Anterior pituitary cells that produce ADRENOCORTICOTROPHIC HORMONE.
An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).
The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.
A 30-kDa protein synthesized primarily in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND and the HYPOTHALAMUS. It is also found in the skin and other peripheral tissues. Depending on species and tissues, POMC is cleaved by PROHORMONE CONVERTASES yielding various active peptides including ACTH; BETA-LIPOTROPIN; ENDORPHINS; MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES; and others (GAMMA-LPH; CORTICOTROPIN-LIKE INTERMEDIATE LOBE PEPTIDE; N-terminal peptide of POMC or NPP).
Anterior pituitary cells that produce THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE.
A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.
A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.
Neoplasms which arise from or metastasize to the PITUITARY GLAND. The majority of pituitary neoplasms are adenomas, which are divided into non-secreting and secreting forms. Hormone producing forms are further classified by the type of hormone they secrete. Pituitary adenomas may also be characterized by their staining properties (see ADENOMA, BASOPHIL; ADENOMA, ACIDOPHIL; and ADENOMA, CHROMOPHOBE). Pituitary tumors may compress adjacent structures, including the HYPOTHALAMUS, several CRANIAL NERVES, and the OPTIC CHIASM. Chiasmal compression may result in bitemporal HEMIANOPSIA.
A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excess levels of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) or other GLUCOCORTICOIDS from endogenous or exogenous sources. It is characterized by upper body OBESITY; OSTEOPOROSIS; HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; HIRSUTISM; AMENORRHEA; and excess body fluid. Endogenous Cushing syndrome or spontaneous hypercortisolism is divided into two groups, those due to an excess of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN and those that are ACTH-independent.
A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.
Excision of one or both adrenal glands. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.

Cellular localization of apelin and its receptor in the anterior pituitary: evidence for a direct stimulatory action of apelin on ACTH release. (1/20)

Apelin is a bioactive peptide recently identified as the endogenous ligand of the human orphan G protein-coupled receptor APJ. The presence of apelin-immunoreactive nerve fibers, together with the detection of apelin receptor mRNA in the parvocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus and the stimulatory action of apelin on corticotropin-releasing hormone release, indicate that apelin modulates adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) release via an indirect action on the hypothalamus. However, a direct action of apelin in the anterior pituitary cannot be excluded. Here, we provided evidence for the existence of an apelinergic system within the adult male rat pituitary gland. Double immunofluorescence staining indicated that apelin is highly coexpressed in the anterior pituitary, mainly in corticotrophs (96.5 +/- 0.3%) and to a much lower extent in somatotropes (3.2 +/- 0.2%). Using in situ hybridization combined with immunohistochemistry, a high expression of apelin receptor mRNA was also found in corticotrophs, suggesting a local interaction between apelin and ACTH. In an ex vivo perifusion system of anterior pituitaries, apelin 17 (K17F, 10(-6) M) significantly increased basal ACTH release by 41%, whereas apelin 10 (R10F, 10(-6) M), an inactive apelin fragment, was ineffective. In addition, K17F but not R10F induced a dose-dependent increase in K(+)-evoked ACTH release, with maximal increase being observed for a 10(-6) M concentration. Taken together, these data outline the potential role of apelin as an autocrine/paracrine-acting peptide on ACTH release and provide morphological and neuroendocrine basis for further studies that explore the physiological role of apelin in the regulation of anterior pituitary functions.  (+info)

Lack of annexin 1 results in an increase in corticotroph number in male but not female mice. (2/20)

Annexin 1 (ANXA1) is a member of the annexin family of phospholipid- and calcium-binding proteins with a well demonstrated role in early delayed (30 min to 3 h) inhibitory feedback of glucocorticoids in the pituitary. We have examined corticotrophs in wild-type and ANXA1 knockout mice to determine the effects of lack of ANXA1 in male and female animals. Anterior pituitary tissue from ANXA1 wild-type, heterozygote and null mice was fixed and examined (i) by confocal immunocytochemistry to determine the number of corticotrophs and (ii) by electron microscopy to examine the size, secretory granule population and secretory machinery of corticotrophs. No differences in these parameters were detected in female mice. In male ANXA1 null mice, there were approximately four-fold more corticotrophs than in wild-type animals. However, the corticotrophs in ANXA1 null mice were smaller and had reduced numbers of secretory granules (the reduction in granules paralleled the reduction in cell size). No differences in the numerical density of folliculo-stellate, gonadotroph, lactotroph or somatotroph cells were detected in male ANXA1 null mice. Plasma corticosterone, adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and pituitary pro-opiomelanocortin mRNA were unchanged but pituitary ACTH content was increased in male ANXA1 null mice. Interleukin (IL)-6 pituitary content was significantly elevated in male and reduced in female ANXA1 null mice compared to wild-type. In conclusion, these data indicate that ANXA1 deficiency is associated with gender-specific changes in corticotroph number and structure, via direct actions of ANXA1 and/or indirect changes in factors such as IL-6.  (+info)

Cell-specific expression of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis in the anterior pituitary of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. (3/20)

Cell death is increased in the anterior pituitary of poorly controlled diabetic rats, but anti-apoptotic mechanisms are also activated. We hypothesized that specific cell types are selectively protected against diabetes-induced cell death. To determine when anti-apoptotic mechanisms are activated, streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were killed after 1, 4, 6 and 8 weeks of evolution. Anterior pituitaries were processed for western blot analysis to determine changes in the intrinsic cell death pathway and upstream kinases involved in cell protection mechanisms. An increase in cell death was detected by ELISA at 4 weeks of diabetes. TUNEL labelling demonstrated that this corresponded to death of primarily lactotrophs, a few somatotrophs, and no thyrotrophs, corticotrophs or gonadotrophs. Levels of phosphorylated (p) Akt were increased at 1 week of diabetes, while pERK1/2 levels increased at 4 weeks and pJNK at 6 weeks. Activation of caspase 3 decreased and anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 protein family increased as early as 1 week after diabetes onset. These changes were coincident with increased IGF-I receptor levels. Levels of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) increased significantly after 6 weeks of diabetes, as did activation of nuclear factor (NF)kappaB. Double immunohistochemistry indicated that XIAP was expressed in less than 1% of lactotrophs and gonadotrophs, approximately 50% of somatotrophs and more than 90% of corticotrophs and thyrotrophs. These results suggest that some cell survival mechanisms are rapidly activated in the anterior pituitary, even before increased cell death can be detected, while others are more delayed. Furthermore, both pituitary cell death and expression of protective mechanisms such as XIAP are cell-type specific.  (+info)

Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase stimulates proopiomelanocortin gene transcription in AtT20 corticotroph cells. (4/20)

