Anterior pituitary cells that produce ADRENOCORTICOTROPHIC HORMONE.
An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).
The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.
A 30-kDa protein synthesized primarily in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND and the HYPOTHALAMUS. It is also found in the skin and other peripheral tissues. Depending on species and tissues, POMC is cleaved by PROHORMONE CONVERTASES yielding various active peptides including ACTH; BETA-LIPOTROPIN; ENDORPHINS; MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES; and others (GAMMA-LPH; CORTICOTROPIN-LIKE INTERMEDIATE LOBE PEPTIDE; N-terminal peptide of POMC or NPP).
Anterior pituitary cells that produce THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE.
A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.
A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.
Neoplasms which arise from or metastasize to the PITUITARY GLAND. The majority of pituitary neoplasms are adenomas, which are divided into non-secreting and secreting forms. Hormone producing forms are further classified by the type of hormone they secrete. Pituitary adenomas may also be characterized by their staining properties (see ADENOMA, BASOPHIL; ADENOMA, ACIDOPHIL; and ADENOMA, CHROMOPHOBE). Pituitary tumors may compress adjacent structures, including the HYPOTHALAMUS, several CRANIAL NERVES, and the OPTIC CHIASM. Chiasmal compression may result in bitemporal HEMIANOPSIA.
A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excess levels of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) or other GLUCOCORTICOIDS from endogenous or exogenous sources. It is characterized by upper body OBESITY; OSTEOPOROSIS; HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; HIRSUTISM; AMENORRHEA; and excess body fluid. Endogenous Cushing syndrome or spontaneous hypercortisolism is divided into two groups, those due to an excess of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN and those that are ACTH-independent.
A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.
Excision of one or both adrenal glands. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It was initially established to investigate the broad aspects of human development as a means of understanding developmental disabilities, including mental retardation, and the events that occur during pregnancy. It now conducts and supports research on all stages of human development. It was established in 1962.
An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1000 grams (2.2 lbs), regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Continuous sequential changes which occur in the physiological and psychological functions during the life-time of an individual.
An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.

Cellular localization of apelin and its receptor in the anterior pituitary: evidence for a direct stimulatory action of apelin on ACTH release. (1/20)

Apelin is a bioactive peptide recently identified as the endogenous ligand of the human orphan G protein-coupled receptor APJ. The presence of apelin-immunoreactive nerve fibers, together with the detection of apelin receptor mRNA in the parvocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus and the stimulatory action of apelin on corticotropin-releasing hormone release, indicate that apelin modulates adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) release via an indirect action on the hypothalamus. However, a direct action of apelin in the anterior pituitary cannot be excluded. Here, we provided evidence for the existence of an apelinergic system within the adult male rat pituitary gland. Double immunofluorescence staining indicated that apelin is highly coexpressed in the anterior pituitary, mainly in corticotrophs (96.5 +/- 0.3%) and to a much lower extent in somatotropes (3.2 +/- 0.2%). Using in situ hybridization combined with immunohistochemistry, a high expression of apelin receptor mRNA was also found in corticotrophs, suggesting a local interaction between apelin and ACTH. In an ex vivo perifusion system of anterior pituitaries, apelin 17 (K17F, 10(-6) M) significantly increased basal ACTH release by 41%, whereas apelin 10 (R10F, 10(-6) M), an inactive apelin fragment, was ineffective. In addition, K17F but not R10F induced a dose-dependent increase in K(+)-evoked ACTH release, with maximal increase being observed for a 10(-6) M concentration. Taken together, these data outline the potential role of apelin as an autocrine/paracrine-acting peptide on ACTH release and provide morphological and neuroendocrine basis for further studies that explore the physiological role of apelin in the regulation of anterior pituitary functions.  (+info)

Lack of annexin 1 results in an increase in corticotroph number in male but not female mice. (2/20)

Annexin 1 (ANXA1) is a member of the annexin family of phospholipid- and calcium-binding proteins with a well demonstrated role in early delayed (30 min to 3 h) inhibitory feedback of glucocorticoids in the pituitary. We have examined corticotrophs in wild-type and ANXA1 knockout mice to determine the effects of lack of ANXA1 in male and female animals. Anterior pituitary tissue from ANXA1 wild-type, heterozygote and null mice was fixed and examined (i) by confocal immunocytochemistry to determine the number of corticotrophs and (ii) by electron microscopy to examine the size, secretory granule population and secretory machinery of corticotrophs. No differences in these parameters were detected in female mice. In male ANXA1 null mice, there were approximately four-fold more corticotrophs than in wild-type animals. However, the corticotrophs in ANXA1 null mice were smaller and had reduced numbers of secretory granules (the reduction in granules paralleled the reduction in cell size). No differences in the numerical density of folliculo-stellate, gonadotroph, lactotroph or somatotroph cells were detected in male ANXA1 null mice. Plasma corticosterone, adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and pituitary pro-opiomelanocortin mRNA were unchanged but pituitary ACTH content was increased in male ANXA1 null mice. Interleukin (IL)-6 pituitary content was significantly elevated in male and reduced in female ANXA1 null mice compared to wild-type. In conclusion, these data indicate that ANXA1 deficiency is associated with gender-specific changes in corticotroph number and structure, via direct actions of ANXA1 and/or indirect changes in factors such as IL-6.  (+info)

