A peptide derived from the cleavage of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE, found primarily in the INTERMEDIATE LOBE OF PITUITARY but also in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS of basal HYPOTHALAMUS. Its sequence is identical to the C-terminal 22-amino acids of ACTH or ACTH 18-39.
A 90-amino acid peptide derived from post-translational processing of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) in the PITUITARY GLAND and the HYPOTHALAMUS. It is the C-terminal fragment of POMC with lipid-mobilizing activities, such as LIPOLYSIS and steroidogenesis. Depending on the species and the tissue sites, beta-LPH may be further processed to yield active peptides including GAMMA-LIPOTROPIN; BETA-MSH; and ENDORPHINS.
A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.
A 30-kDa protein synthesized primarily in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND and the HYPOTHALAMUS. It is also found in the skin and other peripheral tissues. Depending on species and tissues, POMC is cleaved by PROHORMONE CONVERTASES yielding various active peptides including ACTH; BETA-LIPOTROPIN; ENDORPHINS; MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES; and others (GAMMA-LPH; CORTICOTROPIN-LIKE INTERMEDIATE LOBE PEPTIDE; N-terminal peptide of POMC or NPP).
The intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland. It shows considerable size variation among the species, small in humans, and large in amphibians and lower vertebrates. This lobe produces mainly MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES and other peptides from post-translational processing of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC).
An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).
Neuroendocrine cells in the INTERMEDIATE LOBE OF PITUITARY. They produce MELANOCYTE STIMULATING HORMONES and other peptides from the post-translational processing of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC).
Peptides with the ability to stimulate pigmented cells MELANOCYTES in mammals and MELANOPHORES in lower vertebrates. By stimulating the synthesis and distribution of MELANIN in these pigmented cells, they increase coloration of skin and other tissue. MSHs, derived from pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), are produced by MELANOTROPHS in the INTERMEDIATE LOBE OF PITUITARY; CORTICOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY, and the hypothalamic neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS OF HYPOTHALAMUS.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.
Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Structurally, they include polypeptide, protein, and glycoprotein molecules.
One of the three major groups of endogenous opioid peptides. They are large peptides derived from the PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN precursor. The known members of this group are alpha-, beta-, and gamma-endorphin. The term endorphin is also sometimes used to refer to all opioid peptides, but the narrower sense is used here; OPIOID PEPTIDES is used for the broader group.
Neural tissue of the pituitary gland, also known as the neurohypophysis. It consists of the distal AXONS of neurons that produce VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN in the SUPRAOPTIC NUCLEUS and the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS. These axons travel down through the MEDIAN EMINENCE, the hypothalamic infundibulum of the PITUITARY STALK, to the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland.
The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.
A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.
A stage of sleep characterized by rapid movements of the eye and low voltage fast pattern EEG. It is usually associated with dreaming.
The state of being deprived of sleep under experimental conditions, due to life events, or from a wide variety of pathophysiologic causes such as medication effect, chronic illness, psychiatric illness, or sleep disorder.
A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.
Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the metabolism, physiology, and disorders of the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM.
Simultaneous and continuous monitoring of several parameters during sleep to study normal and abnormal sleep. The study includes monitoring of brain waves, to assess sleep stages, and other physiological variables such as breathing, eye movements, and blood oxygen levels which exhibit a disrupted pattern with sleep disturbances.
Disorders characterized by impairment of the ability to initiate or maintain sleep. This may occur as a primary disorder or in association with another medical or psychiatric condition.
The attainment or process of attaining a new level of performance or quality.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
The measurement and recording of MOTOR ACTIVITY to assess rest/activity cycles.
Acquiring information from a patient on past medical conditions and treatments.
A 31-amino acid peptide that is the C-terminal fragment of BETA-LIPOTROPIN. It acts on OPIOID RECEPTORS and is an analgesic. Its first four amino acids at the N-terminal are identical to the tetrapeptide sequence of METHIONINE ENKEPHALIN and LEUCINE ENKEPHALIN.
Systematic and thorough inspection of the patient for physical signs of disease or abnormality.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
One of the endogenous pentapeptides with morphine-like activity. It differs from LEU-ENKEPHALIN by the amino acid METHIONINE in position 5. Its first four amino acid sequence is identical to the tetrapeptide sequence at the N-terminal of BETA-ENDORPHIN.
One of the three major families of endogenous opioid peptides. The enkephalins are pentapeptides that are widespread in the central and peripheral nervous systems and in the adrenal medulla.
Vesicles derived from the GOLGI APPARATUS containing material to be released at the cell surface.
Shortened forms of written words or phrases used for brevity.
One of the endogenous pentapeptides with morphine-like activity. It differs from MET-ENKEPHALIN in the LEUCINE at position 5. Its first four amino acid sequence is identical to the tetrapeptide sequence at the N-terminal of BETA-ENDORPHIN.
A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.
The study of the anatomical and functional relationships between the nervous system and the endocrine system.
A system of NEURONS that has the specialized function to produce and secrete HORMONES, and that constitutes, in whole or in part, an ENDOCRINE SYSTEM or organ.
Tumors whose cells possess secretory granules and originate from the neuroectoderm, i.e., the cells of the ectoblast or epiblast that program the neuroendocrine system. Common properties across most neuroendocrine tumors include ectopic hormone production (often via APUD CELLS), the presence of tumor-associated antigens, and isozyme composition.
A group of carcinomas which share a characteristic morphology, often being composed of clusters and trabecular sheets of round "blue cells", granular chromatin, and an attenuated rim of poorly demarcated cytoplasm. Neuroendocrine tumors include carcinoids, small ("oat") cell carcinomas, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, Merkel cell tumor, cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma, pancreatic islet cell tumors, and pheochromocytoma. Neurosecretory granules are found within the tumor cells. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)

In-source decay characteristics of peptides in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. (1/7)

In-source decay (ISD) of peptides, coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, has been examined to determine the influence of the matrix, the susceptibility of amino-acid residues to ISD, and the effect of extraction delay times. Out of nine di- and tri-hydroxybenzoic acids and three cinnamic derivatives tested, the most suitable matrix for ISD was 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid. The amine bond at Xxx-Gly and Xxx-Val residues was less susceptible than other amino-acid residues to ISD; however, the more sensitive residue(s) were not as clear. Using a peptide that gave the y(n)- and (z(n) + 2)-series product ions, it was confirmed that amide-bond cleavage (formation of the y(n)-series ions) accompanied metastable peaks, whereas metastable peaks were never observed with amine-bond cleavage [formation of the (z(n) + 2)-series ions]. Furthermore, abundant c(n)-series ions, which originate from amine-bond cleavage on the peptide backbone, were observed whenever a minimum delay time of 38 ns or continuous extraction was used to obtain spectra. These data indicate that amine-bond cleavage in ISD takes place on the ionization time scale before the energy randomization is completed.  (+info)

Differential effects of fasting and leptin on proopiomelanocortin peptides in the arcuate nucleus and in the nucleus of the solitary tract. (2/7)

The alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH), derived from proopiomelanocortin (POMC), is generated by a posttranslational processing mechanism involving the prohormone convertases (PCs) PC1/3 and PC2. In the brain, alpha-MSH is produced in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus and in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) of the medulla. This peptide is key in controlling energy balance, as judged by changes observed at transcriptional level. However, little information is available regarding the biosynthesis of the precursor POMC and the production of its processed peptides during feeding, fasting, and fasting plus leptin in the ARC compared with the NTS in conjunction with the PC activity. In this study we found that, in the ARC, pomc mRNA, POMC-derived peptides, and PC1/3 all decreased during fasting, and administration of leptin reversed these effects. In contrast, in the NTS, where there is a large amount of a 28.1-kDa peptide similar in size to POMC, the 28.1-kDa peptide and other POMC-derived peptides, including alpha-MSH, were further accumulated in fasting conditions, whereas pomc mRNA decreased. These changes were not reversed by leptin. We also observed that, during fasting, PC2 levels decreased in the NTS. These data suggest that, in the NTS, fasting induced changes in POMC biosynthesis, and processing is independent of leptin. These observations indicate that changes in energy status affect POMC in the brain in a tissue-specific manner. This represents a novel aspect in the regulation of energy balance and may have implications in the pathophysiology of obesity.  (+info)

Multiple feedback regulatory loops upon rat hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone secretion. Potential clinical implications. (3/7)

To examine whether the hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neuron is regulated by CRH, by products of the proopiomelanocortin (POMC) gene, and/or by glucocorticoids, we used a rat hypothalamic organ culture system in which rat CRH secretion from single explanted hypothalami was evaluated by an RIA (iCRH) specific for rat CRH. The effects of graded concentrations of ovine CRH (oCRH), adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH), beta-endorphin (beta-EP), alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH), corticotropin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP), ovine beta-lipotropin (ovine beta-LPH), and dexamethasone (DEX) upon unstimulated and serotonin- (5HT), acetylcholine- (ACh), and norepinephrine-(NE) stimulated CRH secretion were determined. oCRH and DEX inhibited unstimulated iCRH secretion with ID50 at the 10(-8) M range. ACTH had no detectable suppressive effect at 10(-8) M. oCRH, ACTH, and DEX inhibited 5HT-, ACh-, and NE-stimulated iCRH secretion in a dose-dependent fashion. beta-EP, alpha-MSH, and CLIP also inhibited 5HT-induced iCRH secretion. Of the latter peptides, the strongest inhibitor was beta-EP and the weakest was CLIP. Ovine beta-LPH had only a weak inhibitory effect on 5HT-induced iCRH secretion. Generally, the concentrations required for 50% suppression of neurotransmitter-stimulated iCRH secretion were significantly lower than those required for a similar suppression of unstimulated iCRH secretion. In conclusion, these data suggest the presence of multiple negative feedback loops involved in the regulation of the hypothalamic CRH neuron: an ultrashort CRH-mediated loop, a short, hypothalamic POMC-derived peptide loop, and a long, glucocorticoid-mediated negative feedback loop. The potency of these negative feedback loops may be determined by the state of activation of the CRH neuron.  (+info)

Characterization of pro-ACTH/endorphin-derived peptides in rat hypothalamus. (4/7)

The proteolytic processing pattern of pro-ACTH/endorphin in rat hypothalamus is similar to the pattern in the pars intermedia; peptides the size of beta-endorphin, gamma-lipotropin (gamma-LPH), corticotropin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP), alpha-melanotropin (gamma-MSH), joining peptide, and glycosylated gamma 3-MSH all represent predominant end products. Equimolar amounts of beta-endorphin-, alpha-MSH-, CLIP-, gamma-LPH-, and joining peptide-related immunoreactivity are found in hypothalamic extracts (approximately 3 pmol per hypothalamus). Although the proteolytic processing pattern in the hypothalamus is similar to that in the pars intermedia, a tissue-specific posttranslational processing pattern was detected. Ion-exchange analysis of beta-endorphin-sized immunoreactive material from hypothalamic extracts resolves three major forms, corresponding to beta-endorphin(1-31), beta-endorphin(1-27), and beta-endorphin(1-26). The alpha-N-acetylated forms of endorphin represent less than 10% of the total beta-endorphin immunoreactivity. Analyses of hypothalamic alpha-MSH-sized molecules with acetyl- and amide-directed alpha-MSH antisera suggest that hypothalamic alpha-MSH is fully amidated, but largely not alpha-N-acetylated. Fractionation by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) confirms that greater than 85% of the alpha-MSH immunoreactivity corresponds to ACTH(1-13)NH2 or its sulfoxide, and less than 10% corresponds to alpha-MSH [alpha-N-acetyl-ACTH(1-13)NH2] or its sulfoxide. Isoelectric focusing demonstrates that 83-93% of hypothalamic CLIP is phosphorylated. Isoelectric focusing suggests that the majority of the hypothalamic gamma-LPH-sized immunoreactive material is indistinguishable from gamma-LPH synthesized by pituitary melanotropes. The minor extent of alpha-N-acetylation of alpha-MSH and beta-endorphin, the limited carboxyl-terminal proteolysis of beta-endorphin, and the extensive phosphorylation of CLIP represent major differences between the posttranslational processing patterns of pro-ACTH/endorphin in the hypothalamus and pars intermedia.  (+info)

Effect of corticotropin-like intermediate lobe peptide on pancreatic exocrine function in isolated rat pancreatic lobules. (5/7)

Naturally occurring derivatives of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) have been identified in various extra-pituitary sites, including the endocrine and exocrine pancreas. Corticotropin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP = ACTH18-39), a naturally occurring derivative of POMC, has been suggested to be an insulin secretagogue. To determine whether CLIP might also affect the exocrine pancreas, we measured its effect on amylase secretion and protein synthesis and secretion in isolated rat pancreatic lobules. Lobules were dual-pulsed with trace amounts of 14C- and 3H-leucine, both in the presence and absence of CLIP (10(-9)-10(-6) M), using a technique that permitted the labeling of both the synthetic and secretory compartments. The effect of CLIP on protein synthesis was determined by comparing 3H-leucine incorporation into lobules with and without CLIP. The secretory effect of CLIP was determined by measuring (a) secreted 14C-labeled protein as a percent of total incorporated radiolabeled protein, and (b) amylase release into incubation medium. The effect of CLIP on amylase release was compared with that of secretin, cholecystokinin-octapeptide, and carbamylcholine. To localize the biologically active region of CLIP, we similarly studied synthetic ACTH25-39. We demonstrated that CLIP stimulates amylase and protein secretion in a dose-dependent manner and is of similar potency to secretin and carbamylcholine. This effect appears to require the ACTH18-24 region of CLIP and results from stimulus-secretion coupling rather than augmented protein synthesis. We also confirmed the presence of immunoreactive-adrenocorticotropic hormone (IR-ACTH) in rat pancreatic extract using a COOH-terminally directed antibody to ACTH1-39 and demonstrated that this IR-ACTH co-eluted with synthetic CLIP. These findings suggest that CLIP might be an endogenous modulator of pancreatic exocrine function.  (+info)

Biosynthesis of phosphorylated forms of corticotropin-related peptides. (6/7)

Phosphorylated forms of corticotropin[ACTH (1-39)], corticotropin-like intermediary lobe peptide[CLIP, ACTH (18-39)], and the common precursor for ACTH and beta-lipotropin (beta-LPH) have been identified in extracts of rat pituitaries, 32P-Labeled inorganic phosphate was successfully incorporated into ACTH (1-39), CLIP, and the ACTH/beta-LPH precursor in rat neurointermediary lobe explants and into ACTH (1-39) in isolated rat anterior pituitary cells. After peptidase digestion of the labeled CLIP and ACTH, the radioactive phosphate was recoverable as O-phosphoserine. The serine residue at position 31 was the only amino acid found to be phosphorylated in CLIP and ACTH (1-39). The unphosphorylated forms of both peptides were also synthesized. The demonstration of he incorporation of [32P]phosphate into CLIP, ACTH (1-39), and the ACTH/beta-LPH precursor is consistent with the hypothesis that, within the rat intermediary lobe, phosphorylated CLIP is derived from a phosphorylated form of the common precursor, with phosphorylated ACTH (1-39) acting as a biosynthetic intermediate.  (+info)