Starvation is known to activate the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, a representative antistress system in the living organism. In this study, we investigated in vitro whether activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is known to occur in intracellular energy depletion, influences the expression of POMC gene that encodes adrenocorticotropin. We first confirmed that each subunit of AMPK was expressed in the AtT20 corticotroph cell line. We then found that AICAR, a cell-permeable AMP analog and an activator of AMPK, potently stimulated the 5'-promoter activity of POMC gene in a dose-dependent manner. The effects were promoter specific because AICAR enhanced the AP1-mediated POMC promoter activities but did not influence other transcription factor-induced transcription. The effect of AICAR on POMC gene transcription was completely eliminated by specific AMPK inhibitor compound C or by dominant negative AMPK, whereas overexpression of constitutively active AMPK mimicked the effect of AICAR. Finally, experiments using specific kinase inhibitors suggested that the PI 3-kinase-mediated signaling pathway is at least partly involved in the effect. Our results suggest that intracellular energy depletion with the resultant activation of AMPK directly stimulates the HPA axis at the pituitary level by increasing the expression of POMC gene.  (+info)

Paracrinicity: the story of 30 years of cellular pituitary crosstalk. (5/20)

Living organisms represent, in essence, dynamic interactions of high complexity between membrane-separated compartments that cannot exist on their own, but reach behaviour in co-ordination. In multicellular organisms, there must be communication and co-ordination between individual cells and cell groups to achieve appropriate behaviour of the system. Depending on the mode of signal transportation and the target, intercellular communication is neuronal, hormonal, paracrine or juxtacrine. Cell signalling can also be self-targeting or autocrine. Although the notion of paracrine and autocrine signalling was already suggested more than 100 years ago, it is only during the last 30 years that these mechanisms have been characterised. In the anterior pituitary, paracrine communication and autocrine loops that operate during fetal and postnatal development in mammals and lower vertebrates have been shown in all hormonal cell types and in folliculo-stellate cells. More than 100 compounds have been identified that have, or may have, paracrine or autocrine actions. They include the neurotransmitters acetylcholine and gamma-aminobutyric acid, peptides such as vasoactive intestinal peptide, galanin, endothelins, calcitonin, neuromedin B and melanocortins, growth factors of the epidermal growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, nerve growth factor and transforming growth factor-beta families, cytokines, tissue factors such as annexin-1 and follistatin, hormones, nitric oxide, purines, retinoids and fatty acid derivatives. In addition, connective tissue cells, endothelial cells and vascular pericytes may influence paracrinicity by delivering growth factors, cytokines, heparan sulphate proteoglycans and proteases. Basement membranes may influence paracrine signalling through the binding of signalling molecules to heparan sulphate proteoglycans. Paracrine/autocrine actions are highly context-dependent. They are turned on/off when hormonal outputs need to be adapted to changing demands of the organism, such as during reproduction, stress, inflammation, starvation and circadian rhythms. Specificity and selectivity in autocrine/paracrine interactions may rely on microanatomical specialisations, functional compartmentalisation in receptor-ligand distribution and the non-equilibrium dynamics of the receptor-ligand interactions in the loops.  (+info)

Lipopolysaccharide stimulates proopiomelanocortin gene expression in AtT20 corticotroph cells. (6/20)

While lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are known to activate the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, their direct effects on proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) expression at the pituitary level through Toll-like receptors (TLRs) remain unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of LPS on ACTH secretion and the transcription of the POMC gene in the AtT20 mouse pituitary corticotroph cell line. RT-PCR analysis showed that TLR1-4 and 6 subtype mRNAs were expressed in AtT20 cells. When the cells were treated with LPS, a significant increase in the 5'-promoter activity of POMC gene was observed at 24 h, without any stimulatory effect on ACTH secretion. LPS also stimulated the expression of c-Fos gene and protein, and AP1-, but not NF-kappaB-, mediated transcription. Overall, our data show the expression of TLRs in the pituitary corticotroph cells, and suggest the direct stimulatory effect of LPS on POMC gene expression via TLR (probably TLR4), although the intracellular signaling pathways in the corticotroph may be different from those in immune cells.  (+info)

Immunohistochemical distribution of regulatory peptides in the human fetal adenohypophysis. (7/20)

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Flow cytometry-assisted purification and proteomic analysis of the corticotropes dense-core secretory granules. (8/20)

