A family of icosahedral, lipid-containing, non-enveloped bacteriophages containing one genus (Corticovirus).
A genus of GRAM-NEGATIVE AEROBIC BACTERIA of marine origin. Many species were formerly classified under ALTEROMONAS.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
A family of the order DIPTERA that includes the TSETSE FLIES. These flies occur only in Africa.
Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
International collective of humanitarian organizations led by volunteers and guided by its Congressional Charter and the Fundamental Principles of the International Red Cross Movement, to provide relief to victims of disaster and help people prevent, prepare for, and respond to emergencies.
The systematic arrangement of entities in any field into categories classes based on common characteristics such as properties, morphology, subject matter, etc.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.
Indolesulfonic acid used as a dye in renal function testing for the detection of nitrates and chlorates, and in the testing of milk.
A plant genus of the family ORCHIDACEAE that is the source of the familiar flavoring used in foods and medicines (FLAVORING AGENTS).
A plant genus of the family Paeoniaceae, order Dilleniales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. These perennial herbs are up to 2 m (6') tall. Leaves are alternate and are divided into three lobes, each lobe being further divided into three smaller lobes. The large flowers are symmetrical, bisexual, have 5 sepals, 5 petals (sometimes 10), and many stamens.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
A republic stretching from the Indian Ocean east to New Guinea, comprising six main islands: Java, Sumatra, Bali, Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo), Sulawesi (formerly known as the Celebes) and Irian Jaya (the western part of New Guinea). Its capital is Djakarta. The ethnic groups living there are largely Chinese, Arab, Eurasian, Indian, and Pakistani; 85% of the peoples are of the Islamic faith.
A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)
NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.
A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".
A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 36 serotypes. It is comprised of all the echoviruses and a few coxsackieviruses, including all of those previously named coxsackievirus B.
A heterogeneous group of infections produced by coxsackieviruses, including HERPANGINA, aseptic meningitis (MENINGITIS, ASEPTIC), a common-cold-like syndrome, a non-paralytic poliomyelitis-like syndrome, epidemic pleurodynia (PLEURODYNIA, EPIDEMIC) and a serious MYOCARDITIS.
Infectious disease processes, including meningitis, diarrhea, and respiratory disorders, caused by echoviruses.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. Three serotypes (strains) exist. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Vaccines with both inactivated and live attenuated virus have proven effective in immunizing against the infection.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 10 serotypes, mostly coxsackieviruses.
A genus of the family CORONAVIRIDAE which causes respiratory or gastrointestinal disease in a variety of vertebrates.
Hoofed mammals with four legs, a big-lipped snout, and a humped back belonging to the family Camelidae.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Virus diseases caused by the CORONAVIRUS genus. Some specifics include transmissible enteritis of turkeys (ENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF TURKEYS); FELINE INFECTIOUS PERITONITIS; and transmissible gastroenteritis of swine (GASTROENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF SWINE).
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
The region of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.
DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.
An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC 2.7.7.49.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
Viruses whose host is Pseudomonas. A frequently encountered Pseudomonas phage is BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.
A family of bacteriophages containing one genus (Cystovirus) with one member (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6).
A family of lipid-containing bacteriophages with double capsids which infect both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. It has one genus, Tectivirus.
A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by complex contractile tails.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
Virulent bacteriophage and sole member of the genus Cystovirus that infects Pseudomonas species. The virion has a segmented genome consisting of three pieces of doubled-stranded DNA and also a unique lipid-containing envelope.

The complete genome sequence of PM2, the first lipid-containing bacterial virus To Be isolated. (1/17)

Bacteriophage PM2 was isolated from the Pacific Ocean off the coast of Chile in the late 1960s. It was a new virus type, later classified as Corticoviridae, and also the first bacterial virus for which it was demonstrated that lipids are part of the virion structure. Here we report the determination and analysis of the 10, 079-bp circular dsDNA genome sequence. Noteworthy discoveries are the replication initiation system, which is related to the rolling circle mechanism described for phages such as φX174 and P2, and a 1.2-kb sequence that is similar to the maintenance region of a plasmid found in a marine Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain A28.  (+info)

Purification and protein composition of PM2, the first lipid-containing bacterial virus to be isolated. (2/17)

The marine, icosahedral bacteriophage PM2 was isolated in the late 1960s. It was the first phage for which lipids were firmly demonstrated to be part of the virion structure and it has been classified as the type organism of the Corticoviridae family. The host, Pseudoalteromonas espejiana BAL-31, belongs to a common group of marine bacteria. We developed a purification method producing virions with specific infectivity approximately as high as that of the lipid-containing phages PRD1 and φ6. The sensitivity of the virus to normally used purification media such as those containing sucrose is demonstrated. We also present an alternative host, a pseudoalteromonad, that allows enhanced purification of the virus under reduced salt conditions. We show, using N-terminal amino acid sequencing and comparison with the genomic sequence, that there are at least eight structural proteins in the infectious virus.  (+info)

