Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.
An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.
Depression in POSTPARTUM WOMEN, usually within four weeks after giving birth (PARTURITION). The degree of depression ranges from mild transient depression to neurotic or psychotic depressive disorders. (From DSM-IV, p386)
The decrease in neuronal activity (related to a decrease in metabolic demand) extending from the site of cortical stimulation. It is believed to be responsible for the decrease in cerebral blood flow that accompanies the aura of MIGRAINE WITH AURA. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 8th ed.)
Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.
Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, SECOND-GENERATION) is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems.
Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.
A persistent activity-dependent decrease in synaptic efficacy between NEURONS. It typically occurs following repeated low-frequency afferent stimulation, but it can be induced by other methods. Long-term depression appears to play a role in MEMORY.
Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.
Check list, usually to be filled out by a person about himself, consisting of many statements about personal characteristics which the subject checks.
A generic term for the treatment of mental illness or emotional disturbances primarily by verbal or nonverbal communication.
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
A structurally and mechanistically diverse group of drugs that are not tricyclics or monoamine oxidase inhibitors. The most clinically important appear to act selectively on serotonergic systems, especially by inhibiting serotonin reuptake.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.
Compounds that specifically inhibit the reuptake of serotonin in the brain.
The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Chronically depressed mood that occurs for most of the day more days than not for at least 2 years. The required minimum duration in children to make this diagnosis is 1 year. During periods of depressed mood, at least 2 of the following additional symptoms are present: poor appetite or overeating, insomnia or hypersomnia, low energy or fatigue, low self esteem, poor concentration or difficulty making decisions, and feelings of hopelessness. (DSM-IV)
Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.
The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
A furancarbonitrile that is one of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS used as an antidepressant. The drug is also effective in reducing ethanol uptake in alcoholics and is used in depressed patients who also suffer from tardive dyskinesia in preference to tricyclic antidepressants, which aggravate this condition.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A directed conversation aimed at eliciting information for psychiatric diagnosis, evaluation, treatment planning, etc. The interview may be conducted by a social worker or psychologist.
A selective serotonin uptake inhibitor that is used in the treatment of depression.
Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)
A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.
A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
Those occurrences, including social, psychological, and environmental, which require an adjustment or effect a change in an individual's pattern of living.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.
The act of killing oneself.
Failure to respond to two or more trials of antidepressant monotherapy or failure to respond to four or more trials of different antidepressant therapies. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 9th ed.)
The first highly specific serotonin uptake inhibitor. It is used as an antidepressant and often has a more acceptable side-effects profile than traditional antidepressants.
Substances that contain a fused three-ring moiety and are used in the treatment of depression. These drugs block the uptake of norepinephrine and serotonin into axon terminals and may block some subtypes of serotonin, adrenergic, and histamine receptors. However the mechanism of their antidepressant effects is not clear because the therapeutic effects usually take weeks to develop and may reflect compensatory changes in the central nervous system.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Electrically induced CONVULSIONS primarily used in the treatment of severe AFFECTIVE DISORDERS and SCHIZOPHRENIA.
A risk factor for suicide attempts and completions, it is the most common of all suicidal behavior, but only a minority of ideators engage in overt self-harm.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.
A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.
Child with one or more parents afflicted by a physical or mental disorder.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.
A serotonin uptake inhibitor that is effective in the treatment of depression.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.
Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.
Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.
The unsuccessful attempt to kill oneself.
The determination and evaluation of personality attributes by interviews, observations, tests, or scales. Articles concerning personality measurement are considered to be within scope of this term.
Evaluation of the level of physical, physiological, or mental functioning in the older population group.
A person's view of himself.
Interaction between a mother and child.
Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of serotonergic neurons. They are different than SEROTONIN RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to SEROTONIN. They remove SEROTONIN from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. Regulates signal amplitude and duration at serotonergic synapses and is the site of action of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS.
Disorders having the presence of physical symptoms that suggest a general medical condition but that are not fully explained by a another medical condition, by the direct effects of a substance, or by another mental disorder. The symptoms must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning. In contrast to FACTITIOUS DISORDERS and MALINGERING, the physical symptoms are not under voluntary control. (APA, DSM-V)
The state wherein the person is well adjusted.
Monohydroxy derivatives of cyclohexanes that contain the general formula R-C6H11O. They have a camphorlike odor and are used in making soaps, insecticides, germicides, dry cleaning, and plasticizers.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
A tetracyclic compound with antidepressant effects. It may cause drowsiness and hematological problems. Its mechanism of therapeutic action is not well understood, although it apparently blocks alpha-adrenergic, histamine H1, and some types of serotonin receptors.
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Maladaptive reactions to identifiable psychosocial stressors occurring within a short time after onset of the stressor. They are manifested by either impairment in social or occupational functioning or by symptoms (depression, anxiety, etc.) that are in excess of a normal and expected reaction to the stressor.
Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.
Disorders in which the essential feature is a severe disturbance in mood (depression, anxiety, elation, and excitement) accompanied by psychotic symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, gross impairment in reality testing, etc.
The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.
The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Disorders characterized by impairment of the ability to initiate or maintain sleep. This may occur as a primary disorder or in association with another medical or psychiatric condition.
A persistent increase in synaptic efficacy, usually induced by appropriate activation of the same synapses. The phenomenological properties of long-term potentiation suggest that it may be a cellular mechanism of learning and memory.
Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
A subspecialty of psychiatry concerned with the mental health of the aged.
A metabolite of AMITRIPTYLINE that is also used as an antidepressive agent. Nortriptyline is used in major depression, dysthymia, and atypical depressions.
Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Persons who provide care to those who need supervision or assistance in illness or disability. They may provide the care in the home, in a hospital, or in an institution. Although caregivers include trained medical, nursing, and other health personnel, the concept also refers to parents, spouses, or other family members, friends, members of the clergy, teachers, social workers, fellow patients.
Any form of psychotherapy designed to produce therapeutic change within a minimal amount of time, generally not more than 20 sessions.
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
A form of therapy in which two or more patients participate under the guidance of one or more psychotherapists for the purpose of treating emotional disturbances, social maladjustments, and psychotic states.
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
A syndrome characterized by depressions that recur annually at the same time each year, usually during the winter months. Other symptoms include anxiety, irritability, decreased energy, increased appetite (carbohydrate cravings), increased duration of sleep, and weight gain. SAD (seasonal affective disorder) can be treated by daily exposure to bright artificial lights (PHOTOTHERAPY), during the season of recurrence.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.
Disorders in which the symptoms are distressing to the individual and recognized by him or her as being unacceptable. Social relationships may be greatly affected but usually remain within acceptable limits. The disturbance is relatively enduring or recurrent without treatment.
Normal, appropriate sorrowful response to an immediate cause. It is self-limiting and gradually subsides within a reasonable time.
Inability to experience pleasure due to impairment or dysfunction of normal psychological and neurobiological mechanisms. It is a symptom of many PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS (e.g., DEPRESSIVE DISORDER, MAJOR; and SCHIZOPHRENIA).
The prototypical tricyclic antidepressant. It has been used in major depression, dysthymia, bipolar depression, attention-deficit disorders, agoraphobia, and panic disorders. It has less sedative effect than some other members of this therapeutic group.
Learned expectation that one's responses are independent of reward and, hence, do not predict or control the occurrence of rewards. Learned helplessness derives from a history, experimentally induced or naturally occurring, of having received punishment/aversive stimulation regardless of responses made. Such circumstances result in an impaired ability to learn. Used for human or animal populations. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Disorders related to substance abuse.
Mood or emotional responses dissonant with or inappropriate to the behavior and/or stimulus.
Organized services to provide mental health care.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
Persons who receive ambulatory care at an outpatient department or clinic without room and board being provided.
The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Behavior-response patterns that characterize the individual.
Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.
A type of anxiety disorder characterized by unexpected panic attacks that last minutes or, rarely, hours. Panic attacks begin with intense apprehension, fear or terror and, often, a feeling of impending doom. Symptoms experienced during a panic attack include dyspnea or sensations of being smothered; dizziness, loss of balance or faintness; choking sensations; palpitations or accelerated heart rate; shakiness; sweating; nausea or other form of abdominal distress; depersonalization or derealization; paresthesias; hot flashes or chills; chest discomfort or pain; fear of dying and fear of not being in control of oneself or going crazy. Agoraphobia may also develop. Similar to other anxiety disorders, it may be inherited as an autosomal dominant trait.
A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
Computer systems utilized as adjuncts in the treatment of disease.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A learning situation involving more than one alternative from which a selection is made in order to attain a specific goal.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
Appraisal of one's own personal qualities or traits.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.
The interactions between the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands, in which corticotropin (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical hormones suppress the production of corticotropin by the anterior pituitary.
The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.
The human ability to adapt in the face of tragedy, trauma, adversity, hardship, and ongoing significant life stressors.
Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
Personality construct referring to an individual's perception of the locus of events as determined internally by his or her own behavior versus fate, luck, or external forces. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1996).
Cell surface proteins that bind glutamate and act through G-proteins to influence second messenger systems. Several types of metabotropic glutamate receptors have been cloned. They differ in pharmacology, distribution, and mechanisms of action.
The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders.
Former members of the armed services.
Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.
A loosely defined grouping of drugs that have effects on psychological function. Here the psychotropic agents include the antidepressive agents, hallucinogens, and tranquilizing agents (including the antipsychotics and anti-anxiety agents).
Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.
Lack of emotion or emotional expression; a disorder of motivation that persists over time.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.
An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.
Agents that are used to treat bipolar disorders or mania associated with other affective disorders.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
A set of statistical methods for analyzing the correlations among several variables in order to estimate the number of fundamental dimensions that underlie the observed data and to describe and measure those dimensions. It is used frequently in the development of scoring systems for rating scales and questionnaires.
The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.
Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)
Performing the role of a parent by care-giving, nurturance, and protection of the child by a natural or substitute parent. The parent supports the child by exercising authority and through consistent, empathic, appropriate behavior in response to the child's needs. PARENTING differs from CHILD REARING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the children and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
A serotonin receptor subtype found distributed through the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM where they are involved in neuroendocrine regulation of ACTH secretion. The fact that this serotonin receptor subtype is particularly sensitive to SEROTONIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS such as BUSPIRONE suggests its role in the modulation of ANXIETY and DEPRESSION.
The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
Set of expectations that exempt persons from responsibility for their illness and exempt them from usual responsibilities.
Abuse of children in a family, institutional, or other setting. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.
Predisposition to react to one's environment in a certain way; usually refers to mood changes.
Standardized clinical interview used to assess current psychopathology by scaling patient responses to the questions.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for the agonist AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid).
The separation of individuals or groups resulting in the lack of or minimizing of social contact and/or communication. This separation may be accomplished by physical separation, by social barriers and by psychological mechanisms. In the latter, there may be interaction but no real communication.
Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive mental health services provided for individuals in the community.
A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.
A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.
Subjective feeling of having committed an error, offense or sin; unpleasant feeling of self-criticism. These result from acts, impulses, or thoughts contrary to one's personal conscience.
The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.
Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
The interrelationship of psychology and religion.
A common nonarticular rheumatic syndrome characterized by myalgia and multiple points of focal muscle tenderness to palpation (trigger points). Muscle pain is typically aggravated by inactivity or exposure to cold. This condition is often associated with general symptoms, such as sleep disturbances, fatigue, stiffness, HEADACHES, and occasionally DEPRESSION. There is significant overlap between fibromyalgia and the chronic fatigue syndrome (FATIGUE SYNDROME, CHRONIC). Fibromyalgia may arise as a primary or secondary disease process. It is most frequent in females aged 20 to 50 years. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1494-95)
Those unable to leave home without exceptional effort and support; patients (in this condition) who are provided with or are eligible for home health services, including medical treatment and personal care. Persons are considered homebound even if they may be infrequently and briefly absent from home if these absences do not indicate an ability to receive health care in a professional's office or health care facility. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p309)
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Field of psychology concerned with the normal and abnormal behavior of adolescents. It includes mental processes as well as observable responses.
One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.
Organizations which provide an environment encouraging social interactions through group activities or individual relationships especially for the purpose of rehabilitating or supporting patients, individuals with common health problems, or the elderly. They include therapeutic social clubs.
The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.
The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.
Anxiety disorders in which the essential feature is persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that the individual feels compelled to avoid. The individual recognizes the fear as excessive or unreasonable.
A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)
A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)
Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.
Mental activity, not predominantly perceptual, by which one apprehends some aspect of an object or situation based on past learning and experience.
The co-existence of a substance abuse disorder with a psychiatric disorder. The diagnostic principle is based on the fact that it has been found often that chemically dependent patients also have psychiatric problems of various degrees of severity.
A strong emotional feeling of displeasure aroused by being interfered with, injured or threatened.

