Corticosterone: An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).Adrenalectomy: Excision of one or both adrenal glands. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Pituitary-Adrenal System: The interactions between the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands, in which corticotropin (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical hormones suppress the production of corticotropin by the anterior pituitary.Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System: A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.Restraint, Physical: Use of a device for the purpose of controlling movement of all or part of the body. Splinting and casting are FRACTURE FIXATION.Adrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Metyrapone: An inhibitor of the enzyme STEROID 11-BETA-MONOOXYGENASE. It is used as a test of the feedback hypothalamic-pituitary mechanism in the diagnosis of CUSHING SYNDROME.Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone: A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.Receptors, Glucocorticoid: Cytoplasmic proteins that specifically bind glucocorticoids and mediate their cellular effects. The glucocorticoid receptor-glucocorticoid complex acts in the nucleus to induce transcription of DNA. Glucocorticoids were named for their actions on blood glucose concentration, but they have equally important effects on protein and fat metabolism. Cortisol is the most important example.Mifepristone: A progestational and glucocorticoid hormone antagonist. Its inhibition of progesterone induces bleeding during the luteal phase and in early pregnancy by releasing endogenous prostaglandins from the endometrium or decidua. As a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, the drug has been used to treat hypercortisolism in patients with nonpituitary CUSHING SYNDROME.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Transcortin: A serpin family member that binds to and transports GLUCOCORTICOIDS in the BLOOD.Receptors, Mineralocorticoid: Cytoplasmic proteins that specifically bind MINERALOCORTICOIDS and mediate their cellular effects. The receptor with its bound ligand acts in the nucleus to induce transcription of specific segments of DNA.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Adrenal Cortex: The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases: Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases that catalyzes the reversible conversion of CORTISOL to the inactive metabolite CORTISONE. Enzymes in this class can utilize either NAD or NADP as cofactors.Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus: Nucleus in the anterior part of the HYPOTHALAMUS.Handling (Psychology): Physical manipulation of animals and humans to induce a behavioral or other psychological reaction. In experimental psychology, the animal is handled to induce a stress situation or to study the effects of "gentling" or "mothering".Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 11-beta-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11B1 gene, is important in the synthesis of CORTICOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Defects in CYP11B1 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).Hormone Antagonists: Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Swimming: An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.Aldosterone: A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases: Enzymes of the oxidoreductase class that catalyze the dehydrogenation of hydroxysteroids. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.-.11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2: An high-affinity, NAD-dependent 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase that acts unidirectionally to catalyze the dehydrogenation of CORTISOL to CORTISONE. It is found predominantly in mineralocorticoid target tissues such as the KIDNEY; COLON; SWEAT GLANDS; and the PLACENTA. Absence of the enzyme leads to a fatal form of childhood hypertension termed, APPARENT MINERALOCORTICOID EXCESS SYNDROME.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Pro-Opiomelanocortin: A 30-kDa protein synthesized primarily in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND and the HYPOTHALAMUS. It is also found in the skin and other peripheral tissues. Depending on species and tissues, POMC is cleaved by PROHORMONE CONVERTASES yielding various active peptides including ACTH; BETA-LIPOTROPIN; ENDORPHINS; MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES; and others (GAMMA-LPH; CORTICOTROPIN-LIKE INTERMEDIATE LOBE PEPTIDE; N-terminal peptide of POMC or NPP).11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1: A low-affinity 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase found in a variety of tissues, most notably in LIVER; LUNG; ADIPOSE TISSUE; vascular tissue; OVARY; and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The enzyme acts reversibly and can use either NAD or NADP as cofactors.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Propanil: A chlorinated anilide that is used as an herbicide.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Adrenal Cortex HormonesMaternal Deprivation: Prolonged separation of the offspring from the mother.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Ether: A mobile, very volatile, highly flammable liquid used as an inhalation anesthetic and as a solvent for waxes, fats, oils, perfumes, alkaloids, and gums. It is mildly irritating to skin and mucous membranes.Drug Implants: Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone: Cell surface proteins that bind corticotropin-releasing hormone with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The corticotropin releasing-hormone receptors on anterior pituitary cells mediate the stimulation of corticotropin release by hypothalamic corticotropin releasing factor. The physiological consequence of activating corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors on central neurons is not well understood.Neurosecretory Systems: A system of NEURONS that has the specialized function to produce and secrete HORMONES, and that constitutes, in whole or in part, an ENDOCRINE SYSTEM or organ.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Desoxycorticosterone: A steroid metabolite that is the 11-deoxy derivative of CORTICOSTERONE and the 21-hydroxy derivative of PROGESTERONE.Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Crowding: An excessive number of individuals, human or animal, in relation to available space.Methylhistidines: Histidine substituted in any position with one or more methyl groups.Mineralocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS primarily associated with water and electrolyte balance. This is accomplished through the effect on ION TRANSPORT in renal tubules, resulting in retention of sodium and loss of potassium. Mineralocorticoid secretion is itself regulated by PLASMA VOLUME, serum potassium, and ANGIOTENSIN II.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.18-Hydroxycorticosterone: 11 beta,18,21-Trihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione.Maze Learning: Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)Immobilization: The restriction of the MOVEMENT of whole or part of the body by physical means (RESTRAINT, PHYSICAL) or chemically by ANALGESIA, or the use of TRANQUILIZING AGENTS or NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS. It includes experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility.Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.Steroids: A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Amygdala: Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Cortodoxone: 17,21-Dihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione. A 17-hydroxycorticosteroid with glucocorticoid and anti-inflammatory activities.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Aldosterone Synthase: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 18-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-specific flavoprotein. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11B2 gene, is important in the conversion of CORTICOSTERONE to 18-hydroxycorticosterone and the subsequent conversion to ALDOSTERONE.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Zona Reticularis: The inner zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces the enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE, a 21-carbon steroid, to 19-carbon steroids (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE) via 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYPREGNENOLONE.Mice, Inbred C57BLZona Fasciculata: The wide middle zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces a series of enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE to cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) via 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYPROGESTERONE.Cortisone: A naturally occurring glucocorticoid. It has been used in replacement therapy for adrenal insufficiency and as an anti-inflammatory agent. Cortisone itself is inactive. It is converted in the liver to the active metabolite HYDROCORTISONE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p726)Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Feathers: Flat keratinous structures found on the skin surface of birds. Feathers are made partly of a hollow shaft fringed with barbs. They constitute the plumage.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Social Isolation: The separation of individuals or groups resulting in the lack of or minimizing of social contact and/or communication. This separation may be accomplished by physical separation, by social barriers and by psychological mechanisms. In the latter, there may be interaction but no real communication.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Sparrows: The family Passeridae comprised of small, mainly brown and grey seed-eating birds with conical bills.Injections, Intraventricular: Injections into the cerebral ventricles.Housing, AnimalSolar Activity: Any type of variation in the appearance of energy output of the sun. (NASA Thesaurus, 1994)Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Hydroxyprogesterones: Metabolites or derivatives of PROGESTERONE with hydroxyl group substitution at various sites.Biogenic Monoamines: Biogenic amines having only one amine moiety. Included in this group are all natural monoamines formed by the enzymatic decarboxylation of natural amino acids.Oviparity: The capability of producing eggs (OVA) from which young are hatched outside the body. While mostly referring to nonmammalian species, this does include MAMMALS of the order MONOTREMATA.Arginine Vasopressin: The predominant form of mammalian antidiuretic hormone. It is a nonapeptide containing an ARGININE at residue 8 and two disulfide-linked cysteines at residues of 1 and 6. Arg-vasopressin is used to treat DIABETES INSIPIDUS or to improve vasomotor tone and BLOOD PRESSURE.Carbenoxolone: An agent derived from licorice root. It is used for the treatment of digestive tract ulcers, especially in the stomach. Antidiuretic side effects are frequent, but otherwise the drug is low in toxicity.Electroshock: Induction of a stress reaction in experimental subjects by means of an electrical shock; applies to either convulsive or non-convulsive states.Pituitary Gland: A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.Iguanas: Large herbivorous tropical American lizards.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Nesting Behavior: Animal behavior associated with the nest; includes construction, effects of size and material; behavior of the adult during the nesting period and the effect of the nest on the behavior of the young.Hypophysectomy: Surgical removal or destruction of the hypophysis, or pituitary gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)Phenelzine: One of the MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS used to treat DEPRESSION; PHOBIC DISORDERS; and PANIC.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Food Deprivation: The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.

Emergent immunoregulatory properties of combined glucocorticoid and anti-glucocorticoid steroids in a model of tuberculosis. (1/3099)

In Balb/c mice with pulmonary tuberculosis, there is a switch from a protective Th1-dominated cytokine profile to a non-protective profile with a Th2 component. This switch occurs while the adrenals are undergoing marked hyperplasia. Treatment with the anti-glucocorticoid hormones dehydroepiandrosterone or 3 beta, 17 beta-androstenediol, during the period of adrenal hyperplasia, maintains Th1 dominance and is protective. We investigated the effects of these hormones as therapeutic agents by administering them from day 60, when the switch to the non-protective cytokine profile was already well established. Given at this time (day 60), doses that were protective when given early (from day 0) were rapidly fatal. A physiological dose of the glucocorticoid corticosterone was also rapidly fatal. However when the corticosterone and the anti-glucocorticoid (AED or DHEA) were co-administered, there was protection, with restoration of a Th1-dominated cytokine profile, enhanced DTH responses, and enhanced expression of IL-1 alpha and TNF alpha. Therefore this combination of steroids has an emergent property that is quite unlike that of either type of steroid given alone. It may be possible to exploit the ant-inflammatory properties of glucocorticoids while preserving a Th1 bias, by combining glucocorticoids with DHEA or suitable metabolites.  (+info)

Maternal adrenocortical hormones maintain the early development of pancreatic B cells in the fetal rat. (2/3099)

To investigate the effect of maternal adrenocortical hormones on the development of fetal pancreatic islet cells, pregnant rats were adrenalectomised on d 6 of gestation. On d 12-16 the growth patterns of fetal insulin-producing B cells, glucagon-producing A cells, and somatostatin-producing D cells were observed histometrically. Maternal adrenalectomy resulted in growth retardation of fetal B cells on d 12-15. Maternal corticosterone therapy prevented this retardation. Maternal adrenalectomy, however, did not affect the developmental patterns of A and D cells. By Western blotting and immunohistochemistry, glucocorticoid receptors were demonstrated to be present in the islet cells from d 12 to d 15. These results suggest that maternal adrenocortical hormones, glucocorticoids in particular, maintain the early development of fetal pancreatic B cells through their specific intracellular glucocorticoid receptor.  (+info)

The Ca2+ channel blockade changes the behavioral and biochemical effects of immobilization stress. (3/3099)

We investigated how the effects of chronic immobilization stress in rats are modified by Ca2+ channel blockade preceding restraint sessions. The application of nifedipine (5 mg/kg) shortly before each of seven daily 2 h restraint sessions prevented the development of sensitized response to amphetamine as well as the stress-induced elevation of the densities of L-type Ca2+ channel in the hippocampus and significantly reduced the elevation of the densities of [3H]nitrendipine binding sites in the cortex and D1 dopamine receptors in the limbic forebrain. Neither stress, nor nifedipine affected the density of alpha 1-adrenoceptors and D1 receptors in the cerebral cortex nor D2 dopamine receptors in the striatum. A single restraint session caused an elevation of blood corticosterone level that remained unaffected by nifedipine pretreatment, but the reduction of this response during the eighth session was significantly less expressed in nifedipine-treated rats. We conclude that L-type calcium channel blockade prevents development of several stress-induced adaptive responses.  (+info)

Relationships between environmental organochlorine contaminant residues, plasma corticosterone concentrations, and intermediary metabolic enzyme activities in Great Lakes herring gull embryos. (4/3099)

Experiments were conducted to survey and detect differences in plasma corticosterone concentrations and intermediary metabolic enzyme activities in herring gull (Larus argentatus) embryos environmentally exposed to organochlorine contaminants in ovo. Unincubated fertile herring gull eggs were collected from an Atlantic coast control site and various Great Lakes sites in 1997 and artificially incubated in the laboratory. Liver and/or kidney tissues from approximately half of the late-stage embryos were analyzed for the activities of various intermediary metabolic enzymes known to be regulated, at least in part, by corticosteroids. Basal plasma corticosterone concentrations were determined for the remaining embryos. Yolk sacs were collected from each embryo and a subset was analyzed for organochlorine contaminants. Regression analysis of individual yolk sac organochlorine residue concentrations, or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs), with individual basal plasma corticosterone concentrations indicated statistically significant inverse relationships for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), non-ortho PCBs, and TEQs. Similarly, inverse relationships were observed for the activities of two intermediary metabolic enzymes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and malic enzyme) when regressed against PCDDs/PCDFs. Overall, these data suggest that current levels of organochlorine contamination may be affecting the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and associated intermediary metabolic pathways in environmentally exposed herring gull embryos in the Great Lakes.  (+info)

Increased neurodegeneration during ageing in mice lacking high-affinity nicotine receptors. (5/3099)

We have examined neuroanatomical, biochemical and endocrine parameters and spatial learning in mice lacking the beta2 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) during ageing. Aged beta2(-/-) mutant mice showed region-specific alterations in cortical regions, including neocortical hypotrophy, loss of hippocampal pyramidal neurons, astro- and microgliosis and elevation of serum corticosterone levels. Whereas adult mutant and control animals performed well in the Morris maze, 22- to 24-month-old beta2(-/-) mice were significantly impaired in spatial learning. These data show that beta2 subunit-containing nAChRs can contribute to both neuronal survival and maintenance of cognitive performance during ageing. beta2(-/-) mice may thus serve as one possible animal model for some of the cognitive deficits and degenerative processes which take place during physiological ageing and in Alzheimer's disease, particularly those associated with dysfunction of the cholinergic system.  (+info)

High-temperature effects on antibody response to viral antigen in mice. (6/3099)

To determine the effects of high-temperature exposure on antibody response to viral antigen in mice, male BALB/c mice were placed for 13 days in animal chambers at 23 degrees C, 32 degrees C, and 35.5 degrees C. Rectal temperature rose from 37 degrees C to 39 degrees C on day 1 in a 35.5 degrees C environment. The rectal temperature was kept constant throughout the exposure period. The IgG-antibody to Sendai virus (SV) antigen was inhibited to about 50% of the control value (23 degrees C). The serum corticosterone concentration indicating thermal stress increased steadily, peaking on day 1 and then gradually decreased and recovered to the normal level on day 13. Body weight decreased to about 72% of the controls on day 13. Thymus and spleen weight decreased to 31.7% and 61.5% respectively. At 32 degrees C, these effects were less than at 35.5 degrees C. Effects of high-temperature exposure at 35.5 degrees C appeared to noticeably decrease thymus and spleen weight. It is clear that IgG-antibody response to SV antigen is suppressed by high-temperature exposure.  (+info)