A conserved genetic module that encodes the major virion components in both the coliphage T4 and the marine cyanophage S-PM2. (3/17)

Sequence analysis of a 10-kb region of the genome of the marine cyanomyovirus S-PM2 reveals a homology to coliphage T4 that extends as a contiguous block from gene (g)18 to g23. The order of the S-PM2 genes in this region is similar to that of T4, but there are insertions and deletions of small ORFs of unknown function. In T4, g18 codes for the tail sheath, g19, the tail tube, g20, the head portal protein, g21, the prohead core protein, g22, a scaffolding protein, and g23, the major capsid protein. Thus, the entire module that determines the structural components of the phage head and contractile tail is conserved between T4 and this cyanophage. The significant differences in the morphology of these phages must reflect the considerable divergence of the amino acid sequence of their homologous virion proteins, which uniformly exceeds 50%. We suggest that their enormous diversity in the sea could be a result of genetic shuffling between disparate phages mediated by such commonly shared modules. These conserved sequences could facilitate genetic exchange by providing partially homologous substrates for recombination between otherwise divergent phage genomes. Such a mechanism would thus expand the pool of phage genes accessible by recombination to all those phages that share common modules.  (+info)

Bacteriophage PM2 has a protein capsid surrounding a spherical proteinaceous lipid core. (4/17)

The marine double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) bacteriophage PM2, studied since 1968, is the type organism of the family Corticoviridae, infecting two gram-negative Pseudoalteromonas species. The virion contains a membrane underneath an icosahedral protein capsid composed of two structural proteins. The purified major capsid protein, P2, appears as a trimer, and the receptor binding protein, P1, appears as a monomer. The C-terminal part of P1 is distal and is responsible for receptor binding activity. The rest of the structural proteins are associated with the internal phospholipid membrane enclosing the viral genome. This internal particle is designated the lipid core. The overall structural organization of phage PM2 resembles that of dsDNA bacteriophage PRD1, the type organism of the family TECTIVIRIDAE:  (+info)

Transcription of bacteriophage PM2 involves phage-encoded regulators of heterologous origin. (5/17)

Bacteriophage PM2 is the only described member of the Corticoviridae family. It is an icosahedral dsDNA virus with a membrane residing underneath the protein coat. PM2 infects some gram-negative Pseudoalteromonas spp. In the present study, we mapped the viral promoters and showed that the PM2 genome consists of three operons. Four new virus genes were assigned based on their function in transcription. Proteins P15 and P16 are shown to repress early transcription, and proteins P13 and P14 are shown to activate late transcription events. The early regulatory region, containing genes for proteins P15 and P16, as well as the newly identified early promoter region in PM2, has significant sequence similarity with the Pseudoalteromonas pAS28 plasmid. P14, the transcription activator for the structural genes, has a zinc finger motif homologous to archaeal and eukaryotic TFIIS-type regulatory factors.  (+info)

Penetration of membrane-containing double-stranded-DNA bacteriophage PM2 into Pseudoalteromonas hosts. (6/17)

The icosahedral bacteriophage PM2 has a circular double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genome and an internal lipid membrane. It is the only representative of the Corticoviridae family. How the circular supercoiled genome residing inside the viral membrane is translocated into the gram-negative marine Pseudoalteromonas host has been an intriguing question. Here we demonstrate that after binding of the virus to an abundant cell surface receptor, the protein coat is most probably dissociated. During the infection process, the host cell outer membrane becomes transiently permeable to lipophilic gramicidin D molecules proposing fusion with the viral membrane. One of the components of the internal viral lipid core particle is the integral membrane protein P7, with muralytic activity that apparently aids the process of peptidoglycan penetration. Entry of the virion also causes a limited depolarization of the cytoplasmic membrane. These phenomena differ considerably from those observed in the entry process of bacteriophage PRD1, a dsDNA virus, which uses its internal membrane to make a cell envelope-penetrating tubular structure.  (+info)

Biochemical quantitation of PM2 phage DNA as a substrate for endonuclease assay. (7/17)