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E389-13 Standard Test Method for Particle Size or Screen Analysis at No. 4 (4.75-mm) Sieve and Coarser for Metal-Bearing Ores and Related Materials screen analysis~ particle size~ metallic ores~
Macrophages are an important source of pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic factors, which can promote pathological processes involving inflammation and angiogenesis. This study investigated the effects of Apelin on macrophages under both normal and hypoxic conditions. Under normal culture conditions, Apelin down-regulated the mRNA expression levels of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP1), monocyte chemotactic protein 3 (MCP3), macrophage inflammatory protein 1 (MIP1 alpha, MIP1 beta), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), Angiopoietin 2 (Ang2) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha). The supernatant concentrations of MCP1, MCP3, MIP1 alpha, MIP1 beta, macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP2) and TNF alpha proteins were significantly decreased in the Apelin treated group. Hypoxia induced profound up-regulations of the angiogenic, chemokine, and inflammatory factors at both the mRNA and protein levels. Apelin suppressed the hypoxia-induced increases in MCP1, MCP3, MIP2, MIP1 beta and ...
With bestsellers being adapted into successful stories on celluloid, Screen analyses the various factors taken into account when a book tells its tale on the big screen
As with any breakthrough, new questions arise and new experiments become feasible.....One problem, however, is that CD32a is a marker for only 50% of the reservoir, whereas the eradication of latent HIV would require a much greater reduction in the number of latently infected cells in the body. Moreover, targeting CD32a would also make the antigen-presenting cells that normally express CD32a vulnerable to destruction, which might well cause unwanted or harmful side effects.....Second, the authors studied CD4 lymphocytes from the blood, but these circulating cells account for 2%, at most, of the CD4 T cells in the body2. It remains to be seen whether CD32a is as good a marker for latently infected cells in the lymph nodes, bone marrow, gut and other tissues. Perhaps more markers could be identified from the 103 differentially expressed genes found in the researchers screen - analysis of these proteins in combination with CD32a might increase the total proportion of identifiable latent ...
Looking for online definition of corticotroph cell in the Medical Dictionary? corticotroph cell explanation free. What is corticotroph cell? Meaning of corticotroph cell medical term. What does corticotroph cell mean?
Looking for online definition of corticotrope in the Medical Dictionary? corticotrope explanation free. What is corticotrope? Meaning of corticotrope medical term. What does corticotrope mean?
The aging in men is accompanied by an increase in the presence of connective tissue in all the organs and tissues, and with increase of corticotrophs and folliculostellate cells in adenohypophysis, which can affect the function of the HPA axis in healthy elderly individuals. Objective of the research was to perform quantification of structural changes during aging (cellularity, presence of the connective tissue and blood flow), collagen type IV, corticotrophs and folliculostellate cells on the pituitary tissue, obtained at autopsy, using histochemical, immunohistochemical and morphometric methods. Histochemical part of the research showed an increase of the cell size that occured during normal aging in the adenohypophysis. The analyzed cells of the adenohypophysis were significantly larger and, at the same time, they were characterized by a substantially more regular shape in female in comparison to the male patients cases. Differences in the cellular composition of the pituitary ...
Corticotroph releasing hormone (CRH) is one of the major regulatory hormones associated with the neuroendocrine response to stress. Pituitary corticotroph cells generate repetitive action potentials and associated Ca2+ transients in response to the agonist CRH. The mechanisms underlying this process are complex. CRH is known to activate the adenosine 3,5-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) pathway. PKA phosphorylates L-type voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels, activating them and contributing to the generation of an action potential and Ca2+ transients. In an earlier Hodgkin-Huxley type mathematical model of this process, LeBeau et al. showed than an increase in the L-type current was sufficient to generate repetitive action potentials from a resting state in the model (LeBeau et al., 1997). However, they found that the action potential frequency of the model was much higher than the observed experimental action potential frequency. This problem was addressed in the ...
Anti-ACTH is a useful marker in classification of pituitary tumors and the study of pituitary disease. It reacts with ACTH-producing cells (corticotrophs). It also may react with other tumors (e.g. some small cell carcinomas of the lung) causing paraneoplastic syndromes by secreting ACTH ...
The involvement of excitatory amino acids in the control of ACTH release is well established. Activation of ionotropic glutamate receptors has a stimulatory effect on ACTH release, while the role of...
Proinsulin is converted into insulin by the action of two endoproteases. Type I (PC1/PC3) is thought to cleave between the B-chain and the connecting peptide (C-peptide) and type II (PC2) between the C-peptide and the A-chain. An acidic region immediately C-terminal to the point of cleavage at the B-chain/C-peptide junction is well conserved throughout evolution and has been suggested to be important for proinsulin conversion [Gross, Villa-Komaroff, Kahn, Weir and Halban (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264, 21486-21490]. We have here compared the precise role of this region as a whole and just the first acidic residue C-terminal to the point of cleavage in processing of proinsulin by PC3. To this end, several mutations were introduced in this region of human proinsulin (native sequence, B-chain RREAEDL C-peptide): RRPAEDL (C1Pro mutant); RRLAEDL (C1Leu mutant); RRL (C1-C4del mutant); RRE (del-C1Glu mutant). Mutant and native cDNAs were stably transfected into AtT20 (pituitary corticotroph) cells, in which ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of [Chimeras from regulatory peptides as a device for studying their action]. by E. P. Kharchenko et al.
The universal response to cellular stress involves expression of chaperones to protect and refold proteins undergoing denaturation, or to send irretrievably damaged proteins into the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway for degradation. In addition, it has become clear that protection from oxidative stress is a component of the minimal stress proteome (Kültz, 2005), and oxidative stress proteins are often increased in abundance after heat stress, including in bivalves (Tomanek and Zuzow, 2010; Fields et al., 2012a). Stress proteins form a substantial portion of the proteomic response to acute heat exposure in G. demissa, but interestingly, changes in abundance do not appear immediately (i.e. at 0 h), instead becoming apparent at the 3 h time point.. Among the stress proteins increased in abundance at 3 h are GRP78, HSP24.1 and PPIase (Fig. 4A). GRP78 is an HSP70 analog found in the endoplasmic reticulum, where it has a central role in the unfolded protein response (Lai et al., 2010) and may help limit ...
Despite the initial report by Palomero and co-workers,29 subsequent studies have not confirmed that loss of PTEN activity is intrinsically linked to GSI resistance.585721 For example, GSI sensitivity was similar between NOTCH1-driven T-cell leukemia cells obtained from wild-type mice and from PTEN knockout mice.58 However, PTEN deficiency does accelerate the disease progression of NOTCH1-driven leukemia.58 Using a different Pten knockout mouse model (Ptenflox/flox/Lck-Cre), Hagenbeek et al. found that PTEN-deficient thymocytes were just as sensitive to in vitro GSI treatment as were wild-type thymocytes.57 Moreover, several human T-ALL cell lines with mutant alleles of PTEN - different cell lines from those used by Palomero et al. - were actually sensitive to GSI.21 In diagnostic samples from patients with TALLMO, PTEN is frequently inactivated in the absence of NOTCH-activating mutations.59363221 Thus, mutations in PTEN and NOTCH1/FBXW7 are frequently independent genetic events and only ...