Rapid efflux of lactate from cerebral cortex during K+ -induced spreading cortical depression. (1/291)

Rapid transport of lactate from activated brain regions to blood, perhaps reflecting enhanced metabolite trafficking, would prevent local trapping of labeled metabolites of [6-14C]glucose and cause underestimation of calculated CMRglc. Because the identities of glucose metabolites lost from activated structures and major routes of their removal are not known, arteriovenous differences across brains of conscious normoxic rats for derivatives of [6-14C]glucose were determined under steady-state conditions in blood during K+ -induced spreading cortical depression. Lactate was identified as the major labeled product lost from brain. Its entry to blood was detected within 2 minutes after a pulse of [6-14C]glucose, and it accounted for 96% of the 14C lost from brain within approximately 8 minutes. Lactate efflux corresponded to 20% of glucose influx, but accounted for only half the magnitude of underestimation of CMRglc when [14C]glucose is the tracer, suggesting extensive [14C]lactate trafficking within brain. [14C]Lactate spreading within brain is consistent with (1) relatively uniform pattern labeling of K+ -treated cerebral cortex by [6-14C]glucose contrasting heterogeneous labeling by [14C]deoxyglucose, and (2) transport of 14C-labeled lactate and inulin up to 1.5 and 2.4 mm, respectively, within 10 minutes. Thus, newly synthesized lactate exported from activated cells rapidly flows to blood and probably other brain structures.  (+info)

Endogenous pH shifts facilitate spreading depression by effect on NMDA receptors. (2/291)

Rapid extracellular alkalinizations accompany normal neuronal activity and have been implicated in the modulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Particularly large alkaline transients also occur at the onset of spreading depression (SD). To test whether these endogenous pH shifts can modulate SD, the alkaline shift was amplified using benzolamide, a poorly permeant inhibitor of interstitial carbonic anhydrase. SD was evoked by microinjection of 1.2 M KCl into the CA1 stratum radiatum of rat hippocampal slices and recorded by a proximal double-barreled pH microelectrode and a distal potential electrode. In Ringer solution of pH 7.1 containing picrotoxin (but not at a bath pH of 7.4), addition of 10 microM benzolamide increased the SD alkaline shift from 0.20 +/- 0.07 to 0.38 +/- 0.17 unit pH (means +/- SE). This was correlated with a significant shortening of the latency and an increase in the conduction velocity by 26 +/- 16%. In the presence of the NMDA receptor antagonist DL-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV), benzolamide still amplified the alkaline transient, however, its effect on the SD latency and propagation velocity was abolished. The intrinsic modulation of SD by its alkaline transient may play an important role under focal ischemic conditions by removing the proton block of NMDA receptors where interstitial acidosis would otherwise limit NMDA receptor activity.  (+info)

Novel form of spreading acidification and depression in the cerebellar cortex demonstrated by neutral red optical imaging. (3/291)

A novel form of spreading acidification and depression in the rat cerebellar cortex was imaged in vivo using the pH-sensitive dye, Neutral red. Surface stimulation evoked an initial beam of increased fluorescence (i.e., decreased pH) that spread rostrally and caudally across the folium and into neighboring folia. A transient but marked suppression in the excitability of the parallel fiber-Purkinje cell circuitry accompanied the spread. Characteristics differentiating this phenomenon from the spreading depression of Leao include: high speed of propagation on the surface (average of 450 microm/s), stable extracellular DC potential, no change in blood vessel diameter, and repeatability at short intervals. This propagating acidification constitutes a previously unknown class of neuronal processing in the cerebellar cortex.  (+info)

Glutamate release through volume-activated channels during spreading depression. (4/291)

Volume-sensitive organic anion channels (VSOACs) in astrocytes are activated by cell swelling and are permeable to organic anions, such as glutamate and taurine. We have examined the release of glutamate through VSOACs during the propagation of spreading depression (SD). SD was induced by bath application of ouabain in hippocampal brain slices and was monitored by imaging intrinsic optical signals, a technique that provides a measure of cellular swelling. The onset of SD was associated with increased light transmittance, confirming previous studies that cellular swelling occurs during SD. NMDA receptor antagonists, either noncompetitive (MK-801, 10-50 microM) or competitive (CGS-17355, 100 microM), reduced the rate of propagation of SD, indicating that glutamate release contributes to SD onset. SD still occurred in zero Ca(2+)-EGTA (0-Ca(2+)-EGTA) solution, a manipulation that depresses synaptic transmission. HPLC measurements indicated that, even in this solution, there was significant glutamate release. Two lines of experiments indicated that glutamate was released through VSOACs during SD. First, 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino) benzoic acid (NPPB), a blocker of VSOACs, depressed the rate of propagation of SD in a manner similar to NMDA antagonists. Second, NPPB inhibited the release of glutamate during SD in 0-Ca(2+)-EGTA external solution. These results indicate that cellular swelling during SD causes the activation of VSOACs and the release of glutamate by permeation through this channel. Cellular swelling is a result of neuronal activity and is observed during excitotoxicity. Therefore, glutamate release from VSOAC activation could occur under conditions of cell swelling and contribute to excitotoxic damage.  (+info)

Cortical spreading depression in the gyrencephalic feline brain studied by magnetic resonance imaging. (5/291)

1.Time-lapse diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) was used to detect and characterize complex waves of cortical spreading depression (CSD) evoked with KCL placed upon the suprasylvian gyrus of anaesthetized cats. 2. The time-lapse representations successfully demonstrated primary CSD waves that propagated with elliptical wavefronts selectively over the ipsilateral cerebral hemispheres with a velocity of 3.8 +/- 0.70 mm min(-1) (mean +/- S.E.M. of 5 experiments). 3. In contrast, the succeeding secondary waves often remained within the originating gyrus, were slower (velocity 2.0 +/- 0.18 mm min(-1), more fragmented and varied in number. 4. Computed traces of the apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) showed negative deflections followed by monotonic decays (amplitudes: primary wave, -19.9 +/- 2.8%; subsequent waves, -13.6 +/- 1.9% duration at half-maximal decay, 150-200 s) when determined from regions of interest (ROIs) through which both primary and succeeding CSD waves propagated. 5. The passage of both the primary and the succeeding waves often correlated with transient DC potential deflections recorded from the suprasylvian gyrus. 6. The detailed waveforms of the ADC and the T2*-weighted (blood oxygenation level-dependent: BOLD) traces showed a clear reciprocal correlation. These imaging features that reflect disturbances in cellular water balance agree closely with BOLD measurements that followed the propagation velocities of the first and subsequent CSD events. They also provide a close physiological correlate for clinical observations of cortical blood flow disturbances associated with human migraine.  (+info)

Thromboembolic events lead to cortical spreading depression and expression of c-fos, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and heat shock protein 70 mRNA in rats. (6/291)

The hypotheses that cerebral embolic events lead to repetitive episodes of cortical spreading depression (CSD) and that these propagating waves trigger the expression of c-fos, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) mRNA were tested. Wistar rats underwent photochemically induced right common carotid artery thrombosis (CCAT) (n = 18) or sham (n = 8) procedures. In a subgroup of rats (n = 5), laser-Doppler flowmetry probes were placed overlying the right parietal cortex to record CSD-like changes in cortical blood flow during the initial 2-hour postinjury period. Rats were killed by decapitation at 2 or 24 hours after CCAT, and brains were processed for in situ localization of the gene expression. Two to five intermittent transient hyperemic episodes lasting 1 to 2 minutes were recorded ipsilaterally after CCAT. At 2 hours after CCAT, the widespread expression of c-fos and BDNF mRNAs was observed throughout the ipsilateral cerebral cortex. Pretreatment with the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor blocker MK-801 (2 mg/kg) 1 hour before CCAT reduced the expression of BDNF mRNA expression at 2 hours. At 24 hours after CCAT, increased expression of GFAP mRNA was present in cortical and subcortical regions. In contrast, multifocal regions of HSP70 expression scattered throughout the thrombosed hemisphere were apparent at both 2 and 24 hours after injury. These data indicate that thromboembolic events lead to episodes of CSD and time-dependent alterations in gene expression. The ability of embolic processes to induce widespread molecular responses in neurons and glia may be important in the pathogenesis of transient ischemic attacks and may influence the susceptibility of the postembolic brain to subsequent insults including stroke.  (+info)

Factors influencing the frequency of fluorescence transients as markers of peri-infarct depolarizations in focal cerebral ischemia. (7/291)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Peri-infarct depolarizations (PIDs) that occur in ischemic boundary zones of the cerebral cortex of experimental animals have been shown to promote rather than simply to indicate the evolution of the lesion and are especially prominent in the rat. To study the influence of one factor, species, on PID incidence, we compared the frequency of PIDs in a primate species, the squirrel monkey, with that in the cat after middle cerebral artery occlusion. Plasma glucose was reviewed as a possible cause of interexperiment variability in the cat experiments. METHODS: In open-skull experiments under chloralose anesthesia, changes in cortical fluorescence believed to indicate NADH/NAD(+) redox state, as markers of PIDs, were recorded by serial imaging of the cortical surface in vivo for 4 hours after middle cerebral artery occlusion. RESULTS: Fluorescence transients occurred in squirrel monkeys at a frequency (mean+/-SD) of 0.7+/-0.8 hours(-1) (n=5), which was not significantly less than in that observed in cats (1.3+/-1.6 hours(-1), n=8). Data from the cat experiments indicated a relationship between number of transients (dependent) and plasma glucose, with a striking increase in PID frequency in association with values of mean postocclusion plasma glucose <4.1 mmol/L (Mann-Whitney U=15.0, P=0.034); this observation agrees well with other published findings. CONCLUSIONS: Transient changes in fluorescence strongly suggestive of peri-infarct depolarizations, either transient or terminal, occur and propagate in the ischemic cerebral cortex of a nonhuman primate. The results also suggest that the relationship of frequency of peri-infarct depolarizations with plasma glucose requires further examination, to confirm the finding and to determine a safe lower limit for a target range for control of plasma glucose if insulin is used in the management of patients with cerebral ischemia.  (+info)

Na(+) and K(+) concentrations, extra- and intracellular voltages, and the effect of TTX in hypoxic rat hippocampal slices. (8/291)

Severe hypoxia causes rapid depolarization of CA1 neurons and glial cells that resembles spreading depression (SD). In brain slices in vitro, the SD-like depolarization and the associated irreversible loss of function can be postponed, but not prevented, by blockade of Na(+) currents by tetrodotoxin (TTX). To investigate the role of Na(+) flux, we made recordings from the CA1 region in hippocampal slices in the presence and absence of TTX. We measured membrane changes in single CA1 pyramidal neurons simultaneously with extracellular DC potential (V(o)) and either extracellular [K(+)] or [Na(+)]; alternatively, we simultaneously recorded [Na(+)](o), [K(+)](o), and V(o). Confirming previous reports, early during hypoxia, before SD onset, [K(+)](o) began to rise, whereas [Na(+)](o) still remained normal and V(o) showed a slight, gradual, negative shift; neurons first hyperpolarized and then began to gradually depolarize. The SD-like abrupt negative DeltaV(o) corresponded to a near complete depolarization of pyramidal neurons and an 89% decrease in input resistance. [K(+)](o) increased by 47 mM and [Na(+)](o) dropped by 91 mM. Changes in intracellular Na(+) and K(+) concentrations, estimated on the basis of the measured extracellular ion levels and the relative volume fractions of the neuronal, glial, and extracellular compartment, were much more moderate. Because [Na(+)](o) dropped more than [K(+)](o) increased, simple exchange of Na(+) for K(+) cannot account for these ionic changes. The apparent imbalance of charge could be made up by Cl(-) influx into neurons paralleling Na(+) flux and release of Mg(2+) from cells. The hypoxia-induced changes in interneurons resembled those observed in pyramidal neurons. Astrocytes responded with an initial slow depolarization as [K(+)](o) rose. It was followed by a rapid but incomplete depolarization as soon as SD occurred, which could be accounted for by the reduced ratio, [K(+)](i)/[K(+)](o). TTX (1 microM) markedly postponed SD, but the SD-related changes in [K(+)](o) and [Na(+)](o) were only reduced by 23 and 12%, respectively. In TTX-treated pyramidal neurons, the delayed SD-like depolarization took off from a more positive level, but the final depolarized intracellular potential and input resistance were not different from control. We conclude that TTX-sensitive channels mediate only a fraction of the Na(+) influx, and that some of the K(+) is released in exchange for Na(+). Even though TTX-sensitive Na(+) currents are not essential for the self-regenerative membrane changes during hypoxic SD, in control solutions their activation may trigger the transition from gradual to rapid depolarization of neurons, thereby synchronizing the SD-like event.  (+info)