Bacteriophage PM2 has a closed circular form of double stranded DNA as a genome. This DNA from the phage is a useful source for nick-circle endonuclease assay in the fmol range. Due to difficulties in the maintenance of viral infectivity, storage conditions of the phage should be considered for the purification of PM2 DNA. The proper condition for a short-term storage of less than 2 months is to keep the PM2 phage at 4 degrees C; whereas the proper condition for a long-term storage of the PM2 phage for over 2 months is to keep it under liquid nitrogen in 7.5% glycerol. The optimal conditions for a high yield of phage progeny were also considered with the goal to achieve a successful PM2 DNA preparation. A MOI(Multiplicity Of Infection) of 0.03, in which the OD600 of the host bacteria was between 0.3 and 0.5, turned out to be optimal for the mass production of PM2 phage with a burst size of about 214. Considerations of PM2 genome size, and the concentrations and radiospecific activities of purified PM2 DNA, are required to measure the endonuclease activity in the fmol range. This study reports the proper quantitation of radioactivity and the yield of purified DNA based on these conditions.  (+info)

Preliminary crystallographic analysis of the major capsid protein P2 of the lipid-containing bacteriophage PM2. (8/17)

PM2 (Corticoviridae) is a dsDNA bacteriophage which contains a lipid membrane beneath its icosahedral capsid. In this respect it resembles bacteriophage PRD1 (Tectiviridae), although it is not known whether the similarity extends to the detailed molecular architecture of the virus, for instance the fold of the major coat protein P2. Structural analysis of PM2 has been initiated and virus-derived P2 has been crystallized by sitting-nanodrop vapour diffusion. Crystals of P2 have been obtained in space group P2(1)2(1)2, with two trimers in the asymmetric unit and unit-cell parameters a = 171.1, b = 78.7, c = 130.1 A. The crystals diffract to 4 A resolution at the ESRF BM14 beamline (Grenoble, France) and the orientation of the non-crystallographic threefold axes, the spatial relationship between the two trimers and the packing of the trimers within the unit cell have been determined. The trimers form tightly packed layers consistent with the crystal morphology, possibly recapitulating aspects of the arrangement of subunits in the virus.  (+info)

