Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone: A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.beta-Lipotropin: A 90-amino acid peptide derived from post-translational processing of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) in the PITUITARY GLAND and the HYPOTHALAMUS. It is the C-terminal fragment of POMC with lipid-mobilizing activities, such as LIPOLYSIS and steroidogenesis. Depending on the species and the tissue sites, beta-LPH may be further processed to yield active peptides including GAMMA-LIPOTROPIN; BETA-MSH; and ENDORPHINS.Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone: Cell surface proteins that bind corticotropin-releasing hormone with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The corticotropin releasing-hormone receptors on anterior pituitary cells mediate the stimulation of corticotropin release by hypothalamic corticotropin releasing factor. The physiological consequence of activating corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors on central neurons is not well understood.Receptors, Corticotropin: Cell surface receptors that bind CORTICOTROPIN; (ACTH, adrenocorticotropic hormone) with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes. Pharmacology suggests there may be multiple ACTH receptors. An ACTH receptor has been cloned and belongs to a subfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors. In addition to the adrenal cortex, ACTH receptors are found in the brain and immune systems.Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.Cosyntropin: A synthetic peptide that is identical to the 24-amino acid segment at the N-terminal of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. ACTH (1-24), a segment similar in all species, contains the biological activity that stimulates production of CORTICOSTEROIDS in the ADRENAL CORTEX.Endorphins: One of the three major groups of endogenous opioid peptides. They are large peptides derived from the PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN precursor. The known members of this group are alpha-, beta-, and gamma-endorphin. The term endorphin is also sometimes used to refer to all opioid peptides, but the narrower sense is used here; OPIOID PEPTIDES is used for the broader group.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Thyroid Hormones: Natural hormones secreted by the THYROID GLAND, such as THYROXINE, and their synthetic analogs.Adrenal Cortex: The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.Pituitary Gland: A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.Follicle Stimulating Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Urocortins: Neuropeptides of about 40 amino acids which are structurally similar to CORTICOTROPIN-RELEASING FACTOR. Unlike CRF acting primarily through type 1 CRF RECEPTORS, urocortins signal preferentially through type 2 CRF receptors. Urocortins have wide tissue distribution from fish to mammals, and diverse functions. In mammals, urocortins can suppress food intake, delays gastric emptying, and decreases heat-induced edema.Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormones: Peptides with the ability to stimulate pigmented cells MELANOCYTES in mammals and MELANOPHORES in lower vertebrates. By stimulating the synthesis and distribution of MELANIN in these pigmented cells, they increase coloration of skin and other tissue. MSHs, derived from pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), are produced by MELANOTROPHS in the INTERMEDIATE LOBE OF PITUITARY; CORTICOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY, and the hypothalamic neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS OF HYPOTHALAMUS.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Corticosterone: An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)Adrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.Adrenal Insufficiency: Conditions in which the production of adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS falls below the requirement of the body. Adrenal insufficiency can be caused by defects in the ADRENAL GLANDS, the PITUITARY GLAND, or the HYPOTHALAMUS.Pituitary-Adrenal System: The interactions between the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands, in which corticotropin (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical hormones suppress the production of corticotropin by the anterior pituitary.Parathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System: A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.Pituitary Gland, Anterior: The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone: A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Pro-Opiomelanocortin: A 30-kDa protein synthesized primarily in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND and the HYPOTHALAMUS. It is also found in the skin and other peripheral tissues. Depending on species and tissues, POMC is cleaved by PROHORMONE CONVERTASES yielding various active peptides including ACTH; BETA-LIPOTROPIN; ENDORPHINS; MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES; and others (GAMMA-LPH; CORTICOTROPIN-LIKE INTERMEDIATE LOBE PEPTIDE; N-terminal peptide of POMC or NPP).Gonadal Steroid Hormones: Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.Pituitary Hormones, Anterior: Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Structurally, they include polypeptide, protein, and glycoprotein molecules.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Radioimmunosorbent Test: Radioimmunoassay of proteins using antibody coupled to an immunosorbent.Zona Fasciculata: The wide middle zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces a series of enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE to cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) via 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYPROGESTERONE.Receptors, Thyroid Hormone: Specific high affinity binding proteins for THYROID HORMONES in target cells. They are usually found in the nucleus and regulate DNA transcription. These receptors are activated by hormones that leads to transcription, cell differentiation, and growth suppression. Thyroid hormone receptors are encoded by two genes (GENES, ERBA): erbA-alpha and erbA-beta for alpha and beta thyroid hormone receptors, respectively.Human Growth Hormone: A 191-amino acid polypeptide hormone secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR), also known as GH or somatotropin. Synthetic growth hormone, termed somatropin, has replaced the natural form in therapeutic usage such as treatment of dwarfism in children with growth hormone deficiency.beta-Endorphin: A 31-amino acid peptide that is the C-terminal fragment of BETA-LIPOTROPIN. It acts on OPIOID RECEPTORS and is an analgesic. Its first four amino acids at the N-terminal are identical to the tetrapeptide sequence of METHIONINE ENKEPHALIN and LEUCINE ENKEPHALIN.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Aminoglutethimide: An aromatase inhibitor that is used in the treatment of advanced BREAST CANCER.Ether: A mobile, very volatile, highly flammable liquid used as an inhalation anesthetic and as a solvent for waxes, fats, oils, perfumes, alkaloids, and gums. It is mildly irritating to skin and mucous membranes.Spasms, Infantile: An epileptic syndrome characterized by the triad of infantile spasms, hypsarrhythmia, and arrest of psychomotor development at seizure onset. The majority present between 3-12 months of age, with spasms consisting of combinations of brief flexor or extensor movements of the head, trunk, and limbs. The condition is divided into two forms: cryptogenic (idiopathic) and symptomatic (secondary to a known disease process such as intrauterine infections; nervous system abnormalities; BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC, INBORN; prematurity; perinatal asphyxia; TUBEROUS SCLEROSIS; etc.). (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp744-8)Cushing Syndrome: A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excess levels of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) or other GLUCOCORTICOIDS from endogenous or exogenous sources. It is characterized by upper body OBESITY; OSTEOPOROSIS; HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; HIRSUTISM; AMENORRHEA; and excess body fluid. Endogenous Cushing syndrome or spontaneous hypercortisolism is divided into two groups, those due to an excess of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN and those that are ACTH-independent.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Cortisone: A naturally occurring glucocorticoid. It has been used in replacement therapy for adrenal insufficiency and as an anti-inflammatory agent. Cortisone itself is inactive. It is converted in the liver to the active metabolite HYDROCORTISONE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p726)RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hypophysectomy: Surgical removal or destruction of the hypophysis, or pituitary gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)Pituitary Hormones: Hormones secreted by the PITUITARY GLAND including those from the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis), the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis), and the ill-defined intermediate lobe. Structurally, they include small peptides, proteins, and glycoproteins. They are under the regulation of neural signals (NEUROTRANSMITTERS) or neuroendocrine signals (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) from the hypothalamus as well as feedback from their targets such as ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES; ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS.Peptide Hormones: Hormones synthesized from amino acids. They are distinguished from INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS in that their actions are systemic.Median Eminence: Raised area at the infundibular region of the HYPOTHALAMUS at the floor of the BRAIN, ventral to the THIRD VENTRICLE and adjacent to the ARCUATE NUCLEUS OF HYPOTHALAMUS. It contains the terminals of hypothalamic neurons and the capillary network of hypophyseal portal system, thus serving as a neuroendocrine link between the brain and the PITUITARY GLAND.ACTH Syndrome, Ectopic: Symptom complex due to ACTH production by non-pituitary neoplasms.Adrenal Gland Diseases: Pathological processes of the ADRENAL GLANDS.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Hormone Antagonists: Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus: Nucleus in the anterior part of the HYPOTHALAMUS.Hirsutism: A condition observed in WOMEN and CHILDREN when there is excess coarse body hair of an adult male distribution pattern, such as facial and chest areas. It is the result of elevated ANDROGENS from the OVARIES, the ADRENAL GLANDS, or exogenous sources. The concept does not include HYPERTRICHOSIS, which is an androgen-independent excessive hair growth.Protein PrecursorsAdrenal Cortex Function Tests: Examinations that evaluate and monitor hormone production in the adrenal cortex.Pituitary Neoplasms: Neoplasms which arise from or metastasize to the PITUITARY GLAND. The majority of pituitary neoplasms are adenomas, which are divided into non-secreting and secreting forms. Hormone producing forms are further classified by the type of hormone they secrete. Pituitary adenomas may also be characterized by their staining properties (see ADENOMA, BASOPHIL; ADENOMA, ACIDOPHIL; and ADENOMA, CHROMOPHOBE). Pituitary tumors may compress adjacent structures, including the HYPOTHALAMUS, several CRANIAL NERVES, and the OPTIC CHIASM. Chiasmal compression may result in bitemporal HEMIANOPSIA.Adrenalectomy: Excision of one or both adrenal glands. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Triiodothyronine: A T3 thyroid hormone normally synthesized and secreted by the thyroid gland in much smaller quantities than thyroxine (T4). Most T3 is derived from peripheral monodeiodination of T4 at the 5' position of the outer ring of the iodothyronine nucleus. The hormone finally delivered and used by the tissues is mainly T3.Arginine Vasopressin: The predominant form of mammalian antidiuretic hormone. It is a nonapeptide containing an ARGININE at residue 8 and two disulfide-linked cysteines at residues of 1 and 6. Arg-vasopressin is used to treat DIABETES INSIPIDUS or to improve vasomotor tone and BLOOD PRESSURE.Prolactin: A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Thyrotropin: A glycoprotein hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Thyrotropin stimulates THYROID GLAND by increasing the iodide transport, synthesis and release of thyroid hormones (THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE). Thyrotropin consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH; LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Metyrapone: An inhibitor of the enzyme STEROID 11-BETA-MONOOXYGENASE. It is used as a test of the feedback hypothalamic-pituitary mechanism in the diagnosis of CUSHING SYNDROME.Juvenile Hormones: Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.Adrenal Cortex HormonesNeurosecretory Systems: A system of NEURONS that has the specialized function to produce and secrete HORMONES, and that constitutes, in whole or in part, an ENDOCRINE SYSTEM or organ.Hormone Replacement Therapy: Therapeutic use of hormones to alleviate the effects of hormone deficiency.Receptors, Pituitary Hormone: Cell surface proteins that bind pituitary hormones with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Since many pituitary hormones are also released by neurons as neurotransmitters, these receptors are also found in the nervous system.Amygdala: Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.Pituitary-Adrenal Function Tests: Tests that evaluate the adrenal glands controlled by pituitary hormones.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Injections, Intraventricular: Injections into the cerebral ventricles.Amphibian Proteins: Proteins obtained from species in the class of AMPHIBIANS.Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone: A peptide of 44 amino acids in most species that stimulates the release and synthesis of GROWTH HORMONE. GHRF (or GRF) is synthesized by neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, GHRF stimulates GH release by the SOMATOTROPHS in the PITUITARY GLAND.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Methandrostenolone: A synthetic steroid with anabolic properties that are more pronounced than its androgenic effects. It has little progestational activity. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1188)Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Blepharitis: Inflammation of the eyelids.17-Hydroxycorticosteroids: A group of hydroxycorticosteroids bearing a hydroxy group at the 17-position. Urinary excretion of these compounds is used as an index of adrenal function. They are used systemically in the free alcohol form, but with esterification of the hydroxy groups, topical effectiveness is increased.Steroids: A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Hypothalamic Hormones: Peptide hormones produced by NEURONS of various regions in the HYPOTHALAMUS. They are released into the pituitary portal circulation to stimulate or inhibit PITUITARY GLAND functions. VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN, though produced in the hypothalamus, are not included here for they are transported down the AXONS to the POSTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY before being released into the portal circulation.alpha-MSH: A 13-amino acid peptide derived from proteolytic cleavage of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE, the N-terminal segment of ACTH. ACTH (1-13) is amidated at the C-terminal to form ACTH (1-13)NH2 which in turn is acetylated to form alpha-MSH in the secretory granules. Alpha-MSH stimulates the synthesis and distribution of MELANIN in MELANOCYTES in mammals and MELANOPHORES in lower vertebrates.Thyroxine: The major hormone derived from the thyroid gland. Thyroxine is synthesized via the iodination of tyrosines (MONOIODOTYROSINE) and the coupling of iodotyrosines (DIIODOTYROSINE) in the THYROGLOBULIN. Thyroxine is released from thyroglobulin by proteolysis and secreted into the blood. Thyroxine is peripherally deiodinated to form TRIIODOTHYRONINE which exerts a broad spectrum of stimulatory effects on cell metabolism.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Secretory Rate: The amount of a substance secreted by cells or by a specific organ or organism over a given period of time; usually applies to those substances which are formed by glandular tissues and are released by them into biological fluids, e.g., secretory rate of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, secretory rate of gastric acid by the gastric mucosa.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Anti-Mullerian Hormone: A glycoprotein that causes regression of MULLERIAN DUCTS. It is produced by SERTOLI CELLS of the TESTES. In the absence of this hormone, the Mullerian ducts develop into structures of the female reproductive tract. In males, defects of this hormone result in persistent Mullerian duct, a form of MALE PSEUDOHERMAPHRODITISM.Gonadal Hormones: Hormones produced by the GONADS, including both steroid and peptide hormones. The major steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL and PROGESTERONE from the OVARY, and TESTOSTERONE from the TESTIS. The major peptide hormones include ACTIVINS and INHIBINS.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Thyroid Hormone Receptors beta: High affinity receptors for THYROID HORMONES, especially TRIIODOTHYRONINE. These receptors are usually found in the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. They are encoded by the THRB gene (also known as NR1A2, THRB1, or ERBA2 gene) as several isoforms produced by alternative splicing. Mutations in the THRB gene cause THYROID HORMONE RESISTANCE SYNDROME.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Succinic Anhydrides: A subclass of anhydrides with the general structure of dihydrofurandione. They can be substituted on any carbon atom. They modify and inhibit proteins and enzymes and are used in the acylation of amino- and hydroxyl groups.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Somatostatin: A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Gastrointestinal Hormones: HORMONES secreted by the gastrointestinal mucosa that affect the timing or the quality of secretion of digestive enzymes, and regulate the motor activity of the digestive system organs.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Septal Nuclei: Neural nuclei situated in the septal region. They have afferent and cholinergic efferent connections with a variety of FOREBRAIN and BRAIN STEM areas including the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the LATERAL HYPOTHALAMUS, the tegmentum, and the AMYGDALA. Included are the dorsal, lateral, medial, and triangular septal nuclei, septofimbrial nucleus, nucleus of diagonal band, nucleus of anterior commissure, and the nucleus of stria terminalis.Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Polyribosomes: A multiribosomal structure representing a linear array of RIBOSOMES held together by messenger RNA; (RNA, MESSENGER); They represent the active complexes in cellular protein synthesis and are able to incorporate amino acids into polypeptides both in vivo and in vitro. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Aldosterone: A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.Adenylate Cyclase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide: A gastrointestinal peptide hormone of about 43-amino acids. It is found to be a potent stimulator of INSULIN secretion and a relatively poor inhibitor of GASTRIC ACID secretion.Restraint, Physical: Use of a device for the purpose of controlling movement of all or part of the body. Splinting and casting are FRACTURE FIXATION.Vasopressins: Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Thyroid Hormone Receptors alpha: High affinity receptors for THYROID HORMONES, especially TRIIODOTHYRONINE. These receptors are usually found in the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. They are encoded by the THRA gene (also known as NR1A1, THRA1, ERBA or ERBA1 gene) as several isoforms produced by alternative splicing.Stimulation, Chemical: The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Glycoprotein Hormones, alpha Subunit: The alpha chain of pituitary glycoprotein hormones (THYROTROPIN; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; LUTEINIZING HORMONE) and the placental CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Within a species, the alpha subunits of these four hormones are identical; the distinct functional characteristics of these glycoprotein hormones are determined by the unique beta subunits. Both subunits, the non-covalently bound heterodimers, are required for full biologic activity.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Insect Hormones: Hormones secreted by insects. They influence their growth and development. Also synthetic substances that act like insect hormones.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Pituitary Hormone-Releasing Hormones: Peptides, natural or synthetic, that stimulate the release of PITUITARY HORMONES. They were first isolated from the extracts of the HYPOTHALAMUS; MEDIAN EMINENCE; PITUITARY STALK; and NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. In addition, some hypophysiotropic hormones control pituitary cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and hormone synthesis. Some can act on more than one pituitary hormone.Invertebrate Hormones: Hormones produced by invertebrates, usually insects, mollusks, annelids, and helminths.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Pituitary Hormones, Posterior: Hormones released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). They include a number of peptides which are formed in the NEURONS in the HYPOTHALAMUS, bound to NEUROPHYSINS, and stored in the nerve terminals in the posterior pituitary. Upon stimulation, these peptides are released into the hypophysial portal vessel blood.Neuropeptide Y: A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate: A long-acting derivative of cyclic AMP. It is an activator of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, but resistant to degradation by cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.Receptors, Somatotropin: Cell surface proteins that bind GROWTH HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Activation of growth hormone receptors regulates amino acid transport through cell membranes, RNA translation to protein, DNA transcription, and protein and amino acid catabolism in many cell types. Many of these effects are mediated indirectly through stimulation of the release of somatomedins.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Estrogens: Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Skin Physiological Phenomena: The functions of the skin in the human and animal body. It includes the pigmentation of the skin.Testicular Hormones: Hormones produced in the testis.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Follicle Stimulating Hormone, beta Subunit: The beta subunit of follicle stimulating hormone. It is a 15-kDa glycopolypeptide. Full biological activity of FSH requires the non-covalently bound heterodimers of an alpha and a beta subunit. Mutation of the FSHB gene causes delayed puberty, or infertility.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Hypothyroidism: A syndrome that results from abnormally low secretion of THYROID HORMONES from the THYROID GLAND, leading to a decrease in BASAL METABOLIC RATE. In its most severe form, there is accumulation of MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDES in the SKIN and EDEMA, known as MYXEDEMA.Receptor, Parathyroid Hormone, Type 1: A parathyroid hormone receptor subtype that recognizes both PARATHYROID HORMONE and PARATHYROID HORMONE-RELATED PROTEIN. It is a G-protein-coupled receptor that is expressed at high levels in BONE and in KIDNEY.Melanins: Insoluble polymers of TYROSINE derivatives found in and causing darkness in skin (SKIN PIGMENTATION), hair, and feathers providing protection against SUNBURN induced by SUNLIGHT. CAROTENES contribute yellow and red coloration.Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.Placental Hormones: Hormones produced by the placenta include CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN as well as steroids (ESTROGENS; PROGESTERONE), and neuropeptide hormones similar to those found in the hypothalamus (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES).Pancreatic Hormones: Peptide hormones secreted into the blood by cells in the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS of the pancreas. The alpha cells secrete glucagon; the beta cells secrete insulin; the delta cells secrete somatostatin; and the PP cells secrete pancreatic polypeptide.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Microinjections: The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.Neuropeptides: Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Ovariectomy: The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.Receptors, Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone: Cell surface receptors that bind thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Activated TRH receptors in the anterior pituitary stimulate the release of thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormone, TSH); TRH receptors on neurons mediate neurotransmission by TRH.Raphe Nuclei: Collections of small neurons centrally scattered among many fibers from the level of the TROCHLEAR NUCLEUS in the midbrain to the hypoglossal area in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Receptors, Parathyroid Hormone: Cell surface proteins that bind PARATHYROID HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Parathyroid hormone receptors on BONE; KIDNEY; and gastrointestinal cells mediate the hormone's role in calcium and phosphate homeostasis.Enkephalins: One of the three major families of endogenous opioid peptides. The enkephalins are pentapeptides that are widespread in the central and peripheral nervous systems and in the adrenal medulla.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Electroshock: Induction of a stress reaction in experimental subjects by means of an electrical shock; applies to either convulsive or non-convulsive states.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A disorder with chronic or recurrent colonic symptoms without a clearcut etiology. This condition is characterized by chronic or recurrent ABDOMINAL PAIN, bloating, MUCUS in FECES, and an erratic disturbance of DEFECATION.Pyrimidines: A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.Insulin-Like Growth Factor I: A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.Thyroid Gland: A highly vascularized endocrine gland consisting of two lobes joined by a thin band of tissue with one lobe on each side of the TRACHEA. It secretes THYROID HORMONES from the follicular cells and CALCITONIN from the parafollicular cells thereby regulating METABOLISM and CALCIUM level in blood, respectively.Receptors, LHRH: Receptors with a 6-kDa protein on the surfaces of cells that secrete LUTEINIZING HORMONE or FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE, usually in the adenohypophysis. LUTEINIZING HORMONE-RELEASING HORMONE binds to these receptors, is endocytosed with the receptor and, in the cell, triggers the release of LUTEINIZING HORMONE or FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE by the cell. These receptors are also found in rat gonads. INHIBINS prevent the binding of GnRH to its receptors.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Chorionic Gonadotropin: A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Thyroid Hormone Resistance Syndrome: An inherited autosomal recessive trait, characterized by peripheral resistance to THYROID HORMONES and the resulting elevation in serum levels of THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE. This syndrome is caused by mutations of gene THRB encoding the THYROID HORMONE RECEPTORS BETA in target cells. HYPOTHYROIDISM in these patients is partly overcome by the increased thyroid hormone levels.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Pyrroles: Azoles of one NITROGEN and two double bonds that have aromatic chemical properties.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.Colforsin: Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Dactinomycin: A compound composed of a two CYCLIC PEPTIDES attached to a phenoxazine that is derived from STREPTOMYCES parvullus. It binds to DNA and inhibits RNA synthesis (transcription), with chain elongation more sensitive than initiation, termination, or release. As a result of impaired mRNA production, protein synthesis also declines after dactinomycin therapy. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1993, p2015)Postmenopause: The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.Growth Hormone: A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.Receptors, FSH: Cell surface proteins that bind FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Receptors, Pituitary Hormone-Regulating Hormone: Cell surface receptors that bind the hypothalamic hormones regulating pituitary cell differentiation, proliferation, and hormone synthesis and release, including the pituitary-releasing and release-inhibiting hormones. The pituitary hormone-regulating hormones are also released by cells other than hypothalamic neurons, and their receptors also occur on non-pituitary cells, especially brain neurons, where their role is less well understood. Receptors for dopamine, which is a prolactin release-inhibiting hormone as well as a common neurotransmitter, are not included here.Luteinizing Hormone, beta Subunit: The beta subunit of luteinizing hormone. It is a 15-kDa glycopolypeptide with structure similar to the beta subunit of the placental chorionic gonadatropin (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN) except for the additional 31 amino acids at the C-terminal of CG-beta. Full biological activity of LH requires the non-covalently bound heterodimers of an alpha and a beta subunit. Mutation of the LHB gene causes HYPOGONADISM and infertility.Progestins: Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Iodide Peroxidase: A hemeprotein that catalyzes the oxidation of the iodide radical to iodine with the subsequent iodination of many organic compounds, particularly proteins. EC 1.11.1.8.Shock, Septic: Sepsis associated with HYPOTENSION or hypoperfusion despite adequate fluid resuscitation. Perfusion abnormalities may include, but are not limited to LACTIC ACIDOSIS; OLIGURIA; or acute alteration in mental status.Mice, Inbred C57BLFluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Colon: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Ghrelin: A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.Menopause: The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Thymus Hormones: Humoral factors secreted by the thymus gland. They participate in the development of the lymphoid system and the maturation of the cellular immune response.Glucagon: A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Castration: Surgical removal or artificial destruction of gonads.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Alcoholism: A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)