Characterization of eight forms of corticotropin-like intermediary lobe peptide from the rat intermediary pituitary. (7/7)

The isolation and characterization of eight forms of corticotropin-like intermediary lobe peptide (CLIP, adrenocorticotropin18-39) from the intermediary lobe of the rat pituitary has been accomplished by using reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography. The eight forms are the result of all combinations of the presence or absence of three post-translational modifications. These are glycosylation, phosphorylation, and removal of the carboxyl-terminal amino acid. The sites of phosphorylation and glycosylation are at serine 31 and asparagine 29, respectively. The eight forms (in order of elution from the reversed high performance liquid chromatography column) are glycosylated, phosphorylated CLIP18-38; glycosylated, nonphosphorylated CLIP18-38; nonglycosylated, phosphorylated CLIP18-38; nonglycosylated, nonphosphorylated CLIP18-38; glycosylated, phosphorylated CLIP18-39; glycosylated, nonphosphorylated CLIP18-39; nonglycosylated, phosphorylated CLIP18-39; and nonglycosylated, nonphosphorylated CLIP18-39.  (+info)

Abbreviations AAG: α1-acid glycoprotein. AC: adenylyl cyclase. ACE: angiotensin-converting enzyme. ACh: acetylcholine. ACTH: corticotropin; formerly adrenocorticotropic hormone. ADH: antidiuretic hormone. ADME: absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion. AT1: angiotensin II receptor, type 1. ATC: around the clock. BBB: blood-brain barrier. CaMK: Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase. CDC: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CLIP: corticotropin-like intermediate lobe peptide. CNS: central nervous system. COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. COX: cyclooxygenase. CRH: corticotropin-releasing hormone. CSF: cerebrospinal fluid. CYP: cytochrome P450. DA: dopamine. DAMGO: [D-Ala2,MePhe4,Gly(ol)5]enkephalin. DHEA: dehydroepiandrosterone. DOR: δ opioid receptor. DYN: dynorphin. EEG: electroencephalogram. β-END: β-endorphin. L-ENK: Leu-enkephalin. ER/LA: extended-release/long-acting (a). FDA: Food and Drug Administration. FSH: follicle-stimulating hormone. GABA: γ-aminobutyric ...
BACKGROUND: There is an increasing interest in diet as a modifying factor in multiple sclerosis (MS), and gluten has been suggested to affect MS. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review is to qualitatively evaluate the evidence on the role of gluten in MS. METHODS: A review protocol was submitted to PROSPERO. A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Embase, Cab Abstracts, and Google Scholar. Studies on patients with MS, clinically isolated syndrome, or celiac disease presenting with MS-related markers were included, if they investigated effects of diets containing specified amounts of gluten or associations between gluten sensitivities and MS ...
Strategy Since we know how the potential energy changes as a function of x, we can substitute for U (x) U (x) in Equation 8. You must also increase the video memory slider to at least 128 MB. Using several examples, The Physics Classroom shows how to calculate the acceleration using a free-body diagram and Newtons second law of motion. Speed and distance-time graphs Speed is measured in metres per second (m/s) or kilometres per hour (km/h). How do you find angular acceleration? Find the initial and final angular velocity in radians/s. Find the speed and position as functions of time while. Read the velocity and time at the initial and final times you used in the previous step. To find the velocity function based on displacement, use the first derivative of f(x) = 2 1. Calculate the acceleration of the bicycle in both the cases. 1% ± 1% 4 5 4-100-- AVERAGE To collect data: On the labquest, click collect, toss the ball above the motion sensor and catch it. In physics, gravitational acceleration ...
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, South America vacations: find accommodation, things to do, maps, attractions, hotels, photos, flights, weather, travel advice and more.,Canada travel online source for information including articles and features on tourism, accommodation, destination guides, Community, Tools and tips, dining, shopping, attractions, bookings, events, Trip Ideas, hotels, flights, vacation planning
Hyperplasia of Intermediate Lobe may be related to mutation in the Aryl Hydrocarbon Protein Gene in a Context of Familial Isolated Pituitary Adenoma (FIPA ...
Pituitary Gland, Intermediate; Intermediate Lobe of Pituitary. On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of possible diseases from either several symptoms or a full patient history. A similarity measure between symptoms and diseases is provided.
Preparation of the Pancreatic Lobules. After an overnight fast with free access to water, the animals were killed by cervical dislocation and the pancreatic lobules were obtained. The pancreatic lobules were prepared according to a method previously described [17]. In brief, the pancreas was quickly removed and immersed in modified calcium-free HEPES (25 mmol/L)-buffered Ringer solution with the following composition (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA): NaCl 113 mmol/L, HEPES 25 mmol/L, KCl 4.7 mmol/L, MgCl2 1.2 mmol/L, D-glucose 5.6 mmol/L, sodium pyruvate 5 mmol/L, sodium fumarate 5 mmol/L, sodium glutamate 5 mmol/L, and L-glutamine 2 mmol/L. The medium also contained 2% (v/v) essential amino acids, 1% (w/v) BSA, and 0.1% (w/v) soybean trypsin inhibitor. The solution was maintained at pH 7.4, while being continuously gassed with 100% O2 at 37 C. Whole pancreatic lobules were spread out by injecting calcium-free HEPES-Ringer solution gassed with 100% O2 into the loose connective tissue. The ...
CatecholaCalm™ is designed to support healthy catecholamine levels with adaptogenic herbs and nutrients that may help mood and promote calmness and relaxation. This unique formulation addresses adrenal gland health, which may help people handle stress more effectively.** Recommended Use: As a dietary supplement, take t
FAB CID-MS/MS of In-Source Fragment Ions as a Means to Differentiate Linkage Isomers of Branched Oligosaccharides : Le^a and Le^x Type Glycoconjugates (1998 ...
Marshall JB, Kapcala LP, Manning LD, McCullough AJ (November 1984). "Effect of corticotropin-like intermediate lobe peptide on ... These peptide hormones are stored within vesicles in the corticotropic cells and are released in response to CRH stimulation ... These peptide hormones are then released into the bloodstream, where they circulate and act on target tissues. ACTH released ... CRH is a 41-amino-acid peptide hormone that is secreted by the parvocellular neurosecretory cells, which are found within the ...
Grigoriev VV, Petrova LN, Ivanova TA, Gabreliyan AV, Serkova TP (2009). "Effect of corticotropin-like intermediate lobe peptide ... "Effect of corticotropin-like intermediate lobe peptide on pancreatic exocrine function in isolated rat pancreatic lobules". The ... "Neuronal transmission of hippocampal CA1 neurones is modulated by corticotropin-like intermediate lobe peptide [CLIP; ACTH(18- ... "Immunohistochemical distribution of corticotropin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP) immunoreactivity in the human brain". ...
Corticotropin-Like+Intermediate+Lobe+Peptide at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ... Corticotropin-like intermediate [lobe] peptide (CLIP), also known as adrenocorticotropic hormone fragment 18-39 (ACTH(18-39)), ... Marshall JB, Kapcala LP, Manning LD, McCullough AJ (November 1984). "Effect of corticotropin-like intermediate lobe peptide on ... "Immunohistochemical distribution of corticotropin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP) immunoreactivity in the human brain". ...
Corticotropin (Adrenocorticotropic Hormone, or ACTH Corticotropin-like Intermediate Peptide (CLIP) β-Lipotropin (β-LPH) Gamma ... while α-MSH secreted from the intermediate lobe of the pituitary regulates the production of melanin. ACTH is a peptide hormone ... The POMC gene is expressed in both the anterior and intermediate lobes of the pituitary gland. This gene encodes a 285-amino ... It is synthesized by: Corticotrope cells of the anterior pituitary gland Melanotrope cells of the intermediate lobe of the ...