To infect and replicate, Pseudoalteromonas virus PM2 delivers its genome across the cell envelope of two known marine host strains: gram-negative Pseudoalteromonas species ER72M2 and BAL-31. Virions adsorb via the distal tips of the spike proteins to uncharacterized receptors (Abrescia et al., 2008). The internal membrane mediates the translocation of the supercoiled genome across the host cell envelopes, most probably via fusion in a process that is not fully understood. Replication of the viral genome, most probably by a rolling circle mechanism, takes place in proximity to the host cytoplasmic membrane. The largest Pseudoalteromonas virus PM2 gene XII encoding protein P12 shares significant sequence similarity with the superfamily I group of replication initiation proteins (Männistö et al., 1999). The genome is organized in three operons (Figure 2.Corticoviridae). Operons OEL and OER encode early gene products: the replication initiation protein P12 and transcription regulatory proteins ...
To infect and replicate, PM2 delivers its genome across the cell envelope of two known marine host strains: Gram-negative Pseudoalteromonas species ER72M2 and BAL-31. Virions adsorb via the distal tips of the spike proteins to uncharacterized receptors (Abrescia et al., 2008). The internal membrane mediates the translocation of the supercoiled genome across the host cell envelopes most probably via fusion in a process which is not fully understood. Replication of the PM2 genome, most probably by a rolling circle mechanism, takes place in proximity to the host cytoplasmic membrane. The largest PM2 gene XII encoding protein P12 shares significant sequence similarity with the superfamily I group of replication initiation proteins (Männistö et al., 1999). The genome is organized in three operons (Figure 2.Corticoviridae). Operons OEL and OER encode early function gene products: the replication initiation protein P12 and transcription regulatory proteins P13, P14, P15 and P16. Expression of the ...
A total of 415 patients in whom Buruli ulcer has been clinically diagnosed will be included in the study, which will consist of 332 cases of category I and II Buruli ulcers (,10 cm) confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), plus 83 non PCR-confirmed Buruli ulcers. Patients will be randomized to receive treatment with the two antibiotic regimens as follows:. (i) Regimen I (SR8): 15 mg/kg streptomycin per day intramuscular injection for 8 weeks plus 10 mg/kg per day oral rifampicin for 8 weeks; (ii) Regimen II (CR8): 15 mg/kg per day oral extended-release clarithromycin for 8 weeks plus 10 mg/kg per day oral rifampicin for 8 weeks.. Assessments before, during and after the course of antibiotic treatment will include full medical history, clinical assessments and monitoring of vital signs, assessment of the lesion, laboratory investigations, hearing test, electrocardiogram, pregnancy test, voluntary HIV counseling and testing, and functional limitation assessment. The primary efficacy ...
Viruses are highly host specific.[5] Studies have shown that marine viruses are more likely to infect cooccurring organisms, those that live in the same region a virus exists in.[6] Therefore, biogeography is an important factor in a virions ability to infect. The knowledge of variation of viral populations across spatiotemporal and other environmental gradients is supported viral morphology, determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Non-tailed viruses appear to be dominant in multiple depths and oceanic regions, followed by the Caudovirales myoviruses, podoviruses, and siphoviruses.[7] However, viruses belonging to families Corticoviridae,[8] Inoviridae[9] and Microviridae[10] are also known to infect diverse marine bacteria. Metagenomic evidence suggests that microviruses (icosahedral ssDNA phages) are particularly prevalent in marine habitats.[10] Metagenomic approaches to assess viral diversity are often limited by a lack of reference sequences, leaving many sequences ...
The in vivo oxidation of lipids and lipid-containing molecules has been discovered to be initiated by the concurrent reaction of such lipid materials with reducing sugars such as glucose, advanced gly
TY - JOUR. T1 - Bleomycin-induced Alkaline-labile Damage and Direct Strand Breakage of PM2 DNA. AU - Lloyd, R. Stephen. AU - Haidle, Charles W.. AU - Hewitt, Roger R.. PY - 1978/10. Y1 - 1978/10. N2 - Bleomycin-induced breakage of an isolated covalently closed circular DNA from bacteriophage PM2 was assayed fluorometrically after agarose gel electrophoresis and staining with ethidium bromide. When bleomycin-damaged DNA was assayed under neutral conditions, there was a decrease in the amount of Form I DNA and a simultaneous increase in both Forms II and III of DNA. However, when the damage was assayed under nondenaturing alkaline conditions, there was a greater decrease in the amount of Form I DNA and a corresponding increase in both Forms II and III DNA compared with neutral conditions. Approximately one alkaline-labile site was formed for every single-strand break introduced. The rate of formation of Form III DNA was found to be approximately twice as fast when measured under alkaline ...
