An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)
An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).
Excision of one or both adrenal glands. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The interactions between the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands, in which corticotropin (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical hormones suppress the production of corticotropin by the anterior pituitary.
A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.
Use of a device for the purpose of controlling movement of all or part of the body. Splinting and casting are FRACTURE FIXATION.
A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
An inhibitor of the enzyme STEROID 11-BETA-MONOOXYGENASE. It is used as a test of the feedback hypothalamic-pituitary mechanism in the diagnosis of CUSHING SYNDROME.
A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.
Cytoplasmic proteins that specifically bind glucocorticoids and mediate their cellular effects. The glucocorticoid receptor-glucocorticoid complex acts in the nucleus to induce transcription of DNA. Glucocorticoids were named for their actions on blood glucose concentration, but they have equally important effects on protein and fat metabolism. Cortisol is the most important example.
A progestational and glucocorticoid hormone antagonist. Its inhibition of progesterone induces bleeding during the luteal phase and in early pregnancy by releasing endogenous prostaglandins from the endometrium or decidua. As a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, the drug has been used to treat hypercortisolism in patients with nonpituitary CUSHING SYNDROME.
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
A serpin family member that binds to and transports GLUCOCORTICOIDS in the BLOOD.
Cytoplasmic proteins that specifically bind MINERALOCORTICOIDS and mediate their cellular effects. The receptor with its bound ligand acts in the nucleus to induce transcription of specific segments of DNA.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.
The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases that catalyzes the reversible conversion of CORTISOL to the inactive metabolite CORTISONE. Enzymes in this class can utilize either NAD or NADP as cofactors.
Nucleus in the anterior part of the HYPOTHALAMUS.
Physical manipulation of animals and humans to induce a behavioral or other psychological reaction. In experimental psychology, the animal is handled to induce a stress situation or to study the effects of "gentling" or "mothering".
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 11-beta-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11B1 gene, is important in the synthesis of CORTICOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Defects in CYP11B1 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).
Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.
A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.
Enzymes of the oxidoreductase class that catalyze the dehydrogenation of hydroxysteroids. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.-.
An high-affinity, NAD-dependent 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase that acts unidirectionally to catalyze the dehydrogenation of CORTISOL to CORTISONE. It is found predominantly in mineralocorticoid target tissues such as the KIDNEY; COLON; SWEAT GLANDS; and the PLACENTA. Absence of the enzyme leads to a fatal form of childhood hypertension termed, APPARENT MINERALOCORTICOID EXCESS SYNDROME.
An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.
The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
A 30-kDa protein synthesized primarily in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND and the HYPOTHALAMUS. It is also found in the skin and other peripheral tissues. Depending on species and tissues, POMC is cleaved by PROHORMONE CONVERTASES yielding various active peptides including ACTH; BETA-LIPOTROPIN; ENDORPHINS; MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES; and others (GAMMA-LPH; CORTICOTROPIN-LIKE INTERMEDIATE LOBE PEPTIDE; N-terminal peptide of POMC or NPP).
A low-affinity 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase found in a variety of tissues, most notably in LIVER; LUNG; ADIPOSE TISSUE; vascular tissue; OVARY; and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The enzyme acts reversibly and can use either NAD or NADP as cofactors.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
A chlorinated anilide that is used as an herbicide.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
Adrenal cortex hormones are steroid hormones produced by the outer portion of the adrenal gland, consisting of glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and androgens, which play crucial roles in various physiological processes such as metabolism regulation, stress response, electrolyte balance, and sexual development and function.
Prolonged separation of the offspring from the mother.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
A mobile, very volatile, highly flammable liquid used as an inhalation anesthetic and as a solvent for waxes, fats, oils, perfumes, alkaloids, and gums. It is mildly irritating to skin and mucous membranes.
Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.
Cell surface proteins that bind corticotropin-releasing hormone with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The corticotropin releasing-hormone receptors on anterior pituitary cells mediate the stimulation of corticotropin release by hypothalamic corticotropin releasing factor. The physiological consequence of activating corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors on central neurons is not well understood.
A system of NEURONS that has the specialized function to produce and secrete HORMONES, and that constitutes, in whole or in part, an ENDOCRINE SYSTEM or organ.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A steroid metabolite that is the 11-deoxy derivative of CORTICOSTERONE and the 21-hydroxy derivative of PROGESTERONE.
The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.
An excessive number of individuals, human or animal, in relation to available space.
Histidine substituted in any position with one or more methyl groups.
A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS primarily associated with water and electrolyte balance. This is accomplished through the effect on ION TRANSPORT in renal tubules, resulting in retention of sodium and loss of potassium. Mineralocorticoid secretion is itself regulated by PLASMA VOLUME, serum potassium, and ANGIOTENSIN II.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
11 beta,18,21-Trihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione.
Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)
The restriction of the MOVEMENT of whole or part of the body by physical means (RESTRAINT, PHYSICAL) or chemically by ANALGESIA, or the use of TRANQUILIZING AGENTS or NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS. It includes experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility.
Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.
A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.
Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
17,21-Dihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione. A 17-hydroxycorticosteroid with glucocorticoid and anti-inflammatory activities.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 18-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-specific flavoprotein. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11B2 gene, is important in the conversion of CORTICOSTERONE to 18-hydroxycorticosterone and the subsequent conversion to ALDOSTERONE.
The consumption of edible substances.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
The inner zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces the enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE, a 21-carbon steroid, to 19-carbon steroids (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE) via 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYPREGNENOLONE.
Inbred C57BL mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity and homozygosity, making them widely used for biomedical research, including studies on genetics, immunology, cancer, and neuroscience.
The wide middle zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces a series of enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE to cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) via 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYPROGESTERONE.
A naturally occurring glucocorticoid. It has been used in replacement therapy for adrenal insufficiency and as an anti-inflammatory agent. Cortisone itself is inactive. It is converted in the liver to the active metabolite HYDROCORTISONE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p726)
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Flat keratinous structures found on the skin surface of birds. Feathers are made partly of a hollow shaft fringed with barbs. They constitute the plumage.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The separation of individuals or groups resulting in the lack of or minimizing of social contact and/or communication. This separation may be accomplished by physical separation, by social barriers and by psychological mechanisms. In the latter, there may be interaction but no real communication.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
The family Passeridae comprised of small, mainly brown and grey seed-eating birds with conical bills.
Injections into the cerebral ventricles.
'Housing, Animal' refers to the physical structure or environment designed and constructed to provide shelter, protection, and specific living conditions for various domestic or captive animals, meeting their biological and behavioral needs while ensuring their welfare and well-being.
Any type of variation in the appearance of energy output of the sun. (NASA Thesaurus, 1994)
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
Metabolites or derivatives of PROGESTERONE with hydroxyl group substitution at various sites.
Biogenic amines having only one amine moiety. Included in this group are all natural monoamines formed by the enzymatic decarboxylation of natural amino acids.
The capability of producing eggs (OVA) from which young are hatched outside the body. While mostly referring to nonmammalian species, this does include MAMMALS of the order MONOTREMATA.
The predominant form of mammalian antidiuretic hormone. It is a nonapeptide containing an ARGININE at residue 8 and two disulfide-linked cysteines at residues of 1 and 6. Arg-vasopressin is used to treat DIABETES INSIPIDUS or to improve vasomotor tone and BLOOD PRESSURE.
An agent derived from licorice root. It is used for the treatment of digestive tract ulcers, especially in the stomach. Antidiuretic side effects are frequent, but otherwise the drug is low in toxicity.
Induction of a stress reaction in experimental subjects by means of an electrical shock; applies to either convulsive or non-convulsive states.
A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.
Large herbivorous tropical American lizards.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Animal behavior associated with the nest; includes construction, effects of size and material; behavior of the adult during the nesting period and the effect of the nest on the behavior of the young.
Surgical removal or destruction of the hypophysis, or pituitary gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)
One of the MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS used to treat DEPRESSION; PHOBIC DISORDERS; and PANIC.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.

Emergent immunoregulatory properties of combined glucocorticoid and anti-glucocorticoid steroids in a model of tuberculosis. (1/3099)

In Balb/c mice with pulmonary tuberculosis, there is a switch from a protective Th1-dominated cytokine profile to a non-protective profile with a Th2 component. This switch occurs while the adrenals are undergoing marked hyperplasia. Treatment with the anti-glucocorticoid hormones dehydroepiandrosterone or 3 beta, 17 beta-androstenediol, during the period of adrenal hyperplasia, maintains Th1 dominance and is protective. We investigated the effects of these hormones as therapeutic agents by administering them from day 60, when the switch to the non-protective cytokine profile was already well established. Given at this time (day 60), doses that were protective when given early (from day 0) were rapidly fatal. A physiological dose of the glucocorticoid corticosterone was also rapidly fatal. However when the corticosterone and the anti-glucocorticoid (AED or DHEA) were co-administered, there was protection, with restoration of a Th1-dominated cytokine profile, enhanced DTH responses, and enhanced expression of IL-1 alpha and TNF alpha. Therefore this combination of steroids has an emergent property that is quite unlike that of either type of steroid given alone. It may be possible to exploit the ant-inflammatory properties of glucocorticoids while preserving a Th1 bias, by combining glucocorticoids with DHEA or suitable metabolites.  (+info)

Maternal adrenocortical hormones maintain the early development of pancreatic B cells in the fetal rat. (2/3099)

To investigate the effect of maternal adrenocortical hormones on the development of fetal pancreatic islet cells, pregnant rats were adrenalectomised on d 6 of gestation. On d 12-16 the growth patterns of fetal insulin-producing B cells, glucagon-producing A cells, and somatostatin-producing D cells were observed histometrically. Maternal adrenalectomy resulted in growth retardation of fetal B cells on d 12-15. Maternal corticosterone therapy prevented this retardation. Maternal adrenalectomy, however, did not affect the developmental patterns of A and D cells. By Western blotting and immunohistochemistry, glucocorticoid receptors were demonstrated to be present in the islet cells from d 12 to d 15. These results suggest that maternal adrenocortical hormones, glucocorticoids in particular, maintain the early development of fetal pancreatic B cells through their specific intracellular glucocorticoid receptor.  (+info)

The Ca2+ channel blockade changes the behavioral and biochemical effects of immobilization stress. (3/3099)

We investigated how the effects of chronic immobilization stress in rats are modified by Ca2+ channel blockade preceding restraint sessions. The application of nifedipine (5 mg/kg) shortly before each of seven daily 2 h restraint sessions prevented the development of sensitized response to amphetamine as well as the stress-induced elevation of the densities of L-type Ca2+ channel in the hippocampus and significantly reduced the elevation of the densities of [3H]nitrendipine binding sites in the cortex and D1 dopamine receptors in the limbic forebrain. Neither stress, nor nifedipine affected the density of alpha 1-adrenoceptors and D1 receptors in the cerebral cortex nor D2 dopamine receptors in the striatum. A single restraint session caused an elevation of blood corticosterone level that remained unaffected by nifedipine pretreatment, but the reduction of this response during the eighth session was significantly less expressed in nifedipine-treated rats. We conclude that L-type calcium channel blockade prevents development of several stress-induced adaptive responses.  (+info)

Relationships between environmental organochlorine contaminant residues, plasma corticosterone concentrations, and intermediary metabolic enzyme activities in Great Lakes herring gull embryos. (4/3099)

Experiments were conducted to survey and detect differences in plasma corticosterone concentrations and intermediary metabolic enzyme activities in herring gull (Larus argentatus) embryos environmentally exposed to organochlorine contaminants in ovo. Unincubated fertile herring gull eggs were collected from an Atlantic coast control site and various Great Lakes sites in 1997 and artificially incubated in the laboratory. Liver and/or kidney tissues from approximately half of the late-stage embryos were analyzed for the activities of various intermediary metabolic enzymes known to be regulated, at least in part, by corticosteroids. Basal plasma corticosterone concentrations were determined for the remaining embryos. Yolk sacs were collected from each embryo and a subset was analyzed for organochlorine contaminants. Regression analysis of individual yolk sac organochlorine residue concentrations, or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs), with individual basal plasma corticosterone concentrations indicated statistically significant inverse relationships for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), non-ortho PCBs, and TEQs. Similarly, inverse relationships were observed for the activities of two intermediary metabolic enzymes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and malic enzyme) when regressed against PCDDs/PCDFs. Overall, these data suggest that current levels of organochlorine contamination may be affecting the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and associated intermediary metabolic pathways in environmentally exposed herring gull embryos in the Great Lakes.  (+info)

Increased neurodegeneration during ageing in mice lacking high-affinity nicotine receptors. (5/3099)

We have examined neuroanatomical, biochemical and endocrine parameters and spatial learning in mice lacking the beta2 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) during ageing. Aged beta2(-/-) mutant mice showed region-specific alterations in cortical regions, including neocortical hypotrophy, loss of hippocampal pyramidal neurons, astro- and microgliosis and elevation of serum corticosterone levels. Whereas adult mutant and control animals performed well in the Morris maze, 22- to 24-month-old beta2(-/-) mice were significantly impaired in spatial learning. These data show that beta2 subunit-containing nAChRs can contribute to both neuronal survival and maintenance of cognitive performance during ageing. beta2(-/-) mice may thus serve as one possible animal model for some of the cognitive deficits and degenerative processes which take place during physiological ageing and in Alzheimer's disease, particularly those associated with dysfunction of the cholinergic system.  (+info)

High-temperature effects on antibody response to viral antigen in mice. (6/3099)

To determine the effects of high-temperature exposure on antibody response to viral antigen in mice, male BALB/c mice were placed for 13 days in animal chambers at 23 degrees C, 32 degrees C, and 35.5 degrees C. Rectal temperature rose from 37 degrees C to 39 degrees C on day 1 in a 35.5 degrees C environment. The rectal temperature was kept constant throughout the exposure period. The IgG-antibody to Sendai virus (SV) antigen was inhibited to about 50% of the control value (23 degrees C). The serum corticosterone concentration indicating thermal stress increased steadily, peaking on day 1 and then gradually decreased and recovered to the normal level on day 13. Body weight decreased to about 72% of the controls on day 13. Thymus and spleen weight decreased to 31.7% and 61.5% respectively. At 32 degrees C, these effects were less than at 35.5 degrees C. Effects of high-temperature exposure at 35.5 degrees C appeared to noticeably decrease thymus and spleen weight. It is clear that IgG-antibody response to SV antigen is suppressed by high-temperature exposure.  (+info)

Central administration of rat IL-6 induces HPA activation and fever but not sickness behavior in rats. (7/3099)