Central administration of rat IL-6 induces HPA activation and fever but not sickness behavior in rats. (7/3099)

Interleukin (IL)-6 has been proposed to mediate several sickness responses, including brain-mediated neuroendocrine, temperature, and behavioral changes. However, the exact mechanisms and sites of action of IL-6 are still poorly understood. In the present study, we describe the effects of central administration of species-homologous recombinant rat IL-6 (rrIL-6) on the induction of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity, fever, social investigatory behavior, and immobility. After intracerebroventricular administration of rrIL-6 (50 or 100 ng/rat), rats demonstrated HPA and febrile responses. In contrast, rrIL-6 alone did not induce changes in social investigatory and locomotor behavior at doses of up to 400 ng/rat. Coadministration of rrIL-6 (100 ng/rat) and rrIL-1beta (40 ng/rat), which alone did not affect the behavioral responses, reduced social investigatory behavior and increased the duration of immobility. Compared with rhIL-6, intracerebroventricular administration of rrIL-6 (100 ng/rat) induced higher HPA responses and early-phase febrile responses. This is consistent with a higher potency of rrIL-6, compared with rhIL-6, in the murine B9 bioassay. We conclude that species-homologous rrIL-6 alone can act in the brain to induce HPA and febrile responses, whereas it only reduces social investigatory behavior and locomotor activity in the presence of IL-1beta.  (+info)

Hypertension in mice lacking 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2. (8/3099)

Deficiency of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11beta-HSD2) in humans leads to the syndrome of apparent mineralocorticoid excess (SAME), in which cortisol illicitly occupies mineralocorticoid receptors, causing sodium retention, hypokalemia, and hypertension. However, the disorder is usually incompletely corrected by suppression of cortisol, suggesting additional and irreversible changes, perhaps in the kidney. To examine this further, we produced mice with targeted disruption of the 11beta-HSD2 gene. Homozygous mutant mice (11beta-HSD2(-/-)) appear normal at birth, but approximately 50% show motor weakness and die within 48 hours. Both male and female survivors are fertile but exhibit hypokalemia, hypotonic polyuria, and apparent mineralocorticoid activity of corticosterone. Young adult 11beta-HSD2(-/-) mice are markedly hypertensive, with a mean arterial blood pressure of 146 +/- 2 mmHg, compared with 121 +/- 2 mmHg in wild-type controls and 114 +/- 4 mmHg in heterozygotes. The epithelium of the distal tubule of the nephron shows striking hypertrophy and hyperplasia. These histological changes do not readily reverse with mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism in adulthood. Thus, 11beta-HSD2(-/-) mice demonstrate the major features of SAME, providing a unique rodent model to study the molecular mechanisms of kidney resetting leading to hypertension.  (+info)