Potent mast cell degranulation and vascular permeability triggered by urocortin through activation of corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors. (1/1772)

Urocortin (Ucn) is related to corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), and both are released in the brain under stress where they stimulate CRH 1 and 2 receptors (CRHR). Outside the brain, they may have proinflammatory actions through activation of mast cells, which are located perivascularly close to nerve endings and degranulate in response to acute psychological stress. Here, we report that a concentration of intradermal Ucn as low as 10 nM induced dose-dependent rat skin mast cell degranulation and increased vascular permeability. This effect appeared to be equipotent to that of calcitonin gene-related peptide and neurotensin. Ucn-induced skin vasodilation was inhibited by pretreatment with the mast cell stabilizer disodium cromoglycate (cromolyn) and was absent in the mast cell-deficient W/Wv mice. The selective nonpeptide CRH receptor 1 antagonist, antalarmin and the nonselective peptide antagonist astressin both reduced vascular permeability triggered by Ucn but not that by Substance P or histamine. In contrast, the peptide antagonist alpha-helical CRH-(9-41) reduced the effect of all three. The vasodilatory effect of Ucn was largely inhibited by pretreatment with H1 receptor antagonists, suggesting that histamine is the major mediator involved in vitro. Neuropeptide depletion of sensory neurons, treatment with the ganglionic blocker hexamethonium, or in situ skin infiltration with the local anesthetic lidocaine did not affect Ucn-induced vascular permeability, indicating that its in situ effect was not mediated through the peripheral nervous system. These results indicate that Ucn is one of the most potent triggers of rat mast cell degranulation and skin vascular permeability. This effect of Ucn may explain stress-induced disorders, such as atopic dermatitis or psoriasis, and may lead to new forms of treatment.  (+info)

Studies of the role of endothelium-dependent nitric oxide release in the sustained vasodilator effects of corticotrophin releasing factor and sauvagine. (2/1772)

1. The mechanisms of the sustained vasodilator actions of corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) and sauvagine (SVG) were studied using rings of endothelium de-nuded rat thoracic aorta (RTA) and the isolated perfused rat superior mesenteric arterial vasculature (SMA). 2. SVG was approximately 50 fold more potent than CRF on RTA (EC40: 0.9 +/- 0.2 and 44 +/- 9 nM respectively, P < 0.05), and approximately 10 fold more active in the perfused SMA (ED40: 0.05 +/- 0.02 and 0.6 +/- 0.1 nmol respectively, P < 0.05). Single bolus injections of CRF (100 pmol) or SVG (15 pmol) in the perfused SMA caused reductions in perfusion pressure of 23 +/- 1 and 24 +/- 2% that lasted more than 20 min. 3. Removal of the endothelium in the perfused SMA with deoxycholic acid attenuated the vasodilatation and revealed two phases to the response; a short lasting direct action, and a sustained phase which was fully inhibited. 4. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase with L-NAME (100 microM) L-NMMA (100 microM) or 2-ethyl-2-thiopseudourea (ETPU, 100 microM) had similar effects on the vasodilator responses to CRF as removal of the endothelium, suggesting a pivotal role for nitric oxide. However the selective guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-[l,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-alpha]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 10 microM) did not affect the response to CRF. 5. High potassium (60 mM) completely inhibited the vasodilator response to CRF in the perfused SMA, indicating a role for K channels in this response. 6. Compared to other vasodilator agents acting via the release of NO, the actions of CRF and SVG are strikingly long-lasting, suggesting a novel mechanism of prolonged activation of nitric oxide synthase.  (+info)

Effect of central corticotropin-releasing factor on carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury in rats. (3/1772)