Authors Abstract: COPYRIGHT 1999, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The release of Ca(super 2+) from intracellular stores is an important trigger for secretion in many sell types. Depending on the spatial relationship between the intracellular Ca(super 2+) stores and the site of exocytosis, the Ca(super 2+) signal can be very local or spread throughout the entire cell. Here, we review how the release of Ca(super 2+) from inositol trisphospate (IP(sub 3))-sensitive stores contributes differently to the stimulus-secretion coupling in three types of secretory cells (acinar cells of the pancrease, gonadotrophs, and corticotrophs of the anterior pituitary gland). We propose that in both pancreatic acinar cells and pituitary gonadotrophs the IP(sub 3)-sensitive stores may be in close proximity to the sites of exocytosis such that the concentration of Ca(super 2+) at those sites are transiently much higher than the average cytosolic (Ca(sub 2+) concentration. In contract, the local Ca(super 2+) gradient is less ...
Species: Mouse Immunogen: Synthetic peptide corresponding to aa 1-24 of human ACTH (AH26); N-terminal fragment of human ACTH conjugated to KLH (57). Clone: AH26 & 57 Isotype: IgG1, kappa (AH26); IgG1, kappa (57). Species Reactivity: Human, Mouse, and Rat. Expected to show a broad species reactivity. Positive Control: Normal pituitary gland or pituitary tumor. Specificity: This antibody is specific to Synacthen (aa 1-24 of ACTH); this antibody does not react with CLIP (aa 17-39 of ACTH). Anti-ACTH is a useful marker in classification of pituitary tumors and in the study of pituitary disease. It reacts with ACTH-producing cells (corticotrophs). It also may react with other tumors (e.g. some small cell carcinomas of the lung) causing paraneoplastic syndromes by secreting ACTH. Status: ...
Internalization, recycling and lysosomal sorting are key processes that regulate the temporal and spatial signaling of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Interactions between GPCR intracytosolic sorting signals and adaptor proteins facilitate trafficking through the endocytic pathway. To date only a few sorting signals and molecules that regulate GPCR trafficking have been identified. A study reported in the May 2005 issue of Molecular Pharmacology has now identified an internal PDZ ligand motif that seems to regulate efficient recycling of the ETA endothelin receptor. This finding now expands the diversity of GPCR sorting motifs to include internal and C-terminal PDZ ligands, tyrosine-based motifs, and lysine residues capable of being ubiquitinated.. ...
Combine the advantages of rationally designed shRNA with selectable promoters and reporters to perform functional screens of hundreds or thousands of shRNAs in dividing and non-dividing cells.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Apelin regulates the electrophysiological characteristics of atrial myocytes. AU - Cheng, Chen Chuan. AU - Weerateerangkul, Punate. AU - Lu, Yen Yu. AU - Chen, Yao Chang. AU - Lin, Yung Kuo. AU - Chen, Shih Ann. AU - Chen, Yi Jen. PY - 2013/1. Y1 - 2013/1. N2 - Backgroud: Apelin, a potential agent for treating heart failure, has various ionic effects on ventricular myocytes. However, the effects of apelin on the atrium are not clear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of apelin on the electrophysiological characteristics of atrial myocytes. Method: Whole-cell patch-clamp techniques were used to investigate the action potential (AP) and ionic currents in isolated rabbit left atrial (LA) myocytes before and after the administration of apelin. Result: Apelin reduced LA AP duration measured at 90%, 50% and 20% repolarization of the amplitude by 11±3%, 24±5%, 30±7% at 1nM (n=11), and by 14±4%, 36±6% and 45±5% at 10nM (n=11), but not at 0·1nM. Apeline ...
Cambia means change.Cambia is an independent non-profit institute creating new technologies, tools and paradigms to promote change and enable innovation. ...
Forskare i Cederträ-Sinaien Samuel Oschin som Omfattande Cancer Instiftar upptäckt i pre-kliniskt, modellerar att dormant prostatacancerceller som finnas i bensilkespapper kan reawakeneds och att
För att uppmärksamma att Sveriges diplomatiska relationer med Japan firar 150 år under 2018 genomförs en särskild utlysning i samarbete mellan STINT och Riksbankens Jubileumsfond (RJ).. ...
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Research outputs, collaborations and relationships for MOH Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Molecular Biology and Regulatory Peptides, PUHSC PKU published between 1 December 2017 - 30 November 2018 as tracked by the Nature Index.
Create healthcare diagrams like this example called Pituitary Adenohypophysis in minutes with SmartDraw. SmartDraw includes 1000s of professional healthcare and anatomy chart templates that you can modify and make your own.
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We have shown here that NOS1AP interacts with the N-terminal region of nNOS via a novel internal ExF motif, in contrast to the classical PDZ docking assumed to be responsible. The affinity of the NOS1AP C-terminal motif for the PDZ binding pocket is nearly 1 mm, which is not considered a significant interaction. However, in the presence of an internal region containing the ExF motif, the C-terminal PDZ ligand motif increases the lifetime of the nNOS-NOS1AP complex, which appears to be a critical parameter to initiate signaling.. Interaction between NOS1AP and nNOS is increasingly cited as a potential drug target in a growing number of diseases, including cardiovascular and psychiatric conditions, such as schizophrenia and anxiety disorders (Weber et al., 2014; Zhu et al., 2014). It is a downstream component of the excitotoxic NR-PSD95-nNOS pathway (Cao et al., 2005; Li et al., 2013). This pathway is the target of the only neuroprotectant that has been successful in a clinical trial for ...
Studiens syfte var att undersöka erfarenheter hos psykoterapeuter inom psykiatrin av att bedriva KBT med patienter som samtidigt lever med kronisk och/eller allvarlig somatisk sjukdom. Detta utifrån frågeställningar om hur KBT-terapeuter beskriver hur samtidig allvarlig och/eller kronisk somatisk sjukdom påverkar det terapeutiska arbetet och hur terapeuterna förhåller sig till denna påverkan i relation till att genomföra terapin? Semistrukturerade intervjuer genomfördes med sex psykoterapeuter som alla hade KBT-inriktning och arbetade inom psykiatrin. En tematisk analys gjordes sedan av intervjuerna och där framkom huvudteman som följsamhet, helhetssyn och organisatorisk påverkan. Följsamhet till patienternas behov av anpassning gällde allt från längden på sessionerna till möjligheten att pausa terapin under vissa perioder. Att ha en helhetssyn kunde innebära att psykoterapeuten klev utanför sitt expertområde för att samarbeta med den somatiska vården kring en patient, ...
LifeMap Lösningar, Inc., en medicinsk teknologistart fokuserad på att skapa innovativa mobila vård- produkter (för mHealth) och servar drivit av stora data, meddelade i dag att en initial $5 miljon
PubMed journal article: Ghrelin does not mediate the somatotroph and corticotroph responses to the stimulatory effect of glucagon or insulin-induced hypoglycaemia in humans. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
The inotropic and vasoactive properties of the ligand apelin and its cognate G-protein coupled receptor APJ have been characterized by administration of exogenous peptide, but the function of endogenous apelin on the cardiovascular system is not well described. To investigate the tonic effects of apelin-APJ in contractile function, we generated and characterized apelin and APJ null mice. We also investigated the regulation of apelin and APJ receptor expression in response to cardiac pressure overload. While knockout apelin mice were viable and fertile, APJ null mice showed evidence of fetal wastage for approximately half of the embryos. Compared to wild-type controls, APJ deficient mice reaching adulthood had significantly reduced exercise capacity (treadmill runtime: 20.30 ± 0.974 vs. 23.64 ± 0.737, P=0.009) and LV fractional shortening by echocardiography (29.88 ± 0.927% vs. 44.93 ± 2.66%, P,0.0001). Isolated myocytes from APJ knockouts exhibited reduced sarcomeric shortening (5.070 ± ...