... with the intermediate lobe that joins the two regions. In many animals, these three lobes are distinct. The intermediate is ... bombesin-like peptides (gastrin-releasing peptide, neuromedin B and C), and neurotensin, and inhibited by hypothalamic dopamine ... and melanocyte-stimulating hormone are released under the influence of hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). ... This is also produced in the anterior lobe. When produced in the intermediate lobe, MSHs are sometimes called "intermedins". ...
The intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland secretes only one enzyme that is melanocyte stimulating hormone. It is linked with ... Examples include the heart (atrial natriuretic peptide); gastrointestinal tract organs (gastrin, secretin, and others); the ... Adrenocorticotropic hormone release is triggered by corticotropin-releasing hormone and inhibited by rising glucocorticoid ...
... and capillary shunts exchanging blood between the intermediate and neural lobes. Such microvascular structures indicate moment- ... The peptides released at the median eminence enter the primary plexus capillaries. From there, they are transported to the ... The main hormones transported by the system include gonadotropin-releasing hormone, corticotropin-releasing hormone, growth ... Peptides released near the median eminence from hypothalamic nuclei are transported to the anterior pituitary, where they apply ...
Glucocorticoids may also inhibit the rates of POMC gene transcription and peptide synthesis. The latter is an example of a slow ... POMC, ACTH and β-lipotropin are secreted from corticotropes in the anterior lobe (or adenohypophysis) of the pituitary gland in ... Veldhuis JD, Iranmanesh A, Naftolowitz D, Tatham N, Cassidy F, Carroll BJ (November 2001). "Corticotropin secretory dynamics in ... many substances secreted within this axis exhibit slow/intermediate and fast feedback-loop activity. Glucocorticoids secreted ...
Eosinophils also have kidney-shaped lobed nuclei (two to four lobes). The number of granules in an eosinophil can vary because ... Multiple intermediate cell types exist in this differentiation process, including myeloblasts and promyelocytes. Examples of ... vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), TNF, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and ... MCs contain numerous granules and secrete an abundance of prestored mediators such as corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), ...
Intermediate pituitary lobe (pars intermedia) *Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) Melanotroph. Thyroid[change , change source ... Atrial-natriuretic peptide (ANP) Cardiac myocytes. *Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) Cardiac myocytes ... Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) Parvocellular neurosecretory neurons. *Vasopressin Parvocellular neurosecretory neurons. ... Posterior pituitary lobe (neurohypophysis) *Oxytocin Magnocellular neurosecretory cells. *Vasopressin (AVP; also ADH, ...
Eosinophils also have kidney-shaped lobed nuclei (two to four lobes). The number of granules in an eosinophil can vary because ... Multiple intermediate cell types exist in this differentiation process, including myeloblasts and promyelocytes. ... vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), TNF, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and ... MCs contain numerous granules and secrete an abundance of prestored mediators such as corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), ...
Effect of corticotropin-like intermediate lobe peptide on pancreatic exocrine function in isolated rat pancreatic lobules.. J B ... Corticotropin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP = ACTH18-39), a naturally occurring derivative of POMC, has been suggested ...
Human CLIP(Corticotropin Like Intermediate Lobe Peptide) ELISA Kit. Human CLIP(Corticotropin Like Intermediate Lobe Peptide) ... Human Corticotropin Like Intermediate Lobe Peptide (CLIP) ELISA Kit. CED064Hu-1x96wellstestplate Cloud-Clone 1x96-wells test ... Human Corticotropin Like Intermediate Lobe Peptide (CLIP) ELISA Kit. CED064Hu-5x96wellstestplate Cloud-Clone 5x96-wells test ... ELISA kit for Human CLIP (Corticotropin Like Intermediate Lobe Peptide) Kit. E-EL-H5528 Elabscience Biotech 1 plate of 96 wells ...
Grigoriev VV, Petrova LN, Ivanova TA, Gabreliyan AV, Serkova TP (2009). "Effect of corticotropin-like intermediate lobe peptide ... "Effect of corticotropin-like intermediate lobe peptide on pancreatic exocrine function in isolated rat pancreatic lobules". The ... "Neuronal transmission of hippocampal CA1 neurones is modulated by corticotropin-like intermediate lobe peptide [CLIP; ACTH(18- ... "Immunohistochemical distribution of corticotropin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP) immunoreactivity in the human brain". ...
Corticotropin-Like+Intermediate+Lobe+Peptide at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ... Corticotropin-like intermediate [lobe] peptide (CLIP), also known as adrenocorticotropic hormone fragment 18-39 (ACTH(18-39)), ... Marshall JB, Kapcala LP, Manning LD, McCullough AJ (November 1984). "Effect of corticotropin-like intermediate lobe peptide on ... "Immunohistochemical distribution of corticotropin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP) immunoreactivity in the human brain". ...
... corticotropin-like intermediate lobe peptide) and CLIP fragments on paradoxical sleep in rats. Peptides 15, 237-241. ... ACTH is metabolized originating corticotropin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP), which is a major inducer of REMS. ... Moreover, ACTH derivatives - desacetyl-α-MSH and corticotropin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP) induce, respectively, ... Influence of a 1 h immobilization stress on sleep states and corticotropin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP or ACTH18-39, ...
Marshall JB, Kapcala LP, Manning LD, McCullough AJ (November 1984). "Effect of corticotropin-like intermediate lobe peptide on ... These peptide hormones are stored within vesicles in the corticotropic cells and are released in response to CRH stimulation ... These peptide hormones are then released into the bloodstream, where they circulate and act on target tissues. ACTH released ... CRH is a 41-amino-acid peptide hormone that is secreted by the parvocellular neurosecretory cells, which are found within the ...
Some of the mechanisms involved in the generation and regulation of sleep and the main peptides/hypothalamic hormones involved ... Some of the mechanisms involved in the generation and regulation of sleep and the main peptides/hypothalamic hormones involved ... Hypothalamic peptides (CRH, prolactin and the CLIP/ACTH18-39) play an important role in the expression of stress-induced sleep ... Hypothalamic peptides (CRH, prolactin and the CLIP/ACTH18-39) play an important role in the expression of stress-induced sleep ...
prolactin 100, corticotropin like intermediate lobe peptide vasoactive intestinal peptide3,28,35,69,70,71,72. Acute exercises ...
... protein in clonal astroglioma cells is released by adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticotropin-like intermediate-lobe peptide ... Natriuretic peptides. Atrial natriuretic peptide and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) are produced in the heart in response to ... and by adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticotrophin-like intermediate-lobe peptide [72]. Moreover, S100β protein is secreted ... ANP, atrial natriuretic peptide; ApoE, apolipoprotein E; BNP, brain natriuretic peptide; cTnI, cardiac troponin I; CRP, C- ...
... corticotropin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP), beta-endorphin (ß-END) and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH). The fact ... The hormones in question are known as the pro-opiomelanocortin-derived peptides (POMC) and include melanocytestimulating ...
Corticotropin-like intermediate lobe peptide (substance). Code System Preferred Concept Name. Corticotropin-like intermediate ... Nervous system hormone-like substance (substance) {85860001 , SNOMED-CT } Peptide (substance) {52642002 , SNOMED-CT } ...
... corticotropin-like intermediate lobe peptide; N-terminal peptide of POMC or NPP). ... Depending on species and tissues, POMC is cleaved by PROHORMONE CONVERTASES yielding various active peptides including ACTH; ...