Cell-specific expression of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis in the anterior pituitary of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. (3/20)

Cell death is increased in the anterior pituitary of poorly controlled diabetic rats, but anti-apoptotic mechanisms are also activated. We hypothesized that specific cell types are selectively protected against diabetes-induced cell death. To determine when anti-apoptotic mechanisms are activated, streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were killed after 1, 4, 6 and 8 weeks of evolution. Anterior pituitaries were processed for western blot analysis to determine changes in the intrinsic cell death pathway and upstream kinases involved in cell protection mechanisms. An increase in cell death was detected by ELISA at 4 weeks of diabetes. TUNEL labelling demonstrated that this corresponded to death of primarily lactotrophs, a few somatotrophs, and no thyrotrophs, corticotrophs or gonadotrophs. Levels of phosphorylated (p) Akt were increased at 1 week of diabetes, while pERK1/2 levels increased at 4 weeks and pJNK at 6 weeks. Activation of caspase 3 decreased and anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 protein family increased as early as 1 week after diabetes onset. These changes were coincident with increased IGF-I receptor levels. Levels of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) increased significantly after 6 weeks of diabetes, as did activation of nuclear factor (NF)kappaB. Double immunohistochemistry indicated that XIAP was expressed in less than 1% of lactotrophs and gonadotrophs, approximately 50% of somatotrophs and more than 90% of corticotrophs and thyrotrophs. These results suggest that some cell survival mechanisms are rapidly activated in the anterior pituitary, even before increased cell death can be detected, while others are more delayed. Furthermore, both pituitary cell death and expression of protective mechanisms such as XIAP are cell-type specific.  (+info)

Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase stimulates proopiomelanocortin gene transcription in AtT20 corticotroph cells. (4/20)

Starvation is known to activate the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, a representative antistress system in the living organism. In this study, we investigated in vitro whether activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is known to occur in intracellular energy depletion, influences the expression of POMC gene that encodes adrenocorticotropin. We first confirmed that each subunit of AMPK was expressed in the AtT20 corticotroph cell line. We then found that AICAR, a cell-permeable AMP analog and an activator of AMPK, potently stimulated the 5'-promoter activity of POMC gene in a dose-dependent manner. The effects were promoter specific because AICAR enhanced the AP1-mediated POMC promoter activities but did not influence other transcription factor-induced transcription. The effect of AICAR on POMC gene transcription was completely eliminated by specific AMPK inhibitor compound C or by dominant negative AMPK, whereas overexpression of constitutively active AMPK mimicked the effect of AICAR. Finally, experiments using specific kinase inhibitors suggested that the PI 3-kinase-mediated signaling pathway is at least partly involved in the effect. Our results suggest that intracellular energy depletion with the resultant activation of AMPK directly stimulates the HPA axis at the pituitary level by increasing the expression of POMC gene.  (+info)

Paracrinicity: the story of 30 years of cellular pituitary crosstalk. (5/20)

Living organisms represent, in essence, dynamic interactions of high complexity between membrane-separated compartments that cannot exist on their own, but reach behaviour in co-ordination. In multicellular organisms, there must be communication and co-ordination between individual cells and cell groups to achieve appropriate behaviour of the system. Depending on the mode of signal transportation and the target, intercellular communication is neuronal, hormonal, paracrine or juxtacrine. Cell signalling can also be self-targeting or autocrine. Although the notion of paracrine and autocrine signalling was already suggested more than 100 years ago, it is only during the last 30 years that these mechanisms have been characterised. In the anterior pituitary, paracrine communication and autocrine loops that operate during fetal and postnatal development in mammals and lower vertebrates have been shown in all hormonal cell types and in folliculo-stellate cells. More than 100 compounds have been identified that have, or may have, paracrine or autocrine actions. They include the neurotransmitters acetylcholine and gamma-aminobutyric acid, peptides such as vasoactive intestinal peptide, galanin, endothelins, calcitonin, neuromedin B and melanocortins, growth factors of the epidermal growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, nerve growth factor and transforming growth factor-beta families, cytokines, tissue factors such as annexin-1 and follistatin, hormones, nitric oxide, purines, retinoids and fatty acid derivatives. In addition, connective tissue cells, endothelial cells and vascular pericytes may influence paracrinicity by delivering growth factors, cytokines, heparan sulphate proteoglycans and proteases. Basement membranes may influence paracrine signalling through the binding of signalling molecules to heparan sulphate proteoglycans. Paracrine/autocrine actions are highly context-dependent. They are turned on/off when hormonal outputs need to be adapted to changing demands of the organism, such as during reproduction, stress, inflammation, starvation and circadian rhythms. Specificity and selectivity in autocrine/paracrine interactions may rely on microanatomical specialisations, functional compartmentalisation in receptor-ligand distribution and the non-equilibrium dynamics of the receptor-ligand interactions in the loops.  (+info)