SARS Vaccine Compositions and Methods of Making and Using Them - Described is a composition and method for reducing the occurrence and severity of infectious diseases, especially infectious diseases such as SARS, in which lipid-containing infectious viral organisms are found in biological fluids, such as blood. The present invention employs solvents useful for extracting lipids from the lipid-containing infectious viral organism thereby creating immunogenic modified, partially delipidated viral particles with reduced infectivity. The present invention provides delipidated viral vaccine compositions, such as therapeutic vaccine compositions, comprising these modified, partially delipidated viral particles with reduced infectivity, optionally combined with a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier or an immunostimulant. The vaccine composition is administered to a patient to provide protection against the lipid-containing infectious viral organism or, in case of a therapeutic vaccine, to treat or ...
Titering of Bacterial Viruses Related protocols: Preparation of Phage Stocks Commonly Used Media for Phage Growth Agar Overlay Technique When an individual bacterial virus grows in a bacterial host suspended in a top agar lawn, its progeny infect and lyse the surrounding host cells. This causes the appearance of a hole or plaque in…
Culture supernatant of Staphylococcus aureus, isolated from a patient who died after surgery induced granulation in several cultured cell lines of human and animal origin.
TAKEUCHI Osamu , KAWAI Taro , MUHLRADT Peter F. , MORR Michael , RADOLF Justin D. , ZYCHLINSKY Arturo , TAKEDA Kiyoshi , AKIRA Shizuo International immunology 13(7), 933-940, 2001-07-01 DOI 参考文献30件 被引用文献37件 ...
This invention is directed to systems and methods for removing lipids from a fluid, such as plasma, or from lipid-containing organisms. These systems contact a fluid with an extraction solvent, which causes the lipids in the fluid to separate from the fluid or causes lipids in the lipid-containing organisms to separate from the lipid-containing organism, using at least one hollow fiber contactor. The separated lipids are removed from the fluid. The extraction solvent is removed from the fluid or at least reduced to a level below a particular threshold enabling the fluid to be administered to a patient without the patient experiencing undesirable consequences. Once the fluid has been processed, the fluid may be administered to a patient who donated the fluid, to a different patient, or be stored.
Mycobacteria are distinguished from other micro-organisms by thick lipid-containing cell-walls that retain biochemical stains despite decolourisation by acid-containing reagents (so-called acid-fastness). Advantages: Microscopy of sputum smears is simple and inexpensive, quickly detecting infectious cases of pulmonary […]. ...
WASHINGTON, D.C. - The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) will host a forum on how sport is being used as an innovative and effective tool in international development and public engagement. The event will bring together high-profile speakers including Two Time All-Pro Wide Receiver with the Green Bay Packers Greg Jennings; former National Football League (NFL) Linebacker and founder of BowTieCause.org Dhani Jones; Phil de Picciotto, Founder & President Octagon, Inc. and USAID Administrator Rajiv Shah. The panel will be moderated by noted American political sportswriter Dave Zirin and will be preceded by remarks from former NFL Commissioner Paul Tagliabue.. ...
Cystovirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Cystoviridae. Pseudomonas syringae pathovar phaseolicola bacteria serve as natural hosts. There is currently only one species in this genus: the type species Pseudomonas phage phi6. Group: dsRNA Order: Unassigned Family: Cystoviridae Genus: Cystovirus Pseudomonas phage phi6 Pseudomonas phage phi8 Pseudomonas phage phi12 Pseudomonas phage phi13 Pseudomonas phage phi2954 Pseudomonas phage phiNN Pseudomonas phage phiYY Cystoviruses are distinguished by their tripartite dsRNA genome, totaling ~14 kb in length and their protein and lipid outer layer. No other bacteriophage has any lipid in its outer coat, though the Tectiviridae and the Corticoviridae have lipids within their capsids. Most identified cystoviruses infect Pseudomonas species, but this is likely biased due to the method of screening and enrichment. The type species is Pseudomonas phage phi6, but there are many other proposed members of this family. Pseudomonas phage φ7, φ8, φ9, φ10, ...
I have analyzed the time course of phage PR4 protein synthesis and have identified at least 34 proteins present in phage infected cells not detected in uninfected control cultures. In addition, I have isolated a more extensive set of conditional-lethal nonsense mutants of this virus. This collection of mutants permitted the identification of seven additional phage PR4 gene products, including the terminal genome protein and an accessory lytic factor. The present collection of phage PR4 mutants has been assigned to 19 distinct genetic groups on the basis of genetic complementation tests and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of the proteins produced in mutant infected UV irradiated cells ...
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Only recently have reproducible protocols for analyzing fecal phages emerged. A new review from University College Corks scientists explores the composition and relevance for health of the wide community of bacterial viruses colonizing our gastrointestinal tract.
Find great deals for The Molecular Biology of Bacterial Virus Systems by Springer-Verlag Berlin and Heidelberg GmbH & Co. KG (Paperback, 2011). Shop with confidence on eBay!
