bacteria that are characterized by their filamentous morphology and branching appearance, resembling fungi. These bacteria are often found in soil and water, and some species can cause diseases in humans and animals. The name "Actinomycetales" comes from the Greek words "actis," meaning ray or beam, and "mykes," meaning fungus.

The order Actinomycetales includes several families of medical importance, such as Mycobacteriaceae (which contains the tuberculosis-causing Mycobacterium tuberculosis), Corynebacteriaceae (which contains the diphtheria-causing Corynebacterium diphtheriae), and Actinomycetaceae (which contains the actinomycosis-causing Actinomyces israelii).

Actinomycetales are known for their complex cell walls, which contain a unique type of lipid called mycolic acid. This feature makes them resistant to many antibiotics and contributes to their ability to cause chronic infections. They can also form resistant structures called spores, which allow them to survive in harsh environments and contribute to their ability to cause disease.

Overall, Actinomycetales are important both as beneficial soil organisms and as potential pathogens that can cause serious diseases in humans and animals.

Actinomycetaceae is a family of Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are characterized by their filamentous growth and the production of branching hyphae. These bacteria are often found in soil and water, and some species can cause disease in humans and animals. They are classified as aerobic or facultatively anaerobic organisms, meaning they can grow with or without oxygen.

The name "Actinomycetaceae" comes from the Greek words "aktis," meaning "ray" or "beam," and "mykes," meaning "fungus." This reflects the filamentous, fungus-like growth of these bacteria.

Some species of Actinomycetaceae are known to produce various antibiotics, including streptomycin, neomycin, and tetracycline. These antibiotics have been widely used in medicine to treat a variety of bacterial infections.

In humans, some species of Actinomycetaceae can cause actinomycosis, a chronic infection that typically affects the face, neck, and mouth. Symptoms of actinomycosis include swelling, pain, and the formation of abscesses or fistulas. Treatment usually involves long-term antibiotic therapy and sometimes surgical drainage of any abscesses.

Overall, Actinomycetaceae is an important family of bacteria with both beneficial and harmful effects on humans and other organisms.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

Arcanobacterium is a genus of Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are facultatively anaerobic and non-spore forming. These bacteria were previously classified as part of the Corynebacterium genus but were reclassified due to genetic differences. They are normal flora in the human respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, but some species have been associated with human diseases such as endocarditis, bacteremia, and wound infections. The most well-known species is Arcanobacterium haemolyticum, which can cause pharyngitis and skin infections. Proper identification of these bacteria is important for appropriate treatment, as some species may be resistant to certain antibiotics.