Corticotropin (Adrenocorticotropic Hormone, or ACTH Corticotropin-like Intermediate Peptide (CLIP) β-Lipotropin (β-LPH) Gamma ... while α-MSH secreted from the intermediate lobe of the pituitary regulates the production of melanin. ACTH is a peptide hormone ... The POMC gene is expressed in both the anterior and intermediate lobes of the pituitary gland. This gene encodes a 285-amino ... It is synthesized by: Corticotrope cells of the anterior pituitary gland Melanotrope cells of the intermediate lobe of the ...
Corticotropin-like intermediate lobe peptide. CRH. Corticotropin-releasing hormone. CRHBP. Corticotropin-releasing hormone- ... A single chemical messenger-peptide or amine-can be secreted by neurons as a neurotransmitter or neural hormone and by ... which regulate the hormone-secreting cells of the anterior lobe of the pituitary. Another example of neurosecretory regulation ...
Corticotropin-Like Intermediate Lobe Peptide. D6.472.699.631.525.475.498 D6.472.699.631.525.600.498. Cosyntropin D6.472.699.631 ... Occipital Lobe A8.186.211.730.885.213.571 A8.186.211.730.885.287.500.571. Oleanolic Acid D2.455.849.919.530.733. Olfactory Bulb ... Parietal Lobe A8.186.211.730.885.213.670 A8.186.211.730.885.287.500.670. Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis E5.478.594.800.600. ... Pituitary Gland, Intermediate A6.407.747.671 A6.407.747.750. A6.688.357.750.717 A6.688.357.750.750. A8.186.211.730.385.357. ...
CCIP Corticotropin Intermediate Lobe Peptide. *CCK Cholecystokinin. *CJD Creutzfeldt Jacobs Disease. *CNS Central Nervous ... Also the vasoactive intestinal peptide and peptide histidine isoleucine help to regulate prolactin secretion in humans, but the ... The frontal lobe of the brain keeps the body awake. It is the centre of planning, the memory search, motor control and ... For prion proteins, the cell surfaces were shown to trafic through the endocytic intermediates and this step was even shown to ...
CLIP: corticotropin-like intermediate lobe peptide. CNS: central nervous system. COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ... The term endorphin not only is used synonymously with endogenous opioid peptides but also refers to a specific endogenous ...
... corticotropin-like intermediate lobe peptide , Childrens Longterm Inpatient Program ... CP Stands For : C peptide , C protein , caecal perforation , caeruloplasmin calcium phosphate , cancer patient , capillary ...
CLIP Corticotropin-like intermediate lobe peptide. DBH Dopamine -hydroxylase. DHEA Dehydroepiandrosterone. DHT ...
Looking for abbreviations of CRFBP? It is Corticotropin-Releasing Factor-Binding Protein. Corticotropin-Releasing Factor- ... Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor 1. *corticotropin-zinc hydroxide. *corticotropinlike intermediate-lobe peptide ... redirected from Corticotropin-Releasing Factor-Binding Protein) Acronym. Definition. CRFBP. Corticotropin-Releasing Factor- ... Corticotropin-Releasing Factor-Binding Protein - How is Corticotropin-Releasing Factor-Binding Protein abbreviated? https:// ...
Looking for abbreviations of CRHI? It is Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Immunoactivity. Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone ... Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor 1. *corticotropin-zinc hydroxide. *corticotropinlike intermediate-lobe peptide ... redirected from Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Immunoactivity) Acronym. Definition. CRHI. Center for Rural Health Initiatives ... Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Immunoactivity - How is Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Immunoactivity abbreviated? https:// ...
corticotropinlike intermediate-lobe peptide. *corticotropinoma. *corticotropin-releasing factor. *corticotropin-releasing ...
Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor 1. *corticotropin-zinc hydroxide. *corticotropinlike intermediate-lobe peptide ...
... corticotropin-like intermediate lobe peptide). The creation of MSH PSI-6206 takes a carboxypeptidase, PAM and an N- ... A critical function for peptide C-terminal amidation was apparent when the. A critical function for peptide C-terminal ... hydroxyglycine intermediate from the stereo-specific hydroxylation from the glycine-extended peptide precursor was suggested as ... Using a group of overlapping peptides spanning the complete XAGE-1b proteins, and to get the serological data, we discovered ...
... corticotropin-like intermediate lobe peptide) or ACTH(18-39), a small biologically active peptide, was examined in the human ... CLIP - Corticotropin-like Intermediate Peptide. Corticotropin-like Intermediate Peptide (CLIP) is a POMC-derived peptide ... Effect of corticotropin-like intermediate lobe peptide on pancreatic exocrine function in isolated rat pancreatic lobules. J B ... Immunohistochemical distribution of corticotropin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP) immunoreactivity in the human brain. ...
... melanocyte-stimulating hormone and corticotropin-like intermediate lobe peptide may be secreted. There is a future of harmful ... In addition to increased ACTH production from pituitary adenomata, other peptides such a beta-endorphins, ... which interferes with peptide secretion by the pituitary tumor. ...
... corticotropin-like intermediate lobe peptide), beta endorphin, and ACTH (adrenocorticotrophic hormone). As the abnormal ... These hormones are known as POMC hormones (pro-opiomelanocortin-derived peptides) and include MSH (melanocyte stimulating ...
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is a key regulator of POMC expression and the biological effects are mediated through its ... The POMC gene is predominantly expressed in the anterior and intermediate lobes of the pituitary and its mRNA has been detected ... Corticotropin releasing factor receptors and their ligand family. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1999;885:312-28.View ArticlePubMedGoogle ... Solomon S. POMC-derived peptides and their biological action. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1999;885:22-40.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar ...
D4.210.500.745.745.654.237 Corticotropin-Like Intermediate Lobe Peptide D12.776.641.650.405.935.498 D12.776.631.650.405.935.498 ... Glucagon-Like Peptide Receptors D12.776.543.750.100.21 D12.776.543.750.695.21 Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor D12.776.543.750. ... Peptide Biosynthesis G2.111.87.675 G2.111.660 G2.149.115.675 G3.734 G3.495.770 Peptide Biosynthesis, Nucleic Acid-Independent ... Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide D12.776.543.750.100.900 D12.776.543.750.695.900 Receptors, Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide, Type II ...
It focuses on four very rapidly evolving major topics: - the role of dopaminergic regulation of the intermediate pituitary lobe ... Dopaminergic Regulation of the Intermediate Pituitary.- Anatomy.- Innervation.- Dopaminergic Regulation of Intermediate Lobe ... Corticotropin Releasing Factor (Hormone): Physiological and Clinical Implications.- Corticotropin Releasing Factor and the ... intracellular signal transaction pathways and other regulatory mechanisms involved in transsynaptic regulation of peptide ...
  • Corticotropin-like intermediate [lobe] peptide (CLIP), also known as adrenocorticotropic hormone fragment 18-39 (ACTH(18-39)), is a naturally occurring, endogenous neuropeptide with a docosapeptide structure and the amino acid sequence Arg-Pro-Val-Lys-Val-Tyr-Pro-Asn-Gly-Ala-Glu-Asp-Glu-Ser-Ala-Glu-Ala-Phe-Pro-Leu-Glu-Phe. (wikipedia.org)
  • Corticotropes produce and release ACTH, a 39 amino acid peptide hormone, in response to corticotropic releasing hormone (CRH) release from the hypothalamus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hypothalamic peptides (corticotropin-releasing hormone, prolactin, and the CLIP/ACTH 18-39 ) play an important role in the expression of stress-induced sleep effects, essentially by modulating rapid eye movement sleep, which has been claimed to affect the organism resilience to the deleterious effects of stress. (frontiersin.org)
  • The hormones in question are known as the pro-opiomelanocortin-derived peptides (POMC) and include melanocytestimulating hormone (MSH), corticotropin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP), beta-endorphin (ß-END) and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH). (vcahospitals.com)
  • ACTH is a peptide hormone that regulates the secretion of glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • As luminal pH starts to fall and prohormone convertase 1 (Personal computer1) is triggered, the 1st POMC cleavage generates ACTH biosynthetic intermediate and CLipotropin. (bio-aromatica.com)