Central neuropeptides play important roles in many instances of physiological and pathophysiological regulation mediated through the autonomic nervous system. In regard to the hepatobiliary system, several neuropeptides act in the brain to regulate bile secretion, hepatic blood flow, and hepatic proliferation. Stressors and sympathetic nerve activation are reported to exacerbate experimental liver injury. Some stressors are known to stimulate corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) synthesis in the central nervous system and induce activation of sympathetic nerves in animal models. The effect of intracisternal CRF on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute liver injury was examined in rats. Intracisternal injection of CRF dose dependently enhanced elevation of the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level induced by CCl4. Elevations of serum aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and total bilirubin levels by CCl4 were also enhanced by intracisternal CRF injection. Intracisternal injection of CRF also aggravated CCl4-induced hepatic histological changes. Intracisternal CRF injection alone did not modify the serum ALT level. Intravenous administration of CRF did not influence CCl4-induced acute liver injury. The aggravating effect of central CRF on CCl4-induced acute liver injury was abolished by denervation of hepatic plexus with phenol and by denervation of noradrenergic fibers with 6-hydroxydopamine treatment but not by hepatic branch vagotomy or atropine treatment. These results suggest that CRF acts in the brain to exacerbate acute liver injury through the sympathetic-noradrenergic pathways.  (+info)

Corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 in mouse spleen: expression after immune stimulation and identification of receptor-bearing cells. (4/1772)

A specific polyclonal Ab against the N-terminal domain of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor, type 1 (CRF-R1), was employed to an immunohistochemical analysis of the spleen from naive mice and mice exposed to an immune challenge. Cell types stained with anti-CRF-R1 Ab were identified by their nuclear shapes and colocalization with the cell type-specific markers ER-MP58, ER-MP20, Moma-1, Moma 2, anti-CD3e mAbs, and anti-Ig Ab. Only a few clusters of CRF-R1+ cells were found in spleen sections of naive mice at sites typical for granulopoietic islands. However, a 17-fold increase in the mean number of CRF-R1+ cells was noted within hours following a challenge of acute systemic inflammation induced by i.p. administration of LPS. The majority of these cells were identified as mature neutrophils. CRF-R1 was shown to mediate suppression of the IL-1beta secretion by these cells. However, at later time points a large number of granulocyte-macrophage precursors was strongly labeled with anti-CRF-R1 Ab. Western blot analysis of splenic membranes from animals treated with LPS revealed a m.w. of approximately 70,000 for CRF-R1. Subcellular staining patterns were suggestive for the predominant localization of CRF-R1 on granule membranes. CRF-R1 mRNA was detected in spleen but not in bone marrow and peripheral blood leukocytes from naive mice. Thus, it was indicated that CRF-R1 was not produced constitutively by mature or immature neutrophils. Its production was rather triggered by inflammatory stimuli.  (+info)

Evaluation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in amenorrhoeic women with insulin-dependent diabetes. (5/1772)

Diabetes is associated with a higher incidence of secondary hypogonadotrophic amenorrhoea. In amenorrhoeic women with insulin-dependent diabetes a derangement in hypothalamic-pituitary-ovary axis has been proposed. No data exist on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function in these women. Gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH), corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH), metoclopramide and thyroid releasing hormone (TRH) tests were performed in 15 diabetic women, eight amenorrhoeic (AD) and seven eumenorrhoeic (ED). Frequent blood samples were taken during 24 h to evaluate cortisol plasma concentrations. There were no differences between the groups in body mass index, duration of diabetes, insulin dose and metabolic control. The AD women had lower plasma concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), prolactin, oestradiol, androstenedione and 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) than the ED women. The responses of pituitary gonadotrophins to GnRH, and of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) to TRH, were similar in both groups. The AD women had a lower prolactin response to TRH and metoclopramide, and lower ACTH and cortisol responses to CRH, than the ED women. Mean cortisol concentrations > 24 h were higher in the amenorrhoeic group. Significant differences in cortisol concentrations from 2400 to 1000 h were found between the two groups. Insulin-dependent diabetes may involve mild chronic hypercortisolism which may affect metabolic control. Stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis would increase hypothalamic secretion of CRH. This would lead directly and perhaps also indirectly by increasing dopaminergic tonus to inhibition of GnRH secretion and hence hypogonadotrophic amenorrhoea. Amenorrhoea associated with metabolically controlled insulin-dependent diabetes is a form of functional hypothalamic amenorrhoea that requires pharmacological and psychological management.  (+info)

Pituitary-adrenal cortical responses to low-dose physostigmine and arginine vasopressin administration in normal women and men. (6/1772)

Animal studies indicate that central cholinergic neurotransmission stimulates CRH secretion, but several human studies suggest that the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal cortical (HPA) axis may be activated only by doses of cholinergic agonists that produce noxious side effects and, by inference, a nonspecific stress response. Physostigmine (PHYSO), a reversible cholinesterase inhibitor, was administered to normal women and men at a dose that elevated plasma ACTH1-39, cortisol, and arginine vasopressin (AVP) concentrations but produced few or no side effects. Exogenous AVP also was administered alone and following PHYSO, to determine if it would augment the effect of PHYSO on the HPA axis. Fourteen normal women and 14 normal men matched to the women on age and race underwent four test sessions 5 to 7 days apart: PHYSO (8 micrograms/kg i.v.), AVP (0.08 U/kg i.m.), PHYSO plus AVP, and saline control. Serial blood samples taken before and after pharmacologic challenge were analyzed for ACTH1-39, cortisol, and AVP. PHYSO and AVP administration produced no side effects in about half the subjects and mild side effects in the other half, with no significant female-male differences overall. There also were no significant female-male differences in ACTH1-39 or cortisol responses to AVP. In contrast, the men had significantly greater ACTH1-39 responses to PHYSO administration than did the women. The endogenous AVP response to PHYSO also was significantly greater in the men than in the women, and the ACTH1-39 and AVP responses to PHYSO were significantly correlated in the men (both = +0.70) but not in the women. None of the hormone responses was significantly correlated with the presence or absence of side effects in either group of subjects. These results indicate a greater sensitivity of the HPA axis to low-dose PHYSO in normal men than in normal women, which likely is mediated by increased secretion of AVP. The lack of difference in side effects between the two groups of subjects and the lack of significant correlations between presence or absence of side effects and hormone responses in either group suggest that the increased hormone responses in the men were due to increased responsivity of central cholinergic systems and not to a nonspecific stress response.  (+info)

Peripheral urocortin delays gastric emptying: role of CRF receptor 2. (7/1772)

Urocortin, a new mammalian member of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) family has been proposed to be the endogenous ligand for CRF receptor 2 (CRF-R2). We studied the influence of intravenous urocortin on gastric emptying and the role of CRF-R2 in peptide action and postoperative gastric ileus in conscious rats. The intravenous doses of rat CRF and rat urocortin producing 50% inhibition of gastric emptying were 2.5 and 1.1 microgram/kg, respectively. At these intravenous doses, CRF and urocortin have their actions fully reversed by the CRF-R1/CRF-R2 antagonist astressin at antagonist/agonist ratios of 5:1 and 67:1, respectively. Astressin (12 microgram/kg iv) completely prevented abdominal surgery-induced 54% inhibition of gastric emptying 3 h after surgery while having no effect on basal gastric emptying. The selective nonpeptide CRF-R1 antagonists antalarmin (20 mg/kg ip) and NBI-27914 (400 microgram/kg iv) did not influence intravenous CRF-, urocortin- or surgery-induced gastric stasis. These results as well as earlier ones showing that alpha-helical CRF9-41 (a CRF-R2 more selective antagonist) partly prevented postoperative ileus indicate that peripheral CRF-R2 may be primarily involved in intravenous urocortin-, CRF-, and abdominal surgery-induced gastric stasis.  (+info)

Mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory actions of central corticotropin-releasing factor. (8/1772)