1998). "Note: Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii sp. nov., a novel corynebacterium that does not contain mycolic acids". ... Corynebacterium species occur commonly in nature in soil, water, plants, and food products. The non-diphtheroid Corynebacterium ... Corynebacterium [1] Khamis, A.; Raoult, D.; Scola, B. La (2004). "rpoB gene sequencing for identification of Corynebacterium ... "Bacteriemias significativas por Corynebacterium amycolatum: Un patógeno emergente" [Significant bacteremias by Corynebacterium ...
... differentiation from Corynebacterium afermentans and Corynebacterium auris". Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 34 (10): 2625- ... Corynebacterium otitidis is a coryneform Gram-positive bacterium first isolated from patients with otitis media. Parte, A.C. " ... "Corynebacterium otitidis" at the Encyclopedia of Life LPSN Type strain of Turicella otitidis at BacDive - the Bacterial ... Graevenitz, A.; Funke, G. (2013). "Turicella otitidis and Corynebacterium auris: 20 years on" (PDF). Infection. 42 (1): 1-4. ...
Type strain of Corynebacterium uropygiale at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase (CS1 German-language sources (de), ... 2003). "Corynebacterium spheniscorum sp. nov., isolated from the cloacae of wild penguins". International Journal of Systematic ... Corynebacterium uropygiale is a bacterium described in 2016 following thorough investigations using a polyphasic approach ... Bernard, K.A.; Funke, G. (2012). "Genus I. Corynebacterium". In Goodfellow, M.; Kämpfer, P.; Busse, H.-J.; Trujillo, M. E.; ...
... is a species of bacteria in the genus Corynebacterium that was described as a novel species in 2019 ... Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Articles with 'species' microformats, Corynebacterium, ... "Corynebacterium alimapuense sp. nov., an obligate marine actinomycete isolated from sediment of Valparaíso bay, Chile". ...
... is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterium that is used industrially for large-scale production of ... Type strain of Corynebacterium glutamicum at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase Portal: Biology (CS1 maint: ... 4 September 2003). "The complete Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 genome sequence and its impact on the production of l- ... Zahoor A; Lindner SN; Wendisch VF (October 2012). "Metabolic Engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum Aimed at Alternative ...
... is a bacterium that is a member of the Corynebacterium genus. It is classified as non-diphtheritic. ... Corynebacterium striatum can be differentiated from other Corynebacterium types based on its ability to ferment glucose and ... Corynebacterium striatum is a member of the genus Corynebacterium. Initially the species was described in 1901. Scientific ... In comparison to other members of the genus Corynebacterium, it ferments sugars rapidly. Corynebacterium species are also known ...
... is a pathogenic bacterium that causes mastitis and pyelonephritis in cattle. C. bovis is a facultatively ... Type strain of Corynebacterium bovis at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase Portal: Biology v t e (Articles with ... short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with 'species' microformats, Corynebacterium, Gram- ...
... is a rod-shaped, catalase-positive, aerobic species of Actinomycetota in the genus Corynebacterium. C ... Parte, A.C. "Corynebacterium". LPSN. Funke, Guido; Bernard, KA (May 16, 2011). "Chapter 26: Coryneform Gram-Positive Rods". In ... Type strain of Corynebacterium jeikeium at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase Portal: Biology (Articles with short ... ISBN 978-1-55581-463-2. Rosato AE, Lee BS, Nash KA (July 2001). "Inducible macrolide resistance in Corynebacterium jeikeium". ...
... is a bacterial species of the genus Corynebacterium. It is not commonly found in healthy people. It ... ISBN 978-0-323-08692-9. Type strain of Corynebacterium urealyticum at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e ( ... as Corynebacterium urealyticum sp. nov". International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. 42 (1): 178-181. doi:10.1099/ ... Corynebacterium, Bacteria described in 1992, All stub articles, Actinomycetota stubs). ...
Corynebacterium endocarditis usually infects the left side of the heart in males, though C. amycolatum has shown a predilection ... Corynebacterium amycolatum is a gram-positive, non-spore-forming, aerobic or facultatively anaerobic bacillus capable of ... Berner, R; K Pelz; C Wilhelm; A Funke; J U Leititis; M Brandis (April 1997). "Fatal sepsis caused by Corynebacterium amycolatum ... Type strain of Corynebacterium amycolatum at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase Portal: Biology (Articles with ...
... is a species of bacteria in the genus Corynebacterium. Corynebacteria occur within the normal flora ... Corynebacterium matruchotii are Gram positive bacilli with long filaments and short, thick terminal ends. C. matruchotii is a ... Type strain of Corynebacterium matruchotii at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e (Articles with short ... "Corynebacterium". List of Prokaryotic Names with Standing in Nomenclature. Retrieved 22 February 2017. Paster, B. J.; Boches, S ...
... , Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Corynebacterium jeikeium deduced from the complete genome sequences ... "Corynebacterium efficiens" at the Encyclopedia of Life LPSN Type strain of Corynebacterium efficiens at BacDive - the Bacterial ... "Genomic analyses of transporter proteins in Corynebacterium glutamicum and Corynebacterium efficiens". In Eggeling, Lothar; ... Corynebacterium efficiens is a thermotolerant, glutamic acid-producing (from dextrin) species of bacteria from soil and ...