We assessed the relationship between changes in corticosterone concentrations and hearing in mice exposed to noise during the light (inactive) and dark (active) phases. Serum corticosterone concentrations and hearing levels were measured before, and 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 days after, noise exposure between 8:00-11:00 h and 15:00-18:00 h. Serum corticosterone concentrations were significantly lower at 8:00-11:00 h than at 15:00-18:00 h and were significantly lower before than after noise exposure. In addition, serum corticosterone concentrations were significantly lower at 11:00 h after noise exposure than at 18:00 h before noise exposure. Mice exposed to noise at 8:00-11:00 h showed significantly elevated threshold shifts after noise exposure than did mice exposed to noise at 15:00-18:00 h. Endogenous serum corticosterone concentration has a significant effect on hearing after noise exposure. Noise exposure during the inactive phase of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis may be more harmful to the
Repeated exposure to stressful situations has been shown to increase individual reactivity to addictive drugs. However, the biological factors involved in such stress-induced changes are largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of corticosterone in the effects of restraint Stress on the response to psychostimulants and opioids. The effects of repeated restraint stress on amphetamine- and morphine-induced locomotor activity were compared in: (i) animals with an intact hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis; (ii) animals in which stress-induced corticosterone secretion was blocked by adrenalectomy, but who received exogenous corticosterone from a subcutaneous implant. The implanted pellets (50 mg) slowly release corticosterone producing a stable plasma level within the normal physiological range over a period of 20 days. Restraint stress increased the locomotor response to both amphetamine (1.5 mg/kg i.p.) and morphine (2 mg/kg s.c.) in animals with an intact HPA axis, but not in ...
The aim of the present study was to investigate possible membrane and genomic effects of corticosterone on the noradrenergic system of the rat brain. Corticosterone effects were studied in vivo by treating rats s.c. with 10 mg/kg corticosterone for 7 or 14 days. In the first two experiments corticosterone significantly decreased the noradrenaline (NA) and dopamine (DA) levels in the pons-medulla, an area which contains the A1-A7 noradrenergic cell groups, while the NA and DA levels in the dorsal hippocampus remained unchanged. In a third experiment where the locus coeruleus (LC) and the A1 and A2 nuclei (A1,A2) were analysed separately, NA levels were unchanged but total MHPG levels and the total MHPG/NA ratio were decreased in the A1,A2 area. Chronic corticosterone treatment (14 days) did not alter the α2-adrenoceptor-mediated modulation of [3H]NA release from dorsal hippocampal slices. Neither the spontaneous outflow nor the electrically stimulated release of [3H]NA from dorsal hippocampal ...
The results of this study indicate that MA causes sex-dependent activation of the HPA axis with females showing a more prolonged elevation in plasma corticosterone compared to males. In females, the plasma corticosterone response following MA exposure peaked at 70 min post injection and subsequently decreased, but remained elevated above baseline levels at 120 min. In males, MA induced an earlier peak plasma corticosterone response at 30 min with a faster decline by 70 min and levels similar to baseline at 120 min. This sex difference in HPA axis activation with greater plasma corticosterone responses in females than males is similar to that observed in adult rodents following novelty and restraint stress (Handa et al. 1994a, 2009; Zuloaga et al. 2011), as well as administration of pharmacological agents such as the SSRI citalopram (Goel et al. 2011). Furthermore, the pattern of sex difference in HPA axis activation seen in the current study is similar to that seen following chronic exposure to ...
Adolescence is a critical period with ongoing maturational processes in stress-sensitive systems. While adolescent individuals show heightened stress-induced hormonal responses compared to adults, it is unclear whether and how the behavioral and neurobiological consequences of chronic stress would differ between the two age groups. Here we address this issue by examining the effects of chronic exposure to the stress hormone, corticosterone (CORT), in both adolescent and adult animals. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intraperitoneally with CORT (40 mg/kg) or vehicle for 21 days during adolescence (post-natal day (PND) 29-49) or adulthood (PND 71-91) and then subjected to behavioral testing or sacrifice for western blot analyses. Despite of similar physical and neuroendocrine effects in both age groups, chronic CORT treatment produced a series of behavioral and neurobiological effects with striking age differences. While CORT-treated adult animals exhibited decreased sucrose preference, increased
The role of the vagal nerve within the immune system has not been fully elucidated. Vagal afferents connect to several central nervous system structures, including the hypothalamus. We investigated the effect of vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) on serum corticosterone levels in rats. Corticosterone levels were measured following 1 h of high frequency (30 Hz) or low frequency (1 Hz) VNS in awake animals. There was a significant increase (p < 0.05) in serum corticosterone levels following 30 Hz VNS compared to 1 Hz VNS or sham stimulation. These results suggest an immediate effect of VNS on the hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and support the role of the vagal nerve in immunomodulation. ...
1. in order to examine the effects of corticosterone in the anxiety response, the effect of acute, subchronic and chronic corticosterone (CORT) administration were studied using two animal models to study using two animal models to study anxiolytic effects of drugs: the elevated plus-maze and the blockade of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced clonic convulsion.2. the results obtained with the plus-maze showed an increase in the percentage of open arm entries and time spent in the open arms after acute treatment with the CORT. These results may be interpreted as an anxiolytic effect of corticosterone. Three days of vehicle treatment followed by an acute CORT administration, produced results that should also indicate anxiolytic effect of the corticosteroid. No effect was seen after 14 days of vehicle treatment followed by an acute CORT injection. Subchronic or chronic CORT treatment did not produce results different from controls. CORT treatment did not affect the PTZ-induced clonic convulsion.3. in ...
These experiments provide evidence that postnatal adoptions and separations have different behavioral and endocrine effects on the adult offspring, depending on the time of the postnatal treatment. Adult rats that have undergone a 1 min separation within the first 3-6 hr of life display an increased locomotor reactivity to novelty and decreased recognition capacities in a Y-maze test, but no changes of spatial learning in a water maze. The early separation also prolongs stress-induced corticosterone secretion. The adoption procedure carried out on day 1 prevents all of these long-term effects induced by the early separation. In contrast, adult offspring of day 5 and 12 adoptions exhibit increased locomotor reactivity to novelty and impaired spatial learning in the water maze, and rats adopted at day 12 demonstrate impaired recognition memory at the 6 hr delay. Moreover, both later adoptions have long-term endocrine effects in that stress-induced corticosterone secretion is prolonged in the adult ...
Saito, E; Mukai, M; Muraki, T; Ichikawa, Y; and Homma, M, "Inhibitory effects of corticosterone on cell proliferation and stero- idogenesis in the mouse adrenal tumor cell line y-1." (1979). Subject Strain Bibliography 1979. 2174 ...
In the study, the researchers stimulated an aggression-related part of the rat hypothalamus. The rats suddenly released the stress hormone corticosterone (similar to cortisol, which humans release under stress) - even without another rat present. Rats dont usually respond in this way unless they face an opponent or another severe stressor. Lead author Menno Kruk said, "It is well known that these stress hormones, in part by mobilizing energy reserves, prepare the physiology of the body to fight or flee during stress. Now it appears that the very same hormones talk back to the brain in order to facilitate fighting.". To study the hypothesized feedback loop from the other direction, the scientists removed the rats adrenal glands to prevent any natural release of corticosterone. Then researchers injected the rats with corticosterone. Within minutes of injection, the hormone facilitated stimulation evoked attack behavior. Thus, in rapid order, stimulating the hypothalamic attack area led to ...
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is known to play a major role in coordinating neuroendocrine and behavioral responses to stress. We demonstrate that expression of the CRF1 receptor (CRF-R1) is regulated by stress in the brain and by agonist treatments in cultured cells. Expression of CRF-R1 mRNA was decreased in the frontal cortex but increased in the hippocampus by chronic unpredictable stress. Chronic corticosterone administration did not influence levels of CRF-R1 mRNA in either region, suggesting that regulation of CRF-R1 expression is mediated by CRF itself or by another stress-related factor. Differential regulation of CRF-R1 mRNA by agonist treatment was also observed in two cultured cell lines. In CATH.a cells, a neuron-derived cell line, incubation with CRF decreased levels of CRF-R1 mRNA, whereas in AtT-20 cells, a pituitary-derived cell line, agonist (CRF) treatment increased levels of CRF-R1 mRNA. Further studies demonstrated that the observed changes in both cell lines could be ...
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Maternal stress can impair foetal development and program sex-specific disease outcomes in offspring through the actions of maternally produced glucocorticoids, predominantly corticosterone (Cort) in rodents. We have demonstrated in mice that male but not female offspring prenatally exposed to Cort (33 µg/kg/h for 60 h beginning at E12.5) develop cardiovascular/renal dysfunction at 12 months. At 6 months of age, renal function was normal but male offspring had increased plasma aldosterone concentrations, suggesting that altered adrenal function may precede disease. This study investigated the long-term impact of prenatal exposure to Cort on adrenal growth, morphology and steroidogenic capacity as well as plasma Cort concentrations in offspring at postnatal day 30 (PN30), 6 months and 12 months of age. Prenatal Cort exposure decreased adrenal volume, particularly of the zona fasciculata, in male offspring at PN30 but increased both relative and absolute adrenal weight at 6 months of age. By 12 ...
Immunoreactive corticosterone and corticosterone metabolites (ICCM) were quantified in excreta of permanently single housed (n=10) and permanently pair housed (n=20) roosters. The pair housed roosters were separated and single housed, and ICCM were quantified in the droppings before and during 15 days after separation. There was no statistically significant difference in ICCM excretion in the droppings between the permanently single or pair housed roosters. After separation, however, the previously pair housed roosters showed a significantly transient elevated excretion of ICCM in droppings the second day after separation indicating that the separation and relocation is associated with an activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. The excretion of ICCM in droppings was not correlated to the concentration of ICCM in droppings. It is thus important that excretion of ICCM be expressed as amount excreted per time unit since the total excretion is dependant on both concentration of ICCM ...
Results By comparing gene expression profiles in RNA from mice treated with corticosterone or placebo, we found that corticosterone specifically regulated 391 genes. To further investigate the genes targeted by corticosterone treatment we performed gene ontology analysis with the aid of heat maps. We found that the expression of genes implicated in osteoblast differentiation and the regulation of bone remodelling was downregulated in mice treated with corticosterone compared to placebo. We observed a downregulation of the osteoblast markers Runx2, Colα1, osteocalcin and sclerostin in corticosterone-treated mice compared to placebo. In addition BMP4 and BMP7 followed the same pattern. Genes that were most profoundly downregulated in the array analysis were validated by qRT-PCR.. Consistent with mRNA levels, osteocalcin serum levels were suppressed to almost undetectable levels.. ...
A STRESSFUL life in the womb is known to affect adult behaviour in both animals and humans. But stress is a complex biological phenomenon, so scientists have found it hard to pin down the mechanism for this link. Now a team of researchers in France says that the stress hormone corticosterone is to blame. They …
Facial vein (cheek blood) and caudal vein (tail blood) phlebotomy are two commonly used techniques for obtaining blood samples from laboratory mice, while automated blood sampling through a permanent catheter is a relatively new technique in mice. The present study compared physiological parameters, glucocorticoid dynamics as well as the behavior of mice sampled repeatedly for 24 h by cheek blood, tail blood or automated blood sampling from the carotid artery. Mice subjected to cheek blood sampling lost significantly more body weight, had elevated levels of plasma corticosterone, excreted more fecal corticosterone metabolites, and expressed more anxious behavior than did the mice of the other groups. Plasma corticosterone levels of mice subjected to tail blood sampling were also elevated, although less significantly. Mice subjected to automated blood sampling were less affected with regard to the parameters measured, and expressed less anxious behavior. We conclude that repeated blood sampling ...
1. Isolated hind limbs of rats were perfused and vascular smooth muscle sensitivity to noradrenaline, methoxamine and potassium chloride was measured and dose-response curves were obtained.. 2. The sensitivity of vascular smooth muscle to noradrenaline is attenuated by adrenalectomy and low sodium diet; it is enhanced by corticosterone. High sodium diet or administration of deoxycorticosterone did not alter the dose-response curve significantly.. 3. The increased sensitivity of vascular smooth muscle after corticosterone treatment is not related to changes in the contractile protein or alterations in the neuronal uptake and extraneuronal metabolism of noradrenaline.. 4. These results suggest that the increased sensitivity in corticosterone-treated rats may be due to the number of receptors, receptor affinity to noradrenaline, or changes in the functional link between receptor and contractile apparatus.. ...
The effects of corticosterone (CORT) administration on the development of muscular tissues of broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) fed with diets differing in lipid content were investigated. The experimental chickens were given one of two exp
Systemic injections of opiate agonists were made in male rats to elucidate the involvement of multiple opioid receptors in the stress response. As an index of activity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, plasma corticosterone was measured by radioimmunoassay. Rats were injected with ethylketocyclazocine (EKC), U50488H, MR2034, bremazocine or tifluadom and sacrificed 1 hr later. These kappa agonists produced potent, dose-dependent, stereospecific increases in plasma corticosterone levels at doses far below those needed to elicit analgesia. These effects were reversed by opiate antagonists, naloxone or Win 44441-3, which by themselves caused dose-dependent decreases in plasma corticosterone. Animals made tolerant to the prototype kappa agonist, U50488H, showed an attenuated response to an acute injection of the drug. However, when animals made tolerant to morphine were injected acutely with U50488H, the drug caused a dramatic increase in corticosterone levels. In hypophysectomized ...
Preadipocytes (3T3 L1) were used between 7 and 14 days after differentiation; they were incubated with 44 nM 3H-esterone. The medium was supplemented with 1 μM recombinant murine leptin, 10 nM recombinant human insulin, or 1 μM corticosterone for up to 72 hr. In a second series of experiments, cells were incubated for 48 hr with different concentrations of leptin, insulin or corticosterone, and compared with controls (plain medium). Cells were harvested, washed in buffer and homogenized, and protein was measured. Lipid extracts of cell homogenates were used for HPLC; the label distribution in free and acyl-estrone peaks was measured. Overall uptake of estrone (i.e., the sum of free and acyl-estrone) by cells was not affected by leptin or corticosterone, but strongly reduced by insulin. Leptin and corticosterone increased the synthesis of acyl-esterone in a dose- and time-dependent way. Insulin decreased acyl-estrone synthesis at low concentrations and with little change over time. The results ...
Cushings syndrome and glucocorticoid therapy lead to central obesity, insulin resistance, and symptoms of altered energy regulation similar to those observed in the metabolic syndrome. We hypothesized that excess glucocorticoids alter energy sensing/signaling in skeletal muscle through mediation of the LKB1/AMPK signaling pathway. To test this hypothesis, three 100 mg pellets of corticosterone were implanted subcutaneously in each of nine rats for two weeks. Responses were compared with sham operated controls fed ad libitum or food restricted to produce the body weights similar to the treatment group rats. After the treatment period, animals were anesthetized and the right gastrocnemius-plantaris and soleus were removed for analysis. After tibial nerve stimulation for 5 min, the left gastrocnemius-plantaris and soleus were also removed. We assessed AMPK activity and subunit expression, as well as several metabolic indicators including ATP, creatine phosphate, creatine, glycogen, and malonyl-CoA levels
4 ± 5.4%, n = 4), p < 0.01; ethanol + MRS + KRGE60 group vs. ethanol + eticlopride + KRGE60. group (10.2 ± 2.5%, n = 4), p < 0.01; ethanol + MRS + KRGE60 group vs. ethanol + SCH23390 + KRGE60 group (27.4 ± 6.1%, n = 4), p > 0.05] ( Fig. 3B). Taken together, these results suggest that the anxiolytic effects of KRGE during EW were mediated by D2R in the CeA. Plasma CORT levels, a hormonal marker of anxiety in rats, were measured with an RIA to confirm the anxiolytic Dabrafenib solubility dmso effects of KRGE. Plasma CORT levels were significantly higher in ethanol-treated control rats (858.4 ± 181.3, n = 4) than in saline-treated controls [F (3, 13) = 18.2, p < 0.001; ethanol-treated control group (858.4 ± 181.3, n = 4) vs. saline-treated control group (318.6 ± 57.3, n = 5), p < 0.001]. Also in agreement with the behavioral data, the administration of both doses of KRGE significantly inhibited EW-related increases in plasma CORT levels [ethanol-treated control group vs. ethanol + KRGE 20 ...