Lipopolysaccharide stimulates proopiomelanocortin gene expression in AtT20 corticotroph cells. (6/20)

While lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are known to activate the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, their direct effects on proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) expression at the pituitary level through Toll-like receptors (TLRs) remain unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of LPS on ACTH secretion and the transcription of the POMC gene in the AtT20 mouse pituitary corticotroph cell line. RT-PCR analysis showed that TLR1-4 and 6 subtype mRNAs were expressed in AtT20 cells. When the cells were treated with LPS, a significant increase in the 5'-promoter activity of POMC gene was observed at 24 h, without any stimulatory effect on ACTH secretion. LPS also stimulated the expression of c-Fos gene and protein, and AP1-, but not NF-kappaB-, mediated transcription. Overall, our data show the expression of TLRs in the pituitary corticotroph cells, and suggest the direct stimulatory effect of LPS on POMC gene expression via TLR (probably TLR4), although the intracellular signaling pathways in the corticotroph may be different from those in immune cells.  (+info)

Immunohistochemical distribution of regulatory peptides in the human fetal adenohypophysis. (7/20)

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Flow cytometry-assisted purification and proteomic analysis of the corticotropes dense-core secretory granules. (8/20)

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Corticotrophs are a type of endocrine cell found in the anterior pituitary gland. They are responsible for producing and secreting adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which regulates the function of the adrenal gland. ACTH stimulates the production and release of cortisol, a steroid hormone that helps regulate metabolism, immune response, and stress response among other functions. Corticotrophs are controlled by the hypothalamus through the release of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and vasopressin. Dysfunction of corticotrophs can lead to various endocrine disorders, such as Cushing's disease, which is characterized by excessive production of ACTH and cortisol.

Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) is a hormone produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. ACTH plays a crucial role in the regulation of the body's stress response and has significant effects on various physiological processes.

The primary function of ACTH is to stimulate the adrenal glands, which are triangular-shaped glands situated on top of the kidneys. The adrenal glands consist of two parts: the outer cortex and the inner medulla. ACTH specifically targets the adrenal cortex, where it binds to specific receptors and initiates a series of biochemical reactions leading to the production and release of steroid hormones, primarily cortisol (a glucocorticoid) and aldosterone (a mineralocorticoid).

Cortisol is involved in various metabolic processes, such as regulating blood sugar levels, modulating the immune response, and helping the body respond to stress. Aldosterone plays a vital role in maintaining electrolyte and fluid balance by promoting sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion in the kidneys.

ACTH release is controlled by the hypothalamus, another part of the brain, which produces corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). CRH stimulates the anterior pituitary gland to secrete ACTH, which in turn triggers cortisol production in the adrenal glands. This complex feedback system helps maintain homeostasis and ensures that appropriate amounts of cortisol are released in response to various physiological and psychological stressors.

Disorders related to ACTH can lead to hormonal imbalances, resulting in conditions such as Cushing's syndrome (excessive cortisol production) or Addison's disease (insufficient cortisol production). Proper diagnosis and management of these disorders typically involve assessing the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and addressing any underlying issues affecting ACTH secretion.

The anterior pituitary, also known as the adenohypophysis, is the front portion of the pituitary gland. It is responsible for producing and secreting several important hormones that regulate various bodily functions. These hormones include:

* Growth hormone (GH), which stimulates growth and cell reproduction in bones and other tissues.
* Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which regulates the production of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland.
* Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which stimulates the adrenal glands to produce cortisol and other steroid hormones.
* Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), which regulate reproductive function in both males and females by controlling the development and release of eggs or sperm.
* Prolactin, which stimulates milk production in pregnant and nursing women.
* Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), which regulates skin pigmentation and appetite.

The anterior pituitary gland is controlled by the hypothalamus, a small region of the brain located just above it. The hypothalamus produces releasing and inhibiting hormones that regulate the secretion of hormones from the anterior pituitary. These hormones are released into a network of blood vessels called the portal system, which carries them directly to the anterior pituitary gland.

Damage or disease of the anterior pituitary can lead to hormonal imbalances and various medical conditions, such as growth disorders, thyroid dysfunction, adrenal insufficiency, reproductive problems, and diabetes insipidus.

Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) is a precursor protein that gets cleaved into several biologically active peptides in the body. These peptides include adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), beta-lipotropin, and multiple opioid peptides such as beta-endorphin, met-enkephalin, and leu-enkephalin.

