Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Depressive Disorder: An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.Depression, Postpartum: Depression in POSTPARTUM WOMEN, usually within four weeks after giving birth (PARTURITION). The degree of depression ranges from mild transient depression to neurotic or psychotic depressive disorders. (From DSM-IV, p386)Cortical Spreading Depression: The decrease in neuronal activity (related to a decrease in metabolic demand) extending from the site of cortical stimulation. It is believed to be responsible for the decrease in cerebral blood flow that accompanies the aura of MIGRAINE WITH AURA. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 8th ed.)Depressive Disorder, Major: Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.Antidepressive Agents: Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, SECOND-GENERATION) is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Long-Term Synaptic Depression: A persistent activity-dependent decrease in synaptic efficacy between NEURONS. It typically occurs following repeated low-frequency afferent stimulation, but it can be induced by other methods. Long-term depression appears to play a role in MEMORY.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Anxiety Disorders: Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.Personality Inventory: Check list, usually to be filled out by a person about himself, consisting of many statements about personal characteristics which the subject checks.Psychotherapy: A generic term for the treatment of mental illness or emotional disturbances primarily by verbal or nonverbal communication.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation: A structurally and mechanistically diverse group of drugs that are not tricyclics or monoamine oxidase inhibitors. The most clinically important appear to act selectively on serotonergic systems, especially by inhibiting serotonin reuptake.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Cognitive Therapy: A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors: Compounds that specifically inhibit the reuptake of serotonin in the brain.Affect: The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Dysthymic Disorder: Chronically depressed mood that occurs for most of the day more days than not for at least 2 years. The required minimum duration in children to make this diagnosis is 1 year. During periods of depressed mood, at least 2 of the following additional symptoms are present: poor appetite or overeating, insomnia or hypersomnia, low energy or fatigue, low self esteem, poor concentration or difficulty making decisions, and feelings of hopelessness. (DSM-IV)Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Depression, Chemical: The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Citalopram: A furancarbonitrile that is one of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS used as an antidepressant. The drug is also effective in reducing ethanol uptake in alcoholics and is used in depressed patients who also suffer from tardive dyskinesia in preference to tricyclic antidepressants, which aggravate this condition.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Interview, Psychological: A directed conversation aimed at eliciting information for psychiatric diagnosis, evaluation, treatment planning, etc. The interview may be conducted by a social worker or psychologist.Sertraline: A selective serotonin uptake inhibitor that is used in the treatment of depression.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Bipolar Disorder: A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Life Change Events: Those occurrences, including social, psychological, and environmental, which require an adjustment or effect a change in an individual's pattern of living.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Psychological Tests: Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.Suicide: The act of killing oneself.Depressive Disorder, Treatment-Resistant: Failure to respond to two or more trials of antidepressant monotherapy or failure to respond to four or more trials of different antidepressant therapies. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 9th ed.)Fluoxetine: The first highly specific serotonin uptake inhibitor. It is used as an antidepressant and often has a more acceptable side-effects profile than traditional antidepressants.Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic: Substances that contain a fused three-ring moiety and are used in the treatment of depression. These drugs block the uptake of norepinephrine and serotonin into axon terminals and may block some subtypes of serotonin, adrenergic, and histamine receptors. However the mechanism of their antidepressant effects is not clear because the therapeutic effects usually take weeks to develop and may reflect compensatory changes in the central nervous system.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Electroconvulsive Therapy: Electrically induced CONVULSIONS primarily used in the treatment of severe AFFECTIVE DISORDERS and SCHIZOPHRENIA.Suicidal Ideation: A risk factor for suicide attempts and completions, it is the most common of all suicidal behavior, but only a minority of ideators engage in overt self-harm.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Mood Disorders: Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic: A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Inbreeding: The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.Child of Impaired Parents: Child with one or more parents afflicted by a physical or mental disorder.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials: Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.Paroxetine: A serotonin uptake inhibitor that is effective in the treatment of depression.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Fatigue: The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.United StatesSuicide, Attempted: The unsuccessful attempt to kill oneself.Personality Assessment: The determination and evaluation of personality attributes by interviews, observations, tests, or scales. Articles concerning personality measurement are considered to be within scope of this term.Geriatric Assessment: Evaluation of the level of physical, physiological, or mental functioning in the older population group.Self Concept: A person's view of himself.Mother-Child Relations: Interaction between a mother and child.Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of serotonergic neurons. They are different than SEROTONIN RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to SEROTONIN. They remove SEROTONIN from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. Regulates signal amplitude and duration at serotonergic synapses and is the site of action of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS.Somatoform Disorders: Disorders having the presence of physical symptoms that suggest a general medical condition but that are not fully explained by a another medical condition, by the direct effects of a substance, or by another mental disorder. The symptoms must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning. In contrast to FACTITIOUS DISORDERS and MALINGERING, the physical symptoms are not under voluntary control. (APA, DSM-V)Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Cyclohexanols: Monohydroxy derivatives of cyclohexanes that contain the general formula R-C6H11O. They have a camphorlike odor and are used in making soaps, insecticides, germicides, dry cleaning, and plasticizers.