This was a fantastic opportunity to investigate the positive applications of bacterial viruses to fight infections. The recent and ongoing antibiotic-resistance crisis has heightened our awareness that we need to find alternative solutions to traditional antibiotic therapies. We isolated and tested the effectiveness of a number of bacterial viruses that can kill E. coli and Shigella, which are associated with gut infections. In the developed world, antibiotics have been used for decades to treat such infections rapidly but in developing countries, the water quality and sanitary conditions may create the perfect conditions for the growth of such illness-causing bacteria and antibiotic therapies may not be readily available. The lack of suitable treatments makes these infections potentially lethal, particularly to infants. Therefore, alternative treatments are required and bacterial viruses, or their encoded proteins, have the potential to be the next generation of antimicrobials to benefit all in ...
A team of Chinese and Danish researchers has identified 500 new species of gut-residing microorganisms and 800 new bacterial viruses which could attack them. The findings could lead to promising new t...
Calories in Betty Crocker Recipe Banana Bread. Find nutrition facts for Betty Crocker Recipe Banana Bread and over 2,000,000 other foods in MyFitnessPal.coms food database.
Caulimoviridae Chaseviridae Chrysoviridae Chuviridae Circoviridae Clavaviridae Closteroviridae Coronaviridae Corticoviridae ...
Corticoviridae. Nonenveloped, isometric. Circular dsDNA. Cystoviridae. Enveloped, spherical. Segmented dsRNA. Fuselloviridae. ...
Familie Corticoviridae. *Genus Corticovirus. *Familie Fuselloviridae[12]. *Genus Alphafusellovirus[13]. *Genus Betafusellovirus ...
Famili Corticoviridae. *Famili Fuselloviridae. *Famili Guttaviridae. *Famili Hepadnavirus. *Famili Herpesviridae - termasuk ...
覆盖噬菌体科 Corticoviridae. *微小纺锤形噬菌体科 Fuselloviridae ...
覆盖噬菌体科 Corticoviridae. *微小纺锤形噬菌体科 Fuselloviridae ...
No other bacteriophage has any lipid in its outer coat, though the Tectiviridae and the Corticoviridae have lipids within their ...
When retroviruses have integrated their own genome into the germ line, their genome is passed on to a following generation. These endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), contrasted with exogenous ones, now make up 5-8% of the human genome.[7] Most insertions have no known function and are often referred to as "junk DNA". However, many endogenous retroviruses play important roles in host biology, such as control of gene transcription, cell fusion during placental development in the course of the germination of an embryo, and resistance to exogenous retroviral infection. Endogenous retroviruses have also received special attention in the research of immunology-related pathologies, such as autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis, although endogenous retroviruses have not yet been proven to play any causal role in this class of disease.[8] While transcription was classically thought to occur only from DNA to RNA, reverse transcriptase transcribes RNA into DNA. The term "retro" in retrovirus refers to ...
The hepatitis envelope proteins are composed of subunits made from the viral preS1, preS2, and S genes. The L (for "large") envelope protein contains all three subunits. The M (for "medium") protein contains only preS2 and S. The S (for "small") protein contains only S. The genome portions encoding these envelope protein subuntis share both the same frame and the same stop codon (generating nested transcripts on a single open reading frame. The pre-S1 is encoded first (closest to the 5' end), followed directly by the pre-S2 and the S. When a transcript is made from the beginning of the pre-S1 region, all three genes are included in the transcript and the L protein is produced. When the transcript starts after the pro-S1 at the beginning of the pre-S2 the final protein contains the pre-S2 and S subunits only and therefore is an M protein. The smallest envelope protein containing just the S subunit is made most because it is encoded closest to the 3' end and comes from the shortest transcript. ...
Viruses in Betanodavirus are non-enveloped, with icosahedral geometries, and T=3 symmetry. The diameter is around 30 nm. Genomes are linear and segmented, bipartite, around 21.4kb in length.[8]. The crystal structure of a betanodavirus- T=3 Grouper nervous necrosis virus (GNNV)-like particle has been determined by X-ray crystallography. The virus-like particle contains 180 subunits of the capsid protein, and each capsid protein (CP) shows three major domains: (i) the N-terminal arm, an inter-subunit extension at the inner surface; (ii) the shell domain (S-domain), a jelly-roll structure; and (iii) the protrusion domain (P-domain) formed by three-fold trimeric protrusions. [10]. ...
Nucleic acid analysis suggests a very long association of the viruses with the wasps (greater than 70 million years).. Two proposals have been advanced for how the wasp/virus association developed. The first suggests that the virus is derived from wasp genes. Many parasitoids that do not use PDVs inject proteins that provide many of the same functions, that is, a suppression of the immune response to the parasite egg. In this model, the braconid and ichneumonid wasps packaged genes for these functions into the viruses-essentially creating a gene-transfer system that results in the caterpillar producing the immune-suppressing factors. In this scenario, the PDV structural proteins (capsids) were probably "borrowed" from existing viruses.. The alternative proposal suggests that ancestral wasps developed a beneficial association with an existing virus that eventually led to the integration of the virus into the wasp's genome. Following integration, the genes responsible for virus replication and the ...