Interleukin (IL)-6 has been proposed to mediate several sickness responses, including brain-mediated neuroendocrine, temperature, and behavioral changes. However, the exact mechanisms and sites of action of IL-6 are still poorly understood. In the present study, we describe the effects of central administration of species-homologous recombinant rat IL-6 (rrIL-6) on the induction of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity, fever, social investigatory behavior, and immobility. After intracerebroventricular administration of rrIL-6 (50 or 100 ng/rat), rats demonstrated HPA and febrile responses. In contrast, rrIL-6 alone did not induce changes in social investigatory and locomotor behavior at doses of up to 400 ng/rat. Coadministration of rrIL-6 (100 ng/rat) and rrIL-1beta (40 ng/rat), which alone did not affect the behavioral responses, reduced social investigatory behavior and increased the duration of immobility. Compared with rhIL-6, intracerebroventricular administration of rrIL-6 (100 ng/rat) induced higher HPA responses and early-phase febrile responses. This is consistent with a higher potency of rrIL-6, compared with rhIL-6, in the murine B9 bioassay. We conclude that species-homologous rrIL-6 alone can act in the brain to induce HPA and febrile responses, whereas it only reduces social investigatory behavior and locomotor activity in the presence of IL-1beta.  (+info)

Hypertension in mice lacking 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2. (8/3099)

Deficiency of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11beta-HSD2) in humans leads to the syndrome of apparent mineralocorticoid excess (SAME), in which cortisol illicitly occupies mineralocorticoid receptors, causing sodium retention, hypokalemia, and hypertension. However, the disorder is usually incompletely corrected by suppression of cortisol, suggesting additional and irreversible changes, perhaps in the kidney. To examine this further, we produced mice with targeted disruption of the 11beta-HSD2 gene. Homozygous mutant mice (11beta-HSD2(-/-)) appear normal at birth, but approximately 50% show motor weakness and die within 48 hours. Both male and female survivors are fertile but exhibit hypokalemia, hypotonic polyuria, and apparent mineralocorticoid activity of corticosterone. Young adult 11beta-HSD2(-/-) mice are markedly hypertensive, with a mean arterial blood pressure of 146 +/- 2 mmHg, compared with 121 +/- 2 mmHg in wild-type controls and 114 +/- 4 mmHg in heterozygotes. The epithelium of the distal tubule of the nephron shows striking hypertrophy and hyperplasia. These histological changes do not readily reverse with mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism in adulthood. Thus, 11beta-HSD2(-/-) mice demonstrate the major features of SAME, providing a unique rodent model to study the molecular mechanisms of kidney resetting leading to hypertension.  (+info)

Corticosterone is a hormone produced by the adrenal gland in many animals, including humans. It is a type of glucocorticoid steroid hormone that plays an important role in the body's response to stress, immune function, metabolism, and regulation of inflammation. Corticosterone helps to regulate the balance of sodium and potassium in the body and also plays a role in the development and functioning of the nervous system. It is the primary glucocorticoid hormone in rodents, while cortisol is the primary glucocorticoid hormone in humans and other primates.

Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) is a hormone produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. ACTH plays a crucial role in the regulation of the body's stress response and has significant effects on various physiological processes.

The primary function of ACTH is to stimulate the adrenal glands, which are triangular-shaped glands situated on top of the kidneys. The adrenal glands consist of two parts: the outer cortex and the inner medulla. ACTH specifically targets the adrenal cortex, where it binds to specific receptors and initiates a series of biochemical reactions leading to the production and release of steroid hormones, primarily cortisol (a glucocorticoid) and aldosterone (a mineralocorticoid).

Cortisol is involved in various metabolic processes, such as regulating blood sugar levels, modulating the immune response, and helping the body respond to stress. Aldosterone plays a vital role in maintaining electrolyte and fluid balance by promoting sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion in the kidneys.

ACTH release is controlled by the hypothalamus, another part of the brain, which produces corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). CRH stimulates the anterior pituitary gland to secrete ACTH, which in turn triggers cortisol production in the adrenal glands. This complex feedback system helps maintain homeostasis and ensures that appropriate amounts of cortisol are released in response to various physiological and psychological stressors.

Disorders related to ACTH can lead to hormonal imbalances, resulting in conditions such as Cushing's syndrome (excessive cortisol production) or Addison's disease (insufficient cortisol production). Proper diagnosis and management of these disorders typically involve assessing the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and addressing any underlying issues affecting ACTH secretion.

Adrenalectomy is a surgical procedure in which one or both adrenal glands are removed. The adrenal glands are small, triangular-shaped glands located on top of each kidney that produce hormones such as cortisol, aldosterone, and adrenaline (epinephrine).

There are several reasons why an adrenalectomy may be necessary. For example, the procedure may be performed to treat tumors or growths on the adrenal glands, such as pheochromocytomas, which can cause high blood pressure and other symptoms. Adrenalectomy may also be recommended for patients with Cushing's syndrome, a condition in which the body is exposed to too much cortisol, or for those with adrenal cancer.

During an adrenalectomy, the surgeon makes an incision in the abdomen or back and removes the affected gland or glands. In some cases, laparoscopic surgery may be used, which involves making several small incisions and using specialized instruments to remove the gland. After the procedure, patients may need to take hormone replacement therapy to compensate for the loss of adrenal gland function.

The pituitary-adrenal system, also known as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, is a complex set of interactions between the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland, and the adrenal glands. This system plays a crucial role in the body's response to stress through the release of hormones that regulate various physiological processes.

The hypothalamus, located within the brain, receives information from the nervous system about the internal and external environment and responds by releasing corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and vasopressin. These hormones then travel to the anterior pituitary gland, where they stimulate the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).

ACTH is transported through the bloodstream to the adrenal glands, which are located on top of the kidneys. The adrenal glands consist of two parts: the outer cortex and the inner medulla. ACTH specifically targets the adrenal cortex, causing it to release cortisol and other glucocorticoids, as well as androgens such as dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA).

Cortisol has numerous effects on metabolism, immune function, and cardiovascular regulation. It helps regulate blood sugar levels, suppresses the immune system, and aids in the breakdown of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates to provide energy during stressful situations. DHEA can be converted into male and female sex hormones (androgens and estrogens) in various tissues throughout the body.

The pituitary-adrenal system is tightly regulated through negative feedback mechanisms. High levels of cortisol, for example, inhibit the release of CRH and ACTH from the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, respectively, thereby limiting further cortisol production. Dysregulation of this system has been implicated in several medical conditions, including Cushing's syndrome (overproduction of cortisol) and Addison's disease (underproduction of cortisol).

The Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal system, also known as the hypothalamic-pituitary system, is a crucial part of the endocrine system that regulates many bodily functions. It consists of two main components: the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland.

The hypothalamus is a region in the brain that receives information from various parts of the body and integrates them to regulate vital functions such as body temperature, hunger, thirst, sleep, and emotional behavior. It also produces and releases neurohormones that control the secretion of hormones from the pituitary gland.

The pituitary gland is a small gland located at the base of the brain, just below the hypothalamus. It consists of two parts: the anterior pituitary (also called adenohypophysis) and the posterior pituitary (also called neurohypophysis). The anterior pituitary produces and releases several hormones that regulate various bodily functions such as growth, metabolism, reproduction, and stress response. The posterior pituitary stores and releases hormones produced by the hypothalamus, including antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin.

The hypothalamo-hypophyseal system works together to maintain homeostasis in the body by regulating various physiological processes through hormonal signaling. Dysfunction of this system can lead to several endocrine disorders, such as diabetes insipidus, pituitary tumors, and hypothalamic-pituitary axis disorders.

Physical restraint, in a medical context, refers to the use of physical force or equipment to limit a person's movements or access to their own body. This is typically done to prevent harm to the individual themselves or to others. It can include various devices such as wrist restraints, vest restraints, or bed rails. The use of physical restraints should be a last resort and must be in accordance with established guidelines and regulations to ensure the safety and rights of the patient are respected.

The adrenal glands are a pair of endocrine glands that are located on top of the kidneys. Each gland has two parts: the outer cortex and the inner medulla. The adrenal cortex produces hormones such as cortisol, aldosterone, and androgens, which regulate metabolism, blood pressure, and other vital functions. The adrenal medulla produces catecholamines, including epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline), which help the body respond to stress by increasing heart rate, blood pressure, and alertness.

Physiological stress is a response of the body to a demand or threat that disrupts homeostasis and activates the autonomic nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. This results in the release of stress hormones such as adrenaline, cortisol, and noradrenaline, which prepare the body for a "fight or flight" response. Increased heart rate, rapid breathing, heightened sensory perception, and increased alertness are some of the physiological changes that occur during this response. Chronic stress can have negative effects on various bodily functions, including the immune, cardiovascular, and nervous systems.

Metyrapone is a medication that is primarily used in the diagnosis and treatment of Cushing's syndrome, a condition characterized by excessive levels of cortisol hormone in the body. It works as an inhibitor of steroidogenesis, specifically blocking the enzyme 11-beta-hydroxylase, which is involved in the production of cortisol in the adrenal gland.

By inhibiting this enzyme, metyrapone prevents the formation of cortisol and leads to an accumulation of its precursor, 11-deoxycortisol. This can help restore the balance of hormones in the body and alleviate symptoms associated with Cushing's syndrome.

It is important to note that metyrapone should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as it can have significant side effects and interactions with other medications.

Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone (CRH) is a hormone that is produced and released by the hypothalamus, a small gland located in the brain. CRH plays a critical role in the body's stress response system.

When the body experiences stress, the hypothalamus releases CRH, which then travels to the pituitary gland, another small gland located at the base of the brain. Once there, CRH stimulates the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary gland.

ACTH then travels through the bloodstream to the adrenal glands, which are located on top of the kidneys. ACTH stimulates the adrenal glands to produce and release cortisol, a hormone that helps the body respond to stress by regulating metabolism, immune function, and blood pressure, among other things.

Overall, CRH is an important part of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which regulates many bodily functions related to stress response, mood, and cognition. Dysregulation of the HPA axis and abnormal levels of CRH have been implicated in various psychiatric and medical conditions, including depression, anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and Cushing's syndrome.

Glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) are a type of nuclear receptor proteins found inside cells that bind to glucocorticoids, a class of steroid hormones. These receptors play an essential role in the regulation of various physiological processes, including metabolism, immune response, and stress response.

When a glucocorticoid hormone such as cortisol binds to the GR, it undergoes a conformational change that allows it to translocate into the nucleus of the cell. Once inside the nucleus, the GR acts as a transcription factor, binding to specific DNA sequences called glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) located in the promoter regions of target genes. The binding of the GR to the GRE can either activate or repress gene transcription, depending on the context and the presence of co-regulatory proteins.

Glucocorticoids have diverse effects on the body, including anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive actions. They are commonly used in clinical settings to treat a variety of conditions such as asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory bowel disease. However, long-term use of glucocorticoids can lead to several side effects, including osteoporosis, weight gain, and increased risk of infections, due to the widespread effects of these hormones on multiple organ systems.

Mifepristone is a synthetic steroid that is used in the medical termination of pregnancy (also known as medication abortion or RU-486). It works by blocking the action of progesterone, a hormone necessary for maintaining pregnancy. Mifepristone is often used in combination with misoprostol to cause uterine contractions and expel the products of conception from the uterus.

It's also known as an antiprogestin or progesterone receptor modulator, which means it can bind to progesterone receptors in the body and block their activity. In addition to its use in pregnancy termination, mifepristone has been studied for its potential therapeutic uses in conditions such as Cushing's syndrome, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and hormone-dependent cancers.

It is important to note that Mifepristone should be administered under the supervision of a licensed healthcare professional and it is not available over the counter. Also, it has some contraindications and potential side effects, so it's essential to have a consultation with a doctor before taking this medication.

Psychological stress is the response of an individual's mind and body to challenging or demanding situations. It can be defined as a state of emotional and physical tension resulting from adversity, demand, or change. This response can involve a variety of symptoms, including emotional, cognitive, behavioral, and physiological components.

Emotional responses may include feelings of anxiety, fear, anger, sadness, or frustration. Cognitive responses might involve difficulty concentrating, racing thoughts, or negative thinking patterns. Behaviorally, psychological stress can lead to changes in appetite, sleep patterns, social interactions, and substance use. Physiologically, the body's "fight-or-flight" response is activated, leading to increased heart rate, blood pressure, muscle tension, and other symptoms.

Psychological stress can be caused by a wide range of factors, including work or school demands, financial problems, relationship issues, traumatic events, chronic illness, and major life changes. It's important to note that what causes stress in one person may not cause stress in another, as individual perceptions and coping mechanisms play a significant role.

Chronic psychological stress can have negative effects on both mental and physical health, increasing the risk of conditions such as anxiety disorders, depression, heart disease, diabetes, and autoimmune diseases. Therefore, it's essential to identify sources of stress and develop effective coping strategies to manage and reduce its impact.

Transcortin, also known as corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), is a protein found in human plasma that binds and transports cortisol, corticosterone, and other steroid hormones. It plays a crucial role in the regulation of the distribution, metabolism, and elimination of these hormones. Transcortin has a higher affinity for cortisol than corticosterone, making it the primary transporter of cortisol in the bloodstream. By binding to transcortin, cortisol is prevented from rapidly entering cells and exerting its effects, thus controlling the rate at which cortisol can interact with its target tissues.

Medical Definition:

Mineralocorticoid Receptors (MRs) are a type of nuclear receptor protein that are activated by the binding of mineralocorticoid hormones, such as aldosterone. These receptors are expressed in various tissues and cells, including the kidneys, heart, blood vessels, and brain.

When activated, MRs regulate gene expression related to sodium and potassium homeostasis, water balance, and electrolyte transport. This is primarily achieved through the regulation of ion channels and transporters in the distal nephron of the kidney, leading to increased sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion.

Abnormalities in mineralocorticoid receptor function have been implicated in several diseases, including hypertension, heart failure, and primary aldosteronism.

Sprague-Dawley rats are a strain of albino laboratory rats that are widely used in scientific research. They were first developed by researchers H.H. Sprague and R.C. Dawley in the early 20th century, and have since become one of the most commonly used rat strains in biomedical research due to their relatively large size, ease of handling, and consistent genetic background.

Sprague-Dawley rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not suffer from the same limitations as inbred strains, which can have reduced fertility and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. They are also characterized by their docile nature and low levels of aggression, making them easier to handle and study than some other rat strains.

These rats are used in a wide variety of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, and behavioral studies. Because they are genetically diverse, Sprague-Dawley rats can be used to model a range of human diseases and conditions, making them an important tool in the development of new drugs and therapies.