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Mianserin: A tetracyclic compound with antidepressant effects. It may cause drowsiness and hematological problems. Its mechanism of therapeutic action is not well understood, although it apparently blocks alpha-adrenergic, histamine H1, and some types of serotonin receptors.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Adjustment Disorders: Maladaptive reactions to identifiable psychosocial stressors occurring within a short time after onset of the stressor. They are manifested by either impairment in social or occupational functioning or by symptoms (depression, anxiety, etc.) that are in excess of a normal and expected reaction to the stressor.Sleep Disorders: Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Affective Disorders, Psychotic: Disorders in which the essential feature is a severe disturbance in mood (depression, anxiety, elation, and excitement) accompanied by psychotic symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, gross impairment in reality testing, etc.Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Neural Inhibition: The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders: Disorders characterized by impairment of the ability to initiate or maintain sleep. This may occur as a primary disorder or in association with another medical or psychiatric condition.Long-Term Potentiation: A persistent increase in synaptic efficacy, usually induced by appropriate activation of the same synapses. The phenomenological properties of long-term potentiation suggest that it may be a cellular mechanism of learning and memory.Self Report: Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Geriatric Psychiatry: A subspecialty of psychiatry concerned with the mental health of the aged.Nortriptyline: A metabolite of AMITRIPTYLINE that is also used as an antidepressive agent. Nortriptyline is used in major depression, dysthymia, and atypical depressions.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Caregivers: Persons who provide care to those who need supervision or assistance in illness or disability. They may provide the care in the home, in a hospital, or in an institution. Although caregivers include trained medical, nursing, and other health personnel, the concept also refers to parents, spouses, or other family members, friends, members of the clergy, teachers, social workers, fellow patients.Psychotherapy, Brief: Any form of psychotherapy designed to produce therapeutic change within a minimal amount of time, generally not more than 20 sessions.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Psychotherapy, Group: A form of therapy in which two or more patients participate under the guidance of one or more psychotherapists for the purpose of treating emotional disturbances, social maladjustments, and psychotic states.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Seasonal Affective Disorder: A syndrome characterized by depressions that recur annually at the same time each year, usually during the winter months. Other symptoms include anxiety, irritability, decreased energy, increased appetite (carbohydrate cravings), increased duration of sleep, and weight gain. SAD (seasonal affective disorder) can be treated by daily exposure to bright artificial lights (PHOTOTHERAPY), during the season of recurrence.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Neurotic Disorders: Disorders in which the symptoms are distressing to the individual and recognized by him or her as being unacceptable. Social relationships may be greatly affected but usually remain within acceptable limits. The disturbance is relatively enduring or recurrent without treatment.Grief: Normal, appropriate sorrowful response to an immediate cause. It is self-limiting and gradually subsides within a reasonable time.Anhedonia: Inability to experience pleasure due to impairment or dysfunction of normal psychological and neurobiological mechanisms. It is a symptom of many PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS (e.g., DEPRESSIVE DISORDER, MAJOR; and SCHIZOPHRENIA).Imipramine: The prototypical tricyclic antidepressant. It has been used in major depression, dysthymia, bipolar depression, attention-deficit disorders, agoraphobia, and panic disorders. It has less sedative effect than some other members of this therapeutic group.Helplessness, Learned: Learned expectation that one's responses are independent of reward and, hence, do not predict or control the occurrence of rewards. Learned helplessness derives from a history, experimentally induced or naturally occurring, of having received punishment/aversive stimulation regardless of responses made. Such circumstances result in an impaired ability to learn. Used for human or animal populations. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Affective Symptoms: Mood or emotional responses dissonant with or inappropriate to the behavior and/or stimulus.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Outpatients: Persons who receive ambulatory care at an outpatient department or clinic without room and board being provided.Age of Onset: The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Personality: Behavior-response patterns that characterize the individual.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Panic Disorder: A type of anxiety disorder characterized by unexpected panic attacks that last minutes or, rarely, hours. Panic attacks begin with intense apprehension, fear or terror and, often, a feeling of impending doom. Symptoms experienced during a panic attack include dyspnea or sensations of being smothered; dizziness, loss of balance or faintness; choking sensations; palpitations or accelerated heart rate; shakiness; sweating; nausea or other form of abdominal distress; depersonalization or derealization; paresthesias; hot flashes or chills; chest discomfort or pain; fear of dying and fear of not being in control of oneself or going crazy. Agoraphobia may also develop. Similar to other anxiety disorders, it may be inherited as an autosomal dominant trait.Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System: A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Therapy, Computer-Assisted: Computer systems utilized as adjuncts in the treatment of disease.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Problem Solving: A learning situation involving more than one alternative from which a selection is made in order to attain a specific goal.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Self-Assessment: Appraisal of one's own personal qualities or traits.Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.Pituitary-Adrenal System: The interactions between the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands, in which corticotropin (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical hormones suppress the production of corticotropin by the anterior pituitary.