ACTH stimulates the release of cortisol from the adrenal gland, while beta-lipotropin has various metabolic functions. The opioid peptides derived from POMC have pain-relieving (analgesic) and rewarding effects in the brain. Dysregulation of the POMC system has been implicated in several medical conditions, including obesity, addiction, and certain types of hormone deficiencies.

Thyrotrophs, also known as thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) producing cells, are a type of endocrine cell located in the anterior pituitary gland. They synthesize and secrete TSH, which is a hormone that regulates the function of the thyroid gland by stimulating the production and release of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), two important thyroid hormones. Thyrotrophs respond to the levels of thyroid hormones in the blood through a negative feedback mechanism, increasing or decreasing TSH secretion as needed to maintain proper levels of T4 and T3.

The pituitary gland is a small, endocrine gland located at the base of the brain, in the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone. It is often called the "master gland" because it controls other glands and makes the hormones that trigger many body functions. The pituitary gland measures about 0.5 cm in height and 1 cm in width, and it weighs approximately 0.5 grams.

The pituitary gland is divided into two main parts: the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis) and the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis). The anterior lobe is further divided into three zones: the pars distalis, pars intermedia, and pars tuberalis. Each part of the pituitary gland has distinct functions and produces different hormones.

The anterior pituitary gland produces and releases several important hormones, including:

* Growth hormone (GH), which regulates growth and development in children and helps maintain muscle mass and bone strength in adults.
* Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which controls the production of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland.
* Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which stimulates the adrenal glands to produce cortisol and other steroid hormones.
* Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), which regulate reproductive function in both males and females.
* Prolactin, which stimulates milk production in pregnant and lactating women.

The posterior pituitary gland stores and releases two hormones that are produced by the hypothalamus:

* Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), which helps regulate water balance in the body by controlling urine production.
* Oxytocin, which stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth and milk release during breastfeeding.

Overall, the pituitary gland plays a critical role in maintaining homeostasis and regulating various bodily functions, including growth, development, metabolism, and reproductive function.

Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone (CRH) is a hormone that is produced and released by the hypothalamus, a small gland located in the brain. CRH plays a critical role in the body's stress response system.

When the body experiences stress, the hypothalamus releases CRH, which then travels to the pituitary gland, another small gland located at the base of the brain. Once there, CRH stimulates the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary gland.

ACTH then travels through the bloodstream to the adrenal glands, which are located on top of the kidneys. ACTH stimulates the adrenal glands to produce and release cortisol, a hormone that helps the body respond to stress by regulating metabolism, immune function, and blood pressure, among other things.

Overall, CRH is an important part of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which regulates many bodily functions related to stress response, mood, and cognition. Dysregulation of the HPA axis and abnormal levels of CRH have been implicated in various psychiatric and medical conditions, including depression, anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and Cushing's syndrome.

Pituitary neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), with most being benign. They can vary in size and may cause various symptoms depending on their location, size, and hormonal activity.

Pituitary neoplasms can produce and secrete excess hormones, leading to a variety of endocrine disorders such as Cushing's disease (caused by excessive ACTH production), acromegaly (caused by excessive GH production), or prolactinoma (caused by excessive PRL production). They can also cause local compression symptoms due to their size, leading to headaches, vision problems, and cranial nerve palsies.

The exact causes of pituitary neoplasms are not fully understood, but genetic factors, radiation exposure, and certain inherited conditions may increase the risk of developing these tumors. Treatment options for pituitary neoplasms include surgical removal, radiation therapy, and medical management with drugs that can help control hormonal imbalances.

Cushing syndrome is a hormonal disorder that occurs when your body is exposed to high levels of the hormone cortisol for a long time. This can happen due to various reasons such as taking high doses of corticosteroid medications or tumors that produce cortisol or adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).

The symptoms of Cushing syndrome may include:

* Obesity, particularly around the trunk and upper body
* Thinning of the skin, easy bruising, and purple or red stretch marks on the abdomen, thighs, breasts, and arms
* Weakened bones, leading to fractures
* High blood pressure
* High blood sugar
* Mental changes such as depression, anxiety, and irritability
* Increased fatigue and weakness
* Menstrual irregularities in women
* Decreased fertility in men

Cushing syndrome can be diagnosed through various tests, including urine and blood tests to measure cortisol levels, saliva tests, and imaging tests to locate any tumors. Treatment depends on the cause of the condition but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or adjusting medication dosages.

The Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal system, also known as the hypothalamic-pituitary system, is a crucial part of the endocrine system that regulates many bodily functions. It consists of two main components: the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland.

The hypothalamus is a region in the brain that receives information from various parts of the body and integrates them to regulate vital functions such as body temperature, hunger, thirst, sleep, and emotional behavior. It also produces and releases neurohormones that control the secretion of hormones from the pituitary gland.

The pituitary gland is a small gland located at the base of the brain, just below the hypothalamus. It consists of two parts: the anterior pituitary (also called adenohypophysis) and the posterior pituitary (also called neurohypophysis). The anterior pituitary produces and releases several hormones that regulate various bodily functions such as growth, metabolism, reproduction, and stress response. The posterior pituitary stores and releases hormones produced by the hypothalamus, including antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin.