Glucocorticoids are a class of steroid hormones that are naturally produced in the adrenal gland, or can be synthetically manufactured. They play an essential role in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats, and have significant anti-inflammatory effects. Glucocorticoids suppress immune responses and inflammation by inhibiting the release of inflammatory mediators from various cells, such as mast cells, eosinophils, and lymphocytes. They are frequently used in medical treatment for a wide range of conditions, including allergies, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, dermatological disorders, and certain cancers. Prolonged use or high doses of glucocorticoids can lead to several side effects, such as weight gain, mood changes, osteoporosis, and increased susceptibility to infections.

The adrenal cortex is the outer portion of the adrenal gland, which is located on top of the kidneys. It plays a crucial role in producing hormones that are essential for various bodily functions. The adrenal cortex is divided into three zones:

1. Zona glomerulosa: This outermost zone produces mineralocorticoids, primarily aldosterone. Aldosterone helps regulate sodium and potassium balance and thus influences blood pressure by controlling the amount of fluid in the body.
2. Zona fasciculata: The middle layer is responsible for producing glucocorticoids, with cortisol being the most important one. Cortisol regulates metabolism, helps manage stress responses, and has anti-inflammatory properties. It also plays a role in blood sugar regulation and maintaining the body's response to injury and illness.
3. Zona reticularis: The innermost zone produces androgens, primarily dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate form (DHEAS). These androgens are weak compared to those produced by the gonads (ovaries or testes), but they can be converted into more potent androgens or estrogens in peripheral tissues.

Disorders related to the adrenal cortex can lead to hormonal imbalances, affecting various bodily functions. Examples include Addison's disease (insufficient adrenal cortical hormone production) and Cushing's syndrome (excessive glucocorticoid levels).

"Wistar rats" are a strain of albino rats that are widely used in laboratory research. They were developed at the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia, USA, and were first introduced in 1906. Wistar rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not have a fixed set of genetic characteristics like inbred strains.

Wistar rats are commonly used as animal models in biomedical research because of their size, ease of handling, and relatively low cost. They are used in a wide range of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and behavioral studies. Wistar rats are also used in safety testing of drugs, medical devices, and other products.

Wistar rats are typically larger than many other rat strains, with males weighing between 500-700 grams and females weighing between 250-350 grams. They have a lifespan of approximately 2-3 years. Wistar rats are also known for their docile and friendly nature, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory setting.

11-Beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (11-β-HSDs) are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in the metabolism of steroid hormones, particularly cortisol and cortisone, which belong to the class of glucocorticoids. These enzymes exist in two isoforms: 11-β-HSD1 and 11-β-HSD2.

1. 11-β-HSD1: This isoform is primarily located within the liver, adipose tissue, and various other peripheral tissues. It functions as a NADPH-dependent reductase, converting inactive cortisone to its active form, cortisol. This enzyme helps regulate glucocorticoid action in peripheral tissues, influencing glucose and lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and inflammation.
2. 11-β-HSD2: This isoform is predominantly found in mineralocorticoid target tissues such as the kidneys, colon, and salivary glands. It functions as a NAD+-dependent dehydrogenase, converting active cortisol to its inactive form, cortisone. By doing so, it protects the mineralocorticoid receptor from being overstimulated by cortisol, ensuring aldosterone specifically binds and activates this receptor to maintain proper electrolyte and fluid balance.

Dysregulation of 11-β-HSDs has been implicated in several disease states, including metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and psychiatric disorders. Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of these enzymes is essential for developing novel therapeutic strategies to treat related conditions.

The Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus (PVN) is a nucleus in the hypothalamus, which is a part of the brain that regulates various autonomic functions and homeostatic processes. The PVN plays a crucial role in the regulation of neuroendocrine and autonomic responses to stress, as well as the control of fluid and electrolyte balance, cardiovascular function, and energy balance.

The PVN is composed of several subdivisions, including the magnocellular and parvocellular divisions. The magnocellular neurons produce and release two neuropeptides, oxytocin and vasopressin (also known as antidiuretic hormone), into the circulation via the posterior pituitary gland. These neuropeptides play important roles in social behavior, reproduction, and fluid balance.

The parvocellular neurons, on the other hand, project to various brain regions and the pituitary gland, where they release neurotransmitters and neuropeptides that regulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which is responsible for the stress response. The PVN also contains neurons that produce corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), a key neurotransmitter involved in the regulation of the HPA axis and the stress response.

Overall, the Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus is an essential component of the brain's regulatory systems that help maintain homeostasis and respond to stressors. Dysfunction of the PVN has been implicated in various pathological conditions, including hypertension, obesity, and mood disorders.

'Animal behavior' refers to the actions or responses of animals to various stimuli, including their interactions with the environment and other individuals. It is the study of the actions of animals, whether they are instinctual, learned, or a combination of both. Animal behavior includes communication, mating, foraging, predator avoidance, and social organization, among other things. The scientific study of animal behavior is called ethology. This field seeks to understand the evolutionary basis for behaviors as well as their physiological and psychological mechanisms.

Steroid 11-beta-hydroxylase is a crucial enzyme involved in the steroidogenesis pathway, specifically in the synthesis of cortisol and aldosterone, which are vital hormones produced by the adrenal glands. This enzyme is encoded by the CYP11B1 gene in humans.

The enzyme's primary function is to catalyze the conversion of 11-deoxycortisol to cortisol and 11-deoxycorticosterone to aldosterone through the process of hydroxylation at the 11-beta position of the steroid molecule. Cortisol is a critical glucocorticoid hormone that helps regulate metabolism, immune response, and stress response, while aldosterone is a mineralocorticoid hormone responsible for maintaining electrolyte and fluid balance in the body.

Deficiencies or mutations in the CYP11B1 gene can lead to various disorders, such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), which may result in impaired cortisol and aldosterone production, causing hormonal imbalances and associated symptoms.

Hormone antagonists are substances or drugs that block the action of hormones by binding to their receptors without activating them, thereby preventing the hormones from exerting their effects. They can be classified into two types: receptor antagonists and enzyme inhibitors. Receptor antagonists bind directly to hormone receptors and prevent the hormone from binding, while enzyme inhibitors block the production or breakdown of hormones by inhibiting specific enzymes involved in their metabolism. Hormone antagonists are used in the treatment of various medical conditions, such as cancer, hormonal disorders, and cardiovascular diseases.

Body weight is the measure of the force exerted on a scale or balance by an object's mass, most commonly expressed in units such as pounds (lb) or kilograms (kg). In the context of medical definitions, body weight typically refers to an individual's total weight, which includes their skeletal muscle, fat, organs, and bodily fluids.

Healthcare professionals often use body weight as a basic indicator of overall health status, as it can provide insights into various aspects of a person's health, such as nutritional status, metabolic function, and risk factors for certain diseases. For example, being significantly underweight or overweight can increase the risk of developing conditions like malnutrition, diabetes, heart disease, and certain types of cancer.

It is important to note that body weight alone may not provide a complete picture of an individual's health, as it does not account for factors such as muscle mass, bone density, or body composition. Therefore, healthcare professionals often use additional measures, such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and blood tests, to assess overall health status more comprehensively.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "swimming" is not typically considered a medical term. It refers to the act of moving through water using your arms and legs in a rhythmic pattern, often as a form of exercise, recreation, or competition. However, if you're referring to a medical condition related to swimming, such as "swimmer's ear" (otitis externa), I would be happy to provide a definition for that.

Swimmer's ear is a type of outer ear infection caused by water remaining in the ear after swimming or bathing, creating a moist environment that can lead to bacterial growth. It can also be caused by scratching or damaging the lining of the ear canal through the use of cotton swabs or other objects. Symptoms may include itching, redness, pain, and sometimes discharge from the ear. If left untreated, swimmer's ear can lead to more serious complications, such as hearing loss or damage to the inner ear.

Aldosterone is a hormone produced by the adrenal gland. It plays a key role in regulating sodium and potassium balance and maintaining blood pressure through its effects on the kidneys. Aldosterone promotes the reabsorption of sodium ions and the excretion of potassium ions in the distal tubules and collecting ducts of the nephrons in the kidneys. This increases the osmotic pressure in the blood, which in turn leads to water retention and an increase in blood volume and blood pressure.

Aldosterone is released from the adrenal gland in response to a variety of stimuli, including angiotensin II (a peptide hormone produced as part of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system), potassium ions, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary gland. The production of aldosterone is regulated by a negative feedback mechanism involving sodium levels in the blood. High sodium levels inhibit the release of aldosterone, while low sodium levels stimulate its release.

In addition to its role in maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance and blood pressure, aldosterone has been implicated in various pathological conditions, including hypertension, heart failure, and primary hyperaldosteronism (a condition characterized by excessive production of aldosterone).

Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDs) are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in steroid hormone metabolism. They catalyze the oxidation and reduction reactions of hydroxyl groups on the steroid molecule, which can lead to the activation or inactivation of steroid hormones. HSDs are involved in the conversion of various steroids, including sex steroids (e.g., androgens, estrogens) and corticosteroids (e.g., cortisol, cortisone). These enzymes can be found in different tissues throughout the body, and their activity is regulated by various factors, such as hormones, growth factors, and cytokines. Dysregulation of HSDs has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

11-Beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2 (11β-HSD2) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the regulation of steroid hormones, particularly cortisol and aldosterone. It is primarily found in tissues such as the kidneys, colon, and salivary glands.

The main function of 11β-HSD2 is to convert active cortisol into inactive cortisone, which helps to prevent excessive mineralocorticoid receptor activation by cortisol. This is important because cortisol can bind to and activate mineralocorticoid receptors, leading to increased sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion in the kidneys, as well as other effects on blood pressure and electrolyte balance.

By converting cortisol to cortisone, 11β-HSD2 helps to protect mineralocorticoid receptors from being overstimulated by cortisol, allowing aldosterone to bind and activate these receptors instead. This is important for maintaining normal blood pressure and electrolyte balance.

Deficiencies or mutations in the 11β-HSD2 enzyme can lead to a condition called apparent mineralocorticoid excess (AME), which is characterized by high blood pressure, low potassium levels, and increased sodium reabsorption in the kidneys. This occurs because cortisol is able to bind to and activate mineralocorticoid receptors in the absence of 11β-HSD2 activity.

Dexamethasone is a type of corticosteroid medication, which is a synthetic version of a natural hormone produced by the adrenal glands. It is often used to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system in a variety of medical conditions, including allergies, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, and certain skin conditions.

Dexamethasone works by binding to specific receptors in cells, which triggers a range of anti-inflammatory effects. These include reducing the production of chemicals that cause inflammation, suppressing the activity of immune cells, and stabilizing cell membranes.

In addition to its anti-inflammatory effects, dexamethasone can also be used to treat other medical conditions, such as certain types of cancer, brain swelling, and adrenal insufficiency. It is available in a variety of forms, including tablets, liquids, creams, and injectable solutions.

Like all medications, dexamethasone can have side effects, particularly if used for long periods of time or at high doses. These may include mood changes, increased appetite, weight gain, acne, thinning skin, easy bruising, and an increased risk of infections. It is important to follow the instructions of a healthcare provider when taking dexamethasone to minimize the risk of side effects.

A circadian rhythm is a roughly 24-hour biological cycle that regulates various physiological and behavioral processes in living organisms. It is driven by the body's internal clock, which is primarily located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus in the brain.

The circadian rhythm controls many aspects of human physiology, including sleep-wake cycles, hormone secretion, body temperature, and metabolism. It helps to synchronize these processes with the external environment, particularly the day-night cycle caused by the rotation of the Earth.

Disruptions to the circadian rhythm can have negative effects on health, leading to conditions such as insomnia, sleep disorders, depression, bipolar disorder, and even increased risk of chronic diseases like cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Factors that can disrupt the circadian rhythm include shift work, jet lag, irregular sleep schedules, and exposure to artificial light at night.

Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) is a precursor protein that gets cleaved into several biologically active peptides in the body. These peptides include adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), beta-lipotropin, and multiple opioid peptides such as beta-endorphin, met-enkephalin, and leu-enkephalin.

ACTH stimulates the release of cortisol from the adrenal gland, while beta-lipotropin has various metabolic functions. The opioid peptides derived from POMC have pain-relieving (analgesic) and rewarding effects in the brain. Dysregulation of the POMC system has been implicated in several medical conditions, including obesity, addiction, and certain types of hormone deficiencies.

11-Beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 (11β-HSD1) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of steroid hormones, particularly cortisol, in the body. Cortisol is a glucocorticoid hormone produced by the adrenal glands that helps regulate various physiological processes such as metabolism, immune response, and stress response.

11β-HSD1 is primarily expressed in liver, fat, and muscle tissues, where it catalyzes the conversion of cortisone to cortisol. Cortisone is a biologically inactive form of cortisol that is produced when cortisol levels are high, and it needs to be converted back to cortisol for the hormone to exert its effects.

By increasing the availability of active cortisol in these tissues, 11β-HSD1 has been implicated in several metabolic disorders, including obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. Inhibitors of 11β-HSD1 are currently being investigated as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of these conditions.

The hippocampus is a complex, curved formation in the brain that resembles a seahorse (hence its name, from the Greek word "hippos" meaning horse and "kampos" meaning sea monster). It's part of the limbic system and plays crucial roles in the formation of memories, particularly long-term ones.

This region is involved in spatial navigation and cognitive maps, allowing us to recognize locations and remember how to get to them. Additionally, it's one of the first areas affected by Alzheimer's disease, which often results in memory loss as an early symptom.

Anatomically, it consists of two main parts: the Ammon's horn (or cornu ammonis) and the dentate gyrus. These structures are made up of distinct types of neurons that contribute to different aspects of learning and memory.

Propanil is not a medical term, but a pesticide. It's a type of herbicide used to control weed growth in crops such as rice. Propanil works by inhibiting the enzyme protoporphyrinogen oxidase, which is essential for the production of chlorophyll in plants. This leads to the death of the plant cells and ultimately the death of the weed.

However, it's important to note that exposure to propanil can have harmful effects on humans and other animals. It can cause skin and eye irritation, and prolonged or repeated exposure can lead to more serious health problems such as damage to the nervous system and internal organs. Therefore, it is essential to follow proper safety precautions when handling this chemical.

The hypothalamus is a small, vital region of the brain that lies just below the thalamus and forms part of the limbic system. It plays a crucial role in many important functions including:

1. Regulation of body temperature, hunger, thirst, fatigue, sleep, and circadian rhythms.
2. Production and regulation of hormones through its connection with the pituitary gland (the hypophysis). It controls the release of various hormones by producing releasing and inhibiting factors that regulate the anterior pituitary's function.
3. Emotional responses, behavior, and memory formation through its connections with the limbic system structures like the amygdala and hippocampus.
4. Autonomic nervous system regulation, which controls involuntary physiological functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, and digestion.
5. Regulation of the immune system by interacting with the autonomic nervous system.