  • Melanotropes, which communicate both Computer1 and Computer2, cleave ACTH(1C39) to create an N-terminal fragment (precursor to MSH) and CLIP (corticotropin-like intermediate lobe peptide). (bio-aromatica.com)
  • In addition to increased ACTH production from pituitary adenomata, other peptides such a beta-endorphins, melanocyte-stimulating hormone and corticotropin-like intermediate lobe peptide may be secreted. (thevetexpert.com)
  • Activation of the autonomic nervous system elicits the release of catecholamines, whereas hypothalamic secretion of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) leads to pituitary secretion of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), which, in turn, stimulates glucocorticoid secretion by the adrenal cortex. (google.com)
  • We investigated the central effect of ACTH 1-39 (ACTH) and peptides derived from the N-terminus (ACTH 1-10, Acetyl-ACTH 1-13-amide [alpha-MSH]) and C-terminus (ACTH 18-39 and ACTH 22-39) of this peptide on feeding in 16 hour-fasted or rats fed ad libitum. (phoenixpeptide.com)
  • The N-terminal-derived peptide alpha-MSH, but not ACTH 1-10, reduced cumulative food intake over 2 h after its injection intracerebroventricularly (icv) in 16 h-fasted, but not in fed rats. (phoenixpeptide.com)
  • ACTH come from a precursor molecule known as pro-opiomelanotropin (POMC) which produces several biologically active molecules when cleaved, including ACTH, melanocyte-stimulating hormone, and the brain opioid peptides known as endorphins. (jobilize.com)
  • The release of ACTH is regulated by the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) from the hypothalamus in response to normal physiologic rhythms. (jobilize.com)
  • ACTH Secretion Is Controlled by Corticotropin-Releasing Factor from the Hypothalamus. (brainkart.com)
  • ACTH hormone is secreted in response from corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) from the hypothalamus gland. (statpearls.com)
  • Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) are classically involved in the modulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, leading to secretion of glucocorticoids by the adrenal glands [ 1 , 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Adrenocorticotropic hormone ( ACTH , also adrenocorticotropin , corticotropin ) is a polypeptide tropic hormone produced by and secreted by the anterior pituitary gland . (wikidoc.org)
  • ACTH is an important component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and is often produced in response to biological stress (along with its precursor corticotropin-releasing hormone from the hypothalamus ). (wikidoc.org)
  • Deficiency of ACTH is a sign of secondary adrenal insufficiency (suppressed production of ACTH due to an impairment of the pituitary gland or hypothalamus , cf. hypopituitarism ) or tertiary adrenal insufficiency (disease of the hypothalamus, with a decrease in the release of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) ). (wikidoc.org)
  • POMC , ACTH and β-lipotropin are secreted from corticotropes in the anterior lobe (or adenohypophysis ) of the pituitary gland in response to the hormone corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) released by the hypothalamus . (wikidoc.org)
  • In order to regulate the secretion of ACTH, many substances secreted within this axis exhibit slow/intermediate and fast feedback-loop activity. (wikidoc.org)
  • After a short period of time, ACTH is cleaved into α- melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and CLIP, a peptide with unknown activity in humans. (wikidoc.org)
  • Corticotropin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP = ACTH18-39), a naturally occurring derivative of POMC, has been suggested to be an insulin secretagogue. (jci.org)
  • Proopiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived peptides and sleep in the rat. (wikipedia.org)
  • POMC is cleaved into several peptide hormones via enzyme activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • N-terminal peptide of POMC or NPP). (lookfordiagnosis.com)
  • POMC is synthesized in the pituitary from the 285-amino-acid-long polypeptide precursor pre-pro-opiomelanocortin (pre-POMC), by the removal of a 44-amino-acid-long signal peptide sequence during translation. (wikipedia.org)
  • POMC is cleaved to give rise to multiple peptide hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each of these peptides is packaged in large dense-core vesicles that are released from the cells by exocytosis in response to appropriate stimulation: α-MSH produced by neurons in the arcuate nucleus has important roles in the regulation of appetite (POMC neuron stimulation results in satiety. (wikipedia.org)
  • The POMC gene is expressed in both the anterior and intermediate lobes of the pituitary gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enzymes responsible for processing of POMC peptides include prohormone convertase 1 (PC1), prohormone convertase 2 (PC2), carboxypeptidase E (CPE), peptidyl α-amidating monooxygenase (PAM), N-acetyltransferase (N-AT), and prolylcarboxypeptidase (PRCP). (wikipedia.org)
  • Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is a key regulator of POMC expression and the biological effects are mediated through its receptor corticotrophin releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1). (biomedcentral.com)
  • ß-endorphin is a peptide, 31 amino acids long, resulting from processing of the precursor pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC). (abcam.com)
  • The cells in the zone between the pituitary lobes secrete a hormone known as melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) that is formed by cleavage of the pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) precursor protein. (jobilize.com)
  • Expression of genes encoding for corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), CRH receptors (CRHR) 1 and 2beta, CRH-binding protein, proopiomelanocortin (POMC), melanocortin receptor 2 (MC2R), and glucocorticoid receptor was quantified by real-time PCR and localized by in situ hydridization in fetal lungs at gestational days (GD) 15.5, 16.5, and 17.5, and was also quantified in primary mesenchymal- and epithelial cell-enriched cultures. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The removal of the signal peptide during translation produces the 241-amino acid polypeptide POMC, which undergoes a series of post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation and glycosylation before it is proteolytically cleaved by endopeptidases to yield various polypeptide fragments with varying physiological activity. (wikidoc.org)
  • Glucocorticoids may also inhibit the rates of POMC gene transcription and peptide synthesis. (wikidoc.org)
  • CRF is a peptide com-posed of 41 amino acids. (brainkart.com)
  • Hormones are recognised by either cell surface receptors (modified amino acids, peptides, proteins) or cytoplasmic/nuclear receptors (steroids). (edu.au)
  • Vasopressin and oxytocin are the two major neurohypophyseal peptides, and each consists of nine amino acids. (nih.gov)
  • β-Endorphin and [Met]enkephalin are endogenous opioid peptides with widespread actions in the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prodynorphin codes for several active opioid peptides containing the sequence of [Leu]enkephalin, including dynorphin A, dynorphin B, and α-neoendorphin. (newdrugs.com)
  • These peptide hormones are stored within vesicles in the corticotropic cells and are released in response to CRH stimulation from the hypothalamus. (wikipedia.org)
  • CRH is a 41-amino-acid peptide hormone that is secreted by the parvocellular neurosecretory cells, which are found within the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stimuli for the release of CRH from the hypothalamus include: Forskolin Interleukin-6 Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) Stress or trauma Circadian rhythms Forskolin and PACAP regulate the synthesis of CRH in the hypothalamus by binding to G protein-coupled receptors and stimulating and increase in cAMP within the cells via the action of adenylate cyclase. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some tissues, including the hypothalamus, placenta, and epithelium, all cleavage sites may be used, giving rise to peptides with roles in pain and energy homeostasis, melanocyte stimulation, and immune modulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the anterior pituitary produces and secretes several peptide hormones which regulate many physiological processes including stress, growth, and reproduction. (wikipremed.com)