The hypothalamo-hypophyseal system works together to maintain homeostasis in the body by regulating various physiological processes through hormonal signaling. Dysfunction of this system can lead to several endocrine disorders, such as diabetes insipidus, pituitary tumors, and hypothalamic-pituitary axis disorders.

Adrenalectomy is a surgical procedure in which one or both adrenal glands are removed. The adrenal glands are small, triangular-shaped glands located on top of each kidney that produce hormones such as cortisol, aldosterone, and adrenaline (epinephrine).

There are several reasons why an adrenalectomy may be necessary. For example, the procedure may be performed to treat tumors or growths on the adrenal glands, such as pheochromocytomas, which can cause high blood pressure and other symptoms. Adrenalectomy may also be recommended for patients with Cushing's syndrome, a condition in which the body is exposed to too much cortisol, or for those with adrenal cancer.

During an adrenalectomy, the surgeon makes an incision in the abdomen or back and removes the affected gland or glands. In some cases, laparoscopic surgery may be used, which involves making several small incisions and using specialized instruments to remove the gland. After the procedure, patients may need to take hormone replacement therapy to compensate for the loss of adrenal gland function.

Histochemistry is the branch of pathology that deals with the microscopic localization of cellular or tissue components using specific chemical reactions. It involves the application of chemical techniques to identify and locate specific biomolecules within tissues, cells, and subcellular structures. This is achieved through the use of various staining methods that react with specific antigens or enzymes in the sample, allowing for their visualization under a microscope. Histochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to identify different types of tissues, cells, and structures, as well as in research to study cellular and molecular processes in health and disease.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

An "Extremely Low Birth Weight" (ELBW) infant is a newborn with a birth weight below 1000 grams (2 pounds, 3 ounces), according to the World Health Organization (WHO). This classification is part of the broader category of low birth weight infants, which includes those born weighing less than 2500 grams (about 5.5 pounds). ELBW infants often face significant health challenges due to their prematurity and small size, which can include issues with breathing, feeding, temperature regulation, and potential long-term neurodevelopmental impairments. It is crucial for these infants to receive specialized care in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) to optimize their chances of survival and promote healthy development.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

Human development in a medical context often refers to the process of physical, cognitive, and emotional growth and development that occurs from conception through adulthood. This includes the development of organs, organ systems, and bodily functions, as well as the acquisition of skills, knowledge, and social-emotional capabilities.

The medical community may also use the term "human development" to refer to the study of how genetic and environmental factors influence this growth and development over time. This field draws on insights from a range of disciplines, including genetics, neuroscience, psychology, sociology, and anthropology, among others.

It's important to note that human development is a complex and dynamic process that can be influenced by a wide range of factors, including genetics, nutrition, physical activity, stress, social support, and cultural context, among others. Understanding the many factors that contribute to healthy human development is an important goal for researchers, clinicians, and policymakers alike.