Louis Pasteur was unable to find a causative agent for rabies and speculated about a pathogen too small to be detected using a microscope.[21] In 1884, the French microbiologist Charles Chamberland invented a filter (known today as the Chamberland filter or the Pasteur-Chamberland filter) with pores smaller than bacteria. Thus, he could pass a solution containing bacteria through the filter and completely remove them from the solution.[22] In 1892, the Russian biologist Dmitri Ivanovsky used this filter to study what is now known as the tobacco mosaic virus. His experiments showed that crushed leaf extracts from infected tobacco plants remain infectious after filtration. Ivanovsky suggested the infection might be caused by a toxin produced by bacteria, but did not pursue the idea.[23] At the time it was thought that all infectious agents could be retained by filters and grown on a nutrient medium - this was part of the germ theory of disease.[2] In 1898, the Dutch microbiologist Martinus ...
The Herpesvirales naming system originated in 1973 and has been elaborated considerably since. All herpesviruses described since this system was adopted have been named in accordance with it. The recommended naming system specifies that each species name consists of three parts: a first word, a second word, and finally a number. The first word should be derived from the taxon (family or subfamily) to which its primary natural host belongs. The subfamily name is used for viruses from members of the family Bovidae or from primates (the virus name ending in -ine, e.g. bovine), and the host family name for other viruses (ending in -id, e.g. equid). Human herpesviruses have been treated as an exception (human rather than hominid). Following the host-derived term, species in the family Herpesviridae, which are divided into subfamilies Alphaherpesvirinae, Betaherpesvirinae, and Gammaherpesvirinae, will have the word alphaherpesvirus, betaherpesvirus, or gammaherpesvirus added, respectively. Species in ...
Despite his other successes, Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) was unable to find a causative agent for rabies and speculated about a pathogen too small to be detected using a microscope.[1] In 1884, the French microbiologist Charles Chamberland (1851-1931) invented a filter - known today as the Chamberland filter - that had pores smaller than bacteria. Thus, he could pass a solution containing bacteria through the filter and completely remove them from the solution.[2] In 1876, Adolf Mayer, who directed the Agricultural Experimental Station in Wageningen was the first to show that what he called "Tobacco Mosaic Disease" was infectious, he thought that it was caused by either a toxin or a very small bacterium. Later, in 1892, the Russian biologist Dmitry Ivanovsky (1864-1920) used a Chamberland filter to study what is now known as the tobacco mosaic virus. His experiments showed that crushed leaf extracts from infected tobacco plants remain infectious after filtration. Ivanovsky suggested the infection ...
Gammaherpesviruses are of primary interest due to the two human viruses, EBV and KSHV and the diseases they cause. The gammaherpesviruses replicate and persist in lymphoid cells but some are capable of undergoing lytic replication in epithelial or fibroblast cells. Gammaherpesviruses may be a cause of chronic fibrotic lung diseases in humans and in animals.[10] Murid herpesvirus 68 is an important model system for the study of gammaherpesviruses with tractable genetics. The gammaherpesviruses, including HVS, EBV, KSHV, and RRV, are capable of establishing latent infection in lymphocytes.[9] Attenuated virus mutants represent a promising approach towards gamma-herpesvirus infection control. Surprisingly, latency-deficient and, therefore, apathogenic MHV-68 mutants are found to be highly effective vaccines against these viruses.[8] Research in this area is almost exclusively performed using MHV68 as KSHV and EBV (the major human pathogens of this family) do not productively infect model organisms ...
The Birnaviridae genome encodes several proteins: Birnaviridae RNA-directed RNA polymerase (VP1), which lacks the highly conserved Gly-Asp-Asp (GDD) sequence, a component of the proposed catalytic site of this enzyme family that exists in the conserved motif VI of the palm domain of other RNA-directed RNA polymerases.[3] The large RNA segment, segment A, of birnaviruses codes for a polyprotein (N-VP2-VP4-VP3-C) [4] that is processed into the major structural proteins of the virion: VP2, VP3 (a minor structural component of the virus), and into the putative protease VP4.[4] VP4 protein is involved in generating VP2 and VP3.[4] recombinant VP3 is more immunogenic than recombinant VP2.[5] Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), a birnavirus, is an important pathogen in fish farms. Analyses of viral proteins showed that VP2 is the major structural and immunogenic polypeptide of the virus.[6][7] All neutralizing monoclonal antibodies are specific to VP2 and bind to continuous or discontinuous ...
Mononegavirales adalah ordo virus RNA yang berada dalam filum Negarnaviricota dan kelas Monjiviricetes.[1] Nama Mononegavirales berasa dari bahasa Yunani μóνος [monos] yang merujuk pada genom untai tunggal pada sebagian besar ordo ini, bahasa Latin negare yang merujuk pada sifat sense-negatif genom virus, serta akhiran -virales yang menunjukkan ordo virus.[2] Anggota ordo ini yang dikenal di antaranya virus rabies dan virus Ebola yang dapat menyebabkan penyakit, baik pada manusia maupun hewan. ...