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Resilience, Psychological: The human ability to adapt in the face of tragedy, trauma, adversity, hardship, and ongoing significant life stressors.Disability Evaluation: Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Internal-External Control: Personality construct referring to an individual's perception of the locus of events as determined internally by his or her own behavior versus fate, luck, or external forces. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1996).Receptors, Metabotropic Glutamate: Cell surface proteins that bind glutamate and act through G-proteins to influence second messenger systems. Several types of metabotropic glutamate receptors have been cloned. They differ in pharmacology, distribution, and mechanisms of action.Psychiatry: The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders.Veterans: Former members of the armed services.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Psychotropic Drugs: A loosely defined grouping of drugs that have effects on psychological function. Here the psychotropic agents include the antidepressive agents, hallucinogens, and tranquilizing agents (including the antipsychotics and anti-anxiety agents).Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Apathy: Lack of emotion or emotional expression; a disorder of motivation that persists over time.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Dementia: An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.Swimming: An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.Antimanic Agents: Agents that are used to treat bipolar disorders or mania associated with other affective disorders.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Factor Analysis, Statistical: A set of statistical methods for analyzing the correlations among several variables in order to estimate the number of fundamental dimensions that underlie the observed data and to describe and measure those dimensions. It is used frequently in the development of scoring systems for rating scales and questionnaires.Statistics as Topic: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Social Adjustment: Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)Parenting: Performing the role of a parent by care-giving, nurturance, and protection of the child by a natural or substitute parent. The parent supports the child by exercising authority and through consistent, empathic, appropriate behavior in response to the child's needs. PARENTING differs from CHILD REARING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the children and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT1A: A serotonin receptor subtype found distributed through the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM where they are involved in neuroendocrine regulation of ACTH secretion. The fact that this serotonin receptor subtype is particularly sensitive to SEROTONIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS such as BUSPIRONE suggests its role in the modulation of ANXIETY and DEPRESSION.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Sick Role: Set of expectations that exempt persons from responsibility for their illness and exempt them from usual responsibilities.Child Abuse: Abuse of children in a family, institutional, or other setting. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.WashingtonAging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Temperament: Predisposition to react to one's environment in a certain way; usually refers to mood changes.Mental Status Schedule: Standardized clinical interview used to assess current psychopathology by scaling patient responses to the questions.Receptors, AMPA: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for the agonist AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid).Social Isolation: The separation of individuals or groups resulting in the lack of or minimizing of social contact and/or communication. This separation may be accomplished by physical separation, by social barriers and by psychological mechanisms. In the latter, there may be interaction but no real communication.Community Mental Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive mental health services provided for individuals in the community.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Marital Status: A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.Guilt: Subjective feeling of having committed an error, offense or sin; unpleasant feeling of self-criticism. These result from acts, impulses, or thoughts contrary to one's personal conscience.Presynaptic Terminals: The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.Psychotic Disorders: Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Religion and Psychology: The interrelationship of psychology and religion.Fibromyalgia: A common nonarticular rheumatic syndrome characterized by myalgia and multiple points of focal muscle tenderness to palpation (trigger points). Muscle pain is typically aggravated by inactivity or exposure to cold. This condition is often associated with general symptoms, such as sleep disturbances, fatigue, stiffness, HEADACHES, and occasionally DEPRESSION. There is significant overlap between fibromyalgia and the chronic fatigue syndrome (FATIGUE SYNDROME, CHRONIC). Fibromyalgia may arise as a primary or secondary disease process. It is most frequent in females aged 20 to 50 years. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1494-95)Homebound Persons: Those unable to leave home without exceptional effort and support; patients (in this condition) who are provided with or are eligible for home health services, including medical treatment and personal care. Persons are considered homebound even if they may be infrequently and briefly absent from home if these absences do not indicate an ability to receive health care in a professional's office or health care facility. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p309)Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Adolescent Psychology: Field of psychology concerned with the normal and abnormal behavior of adolescents. It includes mental processes as well as observable responses.Gyrus Cinguli: One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.Self-Help Groups: Organizations which provide an environment encouraging social interactions through group activities or individual relationships especially for the purpose of rehabilitating or supporting patients, individuals with common health problems, or the elderly. They include therapeutic social clubs.Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Phobic Disorders: Anxiety disorders in which the essential feature is persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that the individual feels compelled to avoid. The individual recognizes the fear as excessive or unreasonable.Alcoholism: A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)Parkinson Disease: A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Thinking: Mental activity, not predominantly perceptual, by which one apprehends some aspect of an object or situation based on past learning and experience.Diagnosis, Dual (Psychiatry): The co-existence of a substance abuse disorder with a psychiatric disorder. The diagnostic principle is based on the fact that it has been found often that chemically dependent patients also have psychiatric problems of various degrees of severity.