Damage to the hypothalamus can lead to various disorders like diabetes insipidus, growth hormone deficiency, altered temperature regulation, sleep disturbances, and emotional or behavioral changes.

The adrenal cortex hormones are a group of steroid hormones produced and released by the outer portion (cortex) of the adrenal glands, which are located on top of each kidney. These hormones play crucial roles in regulating various physiological processes, including:

1. Glucose metabolism: Cortisol helps control blood sugar levels by increasing glucose production in the liver and reducing its uptake in peripheral tissues.
2. Protein and fat metabolism: Cortisol promotes protein breakdown and fatty acid mobilization, providing essential building blocks for energy production during stressful situations.
3. Immune response regulation: Cortisol suppresses immune function to prevent overactivation and potential damage to the body during stress.
4. Cardiovascular function: Aldosterone regulates electrolyte balance and blood pressure by promoting sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion in the kidneys.
5. Sex hormone production: The adrenal cortex produces small amounts of sex hormones, such as androgens and estrogens, which contribute to sexual development and function.
6. Growth and development: Cortisol plays a role in normal growth and development by influencing the activity of growth-promoting hormones like insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1).

The main adrenal cortex hormones include:

1. Glucocorticoids: Cortisol is the primary glucocorticoid, responsible for regulating metabolism and stress response.
2. Mineralocorticoids: Aldosterone is the primary mineralocorticoid, involved in electrolyte balance and blood pressure regulation.
3. Androgens: Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate derivative (DHEAS) are the most abundant adrenal androgens, contributing to sexual development and function.
4. Estrogens: Small amounts of estrogens are produced by the adrenal cortex, mainly in women.

Disorders related to impaired adrenal cortex hormone production or regulation can lead to various clinical manifestations, such as Addison's disease (adrenal insufficiency), Cushing's syndrome (hypercortisolism), and congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH).

Maternal deprivation is a psychoanalytic term that refers to the lack of adequate emotional nurturing and care from a mother or primary caregiver during early childhood. It can also refer to the physical separation of a child from their mother shortly after birth, which can lead to attachment issues and developmental delays if not addressed promptly.

The concept of maternal deprivation was first introduced by British pediatrician and psychoanalyst John Bowlby in his 1951 book "Maternal Care and Mental Health." Bowlby argued that the early bond between a child and their mother is critical for healthy emotional and social development, and that prolonged separation or inadequate care can lead to serious psychological consequences.

It's important to note that maternal deprivation can also occur in cases where the mother is physically present but emotionally unavailable or neglectful, and that fathers, other family members, and caregivers can also play a critical role in providing emotional nurturing and support to children.

Organ size refers to the volume or physical measurement of an organ in the body of an individual. It can be described in terms of length, width, and height or by using specialized techniques such as imaging studies (like CT scans or MRIs) to determine the volume. The size of an organ can vary depending on factors such as age, sex, body size, and overall health status. Changes in organ size may indicate various medical conditions, including growths, inflammation, or atrophy.

In medical terms, "ether" is an outdated term that was used to refer to a group of compounds known as diethyl ethers. The most common member of this group, and the one most frequently referred to as "ether," is diethyl ether, also known as sulfuric ether or simply ether.

Diethyl ether is a highly volatile, flammable liquid that was once widely used as an anesthetic agent in surgical procedures. It has a characteristic odor and produces a state of unconsciousness when inhaled, allowing patients to undergo surgery without experiencing pain. However, due to its numerous side effects, such as nausea, vomiting, and respiratory depression, as well as the risk of explosion or fire during use, it has largely been replaced by safer and more effective anesthetic agents.

It's worth noting that "ether" also has other meanings in different contexts, including a term used to describe a substance that produces a feeling of detachment from reality or a sense of unreality, as well as a class of organic compounds characterized by the presence of an ether group (-O-, a functional group consisting of an oxygen atom bonded to two alkyl or aryl groups).

A drug implant is a medical device that is specially designed to provide controlled release of a medication into the body over an extended period of time. Drug implants can be placed under the skin or in various body cavities, depending on the specific medical condition being treated. They are often used when other methods of administering medication, such as oral pills or injections, are not effective or practical.

Drug implants come in various forms, including rods, pellets, and small capsules. The medication is contained within the device and is released slowly over time, either through diffusion or erosion of the implant material. This allows for a steady concentration of the drug to be maintained in the body, which can help to improve treatment outcomes and reduce side effects.

Some common examples of drug implants include:

1. Hormonal implants: These are small rods that are inserted under the skin of the upper arm and release hormones such as progestin or estrogen over a period of several years. They are often used for birth control or to treat conditions such as endometriosis or uterine fibroids.
2. Intraocular implants: These are small devices that are placed in the eye during surgery to release medication directly into the eye. They are often used to treat conditions such as age-related macular degeneration or diabetic retinopathy.
3. Bone cement implants: These are specially formulated cements that contain antibiotics and are used to fill bone defects or joint spaces during surgery. The antibiotics are released slowly over time, helping to prevent infection.
4. Implantable pumps: These are small devices that are placed under the skin and deliver medication directly into a specific body cavity, such as the spinal cord or the peritoneal cavity. They are often used to treat chronic pain or cancer.

Overall, drug implants offer several advantages over other methods of administering medication, including improved compliance, reduced side effects, and more consistent drug levels in the body. However, they may also have some disadvantages, such as the need for surgical placement and the potential for infection or other complications. As with any medical treatment, it is important to discuss the risks and benefits of drug implants with a healthcare provider.

Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor found on the surface of cells in various tissues throughout the body. They play a critical role in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which is responsible for the body's stress response.

There are two main types of CRH receptors: CRH-R1 and CRH-R2. When CRH binds to these receptors, it triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that ultimately lead to the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary gland. ACTH then stimulates the production and release of cortisol, a steroid hormone that helps regulate metabolism, immune function, and stress response.

In addition to their role in the HPA axis, CRH receptors have been implicated in a variety of other physiological processes, including anxiety, depression, addiction, and pain perception. Dysregulation of the CRH system has been associated with several psychiatric and neurological disorders, making CRH receptors an important target for drug development in these areas.

Neurosecretory systems are specialized components of the nervous system that produce and release chemical messengers called neurohormones. These neurohormones are released into the bloodstream and can have endocrine effects on various target organs in the body. The cells that make up neurosecretory systems, known as neurosecretory cells, are found in specific regions of the brain, such as the hypothalamus, and in peripheral nerves.

Neurosecretory systems play a critical role in regulating many physiological processes, including fluid and electrolyte balance, stress responses, growth and development, reproductive functions, and behavior. The neurohormones released by these systems can act synergistically or antagonistically to maintain homeostasis and coordinate the body's response to internal and external stimuli.

Neurosecretory cells are characterized by their ability to synthesize and store neurohormones in secretory granules, which are released upon stimulation. The release of neurohormones can be triggered by a variety of signals, including neural impulses, hormonal changes, and other physiological cues. Once released into the bloodstream, neurohormones can travel to distant target organs, where they bind to specific receptors and elicit a range of responses.

Overall, neurosecretory systems are an essential component of the neuroendocrine system, which plays a critical role in regulating many aspects of human physiology and behavior.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical technique used to compare the means of two or more groups and determine whether there are any significant differences between them. It is a way to analyze the variance in a dataset to determine whether the variability between groups is greater than the variability within groups, which can indicate that the groups are significantly different from one another.

ANOVA is based on the concept of partitioning the total variance in a dataset into two components: variance due to differences between group means (also known as "between-group variance") and variance due to differences within each group (also known as "within-group variance"). By comparing these two sources of variance, ANOVA can help researchers determine whether any observed differences between groups are statistically significant, or whether they could have occurred by chance.

ANOVA is a widely used technique in many areas of research, including biology, psychology, engineering, and business. It is often used to compare the means of two or more experimental groups, such as a treatment group and a control group, to determine whether the treatment had a significant effect. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different populations or subgroups within a population, to identify any differences that may exist between them.

Desoxycorticosterone (also known as desoxycorticosterone or DCZ) is a natural steroid hormone produced by the adrenal gland. It is a weak glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid, which means it has some effects on blood sugar metabolism and regulates electrolyte and fluid balance in the body.

Desoxycorticosterone is used as a medication in the form of its synthetic acetate ester, desoxycorticosterone acetate (DCA), to treat Addison's disease, a condition in which the adrenal glands do not produce enough steroid hormones. DCA helps to replace the missing mineralocorticoid activity and prevent the symptoms of low blood pressure, dehydration, and electrolyte imbalances associated with Addison's disease.

It is important to note that desoxycorticosterone should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider, as it can have significant side effects if not properly monitored.

Exploratory behavior refers to the actions taken by an individual to investigate and gather information about their environment. This type of behavior is often driven by curiosity and a desire to understand new or unfamiliar situations, objects, or concepts. In a medical context, exploratory behavior may refer to a patient's willingness to learn more about their health condition, try new treatments, or engage in self-care activities. It can also refer to the behaviors exhibited by young children as they explore their world and develop their cognitive and motor skills. Exploratory behavior is an important aspect of learning and development, and it can have a positive impact on overall health and well-being.

In the context of healthcare, "crowding" refers to a situation where there are more patients seeking care than the available resources (such as space, staff, and equipment) can accommodate. This can lead to prolonged wait times, decreased quality of care, and increased risks for patients and healthcare workers. Crowding is often seen in emergency departments and can be caused by factors such as an influx of patients, lack of hospital beds, or inefficient patient flow.

Methylhistidines are not a medical condition or disease, but rather refer to a group of biochemical compounds that are derived from the amino acid histidine. Specifically, methylhistidines are formed when histidine undergoes methylation, which is the addition of a methyl group (-CH3) to the histidine molecule.

There are three main types of methylhistidines that are commonly studied: 1-methylhistidine, 2-methylhistidine, and 3-methylhistidine. These compounds can be found in various tissues and fluids throughout the body, including muscles, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid.

In the medical field, methylhistidines are often used as markers of muscle breakdown and turnover. For example, increased levels of 1-methylhistidine in the urine have been associated with muscle wasting and other conditions that cause muscle damage or degeneration, such as muscular dystrophy and kidney disease. Similarly, elevated levels of 3-methylhistidine have been observed in patients with certain neuromuscular disorders, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA).

Overall, while methylhistidines are not a medical condition themselves, they can provide valuable insights into various physiological processes and disease states.

Mineralocorticoids are a class of steroid hormones that primarily regulate electrolyte and fluid balance in the body. The most important mineralocorticoid is aldosterone, which is produced by the adrenal gland in response to signals from the renin-angiotensin system. Aldosterone acts on the distal tubules and collecting ducts of the nephrons in the kidneys to increase the reabsorption of sodium ions (Na+) and water into the bloodstream, while promoting the excretion of potassium ions (K+) and hydrogen ions (H+) into the urine. This helps maintain blood pressure and volume, as well as ensuring a proper balance of electrolytes in the body. Other mineralocorticoids include cortisol and corticosterone, which have weak mineralocorticoid activity and play a more significant role as glucocorticoids, regulating metabolism and immune response.

Radioimmunoassay (RIA) is a highly sensitive analytical technique used in clinical and research laboratories to measure concentrations of various substances, such as hormones, vitamins, drugs, or tumor markers, in biological samples like blood, urine, or tissues. The method relies on the specific interaction between an antibody and its corresponding antigen, combined with the use of radioisotopes to quantify the amount of bound antigen.

In a typical RIA procedure, a known quantity of a radiolabeled antigen (also called tracer) is added to a sample containing an unknown concentration of the same unlabeled antigen. The mixture is then incubated with a specific antibody that binds to the antigen. During the incubation period, the antibody forms complexes with both the radiolabeled and unlabeled antigens.

After the incubation, the unbound (free) radiolabeled antigen is separated from the antibody-antigen complexes, usually through a precipitation or separation step involving centrifugation, filtration, or chromatography. The amount of radioactivity in the pellet (containing the antibody-antigen complexes) is then measured using a gamma counter or other suitable radiation detection device.

The concentration of the unlabeled antigen in the sample can be determined by comparing the ratio of bound to free radiolabeled antigen in the sample to a standard curve generated from known concentrations of unlabeled antigen and their corresponding bound/free ratios. The higher the concentration of unlabeled antigen in the sample, the lower the amount of radiolabeled antigen that will bind to the antibody, resulting in a lower bound/free ratio.

Radioimmunoassays offer high sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy, making them valuable tools for detecting and quantifying low levels of various substances in biological samples. However, due to concerns about radiation safety and waste disposal, alternative non-isotopic immunoassay techniques like enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) have become more popular in recent years.

Hydrocortisone is a synthetic glucocorticoid, which is a class of steroid hormones. It is identical to the naturally occurring cortisol, a hormone produced by the adrenal gland that helps regulate metabolism and helps your body respond to stress. Hydrocortisone has anti-inflammatory effects and is used to treat various inflammatory conditions such as allergies, skin disorders, and autoimmune diseases. It works by suppressing the immune system's response to reduce swelling, redness, itching, and other symptoms caused by inflammation.

Hydrocortisone is available in different forms, including oral tablets, topical creams, lotions, gels, and ointments, as well as injectable solutions. The specific use and dosage depend on the condition being treated and the individual patient's medical history and current health status.

As with any medication, hydrocortisone can have side effects, especially when used in high doses or for extended periods. Common side effects include increased appetite, weight gain, mood changes, insomnia, and skin thinning. Long-term use of hydrocortisone may also increase the risk of developing osteoporosis, diabetes, cataracts, and other health problems. Therefore, it is essential to follow your healthcare provider's instructions carefully when using this medication.

18-Hydroxycorticosterone is a steroid hormone that is produced in the adrenal gland. It is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of aldosterone, which is the major hormone responsible for regulating sodium and potassium balance in the body. 18-Hydroxycorticosterone gets its name from the hydroxyl group (-OH) that is added to the 18th carbon atom of the steroid molecule.

This hormone plays a role in the body's response to stress and helps to regulate various physiological processes, including metabolism, immune function, and sexual development and reproduction. However, abnormal levels of 18-hydroxycorticosterone have been associated with certain medical conditions, such as primary aldosteronism, which is a condition characterized by the overproduction of aldosterone.

It's important to note that while 18-hydroxycorticosterone is an important hormone in the body, it is not typically measured in routine clinical testing. Instead, tests for aldosterone and related hormones are more commonly used to diagnose and manage conditions related to the adrenal gland.

Maze learning is not a medical term per se, but it is a concept that is often used in the field of neuroscience and psychology. It refers to the process by which an animal or human learns to navigate through a complex environment, such as a maze, in order to find its way to a goal or target.