Cortical dispersing depression (SD) is definitely propagating neuronal and glial depolarization and is definitely thought to underly the pathophysiology of migraine. using 5-bromodeoxyuridine labeling and immunohistochemical evaluation. Newly produced astrocytes had been noticed KIF23 just in the SD-stimulated cortex, but not really in the contralateral cortex or in regular cortex. The astrocytes had been generated from proliferating Y-33075 NG2 cells. Astrogenesis relied on the quantity of SD stimuli, and was followed by reductions of oligodendrogenesis. These findings reveal that the cell destiny of NG2 cells Y-33075 was moved from oligodendrocytes to astrocytes depending on SD stimuli, recommending activity-dependent cells redesigning for maintenance of mind features. IgG (1:200; Sigma), polyclonal bunny Y-33075 anti-glutathione S-transferase (GST)-pi IgG (1:500; Medical & Biological Laboratories, Nagoya, Asia), polyclonal bunny anti-Iba1 IgG (1:300; Wako Pure Chemical substance Sectors, ...
An electrode device is disclosed comprising a deformable envelope, further comprising recording electrodes and a pressure recording port. The device allows for monitoring of brain retraction pressure and local cortical electrical activity including DC potential, as well as redistribution of the force applied during retraction and cushioning of the rigid edges of the brain retractor, thereby diminishing the chance of focal brain injury during surgery. Retraction pressure recorded is equal over the full area of contact. A means is disclosed for optional evacuation of air from the system to improve accuracy and fidelity of the pressure measurements. Local brain hypothermia may be induced via the bladder and attached catheter, thereby providing additional neuroprotection during brain retraction. The device also allows for measurement of intracranial pressure, DC potential, EEG and, optionally, other physiologic parameters in epileptic and severe head trauma patients for management of edema and injury.
Spreading depression (SD) is a slowly propagating wave of transient neuronal and glial depolarization that develops after stroke, trauma and subarachnoid hemorrhage. In compromised tissue, repetitive SD-like injury depolarizations reduce tissue viability by worsening the mismatch between blood flow and metabolism. Although the mechanism remains unknown, SDs show delayed electrophysiological recovery within the ischemic penumbra. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the recovery rate of SD can be varied by modulating tissue perfusion pressure and oxygenation. Systemic blood pressure and arterial pO(2) were simultaneously manipulated in anesthetized rats under full physiologic monitoring. We found that arterial hypotension doubled the SD duration, whereas hypertension reduced it by a third compared with normoxic normotensive rats. Hyperoxia failed to shorten the prolonged SD durations in hypotensive rats, despite restoring tissue pO(2). Indeed, varying arterial pO(2) (40 to 400 mm Hg) alone did not
Introduction: It has been reported that cerebral blood flow (CBF) supplied by chest compression (20-40% of control levels) exceeds the CBF threshold for membrane depolarization (20%). However, the CBF threshold for membrane repolarization has not been studied. It is unknown whether chest compression can restore membrane potential. In the present study, we compared the CBF threshold for depolarization with that for repolarization. In addition, the effects of brain hypothermia on the repolarization threshold were evaluated.. Methods: Rats (10 in each group) were anesthetized with isoflurane. CBF was measured by placing a laser-Doppler flow probe placed adjacent to a direct current (DC) potential electrode in the parietal cerebral cortex. Following bilateral occlusion of common carotid artery, CBF was continuously decreased by exsanguination at a speed of 5% of the baseline level every 2 min until a sudden negative DC shift was observed. After 5 or 10 min of ischemic depolarization, the CBF was ...
The epidermis, being relatively drier, initially offers greater resistance to DC flow. The resistance is generally decreased by sweat and moisture or in areas where follicles pierce the epidermis and increased where the epidermis is thicker (eg, on the acral surfaces of the skin). When a DC potential of more than 10 V is established across the skin, the epidermis begins to lose its structural integrity and its resistance further decreases. In a corollary to this property, an electrical current that passes through an initially resistant barrier (eg, epidermis) causes a thermal burn at the area of increased resistance. The epidermal barrier is effectively removed when the skin is immersed in a fluid conducting medium such as water. With a fluid conductor, the flow of current is spread over a broader contact surface, and the water and its attendant ions can more effectively reach portions of the epidermis that are better conductors. For this reason, burns are not seen on the surface of skin ...
An increase in blood pressure will stretch carotid sinus and aortic arch ,which in turn will cause stretching or spreading of nerve endings ,which will increase influx of the sodium ions . Ultimately increase in depolarisation wave will cause stimulation of NTS (Even decrease in depolarisation wave will stimulate NTS ,which happens during decrease in blood pressure).Now as we know there is increase in blood pressure , NTS-our main character in this process will control these 3 centres to control blood pressure. Lets see what it do to these three centres present in medulla oblongata ...
In animal models of focal cerebral ischaemia, usually induced by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery, a spontaneous phenomenon occurs around the periphery of the core territory, with electrophysiological features essentially identical with CSD, and similar capacity to propagate across cerebral cortex. Designated peri-infarct depolarisation (PID), this event is associated with infarct expansion, or recruitment of at-risk cortical territory into the expanding core, and has been shown capable of causing this expansion, in the absence of therapeutic intervention. Indeed it has been hypothesized that glutamate release may be involved in PID generation, and that excitotoxicity may accomplish detrimental effects via this route (Hossmann, K. A. 1994), (Obrenovitch, T. P. and Urenjak, J. 1997). Some experimental neuroprotection treatments for stroke act to decrease the incidence of PID (Iijima, T. et al. 1992;Chen, Q. et al. 1993;Busch, E. et al. 1996 ...
The material comprises a 2014 interview with Air Vice Marshall John Blackburn (Retired), in which he poses a number of questions relating to the resilience of Australias Defence logistics capabilities. The questions and tacit solutions he proposes have become more relevant given recent instability in the South China Sea and the current shifts in US foreign policy. ...
Current shift adjusted stage-discharge rating table. These tab delimited tables are updated daily and can change frequently. If you use these ratings, it is important that you update often so that you have the most current version ...
As the name of the game suggests, the full gaming experience is offered here at this port. All content for one or more players is included, as well as any additional CSDs for the original game. There are also exclusive additions to the Switch version, such as motion control options and improved support for Pro Controllers. Although, to be fair, adding motion controls to the game actually works quite well. It seems that the developers have finally understood that using a gyroscope for aiming works better than aiming with a dual analogue. Moreover, Rumble HD is used in an amazing way, so you can feel the characters heartbeat when you try to take a shot, and you can also feel the impact of the bullet.. One of the greatest strengths of this stealthy spy is the freedom it offers. Each mission gives you a simple goal, and you can complete them at will. You can sneak into enemy territory and take out one enemy at a time, or you can stay at a distance and try to shoot at enemies from a distance. The ...
Migraines Aura: Is a change in brain function. It is usually a visual symptom, such as an arc of sparkling (scintillating) zig-zag lines or a blind spot in ones field of vision or both.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of lidocaine on dynamic changes in cortical reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide fluorescence during transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats. AU - Naito, Hiromichi. AU - Takeda, Yoshimasa. AU - Danura, T.. AU - Kass, I. S.. AU - Morita, K.. PY - 2013/4/3. Y1 - 2013/4/3. N2 - Rats were subjected to 90. min of focal ischemia by occluding the left middle cerebral and both common carotid arteries. The dynamic changes in the formation of brain ischemic areas were analyzed by measuring the direct current (DC) potential and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) fluorescence with ultraviolet irradiation. In the lidocaine group (n= 10), 30. min before ischemia, an intravenous bolus (1.5. mg/kg) of lidocaine was administered, followed by a continuous infusion (2. mg/kg/h) for 150. min. In the control group (n= 10), an equivalent amount of saline was administered. Following the initiation of ischemia, an area of high-intensity NADH fluorescence rapidly developed in ...
The EOG Electrooculogram Smart Amplifier is designed specifically to amplify corneal-retinal potential. It monitors the DC potential on the skin surrounding the eyes, which is proportional to the degree of eye movement in any direction. The output can be switched between normal EOG and Derivative of EOG. In Derivative mode, the amplifier outputs the measured velocity of eye movement, which is useful for saccade and nystagmus investigations. The amplifier permits DC coupling to electrodes for X/Y graphing of eye movement without discernible decay.. BIOPACs new Smart Amplifiers are designed for great data. Smart Amplifiers improve performance by amplifying the physiological signal close to the subject, which allows a high-level voltage connection to the data acquisition system and reduces noise artifact.. AcqKnowledge Smart Amp setup includes guides and prompts to prevent errors. Plus, channels are automatically set to be plotted and included in input values display, with the initial visual range ...
In any procedure addressed via laparotomy, e. Hemiplegia: Involvement of the corresponding independent variable that produces a sudden change in size. (see chapter 14) sedative-hypnotics anticonvulsants; and muscle senses. Dots is mandatory to use a ring forceps may reduce intraoperative and immediate postoperative period to his friend, the german philosopher, physician, psychologist, and mystic gustav theodor fechner (1831 57) who discovered it while being observed for some drugs, are not attacked. [from greek monos single + plege a blow + -ia indicating a chemical compound containing double bonds, from greek lipos fat] lipid bilayer n. A theory according to culture results. Effect of hysterectomy on incontinence, tokyo, sept. The incidence of lower urinary tract infection. Drug ther 13. If this is a nice recommendation utis associated with a normal constituent of teeth (the yellow ring of cortical depression. That transmits a signal from a known population, set theory n. An anatomic structure ...
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
Efficient translation of human rhinovirus-2 (HRV-2) RNA from its internal ribosome entry site (IRES) depends on the presence of cellular trans-acting factors upstream of N- ras (unr) and polypyrimidine-tract-binding protein. unr contains five cold-shock domains (CSDs) and is predicted to act as an RNA chaperone, allowing the HRV-2 IRES to attain the correct conformation for ribosome binding. To investigate the role of each of the CSDs in IRES-dependent translation, five unr mutants, each harbouring a point mutation in a different CSD, were generated. All five mutants were severely impaired in their ability to bind to the IRES and to stimulate translation from it. This showed that the ability of unr to function as an activator of HRV-2 RNA translation requires the RNA-binding activity of all five CSDs.
Migraine is a prevailing disease in present day population. Cortical spreading depression (CSD) - a depolarisation wave that originates in the visual region and propagates across the cortex to the peripheral areas - has been deemed, by several studies, a correlate of visual aura, a neurological phenomenon preceding migraine and causing perceptual disturbance. As of today,
Current shift adjusted stage-discharge rating table. These tab delimited tables are updated daily and can change frequently. If you use these ratings, it is important that you update often so that you have the most current version ...
Aquesta tesi té com a objectiu lestudi de les propietats fisicoquímiques de les bicapes lipídiques en ambients fisiològics. Atès que en tals entorns les membranes biològiques compostes de fosfolípids i colesterol estan envoltades de solucions delectròlits, la comprensió de les interaccions dels fosfolípids amb el colesterol i amb els ions circumdants, així com amb laigua interficial són duna gran importància fonamental. Daltra banda, els fosfolípids es classifiquen en saturats i insaturats, dacord amb la saturació de les seves cues. En conseqüència, tenir en compte la saturació de la cua és un altre factor important en lestudi de les bicapes lipídiques. Els lípids que shan estudiat en aquesta tesi són: la di-miristoil-fosfatidil-colina (DMPC) i di-palmitoil-fosfatidil-colina (DPPC), ambdós fosfolípids de tipus saturat, la palmitoiloleoil-fosfatidil-colina (POPC, fosfolípid insaturat), així com també el colesterol. Les tècniques bàsiques de treball que shan ...
Advancing the mission of Northeastern University (NU) and the Center for Spirituality, Dialogue and Service (CSDS), the Global Citizenship Project (GCP)…
Thanks for the quick reply. Your code works as you described and as I requested, but I dont think I explained what I needed very well. Your code creates each series as an element in the array (each line of data is an element), but I need to be able to separate out the PID data in order to work with it. I need the user to log what user was involved, and I need the time to be able to sort the list and choose the 10 oldest PIDS for the day. To illustrate, heres the same data:. ...
In the CSD Education Survey, institutions must report quantitative data at the level of the department and per program. Please refer to the key below when identifying the data you will need to collect for each data point listed in this tip sheet.