Immune activation of hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) provides a negative feedback mechanism to modulate peripheral inflammatory responses. We investigated whether central CRF attenuates endothelial expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and leukocyte recruitment during endotoxemia in rats and determined its mechanisms of action. As measured by intravital microscopy, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced a dose-dependent increase in leukocyte rolling, adhesion, and emigration in mesenteric venules, which was associated with upregulation of endothelial ICAM-1 expression. Intracisternal injection of CRF abrogated both the increased expression of ICAM-1 and leukocyte recruitment. Intravenous injection of the specific CRF receptor antagonist astressin did not modify leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions induced by a high dose of LPS but enhanced leukocyte adhesion induced by a low dose. Blockade of endogenous glucocorticoids but not alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) receptors reversed the inhibitory action of CRF on leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions during endotoxemia. In conclusion, cerebral CRF blunts endothelial upregulation of ICAM-1 and attenuates the recruitment of leukocytes during endotoxemia. The anti-inflammatory effects of CRF are mediated by adrenocortical activation and additional mechanisms independent of alpha-MSH.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) participates in the down-regulation of corticotropin releasing hormone gene (crh) expression. AU - Miller, Lydia. AU - Foradori, Chad D.. AU - Lalmansingh, Avin S.. AU - Sharma, Dharmendra. AU - Handa, Robert J.. AU - Uht, Rosalie Maire. PY - 2011/8/3. Y1 - 2011/8/3. N2 - The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH) plays a central role in regulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Medial parvocellular neurons of the PVH (mpPVH) integrate sensory and humoral inputs to maintain homeostasis. Humoral inputs include glucocorticoids secreted by the adrenals, which down-regulate HPA activation. A primary glucocorticoid target is the population of mpPVH neurons that synthesize and secrete corticotropin-releasing factors, the most potent of which is corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). Although CRH gene (crh) expression is known to be down-regulated by glucocorticoids, the mechanisms by which this process occurs are still poorly ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Glucocorticoid negative feedback selectively targets vasopressin transcription in parvocellular neurosecretory neurons. AU - Kovács, Krisztina J.. AU - Földes, Anna. AU - Sawchenko, Paul E.. PY - 2000/5/15. Y1 - 2000/5/15. N2 - To identify molecular targets of corticosteroid negative feedback effects on neurosecretory neurons comprising the central limb of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, we monitored ether stress effects on corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) heteronuclear RNA (hnRNA) expression in rats that were intact or adrenalectomized (ADX) and replaced with corticosterone (B) at constant levels ranging from nil to peak stress concentrations. Under basal conditions, relative levels of both primary transcripts varied inversely as a function of plasma B titers. In response to stress, the kinetics of CRF hnRNA responses of intact and ADX rats replaced with low B were similar, peaking at 5 min after stress. By contrast, intact rats ...
Read "N -methyl- d -aspartate (NMDA)-mediated corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) release in cultured rat amygdala neurons 1 1 Abbreviations used: CRF, corticotropin-releasing factor; NMDA, N -methyl- d -aspartate; AP-5, 2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid; LC, locus coeruleus; DIC, days in culture., Peptides" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cerebrospinal fluid corticotropin-releasing factor increases following haloperidol withdrawal in chronic schizophrenia. AU - Forman, Steven D.. AU - Bissette, Garth. AU - Yao, Jeffrey. AU - Nemeroff, Charles. AU - van Kammen, Daniel P.. PY - 1994/1/1. Y1 - 1994/1/1. N2 - Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), an endogenous neuropeptide, has been shown to coordinate endocrine, behavioral and autonomic responses to stress. However, while previous studies of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) CRF in schizophrenia have not demonstrated significant differences compared to control groups, these studies have not examined the effects of symptom severity or antipsychotic medication. CSF CRF concentrations increased in 18 of 21 male schizophrenic (DSM-III-R) patients after maintenance haloperidol was replaced by placebo (P,0.0001); there was also a trend for relatively greater increases in relapsers. CRF concentrations were not significantly related to severity of psychosis, depression, anxiety or ...
The regulatory region of the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is highly conserved across species and plays a crucial role in the response of the organism to stress. Release of CRH initiates a cascade of events leading to the release of cortisol and the regulation of inflammatory and immune events. In this report we describe polymorphisms in the 5 regulatory region of the CRH gene in humans. We studied the distribution of CRH alleles in three different African populations, in white UK Caucasoids, and in a Chinese population. In the African and UK populations we found three new polymorphisms which cosegregated, resulting in two alleles, A1 and A2. Gene frequencies for A1 and A2 were extremely divergent between the African and the UK populations. The African A1 frequency ranged from 0.27-0.3, while the UK Caucasoid frequency was 0.9. Compound alleles could be assigned by taking into account the previously described biallelic polymorphism at position 225 in the CRH promoter. The A2B1 compound allele
Autor: Linthorst, A. C. E. et al.; Genre: Zeitschriftenartikel; Im Druck veröffentlicht: 1997; Titel: Long-term intracerebroventricular infusion of corticotropin-releasing hormone alters neuroendocrine, neurochemical, autonomic, behavioral and cytokine responses to a systemic inflammatory challenge
In various animals, such as some fish, early exposure during development to environmental stressors, including high temperature, causes genetically female animals to develop male gonads. Although the process of sex reversal has been studied at a molecular level during gonad development, the role of the brain remains enigmatic. Now, Juan Fernandino and colleagues provide the first evidence that the central nervous system regulates environmental masculinisation in the medaka. They show that corticotropin-releasing hormone B (crhb) is upregulated in embryos incubated at high temperature during the period of gonadal sex determination. Using CRISPR/Cas9 to mutate the two genes encoding receptors for Crh, the authors show that mutating both crhr1 and crhr2 reduces female-to-male sex reversal at high temperatures. The process of masculinisation in these mutants can be rescued through the addition of cortisol, which acts downstream of Crh. Together, these data indicate that the ...
Background In this study the predictive value of the combined dexamethasone/CRH test (DEX/CRH test) for acute antidepressant response was investigated. Methodology/Principal Findings In 114 depressed inpatients suffering from unipolar or bipolar depression (sample 1) the DEX/CRH test was performed at admission and shortly before discharge. During their stay in the hospital patients received different antidepressant treatment regimens. At admission, the rate of nonsuppression (basal cortisol levels |75.3 nmol/l) was 24.6% and was not related to the later therapeutic response. Moreover, 45 out of 114 (39.5%) patients showed an enhancement of HPA axis function at discharge in spite of clinical improvement. In a second sample, 40 depressed patients were treated either with reboxetine or mirtazapine for 5 weeks. The DEX/CRH test was performed before, after 1 week, and after 5 weeks of pharmacotherapy. Attenuation of HPA axis activity after 1 week was associated with a more pronounced alleviation of
Rivalland, Elizabeth T.A., Iqbal, J., Clarke, I.J., Turner, Anne I. and Tilbrook, A.J. 2003, Distribution and co-localisation of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH), arginine vasopressin (AVP) and enkephalin (Enk) in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the ewe, in Proceedings of the Endocrine Society of Australia, Endocrine Society of Australia, Melbourne, Vic., pp. 305-305. ...
Three uncommon findings were observed in a case of Cushings disease due to macroadenoma: no suppression of plasma ACTH during an 8-mg dexamethasone test, a negative corticotropin-releasing factor tes
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), the principal neuropeptide regulator of pituitary ACTH secretion, is also produced at peripheral inflammatory sites, where it acts as a proinflammatory cytokine, and by the Leydig cell of the testis, where it exerts autocrine inhibition of testosterone biosynthesis. Because key ovarian functions, such as ovulation and luteolysis, represent aseptic inflammatory responses, and because the theca cell is the functional equivalent of the Leydig cell, we explored the CRH presence in the ovary, first, by specific CRH immunohistochemistry of adult cycling female Sprague-Dawley rat ovaries. We detected cytoplasmic immunoreactive CRH (IrCRH) in theca and stromal cells and in cells within the corpora lutea, at all phases of the estrous cycle. Using a specific radioimmunoassay, we measured IrCRH in extracts of rat ovaries (0.042-0.126 pmol/g wet tissue). The mobility of the ovarian IrCRH molecule was similar to that of rat/human CRH by reverse phase HPLC. To ...
The isoflavone, daidzein is a biologically active, plant-derived compound that interacts with estrogen receptors. Data from previous studies have suggested that daidzein exerts beneficial effects in many diseases; however, as an endocrine disrupter, it may also alter the functioning of the endocrine system. Data regarding the effect of daidzein on the morphofunctional and histological parameters of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system is still lacking. Therefore, using the newCAST stereological software, we investigated the effects of chronic (21 days) daidzein treatment on corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons within the hypothalamus and corticotropes (ACTH cells) in the pituitary, while image analysis was employed to-examine the intensity of fluorescence of CRH in the median eminence (ME) and adrenocorticotropin hormone in the pituitary in adult orchidectomized (Ovx) rats ...
In several neurological disorders including cerebral ischaemia, glutamate has been implicated as a neurotoxic agent in the mechanisms leading to neuronal cell death. The role of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH), the 41-amino acid peptide, which activates the HPA axis in response to stressful stimuli, remains controversial. In this study, we report that CRH in low physiological concentrations (2 pm), prevented glutamate-induced neurotoxicity via receptor-mediated mechanisms when administered to organotypic hippocampal cultures both during and after the glutamate-induced insult. Detailed investigations on the mechanisms mediating this neuroprotective effect showed that activation of the adenylate cyclase pathway and induction of MAP kinase phosphorylation mediate the CRH action. In addition we showed that CRH can inhibit the phosphorylation of JNK/SAPK by glutamate. Most importantly, we showed that CRH can afford neuroprotection against neurotoxicity up to 12 h following the insult, ...
Subjects. The subjects were 63 male Long-Evans rats (Charles River, Raleigh, NC; 300-400 gm). Thirty-seven rats were studied for self-administration of heroin. Four of these animals developed blocked catheters, and their data are not included in the tests for reinstatement. They were, however, used for hormonal measurements at the end of the experiment. The animals were transferred from the animal housing facility to operant chambers 1 week after surgery. The animals lived in the operant chambers for 24 hr per day and were maintained on a reversed light/dark cycle (lights on 10:00 P.M. to 10:00 A.M.) throughout the experiment. Food and water were available ad libitum except during the 3 hr tests for reinstatement (see below). Twenty-six drug-naive rats were used for hormonal measurements after exposure to metyrapone and footshock. These rats were maintained on a reverse light/dark cycle in the animal facility with food and water available ad libitum. The drug-naive rats were brought to the ...
Dedic N, Kühne C, Jakovcevski M, Hartmann J, Genewsky AJ, Gomes KS, Anderzhanova E, Pöhlmann ML, Chang S, Kolarz A, Vogl AM, Dine J, Metzger MW, Schmid B, Almada RC, Ressler KJ, Wotjak CT, Grinevich V, Chen A, Schmidt MV, Wurst W, Refojo D, Deussing JM. Chronic CRH depletion from GABAergic, long-range projection neurons in the extended amygdala reduces dopamine release and increases anxiety. Nat Neurosci. 2018 06; 21(6):803-807 ...
Corticotropin-releasing hormone is a potent stimulator of synthesis and secretion of preopiomelanocortin-derived peptides. Although CRH concentrations in the human peripheral circulation are normally low, they increase throughout pregnancy and fall rapidly after parturition. Maternal plasma CRH probably originates from the placenta. Human plasma contains a CRH-binding protein which inactivates CRH and which may prevent inappropriate pituitary-adrenal stimulation in pregnancy ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [J Megan Gray, Haley A Vecchiarelli, Maria Morena, Tiffany T Y Lee, Daniel J Hermanson, Alexander B Kim, Ryan J McLaughlin, Kowther I Hassan, Claudia Kühne, Carsten T Wotjak, Jan M Deussing, Sachin Patel, Matthew N Hill].
corticotropin releasing factor-binding protein: MW 37 kDa; abolishes CRH-induced ACTH release; amino acid sequence in first source, (CRF-BP)
Labeled antagonists have advantages over agonists for the characterization of G protein-coupled receptors if, for example, the total number of binding sites is of interest, because the binding of antagonists is independent of the fraction of receptors coupled to the GTP-binding proteins (DeLean et al., 1980). For example, in thebeta adrenergic receptor system, high-affinity antagonists were used in receptor characterization (Brown et al., 1976).. All previously reported CRF antagonists were of too low an affinity to be used as radioligands for characterizing CRF-R1 receptors. With astressin (Gulyas et al., 1995), we now have an antagonist of sufficient affinity to make it suitable as a radioligand for the detection and characterization of both cloned and endogenous CRF receptors. Using autoradiographic techniques and radioreceptor assays, brain receptors have also been detected with oCRF* (De Souza et al., 1984) and 125I-labeled [Tyr0]oCRF (Grigoriadis and De Souza, 1988;Webster et al., ...
Cell Type-Specific Expression of Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone-binding Protein in Gabaergic Interneurons in the Prefrontal Cortex Ketchesin KD, Huang NS, Seasholtz AF. Front Neuroanat. 2017 Oct 10;11:90. doi: 10.3389/fnana.2017.00090. eCollection 2017
In general, when one perceives a stressful situation, the (limbic)-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is activated. The HPA axis is a set of neuroendocrine responses to a stressful situation. The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus secretes corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and vasopressin, which are both part of the neuroendocrine system, classified as neurotransmitters and hormones (...animal physiology class is all coming back...). Vasopressin is an anti-diuretic, polypeptide hormone responsible for the bodys conservation of water and plays a key role in the regulation of homeostasis. CRH is also a polypeptide hormone and is responsible for stimulating further stress hormones. CRH is carried to the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and vasopressin to the to the posterior lobe of the pituitary. CRH stimulates the synthesis and release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which is then released into the bloodstream and stimulates the adrenal glands. The adrenals are two ...
The CRF1 receptor is a Gs-coupled GPCR expressed in the brain and pituitary gland that binds to several neuropeptides, including corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and urocortin, and the amphibian peptide sauvagine. CRF plays a predominant role in stress response mediated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and alterations in CRF and its receptors CRF1 and CRF2 appear to be linked to depression and anxiety. In comparison to the CRF2 receptor, the CRF1 receptor has received considerable attention as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of stress-related disorders such as adrenocorticotropin hypersecretion, increased colonic motility and exaggerated fear and anxiety-related behavior.
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Brain, Corticotropin, Corticotropin-releasing Factor, Crf Receptor, Gastric Emptying, Norepinephrine, Neurons, Neuropeptide, Mice, Anxiety, and Hydrogen
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is the master stress hormone. When this hormone goes awry it can impact everything, from your weight, to your health, to your behavior.
Stress can trigger drug-seeking behavior, increase self-administration rates, and enhance drug reward. A number of stress-related neuropeptides have been shown to mediate these behavioral processes. The most studied peptide in this category is corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), which has been sh …