... is a species of Corynebacterium associated with erythrasma, a type of skin rash. It can be ... Dalal A, Likhi R (January 2008). "Corynebacterium minutissimum bacteremia and meningitis: a case report and review of ... ISBN 0-323-01319-8. Type strain of Corynebacterium minutissimum at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase Portal: ... Corynebacterium, Gram-positive bacteria, All stub articles, Actinomycetota stubs). ...
"Corynebacterium". LPSN. Hoskisson PA (June 2018). "Microbe Profile: Corynebacterium diphtheriae - an old foe always ready to ... C. diphtheriae does not produce pyrazinamidase which differentiates from Corynebacterium striatum and Corynebacterium jeikeium ... The Corynebacterium diphtheriae genome is a single circular chromosome that has no plasmids. These chromosomes have a high G+C ... Corynebacterium diphtheriae is the pathogenic bacterium that causes diphtheria. It is also known as the Klebs-Löffler bacillus ...
... is a rod-shaped, aerobic, and Gram-positive bacterium. Most Corynebacterium species are harmless, but ... Type strain of Corynebacterium ulcerans at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase Portal: Biology (Articles with short ... Sing, A; Bierschenk, S; Heesemann, J (2005). "Classical Diphtheria Caused by Corynebacterium ulcerans in Germany: Amino Acid ... "Notes from the Field: Respiratory Diphtheria-Like Illness Caused by Toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans --- Idaho, 2010". 28 ...
"Corynebacterium macginleyi" at the Encyclopedia of Life LPSN Type strain of Corynebacterium macginleyi at BacDive - the ... Corynebacterium macginleyi is a species of bacteria with type strain JCL-2 (CIP 104099). It is considered pathogenic. Riegel, P ... Dias, Meena; Rao, Suresh D.; Shet, Dinesh (2010). "Corynebacterium macginleyi'a rare bacteria causing infection in an ... Funke, Guido; Pagano-Niederer, Maja; Bernauer, Wolfgang (1998). "Corynebacterium macginleyi has to date been isolated ...
... is a species of bacteria in the genus Corynebacterium. Bernard, K. (2012-07-25). "The Genus ... Vela, A. I.; Gracía, E.; Fernández, A.; Domínguez, L.; Fernández-Garayzábal, J. F. (June 2006). "Isolation of Corynebacterium ... Eliakim, R.; Silkoff, P.; Lugassy, G.; Michel, J. (October 1983). "Corynebacterium xerosis endocarditis". Archives of Internal ... "Characterization of some bacterial strains isolated from animal clinical materials and identified as Corynebacterium xerosis by ...
Due to similarities in diagnostic testing procedures Corynebacterium cystiditis may be misdiagnosed as Corynebacterium renale ... Corynebacterium renale is a pathogenic bacterium that causes cystitis and pyelonephritis in cattle. C. renale is a ... Clinical presentations and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Corynebacterium cystitidis associated with renal disease in four ... Corynebacterium, Gram-positive bacteria, Bacteria described in 1906, Animal bacterial diseases, Bovine diseases, All stub ...
... when it was recategorized into the Corynebacterium genus.[citation needed] It was finally renamed Corynebacterium ... Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is a Gram-positive bacterium known globally to infect ruminants, horses, and rarely people. ... "Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Infection of Horses and Cattle - Circulatory System". Merck Veterinary Manual. Retrieved ... Baird, G.J.; Fontaine, M.C. (2007). "Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis and its Role in Ovine Caseous Lymphadenitis". Journal ...
... is a form of sepsis which occurs when the bacterium Corynebacterium jeikeium colonizes the skin ...
Xanthomonas spp., Argobacterium spp., Acinetobacter spp., Corynebacterium spp., Bacteroides spp., Clostridium spp., ...
L-Tryptophan is also produced through fermentation and by Corynebacterium and E.coli, though the production is not as large as ... "Corynebacterium species , Johns Hopkins ABX Guide". www.hopkinsguides.com. Retrieved 2019-11-11. Singhania, Reeta Rani; Patel, ... The production of these amino acids is due to Corynebacterium glutamicum and fermentation. C.glutamicum was engineered to be ... which was produced from dehydroepiandrosterone by using the Corynebacterium species. Fermentation is a reaction where sugar can ...
For example, some Corynebacteria, such as Corynebacterium uropygiale, lost their ability to produce certain fatty acids by ... Braun, Markus Santhosh; Zimmermann, Stefan; Danner, Maria; Rashid, Harun-or; Wink, Michael (2016). "Corynebacterium uropygiale ... "Postoperative Corynebacterium macginleyi endophthalmitis". Journal of Cataract & Refractive Surgery. 30 (11): 2441-4. doi: ...
The fermentation process is using Corynebacterium bacteria species. The fermentation parameters are controlled for time, ... The fermentation of food with Corynebacterium species is widely present in many parts of the world. The global exposure to ... "Corynebacterium nuruki sp. nov., isolated from an alcohol fermentation starter". International Journal of Systematic and ...
Braun, M.S.; Zimmermann, S.; Danner, M.; Rashid, H.; Wink, M. (2016). "Corynebacterium uropygiale sp. nov., isolated from the ... In contrast to the majority of other birds, they are colonized by bacteria of unknown function (Corynebacterium uropygiale). ...
Braun, Markus Santhosh; Zimmermann, Stefan; Danner, Maria; Rashid, Harun-or; Wink, Michael (2016). "Corynebacterium uropygiale ... Enterococcus phoeniculicola and Corynebacterium uropygiale). Some of those bacteria add to the antimicrobial properties of ...
Other Gram-positive organisms belonging to the Bacillus spp., Listeria spp., and Corynebacterium spp. may show in vitro ...
Wei, Y; Fang, J; Xu, Y; Zhao, W; Cao, J (2018). "Corynebacterium hadale sp. nov. isolated from hadopelagic water of the New ...
A species of Corynebacterium-C. ciconiae-was isolated and described from the trachea of healthy black storks, and is thought to ... "Corynebacterium ciconiae sp. nov., isolated from the trachea of black storks (Ciconia nigra)". International Journal of ...
Arceneaux J (4 April 2010). "Corynebacterium and Related Genera.". Lecture to 2nd Year Medical Students. University of ...

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