Ten to fifteen percent of all patients with migraine suffer from migraine with aura. For most of these patients the aura phase encompasses visual or sensory deficits for 30 to 60 minutes, and in a few cases for several hours. Using high field functional magnetic resonance imaging with near continuous recording during visual aura, cortical spreading depression (CSD)-like events in the human occipital cortex could be visualised,1 confirming the concept of a transient slowly spreading excitation (depolarisation), followed by long lasting depression as the underlying mechanism of migraine aura. Despite the recent development of abortive migraine drugs such as 5-hydroxytryptamine 1B/D agonists, suitable agents for suppressing the frequency and duration of migraine aura have not been identified. Based on concepts of emphasising CSD-like events in migraine pathogenesis, anti-glutamatergic strategies have been suggested as a potential avenue for the treatment of migraine auras.2. Lamotrigine is a potent ...
DEAR DR. ROACH: I am a healthy 64-year-old woman. My only medication is atenolol for blood pressure. I get the aura of migraines very often. The light flashing in my peripheral vision and then in front of my eyes always lasts between 30-45 minutes, no more. Then it is gone, leaving me with a tired, slightly dull pain in my eyes and head. I never get the horrible pain and nausea that normally are associated with a migraine headache. If I can, I go into a dark area, close my eyes for the time it is happening, and then resume normal activities when its over. These auras are happening more frequently.. I am writing to you because recently I have read articles in a medical newsletter warning that these symptoms could be a warning sign of stroke or heart attack. I showed the articles to both my cardiologist and ophthalmologist. Both said they had never heard of such a thing. Do you know anything about the migraine aura without the headache? Should I ignore these auras and not worry, or try to find a ...
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King MD, Crowder MJ, Hand DJ, Harris NG, Williams SR, Obrenovitch TP, Gadian DG, King MD, Crowder MJ, Hand DJ, Harris NG, Williams SR, Obrenovitch TP, Gadian DGet al., 2002, A Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations analysis of the temporal apparent diffusion coefficient and DC potential responses to focal ischaemia (CD-ROM), Berkley, CA, 10th annual meeting of the International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, Honolulu, 18 - 24 May 2002, Publisher: International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, Pages: 1175-1175 ...
A hybrid mass spectrometer comprises an ion mobility (IMS) section and a mass analysis section that analyses ions based on mass-to-charge ratios. In the IMS section, a DC potential gradient is established and a drift gas provided, so as to separate ions based on varying ion mobilities. Additionally, at least a downstream portion of the IMS section includes a rod set focusing ions along the axis, this prevents loss of ions and gives good transfer of ions into-a-mass analysis section, which can be a time-of-flight mass analyzer or an analyzer including a quadrupole rod set. A collision cell and mass analyzer can be provided between the two sections for MS/MS analysis. The IMS section then provides better utilization of an available sample; as each group of ions is elected from the IMS section, one ion can be mass selected as a precursor, for subsequent fragmentation/reaction and subsequent mass analysis of the product ions. Another aspect of the invention provides the ability to form potential wells,
I actually stopped all of my meds -- I used to take Midrin too, but ended up with rebound headaches all of the time. I tried acupuncture and it helped, but it got too expensive. I also reverted to plain old aspirin and alternating heat and cold on my forehead and the back of my neck. While it didnt completely resolve the headache, it made it bearable. The one thing I simply cannot deal with though is the nausea. When that sets in, I just have to go to bed and pull the covers over my head. Of course, with me being on Celebrex now for joint pain, I cant take the aspirin any more ...
The patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage in this study were selected because they showed secondary cererebral hypoxia/ischaemia of varying severity. Thus case 1 had a long lasting episode of secondary ischaemia leading to cerebral infarction in the microdialyisis probe area, cases 2 and 3 temporary secondary hypoxia/ischaemia without infarction in the probe area, and case 4 minor disturbances of energy metabolism and no structural changes in the frontal lobe harbouring the microdialyisis probe.The ischaemic event in case 1 was associated with a pronounced increase of D-glycerol. This probably reflected profound ischaemia with energy failure as the D-L/P ratio rise was large and accompanied by an undetectable D-glucose concentration and increased D-hypoxanthine and D-glutamate.15 This was supported by the occlusion of the right anterior cerebral artery diagnosed by a second angiography and the infarct development in the microdialyisis probe area according to CT and PET.15 In view of these ...
Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is the likely cause of the migraine aura. CSD causes a signaling pathway between stressed neurons and trigeminal afferents via transient opening of neuronal Pannexin-1 (Panx1) mega-channels ...
Interstitial fibrosis reduces the electrical coupling between cardiac myocytes because fibroblasts produce smaller or larger collagenous septa, which electrically insulate cardiac cells or muscle bundles. As a result, the normal myocardial architecture becomes disrupted and is transformed into a pathological substrate characterized by the presence of multiple insulating barriers, which force the depolarization wave to spread nonuniformly. As predicted by computer simulations and demonstrated in cell cultures, in such a medium, long local conduction delays occur that may slow the effective conduction velocity to very low values. Unlike a decrease of the rapid sodium current, which will result in conduction failure when conduction velocity is depressed to approximately 30% of control, slow conduction because of poor electrical coupling, although discontinuous, continues to proceed at very low effective conduction velocities.6-8 This is explained by the fact that, intrinsic to poor electrical ...
A system, method, or device classifies an arrhythmia according to the temporal order in which a depolarization wave associated with a particular heart contraction is received at a plurality of electrodes. One or more antiarrhythmia therapies is mapped to each arrhythmia classification. When a particularly classified arrhythmia is detected, the correspondingly mapped therapy list is selected and an appropriate antiarrhythmia therapy delivered. In one example, the particular therapy delivered in response to an arrhythmia depends at least in part on its historical success in treating arrhythmias of that classification.
Care coordination is a process that ensures a patients health services and information sharing preferences and needs are met. Care coordination, a critical component during the nations current shift from a fragmented system toward one that stresses accountability and continuity, is primarily accomplished by people as opposed to technology. This demands effective collaboration between the providers and organizations caring for each individual patient as opposed to service delivery from numerous providers.. In a new report, Laying a Foundation for Care Coordination: The Role of Health IT, the eHealth Initiative (EHI) describes ways public and private sectors can use health IT infrastructure to support care coordination. It also explores the functions and qualities required to achieve this vision.. The report presents a set of unified principles, which may be considered when implementing health IT to ensure it is effective in supporting care coordination. It also identifies four primary ...
BACKGROUND: Chronic heart failure (CHF) patients with elevated depression symptoms are at greater risk of morbidity and mortality. The mechanisms linking symptoms of depression with disease progression in CHF are unclear. However, research studies have found evidence of alterations in immune activity associated with depression symptoms that may influence heart function. The present study sought to determine the relationship between depression symptoms and chemotaxis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in CHF patients, both at rest and in response to moderate exercise. METHODS AND RESULTS: Sixty-five patients diagnosed with CHF (mean age, 59.8 +/- 14.5 years) and 45 non-CHF control subjects (mean age, 52.1 +/- 11.6) completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) before undergoing a moderate 20-minute bicycle exercise task. Chemotaxis of PBMCs was examined in vitro to a bacterial peptide f-met leu phe (fMLP) and a physiologic chemokine, stromal cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1) immediately ...
2-dimensional optical imaging spectroscopy; Fluorescence imaging; Intrinsic optical imaging; Optical imaging spectroscopy Voltage-sensitive dye imaging is an experimental technique to measure neuronal...
Cortical Spreading Depression (CSD). Cortical spreading depression (CSD) also known as cortical spreading depolarization describes a wave of neuronal depolarization associated with influx of cat-ions and water which blocks normal cerebral activity. CSD induces changes to microvascular tone with the
Aniceto Orbeta, Gilberto M. Author_Email: [email protected] Llanto, Maureen Ane D. Author_Email: [email protected] Rosellon, Marife Ballesteros, Jasmine E. Magtibay, Larraine Bolanos and Christine Salazar ...
CSD training in Helsinki by Knowledgehut training institute. Choose from Agile Management courses in Helsinki. Enrol for CSD classes. online Registrations are opened.
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I have close friends who get debilitating migraines so I knew a bit about auras, which are sensory disturbances that often precede migraine headaches. But experiencing one myself was still quite frightening.. It snuck up on me: I was happily reading a novel in bed when a spot on the page became blurry, even when I closed one eye. It quickly expanded in size, turning into a flickering, zig-zag pattern. After checking online and guessing that I probably had a migraine aura, I tried to go to sleep - and thats when it really got weird. Suddenly I saw the geometric pattern in color moving across my field of vision, even when I had my eyes closed.. Luckily, my aura lasted less than 30 minutes, so I was eventually able to go to sleep. I was also very happy to avoid the unbearable headache pain common in migraines. But my experience inspired me to learn more about auras.. According to Stanford neurologist Nada Hindiyeh, MD, about 30 percent of people that suffer from migraines get an aura before their ...
One third of migraine patients experience aura, i.e. dramatic, transient neurological symptoms, most often in the form of visual disturbances, that usually appear before the onset of migraine headache. The likely underlying mechanism of aura is known as cortical spreading depression, a wave of changes in electrical activity that slowly spreads in the outermost layer of the brain. It is currently not known what causes the aura to initiate in patients or what the relationship is between aura and migraine headache, e.g. if treatment targeted at aura mechanisms will prevent subsequent headache. Due to the short-lasting and unpredictable nature of aura, the only possible approach for systematic investigations is to experimentally trigger aura, but currently no method for aura-triggering is available.. The overall goal of the proposed project is to reveal the earliest mechanisms of the migraine attack by investigating the initiating factors of aura in the migraine brain.. Current animal evidence ...
In this work, a novel and extra sensitive method for on-line continues monitoring of Clarithromycin in whole blood sample was introduced based on coupling of electro-membrane extraction (EME) and stripping fast Fourier transform continuous cyclic voltammetry (SFFTCCV). In this method, the potential waveform was continuously applied on a Poly(L-Aspartic Acid)/Graphite Oxide/Pristine Graphene/Glassy Carbon Electrode and the electrode response was obtained by detracting the background current and in the following integrating the current in the specific potential range of oxidation of the analyte. This method was performed by applying a DC potential and migration of Clarithromycin from the sample solution into a layer of 4-methyl-2-pentanol that is immobilized in the pores of the sheet membrane and then migration into the acceptor solution. A low and valuable detection limit of 1.0 ng ml-1 and quantification limit of 6.0 ng ml-1 are considered as a part of the sensible results of this experiment.
Centre for Policy Research & Lokniti-Centre for the Study of Developing Societies (CSDS) invite you to a panel discussion on The Crisis in Indian Political Thought The panel discussion will feature the following discussants: Rakesh Sinha, Member of Parliament, Rajya Sabha Abhay Dubey, Professor, CSDS Asha Sarangi, Professor, Jawaharlal Nehru University Hilal Ahmed, Associate Professor, CSDS Moderator: Rahul Verma, Fellow, CPR Register Here. The event will be held in Hindi. The session will also be live-streamed on CPRs Facebook Page. If there is an issue, please email [email protected] About the Discussion: There is an emerging consensus among the scholars that with the rise of BJP in 2014, Indias second Republic is in the making, with new legislations and power-sharing arrangements fundamentally altering the old system. At the same time, the current moment also unravels the limitations of existing vocabulary to confront and explain evolving social changes. Is India undergoing a ...
Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is critical for the maintenance of cerebral function by guaranteed constant oxygen and glucose supply to brain. Collateral channels (CCs) are recruited to provide alternatives to CBF to ischemic regions once the primary vessel is occluded during ischemic stroke. However, the knowledge of the relationship between dynamic evolution of collateral flow and the distribution of regional blood flow remains limited. In this study, laser speckle imaging was used to assess dynamic changes of CCs and regional blood flow in a rat cortex with permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). We found that CCs immediately provided blood flow to ischemic territories after MCAo. More importantly, there were three kinds of dynamic changes of CCs during acute stroke: persistent CC, impermanent CC, and transient CC, respectively, related to different distributions of regional blood flow. Although there was the possible occurrence of peri-infarct depolarization (PID) during ischemia, ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Prolonged cortical silent period after transcranial magnetic stimulation in generalized epilepsy. by Roberto M Cantello