We administered corticosterone to wild-type and Pomc−/− mice for 10 days, achieving comparable plasma corticosterone and hypothalamic CRH expression levels. Only in the Pomc−/− mice did this cause increased body weight and fat mass. An increase in food intake was also only seen in Pomc-null mice, with this exacerbation of preexisting hyperphagia likely to be as a result of a corticosterone-dependent increase in the expression of the orexigenic neuropeptide, AgRP.. Ten days of glucocorticoid treatment did not increase blood glucose levels but did increase plasma insulin levels in both wild-type and Pomc−/− mice. However, the absolute plasma insulin levels measured and fold increase from control were markedly higher in Pomc-null mice. Furthermore, corticosterone treatment to mice from weaning resulted in a progressive rise in blood glucose and frank diabetes by 10-12 weeks only in Pomc−/− mice, having no such effect in wild-type animals.. Two other groups have investigated the ...
Chronic stress often affects growth and development negatively, and these effects are often mediated via glucocorticoid hormones, which elevate during stress. We investigated latitudinal variation in corticosterone (CORT) response to chronic predator stress in Rana temporaria tadpoles along a 1500-km latitudinal cline in Sweden tadpoles, in a laboratory experiment. We hypothesized that more time-constrained high-latitude populations have evolved a lower CORT response to chronic stress to maintain higher growth under stressful conditions. Southern tadpoles had higher CORT content in response to predators after 1 day of exposure, whereas there was no increase in CORT in the northern populations. Two weeks later, there were no predator-induced CORT elevations. Artificially elevated CORT levels strongly decreased growth, development and survival in both northern and southern tadpoles. We suggest that the lower CORT response in high-latitude populations can be connected with avoidance of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Determination of corticosterone in rat and mouse plasma by gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring mass spectrometry. AU - Shu, Pin Yen. AU - Chou, Shiu Huey. AU - Lin, Cheng Huang. PY - 2003/1/5. Y1 - 2003/1/5. N2 - A simple, highly sensitive and specific method based on gas-chromatography-selected ion monitoring (SIM) mass spectrometry has been developed for the quantitation of corticosterone in rat and mouse plasma. After extraction of the plasma with ethyl acetate, the residue was trimethy-silylated with pentafluorobenzyl hydroxylamine-trimethylsilyl (PFBO-TMS). Detection of the derivatives was accomplished by a quadruple mass spectrometer in the selected ion monitoring mode (m/z of 316, 648, 663 and 678). The detection limit of the assay was 0.1 pg on column. The results show that in the plasma of non-stressed animals, only minor amounts of corticosterone were found; whereas in the plasma of stressed animals, it was dramatically increased. The method developed here can be ...
This study examined the effects of highly palatable food during adolescence on the psycho-emotional and neural disturbances caused by early life stress experience in female rats. Female Sprague-Dawley pups were separated from dam for 3 h daily during the first two weeks of birth (MS) or left undisturbed (NH). Half of MS females received free access to chocolate cookies in addition to ad libitum chow from postnatal day 28. Pups were subjected to the behavioral tests during young adulthood. The plasma corticosterone response to acute stress, ΔFosB and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in the brain regions were analyzed. Total caloric intake and body weight gain during the whole experimental period did not differ among the experimental groups. Cookie access during adolescence and youth improved anxiety-/depression-like behaviors by MS experience. ΔFosB expression was decreased, but BDNF was increased in the nucleus accumbens of MS females, and ΔFosB expression was normalized and ...
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Pyramidal neurons in the rat CA1 hippocampal area contain intracellular mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) and glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) to which the adrenal hormone corticosterone can bind with differential affinity. The pyramidal neurons also have high amounts of 5-HT1a receptors, which mediate a membrane hyperpolarization. With intracellular recording in vitro, we found that selective occupation of MRs suppresses the 5-HT-induced hyperpolarization of CA1 pyramidal neurons. The suppression of 5-HT responses was observed 1-4 hr after a brief (20-min) application of the steroids. Binding properties of the 5- HT1a receptor were not significantly affected by in vitro steroid application. Furthermore, responses to the GABAB agonist baclofen were not changed after treatment with MR ligands, implying that the K+ conductance to which both GABAB and 5-HT1a receptors are linked is also no target for the steroid action. The MR-mediated effect on 5-HT responsiveness potentially enhances cellular ...
Comparisons of hypothalamic dysfunction between Huntington’s Disease (HD) patients and rodent models of HD have not always yielded similar results. Cortisol levels in HD patients have been contradictory, with reports ranging from hypo- to hypercorticoidism of morning measurements. Initial reports of major elevations in circulating corticosterone levels in the R6/2 mouse model of HD have only been followed up in one other closely related model, the R6/1 mouse, and the results were not perfectly congruent. To determine if abnormal stress hormones were a characteristic of disease, we examined diurnal and stress-induced corticosterone levels in multiple HD mouse models ...
Corticosterone ELISA Kit is an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the quantitative detection of corticosterone in serum and plasma and in extracted fecal samples. (KA3385) - Products - Abnova
The stress response is an important component of an individuals suite of physiological and behavioural responses to environmental events. As such, research into both the physiological consequences of stress and the evolutionary constraints imposed by the response to stress have recently become significant areas of research. The commonly used surrogates of stress are the glucocorticoid steroids produced by the adrenal cortex. These hormones (primarily cortisol in primates, and corticosterone in birds, reptiles and rodents) are released in response to stressful environmental events, and are crucial in initiating the `flight or fight response as well as a range of essential physiological and behavioural reactions to stress (Nelson, 1995). These include increasing the peripheral blood supply, reducing digestive processes and mobilising glucose reserves (Silverin, 1998; Buchanan, 2000; Sapolsky et al., 2000); as well as reducing reproductive activity, and increasing both foraging and escape ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Plasma levels of corticosterone in methylandrostenediol-salt-induced hypertension. by Paul M. Hyde et al.
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Detect and quantitate human corticosterone in serum, buffered solution, and cell culture supernatants using a homogeneous AlphaLISA no-wash assay.
Stress is known to induce dendritic hypertrophy in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and to enhance anxiety. Stress also leads to secretion of glucocorticoids (GC), and the BLA has a high concentration of glucocorticoid receptors. This raises the possibility that stress-induced elevation in GC secretion might directly affect amygdaloid neurons. To address the possible effects of GC on neurons of amygdala and on anxiety, we used rats treated either acutely with a single dose or chronically with 10 daily doses of high physiological levels of corticosterone (the rat-specific glucocorticoid). Behavior and morphological changes in neurons of BLA were measured 12 days after the initiation of treatment in both groups. A single acute dose of corticosterone was sufficient to induce dendritic hypertrophy in the BLA and heightened anxiety, as measured on an elevated plus maze. Moreover, this form of dendritic hypertrophy after acute treatment was of a magnitude similar to that caused by chronic treatment. ...
Techniques. Rodent models of infectious diseases and cancer with emphasis on the immune system and toxicology; flow cytometry; luminescent imaging using mice with reporter genes (NF-kappaB); microarray analysis (transcriptomics); Ingenuity pathway analysis; immunological assays such as commercial or customized ELISA, multiplexed bead array (Luminex), NK cell assay, total and specific antibodies, differential cell counts; general assays for, apoptosis; cellular viability; cell cycle analysis; cellular signaling (by western blot and using ELISA-like kits); transcription factor activation/inhibition. Circular dichroism to evaluate conformational change in purified proteins (in collaboration with Ed Lewis in the Department of Chemistry); mouse model for binge drinking of alcohol; mouse and rat models of stress effects, including quantitative assessment using area under the corticosterone concentration vs. time curve; distinguishing stress effects from other mechanisms of action of immunotoxicants; ...
The effect of the presence either of a familiar or non-familiar conspecific animal on serum corticosterone and some behavioral responses in the open field was studied in male Sprague-Dawley rats....
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In the study of `Dietary Vitamin E Deficiency Increases Anxiety-Like Behavior in Juvenile and Adult Rats`by Terada Y, Okura Y, Kikusui T, Takenaka A., posted in US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, researchers found that plasma corticosterone concentrations were higher in the vitamin E-deficient rats in response to the stress of a behavioral test. Based on these results, we conclude that dietary vitamin-E deficiency induces anxiety in adult rats as well as juvenile rats. This might be due to an elevated plasma corticosterone concentration ...
The influence of a chronic social stress upon immunity was investigated in Wistar rats, submitted for four weeks to two different behavioral situations, balanced in a factorial design: housing with three females and membership rotation. The combination of these two factor led to adrenal enlargement (43.3%), thymus involution (39.5%) and increased basal corticosterone levels, all indices of activation of the hypothalamic-hypophysis-adrenal axis. However, neither natural killer cell activity, splenocyte reactivity to mitogen nor the rate of spontaneous development of antibodies against Mycoplasma pulmonis, a common pathogen of the respiratory tract, were changed in the endocrine activated animals. Analysis of the data on kinetics of stress at 1, 7 and 28 days after the initial mixing of the animals gave the same results. These data question the immunosuppressant activity usually conferred to corticosteroids, at least when adrenal hyperactivity is induced by chronic environmental ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The CNS site of glucocorticoid negative feedback during LPS- and psychological stress-induced fevers. AU - Morrow, Lee E.. AU - McClellan, Jennifer L.. AU - Klir, John J.. AU - Kluger, Matthew J.. PY - 1996/9/1. Y1 - 1996/9/1. N2 - Glucocorticoids exert negative feedback in the anterior hypothalamus (AH) during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced fevers, but the central location of their negative feedback during psychological stress-induced fever has not been determined. To confirm that glucocorticoid modulation of LPS fever occurs in the AH, adrenalectomized animals were injected intrahypothalamically with either 0.25 ng of corticosterone or vehicle followed by 50 μg/kg LPS intraperitoneally. Animals pretreated with corticosterone developed significantly smaller fevers (P = 0.007) than animals given vehicle. To determine if glucocorticold modulation during psychological stress-induced fever may occur in the hippocampus, the fornix was transected to block hippocampal communication ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Glucocorticoid negative feedback selectively targets vasopressin transcription in parvocellular neurosecretory neurons. AU - Kovács, Krisztina J.. AU - Földes, Anna. AU - Sawchenko, Paul E.. PY - 2000/5/15. Y1 - 2000/5/15. N2 - To identify molecular targets of corticosteroid negative feedback effects on neurosecretory neurons comprising the central limb of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, we monitored ether stress effects on corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) heteronuclear RNA (hnRNA) expression in rats that were intact or adrenalectomized (ADX) and replaced with corticosterone (B) at constant levels ranging from nil to peak stress concentrations. Under basal conditions, relative levels of both primary transcripts varied inversely as a function of plasma B titers. In response to stress, the kinetics of CRF hnRNA responses of intact and ADX rats replaced with low B were similar, peaking at 5 min after stress. By contrast, intact rats ...
A seminal review in Frank Moores lab confirmed that acute exposure to either endogenous or exogenous corticosterone exposure caused male rough-skinned newts (Taricha granulosa) to exhibit lowered clasping of girls, a courtship behavior that normally lasts hrs or times (Moore & Miller 1984). Importantly, the inhibition of the behavior occurs eight minutes soon after corticosterone publicity (Orchinik et al. 1991). Membrane-sure corticosterone receptors, which do not migrate towards the nucleus, ended up also uncovered from the newt Mind (Orchinik et al. 1991, 1992). These conclusions are essential given that they exhibit that reproductive actions can be quickly downregulated adhering to the discharge of corticosterone. A lot of mating and courtship behaviors are conspicuous, which enhances the risk of predation (Cooper 1999). This may clarify why anxiety-response devices which are activated by predators rapidly downregulate reproductive things to do inside the confront of threats. In woman ...
Although prolonged stress and corticosteroid exposure induce morphological changes in the hippocampal CA3 area, the adult CA1 area is quite resistant to such changes. Here we addressed the question whether elevated corticosteroid hormone levels change dendritic complexity in young, developing CA1 cells. In organotypic cultures (prepared from P5 rats) that were 14-21 days cultured in vitro, two doses of corticosterone (30 and 100 nM) were tested. Dendritic morphology of CA1 neurons was established by imaging neurons filled with the fluorescent dye Alexa. Application of 100 nM corticosterone for 20 minutes induced atrophy of the apical dendritic tree 1-4 hours later. Fractal analysis showed that total neuronal complexity was reduced twofold when compared with vehicle-treated neurons. Exposing organotypic slices to 30 nM corticosterone reduced apical length in a more delayed manner: only neurons examined more than 2 hours after exposure to corticosterone showed atrophy of the apical dendritic tree. ...
Light plays a critical role in the regulation of numerous aspects of physiology and behaviour, including the entrainment of circadian rhythms and the regulation of sleep. These responses involve melanopsin (OPN4)-expressing photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (pRGCs) in addition to rods and cones. Nocturnal light exposure in rodents has been shown to result in rapid sleep induction, in which melanopsin plays a key role. However, studies have also shown that light exposure can result in elevated corticosterone, a response that is not compatible with sleep. To investigate these contradictory findings and to dissect the relative contribution of pRGCs and rods/cones, we assessed the effects of light of different wavelengths on behaviourally defined sleep. Here, we show that blue light (470 nm) causes behavioural arousal, elevating corticosterone and delaying sleep onset. By contrast, green light (530 nm) produces rapid sleep induction. Compared to wildtype mice, these responses are altered in melanopsin
Statistical analyses were performed in R version 3.2.3 [50]. To assess diurnal trends in baseline and stress-related corticosterone release, means from birds captured during 6:09 h-8:50 h, 8:51 h-11:06 h, 11:07 h-12:49 h and 12:50 h-16:23 h sampling time periods were first compared by one-way analyses of variance (ANOVA). These 4 categories were chosen to partition the daily capture period into sequential time intervals comprising equal sample sizes (n = 23, 23, 23 and 24, respectively) of sufficient statistical power. Each of these intervals incidentally holds one of four bouts of avian activity observed to correspond with daily weather trends at the study site. Birds generally arrived at capture sites discontinuously as members of foraging flocks. These mixed groups often peaked in activity near 8:00 h as rains subsided and again around 12:00 h before winds and temperatures rose into afternoon. A third peak recurred in the hour before dusk. 9:00 h-11:00 h also often coincided with elevated ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Membrane Receptors for Corticosterone. T2 - A Mechanism for Rapid Behavioral Responses in an Amphibian. AU - Moore, Frank L.. AU - Orchinik, Miles. PY - 1994/12. Y1 - 1994/12. N2 - This paper reviews evidence that, in some cases, steroid hormones rapidly modulate behaviors by binding to specific cell-surface receptors on neurons. The evidence comes from research with an amphibian model, Taricha granulosa. In Taricha, stress and corticosterone inhibit reproductive behaviors with a rapidity that is inconsistent with traditional models for steroid action (models in which intracellular steroid receptors function as transcription factors). A series of radioligand binding assay studies identified a corticosteroid receptor in neuronal membranes that appears to mediate the rapid behavioral responses in Taricha. Studies with various steroids showed a strong correlation between their potencies to inhibit the behavior and their potencies to inhibit corticosterone binding. Neurophysiological ...
Chronic prebiotic FOS+GOS treatment exhibited both antidepressant and anxiolytic effects. Moreover, the administration of GOS and the FOS+GOS combination reduced stress-induced corticosterone release. Prebiotics modified specific gene expression in the hippocampus and hypothalamus. Regarding short-chain fatty acid concentrations, prebiotic administration increased cecal acetate and propionate and reduced isobutyrate concentrations, changes that correlated significantly with the positive effects seen on behavior. Moreover, FOS+GOS reduced chronic stress-induced elevations in corticosterone and proinflammatory cytokine levels and depression-like and anxiety-like behavior in addition to normalizing the effects of stress on the microbiota ...
article{9e9eb8dd-ba7d-45ae-a439-5616e3167fe9, abstract = {The hormone corticosterone (CORT) is an important component of a birds response to environmental stress, but it can also have negative effects. Therefore, birds on migration are hypothesized to have repressed stress responses (migration-modulation hypothesis). In contrast to earlier studies on long-distance migrants, we evaluate this hypothesis in a population containing both migratory and resident individuals. We use a population of partially migratory blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) in southern Sweden as a model species. Migrants had higher CORT levels at the time of capture than residents, indicating migratory preparations, adaptation to stressors, higher allostatic load or possibly low social status. Migrants and residents had the same stress response, thus contradicting the migration-modulation hypothesis. We suggest that migrants travelling short distances are more benefited than harmed by retaining the ability to respond to ...