Maze learning involves several cognitive processes, including spatial memory, learning, and problem-solving. As animals or humans navigate through the maze, they encode information about the location of the goal and the various landmarks within the environment. This information is then used to form a cognitive map that allows them to navigate more efficiently in subsequent trials.

Maze learning has been widely used as a tool for studying learning and memory processes in both animals and humans. For example, researchers may use maze learning tasks to investigate the effects of brain damage or disease on cognitive function, or to evaluate the efficacy of various drugs or interventions for improving cognitive performance.

Immobilization is a medical term that refers to the restriction of normal mobility or motion of a body part, usually to promote healing and prevent further injury. This is often achieved through the use of devices such as casts, splints, braces, slings, or traction. The goal of immobilization is to keep the injured area in a fixed position so that it can heal properly without additional damage. It may be used for various medical conditions, including fractures, dislocations, sprains, strains, and soft tissue injuries. Immobilization helps reduce pain, minimize swelling, and protect the injured site from movement that could worsen the injury or impair healing.

Hormones are defined as chemical messengers that are produced by endocrine glands or specialized cells and are transported through the bloodstream to tissues and organs, where they elicit specific responses. They play crucial roles in regulating various physiological processes such as growth, development, metabolism, reproduction, and mood. Examples of hormones include insulin, estrogen, testosterone, adrenaline, and thyroxine.

Steroids, also known as corticosteroids, are a type of hormone that the adrenal gland produces in your body. They have many functions, such as controlling the balance of salt and water in your body and helping to reduce inflammation. Steroids can also be synthetically produced and used as medications to treat a variety of conditions, including allergies, asthma, skin conditions, and autoimmune disorders.

Steroid medications are available in various forms, such as oral pills, injections, creams, and inhalers. They work by mimicking the effects of natural hormones produced by your body, reducing inflammation and suppressing the immune system's response to prevent or reduce symptoms. However, long-term use of steroids can have significant side effects, including weight gain, high blood pressure, osteoporosis, and increased risk of infections.

It is important to note that anabolic steroids are a different class of drugs that are sometimes abused for their muscle-building properties. These steroids are synthetic versions of the male hormone testosterone and can have serious health consequences when taken in large doses or without medical supervision.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Anxiety: A feeling of worry, nervousness, or unease, typically about an imminent event or something with an uncertain outcome. In a medical context, anxiety refers to a mental health disorder characterized by feelings of excessive and persistent worry, fear, or panic that interfere with daily activities. It can also be a symptom of other medical conditions, such as heart disease, diabetes, or substance abuse disorders. Anxiety disorders include generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, and phobias.

The amygdala is an almond-shaped group of nuclei located deep within the temporal lobe of the brain, specifically in the anterior portion of the temporal lobes and near the hippocampus. It forms a key component of the limbic system and plays a crucial role in processing emotions, particularly fear and anxiety. The amygdala is involved in the integration of sensory information with emotional responses, memory formation, and decision-making processes.

In response to emotionally charged stimuli, the amygdala can modulate various physiological functions, such as heart rate, blood pressure, and stress hormone release, via its connections to the hypothalamus and brainstem. Additionally, it contributes to social behaviors, including recognizing emotional facial expressions and responding appropriately to social cues. Dysfunctions in amygdala function have been implicated in several psychiatric and neurological conditions, such as anxiety disorders, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

Anti-inflammatory agents are a class of drugs or substances that reduce inflammation in the body. They work by inhibiting the production of inflammatory mediators, such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes, which are released during an immune response and contribute to symptoms like pain, swelling, redness, and warmth.

There are two main types of anti-inflammatory agents: steroidal and nonsteroidal. Steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (SAIDs) include corticosteroids, which mimic the effects of hormones produced by the adrenal gland. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a larger group that includes both prescription and over-the-counter medications, such as aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, and celecoxib.

While both types of anti-inflammatory agents can be effective in reducing inflammation and relieving symptoms, they differ in their mechanisms of action, side effects, and potential risks. Long-term use of NSAIDs, for example, can increase the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding, kidney damage, and cardiovascular events. Corticosteroids can have significant side effects as well, particularly with long-term use, including weight gain, mood changes, and increased susceptibility to infections.

It's important to use anti-inflammatory agents only as directed by a healthcare provider, and to be aware of potential risks and interactions with other medications or health conditions.

I am not aware of a medical definition for "Cortodoxone." It is possible that this term is not recognized in the field of medicine as it does not appear to be a commonly used medication, treatment, or diagnostic tool. If you have any more information about where you encountered this term or its potential meaning, I would be happy to try and provide further clarification.

"Inbred strains of rats" are genetically identical rodents that have been produced through many generations of brother-sister mating. This results in a high degree of homozygosity, where the genes at any particular locus in the genome are identical in all members of the strain.

Inbred strains of rats are widely used in biomedical research because they provide a consistent and reproducible genetic background for studying various biological phenomena, including the effects of drugs, environmental factors, and genetic mutations on health and disease. Additionally, inbred strains can be used to create genetically modified models of human diseases by introducing specific mutations into their genomes.

Some commonly used inbred strains of rats include the Wistar Kyoto (WKY), Sprague-Dawley (SD), and Fischer 344 (F344) rat strains. Each strain has its own unique genetic characteristics, making them suitable for different types of research.

Aldosterone synthase is a steroidogenic enzyme that is primarily responsible for the production of the hormone aldosterone in the adrenal gland. It is encoded by the CYP11B2 gene and is located within the mitochondria of the zona glomerulosa cells in the adrenal cortex.

Aldosterone synthase catalyzes two key reactions in the biosynthesis of aldosterone: the conversion of corticosterone to 18-hydroxycorticosterone and the subsequent conversion of 18-hydroxycorticosterone to aldosterone. These reactions involve the sequential addition of hydroxyl groups at the C18 position of the steroid molecule, which is a critical step in the synthesis of aldosterone.

Aldosterone plays an important role in regulating blood pressure and electrolyte balance by increasing the reabsorption of sodium and water in the distal nephron of the kidney, while promoting the excretion of potassium. Disorders of aldosterone synthase can lead to conditions such as primary hyperaldosteronism, which is characterized by excessive production of aldosterone and can result in hypertension and hypokalemia.

The medical definition of "eating" refers to the process of consuming and ingesting food or nutrients into the body. This process typically involves several steps, including:

1. Food preparation: This may involve cleaning, chopping, cooking, or combining ingredients to make them ready for consumption.
2. Ingestion: The act of taking food or nutrients into the mouth and swallowing it.
3. Digestion: Once food is ingested, it travels down the esophagus and enters the stomach, where it is broken down by enzymes and acids to facilitate absorption of nutrients.
4. Absorption: Nutrients are absorbed through the walls of the small intestine and transported to cells throughout the body for use as energy or building blocks for growth and repair.
5. Elimination: Undigested food and waste products are eliminated from the body through the large intestine (colon) and rectum.

Eating is an essential function that provides the body with the nutrients it needs to maintain health, grow, and repair itself. Disorders of eating, such as anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, can have serious consequences for physical and mental health.

Testosterone is a steroid hormone that belongs to androsten class of hormones. It is primarily secreted by the Leydig cells in the testes of males and, to a lesser extent, by the ovaries and adrenal glands in females. Testosterone is the main male sex hormone and anabolic steroid. It plays a key role in the development of masculine characteristics, such as body hair and muscle mass, and contributes to bone density, fat distribution, red cell production, and sex drive. In females, testosterone contributes to sexual desire and bone health. Testosterone is synthesized from cholesterol and its production is regulated by luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).

The zona reticularis is a layer of the adrenal cortex, which is the outer part of the adrenal gland. These glands are located on top of the kidneys and are responsible for producing several important hormones. The adrenal cortex itself has three distinct layers: the zona glomerulosa, the zona fasciculata, and the zona reticularis.

The zona reticularis is the innermost layer of the adrenal cortex. It is responsible for producing and releasing certain steroid hormones, particularly androgens such as dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate (DHEAS). These androgens are precursor hormones that can be converted into more potent androgens or estrogens in other parts of the body. The zona reticularis plays a crucial role in sexual development and function, as well as maintaining overall health and well-being.

Disorders related to the zona reticularis may result in abnormal hormone production, leading to conditions such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia, Cushing's syndrome, or Addison's disease. Proper diagnosis and treatment of these disorders typically involve endocrinologists, healthcare professionals specializing in hormonal and metabolic disorders.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

The Zona Fasciculata is a region within the adrenal gland, which is a small gland located on top of the kidneys. It plays an essential role in endocrine function. The adrenal gland is divided into two main parts: the outer cortex and the inner medulla. The cortex itself is further divided into three zones: the Zona Glomerulosa, the Zona Fasciculata, and the Zona Reticularis.

The Zona Fasciculata is the middle layer of the adrenal cortex. It is primarily responsible for producing and releasing steroid hormones, particularly glucocorticoids such as cortisol. Cortisol helps regulate metabolism, immune response, and stress response, among other functions. The Zona Fasciculata contains large, column-shaped cells called fasciculated cells that contain lipid droplets filled with cholesterol esters. These cells convert cholesterol into pregnenolone, which is then converted into cortisol through a series of enzymatic reactions.

In summary, the Zona Fasciculata is a crucial region within the adrenal gland that produces and releases cortisol, a vital glucocorticoid hormone involved in various physiological processes.

Cortisone is a type of corticosteroid hormone that is produced naturally in the body by the adrenal gland. It is released in response to stress and helps to regulate metabolism, reduce inflammation, and suppress the immune system. Cortisone can also be synthetically produced and is often used as a medication to treat a variety of conditions such as arthritis, asthma, and skin disorders. It works by mimicking the effects of the natural hormone in the body and reducing inflammation and suppressing the immune system. Cortisone can be administered through various routes, including oral, injectable, topical, and inhalational.

"Motor activity" is a general term used in the field of medicine and neuroscience to refer to any kind of physical movement or action that is generated by the body's motor system. The motor system includes the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and muscles that work together to produce movements such as walking, talking, reaching for an object, or even subtle actions like moving your eyes.

Motor activity can be voluntary, meaning it is initiated intentionally by the individual, or involuntary, meaning it is triggered automatically by the nervous system without conscious control. Examples of voluntary motor activity include deliberately lifting your arm or kicking a ball, while examples of involuntary motor activity include heartbeat, digestion, and reflex actions like jerking your hand away from a hot stove.

Abnormalities in motor activity can be a sign of neurological or muscular disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, cerebral palsy, or multiple sclerosis. Assessment of motor activity is often used in the diagnosis and treatment of these conditions.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

Feathers are not a medical term, but they are a feature found in birds and some extinct theropod dinosaurs. Feathers are keratinous structures that grow from the skin and are used for various functions such as insulation, flight, waterproofing, and display. They have a complex structure consisting of a central shaft with barbs branching off on either side, which further divide into smaller barbules. The arrangement and modification of these feather structures vary widely among bird species to serve different purposes.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

Social isolation, in the context of health and medicine, refers to the lack of social connections, interactions, or engagement with other people or communities. It is a state of being separated from others, lacking companionship or meaningful communication, which can lead to feelings of loneliness and disconnection. Social isolation can be self-imposed or imposed by external factors such as mobility issues, loss of loved ones, or discrimination. Prolonged social isolation has been linked to various negative health outcomes, including mental health disorders, cognitive decline, and increased risk for chronic conditions like heart disease and stroke.

"Newborn animals" refers to the very young offspring of animals that have recently been born. In medical terminology, newborns are often referred to as "neonates," and they are classified as such from birth until about 28 days of age. During this time period, newborn animals are particularly vulnerable and require close monitoring and care to ensure their survival and healthy development.

The specific needs of newborn animals can vary widely depending on the species, but generally, they require warmth, nutrition, hydration, and protection from harm. In many cases, newborns are unable to regulate their own body temperature or feed themselves, so they rely heavily on their mothers for care and support.

In medical settings, newborn animals may be examined and treated by veterinarians to ensure that they are healthy and receiving the care they need. This can include providing medical interventions such as feeding tubes, antibiotics, or other treatments as needed to address any health issues that arise. Overall, the care and support of newborn animals is an important aspect of animal medicine and conservation efforts.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "sparrows" is not a term used in medical definitions. Sparrows are small, common birds that belong to the family Passeridae. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help with those instead!

Intraventricular injections are a type of medical procedure where medication is administered directly into the cerebral ventricles of the brain. The cerebral ventricles are fluid-filled spaces within the brain that contain cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This procedure is typically used to deliver drugs that target conditions affecting the central nervous system, such as infections or tumors.

Intraventricular injections are usually performed using a thin, hollow needle that is inserted through a small hole drilled into the skull. The medication is then injected directly into the ventricles, allowing it to circulate throughout the CSF and reach the brain tissue more efficiently than other routes of administration.

This type of injection is typically reserved for situations where other methods of drug delivery are not effective or feasible. It carries a higher risk of complications, such as bleeding, infection, or damage to surrounding tissues, compared to other routes of administration. Therefore, it is usually performed by trained medical professionals in a controlled clinical setting.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Housing, Animal" is not a standard term in medical terminology. Medical terminology typically relates to the human body, diseases, treatments, and healthcare practices. "Housing, Animal" would be more related to veterinary medicine or animal care fields, which pertain to the accommodation and environment provided for animals. If you have any questions related to medical terminology, I'd be happy to help!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "solar activity" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Solar activity refers to the various phenomena that occur on the Sun, including solar flares, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), and solar wind. These events involve the release of energy and charged particles from the Sun's atmosphere and can have effects on space weather and technological systems in near-Earth space. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help with those!

Progesterone is a steroid hormone that is primarily produced in the ovaries during the menstrual cycle and in pregnancy. It plays an essential role in preparing the uterus for implantation of a fertilized egg and maintaining the early stages of pregnancy. Progesterone works to thicken the lining of the uterus, creating a nurturing environment for the developing embryo.

During the menstrual cycle, progesterone is produced by the corpus luteum, a temporary structure formed in the ovary after an egg has been released from a follicle during ovulation. If pregnancy does not occur, the levels of progesterone will decrease, leading to the shedding of the uterine lining and menstruation.

In addition to its reproductive functions, progesterone also has various other effects on the body, such as helping to regulate the immune system, supporting bone health, and potentially influencing mood and cognition. Progesterone can be administered medically in the form of oral pills, intramuscular injections, or vaginal suppositories for various purposes, including hormone replacement therapy, contraception, and managing certain gynecological conditions.

Hydroxyprogesterone is a synthetic form of the natural hormone progesterone, which is produced by the body during pregnancy to support the growth and development of the fetus. Hydroxyprogesterone is used in medical treatments to help prevent preterm birth in certain high-risk pregnancies.