The clinical success of targeted therapies along with technological advances in genome-wide profiling have spurred large-scale efforts to systematically map the molecular landscape of human cancers. These approaches nominate candidate essential or tumor suppressor genes, but are not able to identify all types of acquired vulnerabilities, such as synthetic lethal relationships between aberrantly regulated pathways.. Functional studies are therefore an essential complement to these approaches, serving both to confirm the biological roles of candidate cancer genes, and also to identify other vulnerabilities that are acquired as a consequence of observed genetic alterations.. Pooled short hairpin RNAi screening is proving to be a powerful method by which loss-of-function studies can identify new cancer targets. We are developing novel in vivo methods to identify genes which are essential for lung tumorigenesis, using mini-libraries of short hairpins against selected genes of interest.. ...
Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka vilket stöd ensamkommande barn behöver vid ankomsten till Sverige utifrån personalens erfarenhet. Metoden är en kvalitativ studie som baseras utifrån intervjuer och litteraturkunskap för att få mer ingående och friare svar från intervjupersonerna. Huvudteman som framkom under intervjuerna är grundläggande behov, stödet som erbjuds, trygghet, föräldragestalter, utbildning, fritid och hinder i arbetet. Samtliga intervjupersoner beskriver ungdomarnas behov mycket olika då det skiljer sig från person till person. Det stöd barnen får är den viktigaste faktor som de ensamkommande barnen behöver för att kunna utvecklas och få ett bättre och tryggare liv. Resultatet visar att personalen har vetskap om all den kunskap som behövs för att kunna vara en bra förebild och en stödjande vuxen i barnens vardag. Det framkom tydligt hur relationen och tryggheten för de ensamkommande barnen är avgörande och ...
and so publications internetprofessional essay writersand after that items on-line Målgruppsanpassning av ett budskap är många gånger svårt att genomföra utan att trampa på någons ideologiska självkänsla. Jag tänker närmast på stora organisationers offentliga budskap, och framför allt i den offentliga sektorn. För att förtydliga lite tänkte jag ta några exempel på politiska budskap och hur dessa förmedlats till allmänheten, och hur de har bemötts internt.
Corticotroph adenomas are detected in more females than males. Therefore, Nelson's syndrome is observed in more females than ... Corticotroph adenomas are also detected in the younger population compared to the older population. Earlier, Nelson's syndrome ... Corticotrophinomas are generated from corticotroph cells. Expression of functional CRH and vasopressin V3 receptors increase in ...
Six weeks into gestation, the corticotroph cells can be identified. By seven weeks of gestation, the anterior pituitary is ...
2006). "A glycoprotein hormone expressed in corticotrophs exhibits unique binding properties on thyroid-stimulating hormone ...
"The pituitary V3 vasopressin receptor and the corticotroph phenotype in ectopic ACTH syndrome". J. Clin. Invest. 97 (5): 1311-8 ...
2002). "Human lipocalin-1, a physiological scavenger of lipophilic compounds, is produced by corticotrophs of the pituitary ...
January 2006). "Bone morphogenetic protein-4 inhibits corticotroph tumor cells: involvement in the retinoic acid inhibitory ...
Corticotropes (or corticotrophs) are basophilic cells in the anterior pituitary that produce melanocyte-stimulating hormone, ...
The encoded protein is synthesized mainly in corticotroph cells of the anterior pituitary, where four cleavage sites are used; ...
... the corticotrophs and melanotrophs. The Tpit gene is responsible for a neonatal form of acth deficiency and hypocortisolism. ...
Corticotropin-releasing hormone released from the hypothalamus stimulates corticotrophs in the anterior pituitary to release ...
... patients with multiple pituitary hormone deficiency reveals two sites of hypermutability and a high incidence of corticotroph ...
... and corticotrophs in the anterior pituitary gland, decreasing the amount of adrenocorticotropic hormone [ACTH]. For this reason ...
This translocation is dependent on protein kinase C. ANXA1 subsequently acts on the corticotrophs of the anterior pituitary, ...
... the corticotroph cells which produce adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). It is described as such, as opposed to acidophil or ...
... and MIB-1 between human anterior and corticotroph cell "basophil invasion" of the posterior pituitary". The Journal of ...
Cushing's disease refers only to hypercortisolism secondary to excess production of ACTH from a corticotroph pituitary adenoma ...
2003). "Novel neurotrophin-1/B cell-stimulating factor-3 (cardiotrophin-like cytokine) stimulates corticotroph function via a ...
Corticotrophs Basophil Adrenal gland Secretion of glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid and androgens Thyroid-stimulating hormone ...
At the second surgery, six weeks later via transnasal transsphenoidal approach a silent corticotroph pituitary adenoma was ... Neurocysticercosis, Meningioma, and Silent Corticotroph Pituitary Adenoma in a 61-Year-Old Woman,. Case Reports in Pathology, ... The diagnosis of silent corticotroph adenoma subtype II was made. 4. Discussion. Cysticerci consist of two parts, the vesicular ... At the second surgery, six weeks later via transnasal transsphenoidal approach a silent corticotroph pituitary adenoma was ...
Silent corticotroph staining pituitary adenoma (SCA) represents an uncommon subset of Non-Functioning adenomas (NFAs), ... Xu Z, Ellis S, Lee CC, Starke RM, Schlesinger D, Lee Vance M et al (2014) Silent corticotroph adenomas after stereotactic ... Scheithauer BW, Jaap AJ, Horvath E, Kovacs K, Lloyd RV, Meyer FB et al (2000) Clinically silent corticotroph tumors of the ... Alahmadi H, Lee D, Wilson JR, Hayhurst C, Mete O, Gentili F et al (2012) Clinical features of silent corticotroph adenomas. ...
We have read with interest the recent review on silent corticotroph pituitary tumours published in the Pituitary [1]. The ... Immunohistochemistry for transcription factor T-Pit is an essential tool in the diagnostics of corticotroph pituitary tumours ... The importance of T-Pit immunohistochemistry, especially in corticotroph pituitary tumours with sparse or no ACTH- ... Immunohistochemistry for transcription factor T-Pit as a tool in diagnostics of corticotroph pituitary tumours. ...
What is corticotroph cell? Meaning of corticotroph cell medical term. What does corticotroph cell mean? ... Looking for online definition of corticotroph cell in the Medical Dictionary? corticotroph cell explanation free. ... corticotroph cell. Corticotroph.. cuboid cell. A cell - usually epithelial - with a height about equal to its width and depth. ... redirected from corticotroph cell). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Legal, Financial, Encyclopedia. cell. (sel), 1. The ...
"Corticotrophs" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Corticotrophs" by people in this website by year, and whether ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Corticotrophs" by people in Profiles. ...
... in corticotrophs of 12 nontumorous pituitaries, 11 functioning corticotroph, and 11 silent pituitary adenomas. ISH combined ... In situ hybridization study of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) gene expression in human pituitary corticotrophs and their adenomas ... Most functioning corticotroph adenomas and silent subtype 1 adenomas had an intense hybridization signal and ACTH ... The results indicate that POMC gene is expressed in both normal and suppressed nontumorous corticotrophs. Intense signals for ...