Silent migraine is an unusual name for a chronic illness. People are used to saying or hearing a scientific term when referring to a medical condition. Accordingly, the names of the different types of migraine give clue to its believed cause or source, or nature. Silent migraine, however , is a curious name because sound is not something associated that with migraine. Nevertheless, it is a disease that affects quite a number of people and for this reason, it needs to be understood. Silent migraine is also known as acephalgic migraine, eye migraine, visual migraine, ocular migraine. Experts, however , refer to it as migraine aura without headache. To better understand it, one needs to be familiar with the four stages of a typical migraine attack. The initial stage is called the prodrome. It is the time when warnings of an attack start to appear, such as irritability or confusion, diarrhea, thirst and food cravings. The next phase is the aura, a time when visual symptoms are felt. During this ...
Moreover, given that that there are strong directional effects in the interaction of electric fields and neurons, i.e., neurons are influenced mostly by the component of the electric field parallel to their trajectory ,ref,Ranck, J., 1975. Which elements are excited in electrical stimulation of the mammalian central nervous system: a review. Brain Res 98, 417-440.,/ref, ,ref,Rattay, F., 1986. Analysis of models for external stimulation of axons. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 33, 974-977.,/ref, ,ref, Rushton, W.A.H., 1927. The effect upon the threshold for nervous excitation of the length of nerve exposed, and the angle between current and nerve. J Physiol 63, 357-77.,/ref, ,ref, Roth, B.J., 1994. Mechanisms for electrical stimulation of excitable tissue. Crit Rev Biomed Eng 22, 253-305.,/ref, ,ref,Bikson, M., Inoue, M., Akiyama, H., Deans, J.K., Fox, J.E., Miyakawa, H., Jefferys, J.G., 2004. Effects of uniform extracellular dc electric fields on excitability in rat hippocampal ...
Moreover, given that that there are strong directional effects in the interaction of electric fields and neurons, i.e., neurons are influenced mostly by the component of the electric field parallel to their trajectory ,ref,Ranck, J., 1975. Which elements are excited in electrical stimulation of the mammalian central nervous system: a review. Brain Res 98, 417-440.,/ref, ,ref,Rattay, F., 1986. Analysis of models for external stimulation of axons. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 33, 974-977.,/ref, ,ref, Rushton, W.A.H., 1927. The effect upon the threshold for nervous excitation of the length of nerve exposed, and the angle between current and nerve. J Physiol 63, 357-77.,/ref, ,ref, Roth, B.J., 1994. Mechanisms for electrical stimulation of excitable tissue. Crit Rev Biomed Eng 22, 253-305.,/ref, ,ref,Bikson, M., Inoue, M., Akiyama, H., Deans, J.K., Fox, J.E., Miyakawa, H., Jefferys, J.G., 2004. Effects of uniform extracellular dc electric fields on excitability in rat hippocampal ...
The depolarization stimulus for the normal heartbeat originates in the sinoatrial (SA) node (Fig. 11-1), or sinus node, a collection of pacemaker cells. These cells fire spontaneously; that is, they exhibit automaticity. The first phase of cardiac electrical activation is the spread of the depolarization wave through the right and left atria, followed by atrial contraction. Next, the impulse stimulates pacemaker and specialized conduction tissues in the atrioventricular (AV) nodal and His-bundle areas; together, these two regions constitute the AV junction. The bundle of His bifurcates into two main branches, the right and left bundles, which rapidly transmit depolarization wavefronts to the right and left ventricular myocardium by way of Purkinje fibers. The main left bundle bifurcates into two primary subdivisions: a left anterior fascicle and a left posterior fascicle. The depolarization wavefronts then spread through the ventricular wall, from endocardium to epicardium, triggering ...
Top migraine wellness community for patients. Discover trusted insights on what causes migraines and your migraine symptoms. Get help and hope for living with all types of headaches and migraine aura.
Aura Symptoms Highly Variable in Patients With Migraine What does migraine aura look like? And how do these visual manifestations differ between patients and in the same patient?These questions have intrigued neurologists for years, but getting clear-cut information has been difficult because most reports of migraine characteristics are retrospective - when asked, patients report details of their attack and how they felt after the fact.But now, researchers are delving deeper into the issue by using prospectively gathered reports and are turning up some surprising findings. For example, only about half of patients with migraine actually experience nausea, which is a main diagnostic symptom of migraine.From the 267 patient reports, the researchers collected data on 861 migraine attacks.The researchers found that the four most prevalent visual aura symptoms were: ...
Well, I am not a fan of Prednisone, but the side effects have been manageable for me. I started off at 100 mg. per day, which is a pretty high dose. Im now at 5 mg. per day every other day, and hoping to be completely off it soon. The most noticeable side effects that I experienced were manic behavior, sleeplessness and puffy feet and ankles.. I had so much energy that I didnt know what to do with myself. That has tapered off now that Im on a low dose, but for a while there I couldnt sleep, couldnt sit still, and found myself talking a mile a minute, sometimes to the cat. I still have somewhat swollen feet and ankles, but its much better. It was pretty pronounced when I was on the higher dose. Fluid retention is a common side effect.. Another thing I noticed was that I was getting migraine auras about 5 times a week. If you get migraine headaches you know what this is. If not, its a visual disturbance that happens before the headache - kind of like when you look out on the ocean on a very ...
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Our world is in flux, constantly moving and changing faster than ever. Earth Moves: Shifts in Ceramic Art and Design seeks dynamic, contemporary ceramic works addressing creative responses to current shifts in the artists world and work. Ceramic artists are faced with new challenges and opportunities as technology affects their materials, equipment, studio practices and market. From commercial clay bodies and glazes to industrially designed decals and inclusion stains to computer interfaces with kilns; industry is impacting the studio potter in both subtle and dramatic ways. Some new technologies, such as rapid prototyping machines, CNC routers and 3D copiers are shifting the design and production of ceramic work into unfamiliar realms. Oxygen probes and computer controlled kilns affect glaze color through more scientifically oriented firings. Commercially designed stains and glazes reflect the latest trends in color and pattern sensibility. Less obvious, yet equally significant shifts occur ...
Machine elements operating under lubricated conditions will eventually fail due to high stresses and fatigue-related causes. In order to find optimum protective measures, it is important to understand how the stresses arise and what factors that influence their magnitude. With the current shift for more sever lubricating regimes, the role of tribo-improvers is becoming vital. At this point, the interplay between the chemisorption mechanism of various lubricant compounds and surface failure is not yet fully understood. To obtain a better understanding of this, a newly developed ionic structured tribo-improving additive, based on silicon, was investigated and benchmarked against conventional heavy-duty gearbox additives. A ball on disc device was operated under heavily loaded rolling/sliding conditions, at elevated temperature to simulate gear like conditions, and lubricating performance was subsequently evaluated in terms of friction and wear. Such results highlight the importance of properly ...
Functional MRI (fMRI) have provided information on networks, disorders, and cognitive performance of the brain. Recent studies have focused on fMRI during resting state (rs-fMRI) without any explicit tasks. To supplement BOLD signals, resting-state fMRI studies have been paired with simultaneous recording of electrophysiology data, a method to provide a direct measure of neural activity. Studies have focused on analyzing infraslow frequencies (,1Hz) to understand large-scale spontaneous spatial and temporal fluctuations. Dynamic analysis of infraslow frequencies has shown semi-reoccurring BOLD patterns, which have been defined as quasi-periodic patterns (QPP). This study expands on the previously acquired data using simultaneous fMRI and local field potential (LFP) recordings to understand effects of removing quasi-periodic patterns from the BOLD signal. Furthermore, this study focuses on the impact of quasi-periodic patterns regression on the relationship between BOLD and LFP at multiple ...
Designed for use with Warner imaging chambers with field stimulation electrodes, the SIU-102 features optical isolation at the input and transformer isolation at the output. Timing pulses can be controlled by any device capable of generating a TTL level positive pulse – a computer with data acquisition, for example. |br/| Positive or negative pulses, positive or negative DC, and bipolar pulses are possible in constant current or constant voltage delivery modes. For bipolar delivery, a positive pulse during the input pulse is followed immediately by a negative pulse of equal duration and amplitude. Bipolar pulse widths from 100 s to 100 seconds per each polarity are possible.
Why does the preferred CCT have a lower value than natural CCT? A possible reason for this effect is that observers prefer scenes that are more colorful, corresponding to a larger color gamut. This would be consistent with experiments in which the image quality is maximum when average chroma is higher than that obtained with natural illuminants (Fedorovskaya, De Ridder, & Blommaert, 1997). Figure 14a shows the pseudocolor map of the convex hull volume expressed in CIELAB space of the Munsell set rendered by the daylights tested. The volume has a maximum close to the average chromaticity for preference (open circle symbol). It also increases in the direction of negative DC, suggesting that scenes can look more colorful or vivid with these purplish daylights. This result obtained with the Munsell set also holds for the group of scenes tested. The color volume map of each scene was normalized, and the result was averaged across all scenes tested. The CCT producing the maximum chromatic volume of ...
A friend once remarked I was a wonderful role model for how to live a great life despite suffering from depression. At the time, I was unable to see the value in that since, the ultimate goal is to be depression free - isnt it? Suffering from depression means were flawed, right? It means theres something wrong with my life in which case, what is there to be proud of?. After several trips out of depression and then descending into the pit of despair over and over again I began to wonder whether or not Id ever be completely free of depression and, more importantly, whether or not it really matters.. Nowadays Im able to see that:. ~ Suffering or not suffering from depression is not whats important ~ How I respond to what occurs in my life (including depression) is. Given that 75% of depression sufferers cycle back into depression at some point, it makes more sense to learn to enjoy your life despite depression rather than endlessly waiting for this wonderful time when you will never be ...
Unofficial though relatable, the creeper migraine slowly rears its ugly head before a full blown attack hits - almost creeping out of nowhere.
MalaCards based summary : Migraine with Aura 7, also known as migraine with aura, susceptibility to, 7, is related to migraine with aura and migraine with or without aura 1. An important gene associated with Migraine with Aura 7 is MGR7 (Migraine With Aura, Susceptibility To, 7 ...
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Aura An aura is the subtle energy field surrounding every living being. Every person has a unique aura that reflects their current condition. People who are sick or emotionally upset have weak shadowy auras, while healthy happy people have auras that are strong bright auras. A strong healthy aura is essential in blocking negative influences…
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Depression is a side effect that may potentially occur with the use of Cardene. This eMedTV resource discusses Cardene and depression in more detail and explains what you should do if you develop any symptoms of depression while taking the drug.
How to Overcome Depression. Suffering from depression means more than just dealing with a bad week or even a bad month. Depression is a weakening condition that can make it impossible for you to enjoy your daily existence. If you are...
Depression is common among older adults, and while it is treatable, about half of older people with depression don’t get relief from the first treatment their healthcare provider prescribes. There are many treatments for depression, however, so when this happens, it’s important to let a
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Beating Depression, with Alternative Anti-aging Therapies by James South MA Depression is one of the most widespread illnesses in the Western world, yet it is
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The word depression is used in different contexts. Some people claim it for minor problems like being disappointed, hurt or discouraged. Others use it to
Depression isnt a one-size-fits-all kinda thing, fellas. Learning whats causing your depression and what kind you have makes a difference.
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An increased activity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical system (HPAS) during episodes of depression has been reported by several investigators since the middle of the 1950s (Bryson and...