Larsson, L.; Rehfeld, J. (1981-08-14). "Pituitary gastrins occur in corticotrophs and melanotrophs". Science. 213 (4509): 768- ...
Corticotrophinomas are generated from corticotroph cells. Expression of functional CRH and vasopressin V3 receptors increase in ...
15-20% of corticotroph cells, produce ACTH. The targets are the adrenal glands, adipocytes and melanocytes. 3-5% thyrotroph ...
Six weeks into gestation, the corticotroph cells can be identified. By seven weeks of gestation, the anterior pituitary is ...
Six weeks into gestation, the corticotroph cells can be identified. By seven weeks of gestation, the anterior pituitary is ...
2006). "A glycoprotein hormone expressed in corticotrophs exhibits unique binding properties on thyroid-stimulating hormone ...
Much has been learned about vasopressin, GnRH, somatotrophs, corticotrophs, and lactotrophic hormones by employing this method ...
"The pituitary V3 vasopressin receptor and the corticotroph phenotype in ectopic ACTH syndrome". Journal of Clinical ...
Lipocalin-1 was initially thought to be produced exclusively by exocrine glands but has also been found in corticotrophs of the ... is produced by corticotrophs of the pituitary gland". The Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry. 50 (3): 433-5. doi: ... is produced by corticotrophs of the pituitary gland". The Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry. 50 (3): 433-5. doi: ...
March 2021). "Corticotroph tumor progression after bilateral adrenalectomy (Nelson's syndrome): systematic review and expert ...
January 2006). "Bone morphogenetic protein-4 inhibits corticotroph tumor cells: involvement in the retinoic acid inhibitory ...
The encoded protein is synthesized mainly in corticotroph cells of the anterior pituitary, where four cleavage sites are used; ... POMC is synthesized in corticotrophs of the anterior pituitary from the 267-amino-acid-long polypeptide precursor pre-pro- ...
... the corticotrophs and melanotrophs. The Tpit gene is responsible for a neonatal form of acth deficiency and hypocortisolism. ...
Corticotropin-releasing hormone released from the hypothalamus stimulates corticotrophs in the anterior pituitary to release ...
... patients with multiple pituitary hormone deficiency reveals two sites of hypermutability and a high incidence of corticotroph ...
Corticotropes (or corticotrophs) are basophilic cells in the anterior pituitary that produce pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) which ... which can result from overproduction of ACTH in the corticotropes due to pituitary tumors known as corticotroph adenomas; this ...
... and corticotrophs in the anterior pituitary gland, decreasing the amount of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). For this reason ...
This translocation is dependent on protein kinase C. ANXA1 subsequently acts on the corticotrophs of the anterior pituitary, ...
... and MIB-1 between human anterior and corticotroph cell "basophil invasion" of the posterior pituitary". The Journal of ...
Cushing's disease refers only to hypercortisolism secondary to excess production of ACTH from a corticotroph pituitary adenoma ...
2003). "Novel neurotrophin-1/B cell-stimulating factor-3 (cardiotrophin-like cytokine) stimulates corticotroph function via a ...
Surgical Stimulation of a Silent Corticotroph to Secrete. N Quinn 1 , N Phillips 2 , M Nelson 3 , L Bridges 4 & P Belchetz 1 ... Silent corticotrophs are renowned for their invasive potential. Rarely, silent corticotrophs develop active Cushings disease. ... Histology revealed a corticotroph adenoma on immunostaining.. At endocrine follow-up, afternoon cortisol was 645nmol/L, and ...
Corticotroph adenoma. Left: Corticotroph adenomas are composed of large cells with angular, slightly basophilic cytoplasm and a ... Corticotroph adenoma. Left: Corticotroph adenomas are composed of large cells with angular, slightly basophilic cytoplasm and a ... Histologically, ACTH-secreting adenomas are divided into densely granulated corticotroph and sparsely granulated corticotroph ... Corticotroph adenomas. ACTH-secreting adenomas associated with Cushing disease represent approximately 5-10% of all adenomas. [ ...
Larsson, L.; Rehfeld, J. (1981-08-14). "Pituitary gastrins occur in corticotrophs and melanotrophs". Science. 213 (4509): 768- ...
Expression and clinical relevance of paired box protein 7 and sex determining region Y-box 2 in canine corticotroph pituitary ... Expression and clinical relevance of paired box protein 7 and sex determining region Y-box 2 in canine corticotroph pituitary ...
Silent corticotroph adenomas (SCAs) are the only pituitary adenomas thought to originate from the pars intermedia. This case ... A silent corticotroph adenoma: making the case for a pars intermedia origin. Illustrative case ... Repeat resection yielded a corticotroph-secreting tumor and postoperative hypoadrenalism followed by long-term normalization of ... This finding supports the hypothesis that silent corticotroph adenomas may originate from the pars intermedia and should be ...
It is involved in stimulating the secretion of lactotrophs, corticotrophs, and insulin. Ghrelin also regulates the functions of ...
Post-Operative Serum Cortisol and Cushing Disease Recurrence in Patients with Corticotroph Adenomas. June 08, 2023 ...
1998). Corticotroph axis sensitivity after exercise in endurance-trained athletes. Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf.) 48, 493-501. doi: ...
Pituitary hormone profile • Somatotroph - GH IGF-1 • Gonadotroph - FSH,LH Testo/Oest • Thyrotroph - TSH FT4,FT3 • Corticotroph ...