A silent corticotroph adenoma with multiple cysts was found incidentally at autopsy. By immunohistochemistry, most of the ... A silent corticotroph adenoma with multiple cysts was found incidentally at autopsy. By immunohistochemistry, most of the ... Felix I, Asa SL, Kovacs K, Horvath E. Changes in hormone production of a recurrent silent corticotroph adenoma of the pituitary ... Immunoreactive luteinizing hormone in functioning corticotroph adenomas of the pituitary. Immunohistochemical and tissue ...
Ghrelin does not mediate the somatotroph and corticotroph responses to the stimulatory effect of glucagon or insulin-induced ... We aimed to clarify whether ghrelin mediate the GH and corticotroph responses to intramuscular glucagon or ITT, which has ... TY - JOUR T1 - Ghrelin does not mediate the somatotroph and corticotroph responses to the stimulatory effect of glucagon or ... We aimed to clarify whether ghrelin mediate the GH and corticotroph responses to intramuscular glucagon or ITT, which has ...
... and is invariably due to a corticotroph adenoma, usually a microadenoma [ 1 ]. Corticotroph … ... Paediatric cyclical Cushings disease due to corticotroph cell hyperplasia Autoren:. E. Noctor S. Gupta T. Brown M. Farrell M. ... Paediatric cyclical Cushings disease due to corticotroph cell hyperplasia. Zeitschrift:. BMC Endocrine Disorders > Ausgabe 1/ ... Although uncommon, corticotroph hyperplasia causing Cushings syndrome has been described in the adult population, but appears ...
"Ectopic Corticotroph Adenoma in the Cavernous Sinus: Case Report, Neurosurgery" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service ... Ectopic Corticotroph Adenoma in the Cavernous Sinus: Case Report. Ectopic Corticotroph Adenoma in the Cavernous Sinus: Case ... Ectopic Corticotroph Adenoma in the Cavernous Sinus: Case Report. Sanno, Naoko; Tahara, Shigeyuki; Yoshida, Yoichi; Onose, ... Ectopic Corticotroph Adenoma in the Cavernous Sinus: Case Report. 914 Sanno et al. ment. If evidence of an ACTH-secretin • s ...
Tumor tissues from 28 corticotroph adenomas (female 26, male 2, mean age 39.21 ± 10.39 years) were subject to ... Hormonal aggressiveness according to the expression of cellular markers in corticotroph adenomas. ... Gene and protein expression in pituitary corticotroph adenomas: a systematic review of the literature. Neurosurg. Focus 38, E17 ...
2) CRF-R1 mRNA levels were down-regulated by CRF in corticotrophs, but were up-regulated by CRF in corticotroph adenoma cells. ... 1) c-f os Gene expression of c-fos in corticotroph adenoma cells was greater than that in non-adenoma cells. There were 2 point ... Vib mRNA levels in corticotroph adenoma cells increased after stimulation of VP and CRF.The size of Vib mRNA in adenoma cells ... 3) DDAVP, V2-agonist, stimulated ACTH secretion from corticotroph adenoma cells, but did not stimulate it in normal ACTH cells ...
Complete surgical removal of a very enlarged pituitary corticotroph adenoma in a dog. by Heather Hill , posted in: CT Concepts ... Pituitary transsphenoidal debulking surgery was performed and immunocytochemistry confirmed a corticotroph adenoma. The dog ...
A mass that arises from the pituitary gland is called a pituitary adenoma. It is usually benign. It is classified based on the size of the mass and the type of cells that predominate in the tumor. These tumors can be functioning or nonfunctioning. Their function is based on the type of cells that comprise them. Tumors that are less than 10 mm in size are called pituitary microadenoma while those that are more than 10 mm are called pituitary macroadenoma. A pituitary microadenoma does not usually cause symptoms because they are small and they do not impinge on the » » » [Read more]. ...
Silent corticotroph adenomas after stereotactic radiosurgery: a case-control study.. *Zhiyuan Xu. , Scott Ellis. , +5 authors. ... Progression rate of silent corticotroph adenomas after stereotactic radiosurgery. In regard to Xu et al.. *. Shao-Ching Chen. ... The role of mediators of cell invasiveness, motility, and migration in the pathogenesis of silent corticotroph adenomas.. * ... Predictors of silent corticotroph adenoma recurrence; a large retrospective single center study and systematic literature ...
... Niki Karavitaki, Olaf Ansorge, John A.H. Wass*Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia & ...
We have examined corticotrophs in wild-type and ANXA1 knockout mice to determine the effects of lack of ANXA1 in male and ... However, the corticotrophs in ANXA1 null mice were smaller and had reduced numbers of secretory granules (the reduction in ... In conclusion, these data indicate that ANXA1 deficiency is associated with gender-specific changes in corticotroph number and ... In male ANXA1 null mice, there were approximately four-fold more corticotrophs than in wild-type animals. ...
Hormonal aggressiveness according to the expression of cellular markers in corticotroph adenomas. / Lim, Jung Soo; Lee, Mi ... Hormonal aggressiveness according to the expression of cellular markers in corticotroph adenomas. Endocrine. 2019 Apr 1;64(1): ... Hormonal aggressiveness according to the expression of cellular markers in corticotroph adenomas. In: Endocrine. 2019 ; Vol. 64 ... Methods: Tumor tissues from 28 corticotroph adenomas (female 26, male 2, mean age 39.21 ± 10.39 years) were subject to ...
Corticotroph adenoma case series In a retrospective study 118 patients with Cushings syndrome (CS) [102 Cushings disease (CD ... corticotroph_adenoma_case_series. Corticotroph adenoma case series. In a retrospective study 118 patients with Cushings ... Among 50 cases of pituitary Corticotroph adenoma, 31 were vasopressin receptor 2 positive, 38 were vasopressin receptor 3 ... corticotroph_adenoma_case_series.txt. · Last modified: 2019/07/25 09:25 by administrador. ...
The USP8 mutational status may predict drug susceptibility in corticotroph adenomas of Cushings disease Kyohei Hayashi 1 , ... The USP8 mutational status may predict drug susceptibility in corticotroph adenomas of Cushings disease Kyohei Hayashi et al. ... SST5 expression and USP8 mutation in functioning and silent corticotroph pituitary tumors. Castellnou S, Vasiljevic A, Lapras V ... Subjects and methods: USP8 mutations as well as clinicopathological characteristics were examined in 60 corticotroph adenomas ...
... monophosphate in rat pituitary corticotrophs. Together they form a unique fingerprint. * Corticotrophs Medicine & Life ... Corticotropin-releasing factor stimulates accumulation of adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate in rat pituitary corticotrophs. Science ... Corticotropin-releasing factor stimulates accumulation of adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate in rat pituitary corticotrophs. / ... title = "Corticotropin-releasing factor stimulates accumulation of adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate in rat pituitary corticotrophs ...
Mutations in HDAC2 exons are unlikely to play an important role in the development of corticotroph adenomas. ... Strongly reduced HDAC2 protein expression was confirmed in a small portion of corticotroph tumours. ... HDAC2 expression and variable number of repeats in exon 1 of the HDAC2 gene in corticotroph adenomas J Arild Evang 1 , Olivera ... HDAC2 expression and variable number of repeats in exon 1 of the HDAC2 gene in corticotroph adenomas J Arild Evang et al. Clin ...
Treatment of corticotroph or corticotropin (ACTH)-secreting adenomas. These tumors cause the adrenal glands to make too much of ...
corticotroph cell. Corticotroph.. cuboid cell. A cell - usually epithelial - with a height about equal to its width and depth. ...
CORTICOTROPH ADENOMAS. Diagnosis. The lack of specificity of many of the phenotypic characteristics of Cushings syndrome ( ...
Bucciarelli, L. G. ; Giraldi, F. Pecori ; Cavagnini, F. / No mutations in TPIT, a corticotroph-specific gene, in human tumoral ... Bucciarelli, L. G., Giraldi, F. P., & Cavagnini, F. (2005). No mutations in TPIT, a corticotroph-specific gene, in human ... No mutations in TPIT, a corticotroph-specific gene, in human tumoral pituitary ACTH-secreting cells. / Bucciarelli, L. G.; ... Bucciarelli, LG, Giraldi, FP & Cavagnini, F 2005, No mutations in TPIT, a corticotroph-specific gene, in human tumoral ...