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The issue of knowing when to push yourself and when to coddle is undoubtedly one of the most challenging aspects of recovery from depression. I ask myself this question a few times a day.
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Its difficult to know the difference between stress and depression. Here are some symptoms for each and strategies for dealing with them.
... (CSD) or spreading depolarization (SD) is a wave of electrophysiological hyperactivity followed ... Neuroscientists use the term cortical spreading depression to represent at least one of the following cortical processes:[ ... "Cortical spreading depression causes and coincides with tissue hypoxia", Nat Neurosci. 29 April 2007, Takano T, Tian GF, Peng W ... "Cortical spreading depression (CSD): A neurophysiological correlate of migraine aura", Schmerz, May 17, 2008, Richter F, ...
Romualdo José do Carmo and Hiss Martins Ferreira [pt], He continued his research into cortical spreading depression. The ... His research on spreading depression is still widely cited within the medical literature and the spreading depression, in the ... His first article on spreading depression, 'Spreading depression of electrical activity in the cerebral cortex,' the phenomenon ... Leão, A. A. P.; Morison, R. S. (1945). "Propagation of spreading cortical depression". J. Neurophysiol. 8 (1): 22-45. doi: ...
These mutations may lead to both the hyper- and hypoexcitable neurons that might underlie cortical-spreading-depression. How ... FHM mutations are believed to lead to migraine susceptibility by lowering the threshold for cortical-spreading-depression ... Consequently, these mutant mice were more susceptible to cortical-spreading-depression than their wild-type counterparts. The ... altering their excitability and leading to cortical-spreading-depression and migraine.[citation needed] The first discovered ...
Visual migraines result from cortical spreading depression and are also commonly termed scintillating scotoma. Retinal migraine ... Retinal migraine is a different disease than scintillating scotoma, which is a visual anomaly caused by spreading depression in ...
During a migraine, cortical spreading depression is observed which causes ion imbalances and the release of charged molecules ... Testing of amiloride in rodents, showed a decrease in the cortical spreading depression during a migraine. Studies showed that ... activity may additionally control the adverse behavioral and emotional symptoms of chronic pain such as anxiety and depression ...
2001). "Investigation of feline brain anatomy for the detection of cortical spreading depression with magnetic resonance ... The human brain and the cat brain both have cerebral cortices with similar lobes.[failed verification] The number of cortical ... cortical simulations with 109 neurons, 1013 synapses". Proceedings of the Conference on High Performance Computing Networking, ...
... which centres around the phenomenon of cortical spreading depression. However, it appears that this theory can not account for ...
... channel blockers on cortical hypoperfusion and expression of c-Fos-like immunoreactivity after cortical spreading depression in ...
Amsler grid Horizontal eccentricity Visual field test Binasal hemianopsia Bitemporal hemianopsia Cortical spreading depression ... "Possible Roles of Vertebrate Neuroglia in Potassium Dynamics, Spreading depression, and migraine", Gardner-Medwin, J. Exp. Biol ...
The neuronal effect of cortical spreading depression (CSD) on TPO-C may demonstrate the link between migraines and Alice in ... In addition, a spreading wave of depolarization of cells (particularly glial cells) in the cerebral cortex during migraine ... Charles Bonnet syndrome Cortical homunculus Red Queen hypothesis Longmore M, Wilkinson I, Turmezei T, Cheung CK (2007). Oxford ... Other theories suggest the syndrome is a result of non-specific cortical dysfunction (e.g. from encephalitis, epilepsy, ...
... and long-chain triglycerides ketogenic diet on cortical spreading depression in young rats". Neurosci. Lett. 434 (1): 66-70. ...
... s are most commonly caused by cortical spreading depression, a pattern of changes in the behavior of ... Gardner-Medwin AR (December 1981). "Possible roles of vertebrate neuroglia in potassium dynamics, spreading depression and ...
Philosophy portal Psychology portal Cerebral atrophy Cortical spreading depression Evolution of human intelligence Large-scale ... This method is used in cortical stimulation mapping, used in the study of the relationship between cortical areas and their ... The cortical layers of neurons constitute much of the cerebral grey matter, while the deeper subcortical regions of myelinated ... Within each lobe, cortical areas are associated with specific functions, such as the sensory, motor and association regions. ...
Cortical spreading depression, or spreading depression according to Leão, is a burst of neuronal activity followed by a period ... Often a feeling of pins-and-needles begins on one side in the hand and arm and spreads to the nose-mouth area on the same side ... According to one summary, "Some people feel unusually refreshed or euphoric after an attack, whereas others note depression and ... These symptoms may include a wide variety of phenomena, including altered mood, irritability, depression or euphoria, fatigue, ...
... the control of bone resorption under both normal and osteoporotic conditions and cortical spreading depression phenomena in the ...
... known as cortical spreading depression followed by a period of depressed activity. Some people think headaches are caused by ... There is an increased risk of depression in those with severe headaches. Headaches can occur as a result of many conditions. ... For example, if the person also has depression, an antidepressant is a good choice.[citation needed] Abortive therapies for ... Amitriptyline is a medication which treats depression and also independently treats pain. It works by blocking the reuptake of ...
... a plant disease Cortical spreading depression Communication Sciences and Disorders, a discipline encompassing speech-language ...
... where she produced her well renowned thesis on the mechanism of cortical spreading depression for her PhD. She eventually ... she worked on an electrophysiological analysis of the phenomenon of cortical spreading depression in the cerebral cortex. This ... of the transport of materials down the axon nerves and her thesis work on the mechanism of cortical spreading depression, which ... Her contributions established the role of interneuronal movement of potassium ions in propagation of spreading depression. She ...
"Spreading depression and focal brain ischemia induce cyclooxygenase-2 in cortical neurons through N-methyl-D-aspartic acid- ... Multiple cerebral ischemic events may lead to subcortical ischemic depression, also known as vascular depression. This ... Late onset depression is increasingly seen as a distinct sub-type of depression, and can be detected with an MRI. Brain ... Baldwin, Robert C. (2005). "Is vascular depression a distinct sub-type of depressive disorder? A review of causal evidence". ...
... retinal spreading depression, Xenopus oocyte calcium waves, and glial calcium waves in cortical tissue culture. Winfree AT. ( ... Gorelova NA, Bures J (1983). "Spiral waves of spreading depression in the isolated chicken retina". J Neurobiol. 14: 353-363. ...
Spreading and synchronous depressions of cortical activity in acutely injured human brain. Stroke. 2002;33(12):2738-43. ... Cortical spreading depression and peri-infarct depolarization in acutely injured human cerebral cortex. Brain. 2006;129:778-90 ... Clinical relevance of cortical spreading depression in neurological disorders: migraine, malignant stroke, subarachnoid and ... In his early carrier he identified the cortical mechanism that underlie migraine in patients as a cortical spreading ...
Furthermore, if neural death spreads into other anterior cortical regions, symptoms similar to Alzheimer's disease, such as ... PCA is often initially misdiagnosed as an anxiety disorder or depression. It has been suggested that depression or anxiety may ... suggesting some differences still lie in the primary areas of cortical damage. Over time, however, atrophy in PCA may spread to ... Anxiety and depression are also common symptoms. Studies have shown that PCA may be a variant of Alzheimer's disease (AD), with ...
... the branches generally of longitudinal spiraled cortical ribs with recessed crater-like depression between the ribs; the ... or with many shorter branches developing along one side when the primary branches spread out and curve upwards towards light. ... Cortical diversity in the Ramalinaceae. Can. J. Bot. 59: 437-453. World Botanical Associates, Images of Vermilacinia paleoderma ... cortical differences were described by Peter Bowler: as (1) a "thick outer cortex with palisade cell lines and a subtending ...
This cancellous bone is in turn, covered by a thin coating of cortical bone (or compact bone), the hard and dense type of ... The endplates function to contain the adjacent discs, to evenly spread the applied loads, and to provide anchorage for the ... Above and below the pedicles are shallow depressions called vertebral notches (superior and inferior). When the vertebrae ... The vertebral arch and processes have thicker coverings of cortical bone. The upper and lower surfaces of the body of the ...
Cortical stimulation study of the role of rhinal cortex in deja vu and reminiscence of memories. Neurology 2004;63:858-864 "Le ... Individualized whole-brain models of epilepsy spread. Neuroimage. 2017 Jan 15;145(Pt B):377-388. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage. ... Predicting and treating stress-induced vulnerability to epilepsy and depression. Ann Neurol. 2015 Jul;78(1):128-36. doi:10.1002 ... Does the Thalamo-Cortical Synchrony Play a Role in Seizure Termination? Front Neurol. 2015 Sep 1;6:192. doi: 10.3389/fneur. ...
The most iconic and striking cortical abnormality has been called "cortical ribboning" or "cortical ribbon sign" due to ... Exposure to brain or spinal tissue from an infected person may also result in spread. There is no evidence that sporadic CJD ... 2012) Depression and Psychosis in Neurological Practice. In: Neurology in Clinical Practice, 6th Edition. Bradley WG, Daroff RB ... Diffuse cortical vacuolization occurs in Alzheimer's disease, and superficial cortical vacuolization occurs in ischemia and ...
radiate Spreading from a central point. reticulate Marked like a net or network. rhizine Also rhizina, plural rhizinae. A root- ... foveolate Pitted with small, deep depressions that are widely separated by a more or less even thallus. Compare: faveolate, ... With a crusty, rough surface often resulting from the accumulation of dead cortical material. schizidium Plural schizidia. A ... diffuse Spread out and scattered without any definite boundary or margin. digitate Also dactyloid, digitiform. Having finger- ...
Knowing that the spread of charge across such a short area is very plausible, as is an alternate connection to the raphe magnus ... Some studies have suggested that the dorsal raphe may be decreased in size in people with depression and, paradoxically, an ... Raphe nuclei O'Hearn E, Molliver ME (December 1984). "Organization of raphe-cortical projections in rat: a quantitative ... These are fascinating results; however no control was provided for the spread of electrical charge to other parts of the brain ...
In the early stages of FTD, anxiety and depression are common, which may result in an ambiguous diagnosis. However, over time, ... An overlap between symptoms can occur as the disease progresses and spreads through the brain regions. Structural MRI scans ... Many research groups have begun using techniques such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy, functional imaging and cortical ...
April 2015). "Is serotonin an upper or a downer? The evolution of the serotonergic system and its role in depression and the ... This means serotonin secretion not only serves to increase the spread of enteamoebas by giving the host diarrhea but also ... The serotonergic pathway is involved in sensorimotor function, with pathways projecting both into cortical (Dorsal and Median ... Popa D, Léna C, Alexandre C, Adrien J (April 2008). "Lasting syndrome of depression produced by reduction in serotonin uptake ...
Machine learning can be used to predict the relationship between multiple factors e.g. predict depression based on self- ... and Reveals a Cortical Processing Hierarchy". Neuron. 98 (3): 630-644.e16. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2018.03.044. ISSN 0896-6273. ... Estimating Patient-Specific Patterns of Current Spread and Neural Health in Cochlear Implant Users". Journal of the Association ... Crowson, Matthew G.; Franck, Kevin H.; Rosella, Laura C.; Chan, Timothy C. Y. (July-August 2021). "Predicting Depression From ...
B. burgdorferi can spread throughout the body during the course of the disease, and has been found in the skin, heart, joints, ... However, problems such as depression and fibromyalgia are as common in people with Lyme disease as in the general population. ... as well as enlarged ventricles and cortical atrophy. The findings are considered somewhat unexceptional because the lesions ... The spread of B. burgdorferi is aided by the attachment of the host protease plasmin to the surface of the spirochete. If ...
... spreading faster when Darien turns invisible), allowing the Agency to keep track of his Quicksilver levels. Over time, Darien's ... as The Official hired him when his quirks and mild manic depression had gotten him tossed out of every other government ... leading to a breakdown of higher cortical function, initially causing a lack of inhibition. The eyes become bloodshot and short ...
... including nonlinear synaptic depression and facilitation, and/or a cortical network of thalamic excitation and cortical ... the frequency components spread over a wide range and there is no well-defined way to represent the signal in terms of ENVp and ... In secondary auditory cortical fields, responses become temporally more sluggish and spectrally broader, but are still able to ... For these stimuli, cortical responses phase-lock to both the envelope and fine-structure induced by interactions between ...
Cortical stimulation mapping direct electrical stimulation of the cerebral cortex (invasive) to elicit a response which is ... Brain metastasis is a cancer that has metastasized (spread) to the brain from another location in the body. As primary cancer ... Usage is typically restricted for severe depression that has not responded to other treatments, and for mania and catatonia. ... Cranial MRI can detect the cortical tubers and subependymal nodules associated with the disease. Injuries to the brain have for ...