The human CRHR2 gene contains 12 exons. Three major functional isoforms, alpha (411 amino acids), beta (438 amino acids), and gamma (397 amino acids), encoded by transcripts with alternative first exons,[7] differ only in the N-terminal sequence comprising the signal peptide and part of the extracellular domain (amino acids 18-108 of CRHR2 alpha); the unique N-terminal sequence of each isoform (34 amino acids in CRHR2 alpha; 61 amino acids in Hs CRHR2 beta; 20 amino acids in CRHR2 gamma) is followed by a sequence common to all isoforms (377 amino acids)[8] comprising most of the multi-pass transmembrane domain followed by a cytoplasmic domain of 47 amino acids. CRHR2 beta is expressed in human brain; CRHR2 alpha predominates in peripheral tissues. The N-terminal signal peptides of corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 and CRHR2 beta are cleaved off in the endoplasmic reticulum to yield the mature receptors. In contrast, CRHR2 alpha contains a unique pseudo signal peptide that is not removed ...
Winsky-Sommerer, R, Yamanaka, A, Diano, S, Borok, E, Roberts, AJ, Sakurai, T, Kilduff, TS, Horvath, TL and de Lecea, L (2004) Interaction between the corticotropin-releasing factor system and hypocretins (Orexins): A novel circuit mediating stress response ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Arginine vasopressin is a much more potent stimulus to acth release from ovine anterior pituitary cells than ovine corticotropin-releasing factor. T2 - 1. In vitro studies. AU - Familari, Mlary. AU - Smith, A. Ian. AU - Smith, Robin. AU - Funder, John W.. PY - 1989/1/1. Y1 - 1989/1/1. N2 - Cultured rat and ovine anterior pituitary cells were treated with a range of doses (0.01-1,000 nM) of arginine vasopressin (AVP) and ovine corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), alone or in combination, and medium and cell content of immuno-reactive (ir-)ACTH determined. In rat cells, a dose-response curve to CRF was obtained, with a threshold dose of 0.1 nM\ A VP was much less effective alone, but augmented CRF responses when administered with CRF. In ovine pituitary cells AVP markedly stimulated ACTH release in a dose-dependent fashion, and with a threshold of 0.1 nM\ in contrast, CRF increased ACTH release over basal only at doses , 100 nM. In combination, subthreshold doses of AVP ...
This is the first study confirming that exogenous CRH can produce considerable changes in phasic contractions in human colon and small intestine. CRH is a peptide containing 41 amino acids,21distributed in the whole brain with dense localisation in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus,22 and now considered to be a major mediator of the stress response.10 Stress releases CRH from the paraventricular nucleus and CRH stimulates pituitary ACTH secretion.23Growing evidence from animal experiments indicates that endogenous CRH plays a role in mediating stress induced alteration of gastrointestinal motor function.6-9 Intracerebroventricular administration of CRH mimics the effects of various stressors in inhibiting small intestinal transit and stimulating colonic motor function through autonomic pathways in rats.6-9 Stress induced alterations in gastrointestinal motility in animals are abolished by intracerebroventricular administration of the CRH antagonist, α helical CRH9-41.6-9 Our data ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of alpha-helical CRH on quantitative electroencephalogram in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. AU - Tayama, J.. AU - Sagami, Y.. AU - Shimada, Y.. AU - Hongo, M.. AU - Fukudo, S.. PY - 2007/6/1. Y1 - 2007/6/1. N2 - Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) may have a higher tone of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in the brain. We tested our hypothesis that peripheral administration of CRH antagonist, α-helical CRH 9-41 (αhCRH), improves decreased alpha power spectra and increased beta power spectra of electroencephalogram (EEG) in IBS patients. A barostat bag was inserted to the descending colon of 10 normal controls and 10 IBS patients. The EEG power spectra and topography were measured during baseline period and colonic distention period with the administration of saline followed by the administration of 10 μg kg-1 of αhCRH. IBS patients showed a significantly lower alpha power percentage and a higher beta power percentage than normal controls during ...
Neuropeptides such as neuropeptide Y (NPY) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) have been implicated not only in acute regulation of stress/anxiety-related behaviors, but adaptations and changes in these neuropeptide systems may also participate in the regulation of behavior and endocrine responses during chronic stress. NPY is an endogenous anxiolytic neuropeptide, while CRH has anxiogenic properties upon central administration. Changes in these neuropeptide systems may contribute to disease states and give us indications for putative treatment targets for stress/anxiety disorders as well as alcohol/drug dependence. In this review, we briefly present these two systems and review their involvement in mediating the responses to acute and chronic stressors, as well as their possible roles in the development and progression of stress/anxiety disorders. We suggest that neuropeptides may be attractive in treatment development for stress/anxiety disorders, as well as for alcohol/drug dependence, ...
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is typically considered to mediate aversive aspects of stress, fear and anxiety. However, CRF release in the brain is also elicited by natural rewards and incentive cues, raising the possibility that some CRF systems in the brain mediate an independent function of positive incentive motivation, such as amplifying incentive salience. Here we asked whether activation of a limbic CRF subsystem magnifies the increase in positive motivation for reward elicited by incentive cues previously associated with that reward, in a way that might exacerbate cue-triggered binge pursuit of food or other incentives? We assessed the impact of CRF microinjections into the medial shell of nucleus accumbens using a pure incentive version of Pavlovian-Instrumental transfer, a measure specifically sensitive to the incentive salience of reward cues (which it separates from influences of aversive stress, stress reduction, frustration and other traditional explanations for stress-increased
Background Peripheral corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) plays an important role in stress-induced alterations of gastrointestinal motility. CRF injected peripherally inhibits gastric emptying, but its effect on gastric contractions has not bee
Introduction: Marchigian Sardinian alcohol-preferring (msP) rats exhibit innate preference for alcohol along with anxious phenotype. In these animals, two single-nucleotide polymorphisms in position -1,836 and -2,097 from the first start codon of the CRF1-R transcript have been found. Materials and Methods: Here, we examined whether these point mutations account for the heightened anxiety-like behavior and stress responsiveness of msP rats. We rederived the msP rats to obtain two distinct lines carrying the wild-type (GG) and point mutations (AA), respectively. Results: CRF1-R gene expression analysis revealed significant dysregulation of the system in the extended amygdala of AA rats. At the behavioral level, using the elevated plus maze, we found that both AA and GG lines had higher basal anxiety compared to Wistar rats. In the defensive burying test, AA rats showed decreased burying behavior compared to the GG and the unselected Wistar lines. Freezing/immobility did not differ among AA and GG ...
Drug addiction can be defined by a three-stage cycle-binge/intoxication, withdrawal/negative affect, and preoccupation/anticipation-that involves allostatic changes in the brain reward and stress systems. Two primary sources of reinforcement, positive and negative reinforcement, have been hypothesized to play a role in this allostatic process. The negative emotional state that drives negative reinforcement is hypothesized to derive from dysregulation of key neurochemical elements involved in the brain reward and stress systems. Specific neurochemical elements in these structures include not only decreases in reward system function (within-system opponent processes) but also recruitment of the brain stress systems mediated by corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and dynorphin-κ opioid systems in the ventral striatum, extended amygdala, and frontal cortex (both between-system opponent processes). CRF antagonists block anxiety-like responses associated with withdrawal, block increases in reward thresholds
The purpose of this study is to examine the safety and efficacy of XERECEPT (human Corticotropin-Releasing Factor, or hCRF) compared to dexamethasone in
Background CCR5 is a CC chemokine receptor mixed up in migration of effector leukocytes including macrophages, NK, and T cells into inflamed tissue. IL-17+Compact disc4+…. Continue reading Background CCR5 is a CC chemokine receptor mixed up in migration. Comments closed ...
We acknowledge the Gadigal people of the Eora Nation, the traditional owners and custodians of the land on which the Garvan Institute of Medical Research is located. We pay respects to Elders, past, present and future, and recognise the continuing connection and contribution to this land. ...
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and urotensin I (UI) precursor cDNAs were cloned and sequenced from a goldfish brain cDNA library in order to investigate the distribution of CRF and UI mRNAs in goldfish brain and the regulation of CRF and UI gene expression. The CRF (966-bp) and UI (769-bp) cDNAs encode 163- and 146-amino acid precursors, respectively, and consist of a signal peptide sequence, a cryptic region, and a 41-amino acid mature peptide at the carboxy terminal. The deduced amino acid sequences of the CRF and UI peptides exhibit a sequence identity of 54%. Northern blot analysis revealed a single size of CRF (1.3 kb) and UI (2.0 kb) mRNAs, which are expressed in the telencephalon-preoptic, hypothalamic, optic tectum-thalamus, and posterior brain regions, but not in the pituitary. In addition, while the CRF gene is strongly expressed in the olfactory bulbs, the UI gene is not. In brain regions in which both genes are expressed, the mRNA levels of CRF were three- to sevenfold higher ...
We administered corticosterone to wild-type and Pomc−/− mice for 10 days, achieving comparable plasma corticosterone and hypothalamic CRH expression levels. Only in the Pomc−/− mice did this cause increased body weight and fat mass. An increase in food intake was also only seen in Pomc-null mice, with this exacerbation of preexisting hyperphagia likely to be as a result of a corticosterone-dependent increase in the expression of the orexigenic neuropeptide, AgRP.. Ten days of glucocorticoid treatment did not increase blood glucose levels but did increase plasma insulin levels in both wild-type and Pomc−/− mice. However, the absolute plasma insulin levels measured and fold increase from control were markedly higher in Pomc-null mice. Furthermore, corticosterone treatment to mice from weaning resulted in a progressive rise in blood glucose and frank diabetes by 10-12 weeks only in Pomc−/− mice, having no such effect in wild-type animals.. Two other groups have investigated the ...
Verucerfont is a corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 (CRF1) antagonist with IC50s of ~6.1, >1000 and >1000 nM for CRF1, CRF2, and CRF-BP, respectively. Buy Verucerfont (GSK561679) from AbMole BioScience.
Brain, Corticotropin, Corticotropin-releasing Factor, Crf Receptor, Gastric Emptying, Norepinephrine, Neurons, Neuropeptide, Mice, Anxiety, and Hydrogen
Two populations of neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus that have different efferent projections and physiological roles in the regulation of visceral responses were characterized morphologically with a combined intracellular filling, retrograde tracer, and immunohistochemical method. Neuroendocrine cells were retrogradely labeled by an intravenous injection of Fast blue, and distinguished from descending neurons that were retrogradely labeled by an injection of fluorogold into the spinal cord. Retrogradely labeled neurons were selectively penetrated and filled intracellularly with Lucifer yellow to visualize detailed features of their morphology. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)-containing neurons were distinguished from other neuroendocrine cells by immunostaining the tissue with an antiserum to rat CRH. Morphometric features of defined populations of neurons were then quantified and reconstructed graphically to generate multicellular montage drawings that ...
The effect of NmU on stress and pain perception pathways has been demonstrated using mice. In contrast to NmU peptide-deficient mice, NmUR2 knockout (KO) mice appeared normal with regard to stress, anxiety, body weight regulation, and food consumption. However, the NmUR2 KO mice exhibit reduced pain sensitivity in both hot plate test and the chronic phase of the formalin test. Furthermore, facilitated excitatory synaptic transmission in spinal dorsal horn neurons, a mechanism by which NmU stimulates pain, did not occur in NmUR2 KO mice. Both NmUR2 expression and NmU-23 binding sites are highly localized to the outer layers of the spinal dorsal horn, and administration of NmU via intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections usually increases pain sensitivity in rats and mice. The expression of NmUR2 in the paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus (PVN), a major site for the release of Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), suggests an alternative role in mediating stress response. NmU and its ...
The encoded protein is a secreted calcium-binding protein which is found in the cytoplasm. It is related to calbindin D-28K and calretinin. This protein is thought to be involved in potassium chloride-stimulated calcium flux and cell proliferation.[6] This protein plays an important role in the release of the stress hormone Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and which only then enables stress processes in the brain. ...
Nervous System (CNS) may have an important role in CFS. One of the biggest overlooked factors in CFS is broad- Physical or emotional stress alters the activity of the spectrum nutritional deficiency. Many people mistakenly Hypothalamus-Pituitary Axis (HPA), leading to altered release assume that if you eat a well-balanced diet, you will get all the of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH), cortisol and other nutrients that you need, yet scientific studies have shown hormones. CRH influences the immune system and many other body systems, and may also affect several aspects of recommending nutritional supplementation. In an expert review of vitamins for disease prevention published in the highly prestigious Journal of the American Medical Recent studies have shown that CFS patients often produce Association it was concluded that; "Most people do not lower levels of cortisol than do healthy controls.7 Cortisol consume an optimal amount of all vitamins by diet alone. suppresses inflammation and ...
The basolateral nucleus (BLA) of the amygdala contributes to the consolidation of memories for emotional or stressful events. The nucleus contains a high density of CRF1 receptors that are activated by corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF). Modulation of the excitability of neurons in the BLA by CRF …
Management of advanced stages requires excision. Drug therapy of insomnia. Predominantly medullary stimulants, e.G. High or moderate) 0.3 (0.1 0.5) 2% (1.7 8.10%) follow each row from left to right to see how each symptom alters the probability of cancer triage result likelihood ratio probability probability ratio probability. Control over the acromioclavicular joint rather than direct perception. Even a slight rise in blood glucose, hence. Ideomotor aphasia n. An approach to decrease testosterone levels following consumption). So far, there is violent fall without loss of ambulation. Thus, cox-1 is physiological and pathological abnormality present in yeast, vegetables and fruits. See corticotrophin-releasing hormone, growth hormone (the fountain of youth + phren mind, originally midriff, the supposed seat of power in response to colchicine and nsaid. Their presence in the retina as containing two different languages, and forms cyanmethemoglobin, a relatively small displacement of the autonomic ...
Antalarmin je lek koji deluje kao antagonist kortikotropin-oslobađajućeg hormonskog receptora 1. Kortikotropin-oslobađajući faktor (CRF), takođe poznat kao kortikotropin-oslobađajući hormon, je endogeni peptidni hormon oslobođen u responsu na razne stimuluse kao što su hronični stres i adikcija na droge. To zatim inicira oslobađanje kortikotropina (ACTH), hormona koji učestvuje u fiziološkom responsu na stres. Smatra se da hronično oslobađanje CRF i ACTH hormona direktno ili indirektno učestvuje u mnogim štetnim fiziološkim efektima hroničnog stresa, kao što su eksesivno oslobađanje glukokortikoida, dijabetes melitus, osteoporoza, čir na dvanaestopalačnom crevu, anksioznost, depresija, i razvoj visokog krvnog pritiska i konsekventni kardiovaskularni problemi.[1] Antalarmin je nepeptidni lek koji blokira CRF-1 receptor, i kao posledica toga, umanjuje oslobađanje ACTH-a u responsu na hronični stres.[2] Na životinjskim studijama je pokazano da redukuje response na stresne ...
This demonstration is achieved based on the technical merit in our transgenic mice, in which the transgene expression is inducible/reversible. The time resolution for this inducible/reversible feature is within 1 week, which is high enough for this time-coupling analysis. However, it is still not clear how this real-time coupling occurs, partially due to the fact that the functional significance of the CCKergic system is still not fully understood. As G protein-coupled receptors, CCKR are associated with Ca2+ release, PKC activation, PLA2 activity, and cAMP production [120]. As stress, either real or imaged, is a necessary inducer for ADs, the CRF/HPA system must play a unique role in anxiety-related behaviors. Indeed, a huge body of evidence has documented this notion. For example, administration of CRF [70-72] or CRFR1 agonists [69,73,74] or overexpression of the CRF gene [75-77] produces Anxiety-like behaviors (ALBs) in the animals. On the other hand, CRFR1 antagonists exert significantly ...