Rapid efflux of lactate from cerebral cortex during K+ -induced spreading cortical depression. (1/291)

Rapid transport of lactate from activated brain regions to blood, perhaps reflecting enhanced metabolite trafficking, would prevent local trapping of labeled metabolites of [6-14C]glucose and cause underestimation of calculated CMRglc. Because the identities of glucose metabolites lost from activated structures and major routes of their removal are not known, arteriovenous differences across brains of conscious normoxic rats for derivatives of [6-14C]glucose were determined under steady-state conditions in blood during K+ -induced spreading cortical depression. Lactate was identified as the major labeled product lost from brain. Its entry to blood was detected within 2 minutes after a pulse of [6-14C]glucose, and it accounted for 96% of the 14C lost from brain within approximately 8 minutes. Lactate efflux corresponded to 20% of glucose influx, but accounted for only half the magnitude of underestimation of CMRglc when [14C]glucose is the tracer, suggesting extensive [14C]lactate trafficking within brain. [14C]Lactate spreading within brain is consistent with (1) relatively uniform pattern labeling of K+ -treated cerebral cortex by [6-14C]glucose contrasting heterogeneous labeling by [14C]deoxyglucose, and (2) transport of 14C-labeled lactate and inulin up to 1.5 and 2.4 mm, respectively, within 10 minutes. Thus, newly synthesized lactate exported from activated cells rapidly flows to blood and probably other brain structures.  (+info)