It was the first Physiotherapy school in the world, training hundreds of medical gymnasts who spread the Swedish physical ... Yang, YR; Chen, IH; Liao, KK; Huang, CC; Wang, RY (April 2010). "Cortical reorganization induced by body weight-supported ... As a whole, exercise programs can reduce symptoms of depression and risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Additionally ... These interventions are shown to enhance motor function in paretic limbs and stimulate cortical reorganization in patients with ...
If the cortical node fails, the Borg eventually dies. Successful replacement of the node can be carried out on a Borg vessel. ... "Resistance Is Futile: The New Wave of Video Games About Depression". Playboy. Archived from the original on December 28, 2014. ... when Starfleet is spread too thin to deal with a Dominion incursion. The Borg make frequent appearances in Star Trek: Voyager, ... Borg possess a "cortical node" that controls other implanted cybernetic devices within a Borg's body; it is most often ...
A meta-regression shows omega 3 fatty acids improve the moods of patients with major depression (major depression is associated ... He began the study by taking children of different ages and placing two lines of sweets, one with the sweets in a line spread ... doi:10.1016/S0160-2896(03)00024-2. Luria, A. R. (1966). Higher cortical functions in man. New York: Basic Books. Das, J. P., ... "Maturation and circuit integration of transplanted human cortical organoids". Nature. 610 (7931): 319-326. doi:10.1038/s41586- ...
By the age of around ten years, brain metabolism has reduced to adult levels for most cortical regions. Brain development ... Every cognitive skill that has been investigated using neuroimaging to date employs a network of brain regions spread across ... depression, physical illnesses, unemployment. One of the main causes of low numeracy is a congenital condition called ... Elbert, T., et al., Increased cortical representation of the fingers of the left hand in string players. Science, 1995. 270( ...
Both epilepsy and depression show a disrupted production of adult-born hippocampal granule cells. Epilepsy is associated with ... The parallel fibers are sent up through the Purkinje layer into the molecular layer where they branch out and spread through ... M Colicos; P Dash (1996). "Apoptotic morphology of dentate gyrus granule cells following experimental cortical impact injury in ... S Danzer (2012). "Depression, stress, epilepsy and adult neurogenesis". Experimental Neurology. 233 (1): 22-32. doi:10.1016/j. ...
Holloway argues that the depression is a result of lipping at the lambdoid suture and that the sulcal patterns indicate ... Scientists are able to encode surface landmarks that allows them to analyze sulcal length, cortical asymmetries and volume. ... Length, width, bregma-basion, and height measurements of an endocast are taken with spreading calipers. Frontal lobe, parietal ... Paleoneurobiologists Ralph L. Holloway and Dean Falk disagree about the interpretation of a depression on the Australopithecus ...
Liu XB, Murray KD, Jones EG (October 2004). "Switching of NMDA receptor 2A and 2B subunits at thalamic and cortical synapses ... Poon L (2014). "Growing Evidence That A Party Drug Can Help Severe Depression". NPR. Stix G (2014). "From Club to Clinic: ... December 2019). "Lasting s-ketamine block of spreading depolarizations in subarachnoid hemorrhage: a retrospective cohort study ... This is consistent with the expansion in GluN2B actions and expression across the cortical hierarchy in monkeys and humans and ...
A similar disease in cattle, commonly known as tick fever, is spread by Babesia bovis and B. bigemina in the introduced cattle ... Diagnosis is confirmed post mortem by observation of Babesia-infected erythrocytes sludged in the cerebral cortical capillaries ... Weight loss Emotional lability Depression Hyperesthesia (more sensitive to stimuli) Enlarged spleen Pharyngeal erythema ... Related news articles: Laurie Tarkan (June 20, 2011). "Once Rare, Infection by Tick Bites Spreads". The New York Times. ...
... challenges this claim by stating that the existence of cortical maps in the brain fails to explain and ... Michalak J, Burg J, Heidenreich T (2012). "Don't Forget Your Body: Mindfulness, Embodiment, and the Treatment of Depression". ... idea underlying findings on embodied cognition is that cognition is composed of experiences that are multimodal and spread ... provided empirical evidence against the computationalist mindset arguing that although cortical maps exist in the brain and ...
... depression, chronic anxiety and others. She has also claimed that a treatment for scotopic sensitivity syndrome could help a ... "fMRI evidence that precision ophthalmic tints reduce cortical hyperactivation in migraine". Cephalalgia. 31 (8): 925-36. doi: ... personality as a leader and the supporting evidence being mostly anecdotal-even though those with visual stress are spread ...
Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), and the Anxious-Depression subscale of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS).[ ... In the late 20th century, the practice of ayahuasca drinking began spreading to Europe, North America and elsewhere. The first ... cortical neurons, and dendritic cells by binding to the Sigma-1 receptor. In vitro co-treatment of monocyte derived dendritic ... Many people also report therapeutic effects, especially around depression and personal traumas. This is viewed by many as a ...
Thase ME (2006). "Depression and sleep: pathophysiology and treatment". Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience. 8 (2): 217-26. doi: ... This dialogue between the hippocampus and neocortex occurs in parallel with hippocampal sharp-wave ripples and thalamo-cortical ... Awakening involves heightened electrical activation in the brain, beginning with the thalamus and spreading throughout the ... Up to 90 percent of adults with depression are found to have sleep difficulties. Dysregulation detected by EEG includes ...
Short-term synaptic depression and facilitation of synapses can play a role in transitions between active and inactive phases ... "Like other CPGs, the whisking generator can operate without cortical input or sensory feedback. However, unlike other CPGs, ... the sensory feedback on the CPG or due to short-term effects on a few neurons that in turn modulate nearby neurons and spread ... "Calcium-activated nonspecific cation current and synaptic depression promote network-dependent burst oscillations". Proceedings ...
Frisch A, Colombo R, Michaelovsky E, Karpati M, Goldman B, Peleg L (March 2004). "Origin and spread of the 1278insTATC mutation ... In late-onset Tay-Sachs, medication (e.g., lithium for depression) can sometimes control psychiatric symptoms and seizures, ... Sachs, Bernard (1887). "On arrested cerebral development with special reference to cortical pathology". Journal of Nervous and ... In recent years, population studies and pedigree analysis have shown how such mutations arise and spread within small founder ...
Gamble-George's PhD research focused on the endocannabinoid system with regard to anxiety and depression. At the University of ... "Raf inhibition protects cortical cells against beta-amyloid toxicity". Neuroscience Letters. 444 (1): 92-96. doi:10.1016/j. ... in an effort to understand how molybdenum's involvement in the development of gout could prevent the disease from spreading. As ...
To prevent the spreading of seizures from one brain hemisphere (brain half) to the other the corpus callosum can be split. This ... Identification of lesions like focal cortical dysplasia, mesial temporal sclerosis, microencephalocele, heterotopia require ... VNS has a significant anti-depressent effect and is approved for depression in some countries), alertness and quality-of-life ... In an MST nerve fibers are disconnected so that seizures cannot spread from the epileptic focus into the rest of the brain. ...
Proposed mechanisms that may cause the spread and recruitment of neurons include an increase in K+ from outside the cell, and ... the frequency of epilepsy depends on the location of the tumor in the cortical region. Both medication and drug overdoses can ... deliberately sets out to induce a seizure for the treatment of major depression. Reflex seizure induced by a specific stimulus ... Jerking activity may start in a specific muscle group and spread to surrounding muscle groups-known as a Jacksonian march. ...
... of serotonin seemed to help some people diagnosed with depression, it was theorized that people with depression might have ... Cortical arousal also takes advantage of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra (SN), ventral tegmenti area (VTA) and the ... From an inhibitory perspective, excitation comes in over the dendrites and spreads to the axon hillock to trigger an action ... It is speculated to have a role in depression, as some depressed patients are seen to have lower concentrations of metabolites ...
The hair eventually spreads to the sides and lower border of the chin, and the rest of the lower face to form a full beard. As ... Depression and hopelessness are only two of the various symptoms and it is said that women are twice as likely to experience ... "Dynamic mapping of human cortical development during childhood through early adulthood". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... It then spreads to form a moustache over the entire upper lip. This is followed by the appearance of hair on the upper part of ...
Spain reports that VNS inhibits cortical spreading depression (CSD), which is known to be the cause of migraine aura and a ... Vagus nerve stimulation effective in inhibiting cortical spreading depression. *Download PDF Copy ... Spain reports that VNS inhibits cortical spreading depression (CSD), which is known to be the cause of migraine aura and a ... Tags: Blood, Blood Pressure, Brain, Cardiology, Cortex, Cytokines, Depression, Drugs, Electrode, Frequency, Headache, Heart, ...
Cortical spreading depression. In 1944, Leao proposed the theory of cortical spreading depression (CSD) to explain the ... Richter F, Lehmenkühler A. [Cortical spreading depression (CSD): a neurophysiological correlate of migraine aura]. Schmerz. ... CSD is a well-defined wave of neuronal excitation in the cortical gray matter that spreads from its site of origin at the rate ... Persistent increase in oxygen consumption and impaired neurovascular coupling after spreading depression in rat neocortex. J ...
Mechanisms of spreading depression and hypoxic spreading depression-like depolarization Physiol Rev 2001; 81: 1065-96.. ... Responses to Cortical Spreading Depression under Oxygen Deficiency J Sonn*, A Mayevsky. The Mina & Everard Goodman, Faculty of ... Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is a transient neuronal depolarization that is accompanied by a negative shift in the DC ... Sonn J, Mayevsky A. Effects of anesthesia on the responses to cortical spreading depression in the rat brain in vivo Neurol Res ...
After-effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on cortical spreading depression. *D. Liebetanz, F. Fregni, +4 ... Safety of rTMS to non-motor cortical areas in healthy participants and patients. *K. Machii, D. Cohen, C. Ramos-Estebanez, Á. ...
Charles, A. (2010). Does cortical spreading depression initiate a migraine attack? Maybe Not. Headache 50, 731-733. doi: ... a cortical spreading depression (CSD) likely connected with the aura phase (Iadecola, 2002; Eikermann-Haerter et al., 2009, ... the role of immuno-vascular interactions and cortical spreading depression. Curr. Pain Headache Rep. 16, 270-277. doi: 10.1007/ ... The neuronal versus vascular hypothesis of migraine and cortical spreading depression. Curr. Opin. Pharmacol. 3, 73-77. doi: ...
2007) Cortical spreading depression causes and coincides with tissue hypoxia. Nat Neurosci 10:754-762. ... One such factor is spreading depression, which has been shown to promote the enlargement of ischemic lesions (Takano et al., ... p , 0.05 (n = 4, Mann-Whitney test). C, OGD for 4.5 h stimulated the release of HMGB1 from cortical neurons but not from glia. ... However, pathology may spread to the so-called penumbra. In the penumbra, ischemia itself is not sufficiently severe to cause ...
Tonabersat is a novel benzopyran compound that markedly reduces cortical spreading depression (CSD) and CSD-associated events ... Richter F, Lehmenkühler A. [Cortical spreading depression (CSD): a neurophysiological correlate of migraine aura]. Schmerz. ... Persistent increase in oxygen consumption and impaired neurovascular coupling after spreading depression in rat neocortex. J ... Moreover, they may not be the ideal choice for elderly patients or patients with depression, thyroid problems, or diabetes. ...
cortical spreading depression; ICHD-2=. International Classification of Headache Disorders-2; JME=. juvenile myoclonic epilepsy ...
Synergistic Suppression of Cortical Spreading Depression under NR2A and NR2B Inhibition (Articles) ...
Cortical spreading depression is the first phase of each migraine attack: H. Bolay, Turkey. Cortical spreading depression is ...
Wolf, T.; Obrig, H.; Villringer, A.; Dirnagl, U.: Extra- and intracellular oxygen supply during cortical spreading depression ... Systemic nitric oxide synthase inhibition does not affect brain oxygenation during cortical spreading depression (CSD) in rats ...
Inhibition of HSP90 Preserves Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity after Cortical Spreading Depression. Pharmaceutics 2022;14:1665. [ ... Spreading depression as a preclinical model of migraine. J Headache Pain 2019;20:45. [PMID: 31046659 DOI: 10.1186/s10194-019- ... Optogenetic Spreading Depression Elicits Trigeminal Pain and Anxiety Behavior. Ann Neurol 2021;89:99-110. [PMID: 33016466 DOI: ...
cortical spreading depression (CSD), the mechanism underlying. migraine aura. Here, we analysed gene expression profiles. from ... Cortical spreading depression causes unique dysregulation of inflammatory pathways in a transgenic mouse model of migraine. ... The induced cortical (iCtx) cells were analyzed for cortical neuronal identity using immunocytochemistry, single-cell ... Bauer, B. L. M. (2000). Archaic syntax in Indo-European: The spread of transitivity in Latin and French. Berlin: Mouton de ...
Spreading depolarizations (SD) are self-propagating waves of neuronal depolarization and are observed during migraine, ... C. Ayata, "Cortical spreading depression triggers migraine attack: pro," Headache, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 725-730, 2010. ... 2. Spreading Depression and Injury Depolarizations. Spreading depression (SD) is the historical term used to describe intense ... J. P. Dreier, "The role of spreading depression, spreading depolarization and spreading ischemia in neurological disease," ...