... viruses belonging to families Corticoviridae,[8] Inoviridae[9] and Microviridae[10] are also known to infect diverse marine ...
ungrouped: Ascoviridae · Asfarviridae · Baculoviridae · Coccolithoviridae · Corticoviridae · Fuselloviridae · Guttaviridae · ...
The Corticoviridae is a family of icosahedral internal membrane-containing viruses with double-stranded circular DNA genomes of ...
Corticoviridae Citation: A summary of this ICTV online (10th) report chapter has been published as an ICTV Virus Taxonomy ... The Corticoviridae is a family of icosahedral, internal membrane-containing viruses with double-stranded circular DNA genomes ... Figure 2.Corticoviridae. Genome organization of Pseudoalteromonas virus PM2. The genome is a 10,079 bp highly supercoiled, ... Although the virus is virulent and the sole member of the family Corticoviridae, comparative genomic approaches have shown that ...
Corticoviridae. Nonenveloped, isometric. Circular dsDNA. Cystoviridae. Enveloped, spherical. Segmented dsRNA. Fuselloviridae. ...
Familie Corticoviridae. *Genus Corticovirus. *Familie Fuselloviridae[12]. *Genus Alphafusellovirus[13]. *Genus Betafusellovirus ...
Corticoviridae. Genus. Corticovirus. Family. Fuselloviridae. Genus. Fusellovirus. Family. Globuloviridae. Genus. Globulovirus. ...
Corticoviridae (e.g. PM2). *Lipothrixoviridae (e.g. TTV1). *Myoviridae (T4 and the T-even phages) ...
Corticoviridae:. Corticovirus. Alteromonas phage PM2. Bacteria. Fuselloviridae:. Fusellovirus. Sulfolobus virus 1. Bacteria. ...
Famili Corticoviridae. *Famili Fuselloviridae. *Famili Guttaviridae. *Famili Hepadnavirus. *Famili Herpesviridae - termasuk ...
覆盖噬菌体科 Corticoviridae. *微小纺锤形噬菌体科 Fuselloviridae ...
覆盖噬菌体科 Corticoviridae. *微小纺锤形噬菌体科 Fuselloviridae ...
Caulimoviridae Chaseviridae Chrysoviridae Chuviridae Circoviridae Clavaviridae Closteroviridae Coronaviridae Corticoviridae ...
Corticoviridae. +. 1.28. (King et al., 2011). PRD1. Tectiviridae. +. 1.29. (King et al., 2011). ...
Corticoviridae, Myoviridae, and Picornaviridae. ...
Family Corticoviridae. *Family Fuselloviridae. *Family Guttaviridae. *Family Iridoviridae. *Family Lipothrixviridae. *Family ...
No other bacteriophage has any lipid in its outer coat, though the Tectiviridae and the Corticoviridae have lipids within their ...
Only genus in family of Corticoviridae.. Cor·ti·co·vi·rus. (kōrti-kō-vīrŭs) Only genus in the viral family of Corticoviridae ...
Corticoviridae, Cystoviridae, Deltavirus, Dianthovirus, Enamovirus, Filoviridae, Flaviviridae, Furovirus, Fuselloviridae, ...
... share the A32-like genome-packaging ATPase with members of the Corticoviridae, Tectiviridae, Adenoviridae, Lavidaviridae, ...
215 sequences also included Corticoviridae genes). We posit that these might represent new composite genomes beyond the ones ...
Corticoviridae. Cystoviridae. Inoviridae. Leviviridae. Lipothrixviridae. Microviridae. Myoviridae. Plasmaviridae. Podoviridae. ...
Corticoviridae Nonenveloped, isometric Circular dsDNA Cystoviridae Enveloped, spherical Segmented dsRNA Fuselloviridae ...
PM2 (Corticoviridae) is a dsDNA bacteriophage which contains a lipid membrane beneath its icosahedral capsid. In this respect ...
Family Corticoviridae (organism) {424406001 , SNOMED-CT } Parent/Child (Relationship Type) Genus Corticovirus (organism) { ...
Family Corticoviridae. @ Family Fuselloviridae. @ Family Herpesviridae. @ @ Sub-Family Alphaherpesvirinae. @ @ Sub-Family ...
Corticoviridae/chemistry. *Corticoviridae/ultrastructure*. *Crystallography, X-Ray. *Lipids/chemistry*. *Models, Molecular. * ...
Corticoviridae Medicine & Life Sciences * Deoxyribonuclease IV (Phage T4-Induced) Medicine & Life Sciences ...
Mononegavirales adalah ordo virus RNA yang berada dalam filum Negarnaviricota dan kelas Monjiviricetes.[1] Nama Mononegavirales berasa dari bahasa Yunani μóνος [monos] yang merujuk pada genom untai tunggal pada sebagian besar ordo ini, bahasa Latin negare yang merujuk pada sifat sense-negatif genom virus, serta akhiran -virales yang menunjukkan ordo virus.[2] Anggota ordo ini yang dikenal di antaranya virus rabies dan virus Ebola yang dapat menyebabkan penyakit, baik pada manusia maupun hewan. ...
Family Corticoviridae (organism) {424406001 , SNOMED-CT } Download Relationships Other Relationships No other relationships ...
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Corticoviridae) is a dsDNA bacteriophage which contains a lipid membrane beneath its icosahedral capsid. In this respect it ... PM2 (Corticoviridae) is a dsDNA bacteriophage which contains a lipid membrane beneath its icosahedral capsid. In this respect ...
  • The Corticoviridae is a family of icosahedral internal membrane-containing viruses with double-stranded circular DNA genomes of ~10 000 bases in length. (ictvonline.org)
  • The Corticoviridae is a family of icosahedral, internal membrane-containing viruses with double-stranded circular DNA genomes of approximately 10 kbp. (ictvonline.org)
  • PM2 (Corticoviridae) is a dsDNA bacteriophage which contains a lipid membrane beneath its icosahedral capsid. (ox.ac.uk)
  • No other bacteriophage has any lipid in its outer coat, though the Tectiviridae and the Corticoviridae have lipids within their capsids. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Corticoviridae is a family of icosahedral internal membrane-containing viruses with double-stranded circular DNA genomes of ~10 000 bases in length. (ictvonline.org)
  • The Corticoviridae is a family of icosahedral, internal membrane-containing viruses with double-stranded circular DNA genomes of approximately 10 kbp. (ictvonline.org)