There are several different forms of hydroxyprogesterone that have been developed for use as medications, including:

1. Hydroxyprogesterone caproate (HPC): This is a synthetic form of progesterone that is given as an injection once a week to help prevent preterm birth in women who have previously given birth prematurely. It works by helping to thicken the lining of the uterus and prevent contractions.
2. 17-Hydroxyprogesterone: This is a natural hormone that is produced by the body during pregnancy, but it can also be synthesized in a laboratory for use as a medication. It has been studied for its potential to help prevent preterm birth, although it is not currently approved for this use by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
3. 21-Hydroxyprogesterone: This is another natural hormone that is produced by the body during pregnancy, but it can also be synthesized in a laboratory for use as a medication. It has been studied for its potential to help prevent preterm birth and for its ability to reduce the risk of certain complications in women with a history of premature birth.

It's important to note that hydroxyprogesterone should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider, as it can have side effects and may not be appropriate for all women. If you are pregnant or planning to become pregnant and have concerns about preterm birth, it's important to discuss your options with your healthcare provider.

Biogenic monoamines are a type of neurotransmitter, which are chemical messengers that transmit signals in the brain and other parts of the nervous system. They are called "biogenic" because they are derived from biological substances, and "monoamines" because they contain one amine group (-NH2) and are derived from the aromatic amino acids: tryptophan, tyrosine, and phenylalanine.

Examples of biogenic monoamines include:

1. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT): synthesized from the amino acid tryptophan and plays a crucial role in regulating mood, appetite, sleep, memory, and learning.
2. Dopamine: formed from tyrosine and is involved in reward, motivation, motor control, and reinforcement of behavior.
3. Norepinephrine (noradrenaline): also derived from tyrosine and functions as a neurotransmitter and hormone that modulates attention, arousal, and stress responses.
4. Epinephrine (adrenaline): synthesized from norepinephrine and serves as a crucial hormone and neurotransmitter in the body's fight-or-flight response to stress or danger.
5. Histamine: produced from the amino acid histidine, it acts as a neurotransmitter and mediates allergic reactions, immune responses, and regulates wakefulness and appetite.

Imbalances in biogenic monoamines have been linked to various neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as depression, anxiety, Parkinson's disease, and schizophrenia. Therefore, medications that target these neurotransmitters, like selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for depression or levodopa for Parkinson's disease, are often used in the treatment of these conditions.

Oviparity is a form of reproduction in which an animal lays eggs with externally developing embryos. The eggs are usually equipped with a protective shell and all the nutrients necessary for the development of the embryo, which allows the female to lay and abandon them, without any further care. This method of reproduction is common in many species of fish, reptiles, insects, and birds.

In oviparous animals, the fertilization of the egg may occur either internally or externally. In internal fertilization, the male deposits sperm directly into the female's reproductive tract, which then travel to the ova and fertilize them. The fertilized eggs are subsequently laid by the female. In external fertilization, the male and female release their gametes (sperm and eggs) into the surrounding environment, where fertilization takes place.

Oviparity is distinct from viviparity, a reproductive strategy in which the embryo develops inside the mother's body and receives nutrients through a placenta. In viviparous animals, such as mammals (excluding monotremes), the young are born live instead of hatching from eggs.

Arginine vasopressin (AVP), also known as antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is a hormone produced in the hypothalamus and stored in the posterior pituitary gland. It plays a crucial role in regulating water balance and blood pressure in the body.

AVP acts on the kidneys to promote water reabsorption, which helps maintain adequate fluid volume and osmotic balance in the body. It also constricts blood vessels, increasing peripheral vascular resistance and thereby helping to maintain blood pressure. Additionally, AVP has been shown to have effects on cognitive function, mood regulation, and pain perception.

Deficiencies or excesses of AVP can lead to a range of medical conditions, including diabetes insipidus (characterized by excessive thirst and urination), hyponatremia (low sodium levels in the blood), and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH).

Carbenoxolone is a synthetic derivative of glycyrrhizin, which is found in the root of the licorice plant. It has been used in the treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcers due to its ability to increase the mucosal resistance and promote healing. Carbenoxolone works by inhibiting the enzyme 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, which leads to an increase in the levels of cortisol and other steroids in the body. This can have various effects on the body, including anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive actions.

However, long-term use of carbenoxolone has been associated with serious side effects such as hypertension, hypokalemia (low potassium levels), and edema (fluid retention). Therefore, its use is generally limited to short-term treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcers.

Medical Definition: Carbenoxolone

A synthetic derivative of glycyrrhizin, used in the treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcers due to its ability to increase mucosal resistance and promote healing. It is an inhibitor of 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, leading to increased levels of cortisol and other steroids in the body, with potential anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. However, long-term use is associated with serious side effects such as hypertension, hypokalemia, and edema.

Electroshock, also known as electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), is a medical procedure in which electric currents are passed through the brain to treat certain mental health conditions. It is primarily used to treat severe forms of depression that have not responded to other treatments, and it may also be used to treat bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.

During an ECT procedure, electrodes are placed on the patient's head, and a carefully controlled electric current is passed through the brain, intentionally triggering a seizure. The patient is under general anesthesia and given muscle relaxants to prevent physical injury from the seizure.

ECT is typically administered in a series of treatments, usually two or three times a week for several weeks. While the exact mechanism of action is not fully understood, ECT is thought to affect brain chemistry and help regulate mood and other symptoms. It is generally considered a safe and effective treatment option for certain mental health conditions when other treatments have failed. However, it can have side effects, including short-term memory loss and confusion, and it may not be appropriate for everyone.

The pituitary gland is a small, endocrine gland located at the base of the brain, in the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone. It is often called the "master gland" because it controls other glands and makes the hormones that trigger many body functions. The pituitary gland measures about 0.5 cm in height and 1 cm in width, and it weighs approximately 0.5 grams.

The pituitary gland is divided into two main parts: the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis) and the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis). The anterior lobe is further divided into three zones: the pars distalis, pars intermedia, and pars tuberalis. Each part of the pituitary gland has distinct functions and produces different hormones.

The anterior pituitary gland produces and releases several important hormones, including:

* Growth hormone (GH), which regulates growth and development in children and helps maintain muscle mass and bone strength in adults.
* Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which controls the production of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland.
* Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which stimulates the adrenal glands to produce cortisol and other steroid hormones.
* Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), which regulate reproductive function in both males and females.
* Prolactin, which stimulates milk production in pregnant and lactating women.

The posterior pituitary gland stores and releases two hormones that are produced by the hypothalamus:

* Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), which helps regulate water balance in the body by controlling urine production.
* Oxytocin, which stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth and milk release during breastfeeding.

Overall, the pituitary gland plays a critical role in maintaining homeostasis and regulating various bodily functions, including growth, development, metabolism, and reproductive function.

Iguanas are not a medical term. They refer to a type of large, herbivorous lizard that is native to Central and South America, as well as the Caribbean. Some species of iguanas are also found in Mexico and parts of the southern United States. The green iguana is the most common species kept as pets. If you're looking for a medical definition, it might be a case of mistaken identity or misspelling, please make sure the term is correct.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

'Nesting behavior' is not a term typically used in medical definitions. However, it can be described as a type of behavior often observed in pregnant women, particularly close to their due date, where they have an intense desire to clean and organize their living space in preparation for the arrival of their baby. This behavior is considered a normal part of pregnancy and is not usually regarded as a medical condition.

In some cases, healthcare providers may use the term 'nesting' to describe a symptom of certain mental health disorders such as Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) or Mania, where an individual may experience an intense urge to clean and organize their environment, but it is often accompanied by other symptoms that interfere with daily functioning.

Therefore, the definition of 'nesting behavior' can vary depending on the context in which it is used.

Hypophysectomy is a surgical procedure that involves the removal or partial removal of the pituitary gland, also known as the hypophysis. The pituitary gland is a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain, just above the nasal cavity, and is responsible for producing and secreting several important hormones that regulate various bodily functions.

Hypophysectomy may be performed for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes. In some cases, it may be used to treat pituitary tumors or other conditions that affect the function of the pituitary gland. It may also be performed as a research procedure in animal models to study the effects of pituitary hormone deficiency on various physiological processes.

The surgical approach for hypophysectomy may vary depending on the specific indication and the patient's individual anatomy. In general, however, the procedure involves making an incision in the skull and exposing the pituitary gland through a small opening in the bone. The gland is then carefully dissected and removed or partially removed as necessary.

Potential complications of hypophysectomy include damage to surrounding structures such as the optic nerves, which can lead to vision loss, and cerebrospinal fluid leaks. Additionally, removal of the pituitary gland can result in hormonal imbalances that may require long-term management with hormone replacement therapy.

Phenelzine is a type of medication known as a non-selective, irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI). It works by blocking the action of an enzyme called monoamine oxidase, which breaks down certain chemicals in the brain such as neurotransmitters (e.g., serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine). This leads to an increase in the levels of these neurotransmitters in the brain, which can help improve mood and alleviate symptoms of depression.

Phenelzine is primarily used off-label for the treatment of depression that has not responded to other antidepressant medications. It is also used for the treatment of anxiety disorders, including panic disorder and social anxiety disorder.

It's important to note that MAOIs like phenelzine have several dietary restrictions and potential serious drug interactions due to their mechanism of action. Therefore, they are typically considered a last resort when other antidepressants have failed.

Feeding behavior refers to the various actions and mechanisms involved in the intake of food and nutrition for the purpose of sustaining life, growth, and health. This complex process encompasses a coordinated series of activities, including:

1. Food selection: The identification, pursuit, and acquisition of appropriate food sources based on sensory cues (smell, taste, appearance) and individual preferences.
2. Preparation: The manipulation and processing of food to make it suitable for consumption, such as chewing, grinding, or chopping.
3. Ingestion: The act of transferring food from the oral cavity into the digestive system through swallowing.
4. Digestion: The mechanical and chemical breakdown of food within the gastrointestinal tract to facilitate nutrient absorption and eliminate waste products.
5. Assimilation: The uptake and utilization of absorbed nutrients by cells and tissues for energy production, growth, repair, and maintenance.
6. Elimination: The removal of undigested material and waste products from the body through defecation.

Feeding behavior is regulated by a complex interplay between neural, hormonal, and psychological factors that help maintain energy balance and ensure adequate nutrient intake. Disruptions in feeding behavior can lead to various medical conditions, such as malnutrition, obesity, eating disorders, and gastrointestinal motility disorders.

Food deprivation is not a medical term per se, but it is used in the field of nutrition and psychology. It generally refers to the deliberate withholding of food for a prolonged period, leading to a state of undernutrition or malnutrition. This can occur due to various reasons such as famine, starvation, anorexia nervosa, or as a result of certain medical treatments or conditions. Prolonged food deprivation can have serious consequences on physical health, including weight loss, muscle wasting, organ damage, and decreased immune function, as well as psychological effects such as depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairment.