An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of 2 types of housing systems and early age feed restriction on heat shock protein (hsp) 70 expression and blood parameters in broiler chickens subjected to road transportation. On d 1, female chicks were housed either in windowless environmentally controlled chambers (temperature was set at 32°C on d 1 and gradually reduced to 23°C by d 21; CH) or in conventional open-sided houses (OH) with cyclic temperatures (minimum, 24°C; maximum, 34°C). Equal number of chicks from each housing system were subjected to either ad libitum feeding or 60% feed restriction on d 4, 5, and 6 (FR). On d 42, all of the birds were crated and transported for 6 h. Birds raised in OH had smaller increases in heterophil:lymphocyte ratios and plasma corticosterone concentrations than those of CH. Subjecting birds to FR dampened heterophil:lymphocyte ratios and corticosterone reactions to transportation. After 4 h of transportation, the OH birds had greater hsp 70 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The mechanism underlying the central glucagon-induced hyperglycemia and anorexia in chicks. AU - Honda, Kazuhisa. AU - Kamisoyama, Hiroshi. AU - Uemura, Taku. AU - Yanagi, Takashi. AU - Saito, Noboru. AU - Kurose, Yohei. AU - Sugahara, Kunio. AU - Katoh, Kazuo. AU - Hasegawa, Shin. PY - 2012/11. Y1 - 2012/11. N2 - We investigated the mechanism underlying central glucagon-induced hyperglycemia and anorexia in chicks. Male 8-day-old chicks (Gallus gallus) were used in all experiments. Intracerebroventricular administration of glucagon in chicks induced hyperglycemia and anorexia from 30. min after administration. However, the plasma insulin level did not increase until 90. min after glucagon administration, suggesting that glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells may be suppressed by central glucagon. The plasma corticosterone concentration significantly increased from 30. min to 120. min after administration, suggesting that central glucagon activates the ...
Seabirds often have high loads of contaminants. These contaminants have endocrine disrupting properties but their relationships with some endocrine mechanisms are still poorly investigated in free-living organisms. This is the case for the stress response which shifts energy investment away from reproduction and redirects it towards survival. In birds, this stress response is achieved through a release of corticosterone and is also accompanied by a decrease in circulating prolactin, an anterior pituitary hormone widely involved in regulating parental cares.We measured blood concentrations of some legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) andmercury (Hg) and examined their relationshipswith the corticosterone and prolactin responses of known-age (9-46 years old) incubating snow petrels (Pagodroma nivea) to a standardized capture/handling stress protocol. In this Antarctic seabird, we also investigated whether high contaminant burden correlates with a higher occurrence of egg neglect, a ...
Abstract: alpha-Tocopherol reduced distinctly the intensity and duration of the stress reaction. Preadministration of alpha-tocopherol into animals before stress prevented the corticosterone elevation as well as the catecholamine decrease in heart muscle and adrenal glands; at the same time, the vitamin reduced 2-fold the duration of eosinopenia. Besides, the intensity of NA-3N neuronal uptake was twice increased in these tissues ...
1. The effects of replacing a 1% NaCl drinking solution with Na+-free water for 2 days on body weight and fluid and electrolyte balances were studied in adrenalectomized and sham-operated rats.. 2. Eight weeks after operation, after the animals had been drinking Na+-free water for 2 days, some adrenalectomized animals (about 75%; designated group 1) experienced body weight losses which were outside the 99% confidence limits for the sham-operated rats (- 9.2 to + 5.3 g) whereas the remainder (designated group 2) were indistinguishable from the controls.. 3. The body weight loss in group 1 was associated with negative fluid, Na+ and K+ balances. In group 2 rats, fluid balance was maintained as well as in the sham-operated rats, but their handling of Na+ and K+ was different.. 4. In a separate experiment, plasma aldosterone, corticosterone, catecholamine and solute concentrations were measured in adrenalectomized rats from groups 1 and 2 (selected on the basis of body weight loss whilst drinking ...
Citation: N/A Interpretive Summary: A line of White Leghorns birds selected for high group productivity and longevity resulted in reducing cannibalism and flightiness in multiple-bird cage. The improvements in production and survival may have been due to changes of physiologic homeostasis. The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that genetic selection for high (KGB, Kind Gentle Birds) and low (LGPS) group productivity and survivability also alters regulations of neuroendocrine homeostasis. Birds were randomly assigned to individual cages at 17 wk of age. At 21 wk of age, blood concentrations of dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and serotonin were measured using HPLC assay. Blood corticosterone level was detected using radioimmunoassay. LGPS birds had significantly higher blood concentrations of dopamine and epinephrine than the KGB birds. The blood concentration of norepinephrine was not significantly different between the lines but the ratio of epinephrine to ...
We found no significant adaptation of the HPA axis to chronic FS, but did of glucose and other variables. A single exposure to FS did not cause long-term effects on the responsiveness of the HPA axis to the same stressor in contrast to that observed after IMO. We then studied the effects of single versus repeated exposure to IMO on the HPA response to the same stressor in both sham-operated and adrenalectomized rats maintained with corticosterone in their drinking saline (ADX+B). In sham rats, daily exposure to IMO had similar effects on the HPA axis that a previous single session. In contrast, in ADX+B rats, a reduction of the ACTH response to the stressor was observed in repeated but not single IMO rats. The present result suggest that the glucocorticoids are not mandatory for the development or adaptation of the HPA axis to chronic IMO, but they may be involved in the induction or expression of long-term effects of IMO on the HPA responsiveness to the same stressor. In order to better study ...
Health, ...Overexposure to stress hormones in the womb can program the potential ... This research sheds light on how babies who are exposed in the womb t...Glucocorticoid levels may become raised during pregnancy if for examp... This has led to the concept of fetal programming suggesting that the...,Fetal,programming,of,disease,risk,to,next,generation,depends,on,parental,gender,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
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Corticosterone is a stress hormone known to modulate social aggression. The consumption of a high sucrose solution also changed the activation levels of many genes, including inflammatory genes, in brain regions associated with aggression. This study shows a clear cause and effect in animals; however, the association between aggressive behavior and sugar consumption in humans remains controversial. Studies have found associations between refined sugar intake and aggression/hyperactivity while others have not. Future clinical studies may help shed some light.. ...
In the present experiments, we used a previously validated method to selectively and chronically treat the DHB with Cort.15 This method increases Cort levels locally in DHB areas without altering plasma Cort concentration in adrenal-intact rats.7,15 We now have shown in adrenalectomized animals that the systemic spillover of Cort from the DHB pellet is both minimal and independent of the site of pellet implantation. Thus, the systemic pellet implantation serves as an adequate control for any systemic effect of the exogenous Cort. Because there was no effect of DHB Cort on the Cort response to stress, we also conclude that differences in plasma Cort levels during stress did not contribute to the enhanced arterial pressure response in the DHB Cort-treated rats.. Because the arterial pressure and heart rate responses to psychological stress are mediated primarily by the sympathetic nervous system,21 these studies support the hypothesis that chronic increases in glucocorticoids can enhance ...
Elevated serum glucocorticoid levels contribute to the progression of many diseases, including depression, Alzheimers disease, hypertension, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Here we show that the benzamide derivative N-[2-(4-cyclopropanecarbonyl-3-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-1-(tert-butyl-1H-indol-3-yl-methyl)-2-oxo-ethyl]-4-nitrobenzamide (SP-10) inhibits dibutyryl cyclic AMP (dbcAMP)-induced corticosteroid synthesis in a dose-dependent manner in Y-1 adrenal cortical mouse tumor cells, without affecting basal steroid synthesis and reduced stress-induced corticosterone increases in rats without affecting the physiological levels of the steroid in blood. SP-10 did not affect cholesterol transport and metabolism by the mitochondria but was unexpectedly found to increase 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A, low density lipoprotein receptor, and scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) expression. However, it also markedly reduced dbcAMP-induced NBD-cholesterol uptake, suggesting that this is a
Capture-related mortality has been a notable risk in the handling of eastern wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris). Our objective was to evaluate how environmental factors influence risk and identify physiological correlates that could be used to identify susceptible birds. During winter (January-March) 1995-97, 130 eastern wild turkey hens were captured in southeastern Oklahoma and radiocollared. Of those, 20 hens died ??? 14 days of capture. Serum creatine kinase activity (CK; P | 0.01), body temperature (P | 0.01), processing time (P = 0.02), and ambient temperature (P | 0.01) showed a positive relationship with mortality that occurred within 14 days of capture. Plasma corticosterone concentration (P = 0.08) and relative humidity (P | 0.01) showed a negative relationship with mortalities that occurred within 14 days post-capture. Stepwise logistic regression selected CK activity, relative humidity, and ambient temperature as the best predictors of mortality within 14 days post-capture. Our
Our results indicate that social isolation of young male rats for 30 days brings about changes in the 24-h variation of pituitary-testicular function. Overall, the secretion of prolactin, LH and testosterone decreased whereas that of FSH augmented in isolated rats. The maximum in prolactin seen in group-caged rats at the beginning of the activity span was not observed in isolated rats. In addition, the maximum in circulating testosterone taking place at the second part of rest span in controls was phase-delayed to light-dark transition in isolated rats. A decrease of plasma testosterone in isolated rats was seen only during the light phase of daily photoperiod.. Solitary housing of usually social animals such as rats and mice causes complex neurobiological changes. Socially isolated animals exhibit a decrease in the electrical activity of neurons within the hypothalamus and have lower basal plasma corticosterone levels than do animals raised in social conditions [10]. Although this could be ...
RESULTS:. We observed that increased production of hepatic H6PDH in db/db mice was paralleled by upregulation of hepatic G6PT production and responded to elevated circulating levels of corticosterone. Treatment of db/db mice with the glucocorticoid antagonist RU486 markedly reduced production of both H6PDH and 11β-HSD1 and improved hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance. The reduction of H6PDH and 11β-HSD1 production by RU486 was accompanied by RU486-induced suppression of hepatic G6pt (also known as Slc37a4) mRNA. Incubation of mouse primary hepatocytes with corticosterone enhanced G6PT and H6PDH production with corresponding activation of 11β-HSD1 and PEPCK: effects that were blocked by RU486. Knockdown of H6pd by small interfering RNA showed effects comparable with those of RU486 for attenuating the corticosterone-induced H6PDH production and 11ß-HSD1 reductase activity in these intact cells. Addition of the G6PT inhibitor chlorogenic acid to primary hepatocytes suppressed H6PDH production ...
Wiernik, P H., "Effect of starvation of intact and adrenalectomized mice bearing lymphosarcoma p1798 on tumor regression and ribonuclease activity." (1970). Subject Strain Bibliography 1970. 1576 ...
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RESULTS: A deficit in avoidance learning and higher corticosterone level were observed in learned helplessness rats. SYG significantly reduced this deficit and reversed the corticosterone alteration. CMS induced significant reduction of sucrose intake in the sucrose preference test, an increased latency to feed in the novelty-suppressed feeding test and an increased immobility time in the forced swim test as compared to the control. It was also found that BDNF and TrkB levels were decreased in CMS model. Chronic treatment of SYG significantly suppressed the behavioral changes and up-regulated the BDNF signal pathway in the hippocampus ...
Background. Previously in line with the concept of a triune neuro-endocrine-immune complex we have been carried out integrated quantitative estimation of neuroendocrine and immune responses to chronic restraint stress at male rats. At the next stage, research has been conducted in this line on female rats. In this article we give the results of quantitative evaluation of neuroendocrine responses to chronic restraint stress.. Material and methods. The experiment has been conducted on 60 white female rats Wistar line weighing 230-300 g. 10 of these animals have not subjected to any influences and 50 of them subjected to moderated stress by daily 30-minute immobilization during 7 days. The day after the completion of stressing in rats of both groups the parameters of HRV, blood levels of hormones as well as blood and urine levels Ca, P, Na and K have been registered. The thickness of glomerular, fascicular and reticular zones in sections of the adrenal glands thas been measured under a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of adrenalectomy on CCD. T2 - Evidence for diferential response of two cell types. AU - Muto, S.. AU - Giebisch, G.. AU - Sansom, S.. PY - 1987/12/1. Y1 - 1987/12/1. N2 - Electrophysiological and chemical methods were used to determine the Na and K transport properties of the isolated cortical collecting duct (CCD) of control and adrenalectomized (ADX) rabbits. Net fluxes of Na (J(Na)) and K (-J(K)) in controls were 5.7 and 3.2 pmol·mm-1·min-1 and in ADX were 1.0 and 0.7 pmol·mm-1·min-1, respectively, similar to electrically determined rates. In separate experiments, blind impalement of cells from adrenal intact (group 1), ADX (group 2), and ADX rabbits treated with deoxycorticosterone (group 3) allowed identification of two distinct cell types, majority cells (MA) and minority cells (MI). In all groups, MA were distinguished from MI by a relatively high basolateral membrane potential (-V(b)), low apical membrane fractional resistance (FR(a)), and presence of apical ...
Kroeger C, Crocker DE, Thompson DR, Torres LG, Sagar P, Shaffer SA. Variation in Corticosterone Levels in Two Species of Breeding Albatrosses with Divergent Life Histories: Responses to Body Condition and Drivers of Foraging Behavior. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology. 2019 ;92(2):223 - 238. ...
Heres what happens when we suffer from high cortisol, an excess of the stress hormone that we naturally produce. The symptoms of high cortisol can be kept under control thanks to special supplements against stress and the right levels of physical activity, to avoid the overtraining syndrome.
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Monitoring their sleeping patterns, researchers identified an increase in the duration and continuity of REM sleep and specific brain oscillations characteristic of REM sleep, whereas deep sleep, or non-REM sleep, did not change. The changes in REM sleep were very tightly linked to deficiency in the regulation of the stress hormone corticosterone. Mild stress also caused changes in gene expression in the brain. The first and most distinct consequence of daily mild stress is an increase in rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, a new study in the journal PNAS reports. The research also demonstrated that this increase is associated with genes involved in cell death and survival. REM sleep, also known as paradoxical sleep, is the sleep state during which we have most of our dreams and is involved in the regulation of emotions and memory consolidation. REM sleep disturbances are common in mood disorders, such as depression. However, little was known about how sleep changes are linked to molecular changes in the
Gulf War illness (GWI) is an archetypal, medically unexplained, chronic condition characterised by persistent sickness behaviour and neuroimmune and neuroinflammatory components. An estimated 25-32% of the over 900,000 veterans of the 1991 Gulf War fulfil the requirements of a GWI diagnosis. It has been hypothesised that the high physical and psychological stress of combat may have increased vulnerability to irreversible acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors leading to a priming of the neuroimmune system. A number of studies have linked high levels of psychophysiological stress and toxicant exposures to epigenetic modifications that regulate gene expression. Recent research in a mouse model of GWI has shown that pre-exposure with the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT) causes an increase in expression of specific chemokines and cytokines in response to diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP), a sarin surrogate and irreversible AChE inhibitor. C57BL/6J mice were exposed to CORT for 4 days, and exposed to DFP