Spontaneous and CRH-induced excitability and calcium signaling in mice corticotrophs involves sodium, calcium, and cation- ...
In vitro studies have shown that corticotroph tumour cells from Cushings disease patients display a high expression of hsst5, ... Pasireotide binds and activates four of the five hssts, especially hsst5, in corticotrophs of ACTH-producing adenomas, ...
USP8 mutations and cell cycle regulation in corticotroph adenomas (2020). Martins, Clarissa Silva ; Camargo, Renata Costa; ... 2020). USP8 mutations and cell cycle regulation in corticotroph adenomas. Hormone and Metabolic Research, 52( 2), 117-123. doi: ... USP8 mutations and cell cycle regulation in corticotroph adenomas. Hormone and Metabolic Research, v. 52, n. 2, p. 117-123, ... USP8 mutations and cell cycle regulation in corticotroph adenomas [Internet]. Hormone and Metabolic Research. 2020 ; 52( 2): ...
In Vitro and In Vivo Studies Showing that Nuclear Factor-Kappa B Within the Pituitary Folliculostellate Cells and Corticotrophs ...
In this report, we examine the changes in brain volume following corticotroph pituitary adenoma resection using ultra-high ... Ultra-high field 7 T MRI localizes regional brain volume recovery following corticotroph adenoma resection and hormonal ... UHF MRI yields observable increases in cortical thickness and overall brain volume following corticotroph adenoma resection and ... All of these were histologically confirmed to be corticotroph adenomas, and these patients also experienced postoperative ...
It reacts with ACTH-producing cells (corticotrophs).It also may react with other tumors (e.g. some small cell carcinomas of the ...
Corticotrophs - Preferred Concept UI. M0488565. Scope note. Anterior pituitary cells that produce ADRENOCORTICOTROPHIC HORMONE ... Corticotrophs Entry term(s). ACTH-Producing Cell, Pituitary ACTH-Producing Cells, Pituitary ACTH-Secreting Cell, Pituitary ACTH ... Corticotroph Pituitary ACTH Producing Cells Pituitary ACTH Secreting Cells Pituitary ACTH-Producing Cell Pituitary ACTH- ... Corticotroph. Pituitary ACTH Producing Cells. Pituitary ACTH Secreting Cells. Pituitary ACTH-Producing Cell. Pituitary ACTH- ...
Corticotroph adenoma Active Synonym false false Associated Value Sets Value Set Name Version(s) ...
Corticotrophs cells - Basophilic, ACTH secretory cells (15-20% of anterior pituitary gland) ... CRH released into the hypophysial portal system is a principal regulator of the anterior pituitary corticotroph- ...
Corticotrophs cells - Basophilic, ACTH secretory cells (15-20% of anterior pituitary gland) ... CRH released into the hypophysial portal system is a principal regulator of the anterior pituitary corticotroph- ...
Pattern of Endoplasmic Reticulum Protein Processing and Extracellular Matrix Proteins in Functioning and Silent Corticotroph ...
Methods: A Cushings disease patient experienced corticotroph releasing hormone (CRH)-induced pituitary apoplexy during ... Methods: A Cushing{\textquoteright}s disease patient experienced corticotroph releasing hormone (CRH)-induced pituitary ... Methods: A Cushings disease patient experienced corticotroph releasing hormone (CRH)-induced pituitary apoplexy during ... Methods: A Cushings disease patient experienced corticotroph releasing hormone (CRH)-induced pituitary apoplexy during ...
Corticotrophs A6.407.747.608.500 A6.407.747.500.500. A6.688.357.750.700.500 A6.688.357.750.500.500. A8.186.211.730.385.357. ...
Corticotroph tumor progression after bilateral adrenalectomy (Nelsons syndrome): systematic review and expert consensus ...
c.376A>G, (p.Ser126Gly) Alpha-Galactosidase A mutation induces ER stress, unfolded protein response and reduced enzyme trafficking to lysosome: Possible relevance in the pathogenesis of late-onset forms of Fabry Disease. Mol Genet Metab. 2023 11; 140(3):107700 ...
One was a corticotroph cell tumor; the other was a lactotroph tumor. The classification of these tumors is the subject of this ... the adequate term for the well-differentiated corticotroph tumor that we report is a PitNET G3, whereas the undifferentiated ...
Corticotrophs: Secrete adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoids (like ...
Case Report: Progression of a Silent Corticotroph Tumor to an Aggressive Secreting Corticotroph Tumor, Treated by Temozolomide ... Clinically silent corticotroph tumors are usually macroadenomas that comprise 20% of ACTH tumors. They frequently progress to ...
... production by a corticotroph pituitary adenoma. Transsphenoidal surgical removal of the corticotroph adenoma is the treatment ... The treatment goals in Cushings disease include elective removal of corticotroph tumour while preserving pituitary function, ... Somatostatin receptors in the corticotroph tumours have been identified as potential therapeutic targets for Cushings disease ... while corticotroph macroadenomas are responsible for approximately 10 % of cases.. Cushings disease is caused by a pituitary ...
43% of corticotroph PitNETs showed USP8 mutations, sharing a low epithelial-mesenchimal transition (EMT) transcriptome ... Silent corticotroph PitNETs showed a gonadotroph transcriptome signature evoking transdifferentiation, and lost somatostatin ... and corticotroph PitNETs. Pituitary tumorigenesis is poorly understood. We report here a pangenomic characterization of 134 ...
  • Histology revealed a corticotroph adenoma on immunostaining. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • In this report, we examine the changes in brain volume following corticotroph pituitary adenoma resection using ultra-high field 7 T MRI to increase the accuracy of our volumetric analyses. (surgicalneurologyint.com)