... both inhibits protein synthesis and degrades proteins. Birds with increased levels of corticosterone will have ... Corticosterone has further developmental effects on birds. Increased levels of corticosterone in chicks leads to increased ... corticosterone can either facilitate or interrupt conditioned fear. Not only does corticosterone have effects on emotional ... Corticosterone inhibits feather growth: Potential mechanism explaining seasonal down regulation of corticosterone during molt. ...
Other names in common use include corticosterone 18-hydroxylase, and corticosterone methyl oxidase. This enzyme participates in ... In enzymology, a corticosterone 18-monooxygenase (EC 1.14.15.5) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ... "ENZYME - 1.14.15.5 corticosterone 18-monooxygenase". enzyme.expasy.org. Archived from the original on 2022-08-20. Retrieved ... "PhytoMine: GOTerm GO:0047783 corticosterone 18-monooxygenase activity GO". phytozome-next.jgi.doe.gov. Archived from the ...
It is biosynthesized from corticosterone by the enzyme 5α-reductase. DHC has central depressant effects and impairs long-term ... 125-. ISBN 978-4-431-29567-9. Dubrovsky, B.; Williams, D.; Kraulis, I. (1985). "Effects of corticosterone and 5?- ...
HNP4 inhibits corticotropin-stimulated corticosterone production. ENSG00000285318 GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000164821, ...
In 1938, Fleischmann and Kann determined that in addition to estrogen, a specific adrenal hormone, corticosterone, could cause ... See footnote 1 at Fleischmann, W.; Kann, S. (1938). "The Bitterling Ovipositor Reaction to Corticosterone". Science. 87 (2257 ... though it did open the door to an investigation of why corticosterone is significant in urine. Barnes, Broda Otto (1976). ...
It is a derivative of corticosterone. 18-Hydroxycorticosterone serves as an intermediate in the synthesis of aldosterone by the ...
The hormone known as corticosterone is activated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Corticosterone is activated when ... Cockrem, J. F. (2007). "Stress, corticosterone responses and avian personalities". Journal of Ornithology. 148: 169-178. doi: ...
... corticosterone and body-brain integration". Brain Research. 1476: 1-15. doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2011.12.049. PMID 22285436. ...
... corticosterone; 11β,21-dihydroxyprogesterone) 21-Deoxycortisol (11β,17α-dihydroxyprogesterone) Cortisol (hydrocortisone) ...
Aldosterone synthase (18-hydroxylase; CYP11B2). Prevents the conversion of corticosterone into aldosterone. As such, AG is an ... 11β-Hydroxylase (CYP11B1). Prevents the conversion of 11-deoxycorticosterone and 11-deoxycortisol into corticosterone and ...
Corticosterone is comparable to cortisol in this case. For potassium to move out of the cell, cortisol moves an equal number of ... Rapid administration of corticosterone (the endogenous type I and type II receptor agonist) or RU28362 (a specific type II ... However, in cattle, corticosterone levels may approach or exceed cortisol levels.). The medulla of the adrenal gland lies under ... unlike corticosterone, upon which potassium has no effect. Potassium loading also increases ACTH and cortisol in humans. This ...
Corticosteroid biosynthetic pathway in rat Corticosterone Singh, Neeraj; Taibon, Judith; Pongratz, Stephan; Geletneky, ... Aldosterone and corticosterone share the first part of their biosynthetic pathways. The last parts are mediated either by the ... aldosterone synthase (for aldosterone) or by the 11β-hydroxylase (for corticosterone). These enzymes are nearly identical (they ...
Ki values for decynium-22 and corticosterone inhibition of OCT3 transport are respectively 10 and 100 times lower than Ki ... Transport is also inhibited by the chemical decynium-22 and physiological concentrations of corticosterone and cortisol. ... Gründemann D, Schechinger B, Rappold GA, Schömig E (1999). "Molecular identification of the corticosterone-sensitive ... a corticosterone-sensitive monoamine transporter, in the rat brain". J Comp Neurol. 512 (4): 529-555. doi:10.1002/cne.21921. ...
"Vasoactive intestinal peptide stimulates adrenal aldosterone and corticosterone secretion". Endocrinology. 122 (5): 2090-2097. ...
This enzyme helps produce hormones called cortisol and corticosterone. The CYP11B2 gene provides instructions for making ...
The following code produces the image for corticosterone below. \documentclass{letter} \usepackage{epic,carom} \pagestyle{empty ...
The protein blocks α-MSH-induced secretion of corticosterone. Orthologs of AgRP, ASIP, MCIR, and MC4R have been found in ...
Corticosterone implanted chicks beg more frequently than non-implanted chicks. When there is a shortage of food, corticosterone ... Corticosterone increases begging effort and food provisioning rates by parents. ... begging indicating that juvenile hormone in insects could have a similar function to that of testosterone and corticosterone in ... by which juvenile hormone affects offspring growth in insects differ from those by which testosterone and corticosterone affect ...
The circulating hormone, corticosterone, is one signal that arouses a hummingbird from torpor. Use and duration of torpor vary ... Hiebert, S.M.; Salvante, K.G.; Ramenofsky, M.; Wingfield, J.C. (2000). "Corticosterone and nocturnal torpor in the rufous ...
Higher corticosterone levels in breeding female Japanese quails were associated with female-biased sex ratios at laying. In ... Pike, TW; Petrie, M (2006). "Experimental evidence that corticosterone affects offspring sex ratios in quail". Proceedings of ...
Although production of cortisol is too inefficient to normalize ACTH, the 50-100-fold elevations of corticosterone have enough ... Consequently, levels of DOC, corticosterone, and 18-hydroxycorticosterone are elevated. Although these precursors of ...
In addition, parrots that feather-pluck have been found to have higher levels of corticosterone, a hormone secreted by many ... Owen, D.J; Lane, J.M. (2006). "High levels of corticosterone in feather-plucking parrots (Psittacus erithacus)". Veterinary ...
Aldosterone and corticosterone share the first part of their biosynthetic pathway. The last part is either mediated by the ... aldosterone synthase (for aldosterone) or by the 11β-hydroxylase (for corticosterone).[citation needed] Aldosterone synthesis ...
2008) Stressor-specific alterations in corticosterone and immune responses in mice. Brain, behavior, and immunity 22 (1), 105- ...
Bortolotti G.R.; Marchant T.A.; Blas J.; German T. (2008). "Corticosterone in feathers is a long-term, integrated measure of ... Royo F.; Mayo S.; Carlsson H.E.; Hau J. (2008). "Egg corticosterone: A noninvasive measure of stress in egg-laying birds". ... heart rate and faecal corticosterone and immunoglobulin A excretion in rats (Rattus norvegicus) housed in individually ...
ISBN 978-0-07-144578-8. Piroli GG, Grillo CA, Reznikov LR, Adams S, McEwen BS, Charron MJ, Reagan LP (2007). "Corticosterone ...
The primary glucocorticoid released by the adrenal gland is cortisol in humans and corticosterone in many other animals. Its ... This is the reason zona glomerulosa cannot synthesize cortisol, corticosterone or sex hormones (androgens). The expression of ... Therefore, the zona fasciculata makes more 11-deoxycorticosterone, corticosterone, and cortisol. The major hormone that ... corticosterone, and cortisol), as well as small amounts of adrenal androgens and estrogens. The zona fasciculata has more 3β- ...
Some common naturally occurring steroid hormones are cortisol (C 21H 30O 5), corticosterone (C 21H 30O 4), cortisone (C 21H 28O ... The last part is mediated either by the aldosterone synthase (for aldosterone) or by the 11β-hydroxylase (for corticosterone). ... Aldosterone and corticosterone share the first part of their biosynthetic pathway. ...
Piroli GG, Grillo CA, Reznikov LR, Adams S, McEwen BS, Charron MJ, Reagan LP (2007). "Corticosterone impairs insulin-stimulated ...
Research has demonstrated that in mice that have been defeated in agonistic encounters have elevated levels of corticosterone, ... "Effects of corticosterone on submissiveness in mice: Some temporal and theoretical considerations". Physiology & Behavior. 24 ( ...
Corticosterone both inhibits protein synthesis and degrades proteins. Birds with increased levels of corticosterone will have ... Corticosterone has further developmental effects on birds. Increased levels of corticosterone in chicks leads to increased ... corticosterone can either facilitate or interrupt conditioned fear. Not only does corticosterone have effects on emotional ... Corticosterone inhibits feather growth: Potential mechanism explaining seasonal down regulation of corticosterone during molt. ...
Corticosterone methyloxidase deficiency, also known as aldosterone synthase deficiency, is a disorder of excessive amounts of ... Genetic Testing Registry: Corticosterone methyloxidase type 2 deficiency *Genetic Testing Registry: Corticosterone 18- ... the conversion of 11-deoxycorticosterone to corticosterone, the conversion of corticosterone to 18-hydroxycorticosterone, and ... Severe cases of corticosterone methyloxidase deficiency can result in seizures and coma and can be life-threatening. However, ...
corticosterone methyloxidase deficiency 1 (DOID:0080626) Alliance: disease page Synonyms: aldosterone synthase deficiency Alt ...
corticosterone from Neuroscience News features breaking science news from research labs, scientists and colleges around the ... Researchers identified the gut bacteria E. faecalis as a mediator of social behavior and corticosterone levels in mice.. Read ... The compound inhibits PDE4, an enzyme induced bt excessive amounts of corticosterone, which causes depression-like symptoms in ...
... NSC10713 Pregn-4-ene-3,20-dione, 11.beta.,17, 21-trihydroxy-2.alpha.- ... Corticosterone, 17-hydroxy-2.alpha.-methyl-, 21-acetate Molecular Formula: C24H34O6 ...
Early-Life Stress Disrupts Attachment Learning: The Role of Amygdala Corticosterone, Locus Ceruleus Corticotropin Releasing ... and amygdala suppression by low corticosterone (CORT). Early-life stress increases NE but also CORT, and we questioned whether ...
Corticosterone 21-Acetate Antibody Corticosterone Antibody Corticosterone Antibody Corticosterone Antibody Corticosterone ... Corticosterone AssayMax ELISA Kit Cortisol AssayMax ELISA Kit Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) AssayMax ELISA Kit Human High Density ... Corticosterone Antibody Sheep Immunoglobulin G (IgG) Antibody Sheep Immunoglobulin G (IgG) Antibody (Biotin Conjugate) Sheep ... corticosterone, cort, cortico, 4-PREGNEN-11?, 21-DIOL-3, 20-DIONE Note: Trial size at 40 ug is available for $75. Please add a ...
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Lemelin, Sarah Ross, "The Effects of Methylmercury on Corticosterone and Thyroid Hormones in a Breeding Songbird Model Organism ... The Effects of Methylmercury on Corticosterone and Thyroid Hormones in a Breeding Songbird Model Organism ...
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Serum corticosterone assay. Blood was collected from tail artery after clipping the tail tip then stored at 4 °C over night for ... 50; 2 mg kg−1) in 0.9% saline were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.). Corticosterone (10 mg kg−1, Sigma) in 3% EtOH (in 0.9% ... We measured the level of corticosterone in serum and observed that it was similar in F2 control and MSUS animals (Supplementary ... J.B. prepared the animals and conducted corticosterone measurements. K.G. and I.M.M. designed the experiments, interpreted the ...
Application Trimethylamine hydrochloride might be utilized as a logical norm for the assurance of trimethylamine. ...
LDN is a privately held, medium-sized company specialising in the development, production and marketing of immunoassays for medical laboratories, food analysis and biomedical research. At LDN, it is our passion and dedication to thoroughly investigate problems and consider every perspective when finding the best solutions for our customers. ...
This was achieved by measuring body weights and plasma corticosterone levels (using our DetectX® Corticosterone EIA kit K014-H ... Corticosterone CLIA Kits (K014-C). Cortisone EIA Kits (K017-H). Cortisone CLIA Kits (K017-C). Cortisol EIA Kits (K003-H). ... Measure Corticosterone in as little as 1 μl sample. *Compatible with a wide range of sample types including: Serum, Plasma, ... The measurement of stress hormones such as corticosterone or cortisol is generally associated with research focused on impacts ...
Human Gene Set: GSE23308_CTRL_VS_CORTICOSTERONE_TREATED_MACROPHAGE_DN Standard name. GSE23308_CTRL_VS_CORTICOSTERONE_TREATED_ ... GSE23308_CTRL_VS_CORTICOSTERONE_TREATED_MACROPHAGE_UP GSE23308_WT_VS_MINERALCORTICOID_REC_KO_MACROPHAGE_CORTICOSTERONE_TREATED_ ... GSE23308_CTRL_VS_CORTICOSTERONE_TREATED_MACROPHAGE_MINERALCORTICOID_REC_KO_DN GSE23308_CTRL_VS_CORTICOSTERONE_TREATED_ ... Genes down-regulated in macrophages: untreated versus corticosterone [PubChem=5839].. Full description or abstract. ...
cdna plasmid corticosterone elisa kit dna ancestry dna definition dna h&r block dna molecule dna replication dna testing kras ... Tag: corticosterone elisa mouse. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of Pinus pinea L. cotyledons: an assessment ...
... rs stress physiology in zebra finches. ... Plasma was assayed for testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), and corticosterone (CORT). The paraventricular nucleus of the ...
Corticosterone ELISA kit. Product overview. Corticosterone ELISA gear is a aggressive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay ... Corticosterone is a glucocorticoid secreted by the cortex of the adrenal gland. Corticosterone is produced in response to the ... Corticosterone manufacturing has been confirmed to increase with stress, with elevated corticosterone ranges being associated ... corticosterone. Product Particulars. Sensitivity:. 27.Zero pg/ml (differ 32 - 20,000 pg/ml). ...
Corticosterone impairs dendritic cell maturation and function. Michael D. Elftman, Christopher C. Norbury, Robert H. Bonneau, ... Corticosterone impairs dendritic cell maturation and function. / Elftman, Michael D.; Norbury, Christopher C.; Bonneau, Robert ... Corticosterone impairs dendritic cell maturation and function. Immunology. 2007 Oct;122(2):279-290. doi: 10.1111/j.1365- ... Corticosterone impairs dendritic cell maturation and function. In: Immunology. 2007 ; Vol. 122, No. 2. pp. 279-290. ...
... Subtitle. Maternal corticosterone alters ... Maternal corticosterone increases thermal sensitivity of heart rate in lizard embryos. While it is well-established that ... maternal stress hormones, such as corticosterone (CORT), can induce transgenerational phenotypic plasticity, few studies have ...
Using the hair as a long-term quantification of steroid hormones, we also tested whether corticosterone, progesterone and ... Differently from the serum corticosterone levels (which reflect secretion over the last several minutes), hair corticosterone ... Serum corticosterone (Figure 3) was significantly higher in females (F = 7.14, p = 0.0133), but did not differ due to ... Serum corticosterone was quantified using the Arbor Assays DetectX® ELISA kit (K014-H1). Samples were diluted 1:100 and run in ...
"Corting" stress: post-stress corticosterone administration prevents delayed-onset biobehavioral consequences. Farhana Yasmin, ... "Corting" stress: post-stress corticosterone administration prevents delayed-onset biobehavioral consequences. / Yasmin, Farhana ... "Corting" stress : post-stress corticosterone administration prevents delayed-onset biobehavioral consequences. In: ... "Corting" stress: post-stress corticosterone administration prevents delayed-onset biobehavioral consequences. ...
The distribution of hydrocortisone-14c, corticosterone-14c, and deoxycorticosterone-14c in pregnant mice. ...
Upon exogenous glucocorticoid replacement, corticosterone-supplemented (CORT) Pomc-/- mice show exaggerated responses, ... Corticosterone. , Glucocorticoids. , Hyperphagia. , Hypertension. , Insulin Resistance. , Lipoprotein Lipase. , Liver. , Mice. ... Upon exogenous glucocorticoid replacement, corticosterone-supplemented (CORT) Pomc-/- mice show exaggerated responses, ... mechanisms contributing to the glucocorticoid hypersensitivity in proopiomelanocortin null mice treated with corticosterone.. ...
Corticosterone release was higher in crowded rats throughout day 15. Stress-induced mild inflammation, manifested earlier in ... We measured spontaneous and corticotropin-releasing factor-mediated release of plasma corticosterone. Stress-induced intestinal ...
Corticosterone assay. Corticosterone levels were determined from the heart blood of MC4R-KO mice and their WT littermates ... The corticosterone content was determined using a Corticosterone EIA Kit (Enzo) according to the manufacturers protocol. ... KS and AMK executed the corticosterone experiments. MJ performed the genotyping and colony maintenance. PET scans were designed ... and to a weakly attenuated corticosterone response (B, n = 5 WT NaCl; n = 5 KO NaCl; n = 7 WT LPS; n = 8 KO LPS) in mice ...
The results showed that 3-week corticosterone injections caused depression-like behavior in mice, as indicated by the ... Red wine polyphenols reverse depressive-like behaviors in mice induced by repeated corticosterone treatment. Polifenóis do ... Red wine phenolic extracts treatment significantly reduced serum corticosterone levels. Moreover, it was found that red wine ... to investigate the antidepressant-like effect of red wine phenolic extracts in mouse model exposed to exogenous corticosterone ...
Telomere shortening is associated with corticosterone stress response in adult barn swallows. February 22, 2022. by Yamada ... Corticosterone and Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone Secretion Is Recovered after Immune Challenge or Acute Restraint Stress in ... RNA-seq based transcriptome analysis of ethanol extract of saffron protective effect against corticosterone-induced PC12 cell ... The study aimed to explore the neuroprotective effect of ethanol extract of saffron (EES) on corticosterone (CORT)- induced ...
Conference Paper: β-Amyloid and Corticosterone-induced Changes to tau Protein in Primary Cultures of Hippocampal Neurons. *Show ... β-Amyloid and Corticosterone-induced Changes to tau Protein in Primary Cultures of Hippocampal Neurons. en_US. ... We aim to compare the role of tau in vitro following ß-amyloid (Aß)-induced AD and corticosterone-induced depression. In ... We aim to compare the role of tau in vitro following ß-amyloid (Aß)-induced AD and corticosterone-induced depression. In ...