  • The posterior pituitary (or neurohypophysis) is a lobe of the gland that is functionally connected to the hypothalamus by the median eminence via a small tube called the pituitary stalk (also called the infundibular stalk or the infundibulum). (wikipedia.org)
  • The pituitary gland consists of an anterior and posterior lobe, with each lobe secreting different hormones in response to signals from the hypothalamus. (lumenlearning.com)
  • Neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamus release oxytocin (OT) or ADH into the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. (lumenlearning.com)
  • The posterior lobe is controlled by nerve fibers that originate in hypothalamic neurons and the anterior lobe by substances that are transported from the hypothalamus by tiny blood vessels. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Paralleling the identification of the hypothalamic peptides has been progress in understanding the complex interactions of the innervation of the hypothalamus. (springer.com)
  • A single chemical messenger-peptide or amine-can be secreted by neurons as a neurotransmitter or neural hormone and by endocrine cells as a classic hormone. (mhmedical.com)
  • Beta-endorphin is an endogenous opioid peptide neurotransmitter found in the neurons of both the central and peripheral nervous system. (abcam.com)
  • Magno-cellular neurons are of two classes: those that secrete arginine vasopressin (AVP) and neurophysin II, and those that secrete oxytocin and neurophysin I. AVP often is colocalized with dynorphin or angiotensin II, whereas oxytocin frequently is colocalized with cholecystokinin (CCK), corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), metenkephalin, or proenkephalin. (wordpress.com)
  • Research of targeted ablation of crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) neuropeptide-containing neurons found that CCAP is also a key regulator of ecdysis and circadian regulation of Drosophila [ 11 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Boutillier AL, Sassone Corsi P, Loeffler JP (1991) The protooncogene c- fos is induced by corticotropin-releasing factor and stimulates proopiomelanocortin gene transcription in pituitary cells. (springer.com)
  • Pituitary expression of proopiomelanocortin provides a unique marker for pituitary anterior and intermediate lobe morphogenesis. (antibodies-online.com)
  • By the 11th week, the cavity of the Rathke pouch becomes flattened and loses its connection with the buccal cavity.3 Remnants of its attachment to the buccal cavity form the craniopharyngeal duct, residual cells of which persist in the posterior lobe of the pituitary, the hypophysial stalk, and the basisphenoid. (wordpress.com)
  • Prolactin is a peptide hormone on the anterior pituitary gland primarily associated with lactation. (wikipremed.com)
  • With this knowledge, and the concomitant availability of biosynthetic hypothalamic peptides, modulation of the secretion of prolactin, growth hormone (GH) and adrenocorticotropin by manipulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis has resulted in major therapeutic advances. (springer.com)
  • Dopaminergic Regulation of Intermediate Lobe Secretion. (moluna.de)
  • The incretins glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GTP1-42) and truncated forms of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-I7-36 and GLP-I7.37) are hormones released from the gut in response to ingested nutrients and act on the endocrine pancreas to potentiate glucose-induced insulin secretion. (ubc.ca)
  • In the 1920s the functions of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland were obscure, and there was much more interest in the posterior lobe, particularly since it contained, and was presumed to secrete, substances which could cause a rise of blood pressure, an inhibition of urine secretion, and a contraction of uterine muscle. (animalresearch.info)
  • In contrast to vasopressin and CCK, the hypothalamic releasing factors are peptides released into a special portal blood system that bathes the anterior pituitary, controlling the secretion of pituitary hormones. (nih.gov)
  • Dayanithi, G., and F. Antoni, Atriopeptins are potent inhibitors of corticotropin secretion by anterior pituitary cells in vitro: involvement of the -ANF receptor domain of membrane-bound cuanylate cyclase, Biochem Biophys Res Commun ,In Press. (springer.com)
  • ab54205, staining beta Endorphin in anterior (upper) and intermediate (lower) lobes of Wistar rat pituitary gland tissue by Immunohistochemistry (Frozen sections). (abcam.com)
  • [2] The anterior pituitary (or adenohypophysis) is a lobe of the gland that regulates several physiological processes (including stress, growth, reproduction, and lactation ). (wikipedia.org)
  • It consists of two lobes that arise from distinct parts of embryonic tissue: the posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis) is neural tissue, whereas the anterior pituitary (also known as the adenohypophysis) is glandular tissue that develops from the primitive digestive tract. (lumenlearning.com)
  • The anterior lobe, or adenohypophysis, grows upward from the pharyngeal tissue at the roof of the mouth. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The balance of artificial peptides terminating having a COOH-terminal -hydroxyglyine residue was proven to decrease at pH ideals above 6, with half-lives of 8 h at pH7.4 (Bundgaard and Kahns 1991). (bio-aromatica.com)
  • After the action of the endopeptidases, most peptide processing intermediates contain C-terminal basic residues that generally need to be removed before the peptides are bioactive ( Fricker, 1988 , 1991 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Carboxypeptidase E (CPE) is responsible for removing C-terminal basic residues from the majority of peptide intermediates ( Fricker, 1988 , 1991 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Fink JS, Verhave M, Walton K, Mandel G, Goodman RH (1991) Cyclic AMP- and phorbol ester-induced transcriptional activation are mediated by the same enhancer element in the human vasoactive intestinal peptide gene. (springer.com)
  • Probably the first neuropeptide to be identified was vasopressin, a nine-amino-acid peptide secreted by the nerve endings in the neural lobe of the pituitary. (nih.gov)
  • Like vasopressin, a number of gastrointestinal peptides, such as cholecystokinin ( CCK ), are also found at high concentrations in the nervous system. (nih.gov)
  • The actions of the two peptides are distinct: oxytocin causes milk letdown and uterine contraction, while vasopressin causes water retention in the kidney and blood vessel contraction. (nih.gov)
  • Several queries arose: Why would an enzyme catalyzing amidation of bioactive peptides add a transmembrane domain name? (bio-aromatica.com)
  • In vertebrates, more than 50 % of the identified neuropeptides and peptide hormones are amidated, whereas more than 90 % of bioactive peptides in the brains of invertebrates (i.e. (beds.ac.uk)
  • C-terminal valine amide neuropeptides constitute the smallest group of functional peptide compounds identified in neurosecretory structures in vertebrate and invertebrate species. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The α-amidation process is a highly specific enzyme-dependent post-translational modification need for converting prohormones into functional peptide products in neurosecretory cells. (beds.ac.uk)
  • These include several distinct melanotropins, lipotropins, and endorphins that are contained within the adrenocorticotrophin and β-lipotropin peptides. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, there are at least eight potential cleavage sites within the polypeptide precursor and, depending on tissue type and the available convertases, processing may yield as many as ten biologically active peptides involved in diverse cellular functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Development of the -hydroxyglycine intermediate from the stereo-specific hydroxylation from the glycine-extended peptide precursor was suggested as the first rung on the ladder in the response mediated by PAM (Youthful and Tamburini 1989). (bio-aromatica.com)
  • These peptides are produced from a single precursor, termed proSAAS, which is present in human, mouse, and rat. (jneurosci.org)