The results of the present study show that both dextromethorphan and dextrorphan stimulate the HPA axis in the rat; however, the time course of the responses produced by the two drugs was not identical. Significant increases in plasma ACTH levels were observed 30 min after the administration of either dextromethorphan or dextrorphan, whereas only dextromethorphan produced a significant increase in plasma corticosterone at this time point. Moreover, the dextromethorphan-induced increase in plasma ACTH was maximal 30 min after drug administration. In contrast, the dextrorphan-induced increases in both ACTH and corticosterone peaked at the 60-min time point. Thus, the dextromethorphan-induced stimulation of the HPA axis occurred more rapidly and reached a maximum at an earlier time point than the dextrorphan-induced responses. In an earlier study Eisenberg and Sparber (1979) did not find that dextrorphan increased plasma levels of corticosterone, but the dose used in their study (1 mg/kg) was far ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sex differences in activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis by methamphetamine. AU - Zuloaga, Damian G.. AU - Johnson, Lance A.. AU - Agam, Maayan. AU - Raber, Jacob. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Dysregulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation is associated with changes in addiction-related behaviors. In this study, we tested whether sex differences in the acute effects of methamphetamine (MA) exposure involve differential activation of the HPA axis. Male and female mice were injected with MA (1 mg/kg) or saline for comparison of plasma corticosterone and analysis of the immediate early gene c-Fos in brain. There was a prolonged elevation in corticosterone levels in female compared to male mice. C-Fos was elevated in both sexes following MA in HPA axis-associated regions, including the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), central amygdala, cingulate, and CA3 hippocampal region. MA increased the number of c-Fos and c-Fos/glucocorticoid ...
Xu, Y., Day, Trevor A. and Buller, K. M. 1999, The central amygdala modulates hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responses to systemic interleukin-1beta administration, Neuroscience, vol. 94, no. 1, pp. 175-183, doi: 10.1016/S0306-4522(99)00311-5. ...
The hippocampus is the principal target site in the brain for adrenocortical steroids, as it has the highest concentration of receptor sites for glucocorticoids. The aged rat has a specific deficit in hippocampal glucocorticoid receptors, owing in large part to a loss of corticoid-sensitive neurons. This deficit may be the cause for the failure of aged rats to terminate corticosterone secretion at the end of stress, because extensive lesion and electrical stimulation studies have shown that the hippocampus exerts an inhibitory influence over adrenocortical activity and participates in glucocorticoid feedback. We have studied whether it is the loss of hippocampal neurons or of hippocampal glucocorticoid receptors in the aged rat that contributes most to this syndrome of corticosterone hypersecretion. To do this, we used two model systems for producing reversible glucocorticoid receptor depletion in the hippocampus, and we found that depletion of receptors without inducing cell loss results in ...
Maternal glucocorticoids are known to affect offspring phenotype in numerous vertebrate taxa. In birds, the maternal transfer of corticosterone to eggs was recently proposed as a hormonal mechanism by which offspring phenotype is matched to the relative quality of the maternal environment. However, current hypotheses lack supporting information on both intra- and inter-clutch variation in yolk corticosterone for wild birds. As such, we examined variation in yolk corticosterone levels in a wild population of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). Maternal condition, clutch size and nesting density were all negatively related to yolk corticosterone deposition; females with high condition indices, those laying larger clutches and those nesting in high-density associations deposited lower amounts of the hormone into eggs than those with low condition indices, laying small clutches and nesting in isolation. Alternatively, we found no effects of maternal age or human disturbance on yolk corticosterone
Here we evaluated the effects of Tualang honey, a phytoestrogen, and 17 β -estradiol (E2) on the depressive-like behaviour, stress hormones, and BDNF concentration in stressed ovariectomised (OVX) rats. The animals were divided into six groups: (i) nonstressed sham-operated control, (ii) stressed sham-operated control, (iii) nonstressed OVX, (iv) stressed OVX, (v) stressed OVX treated with E2 (20 μ g daily, sc), and (vi) stressed OVX treated with Tualang honey (0.2 g/kg body weight daily, orally). Two months after surgery, the animals were subjected to social instability stress procedure followed by forced swimming test. Struggling time, immobility time, and swimming time were scored. Serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone levels, and the BDNF concentration were determined using commercially available ELISA kits. Stressed OVX rats displayed increased depressive-like behaviour with significantly increased serum ACTH and corticosterone levels, while the BDNF concentration ...
Here we evaluated the effects of Tualang honey, a phytoestrogen, and 17 β -estradiol (E2) on the depressive-like behaviour, stress hormones, and BDNF concentration in stressed ovariectomised (OVX) rats. The animals were divided into six groups: (i) nonstressed sham-operated control, (ii) stressed sham-operated control, (iii) nonstressed OVX, (iv) stressed OVX, (v) stressed OVX treated with E2 (20 μ g daily, sc), and (vi) stressed OVX treated with Tualang honey (0.2 g/kg body weight daily, orally). Two months after surgery, the animals were subjected to social instability stress procedure followed by forced swimming test. Struggling time, immobility time, and swimming time were scored. Serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone levels, and the BDNF concentration were determined using commercially available ELISA kits. Stressed OVX rats displayed increased depressive-like behaviour with significantly increased serum ACTH and corticosterone levels, while the BDNF concentration ...
Synonyms for 17ß-hydroxycorticosterone in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for 17ß-hydroxycorticosterone. 3 synonyms for cortisol: Cortef, hydrocortisone, Hydrocortone. What are synonyms for 17ß-hydroxycorticosterone?
Adrenal venous blood was collected from hypophysectomized and sham-hypophysectomized dogs 6 days postoperatively. 17-Hydroxycorticosterone, corticosterone, 11-desoxy-17-hydroxycorticosterone and aldosterone were isolated by paper chromatography. Histological examination of the sellar and suprasellar regions of the hypophysectomized dogs demonstrated the absence of pituitary tissue. The adrenal glands of the hypophysectomized dogs showed cortical atrophy which did not involve the zona glomerulosa. The rate of secretion of aldosterone by the hypophysectomized dogs was found to be approximately 66% of that of the control, sham hypophysectomized, dogs. The rates of secretion of 17-hydroxycorticosterone, corticosterone and 11-desoxy-17-hydroxycorticosterone were found to be approximately 10% of that of the controls. The ability of the hypophysectomized dog to remain in electrolyte balance appears to be due in large measure to the continued secretion of aldosterone.. ...
The purpose of the present study was twofold: (1) to determine if X-irradiation can be considered a direct stress agent, and if so, to what extent it differs from other stressors; and (2) to further elucidate the role of the adrenal cortex in the radiation syndrome by determining the more immediate responses of this system to X-irradiation.
Stressor and cytokine challenges provoke several common effects, and may synergistically influence behavioral and neurochemical functioning. In the present investigation, we assessed whether the effects of poly I:C would be influenced when administered on a backdrop of a psychosocial stressor. In naïve mice, poly I:C (2 mg/kg) modestly increased sickness behaviors, plasma IL-6, TNF-α and IL-10 levels, but did not affect IL-1, IL-4, or IFN-γ. The viral analogue also increased plasma corticosterone levels and norepinephrine (NE) utilization within the paraventricular hypothalamus (PVN) and hippocampus. However, among mice that had experienced social disruption (comprising 14 days of isolation followed by regrouping), the behavioral, IL-6, IL-10, and corticoid alterations provoked by poly I:C were markedly augmented. Moreover, following social disruption the effect of poly I:C on NE utilization was increased within the PVN, prefrontal cortex and central amygdala, as was serotonin utilization ...
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Most of preclinical studies investigating the effects and the mechanism of action of antidepressants have been performed in naïve rodents. This is inappropriate since antidepressants act on specific symptoms of the pathology such as distress and anxiety. Recently, we have developed a mouse model of anxiety/depression based on corticosterone addition in the drinking water. This model is highly reproducible and easy to set up compared to the unpredictable chronic mild stress. 5-HT1A autoreceptor is known to play a role in mood disorders and their treatments. An increase in somatodendritic 5-HT1A autoreceptor density in the dorsal raphe (DR) attenuates the therapeutic activity of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), whereas their functional desensitization promotes activation of brain serotonergic transmission, thereby representing an adaptive change relevant to their therapeutic effect. Here we assessed the effects of sustained administration of the SSRI fluoxetine on 5-HT1A ...
This study demonstrates, with empirical evidence that experimental translocation leads to changes in the stress physiology of birds handled in a manner typical of many conservation activities. Furthermore, the effects of the progressive sequence of capture, handling, transport, captivity and release to a new location seem to be additive, meaning that the sequence of acute stressors typically associated with the process of translocation causes meaningful physiological stress in birds. Translocated chukar had decreased baseline CORT concentrations, a reduced capacity to mount a CORT response to an acute stressor, a decreased sensitivity to negative feedback and significant weight loss.. Interestingly, days elapsed prior to recapture was not associated with the magnitude of these changes, indicating that the changes to HPA function occurred quickly and persisted beyond the cessation of exposure to translocation-associated acute stressors. Unfortunately, our study did not allow follow-up beyond ...
Despite scientific evidence to the contrary, as far as the health care profession is concerned the standard operating design of the human body is male. So when a book comes along as beautifully written and endlessly informative as Natalie Angiers Woman: An Intimate Geography, its a cause for major celebration. Written with whimsy and eloquence, her investigation into female physiology draws its inspiration not only from scientific and medical sources but also from mythology, history, art, and literature, layering biological factoids with her own personal encounters and arcane anecdotes from the history of science. Who knew, for example, that the clitoris--with 8,000 nerve fibers--packs double the pleasure of the penis; that the gene controlling cellular sensitivity to male androgens, ironically enough, resides on the X-chromosome; or that stress hormones like cortisol and corticosterone are the true precursors of friendship? The mysteries of evolution are not a new subject for Angier, a ...
History Ethanol (EtOH) administration boosts brain allopregnanolone amounts in rats which increase plays a part in awareness to EtOHs behavioral results. and progesterone in these strains at the period and dosages factors examined. Acute EtOH dose-dependently elevated cerebrocortical corticosterone amounts by 319 347 and 459% in C57BL/6J mice on the dosages of 2 3 and 4 g/kg and by 371 507 533 and 692% in DBA/2J mice on the dosages of just one 1 2 3 and 4 g/kg respectively. Equivalent Daptomycin changes were seen in the hippocampus. EtOHs results on cerebrocortical corticosterone amounts were also period dependent both in strains. Furthermore acute EtOH administration time-dependently increased plasma degrees of corticosterone and progesterone. Finally morphine administration elevated cerebrocortical allopregnanolone amounts in C57BL/6J (+77 93 and +88% at 5 10 and 30 mg/kg respectively) and DBA/2J mice (+81% at 5 mg/kg) recommending the fact that impairment in human brain neurosteroidogenesis ...
We measured cortisol, corticosterone and T using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). LC-MS/MS quantitation eliminates concerns about non-specificity of antibody-based detection methods [28]. LC-MS/MS also allows multiple steroids to be quantified from the same sample in a single run [29]. Cortisol and corticosterone were measured in all samples (n = 61), while T was measured in feathers from a one-year subset (2004-2005) of samples (n = 35).. We pulverized 21-84 mg of feathers (n = 61 subjects) to a fine powder using a ball mill at 25 Hz for 2 min (MM-200; Retsch, Germany). Steroids were extracted overnight into 1 ml of Optima-grade methanol (Fisher Scientific, Fair Lawn, NJ) containing a spike of deuterated cortisol, corticosterone and T (cortisol-9,11,12,12-d4, corticosterone-2,2,4,6,6,17α,21,21-d8, testosterone-1,2-d2; from C/D/N Isotopes Inc., Pointe-Claire, QC, Canada) under gentle shaking and the supernatant was collected. A second extraction was ...
Animal models with an eco-ethological relevance can help in identifying novel and reliable stress-related markers. To this end, 3-month-old C57BL/6J male mice were exposed to social defeat (SD) stress for 10 days as this stressor shows good face and predictive validity for several models of human affective disorders including depression, social phobia and post-traumatic stress disorder. Social avoidance and pain threshold were assessed 24 h and 4 weeks after the end of SD stress, while corticosterone was assayed at the beginning and at the end of the stressful procedure (days 1 and 10). SD subjects were characterized by increased corticosterone levels (30 min following stress exposure), increased latency to approach the social target in the short-term as well as increased emotionality in the long-term. Moreover, an increase in nociceptive threshold (stress-induced analgesia) was found both in the short-term and 4 weeks after the end of stress. These data indicate that the SD paradigm is able to induce
Animals were randomized into etomidate, CPMM, or vehicle groups (n = 8 rats per group). Throughout the experiment, rats were restrained in a 9-inch long, 3-inch diameter acrylic tube with ports for oxygen supplementation (100%, 2 l/min), arterial line access, and tail exit. To reduce the influence of diurnal variations in corticosterone concentrations, all experiments were begun at 8:30 am. After weighing and placement of a 24-gauge tail vein catheter for drug administration (performed with brief isoflurane anesthesia), rats were allowed to recover and acclimate to restriction for 2 h. Lipopolysaccharide (1 mg/kg) was then injected intravenously. Thirty minutes later, a 1-h intravenous infusion of etomidate, CPMM, or vehicle was started. To achieve and maintain equivalent hypnotic depths among the etomidate and CPMM groups, previously established continuous infusion protocols were used.20 These protocols were previously shown to maintain the electroencephalographic burst suppression ratio at 80% ...
Miller, A.H. & Raison, C.L. The role of inflammation in depression: from evolutionary imperative to modern treatment target. Nat Rev Immunol 2016; 16: 22-34. Full article.. Felger, J.C., Haroon, E., Woolwine, B.J., Raison, C.L., and Miller, A.H. 2016. Interferon-alpha-Induced Inflammation is Associated with Reduced Glucocorticoid Negative Feedback Sensitivity and Depression in Patients with Hepatitis C Virus. Physiology & Behavior 2016; 166:14-21. Full article.. Bollich, K.L., Doris, J.M., Vazire, S, Raison, C.L., Jackson, J.J. Mehl, M.R. Eavesdropping on Character: Assessing Everyday Moral Behaviors, Journal of Personality Research 2016; 61:15-21. Full article. Janssen, C.W. Lowry, C.A., Mehl, M.R., Allen, J.J.B., Kelly, K.L., Gartner, D.E., Medrano, A., Begay, T.K., Rentscher, K., White, J.J., Fridman, A., Roberts, L.J., Robbins, M.L., Hanusch, K. Cole, S.P., Raison, C.L. Whole body hyperthermia for the treatment of major depressive disorder: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Psychiatry 2016; ...
strated that acupuncture could induce accumulation of Patients were excluded from the study if they fit any of vaginal exfoliative cells, increase the weight of adrenal, and raise the level of serum corticosterone in ovariecto- The women were informed of the short- and long-term mized model rats (14). It is deduced that estrogen levels benefits of HRT and were informed about the aim and may be elevated using acupuncture to create compensa- methodology of the study. Ethical approval and permis- tory hyperplasia of the adrenal cortex, thereby enhancing sion to conduct the study were obtained from the local the transferring of androgen into estrogen in peripheral ethical committee and the administration of the study tissues (14). In as early as 1995, the acupunctures was based on international ethical guidelines. Voluntary efficacy in relieving menopausal symptoms has been participation was requested and informed consent was demonstrated (15). Alternative and complementary thera- pies, including ...
Recent evidence indicates that many of the physiologic, metabolic, and behavioral responses that accompany infection in mammals are important for maintaining homeostasis and promoting recovery. We have extended this concept to birds by demonstrating that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) increases body temperature (T$\sb{\rm b}$), reduces feed intake, increases somnolence, decreases plasma (Fe) and (Zn), increases plasma (Cu), and elevates plasma corticosterone. To determine if any of these responses could be mediated centrally, LPS was injected intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.). Whereas i.p. injection of LPS caused a modest increase in T$\sb{\rm b}$, the hyperthermic response to LPS injected i.c.v. was intense and long-lasting. This hyperthermia following i.c.v. injection of LPS was accompanied by only a transient reduction in food intake and elevation in sleep activity, with no change in plasma (Fe) or (Zn). Both peripheral and central injections of LPS increased ...
Stress Induced Insomnia alleviated by Octacosanol from Clinical News - VHFILM on Vimeo. Stress Induced Insomnia alleviated by Octacosanol We review the public citation title: Cannot sleep due to stress? Here is the cure in which researchers discover this plant constituent can help restore normal sleep by possibly lowering corticosterone levels. Citation: Octacosanol…
In todays journal club, Meghana Rao (2nd year PhD scholar) reviewed article from Autonomic Neuroscience entitled Paraventricular nucleus modulates autonomic and neuroendocrine responses to acute restraint stress in rats by Cristiane Busnardo et al ...
... corticosterone and body-brain integration". Brain Research. 1476: 1-15. doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2011.12.049. PMID 22285436.. ...
Corticosterone is comparable to cortisol in this case.[30] For potassium to move out of the cell, cortisol moves an equal ... However, in cattle, corticosterone levels may approach[94] or exceed[4] cortisol levels.). The medulla of the adrenal gland ... Deoxycorticosterone → Corticosterone → 5α-Dihydrocorticosterone1 → 3α,5α-Tetrahydrocorticosterone1. 1.2. Aldosterone → 5α- ... Rapid administration of corticosterone (the endogenous type I and type II receptor agonist) or RU28362 (a specific type II ...
Buttemer, WA; Astheimer, LB; Wingfield, JC (1991). "The Effect of Corticosterone on Standard Metabolic Rates of Small Passerine ... Astheimer, L; Ramenofsky, M; Wingfield, JC; Buttemer, W (1989). "Corticosterone Feeding Behavior and Food Deprivation in ... Astheimer, LB; Buttemer, WA; Wingfield, JC (1992). "Interactions of corticosterone with feeding, activity and metabolism in ...