  • Radiomics analysis allows for precise prediction of silent corticotroph adenoma among non-functioning pituitary adenomas. (cdc.gov)
  • Cushing's disease is the most common form of endogenous Cushing's syndrome and results from excess adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) production by a corticotroph pituitary adenoma. (touchendocrinology.com)
  • Transsphenoidal surgical removal of the corticotroph adenoma is the treatment of choice for patients with Cushing's disease. (touchendocrinology.com)
  • Rarely, silent corticotrophs develop active Cushing's disease. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • Methods: A Cushing's disease patient experienced corticotroph releasing hormone (CRH)-induced pituitary apoplexy during inferior petrosal sinus sampling (IPSS). (umn.edu)
  • Somatostatin receptors in the corticotroph tumours have been identified as potential therapeutic targets for Cushing's disease. (touchendocrinology.com)
  • The treatment goals in Cushing's disease include elective removal of corticotroph tumour while preserving pituitary function, reversal of clinical features, normalisation of biochemical changes and long-term control without recurrence. (touchendocrinology.com)
  • Corticotrophs: Secrete adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoids (like cortisol). (gsharifi.com)
  • It reacts with ACTH-producing cells (corticotrophs). (teomics.com)
  • Clinically silent corticotroph tumors are usually macroadenomas that comprise 20% of ACTH tumors. (fleni.org.ar)
  • 1 The tumours are most frequently microadenomas (≤1 cm in diameter) while corticotroph macroadenomas are responsible for approximately 10 % of cases. (touchendocrinology.com)
  • They are classified in five main histological types: PitNETs of POU1F1 (Pit1) lineage -lactotroph, somatotroph and thyrotroph -, gonadotroph, and corticotroph PitNETs. (ega-archive.org)
  • Silent corticotroph PitNETs showed a gonadotroph transcriptome signature evoking transdifferentiation, and lost somatostatin target SSTR5 expression. (ega-archive.org)
  • Silent corticotrophs are renowned for their invasive potential. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • Case Report: Progression of a Silent Corticotroph Tumor to an Aggressive Secreting Corticotroph Tumor, Treated by Temozolomide. (fleni.org.ar)
  • 43% of corticotroph PitNETs showed USP8 mutations, sharing a low epithelial-mesenchimal transition (EMT) transcriptome signature. (ega-archive.org)
  • With the introduction of 2017 World Health Organization ( WHO ) classification of endocrine tumors , T-PIT can serve as a complementary tool for identification of silent corticotroph adenomas (SCAs) in some cases if the tumor is not classifiable by pituitary hormone expression in pathological tissue samples. (bvsalud.org)
  • 13. New avenues in the medical treatment of Cushing's disease: corticotroph tumor targeted therapy. (nih.gov)
  • RePub, Erasmus University Repository: Distinct functional properties of native somatostatin receptor subtype 5 compared with subtype 2 in the regulation of ACTH release by corticotroph tumor cells. (eur.nl)
  • Somatic USP8 mutations are frequent events in corticotroph tumor progression causing Nelson's tumor. (cdc.gov)
  • Here, we show that testicular orphan nuclear receptor 4 (TR4, nuclear receptor subfamily 2, group C, member 2) is overexpressed in human corticotroph tumors as well as in human and mouse corticotroph tumor cell lines. (nih.gov)
  • In vivo, TR4 overexpression promotes murine corticotroph tumor growth as well as enhances ACTH and corticosterone production, whereas TR4 knockdown decreases circulating ACTH and corticosterone levels in mice harboring ACTH-secreting tumors. (nih.gov)
  • This model demonstrates that the diverse electrical patterns, including spiking and bursting, seen in pituitary corticotrophs in response to corticotropin releasing hormone and arginine vasopressin can be accounted for by variation in as few as two parameters. (nih.gov)
  • Modeling the diversity of spontaneous and agonist-induced electrical activity in anterior pituitary corticotrophs. (nih.gov)
  • Lynch syndrome gene, mainly corticotroph pituitary tumours. (medscape.com)
  • Nandini Seshan, Laila Noor, Simon Hanft, Michael Goldberg - 'Pituitary Apoplexy in a Silent Corticotroph Adenoma- A Case Report' - published in a supplement to AACE's journal, Endocrine Practice 2022. (optum.com)
  • In a series of human corticotroph adenomas, we recently found predominant mRNA expression of somatostatin (SS) receptor subtype 5 (sst5). (eur.nl)
  • Almost half of these APTs and carcinomas are corticotroph tumors, suggesting a specific prognosis. (nih.gov)
  • Our findings directly link TR4 to the etiology of corticotroph tumors, hormone secretion, and cell growth as well as identify it as a potential target in the treatment of CD. (nih.gov)
  • Corticotroph tumours, all mutations were missense and none were truncating. (medscape.com)
  • Using these mice, we studied the ion channels and mechanisms controlling corticotroph excitability. (nih.gov)
  • Del Magno S, van Rijn S, Azzariti S, Valtolina C, L'Ami J, Meij BP Plasma sodium and potassium concentrations after hypophysectomy in dogs with corticotroph adenomas. (theveterinarynurse.com)
  • Transgenic mice expressing the tdimer2(12) form of Discosoma red fluorescent protein under control of the proopiomelanocortin gene's regulatory elements are a useful model for studying corticotrophs. (nih.gov)
  • The model behavior resembles that seen in somatotrophs, lactotrophs, and corticotrophs. (nih.gov)