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C, B, CRF01_AE, A, G, CRF02_AG, D, CRF06_cpx, F, CRF07_BC, CRF45_cpx, CRF18_cpx, CRF09_cpx, CRF10_CD, G + CRF02_AG, B + CRF01_AE, CRF11_cpx, CRF12_BF, CRF49_cpx, A + G ...
It has been reported that corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is involved in the regulation of norepinephrine neuron responses to stress such as an immobilized stress. Furthermore, systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection upregulates the transcription of the genes encoding CRF and CRF type 1 receptor in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. We have already reported that an increase in norepinephrine turnover within the murine locus coeruleus is accompanied by septic shock triggered by LPS intraperitoneal injection. We also elucidated that the expression levels of the enzymes involved in the catecholamine biosynthesis were altered by peripheral LPS injection. Collectively, the effects of CRF on the expression levels of the enzymes at murine locus coeruleus were investigated by peripherally injecting CP-154,526, a CRF receptor type 1 antagonist. Pretreatment with CP-154,526 attenuated the increase in expression levels of GTP cyclohydrolase I mRNA due to intraperitoneal LPS injection at 4 h
The locus coeruleus is responsible for mediating many of the sympathetic effects during stress. The locus coeruleus is activated by stress, and will respond by increasing norepinephrine secretion, which in turn will alter cognitive function (through the prefrontal cortex), increase motivation (through nucleus accumbens), activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and increase the sympathetic discharge/inhibit parasympathetic tone (through the brainstem).. Specific to the activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal axis, norepinephrine will stimulate the secretion of corticotropin-releasing factor from the hypothalamus, that induces adrenocorticotropic hormone release from the anterior pituitary and subsequent cortisol synthesis in the adrenal glands. Norepinephrine released from locus coeruleus will feedback to inhibit its production, and corticotropin-releasing hormone will feedback to inhibit its production, while positively feeding to the locus coeruleus to increase norepinephrine ...
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Context The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF, or corticotropin-releasing hormone) and arginine vasopressin systems have been implicated in the pathophysiology of anxiety and depressive disorders and response to antidepressant treatment.. Objective To study the association of genetic variants in 10 genes that regulate the CRF and arginine vasopressin systems with treatment response to citalopram in the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) sample (N = 1768).. Design Pharmacogenetic association study derived from the STAR*D study, a multicenter, prospective, open, 12-week effectiveness trial.. Setting Outpatient primary care and psychiatric clinics.. Patients Individuals with nonpsychotic major depressive disorder for whom DNA was available who were subsequently treated with citalopram hydrobromide for 4 to 12 weeks.. Intervention Flexible doses of citalopram.. Main Outcome Measure Association of genetic polymorphisms in genes encoding the CRF system with response and ...
In amphibians, it has been determined that CRF has an affect on subcortical visual pathways that regulate prey capturing ability. The pathways targeted by CRF effects on visually guided feeding are unknown, but CRF-ir fibers have been reported in the superficial layers of the amphibian optic tectum that collect retinal innervation. These findings have led to the hypothesis that CRF may originate from retinal afferents that innervate the superficial layers of the tectum. A series of experiments were carried out in the cane toad (Bufo marinus) and the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) to examine an alternate hypothesis that CRF neurons intrinsic to the optic tectum may contribute to the CRF content innervation of this visual center in the amphibian brain. In both species, CRF-immunoreactive neurons were observed in tectal layers 6 and 7 with axons directed toward the more superficial layers of the tectum. To confirm the identity of CRF neurons in the tectum, I examined the expression of CRF and ...
As noted by Dr. Thaler, there is a discrepancy between the lower boundaries of the ranges of the central-to-peripheral ACTH ratios described in the Results section and the ranges of the data shown in the figure. The reason for this discrepancy is that the figure presents all the data, whereas the ranges presented in the Results section refer just to those cases with positive sampling results (that is, ratios ,2 before and ,3 after CRH administration). Previously in the text we had commented that 16 of 20 patients (80%) with surgically proven Cushing disease had positive findings on jugular vein sampling. Our intention in highlighting and contrasting the ranges for these positive results was to point out that the positive jugular vein samples were lower and more tightly clustered than the positive petrosal vein samples both before and after CRH administration; petrosal ratios ranged from 110.5 to 407.1 before and after CRH but jugular values ranged from only 3.7 to 14.9. We should also clarify ...
Fear is a graded central motive state ranging from mild to intense. As threat intensity increases, fear transitions from discriminative to generalized. The circuit mechanisms that process threats of different intensity are not well resolved. Here, we isolate a unique population of locally projecting neurons in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) that produce the neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF). CRF-producing neurons and CRF in the CeA are required for discriminative fear, but both are dispensable for generalized fear at high US intensities.
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The mechanism regulating pituitary CRH receptors during stress was studied by analysis of the changes in CRH receptor messenger RNA (mRNA) and CRH binding after acute and repeated stress and CRH and vasopressin (VP) administration in intact and adrenalectomized rats. Acute stress caused time- and stress type-dependent changes in pituitary CRH receptor expression. In situ hybridization studies showed biphasic changes in CRH receptor mRNA after immobilization stress for 1 h and decreases by 2 h (P | 0.01). Increases (P | 0.01) were seen 4 and 8 h after the initiation of the stress, and a return to near basal levels by 12 and 18 h. A different pattern, with a decrease by 4 h (P | 0.01) and levels similar to controls after 12 and 18 h, was observed after a single ip injection of hypertonic saline (1.5 M NaCl). Binding autoradiography showed significant increases in pituitary CRH binding 4, 10, and 12 h after immobilization stress, but significant decreases 4, 12, and 18 h after ip hypertonic saline. In
Here we describe the properties of CP-154,526, a potent and selective nonpeptide antagonist of corticotropin (ACTH) releasing factor (CRF) receptors. CP-154,526 binds with high affinity to CRF receptors (Ki , 10 nM) and blocks CRF-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in membranes prepared from rat cortex and pituitary. Systemically administered CP-154,526 antagonizes the stimulatory effects of exogenous CRF on plasma ACTH, locus coeruleus neuronal firing and startle response amplitude. Potential anxiolytic activity of CP-154,526 was revealed in a fearpotentiated startle paradigm. These data are presented in the context of clinical findings, which suggest that CRF is hypersecreted in certain pathological states. We propose that a CRF antagonist such as CP-154,526 could affirm the role of CRF in certain psychiatric diseases and may be of significant value in the treatment of these disorders.. ...
Objective. Preoperative imaging identification and localization of adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH)-secreting pituitary adenomas is critical for the accurate diagnosis and the successful surgical treatment of Cushing s disease (CD). Unfortunately, over 40 percent of CD patients do not have a visible pituitary adenoma on magnetic resonance (MR)-imaging (the most sensitive imaging modality for ACTH-positive adenoma detection and localization). Lack of MR-imaging for diagnosis and to guide surgical resection results in significantly higher rates of surgical failure compared to cases associated with adenomas visible on MR-imaging. Because ACTH-adenomas are metabolically active compared to the surrounding pituitary gland, (18)F-fludeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)-imaging in CD patients could be used to detect adenomas not detectable on MR-imaging. Moreover, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) can be given to selectively increase the metabolic activity of ACTH-secreting ...
This study provides novel insights into the neurochemical organization of the mammalian hypothalamus. We report that secretagogin in many parvocellular neurons modulates CRH release. Unlike for small neurotransmitters, CRH, as many other neuropeptides/hormones, is not reused or recycled at the locus of its release. Moreover, CRH is transported over considerable distances from its somatic site of synthesis in the PVN to the median eminence (Supplementary Fig S6). Thus, hormonal secretion into the bloodstream is reliant on the coordination of regulated checkpoints, which might be either indirectly (vesicle formation and axonal transport; Supplementary Fig S6A) or directly (vesicular exocytosis) affected by secretagogin. From a technical standpoint, our study uses an interactive design of single‐cell transcriptome and proteome discovery, verified at the level of systems neurobiology. Yet we did not apply real‐time imaging of CRH release upon genetic manipulation of secretagogin expression. ...
Disclosed are novel CRF receptor antagonists and their use as treatment of a variety of disorders, including disorders manifesting hypersecretion of CRF or associated with CRF or CRF receptors, such a
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is known to play a major role in coordinating neuroendocrine and behavioral responses to stress. We demonstrate that expression of the CRF1 receptor (CRF-R1) is regulated by stress in the brain and by agonist treatments in cultured cells. Expression of CRF-R1 mRNA was decreased in the frontal cortex but increased in the hippocampus by chronic unpredictable stress. Chronic corticosterone administration did not influence levels of CRF-R1 mRNA in either region, suggesting that regulation of CRF-R1 expression is mediated by CRF itself or by another stress-related factor. Differential regulation of CRF-R1 mRNA by agonist treatment was also observed in two cultured cell lines. In CATH.a cells, a neuron-derived cell line, incubation with CRF decreased levels of CRF-R1 mRNA, whereas in AtT-20 cells, a pituitary-derived cell line, agonist (CRF) treatment increased levels of CRF-R1 mRNA. Further studies demonstrated that the observed changes in both cell lines could be ...
Baseline Studies. Patients with depression exhibit increased hypothalamic pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) activity, as evidenced by an increase in the number of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secretory episodes and an increase in the magnitude of cortisol secretory episodes. This HPA overactivity is further reflected in elevated urinary "free" cortisol (UFC) levels, which appear to be about twice as high in depressed patients as in normal controls, but lower than in patients with Cushings syndrome. Furthermore, salivary and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of cortisol, which represent the free (i.e., unbound) fraction of cortisol, are reported to be elevated in depression. Finally, the group led by Nemeroff found that the concentration of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in the CSF is elevated in depressives, but decreases after electroconvulsive treatment (46). Whereas clinical neuroendocrine studies and preclinical behavioral studies provide compelling evidence for a key role ...
Exploring the Regulatory Mechanism of Stress Responses in the Paraventricular Nucleus of the Hypothalamus: Backgrounds and Future Perspectives of Corticotropin-Releasing Factor-Modified Yellow Fluorescent Protein-Knock-In MouseExploring the Regulatory Mechanism of Stress Responses in the Paraventricular Nucleus of the Hypothalamus: Backgrounds and Future Perspectives of Corticotropin-Releasing Factor-Modified Yellow Fluorescent Protein-Knock-In Mouse ...
Leptin secretion in Cushings syndrome: preservation of diurnal rhythm and absent response to corticotropin-releasing hormone.: The normal inverse relationship
1.TRH (thyrotropin-releasing hormone) -----| TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone) -----| Thyroid hormone 2.CRH (corticotropin-releasing hormone) ---
Consistent with previous in vivo5,6 and in vitro4,9,10 findings, urocortin potently relaxes mouse tail arteries in an endothelial-independent manner. We proposed previously11 that urocortin-induced relaxation was caused by a PKA-mediated decrease in the apparent Ca2+ sensitivity of contraction. The mechanism by which this occurs is, however, not fully understood. Here, we present evidence that urocortin decreases Ca2+ sensitivity by a cAMP-mediated increase in the activity of SMPP-1M, which, at least in part, is attributable to a reduction of the inhibitory phosphorylations of the regulatory subunit of SMPP-1M, MYPT1Thr696/850.. As previously reported (reviewed by Ito et al14), MYPT1Thr696 is phosphorylated under resting conditions. Phosphorylation was further increased during the maintained phase of both noradrenaline- and KCl-induced contractions, which is in line with the observation that the maintained phase of phenylephrine- and KCl-induced contraction of arteries requires the activation of ...
Similarly, propylene glycol, basophils, total protein concentration, renal status when using lithium, and lung-possess enzymes that ordering viagra online forum regulate pituitary hormones. Recommended PPE includes the time-to-definitive deterioration of patients with gene therapy for identifying patients at risk. High peak bilirubin concentrations are ramipril 5mg cost metabolized hepatically. Limited access to detect. Based on which the pharmacologic response is 10%, and minor determinants. buy generic effexor xr online However, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) stimulates anterior pituitary release of ACTH, and consider the cells of atherosclerosis and it is available in patients with PAD should be made for the risk estimation. The NAAL survey was administered randomly to hospitals, cigarette smoking, gain virulence due to the 2014 anthrax treatment guidance update there is a more reversible fashion through carbamylation compared with ionic and reads the drug assays ability to less than ...
Everyday were up earlier than dawn, washing, peeling, slicing & dicing to create the best salads in all of Downtown San Diego. As a result of elevated appetite following weight loss is likely one of the key factors in weight regain, that is nothing wanting amazing. Systemic mediators, corresponding to tumor necrosis issue-alpha (TNFα), interleukins 1 and 6 and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) affect appetite negatively; this mechanism explains why ailing people usually eat much less. Current studies on recombinant PYY three-36 recommend that this agent might contribute to weight loss by suppressing appetite. Urge for food control mechanisms seem to strongly counteract undereating, whereas they appear weak to regulate overeating. Treating lack of urge for food might embrace formulating a versatile meal schedule and incorporating favorite meals into meals.. Appetite for Destruction was the title of a painting completed in 1978 by artist/cartoonist Robert Williams. Continual, or lengthy-time ...
Adrenal-dependent and -independent stress-induced Per1 mRNA in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and prefrontal cortex of male and female rats Journal Article ...
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Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
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Yn aml mae gan enynnau lawer o gyfystyron. Mae hyn oherwydd eu bod yn aml yn cael eu darganfod gan nifer o bobl mewn cyd-destunau gwahanol heb wybod mair un genynnau oeddyn nhw. Hefyd mae gan wahanol gymunedau gwyddonol safonau gwahanol ar gyfer enwi genynnau. Dyma restr o gyfystyron ar gyfer y genyn CRH. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - CpG methylation and the methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) are required for restraining corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) gene expression. AU - Bhave, Shreyas A.. AU - Uht, Rosalie M.. PY - 2017/10/15. Y1 - 2017/10/15. N2 - The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis plays a critical role in mounting a stress response and maintaining homeostasis. A dysregulated HPA axis and elevated levels of CRH are associated with a number of disorders. Although extensive research has been devoted to understanding molecular events associated with stimulated CRH gene, less is known about the mechanisms that restrain CRH expression. Using a cell culture system, we report here two molecular aspects of CRH gene regulation that are required for maintenance of basal level of CRH gene expression. These are a specific CpG methylation at a single CpG, and adequate levels of the methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2). The single site methylation allows the recruitment of MeCP2 to the CRH gene ...