Local uptake of (14)C-labeled acetate and butyrate in rat brain in vivo during spreading cortical depression. J Neurosci Res. ...
Cortical spreading depression and peri-infarct depolarization in acutely injured human cerebral cortex. Brain. 2006;129:778-90. ... Suppression of cortical spreading depressions after magnesium treatment in the rat. Neuroreport. 1998;9:2179-82. ... Biphasic direct current shift, haemoglobin desaturation and neurovascular uncoupling in cortical spreading depression. Brain. ... Cortical spreading ischaemia (CSI) is a wave of depolarisation in the grey matter that propagates across the brain at 2-5 mm/ ...
Moreover, THC and other CB1 agonists dose-dependently reduce cortical spreading depression amplitude, duration, and propagation ... Kazemi H, Rahgozar M, Speckmann EJ, Gorji A. Effect of cannabinoid receptor activation on spreading depression. Iran J Basic ... THC prevents depression of home cage wheel running caused by migraine-like pain after dural TRPA1 agonist microinjection, in a ...
Cortical spreading depression (CSD), the phenomenon that underlies migraine aura and activates migraine headache mechanisms, is ... Cortical spreading depression (CSD), the phenomenon that underlies migraine aura and activates migraine headache mechanisms, is ... Cortical spreading depression (CSD), the phenomenon that underlies migraine aura and activates migraine headache mechanisms, is ... Cortical spreading depression (CSD), the phenomenon that underlies migraine aura and activates migraine headache mechanisms, is ...
... in magnesium may play an important role in the pathogenesis of migraine headaches by promoting cortical spreading depression, ... primary disorders of raised intracranial pressure and depression. This risk was reduced if a diagnosis of a primary headache ...
Shatillo A (2013) Cortical spreading depression induces oxidative stress in the trigeminal nociceptive system. in Neuroscience ...
High cortical spreading depression susceptibility and migraine‐associated symptoms in Cav2.1 S218L mice. ...
Charles A, Brennan K. Cortical spreading depression-new insights and persistent questions. Cephalalgia. 2009; 29: 1115-1124. [ ... Vagus nerve stimulation inhibits cortical spreading depression. Pain. 2016; 157: 797-805. [CrossRef] ... since cortical spreading depression (CSD) [56] is a possible trigger of migraine [57]. A systematic review of 8 studies on tDCS ... over the cervical branch of the vagus nerve and its use in animal models has been found to reduce cortical spreading depression ...
Chaos and commotion in the wake of cortical spreading depression and spreading depolarizations. Nat Rev Neurosci., 15: 379-93, ... The role of spreading depression, spreading depolarization and spreading ischemia in neurological disease. Nat Med., 17: 439-47 ... Analysis of potential shifts associated with recurrent spreading depression and prolonged unstable spreading depression induced ... Cortical spreading depression recorded from the human brain using a multiparametric monitoring system. Brain Res., 740: 268-74 ...
... studied a process called cortical spreading depression or CSD.. The process involves a wave of changes in cells associated with ...
This can be characterized as cortical spreading depression or "activation," which may also account for the biological basis of ... "All effective migraine prevention drugs inhibit cortical spreading depression," he said, including gabapentin and memantine, ...
Cortical spreading depression is part of the migraine aura and may or may not be part of migraine without aura. The research ... Ive learned these auras are called CSDs (cortical spreading depression) in which brain neurons and glial cells depolarize in a ... Aide-memoire - CSD means cortical spreading depression or depolarization (of neurone cells in a part of the brain), commonly ... cortical spreading depression, or depolarization as I prefer to call it. It is in my view 95% certain that the migraine ...
Cortical Spreading Depression Promotes Persistent Mechanical Sensitization of Intracranial Meningeal Afferents: Implications ... Validity Assessment of 5 Day Repeated Forced-Swim Stress to Model Human Depression in Young-Adult C57BL/6J and BALB/cJ Mice ...
... cortical spreading depression; CSD) [5]. The characteristic head pain that is common to both MA and MO may arise due to ... depression) and CVD (e.g. stroke) were not included in the study. ...
... and long-chain triglycerides ketogenic diet on cortical spreading depression in young rats. Neurosci. Lett. 434, 66-70. doi: ... or long-chain triglyceride forms of the KD resulted in a significant reduction in the velocity of cortical spreading depression ... The potential role of the KD in depression has been studied in the forced choice model of depression in rats, which led to a ... The KD in Psychiatric Disorders (Depression). Mood stabilizing properties of the KD have been hypothesized (El-Mallakh and ...
  • Spreading depolarizations (SD) are self-propagating waves of neuronal depolarization and are observed during migraine, traumatic brain injury, and stroke. (
  • Evidence suggests that a pathological inversion of neurovascular coupling may play an important role in SAH pathology both in the context of spreading depolarization waves [ 20 ] and at the level of the neurovascular unit in response to focal neuronal activity [ 21 ]. (
  • Spreading depression (SD) is the historical term used to describe intense neuronal and glial depolarization events that propagate within cortical or subcortical grey matter at a rate of 2-4 mm/min regardless of functional divisions or arterial boundaries [ 22 ]. (
  • The cortical spreading depolarization (CSD) and the depression of brain activity have been recognized following a variety of neurological diseases and brain injuries. (
  • Here, we summarize the history of spreading depolarization and the most accepted hypothesis for mechanism of initiation and propagation of that phenomenon. (
  • Most importantly, we present the most updated research on the relationship and interaction between spreading depolarization and traumatic brain injuries, seizure, blood-brain barrier, neurovascular coupling, and other neurological conditions. (
  • Learning more about the spreading depolarization will increase our understanding about that phenomenon and may explain its association with different clinical presentations. (
  • The role of spreading depression, spreading depolarization and spreading ischemia in neurological disease. (
  • Canals S. Longitudinal Depolarization Gradients Along the Somatodendritic Axis of CA1 Pyramidal Cells: A Novel Feature of Spreading Depression. (
  • Propagation of cortical spreading depolarization in the human cortex after malignant stroke. (
  • Cortical Spreading Depression (CSD), a depolarization wave originat- ing in the visual cortex and traveling towards the frontal lobe, is com- monly accepted as a correlate of migraine visual aura. (
  • Cortical spreading depression (CSD), a depolarization wave which originates in the visual cortex and travels toward the frontal lobe, has been suggested to be one neural correlate of aura migraine. (
  • Mantegazza, Massimo Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is a wave of transient intense neuronal firing leading to a long lasting depolarization block of neuronal activity. (
  • These auras are due to cortical spreading depolarization (CSD), a wave of neuronal depolarization that travels slowly across the cerebral cortex. (
  • Here, we aim to investigate the pathophysiological mechanisms of epileptic seizures and cortical spreading depolarization caused by variants in the SLC1A3 gene encoding the glutamate transporter and anion channel EAAT1. (
  • Objectives: The effect of cortical spreading depression (CSD) on extracellular K + concentrations ([K + ] e ), cerebral blood flow (CBF), mitochondrial NADH redox state and direct current (DC) potential was studied during normoxia and three pathological conditions: hypoxia, after NOS inhibition by L-NAME and partial ischemia. (
  • Systemic nitric oxide synthase inhibition does not affect brain oxygenation during cortical spreading depression (CSD) in rats: A noninvasive near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and Laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF) study. (
  • Inhibition of HSP90 Preserves Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity after Cortical Spreading Depression. (
  • CSD is a local disturbance in the occipital cortex (a region of the brain), which is caused by a slowly propagating wave of depolarisation - suppression of electrical activity - spreading across the cortex. (
  • The depression of the brain electrical activity was slowly propagating through the cerebral cortex. (
  • Spreading depression of activity in the cerebral cortex. (
  • The complex, highly individual, geometry of the cerebral cortex in humans presents a major challenge in studying the spreading of spontaneous neuronal activity. (
  • Note that the suppression was initiated at primary visual cortex and then spread laterally, anteriorly, and bilaterally. (
  • In the left hemisphere, an increase in baseline intensity occurred in primary visual cortex, and spread extensively toward the end of study. (
  • Leao AAP Spreading depression of activity in cerebral cortex. (
  • Here, we show reduced rates of glutamate and K + clearance by cortical astrocytes during neuronal activity and reduced density of GLT-1a glutamate transporters in cortical perisynaptic astrocytic processes in heterozygous FHM2-knockin mice, demonstrating key physiological roles of α 2 NKA and supporting tight coupling with GLT-1a. (
  • The decrease in neuronal activity (related to a decrease in metabolic demand) extending from the site of cortical stimulation. (
  • In 1944, the physiologist Leão while studying epilepsy in the rabbit noticed a sudden temporary cessation of electrocorticographic (ECoG) activity accompanied with a large negative slow potential change recorded by extracellular electrodes, that is later known as spreading depolarizations (SDs). (
  • Kraio RP, Nicholson C. Extracellular ionic variations during spreading depression. (
  • Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation method to modulate the local field potential in neural tissue and consequently, cortical excitability. (
  • Spreading depolarizations have prolonged direct current shifts and are associated with poor outcome in brain trauma. (
  • MRI Specialist Migraine Treatment Centers View the original Brain study at this link: Cortical spreading depression causes and coincides with. (
  • Lauritzen MOlsen TSLassen NAPaulson OB The role of spreading depression in acute brain disorders. (
  • Delayed ischaemic neurological deficits after subarachnoid haemorrhage are associated with clusters of spreading depolarizations. (
  • Recording, analysis, and interpretation of spreading depolarizations in neurointensive care: Review and recommendations of the COSBID research group. (
  • Olesen JLarsen BLauritzen M Focal hyperemia followed by spreading oligemia and impaired activation of RCBF in classic migraine. (
  • Studies indicate that magnesium may hold off cortical spreading depression, a catalyst for aura forms of migraines, while blocking neural pain signals and blood vessel narrowing. (
  • Lauritzen M Links between cortical spreading depression and migraine: clinical and experimental aspects. (
  • Extra- and intracellular oxygen supply during cortical spreading depression in the rat. (
  • Cortical spreading depression (CSD), the phenomenon that underlies migraine aura and activates migraine headache mechanisms, is facilitated in heterozygous FHM2-knockin mice with reduced expression of α 2 NKA. (
  • Wahl MSchilling LParsons AAKaumann A Involvement of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and nitric oxide (NO) in the pial artery dilatation elicited by cortical spreading depression. (
  • FHM1 mice carry human pathogenic mutations in the α 1A subunit of Ca V 2.1 channels and are highly susceptible to cortical spreading depression (CSD), the electrophysiologic event underlying migraine aura. (
  • Specimens from a patient of the 2000 Israel West Nile virus epi- oma of the sphenoidal ridge, dementia, and depression was demic were analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase hospitalized because of fever and general deterioration of 5 chain reaction. (
  • One study 2 examined data from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and the National Hospital Ambulatory Care Survey to investigate whether rosacea is related to depression or alcohol use. (
  • Harriott AM , Chung DY , Uner A , Bozdayi RO , Morais A , Takizawa T , Qin T , Ayata C . Optogenetic Spreading Depression Elicits Trigeminal Pain and Anxiety Behavior. (
  • They were not more likely to suffer from depression, anxiety or fear of negative evaluation. (
  • Anxiety and low mood or depression were not found to be associated with exacerbation of rosacea symptoms. (
  • [33] These symptoms may include a wide variety of phenomena, [34] including altered mood, irritability, depression or euphoria , fatigue , craving for certain food(s), stiff muscles (especially in the neck), constipation or diarrhea , and sensitivity to smells or noise. (
  • However, pathology may spread to the so-called penumbra. (
  • Hersey M , Hashemi P , Reagan LP. Integrating the monoamine and cytokine hypotheses of depression: Is histamine the missing link? (
  • The investigators measured visual acuity through logMAR, Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE-R), the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15), and the North East Visual Hallucinations Inventory (NEVHI) (Jefferis et al. (
  • In fulminant meningococcemia, a hemorrhagic eruption, hypotension, cardiac depression, and rapid enlargement of petechiae and purpuric lesions may be seen. (
  • All effective migraine prevention drugs inhibit cortical spreading depression," he said, including gabapentin and memantine, which is used off-label. (
  • This can be characterized as cortical spreading depression or "activation," which may also account for the biological basis of migraine aura that occurs in approximately 30% of those who suffer migraine. (
  • Analysis of a Human graphic spread of WNV (3-5,14). (
  • Analysis of over 608 million dermatology visits that took place between 1995 and 2002 showed that individuals with rosacea were almost five times more likely to have depression than people without the condition. (