We then examined the effects of DHEA and PRT on corticotroph tumor growth and function in vivo using xenografts of AtT20 cells ... Effects of DHEA and PRT on corticotroph cell function. (A) AtT20PL cells were treated with DHEA (100 μM) and/or PRT (7 μM), and ... Effects of DHEA and PRT on corticotroph cell function. (A) AtT20PL cells were treated with DHEA (100 μM) and/or PRT (7 μM), and ... Effects of DHEA and PRT on corticotroph cell function. (A) AtT20PL cells were treated with DHEA (100 μM) and/or PRT (7 μM), and ...
Corticotroph Biology. *Proopiomelanocortin Gene. *Regulation of the HPA Axis. *Effects of Secreted POMC-Derived Peptides in ...
title = "Silent corticotroph adenoma with multiple cysts: Pars intermedia tumor?",. abstract = "A silent corticotroph adenoma ... Silent corticotroph adenoma with multiple cysts : Pars intermedia tumor? / Nishioka, Hiroshi; Hirano, Asao; Asa, Sylvia L. ... N2 - A silent corticotroph adenoma with multiple cysts was found incidentally at autopsy. By immunohistochemistry, most of the ... AB - A silent corticotroph adenoma with multiple cysts was found incidentally at autopsy. By immunohistochemistry, most of the ...
  • Immunohistochemistry for transcription factor T-Pit is an essential tool in the diagnostics of corticotroph pituitary tumours with sparse or no ACTH immunolabeling. (springer.com)
  • Most functioning corticotroph adenomas and silent subtype 1 adenomas had an intense hybridization signal and ACTH immunoreactivity. (nih.gov)
  • 3) DDAVP, V2-agonist, stimulated ACTH secretion from corticotroph adenoma cells, but did not stimulate it in normal ACTH cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • As with other transcription factors, TPIT could theoretically also be involved in corticotroph adenomatous transformation and ACTH hypersecretion and published data indicate that TPIT is present in normal and adenomatous human corticotrophs. (elsevier.com)
  • Conclusions: Aberrant TPIT is unlikely to play a role in corticotroph tumoral trasformation, ie, Cushing's disease, as the entire coding sequence is expressed without any mutation by human pituitary ACTH-secreting adenomas. (elsevier.com)
  • Corticotroph tumor progression and regression may occur overtime, but patients may have significant increases in ACTH levels without evidence of tumor growth. (elsevier.com)
  • Silent corticotroph adenoma (SCA) is a non-functioning macroadenoma that has positive immunoreactivity for ACTH. (nel.edu)
  • [ 1 , 2 ] Cushing's disease (CD) is caused by a corticotroph pituitary adenoma that secretes excess adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH). (medscape.com)
  • Cushing disease, due to pituitary corticotroph tumor ACTH hypersecretion, drives excess adrenal cortisol production with adverse morbidity and mortality. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Loss of glucocorticoid negative feedback on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis leads to autonomous transcription of the corticotroph precursor hormone proopiomelanocortin (POMC), consequent ACTH overproduction, and adrenal hypercortisolism. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The aim was to investigate whether R-roscovitine inhibits human ACTH in corticotroph tumors by targeting the cyclin-dependent kinase 2/cyclin E signaling pathway. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Primary cell cultures of surgically resected human corticotroph tumors were treated with or without R-roscovitine, ACTH measured by RIA and quantitative PCR, and/or Western blot analysis performed to investigate ACTH and lineage-specific transcription factors. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • R-roscovitine inhibits human corticotroph tumor POMC and Tpit/Tbx19 transcription with decreased ACTH expression. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • R-roscovitine inhibits human pituitary corticotroph tumor ACTH by targeting the cyclin E/E2F1 pathway. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Jen had Pituitary surgery by Dr. Shahinian 4/28/04, removed ACTH secreting corticotroph hyperplasia and prolactinoma. (blogtalkradio.com)
  • I have had pituitary surgery in 2004 with an ACTH secreting corticotroph hyperplasia and a. (medhelp.org)
  • The anterior pituitary contains five trophic hormone‐secreting cells, including adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)‐secreting corticotrophs, luteinising hormone (LH)‐/follicle‐stimulating hormone (FSH)‐secreting gonadotrophs, thyroid‐stimulating hormone (TSH)‐secreting thyrotrophs, growth hormone (GH)‐secreting somatotrophs and prolactin (PRL)‐secreting lactotrophs. (els.net)
  • Although uncommon, corticotroph hyperplasia causing Cushing's syndrome has been described in the adult population, but appears to be extremely rare in children. (springermedizin.de)
  • This report describes a rare case of cyclical Cushing's disease secondary to corticotroph hyperplasia in a paediatric patient. (springermedizin.de)
  • Haap M, Gallwitz B, Meyermann R, Mittelbronn M. Cushing's disease associated with both pituitary microadenoma and corticotroph hyperplasia. (springermedizin.de)
  • 2001) showed that retinoic acid, an inducer of cell differentiation, has potent inhibitory effects on Cushing's adenoma using AtT20 mouse corticotroph tumor cells as a model system. (bioscientifica.com)
  • Patients with CRH-producing tumors develop Cushing's syndrome, and some have been reported to have pituitary corticotroph hyperplasia. (elsevier.com)
  • A pituitary tumor causing Cushing's syndrome, composed of basophilic, densely granulated corticotrophs. (dictionary.com)
  • The majority of cases of Cushing's disease are due to the presence of a corticotroph microadenoma. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Here, we describe a very rare case of a 13-year old boy with cyclical cortisol hypersecretion secondary to corticotroph cell hyperplasia. (springermedizin.de)
  • Histology and immunocytochemistry of the resected pituitary tissue showed extensive corticotroph cell hyperplasia. (springermedizin.de)
  • Less frequently no adenoma is found and histology shows either corticotroph hyperplasia, or apparently normal pituitary. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Seventeen of 31 adenomas (54.8%), 4 of 6 cases of corticotroph hyperplasia, and 7 of 10 apparently normal pituitaries showed p16 methylation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • P = 0.01) adenomas and 2 of 3 cases of corticotroph hyperplasia, which were methylated, failed to express p16 protein. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The reverse was true for corticotroph hyperplasia and apparently normal pituitaries where only 10-20% of the cells were methylated. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In these cases, and in the absence of an adenoma, pituitary histology revealed either normal pituitary tissue or was interpreted as corticotroph hyperplasia. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Corticotroph hyperplasia and Cushing disease: diagnostic features and surgical management. (harvard.edu)
  • The physiological role of ghrelin in the control of somatotroph and corticotroph function is, however, largely unclear. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • These findings support the assumption that ghrelin does not play a major role in the physiological control of somatotroph and corticotroph function. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Silent corticotroph adenoma with multiple cysts: Pars intermedia tumor? (springer.com)
  • A silent corticotroph adenoma with multiple cysts was found incidentally at autopsy. (springer.com)
  • In vitro inhibition of mouse corticotroph tumor cells by R-roscovitine. (selleckchem.com)
  • Pituitary transsphenoidal debulking surgery was performed and immunocytochemistry confirmed a corticotroph adenoma. (avmi.net)
  • At the second surgery, six weeks later via transnasal transsphenoidal approach a silent corticotroph pituitary adenoma was removed which was studied by histology, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy. (hindawi.com)