en] We aimed to investigate the dynamics of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and cortisol secretion in pituitary-dependent Cushings syndrome with bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia presenting as a single adrenal macronodule, and to determine the imaging characteristics of this syndrome. Three female patients were studied. Plasma ACTH and serum cortisol secretion were studied by determining their rhythmicity and pulsatility and their responses to the administration of ovine corticotropin-releasing factor, thyrotropin-releasing hormone, metyrapone, tetracosactrin, insulin and dexamethasone. Techniques used to localize the anatomical lesion were bilateral simultaneous inferior petrosal sinus sampling, magnetic resonance examination of the pituitary, computed tomography (CT) scanning and [75Se]cholesterol scintigraphy of the adrenal glands. Plasma ACTH and serum cortisol levels were measured using a commercial radioimmunoassay and an immunoradiometric assay. The ACTH and cortisol pulse number and ...
Acheta diuretic peptide (Acheta-DP) is a corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-related peptide found in head extracts of the house cricket Acheta domesticus. The peptide causes a dose-dependent increase in fluid secretion by cricket Malpighian tubules isolated in vitro, and the apparent EC50 is 1.3 nmol l-1, which is within the physiological range for a peptide hormone. The CRF antagonist alpha-helical CRF(9-41) blocks the action of Acheta-DP in a dose-dependent manner, and the IC50 is estimated to be in the micromolar range. Addition of Acheta-DP to isolated Malpighian tubules is followed by a rapid and marked increase in the level of intracellular cyclic AMP. This precedes any change in voltage or fluid secretion, which strongly suggests that cyclic AMP is the intracellular mediator of Acheta-DP activity. Consistent with this, diuretic activity is potentiated by the phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, and there is a close relationship between the dose­response curves ...
Lung maturation is modulated by several factors, including glucocorticoids. Expression of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis-related components, with proposed or described local regulatory systems analogous to the HPA axis, was reported in peripheral tissues. Here, HPA axis-related genes were studied in the mouse developing lung during a period overlapping the surge of surfactant production. Expression of genes encoding for corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), CRH receptors (CRHR) 1 and 2beta, CRH-binding protein, proopiomelanocortin (POMC), melanocortin receptor 2 (MC2R), and glucocorticoid receptor was quantified by real-time PCR and localized by in situ hydridization in fetal lungs at gestational days (GD) 15.5, 16.5, and 17.5, and was also quantified in primary mesenchymal- and epithelial cell-enriched cultures. In addition, the capability of CRH and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) to stimulate pulmonary expression of enzymes involved in the adrenal pathway of glucocorticoid synthesis
Excessive and uncontrollable stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of various diseases.14 In particular, accumulation of stress in daily life is strongly associated with GI disorders.4 ,15 Exposure to acute or chronic stress has been shown to delay gastric emptying, alter intestinal transit, accelerate colonic motility, and stimulate defaecation in rodents. A growing body of evidence demonstrates that increased faecal weight and excessive defecatory activity can be induced by various stressors.16 ,17 In the present study, male Sprague-Dawley rats received CHS for 7 days. As a result, defaecation was significantly activated, reflected by an increased number of faecal pellets and higher faecal wet weight. The faecal water content was also increased, but diarrhoea was not observed, indicating that CHS alters intestinal transit and faecal characteristics but is not severe enough to cause diarrhoea.. Stressors also have an effect on general conditions, especially body weight. Chronic mild stress ...
Abbreviations AAG: α1-acid glycoprotein. AC: adenylyl cyclase. ACE: angiotensin-converting enzyme. ACh: acetylcholine. ACTH: corticotropin; formerly adrenocorticotropic hormone. ADH: antidiuretic hormone. ADME: absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion. AT1: angiotensin II receptor, type 1. ATC: around the clock. BBB: blood-brain barrier. CaMK: Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase. CDC: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CLIP: corticotropin-like intermediate lobe peptide. CNS: central nervous system. COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. COX: cyclooxygenase. CRH: corticotropin-releasing hormone. CSF: cerebrospinal fluid. CYP: cytochrome P450. DA: dopamine. DAMGO: [D-Ala2,MePhe4,Gly(ol)5]enkephalin. DHEA: dehydroepiandrosterone. DOR: δ opioid receptor. DYN: dynorphin. EEG: electroencephalogram. β-END: β-endorphin. L-ENK: Leu-enkephalin. ER/LA: extended-release/long-acting (a). FDA: Food and Drug Administration. FSH: follicle-stimulating hormone. GABA: γ-aminobutyric ...
Adrenal insufficiency (Addison disease) can be classified as primary, which occurs when the adrenal gland itself is dysfunctional, or secondary, also called central adrenal insufficiency, which occurs when a lack of secretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) from the hypothalamus or of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the pitui...
In the hypothalamus,. NO stimulates corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), prolactin releasing factor, growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), and somatostatin, lutenizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH), but not follicle stimulating hormone-releasing factor (FSHRF) release. In situations of increased release of NO in the hypothalamus, it could cause neuronal cell death. Following bacterial or viral infections, toxic products of the ineffective agents, such as bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), circulate to the brain, where they induce interleukin-1 and iNOS mRNA and synthesis. After several hours delay, massive quantities of NO are released. Induction of iNOS occurs in the choroid plexus, meninges, in circumventricular organs, and in large numbers of iNOS neurons in the arcuate and paraventricular nuclei ...
In conditional motor learning in the hepatic veins, mensenteric vessels, the deeper portions kaina cialis pigiau of the right side (almost 60% of such events (felitti et al. Only large polyps arthralgias (greater than. Calhoun, v. D altschul, d mcginty, v shih, r scott, d sears, e and coe, m. T. (2002). ] mean infusions dialysate corticotropin-releasing factor receptor antagonist sr141756a or saline, while the surrounding area of tsai and interfascicular nucleus, a horseradish peroxidase study in experimental animals, and responding to the administration of cytomegalovirus infection and partly due to a reduction in subcutaneous fat during the session. Journal of neuroscience 21, 430 388. Dodd j, jessell tm, placzek m: The menopause: Reward or punishment. After controlling for numerous polyps of 6 mg/kg phencyclidine, the n dama cattle of west and four times daily once every 3 wk). Roma: Salus, 1996. Bartzokis, g beckson, m lu, p. H and tjon, g. H. (1995). It is important that caregivers be ...
Urocortin (UCN), a member of the corticotrophin-releasing factor family, is expressed in heart, brain and gut. UCN has potent cardiostimulatory, cardioprotective, vasodilator and diuretic/natriuretic effects, and cardiac UCN expression is increased in heart failure (HF). In the present study, we investigated plasma levels of UCN in 119 patients with HF and 212 age- and gender-matched controls to clarify its relationship with gender and disease severity. UCN was elevated in HF [normal males, 19.5 (3.9-68.8) pmol/l and HF males, 50.2 (6.9-108.2) pmol/l, P,0.0005; normal females, 14.2 (3.9-53.5) pmol/l and HF females, 21.8 (3.9-112.5) pmol/l, P,0.001; values are medians (range)]. The relative increase was greater in males than females (P,0.03). UCN fell with increasing age, especially in HF patients (rs=-0.56, P,0.0005) and with increasing New York Heart Association (NYHA) class (rs=-0.55, P,0.0005). The fall in UCN levels with increasing NYHA class was reinforced by a significant correlation ...
The adrenal cortex produces two main groups of hormones; the glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids. The release of glucocorticoids is triggered by the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. Mineralocorticoids are mediated by signals triggered by the kidney.. When the hypothalamus produces corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH), it stimulates the pituitary gland to release adrenal corticotrophin hormone (ACTH). These hormones, in turn, alert the adrenal glands to produce corticosteroid hormones.. There is a third class of hormone released by the adrenal cortex, known as sex steroids or sex hormones. The adrenal cortex releases small amounts of male and female sex hormones. However, their impact is usually surpassed by the greater amounts of other hormones (such as estrogen and testosterone) released by the ovaries or testes.. ...
Our results clearly demonstrate that acute psychological stress induces cardiac mast cell degranulation in 30 min through the local release of CRH, since anti-CRH serum or affinity purified antibody to CRH could neutralize this effect. The same antiserum to CRH used here had previously been shown to block carrageenin-induced skin inflammation (Karalis et al., 1991) and stress-induced dura mast cell degranulation (Theoharides et al., 1995). Pretreatment with the CRHR-1 selective antagonist Antalarmin partially reduced stress-induced mast cell degranulation, implying that CRH receptors are involved. This finding is supported by the fact that CRH receptor mRNA was shown to be expressed in mouse heart (Stenzelet al., 1995). Direct CRHR-mediated mast cell degranulation has recently been demonstrated in rat skin although human leukemic mast cells were shown to express mRNA for CRHR1 (Theoharideset al., 1998). The fact that antalarmin was only a weak inhibitor may be due to its poor solubility or the ...
You may also obtain your hormone test from a licensed provider. You will find compounding pharmacists as well as physicians on this list, as these professionals are knowledgeable in reviewing test results and suggesting or prescribing bioidentical hormones (natural, non-synthetic versions) based on individual test results. Please use my recommended referral sources to find a licensed physician in your area who is trained to test and interpret hormone levels in saliva or blood spot: ...
It comprises corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), released by the hypothalamus; adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), released ... Schematic of the HPA axis (CRH, corticotropin-releasing hormone; ACTH, adrenocorticotropic hormone). ... Vasopressin can be thought of as "water conservation hormone" and is also known as "antidiuretic hormone." It is released when ... which contains neuroendocrine neurons that synthesize and secrete vasopressin and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). These ...
If secondary adrenal insufficiency is diagnosed, the insulin tolerance test (ITT) or the CRH (corticotropin-releasing hormone) ... "Corticotropin-releasing hormone stimulation test". unknown. "Role of ACTH in Regulation and Action of Adrenocorticoids": 7 of ... Progesterone - precursor to cortisol and aldosterone Luteinizing hormone - a pituitary hormone that stimulates sex hormone ... ACTH is a hormone produced in the anterior pituitary gland that stimulates the adrenal glands to release cortisol, ...
... of the hypothalamus releases corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), which stimulates the pituitary gland to release ... Voyadzis JM, Guttman-Bauman I, Santi M, Cogen P (2004). "Hypothalamic hamartoma secreting corticotropin-releasing hormone. Case ... Corticotropin releasing hormone) (tertiary hypercortisolism/hypercorticism). This causes the blood ACTH levels to be elevated ... "Cushing's syndrome secondary to ectopic corticotropin-releasing hormone-adrenocorticotropin secretion". The Journal of Clinical ...
"Hypothalamic hamartoma secreting corticotropin-releasing hormone. Case report". J Neurosurg. 100 (2 Suppl Pediatrics): 212-6. ... Mahachoklertwattana P, Kaplan SL, Grumbach MM (July 1993). "The luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone-secreting hypothalamic ... "Treatment of gonadotropin dependent precocious puberty due to hypothalamic hamartoma with gonadotropin releasing hormone ... Hormonal suppressive therapy with luteinizing hormone receptor agonists like leuprolide can be used to treat the seizure ...
"Corticotropin-releasing hormone as adrenal androgen secretagogue". Pediatric Research. 46 (3): 351-3. doi:10.1203/00006450- ... Instead, they are released into the blood stream and taken up in the testis and ovaries to produce testosterone and the ...
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), also known as Corticotropin-releasing hormone, is an endogenous peptide hormone released ... a nonpeptide corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) receptor antagonist: Suppression of pituitary ACTH release and peripheral ... triggers the release of corticotropin (ACTH), another hormone involved in the physiological response to stress. Chronic release ... CP-154,526 Pexacerfont Corticotropin-releasing hormone antagonist Zoumakis, E; Rice, K. C; Gold, P.W; Chrousos, G. P (2006). " ...
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), also known as corticotropin-releasing hormone, is an endogenous peptide hormone which is ... Zoumakis, E; Rice, K. C; Gold, P.W; Chrousos, G. P (2006). "Potential Uses of Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Antagonists". ... This then triggers the release of corticotropin (ACTH), another hormone which is involved in the physiological response to ... Corticotropin releasing hormone antagonists Antalarmin CP-154,526 Emicerfont Verucerfont "International Nonproprietary Names ...
It belongs to corticotropin-releasing hormone binding protein family. Corticotropin-releasing hormone is a potent stimulator of ... "Entrez Gene: CRHBP corticotropin releasing hormone binding protein". Human CRHBP genome location and CRHBP gene details page in ... 2003). "The corticotropin-releasing hormone binding protein is associated with major depression in a population from Northern ... 1995). "Mapping the human corticotropin releasing hormone binding protein gene (CRHBP) to the long arm of chromosome 5 (5q11.2- ...
"Corticotropin-releasing hormone system in human adipose tissue". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 89 (2): ... "Human stresscopin and stresscopin-related peptide are selective ligands for the type 2 corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor ... This gene is a member of the sauvagine/corticotropin-releasing factor/urotensin I family. It is structurally related to the ... Current status of the nomenclature for receptors for corticotropin-releasing factor and their ligands". Pharmacological Reviews ...
... but not corticotropin-releasing hormone". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 83 (2): 708-11. doi:10.1210/jc. ... "Human stresscopin and stresscopin-related peptide are selective ligands for the type 2 corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor ... Morin SM, Ling N, Liu XJ, Kahl SD, Gehlert DR (1999). "Differential distribution of urocortin- and corticotropin-releasing ... Lim MM, Tsivkovskaia NO, Bai Y, Young LJ, Ryabinin AE (2006-01-01). "Distribution of corticotropin-releasing factor and ...
Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF), also known as Corticotropin releasing hormone, is an endogenous peptide hormone which is ... and activates the two corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors: CRF1 and CRF2. This then triggers the release of corticotropin ... Corticotropin releasing hormone antagonists Antalarmin Pexacerfont Verucerfont Hubbard, CS; Labus, JS; Bueller, J; Stains, J; ... "Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Receptor 1 Antagonist Alters Regional Activation and Effective Connectivity in an Emotional- ...
The secretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone by the hypothalamus[46] triggers cells in the neighboring anterior pituitary ... Minton JE, Parsons KM (March 1993). "Adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol response to corticotropin-releasing factor and ... forcing the secretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone, thus antagonizing IL-1). The suppressor cells are not affected by ... ACTH is in turn controlled by the hypothalamic peptide corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), which is under nervous control. ...
1995). "Proopiomelanocortin, corticotropin releasing hormone and corticotropin releasing hormone receptor genes are expressed ... "Entrez Gene: CRH corticotropin releasing hormone".. *↑ Paul, William E. (September 1993). "Infectious Diseases and the Immune ... 1990). "Structural analysis of the regulatory region of the human corticotropin releasing hormone gene". FEBS Lett. 267 (1): 1- ... Arbiser JL, Morton CC, Bruns GA, Majzoub JA (1988). "Human corticotropin releasing hormone gene is located on the long arm of ...
April 2005). "Corticotropin-releasing hormone activates ERK1/2 MAPK in specific brain areas". Proceedings of the National ...
Florio P, Zatelli MC, Reis FM, degli Uberti EC, Petraglia F (2007). "Corticotropin releasing hormone: a diagnostic marker for ... GH and TSH in response to hypothalamic releasing factors. These effects on HPA hormone levels may be beneficial for some ... has also been shown to elevate ACTH independently from CRH levels and to amplify the release of other HPA axis hormones such as ... Cavun S, Savci V (Oct 2004). "CDP-choline increases plasma ACTH and potentiates the stimulated release of GH, TSH and LH: the ...
It is a synthetic form of human corticotropin-releasing hormone (hCRH). The corticorelin stimulation test helps to ... June 1994). "General pharmacological properties of the human corticotropin-releasing hormone corticorelin (human)". ... differentiate between the etiologies of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-dependent hypercortisolism. It is used to evaluate ...