Endogenous pH shifts facilitate spreading depression by effect on NMDA receptors. (2/291)

Rapid extracellular alkalinizations accompany normal neuronal activity and have been implicated in the modulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Particularly large alkaline transients also occur at the onset of spreading depression (SD). To test whether these endogenous pH shifts can modulate SD, the alkaline shift was amplified using benzolamide, a poorly permeant inhibitor of interstitial carbonic anhydrase. SD was evoked by microinjection of 1.2 M KCl into the CA1 stratum radiatum of rat hippocampal slices and recorded by a proximal double-barreled pH microelectrode and a distal potential electrode. In Ringer solution of pH 7.1 containing picrotoxin (but not at a bath pH of 7.4), addition of 10 microM benzolamide increased the SD alkaline shift from 0.20 +/- 0.07 to 0.38 +/- 0.17 unit pH (means +/- SE). This was correlated with a significant shortening of the latency and an increase in the conduction velocity by 26 +/- 16%. In the presence of the NMDA receptor antagonist DL-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV), benzolamide still amplified the alkaline transient, however, its effect on the SD latency and propagation velocity was abolished. The intrinsic modulation of SD by its alkaline transient may play an important role under focal ischemic conditions by removing the proton block of NMDA receptors where interstitial acidosis would otherwise limit NMDA receptor activity.  (+info)

Novel form of spreading acidification and depression in the cerebellar cortex demonstrated by neutral red optical imaging. (3/291)

A novel form of spreading acidification and depression in the rat cerebellar cortex was imaged in vivo using the pH-sensitive dye, Neutral red. Surface stimulation evoked an initial beam of increased fluorescence (i.e., decreased pH) that spread rostrally and caudally across the folium and into neighboring folia. A transient but marked suppression in the excitability of the parallel fiber-Purkinje cell circuitry accompanied the spread. Characteristics differentiating this phenomenon from the spreading depression of Leao include: high speed of propagation on the surface (average of 450 microm/s), stable extracellular DC potential, no change in blood vessel diameter, and repeatability at short intervals. This propagating acidification constitutes a previously unknown class of neuronal processing in the cerebellar cortex.  (+info)

Glutamate release through volume-activated channels during spreading depression. (4/291)

Volume-sensitive organic anion channels (VSOACs) in astrocytes are activated by cell swelling and are permeable to organic anions, such as glutamate and taurine. We have examined the release of glutamate through VSOACs during the propagation of spreading depression (SD). SD was induced by bath application of ouabain in hippocampal brain slices and was monitored by imaging intrinsic optical signals, a technique that provides a measure of cellular swelling. The onset of SD was associated with increased light transmittance, confirming previous studies that cellular swelling occurs during SD. NMDA receptor antagonists, either noncompetitive (MK-801, 10-50 microM) or competitive (CGS-17355, 100 microM), reduced the rate of propagation of SD, indicating that glutamate release contributes to SD onset. SD still occurred in zero Ca(2+)-EGTA (0-Ca(2+)-EGTA) solution, a manipulation that depresses synaptic transmission. HPLC measurements indicated that, even in this solution, there was significant glutamate release. Two lines of experiments indicated that glutamate was released through VSOACs during SD. First, 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino) benzoic acid (NPPB), a blocker of VSOACs, depressed the rate of propagation of SD in a manner similar to NMDA antagonists. Second, NPPB inhibited the release of glutamate during SD in 0-Ca(2+)-EGTA external solution. These results indicate that cellular swelling during SD causes the activation of VSOACs and the release of glutamate by permeation through this channel. Cellular swelling is a result of neuronal activity and is observed during excitotoxicity. Therefore, glutamate release from VSOAC activation could occur under conditions of cell swelling and contribute to excitotoxic damage.  (+info)

Cortical spreading depression in the gyrencephalic feline brain studied by magnetic resonance imaging. (5/291)