The protein blocks α-MSH-induced secretion of corticosterone. Orthologs of AgRP, ASIP, MCIR, and MC4R have been found in ...
5), corticosterone (C. 21H. 30O. 4), cortisone (C. 21H. 28O. 5) and aldosterone (C. 21H. 28O. 5). (Note that aldosterone and ... Aldosterone and corticosterone share the first part of their biosynthetic pathway. The last part is mediated either by the ... aldosterone synthase (for aldosterone) or by the 11β-hydroxylase (for corticosterone). These enzymes are nearly identical (they ...
Corticosterone. 0.18. 2.2. 12. 3.39. 0.09. 77.5. 19.0. 7.0. 3.28. 0.22. 78.1. 18.4 ...
... and corticosterone share the first part of their biosynthetic pathways. The last parts are mediated either by the ... aldosterone synthase (for aldosterone) or by the 11β-hydroxylase (for corticosterone). These enzymes are nearly identical (they ...
Corticosterone is very low in October to November, then peaks in January. Levels lower again in March and then peak in July. ... Corticosteroids are corticosterone and aldosterone. These have different quantities according to the time of year. ... In experiments allowing newts to be exposed to nonylphenol, there was a decrease in corticosterone and aldosterone. This is ... This gland controls the release of corticosteroids and catecholamines - such as corticosterone and aldosterone - which play the ...
It is biosynthesized from corticosterone by the enzyme 5α-reductase. DHC has central depressant effects and impairs long-term ... 125-. ISBN 978-4-431-29567-9. Dubrovsky, B.; Williams, D.; Kraulis, I. (1985). "Effects of corticosterone and 5?- ...
HNP4 inhibits corticotropin-stimulated corticosterone production. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000164821 - Ensembl, May ...
In 1938, Fleischmann and Kann determined that in addition to estrogen, a specific adrenal hormone, corticosterone, could cause ... See footnote 1 at Fleischmann, W.; Kann, S. (1938). "The Bitterling Ovipositor Reaction to Corticosterone". Science. 87 (2257 ... though it did open the door to an investigation of why corticosterone is significant in urine. Barnes, Broda Otto (1976). ...
The hormone known as corticosterone is activated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Corticosterone is activated when ... Cockrem, J. F. (2007). "Stress, corticosterone responses and avian personalities". Journal of Ornithology. 148: 169-178. doi: ...
Males showed no elevation of corticosterone levels. Increase in adrenocorticotropic hormone with no effect of adult stress and ... Removing the adrenal glands of the mother eliminates the effect of the pup's corticosterone response. Supplementing the ... There was also an effect on the corticosterone secretion for prenatally stressed females. Being prenatally stressed increased ... adrenalectamized mother with corticosterone, rescued the hypothalamic-pituitary-axis response to maternal stress for prenatally ...
... corticosterone; 11β,21-dihydroxyprogesterone) 21-Deoxycortisol (11β,17α-dihydroxyprogesterone) Cortisol (hydrocortisone) ...
... is a derivative of corticosterone. It serves as an intermediate in the synthesis of aldosterone by the ...
Cockrem, J. F. (2007). "Stress, corticosterone responses and avian personalities". Journal of Ornithology 148: 169-178. doi: ...
"Vasoactive intestinal peptide stimulates adrenal aldosterone and corticosterone secretion". Endocrinology. 122 (5): 2090-2097. ...
This enzyme helps produce hormones called cortisol and corticosterone. The CYP11B2 gene provides instructions for making ...
The following code produces the image for corticosterone below. \documentclass{letter} \usepackage{epic,carom} \pagestyle{empty ...
Corticosterone implanted chicks beg more frequently than non-implanted chicks. When there is a shortage of food, corticosterone ... Corticosterone increases begging effort and food provisioning rates by parents. ... begging indicating that juvenile hormone in insects could have a similar function to that of testosterone and corticosterone in ... by which juvenile hormone affects offspring growth in insects differ from those by which testosterone and corticosterone affect ...
The circulating hormone, corticosterone, is one signal that arouses a hummingbird from torpor. Use and duration of torpor vary ... Hiebert, S. M.; Salvante, K. G.; Ramenofsky, M; Wingfield, J. C. (2000). "Corticosterone and nocturnal torpor in the rufous ...
Higher corticosterone levels in breeding female Japanese quails were associated with female-biased sex ratios at laying. In ... Pike, TW; Petrie, M (2006). "Experimental evidence that corticosterone affects offspring sex ratios in quail". Proceedings of ...
Although production of cortisol is inefficient enough to normalize ACTH, the 50-100-fold elevations of corticosterone have ... Consequently, levels of DOC, corticosterone, and 18-deoxycorticosterone are elevated. Although these precursors of aldosterone ...
The mice also had increased corticosterone concentration which is a symptom in major depression in humans. The y2 subunit is ...
Aldosterone and corticosterone share the first part of their biosynthetic pathway. The last part is either mediated by the ... aldosterone synthase (for aldosterone) or by the 11β-hydroxylase (for corticosterone). Aldosterone synthesis is stimulated by ...
Surprisingly, treatment with anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid, corticosterone (CORT), enhanced rather than suppressed DFP- ...
Corticosterone both inhibits protein synthesis and degrades proteins. Birds with increased levels of corticosterone will have ... Corticosterone has further developmental effects on birds. Increased levels of corticosterone in chicks leads to increased ... corticosterone can either facilitate or interrupt conditioned fear. Not only does corticosterone have effects on emotional ... some species of chicks may suppress corticosterone activity and thus reduce the negative effects elevated corticosterone ...
... Antiserum for 3H Assay (Rabbit), for 10,000 Tubes Corticosterone Antiserum for use in 3H Assay ... Corticosterone Double Antibody RIA Kit The kit is ready to use and includes the following components: Antiserum, 6 standards, ... Corticosterone ELISA Kit for Rats The kit is ready to use and includes the following components: Microtiter Plate, 6 ... Corticosterone Antiserum for 125I Assay (Rabbit), for 1000 Tubes Antibody is purified from rabbit and is sufficient for 1000 ...
Other names in common use include corticosterone 18-hydroxylase, and corticosterone methyl oxidase. This enzyme participates in ... In enzymology, a corticosterone 18-monooxygenase (EC 1.14.15.5) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is corticosterone,reduced-adrenal-ferredoxin:oxygen oxidoreductase (18-hydroxylating ... H2O The 3 substrates of this enzyme are corticosterone, reduced adrenal ferredoxin, and O2, whereas its 3 products are 18- ...
The Corticosterone Double Antibody RIA Kit is intended for the measurement of corticosterone in a sample. It is specifically ... The Corticosterone ELISA Kit for Rats and Mice is a competitive immunoassay for the quantitative measurement of corticosterone ... Corticosterone antibody is purified from rabbit and is sufficient for 1000 tests. ...
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We measured plasma corticosterone levels in actively flying migratory birds: in red knots, Calidris canutus, flying up to 10 h ... Role of Corticosterone during migration Long-distance migration requires many physiological and behavioural adaptations such as ... We investigated whether corticosterone, the most prevalent glucocorticoid in birds, is involved in the regulation of bird ... A strong increase in corticosterone when fat reserves are near exhaustion triggers an increase in the catabolism of protein and ...
The plasma corticosterone (CORT) level was measured in morphine and saline control animals 1 day after the last injection of a ... Morphine-Induced Dendritic Spine Remodeling in Rat Nucleus Accumbens Is Corticosterone Dependent.. Geoffroy H1,2,3, Canestrelli ... No more alteration in stubby spines in the shell was detected in morphine-treated rats with a depletion of corticosterone, ... Since morphine-treated rats also presented an elevation of corticosterone level in plasma, we explored whether spine ...
Stress-induced corticosterone levels were also augmented in dyn(−/−) mice (d).. *p,0.05; **p,0.01; ***p,0.001 vs respective ... decrease in corticosterone serum levels in prodynorphin knockout mice. Although stress-induced increases in corticosterone ... Prodynorphin-derived peptides are critical modulators of anxiety and regulate neurochemistry and corticosterone.. Wittmann W1, ... No differences between the genotypes were observed in stress-induced hyperthermia (c). Basal corticosterone serum levels were ...
Comparison of noncontingent versus contingent cocaine administration on plasma corticosterone levels in rats.. Galici R1, ... Although saline administration had no effect, plasma corticosterone levels were significantly higher in rat receiving ... study was to compare the effects of contingent and noncontingent cocaine administration on plasma levels of corticosterone in ...
Utilizing the combination of a highly specific antiserum for corticosterone and a proprietary blocking function incorporated in ... The Corticosterone Double Antibody RIA Kit is intended for the measurement of Corticosterone in a sample. It is specifically ... the assay system, this RIA is suitable for determination of corticosterone in unextracted serum or plasma without a protein ... The Corticosterone Double Antibody RIA Kit is intended for the measurement of Corticosterone in a sample. It is specifically ...
... by Kathy Jones on September 8, 2013 at 8:10 ... These findings indicate that Shuyusan-containing serum appears to protect SH-SY5Y cells against corticosterone-induced ... has been shown to protect SH-SY5Y cells against corticosterone-induced damage. A recent study reported in the Neural ...
Neither dose of corticosterone affected the length of basal dendrites or spine density. Corticosterone was ineffective in ... Corticosterone reduces dendritic complexity in developing hippocampal CA1 neurons. Journal. Hippocampus. Volume , Issue number ... In organotypic cultures (prepared from P5 rats) that were 14-21 days cultured in vitro, two doses of corticosterone (30 and 100 ... Exposing organotypic slices to 30 nM corticosterone reduced apical length in a more delayed manner: only neurons examined more ...
A new study reveals a history of binge drinking leads to more instances of drinking under stress and when anxious in males, but not in females.... Read More... ...
... Bombi ... of this study was to examine whether acupuncture improves spatial cognitive impairment induced by repeated corticosterone (CORT ...
For baseline corticosterone, the top model included stand age with limited support for models that included vegetation cover. ... Mean baseline corticosterone for territorial male thrushes sampled in mature stands was 78.2 % higher than territorial males ... For handling-induced corticosterone, there was limited separation among candidate models, and only one model, containing stand ... Corticosterone in territorial male Swainsons Thrushes varies in relation to forest age but not vegetation cover. ...
What is cortisol:corticosterone ratio? Meaning of cortisol:corticosterone ratio medical term. What does cortisol:corticosterone ... corticosterone ratio in the Medical Dictionary? cortisol:corticosterone ratio explanation free. ... redirected from cortisol:corticosterone ratio). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia. cortisol. [kor´tĭ-sol] a ... cortisol:corticosterone ratio. the ratio between the two hormones is different between species and even between individual ...
The effects of corticosterone (CORT) administration on the development of muscular tissues of broiler chickens (Gallus gallus ... Corticosterone / pharmacology*. Dietary Fats / administration & dosage*. Female. Insulin / blood. Male. Muscle, Skeletal / drug ... The effects of corticosterone (CORT) administration on the development of muscular tissues of broiler chickens (Gallus gallus ... Corticosterone treatment resulted in enhanced energy expenditure. The results indicate that the development of breast muscle ...
... and the ability of high levels of corticosterone to mo ... Male mice were implanted with a corticosterone pellet (192 mg/ ... Corticosterone pretreatment attenuated the kainate-induced influx of IgG at all time points. Immunohistochemical localization ... Kainate-induced seizures were scored at Stage 1 (Racine scale), and corticosterone pretreatment did not alter seizure activity ... Supraphysiological levels of the stress hormone corticosterone attenuate blood-brain barrier disruption and microglial ...
High physiological levels of the stress hormone, corticosterone (CORT), exacerbate brain inflammatory responses to ...
Potassium, Corticosterone, and Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Release in vitro. By Jacob Kraicer, J. V. Milligan, J. L. Gosbee, R ... Potassium, Corticosterone, and Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Release in vitro. By Jacob Kraicer, J. V. Milligan, J. L. Gosbee, R ... Potassium, Corticosterone, and Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Release in vitro Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page ... This increased release is suppressed by the addition of corticosterone to the incubating medium. Our findings are consistent ...
2018). Corticosterone levels reflect variation in metabolic rate, independent of stress. Sci. Rep. 8, 13020. doi:10.1038/ ... 2001). Corticosterone and insulin interact to regulate glucose and triglyceride levels during stress in a bird. Am. J. Physiol ... Regressions of corticosterone (CORT) and glucose following stress in wandering gartersnakes (Thamnophis elegans). (A) Baseline ... 2014). Temperature has species-specific effects on corticosterone in alligator lizards. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 206, 184-192. ...
It is unknown whether corticosterone (CORT) plays a role in mediating alterations of epithelial permeability in response to ... Corticosterone / metabolism*, pharmacology. Fluorescent Antibody Technique. Hyperalgesia / metabolism. Intestinal Mucosa / drug ... It is unknown whether corticosterone (CORT) plays a role in mediating alterations of epithelial permeability in response to CPS ...
The effects of exogenous corticosterone administration and glucose supplementation on energy intake, lipid metabolism and fat ... Both feed efficiency (FE) and caloric efficiency (CE) were decreased by corticosterone administration. Corticosterone ... Corticosterone / administration & dosage*, pharmacology*. Diet / veterinary. Dietary Supplements. Glucose / administration & ... 5. Liver weight and abdominal, cervical and thigh fat deposits were all significantly increased by either corticosterone or ...
The goal of this study was to examine the long-term effects of maternal postpartum corticosterone (CORT, a model of postpartum ... Maternal postpartum corticosterone and fluoxetine differentially affect adult male and female offspring on anxiety-like ...
  • Surprisingly, treatment with anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid, corticosterone (CORT), enhanced rather than suppressed DFP-induced neuroinflammation. (cdc.gov)
  • The purpose of this study was to examine whether acupuncture improves spatial cognitive impairment induced by repeated corticosterone (CORT) administration in rats. (hindawi.com)
  • The effects of corticosterone (CORT) administration on the development of muscular tissues of broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) fed with diets differing in lipid content were investigated. (biomedsearch.com)
  • High physiological levels of the stress hormone, corticosterone (CORT), exacerbate brain inflammatory responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and to the nerve agent, DFP: role in Gulf War Illness? (cdc.gov)
  • The glucocorticoid hormone corticosterone (CORT) has classically been used in ecophysiological studies as a proxy for stress and energy mobilization, but rarely are CORT and the energy metabolites themselves concurrently measured. (biologists.org)
  • It is unknown whether corticosterone (CORT) plays a role in mediating alterations of epithelial permeability in response to CPS. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The goal of this study was to examine the long-term effects of maternal postpartum corticosterone (CORT, a model of postpartum stress/depression) and concurrent maternal postpartum fluoxetine on behavioral, endocrine, and neural measures in adult male and female offspring. (nih.gov)
  • Corticosterone (CORT) is a member of corticosteroids and is also known as 17-deoxycortisol or 11β 21-dihydroprogesterone. (perkinelmer.com)
  • Evidence from recent studies has suggested that the avian stress-related hormone corticosterone (CORT) may play a role in immunocompetence and sexual selection. (biologists.org)
  • We investigated latitudinal variation in corticosterone (CORT) response to chronic predator stress in Rana temporaria tadpoles along a 1500-km latitudinal cline in Sweden tadpoles, in a laboratory experiment. (diva-portal.org)
  • Here we address this issue by examining the effects of chronic exposure to the stress hormone, corticosterone (CORT), in both adolescent and adult animals. (frontiersin.org)
  • It has been well-established that compared to adults, adolescent animals exhibited different hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functions in that they showed prolonged exposure to stress hormones, including adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (CORT), in response to both acute and chronic stress ( Romeo, 2013 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The massive meat production of broiler chickens make them continuously exposed to potential stressors that stimulate releasing of stress-related hormones like corticosterone (CORT) which is responsible for specific pathways in biological mechanisms and physiological activities. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • the first group received a daily intramuscular injection of 5 mg/kg BW corticosterone dissolved in 0.5 ml ethanol:saline solution (CORT group), while the second group received a daily intramuscular injection of 0.5 ml ethanol:saline only (CONT group). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • GA enhances the ability of corticosterone (Cort) to inhibit IL-1β- and forskolin- induced phospholipase (PLA2) activity. (nih.gov)
  • I examined 1) the ontogeny of the corticosterone (CORT) response (both total and free hormone levels), 2) changes in corticosteroid receptor levels in brain with age, and 3) effects of acute and extended elevation of CORT on behavior and growth. (utexas.edu)
  • Rats have rhythmic clock gene expression in the vmPFC that requires appropriate diurnal circulatory patterns of corticosterone (CORT), suggesting the presence of CORT-entrained intrinsic circadian clock function within the PFC. (eneuro.org)
  • Corticosterone (CORT) is a glucocorticoid hormone that maintains energy balance and can modulate foraging behaviors in seabirds. (acap.aq)
  • Corticosterone (CORT), a critical mediator of the hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis in rodents, is a stress hormone that is classically viewed as possessing immune-suppressive properties. (edu.au)