  • Maternal odor learning occurs using a simple learning circuit including robust olfactory bulb norepinephrine (NE), release from the locus ceruleus (LC), and amygdala suppression by low corticosterone (CORT). (diva-portal.org)
  • Plasma was assayed for testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), and corticosterone (CORT). (researcher-app.com)
  • Corticosterone (CORT), an adrenal hormone produced at increased concentrations during a stress response, has been shown to play a role in impaired CTL responses in stressed animals, leading to high mortality in mice normally resistant to viral infection. (cmich.edu)
  • While it is well-established that maternal stress hormones, such as corticosterone (CORT), can induce transgenerational phenotypic plasticity, few studies have addressed the influence of maternal CORT on pre-natal life stages. (psu.edu)
  • Upon exogenous glucocorticoid replacement, corticosterone-supplemented (CORT) Pomc-/- mice show exaggerated responses, including excessive fat accumulation, hyperleptinaemia and insulin resistance. (cam.ac.uk)
  • We studied if, in barn swallows Hirundo rustica , changes in adult erythrocyte telomere length between 2 consecutive breeding seasons are related to corticosterone (CORT) (the main avian GC) stress response induced by a standard capture-restraint protocol. (jsce-ip.com)
  • In stressful environments, physiological stress responses of individuals are initiated and integrated via the release of hormones, such as corticosterone (CORT). (jsce-ip.com)
  • The study aimed to explore the neuroprotective effect of ethanol extract of saffron (EES) on corticosterone (CORT)- induced injury in PC12 cells and further explored its potential mechanism. (jsce-ip.com)
  • In this study, we investigated the effects of transient and chronic increase of corticosterone (CORT) on the wound healing of the American bullfrog . (bvsalud.org)
  • This study investigated how the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT) affects neuronal cells. (elsevierpure.com)
  • MAIN METHODS: Adult male C57BL/6J mice received a subchronic exposure to corticosterone (CORT) at levels mimicking high physiological stress followed by exposure to the sarin surrogate, diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP). (cdc.gov)
  • Corticosterone is the precursor molecule to the mineralocorticoid aldosterone, one of the major homeostatic modulators of sodium and potassium levels in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aldosterone synthase enzyme is involved in a series of three chemical reactions that produce aldosterone from other (precursor) molecules: the conversion of 11-deoxycorticosterone to corticosterone, the conversion of corticosterone to 18-hydroxycorticosterone, and the conversion of 18-hydroxycorticosterone to aldosterone. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Corticosterone is produced in response to the stimulation of the adrenal cortex by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and is the precursor of aldosterone. (teitell-lab.com)
  • Precursor hormones such as corticosterone are elevated, have glucocorticoid activity, and are adequate to prevent adrenal insufficiency. (medscape.com)
  • The measurement of stress hormones such as corticosterone or cortisol is generally associated with research focused on impacts of stress or stress management. (arborassays.com)
  • Corticosterone, also known as 17-deoxycortisol and 11β,21-dihydroxyprogesterone, is a 21-carbon steroid hormone of the corticosteroid type produced in the cortex of the adrenal glands. (wikipedia.org)
  • Corticosterone is a glucocorticoid secreted by the cortex of the adrenal gland. (teitell-lab.com)
  • Red wine phenolic extracts treatment significantly reduced serum corticosterone levels. (ctv-jve-journal.org)
  • Corticosterone methyloxidase deficiency, also known as aldosterone synthase deficiency, is a disorder characterized by excessive amounts of sodium released in the urine (salt wasting), along with insufficient release of potassium in the urine, usually beginning in the first few weeks of life. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Individuals with corticosterone methyloxidase deficiency can also have high levels of acid in the blood (metabolic acidosis). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Severe cases of corticosterone methyloxidase deficiency can result in seizures and coma and can be life-threatening. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Mutations in the CYP11B2 gene cause corticosterone methyloxidase deficiency. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The CYP11B2 gene mutations that cause corticosterone methyloxidase deficiency lead to insufficient production of aldosterone, which impairs the kidneys' ability to reabsorb salt (sodium chloride or NaCl) into the blood and release potassium in the urine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The resulting imbalance of ions in the body underlies the signs and symptoms of corticosterone methyloxidase deficiency. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The following parameters were collected and evaluated under field conditions: ► Development of intraocular pressure ► Development of eye measures ► Behaviour and time-budget ► Excretion of glucocorticoids (corticosterone) ► Performance parameters Under 5 lx a modulation of intraocular pressure was observed. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Using the hair as a long-term quantification of steroid hormones, we also tested whether corticosterone, progesterone and testosterone differed by social phenotype. (frontiersin.org)
  • The researchers assessed this by measuring levels of two hormones: corticosterone, a marker of stress, and dehydroepiandrosterone, which counteracts stress. (newscientist.com)
  • In studies on rats, the fluctuations of corticosterone concentration are shown to prevent stress' impairment of recognition memory in lower amounts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Corticosterone release was higher in crowded rats throughout day 15. (nih.gov)
  • However, the stimulating action of L-NAME depends on the presence of rhythmic changes in plasma corticosterone, as it is abolished in rats treated with a subcutaneous implant of corticosterone, which flattens the diurnal rhythm. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Adrenalectomized rats implanted with corticosterone also failed to respond to L-NAME. (ox.ac.uk)
  • nNOS was demonstrable only in the inner (proliferative) layer of the dentate gyrus in control rats, and did not alter following excess corticosterone treatment. (ox.ac.uk)
  • iNOS was detectable at low levels in control rats, but was increased markedly following corticosterone. (ox.ac.uk)
  • an iNOS antagonist) significantly increased proliferation in corticosterone-treated rats (40 mg/kg/day) but not in controls without additional corticosterone, confirming that iNOS plays a role in corticosterone-regulated neurogenesis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The ratio of dehydroepiandrosterone to corticosterone in the rats' faeces increased over the course of their driving training. (newscientist.com)
  • Corticosterone is converted to aldosterone by aldosterone synthase, found only in the mitochondria of glomerulosa cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This was achieved by measuring body weights and plasma corticosterone levels (using our DetectX ® Corticosterone EIA kit K014-H ) in both the control and stimulated mice 24 hours after the last stimulation exposure. (arborassays.com)
  • Results: Similar intense immunofluorescence of pS396 and pS404 tau neurons was observed following exposure to Aß and corticosterone. (hku.hk)
  • Cultures were also treated with nontoxic concentrations of corticosterone (0.001-1 μM) during ethanol exposure and withdrawal or only during withdrawal. (uky.edu)
  • Additional cultures were coexposed to corticosterone and RU486 (0.1-10.0 μM), spironolactone (0.1-10.0 μM), or MK-801 (20 μM) during ethanol exposure and/or withdrawal. (uky.edu)
  • Conclusions: This report demonstrated that corticosterone exposure during ethanol treatment and/or withdrawal resulted in significant hippocampal damage, possibly via activation of glucocorticoid receptors and enhancement of the glutamatergic cascade. (uky.edu)
  • Chronic exposure to the glucocorticoid hormone corticosterone exerts cellular stress-induced toxic effects that have been associated with neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. (pasteur.fr)
  • Here, we take a phylogenetically informed approach and use data from HormoneBase to test if baseline and stress-induced corticosterone are valid indicators of exposure to human footprint index, human population density, anthropogenic noise and artificial light at night in birds and reptiles. (trinity.edu)
  • Therefore, it should not be assumed that high or low levels of exposure to human-induced environmental change are associated with high or low corticosterone levels, respectively, or that closely related species, or even individuals, will respond similarly. (trinity.edu)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the antidepressant-like effect of red wine phenolic extracts in mouse model exposed to exogenous corticosterone. (ctv-jve-journal.org)
  • Exogenous glucocorticoid therapy is the treatment of choice and suppresses adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secretion, decreases 11-DOC and corticosterone levels, and normalizes serum potassium and blood pressure. (medscape.com)
  • Birds with increased levels of corticosterone will have slower feather growth during their molting period and an extended period of poor flight. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, many birds have reduced levels of corticosterone when they moult so as to prevent the degradation of their new feathers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interestingly, higher levels of corticosterone are also associated with a wider range of exploration, despite beforementioned inhibited feather growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Increased levels of corticosterone in chicks leads to increased begging for food and aggressiveness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies have shown that when fear memories are reactivated or consolidated, levels of corticosterone increased. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies show that the modification of certain chemical and brain processes that affect corticosterone levels can also impact stress effects on memory. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers identified the gut bacteria E. faecalis as a mediator of social behavior and corticosterone levels in mice. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • Their data showed no difference in body weight or plasma corticosterone levels between control and stimulated mice, demonstrating that the stimulated mice were not showing signs of stress and therefore the behavioral effects they observed in their stimulated mice were related to the stimulation and not to stress. (arborassays.com)
  • Baseline and Stress-Induced Corticosterone Levels Across Birds and Rep" by A. S. Injaian, C. D. Francis et al. (trinity.edu)
  • L-NAME (50 mg/kg), as expected, increased proliferation, but also lowered plasma corticosterone levels. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Evaluate infants and young children every 3-4 months for height, weight, blood pressure, and concurrent laboratory monitoring of 11-deoxycorticosterone (11-DOC) and corticosterone levels. (medscape.com)
  • However, significant increases in propidium iodide fluorescence and in cytosolic Ca 2+ accumulation were observed in cultures when corticosterone (≥ 100 nM) was exposed during ethanol treatment and/or withdrawal. (uky.edu)
  • this trigger seems to cause the internal generation of corticosterone in that species. (wikipedia.org)
  • To counter this, during extended periods of food shortage, chicks of some species may suppress corticosterone activity and thus reduce the negative effects elevated corticosterone induces. (wikipedia.org)
  • Given the number of recent studies reporting baseline and stress-induced corticosterone (the primary glucocorticoid in birds and reptiles) concentrations worldwide, it is now possible to conduct large-scale comparative analyses to test for general associations between disturbance and baseline and stress-induced corticosterone across species. (trinity.edu)
  • Highly sensitive corticosterone ELISA kit, species independent, used for animal stress research. (enzolifesciences.com)
  • This research project had the aim to validate the possible alternative and less-painful sampling method of cutting feathers close to the skin instead of plucking them for subsequent feather corticosterone analysis, confirming recently-published results for other species in captivity. (czaw.org)
  • Conclusions: The results suggest that tau undergoes similar pathological changes in Aß and corticosterone-treated hippocampal neurons, providing insight into the common role of tau abnormalities in propagating pathophysiology of disease. (hku.hk)
  • The Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) Reverses Corticosterone-Induced Changes in Cortical Neurons. (pasteur.fr)
  • Moreover, glucocorticoid hormone corticosterone (200 μM, 72 hours) decreased the percentage composition of neurons while increasing the percentage of astrocytes as assessed by βIII-tubulin and glial fibrillary acidic protein immunostaining, respectively. (pasteur.fr)
  • Corticosterone promoted maturation of oligodendrocytes, and when used in combination with DFP it had protective effects by increasing the pool of mature oligodendrocytes and decreasing proliferation. (cdc.gov)
  • Peripheral mechanisms contributing to the glucocorticoid hypersensitivity in proopiomelanocortin null mice treated with corticosterone. (cam.ac.uk)
  • The results showed that 3-week corticosterone injections caused depression-like behavior in mice, as indicated by the significant decrease in sucrose consumption and increase immobility time in the forced swimming test (FST). (ctv-jve-journal.org)
  • A Corticosterone specific antibody has been precoated onto 96-well plates and blocked. (teitell-lab.com)
  • Corticosterone ELISA gear is a aggressive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay designed for the quantitative measurement of Corticosterone ranges in plasma, serum, urine, milk, saliva and cell custom supernatant. (teitell-lab.com)
  • We measured spontaneous and corticotropin-releasing factor-mediated release of plasma corticosterone. (nih.gov)
  • The effects of reduced NO on neurogenesis may rely on a dual mechanism: corresponding reductions in plasma corticosterone and increased induction of iNOS (and/or eNOS) within the dentate gyrus. (ox.ac.uk)
  • These effects of corticosterone on ethanol withdrawal were attenuated by RU486 and MK-801 but not by spironolactone coexposure. (uky.edu)
  • In contrast, docosahexaenoic acid treatment (6 μM) increased docosahexaenoic acid content and attenuated glucocorticoid hormone corticosterone (200 μM)-induced cell death (72 hours) in cortical cultures. (pasteur.fr)
  • Contrasting effects of transdermal and implant corticosterone treatments in the American bullfrog wound healing. (bvsalud.org)
  • Giving them a single daily injection of corticosterone (2 mg/kg) in an attempt to replicate the diurnal rhythm restored the sensitivity of the progenitor cells to L-NAME. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Corticosterone both inhibits protein synthesis and degrades proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The compound inhibits PDE4, an enzyme induced bt excessive amounts of corticosterone, which causes depression-like symptoms in mouse models. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • we found no general relationship between human impacts and baseline and stress-induced corticosterone in birds, nor baseline corticosterone in reptiles. (trinity.edu)
  • Corticosterone manufacturing has been confirmed to increase with stress, with elevated corticosterone ranges being associated to impairment of future memory retrieval and following burn injury. (teitell-lab.com)
  • Also, both treatments of Aß and corticosterone demonstrated a decrease in colocalization between tau and a-tubulin. (hku.hk)
  • In addition, co-treatments of both Aß and corticosterone also induced aberrant modifications of tau. (hku.hk)
  • Temporal dynamics of corticosterone elevation in successive negative contrast. (bvsalud.org)
  • Excess corticosterone given by daily injection (40/mg/kg) reduced proliferation but did not alter the response to L-NAME, even though this occurred from a lower baseline. (ox.ac.uk)
  • A sizable amount of research has been done on the effects of corticosterone in birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Corticosterone has further developmental effects on birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the short term this leads to higher chance of obtaining food, but in the long term, increased corticosterone in early life compromises the birds cognitive functioning (problem solving, association of visual cue with food, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our results show a negative relationship between anthropogenic noise and baseline corticosterone for birds characterized as urban avoiders. (trinity.edu)
  • Interactions between nitric oxide and corticosterone in the regulation of progenitor cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of the adult rat. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Corticosterone may thus act on progenitor cells in part at least through increased nitric oxide (NO) formation. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Corticosterone has multiple effects on memory. (wikipedia.org)
  • Not only does corticosterone have effects on emotional memories but memory recognition and consolidation as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • With respect to recognition and long term memories, corticosterone has variable effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effects of corticosterone, which is used in some GWI animal models, were also investigated. (cdc.gov)
  • Cell culture studies indicate direct effects of both DFP and corticosterone on OPCs, and by comparison with in vivo results, we conclude that in addition to direct effects, systemic effects and interruption of neuron-glia interactions contribute to the detrimental effects of GW agents on oligodendrocytes. (cdc.gov)
  • Necessities or check out samples are added to the wells and subsequently biotinylated Corticosterone is added after which adopted by washing with wash buffer. (teitell-lab.com)