  • Xu Z, Ellis S, Lee CC, Starke RM, Schlesinger D, Lee Vance M et al (2014) Silent corticotroph adenomas after stereotactic radiosurgery: a case-control study. (springer.com)
  • Progression rate of silent corticotroph adenomas after stereotactic radiosurgery. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Silent corticotroph adenomas after stereotactic radiosurgery: a case-control study. (semanticscholar.org)
  • To clarify the possible inhibitory action of DHEA on pituitary tumor cells, we tested the effects of DHEA, alone or in combination with the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) inhibitor parthenolide (PRT), on AtT20 corticotroph cell growth and function both in vitro and in vivo . (bioscientifica.com)
  • Altogether, these results suggested that combined treatments of DHEA and PRT potently inhibit the growth and function of corticotroph tumor cells both in vitro and in vivo . (bioscientifica.com)
  • Intense signals for POMC mRNA are found in most functioning corticotroph adenomas. (nih.gov)
  • Immunoreactive luteinizing hormone in functioning corticotroph adenomas of the pituitary. (springer.com)
  • Cyclin E and E2F1 exhibit reciprocal positive regulation in corticotroph tumors. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA was detected on paraffin sections by in situ hybridization (ISH) in corticotrophs of 12 nontumorous pituitaries, 11 functioning corticotroph, and 11 silent pituitary adenomas. (nih.gov)
  • Variable levels of POMC gene expression were present in Crooke's cells, corticotrophs suppressed by glucocorticoid excess. (nih.gov)
  • The results indicate that POMC gene is expressed in both normal and suppressed nontumorous corticotrophs. (nih.gov)
  • POMC is synthesized by the corticotrophs of the anterior pituitary, which constitute about 10 percent of the gland. (britannica.com)
  • We hypothesized that intrapituitary cyclin E signaling regulates corticotroph tumor POMC transcription independently of cell cycle progression. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • SCA was characterized by a lack of clinical evidence of Cushing disease, yet with positive immunostaining for corticotroph. (springer.com)
  • Differentiated cells derived from precursors exiting cell cycle at early stages, including corticotrophs, rostral-tip thyrotrophs, and gonadotrophs, were generated, while hormone-producing cells originating from late-born precursors, such as somatotrophs and POU1F1-dependent thyrotrophs, were severely reduced. (jci.org)
  • The review provides an update on pathogenesis, molecular biology and clinical behaviour of the silent corticotroph tumours, recognised by the 2017 WHO classification of pituitary tumours as a subtype with potentially more-aggressive behaviour. (springer.com)
  • In the introduction, the authors comment on immunohistochemistry with anti-T-Pit antibody that may result in reclassification of a subset of clinically non-functioning pituitary neuroendocrine tumours as silent corticotroph tumours. (springer.com)
  • The antibody demonstrated distinct nuclear immunolabeling in tumour cells of corticotroph tumours, both hormone-producing and clinically silent. (springer.com)
  • Sjöstedt E, Bollerslev J, Mulder J, Lindskog C, Pontén F, Casar-Borota O (2017) A specific antibody to detect transcription factor T-Pit: a reliable marker of corticotroph cell differentiation and a tool to improve the classification of pituitary neuroendocrine tumours. (springer.com)
  • Strongly reduced HDAC2 protein expression was confirmed in a small portion of corticotroph tumours. (cdc.gov)
  • Reduced levels of E-cadherin correlate with progression of corticotroph pituitary tumours. (cdc.gov)
  • Silent corticotroph staining represents an independent factor for adenoma progression and hypopituitarism after SRS. (springer.com)
  • Anterior pituitary tissue from ANXA1 wild-type, heterozygote and null mice was fixed and examined (i) by confocal immunocytochemistry to determine the number of corticotrophs and (ii) by electron microscopy to examine the size, secretory granule population and secretory machinery of corticotrophs. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The role of mediators of cell invasiveness, motility, and migration in the pathogenesis of silent corticotroph adenomas. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Our experiment accurately reproduces the gradually increasing CRH levels in the general circulation produced by a growing tumor, as found in the human ectopic CRH syndrome, and confirms that long term exposure to CRH excess, as produced by a tumor, results in an increased number of corticotrophs in the adenohypophysis. (elsevier.com)
  • 1) c-f os Gene expression of c-fos in corticotroph adenoma cells was greater than that in non-adenoma cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • 2) CRF-R1 mRNA levels were down-regulated by CRF in corticotrophs, but were up-regulated by CRF in corticotroph adenoma cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Vib mRNA levels in corticotroph adenoma cells increased after stimulation of VP and CRF.The size of Vib mRNA in adenoma cells was similar to that of authentic V1 b mRNA. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Corticotrophinomas are generated from corticotroph cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • the cells containing melanotrophin were far fewer than corticotrophs. (umich.edu)
  • Cyclin E and E2F transcription factor 1 (E2F1) small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection was performed in murine corticotroph tumor AtT20 cells to elucidate mechanisms for drug action. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Among 50 cases of pituitary Corticotroph adenoma , 31 were vasopressin receptor 2 positive, 38 were vasopressin receptor 3 positive, and 24 were both vasopressin receptor 2 and 3 positive. (operativeneurosurgery.com)
  • Ben-Shlomo A, Cooper O (2018) Silent corticotroph adenomas. (springer.com)
  • Kovacs K, Horvath E, Bayley TA, Hassaram ST, Ezrin C (1978) Silent corticotroph cell adenoma with lysosomal accumulation and crinophagy. (springer.com)
  • However, the corticotrophs in ANXA1 null mice were smaller and had reduced numbers of secretory granules (the reduction in granules paralleled the reduction in cell size). (ox.ac.uk)
  • s Ectopic Corticotroph Adenoma in the adenoma is convincing but the existence of a tumor cannot be confirmed using Cavernous Sinus: Case Report imaging studies or during surgery, a hem ihypophysectom y or total hypophy- sectomy is sometimes performed. (deepdyve.com)
  • The molecule is split into several biologically active polypeptides when the secretory granules are discharged from the corticotrophs. (britannica.com)
  • This study aimed to examine HDAC2 expression in a Norwegian cohort of corticotroph adenomas, screen for exonic HDAC2 gene variants in the adenomas and correlate the results with clinical data. (cdc.gov)
  • Mutations in HDAC2 exons are unlikely to play an important role in the development of corticotroph adenomas. (cdc.gov)
  • Objective: The aim of the present study was to corroborate this finding and to seek evidence for mutations in the TPIT coding sequence in human tumoral corticotrophs. (elsevier.com)
  • Biochemical behaviour of an incidentally diagnosed silent corticotroph adenoma. (nel.edu)
  • At 10.5 weeks corticotrophs were confined chiefly to the borders of vascularized connective tissue (trabeculae) and to the lateral peripheral region of the pars distalis. (umich.edu)
  • Silent corticotroph staining pituitary adenoma (SCA) represents an uncommon subset of Non-Functioning adenomas (NFAs), hypothesized to be more locally aggressive. (springer.com)
  • Alterations in protein expression of histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) have been demonstrated in various neoplasms, and lack of nuclear expression of HDAC2 has previously been shown in some human and canine corticotroph adenomas. (cdc.gov)
  • Tissue from 31 corticotroph adenomas and 16 nonadenomatous pituitaries were subject to methylation-sensitive PCR to determine the methylation status of the p16 gene CpG island. (aacrjournals.org)