  • Maternal stress can impair foetal development and program sex-specific disease outcomes in offspring through the actions of maternally produced glucocorticoids, predominantly corticosterone (Cort) in rodents. (edu.au)
  • It is well known that levels of corticosterone (CORT, cortisol in humans) secretion demonstrate a circadian rhythm, highly regulated by effects of the suprachiasmatic nucleus, with higher levels in the early evening and lower levels in the morning. (wikipedia.org)
  • In studies on rats, the fluctuations of corticosterone concentration are shown to prevent stress' impairment of recognition memory in lower amounts. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Corticosterone ELISA Kit for Rats and Mice is a competitive immunoassay for the quantitative measurement of corticosterone in rat and mouse serum or plasma. (mpbio.com)
  • Since morphine-treated rats also presented an elevation of corticosterone level in plasma, we explored whether spine alterations induced by morphine treatment in the nucleus accumbens could be affected by the depletion of the hormone. (nih.gov)
  • No more alteration in stubby spines in the shell was detected in morphine-treated rats with a depletion of corticosterone, while a significant increase was observed in mushroom spines in the shell and stubby spines in the core. (nih.gov)
  • Comparison of noncontingent versus contingent cocaine administration on plasma corticosterone levels in rats. (nih.gov)
  • The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of contingent and noncontingent cocaine administration on plasma levels of corticosterone in rats. (nih.gov)
  • In organotypic cultures (prepared from P5 rats) that were 14-21 days cultured in vitro, two doses of corticosterone (30 and 100 nM) were tested. (uva.nl)
  • Corticosterone is produced under the control of ACTH and the production has a circadian rhythm with peak levels in the latter portion of the day in nocturnal animals like rats and is believed to play a decisive role in sleep-wake cycles. (biovendor.com)
  • Altered circadian rhythms of corticosterone, melatonin, and phagocytic activity in response to stress in rats. (nel.edu)
  • The present work was aimed to evaluate whether swimming-exercise-induced stress leads to changes in the chronobiology parameters of the circadian rhythms of melatonin and corticosterone, and in the number and phagocytosis of peritoneal macrophages in 3-month-old male Wistar rats. (nel.edu)
  • Basal plasma corticosterone was found to correlate positively with an active response to a novel environment and inescapable stress across all rats. (nih.gov)
  • Elevation of plasma corticosterone levels and hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor translocation in rats: a potential mechanism for cognition impairment following chronic low-power-density microwave exposure. (emf-portal.org)
  • It is not clear whether the disrupted corticosterone rhythm, resulting from high-fat feeding contributes to attenuated meal anticipation in high-fat fed rats. (salford.ac.uk)
  • Our aim was to better characterize meal anticipation in rats fed a low- or high-fat diet, and to better understand the role of corticosterone in this process. (salford.ac.uk)
  • We also used the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, RU486, to dissect out the role of corticosterone in meal anticipation in rats given daily access to a meal with different fat content. (salford.ac.uk)
  • Corticosterone effects were studied in vivo by treating rats s.c. with 10 mg/kg corticosterone for 7 or 14 days. (sun.ac.za)
  • Neither the spontaneous outflow nor the electrically stimulated release of [3H]NA from dorsal hippocampal slices of untreated rats was affected by exposure of the slices to corticosterone (10-7 M - 10-4 M) in the superfusion buffer. (sun.ac.za)
  • Thus, chronic corticosterone treatment of rats altered the noradrenergic system of the pons-medulla, but did not change the α2-adrenoceptor-mediated modulation of NA release in the dorsal hippocampus, a major terminal area of the LC neurons. (sun.ac.za)
  • Bipolar electrodes were implanted into the CA1 pyramidal cells of the dorsal hippocampus and the effect of electrical stimulation of these cells on corticosterone secretion was investigated in freely moving rats. (sun.ac.za)
  • It is well established that adrenocortical hormones (corticosterone in rats, cortisol in humans) influence many aspects of cognitive performance. (pnas.org)
  • Systemic injections of stress-level doses of corticosterone administered to rats shortly before retention testing impair retrieval in tasks that rely on spatial or contextual information, including water-maze and inhibitory avoidance (ref. 22 and B.R., D.J.-F.d.Q., Gustav Schelling, and J.L.M., unpublished observations). (pnas.org)
  • While cortisol and corticosterone are both produced in response to stress in humans, corticosterone is the predominant glucocorticoid produced in mice and rats. (medimabs.com)
  • Conditions such as starvation, rapid temperature change, or changes in daily routine can cause increased corticosterone levels in laboratory mice and rats. (medimabs.com)
  • To test this hypothesis, three 100 mg pellets of corticosterone were implanted subcutaneously in each of nine rats for two weeks. (byu.edu)
  • The corticosterone response of rats exposed to a trapped cagemate was measured and compared to the rats' subsequent helping behavior. (frontiersin.org)
  • Rats with the greatest corticosterone responses showed the least helping behavior and those with the smallest responses showed the most consistent helping at the shortest latency. (frontiersin.org)
  • Recent research shows that corticosterone inhibits the fat mobilizing effects of oleoyl-estrone in female rats that had their adrenal glands removed. (wikipedia.org)
  • We pointed out the main factors increasing corticosterone levels in voles and features of the studied species that may determine the differences in their reaction including: the width of the ecological niche, spatial mobility, and predation pressure. (wind-watch.org)
  • These results suggest that high physiological levels of corticosterone, via activation of the glucocorticoid receptor, can, during the course of only a few hours, reduce the dendritic complexity of CA1 pyramidal neurons in young, developing hippocampal tissue. (uva.nl)
  • These findings suggest that it is relevant to maintain plasma corticosterone levels low during hippocampal development. (uva.nl)
  • Staining with Isolectin B4 revealed numerous microglial cells throughout the hippocampal parenchyma at 12 hours post treatment, and an attenuation in the quantity of microglia by corticosterone pretreatment. (cdc.gov)
  • Maternal postpartum corticosterone and fluoxetine differentially affect adult male and female offspring on anxiety-like behavior, stress reactivity, and hippocampal neurogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • Periodic maternal separation decreases hippocampal neurogenesis without affecting basal corticosterone during the stress hyporesponsive period, but alters HPA axis and coping behavior in adulthood: N. Lajud, et al. (cosmobio.co.jp)
  • Chronic corticosterone treatment (14 days) did not alter the α2-adrenoceptor-mediated modulation of [3H]NA release from dorsal hippocampal slices. (sun.ac.za)
  • To address the question whether corticosterone mediates the stress-induced up-regulation of reelin gene expression, we used age-matched hippocampal slice cultures derived from male and female mouse pups. (ovid.com)
  • Studies have shown that corticosterone treatment and adrenalectomy reduces or upregulated hippocampal BDNF expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Utilizing the combination of a highly specific antiserum for corticosterone and a proprietary blocking function incorporated in the assay system, this RIA is suitable for determination of corticosterone in unextracted serum or plasma without a protein denaturation step. (mpbio.com)
  • The AlphaLISA ® immunoassay kit for human corticosterone enables the quantitative determination of corticosterone in serum, buffered solution, and cell culture supernatants using a homogeneous AlphaLISA assay (no wash steps). (perkinelmer.com)
  • On the other hand, the present assay kit for corticosterone newly developed by our laboratory provides a tool for direct determination of corticosterone in blood by simple dilution of blood samples with the diluent included in the kit. (biovendor.com)
  • 1. The effects of exogenous corticosterone administration and glucose supplementation on energy intake, lipid metabolism and fat deposition of broiler chickens were investigated. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Effect of chronic oxidative/corticosterone-induced stress on ascorbic acid metabolism and total antioxidant capacity in chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus). (biomedsearch.com)
  • The consequences of chronic corticosterone-induced stress (CCIS) on ascorbic acid (AsA) metabolism in chickens, an animal that syntheses the vitamin, are not known. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Restricted access to a low-fat diet led to robust meal anticipation, as well as entrainment of hypothalamic c-Fos expression, metabolism, and circulating corticosterone. (salford.ac.uk)
  • Although stress-induced increases in corticosterone levels were attenuated in prodynorphin knockout mice, they were associated with minor increases in depression-like behavior in the tail suspension and forced swim tests. (nih.gov)
  • Male mice were implanted with a corticosterone pellet (192 mg/kg/d) to mimic the sustained activation of the HPA axis associated with chronic stress, and allowed to recover for seven days. (cdc.gov)
  • Interestingly, when administered a corticosterone treatment to mimic hypercorticism conditions, AdipoGR-KO mice exhibited an improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Environmental enrichment during rearing alters corticosterone levels, thymocyte numbers, and aggression in female BALB/c mice: E.K. Hutchinson, et al. (cosmobio.co.jp)
  • This work investigated the antioxidant and antidepressant-like effects of ethyl acetate extract from Eugenia catharinensis in mice treated with corticosterone (20 mg/Kg). (springer.com)
  • Our results showed that the extract decreased the immobility time of mice in the forced swimming test and that the extract was able to reverse the effect caused by corticosterone. (springer.com)
  • Basal serum corticosterone was measured from 132 different individuals and serum testosterone from 176 different individuals of free living striped mice. (uzh.ch)
  • We found that 20-min and 3-h restraint stress did not influence CSD susceptibility in mutant or wild-type mice, despite elevated levels of plasma corticosterone. (uu.nl)
  • mg/kg corticosterone increased CSD frequency exclusively in mutant mice, while corticosterone plasma levels were similarly elevated in mutants and wild types. (uu.nl)
  • Male and female mice were injected with MA (1 mg/kg) or saline for comparison of plasma corticosterone and analysis of the immediate early gene c-Fos in brain. (wiley.com)
  • Long-term consumption of a sugar-sweetened beverage in early age increases corticosterone and promotes social aggression in mice. (foundmyfitness.com)
  • Furthermore, a dangerous environment inherently provides infanticide threats to female mice, increasing the likelihood that corticosterone concentrations will increase, while maternal care toward offspring decreases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The resulting arrhythmicity in corticosterone levels in these mice compared to the control group's maintained rhythmicity, revealed the SCN's function as the master circadian clock. (wikipedia.org)
  • The core temperatures and corticosterone secretions of the heterozygous knockout mice after exposure to environmental and visceral stress exhibited extreme repression of autonomic nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Maternal postpartum corticosterone and fluoxetine differentially affect adult male and female offspring on anxiety-like behavior, stress reactivity. (nih.gov)
  • Chicks that hatched from eggs laid by females implanted with corticosterone grew more slowly than controls, and showed higher plasma corticosterone response to capture and restraint as adults.To determine whether the effects of elevated maternal corticosterone were mediated by transfer of the steroid itself to yolk, yolk corticosterone concentration was manipulated directly. (washington.edu)
  • Future studies are needed to understand the role of maternal corticosterone in yolk within an ecological context. (washington.edu)
  • Maternal separation increased basal levels of plasma corticosterone in SHR females only, possibly through adaptive mechanisms involved in maintaining their active response in behavioural tests. (nih.gov)
  • Supplementing the adrenalectamized mother with corticosterone, rescued the hypothalamic-pituitary-axis response to maternal stress for prenatally stressed offspring. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, breeding males showed much lower corticosterone levels during the breeding season than all other classes, and were the only class that showed an increase of corticosterone from the breeding to the non-breeding season. (uzh.ch)
  • WT and HP parrots showed lower corticosterone levels than FPP parrots. (peerj.com)
  • Male, but not female, chicks that hatched from eggs injected with corticosterone grew more slowly than controls, and female, but not male, offspring showed a decreased corticosterone response as adults.Finally, eggs were injected with corticosterone and chick performance in a maze, and adult expression of anxiety behavior were quantified to investigate the effects of elevated yolk corticosterone on cognitive ability and behavior. (washington.edu)
  • In enzymology, a corticosterone 18-monooxygenase (EC 1.14.15.5) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction corticosterone + reduced adrenal ferredoxin + O2 ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } 18-hydroxycorticosterone + oxidized adrenal ferredoxin + H2O The 3 substrates of this enzyme are corticosterone, reduced adrenal ferredoxin, and O2, whereas its 3 products are 18-hydroxycorticosterone, oxidized adrenal ferredoxin, and H2O. (wikipedia.org)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is corticosterone,reduced-adrenal-ferredoxin:oxygen oxidoreductase (18-hydroxylating). (wikipedia.org)
  • The inhibition of the enzyme activity by corticosterone was enhanced by the addition of GA. (nih.gov)
  • Corticosterone reduced the IL-1β-stimulated PLA2 enzyme activity by 60% and corticosterone in combination with GA diminished the activity by 90% (Fig. 5, top). (nih.gov)
  • It is biosynthesized from corticosterone by the enzyme 5α-reductase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Note the extra "-OH" added at the 11 position (near the center, on ring "C"): 11-Deoxycortisol Cortisol 11-Deoxycorticosterone Corticosterone As a mitochondrial P450 system, P450c11 is dependent on two electron transfer proteins, adrenodoxin reductase and adrenodoxin that transfer 2 electrons from NADPH to the P450 for each monooxygenase reaction catalyzed by the enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction (1) 5β-cholestan-3-one + NADP+ ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } cholest-4-en-3-one + NADPH + H+ (2) 17,21-dihydroxy-5β-pregnane-3,11,20-trione + NADP+ ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } cortisone + NADPH + H+ The human enzyme efficiently acts on progesterone, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione, and testosterone to 5β-reduced metabolites. (wikipedia.org)
  • In enzymology, a 20-α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.149) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 17alpha,20alpha-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one + NAD(P)+ ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone + NAD(P)H + H+ The 3 substrates of this enzyme are 17alpha,20alpha-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one, NAD+, and NADP+, whereas its 4 products are 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, NADH, NADPH, and H+. (wikipedia.org)
  • Impaired development of broiler chickens by stress mimicked by corticosterone exposure. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Corticosterone administration and dietary glucose supplementation enhance fat accumulation in broiler chickens. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 2. A total of 144 three-d-old male chickens were randomly assigned to one of the following 4 treatments for 7 d: a low energy diet (10.9 MJ ME/kg, 200 g/kg CP) with or without corticosterone (30 mg/kg diet) and drinking water supplemented with glucose (80 g/l) or saccharine (2 g/l, control). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Comprehensive growth performance, immune function, plasma biochemistry, gene expressions and cell death morphology responses to a daily corticosterone injection course in broiler chickens. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Quantitative determination of mRNA levels revealed that corticosterone treatment significantly up-regulated reelin mRNA expression in male, but not in female hippocampi. (ovid.com)
  • Morphine-Induced Dendritic Spine Remodeling in Rat Nucleus Accumbens Is Corticosterone Dependent. (nih.gov)
  • These results indicate that dendritic spine remodeling in nucleus accumbens following chronic morphine treatment at relatively low doses is dependent on corticosterone levels. (nih.gov)
  • Application of 100 nM corticosterone for 20 minutes induced atrophy of the apical dendritic tree 1-4 hours later. (uva.nl)
  • Exposing organotypic slices to 30 nM corticosterone reduced apical length in a more delayed manner: only neurons examined more than 2 hours after exposure to corticosterone showed atrophy of the apical dendritic tree. (uva.nl)
  • Stress presents a problem for dendritic cells: corticosterone and the fate of MHC class I antigen processing and presentation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Decreased IgM production along with an early rise in corticosterone followed by a subsequent decrease was noted for each RCI situation. (hindawi.com)
  • These measures were significantly attenuated in response to a high-fat diet, and animals on this diet exhibited a postanticipatory rise in corticosterone. (salford.ac.uk)
  • These findings suggest an important role for corticosterone in the regulation of meal anticipation in a manner dependent upon dietary fat content. (salford.ac.uk)
  • Is there a role for corticosterone in expression of abnormal behaviour in restricted-fed fowls? (wikipedia.org)
  • The common vole showed a distinct physiological response − the individuals living near the wind turbines had a higher level of corticosterone. (wind-watch.org)
  • 2) the observed highest level of corticosterone in FPP parrot suggests a role of stress in this self-injuring stereotypic behavior. (peerj.com)
  • Some researchers even suggest that this increased level of corticosterone caused by the loser effect inhibits regions of the brain involved in learning and memory, but no formal literature has supported the hypothesis that winner and loser effects directly cause this. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diurnal variations in lipopolysaccharide-induced sleep, sickness behavior and changes in corticosterone levels in the rat. (mpg.de)
  • Alcohol withdrawal induces long-lasting spatial working memory impairments: relationship with changes in corticosterone response in the prefrontal cortex. (semanticscholar.org)