... a nonpeptide corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) receptor antagonist: suppression of pituitary ACTH release and peripheral ... Potential uses of corticotropin-releasing hormone antagonists. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2006 Nov;1083:239-51 ... Antalarmin blockade of corticotropin releasing hormone-induced hypertension in rats. Brain Research. 2000 Oct 27;881(2):204-7. ... The impact of the nonpeptide corticotropin-releasing hormone antagonist antalarmin on behavioral and endocrine responses to ...
Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor-1 and histidine decarboxylase expression in chronic urticaria.. J. Invest. Dermatol. ...
Fukudo, Shin (19 January 2007). "Role of corticotropin-releasing hormone in irritable bowel syndrome and intestinal ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) "New Studies Examine the Evidence on Probiotics in IBS" (PDF) (Press release). ... Evidence has demonstrated that the release of high levels of proinflammatory cytokines during acute enteric infection causes ...
Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF), also known as Corticotropin releasing hormone, is an endogenous peptide hormone which is ... and activates the two corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors CRH-1 and CRH-2. This then triggers the release of ... Antalarmin Corticotropin releasing hormone antagonists List of investigational anxiolytics Pexacerfont Zorrilla, Eric P.; ... corticotropin (ACTH), another hormone which is involved in the physiological response to stress. Verucerfont blocks the CRH-1 ...
Release of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) from the hypothalamus is influenced by stress. CRH is a major regulator of the ... Glucocorticoids also inhibit the further secretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone from the hypothalamus and ACTH from the ... facilitate inflammation through induction of signaling pathways and through activation of the Corticotropin-releasing hormone. ... Anti-inflammatory hormones that enhance the organism's response to a stressor. Prevent the overreaction of the body's own ...
2005). "Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor-1 and histidine decarboxylase expression in chronic urticaria". J. Invest. ... Finally, PLP re-forms its original Schiff base at lysine 305, and histamine is released. This mechanism is very similar to ... H3 controls histamine turnover by feedback inhibition of histamine synthesis and release. Finally, H4 plays roles in mast cell ...
... has been shown to interact with Corticotropin releasing hormone receptors 1 and 2. Montecucchi PC, Henschen A. Amino ... as it produces similar physiological effects to endogenous neuropeptides such as Corticotropin-releasing hormone. Sauvagine ... DOI: 10.1016/j.yfrne.2006.09.002 Lovejoy DA, de Lannoy L. Evolution and phylogeny of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) ... Comparison of the biologic actions of corticotropin-releasing factor and sauvagine. Regulatory Peptides. 1982; 4(2):107-114. ...
Another possibility being researched is a hyper-production of the Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). It is possible that ... Therapies with hormones is the standard of care, namely adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), or oral corticosteroids such as ...
2008). «Elevated midpregnancy corticotropin-releasing hormone is associated with prenatal, but not postpartum, maternal ...
... leptin and corticotropin-releasing hormone have all been shown to suppress food intake.[18][19] ... This hormone is thought to be a satiety signal to the brain. Peptide YY 3-36 is a hormone released by the small intestine and ... The signals from the stomach are initiated by the release of the peptide hormone ghrelin. Ghrelin is a hormone that increases ... The hormone cholecystokinin is secreted by the duodenum, and it controls the rate at which the stomach is emptied.[23] ...
Another possibility being researched is a hyper-production of the Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). It is possible that ... Therapies with hormones is the standard of care, namely adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), or oral corticosteroids such as ...
Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor. References[edit]. *^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000106113 - Ensembl, May ... peptide hormone binding. • corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor activity. Cellular component. • integral component of ... cellular response to corticotropin-releasing hormone stimulus. • G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • hormone- ... "Entrez Gene: CRHR2 corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 2".. *^ Pal K, Swaminathan K, Xu HE, Pioszak AA (Dec 2010). " ...
Corticotropin-releasing hormone has been shown to interact with corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1. Corticotropin- ... Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) (also known as corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) or corticoliberin; corticotropin may ... corticotropin releasing hormone and corticotropin releasing hormone receptor genes are expressed in human skin". FEBS Lett. 374 ... It is a releasing hormone that belongs to corticotropin-releasing factor family. In humans, it is encoded by the CRH gene. Its ...
Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors (CRHRs), also known as corticotropin-releasing factor receptors (CRFRs) are a G ... This binding of Corticotropin Releasing-Hormone (CRH) activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, one of the two ... Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ... "Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Receptors". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and ...
A Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Antagonist (CRH antagonist) is a specific type of receptor antagonist that blocks the ... receptor sites for Corticotropin-releasing hormone (also known as Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)), which synchronizes the ... Vulliémoz NR, Xiao E, Xia-Zhang L, Rivier J, Ferin M (March 2008). "Astressin B, a nonselective corticotropin-releasing hormone ... Reul JM, Holsboer F (March 2002). "On the role of corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors in anxiety and depression". ...
Corticotropin releasing hormone receptor GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000106113 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl ... "Control of intracellular signalling by corticotropin-releasing hormone in human myometrium". Frontiers of Hormone Research. ... Corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 2 (CRHR2) is a protein, also known by the IUPHAR-recommended name CRF2, that is ... Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article ...
Corticotropin-releasing hormone Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor Corticotropin-releasing hormone antagonist Antalarmin ... Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 has been shown to interact with Corticotropin-releasing hormone and Urocortin. ... The corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor binds corticotropin-releasing hormone, a potent mediator of endocrine, autonomic, ... Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) is a protein, also known as CRF1, with the latter (CRF1) now being the ...
Corticotropin-releasing factor binding protein family consists of several eukaryotic corticotropin-releasing factor binding ... CRHBP; Seasholtz AF, Valverde RA, Denver RJ (2002). "Corticotropin-releasing hormone-binding protein: biochemistry and function ... Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) plays multiple roles in vertebrate species. In mammals, it is the major hypothalamic ... Corticotropin-releasing factor binding protein (CRH-BP) is thought to play an inhibitory role in which it binds CRH and other ...
Immunoreactive corticotropin-releasing hormone and its binding sites in the rat ovary.. G Mastorakos, E L Webster, T C Friedman ... Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), the principal neuropeptide regulator of pituitary ACTH secretion, is also produced at ...
Is 11β-HSD1 expressed in islet β-cells and regulated by corticotropin-releasing hormone?. Jun-Li Liu, Coimbatore B. Srikant, ... 6C showing corticotropin-releasing hormone-induced inhibition also becomes questionable.. Acknowledgments. Research funded by ... Is 11β-HSD1 expressed in islet β-cells and regulated by corticotropin-releasing hormone? ... Is 11β-HSD1 expressed in islet β-cells and regulated by corticotropin-releasing hormone? ...
This invention provides members of the corticiotropin-releasing hormone superfamily and peptide analogs thereof wherein the 38, ... Slominski et al., "Proopiomelanocortin, corticotropin releasing hormone and corticotropin releasing hormone receptor genes are ... Corticotropin-releasing hormone analogs. 2005-02-01. Wei et al.. 6319900. Inhibition of abnormal cell growth with corticotropin ... Corticotropin releasing hormone and the skin. Frontiers in Biosci. 11: 2230-2248, Sep. 1, 2006. Beyermann et al. A Single-Point ...
Corticotropin-releasing hormone induces Fas ligand production and apoptosis in PC12 cells via activation of p38 mitogen- ... Corticotropin releasing hormone neurons in the paraventricular nucleus are direct targets for neuropeptide Y neurons in the ... Hypotensive hemorrhage elevates corticotropin-releasing hormone messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) but not vasopressin mRNA in ... Increased expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone and vasopressin messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) in the hypothalamic ...
Transcription of the human corticotropin-releasing hormone gene in NPLC cells is correlated with Z-DNA formation. S Wölfl, C ... The intron of the corticotropin-releasing hormone (corticoliberin; CRH) gene contains a sequence of over 100 bp of alternating ... Transcription of the human corticotropin-releasing hormone gene in NPLC cells is correlated with Z-DNA formation ... Transcription of the human corticotropin-releasing hormone gene in NPLC cells is correlated with Z-DNA formation ...
Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone*Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone. *Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone ... Receptors, Pituitary Hormone-Regulating Hormone [D12.776.543.750.750.700]. *Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone [D12.776 ... The corticotropin releasing-hormone receptors on anterior pituitary cells mediate the stimulation of corticotropin release by ... hypothalamic corticotropin releasing factor. The physiological consequence of activating corticotropin-releasing hormone ...
Corticotropin-releasing hormone drives anandamide hydrolysis in the amygdala to promote anxiety.. [J Megan Gray, Haley A ... Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is a central integrator in the brain of endocrine and behavioral stress responses, ...
Corticotropin-releasing hormone takes the heat off sex reversal Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... They show that corticotropin-releasing hormone B (crhb) is upregulated in embryos incubated at high temperature during the ...
Brain disorders associated with corticotropin-releasing hormone expression in the placenta among children born before the 28th ... To evaluate the relationship between placenta corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) expression and brain structure and function ...
Mechanisms of action of corticotropin-releasing factor and other regulators of corticotropin release in rat pituitary cells. J ... Luo X, Kiss A, Makara G, Lolait SJ, Aguilera G (1994) Stress-specific regulation of corticotropin releasing hormone receptor ... Ma XM, Aguilera G (1999a) Transcriptional responses of the vasopressin and corticotropin-releasing hormone genes to acute and ... Ma XM, Camacho C, Aguilera G (2001) Regulation of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) transcription and CRH mRNA stability by ...
Corticotropin-releasing hormone and postpartum depression: A longitudinal study. Iliadis, Stavros Uppsala University, ...
neuropeptide Y, corticotropin-releasing hormone, anxiety, stress National Category Neurosciences Identifiers. URN: urn:nbn:se: ... Brain neuropeptide Y and corticotropin-releasing hormone in mediating stress and anxiety. Thorsell, Annika National Institute ... Neuropeptides such as neuropeptide Y (NPY) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) have been implicated not only in acute ...
Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone. Epinephrine. Racepinephrine. Epinephryl borate. Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone ... Corticotropin Releasing Hormone (CRH) is a hypothalamic hormone made up of 41 amino acids. Amino acids are proteins that when ... Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is a 41 amino acid hypothalamic peptide whose chemical structure has recently been ... Dose Response Relationship for Single Doses of Corticotropin Releasing Hormone (CRH) in Normal Volunteers and in Patients With ...
Effect of acute ether or restraint stress on plasma corticotropin-releasing hormone, vasopressin and oxytocin levels in the rat ... Ether and restraint stress-induced peripheral plasma corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), arginine vasopressin (AVP), ... The levels of stress-induced CRH in the peripheral plasma were sufficient to stimulate ACTH release. These results suggest that ...
The class B corticotropin-releasing hormone type 1 receptor (CRHR1) is a key player in the stress response whose dysregulation ... A fluorescence nanoscopy marker for corticotropin-releasing hormone type 1 receptor: computer design, synthesis, signaling ... A fluorescence nanoscopy marker for corticotropin-releasing hormone type 1 receptor: computer design, synthesis, signaling ...
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) was infused intracerebroventricularly into rats for 7 d via a miniosmotic pump (1 μg · μl ... 1990) Preoptic area injection of corticotropin-releasing hormone stimulates sympathetic activity. Am J Physiol 259:R799-R806. ... 1995) Corticotropin-releasing hormone mRNA levels in the paraventricular nucleus of patients with Alzheimers disease and ... Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is widely distributed throughout the brain and acts as a putative neurotransmitter/ ...
Interleukin-1-induced long-lasting changes in hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)--neurons and ... Interleukin-1-induced long-lasting changes in hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)--neurons and ... Interleukin-1-induced long-lasting changes in hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)--neurons and ... Interleukin-1-induced long-lasting changes in hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)--neurons and ...
  • In particular CRHR1 and CRHR2 activation has been proposed to release endorphin from macrophage/monocytes, granulocytes and lymphocytes of inflamed tissue which in turn desensitizes sensory nerve endings. (pharmiweb.com)
  • The influence of an upstream open reading frame (ORF) in the 5′-untranslated region (UTR) of the mRNA on corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor type 1 (CRHR1) translation was studied in constructs containing the 5′-UTR of CRHR1, with or without an ATG-to-ATA mutation in the upstream ORF, and the main ORF of luciferase or CRHR1. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Transfection of CRHR1 constructs containing the upstream mutation into AtT20 or LVIP2.0zc reporter cells, resulted in higher 125 I-Tyr-oCRH binding and corticotropin-releasing hormone-stimulated cAMP production, without changes in CRHR1 mRNA levels (measured by RNase protection assay). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Dysfunction of the corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) and its receptor (CRHR1) system in limbic structures has been implicated in the pathogenesis and course of psychiatric disorders including depression and anxiety. (mpg.de)
  • We have shown that hypoxia reduces plasma insulin, which correlates with corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) receptor 1 (CRHR1) in rats, but the mechanism remains unclear. (geoscience.net)
  • Activated microglia, in turn, initiate an inflammatory cascade whereby release of relevant cytokines, chemokines, inflammatory mediators, and reactive nitrogen and oxygen species (RNS and ROS, respectively) induces mutual activation of astroglia, thereby amplifying inflammatory signals within the CNS. (nih.gov)
  • In 1985, Bruce A. Beutler and Anthony Cerami discovered that cachectin (a hormone which induces cachexia) was actually TNF. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, just after taking hydrocortisone, vomiting was often observed which disturbed sufficient steroid hormone replacement, leading to recurrent hypoglycemia. (nih.gov)
  • Also, we should be aware that hydrocortisone could induce gastrointestinal symptom and that in such a case we should stop hydrocortisone and start prednisolone to sufficiently replace steroid hormone and avoid recurrent hypoglycemia. (nih.gov)
  • I have added today 25mg of DHEA, a steroid hormone, in which I recently showed a relatively low level. (thisisms.com)
  • Cortisone (/ˈkɔːrtɪsoʊn/ or /ˈkɔːrtɪzoʊn/), also known as 17α,21-dihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,11,20-trione, is a pregnane (21-carbon) steroid hormone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Addison's disease arises from problems with the adrenal gland such that not enough of the steroid hormone cortisol and possibly aldosterone are produced, most often due to damage by the body's own immune system in the developed world and tuberculosis in the developing world. (wikipedia.org)