  • Comparison of the biosynthetic origin of granulin peptides in various mammals reveals that all are commonly derived from a precursor composed of one amino-terminal half followed by seven non-identical copies of the granulin motif. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Since there are so many peptides, this chapter focuses on the principles of how neuropeptides are synthesized, stored and released and how they act on the cells they regulate. (nih.gov)
  • One study also revealed that Bombyx prothoracicostatic peptides whose gene transcripts were most prominent in brains of Bombyx activate the sex peptide receptor expressed in the prothoracic gland to regulate ecdysteroid biosynthesis [ 12 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Birk Y, Li CH (1964) Isolation and properties of a new biologically active peptide from sheep pituitary glands. (springer.com)
  • The pars intermedia (the intermediate lobe) lies between the pars distalis and the pars tuberalis, and is rudimentary in the human, although in other species it is more developed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Description: This is Competitive Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Human Corticotropin Like Intermediate Lobe Peptide (CLIP) in serum, plasma and other biological fluids. (ecopiabio.com)
  • Description: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the Competitive Inhibition method for detection of Human Corticotropin Like Intermediate Lobe Peptide (CLIP) in samples from Serum, plasma and other biological fluids with no significant corss-reactivity with analogues from other species. (ecopiabio.com)
  • A monoclonal antibody specific to Corticotropin Like Intermediate Lobe Peptide (CLIP) has been pre-coated onto a microplate. (ecopiabio.com)
  • Bloom F, Battenberg E, Rossier J, Ling N, Lepaluoto J, Vargo TM, Guillemin R (1977) Endorphins are located in the intermediate and anterior lobes of the pituitary gland, not in the neurohypophysis. (springer.com)
  • The posterior lobe, or neurohypophysis, grows downward from neural tissue. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The intermediate lobe synthesizes and secretes melanocyte-stimulating hormone . (wikipedia.org)
  • When fetal development is complete, the peptide-derived hormone oxytocin (tocia- = "childbirth") stimulates uterine contractions and dilation of the cervix. (lumenlearning.com)
  • also called corticotropin, stimulates the adrenal cortex (the more superficial "bark" of the adrenal glands) to secrete corticosteroid hormones such as cortisol. (jobilize.com)
  • Likewise, the opiate peptides share a common Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe-Met/Leu sequence at the NH 2 terminus, and all are potent endogenous opiates but with distinct patterns of selectivity at the various classes of opiate receptor. (nih.gov)
  • C-terminal amidation of peptides, a necessary step for the conversion of prohormones into functional products, is mediated by the activity of the peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase (PAM), a type I membrane protein that is localized to the trans-Golgi network and to secretory granules in neural and endocrine tissues [ 6 ]. (beds.ac.uk)
  • 2002) Mice deficient for both corticotropin‐releasing factor receptor 1 (CRFR1) and CRFR2 have an impaired stress response and display sexually dichotomous anxiety‐like behavior. (els.net)
  • Alpha (α)-amidation of peptides is a mechanism required for the conversion of prohormones into functional peptide sequences that display biological activities, receptor recognition and signal transduction on target cells. (beds.ac.uk)
  • These two peptides are identical at seven of those residues and are thought to be the result of gene duplication early in evolution. (nih.gov)
  • In support of the duplication-degeneration-complementation model of duplicate gene retention, partitioning of expression between grna and grnb was observed in the intermediate cell mass and yolk syncytial layer, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These brain regions varied in the relative amount of putative novel valine amide peptide immunoreactive material (nmol/μg protein) estimated through a fmol-sensitive solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) raised for P18C5 mAb. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Opioid bar of immunoreactive corticotropin-releasing factor leakage into the hypophysial-portal circulation of rats. (all-karelia.ru)
  • Comparisons among peptides and smaller, "conventional" neurotransmitters will be emphasized. (nih.gov)
  • This hormone, also called corticotropin or adrenocorticotropin, also enhances the production of adrenal androgens. (brainkart.com)
  • and sexual behavior, while α-MSH secreted from the intermediate lobe of the pituitary regulates the production of melanin. (wikipedia.org)
  • These peptide hormones are then released into the bloodstream, where they circulate and act on target tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tissues in the anterior lobe consist of extensive vascular areas interspersed among glandular cells that secrete at least six different hormones. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This mAb offers a wide spectrum of potential applications in research and medicine, whose uses may extend from a biological reagent (used to detect valine amidated peptide substances in fluids and tissues) to a detoxifying reagent (used to neutralize exogenous toxic amide peptide compounds) or as a specific immunoreagent in immunotherapy settings (used to reduce tumor growth and tumorigenesis) among many others. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Corticotropin-releasing factor was the first of these substances to be identified in a bioassay system, while in 1982 the most recent hypothalamic peptide, growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH), was sequenced. (springer.com)
  • Now substance P is recognized as a major bioactive peptide in many neuronal pathways, including pain signaling. (nih.gov)
  • The anterior lobe of the pituitary can be divided into the pars tuberalis (pars glandularis) and pars distalis (pars glandularis) that constitutes ~80% of the gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pituitary gland, which in the human being only weighs around one gram, is a complex organ and can be divided for con-venience into three separate glands, the anterior lobe, the posterior lobe, and the intermediate lobe. (animalresearch.info)
  • In this way, he discovered that in the frog and in the toad, the two main parts of the pituitary gland, the anterior lobe and the posterior lobe, could be removed separately fairly easily. (animalresearch.info)
  • Some com-plication is introduced by the fact that in the toad and frog the part of the gland which corresponds to the anterior lobe in the mammal, is in fact posterior. (animalresearch.info)
  • When expressed in AtT-20 cells, proSAAS is secreted via the regulated pathway and is also processed at paired-basic cleavage sites into smaller peptides. (jneurosci.org)
  • Stress is a major factor in drug relapse, and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is key to the body's stress response. (newdrugs.com)
  • The role of glucocorticoids and the repressor isoform of cAMP response element (CRE) modulator (CREM), inducible cAMP early repressor (ICER), in limiting corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) transcription during restraint stress were examined in both intact and adrenalectomized rats receiving glucocorticoid replacement. (jneurosci.org)
  • Neuro-adaptive changes occur as a consequence of excessive opioid exposure, including a recruitment of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and norepinephrine (NE) brain stress systems. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Five novel peptides were identified in the brains of mice lacking active carboxypeptidase E, a neuropeptide-processing enzyme. (jneurosci.org)
  • Kinetic constants of incretin hydrolysis by purified porcine kidney-derived enzyme and by human serum DP IV activity suggest that DP IV-mediated hydrolysis of these peptides is significant at physiological incretin concentrations. (ubc.ca)
  • Be able to distinguish which hormones are peptides and which are the tyrosine derived amine hormones. (wikipremed.com)
  • The GI peptides CCK and gastrin share a common COOH-terminal sequence (Trp-Met-Asp-Phe-NH 2 ) and are among the few peptides which undergo tyrosine sulfation. (nih.gov)