1.Time-lapse diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) was used to detect and characterize complex waves of cortical spreading depression (CSD) evoked with KCL placed upon the suprasylvian gyrus of anaesthetized cats. 2. The time-lapse representations successfully demonstrated primary CSD waves that propagated with elliptical wavefronts selectively over the ipsilateral cerebral hemispheres with a velocity of 3.8 +/- 0.70 mm min(-1) (mean +/- S.E.M. of 5 experiments). 3. In contrast, the succeeding secondary waves often remained within the originating gyrus, were slower (velocity 2.0 +/- 0.18 mm min(-1), more fragmented and varied in number. 4. Computed traces of the apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) showed negative deflections followed by monotonic decays (amplitudes: primary wave, -19.9 +/- 2.8%; subsequent waves, -13.6 +/- 1.9% duration at half-maximal decay, 150-200 s) when determined from regions of interest (ROIs) through which both primary and succeeding CSD waves propagated. 5. The passage of both the primary and the succeeding waves often correlated with transient DC potential deflections recorded from the suprasylvian gyrus. 6. The detailed waveforms of the ADC and the T2*-weighted (blood oxygenation level-dependent: BOLD) traces showed a clear reciprocal correlation. These imaging features that reflect disturbances in cellular water balance agree closely with BOLD measurements that followed the propagation velocities of the first and subsequent CSD events. They also provide a close physiological correlate for clinical observations of cortical blood flow disturbances associated with human migraine.  (+info)

Thromboembolic events lead to cortical spreading depression and expression of c-fos, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and heat shock protein 70 mRNA in rats. (6/291)

The hypotheses that cerebral embolic events lead to repetitive episodes of cortical spreading depression (CSD) and that these propagating waves trigger the expression of c-fos, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) mRNA were tested. Wistar rats underwent photochemically induced right common carotid artery thrombosis (CCAT) (n = 18) or sham (n = 8) procedures. In a subgroup of rats (n = 5), laser-Doppler flowmetry probes were placed overlying the right parietal cortex to record CSD-like changes in cortical blood flow during the initial 2-hour postinjury period. Rats were killed by decapitation at 2 or 24 hours after CCAT, and brains were processed for in situ localization of the gene expression. Two to five intermittent transient hyperemic episodes lasting 1 to 2 minutes were recorded ipsilaterally after CCAT. At 2 hours after CCAT, the widespread expression of c-fos and BDNF mRNAs was observed throughout the ipsilateral cerebral cortex. Pretreatment with the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor blocker MK-801 (2 mg/kg) 1 hour before CCAT reduced the expression of BDNF mRNA expression at 2 hours. At 24 hours after CCAT, increased expression of GFAP mRNA was present in cortical and subcortical regions. In contrast, multifocal regions of HSP70 expression scattered throughout the thrombosed hemisphere were apparent at both 2 and 24 hours after injury. These data indicate that thromboembolic events lead to episodes of CSD and time-dependent alterations in gene expression. The ability of embolic processes to induce widespread molecular responses in neurons and glia may be important in the pathogenesis of transient ischemic attacks and may influence the susceptibility of the postembolic brain to subsequent insults including stroke.  (+info)

Factors influencing the frequency of fluorescence transients as markers of peri-infarct depolarizations in focal cerebral ischemia. (7/291)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Peri-infarct depolarizations (PIDs) that occur in ischemic boundary zones of the cerebral cortex of experimental animals have been shown to promote rather than simply to indicate the evolution of the lesion and are especially prominent in the rat. To study the influence of one factor, species, on PID incidence, we compared the frequency of PIDs in a primate species, the squirrel monkey, with that in the cat after middle cerebral artery occlusion. Plasma glucose was reviewed as a possible cause of interexperiment variability in the cat experiments. METHODS: In open-skull experiments under chloralose anesthesia, changes in cortical fluorescence believed to indicate NADH/NAD(+) redox state, as markers of PIDs, were recorded by serial imaging of the cortical surface in vivo for 4 hours after middle cerebral artery occlusion. RESULTS: Fluorescence transients occurred in squirrel monkeys at a frequency (mean+/-SD) of 0.7+/-0.8 hours(-1) (n=5), which was not significantly less than in that observed in cats (1.3+/-1.6 hours(-1), n=8). Data from the cat experiments indicated a relationship between number of transients (dependent) and plasma glucose, with a striking increase in PID frequency in association with values of mean postocclusion plasma glucose <4.1 mmol/L (Mann-Whitney U=15.0, P=0.034); this observation agrees well with other published findings. CONCLUSIONS: Transient changes in fluorescence strongly suggestive of peri-infarct depolarizations, either transient or terminal, occur and propagate in the ischemic cerebral cortex of a nonhuman primate. The results also suggest that the relationship of frequency of peri-infarct depolarizations with plasma glucose requires further examination, to confirm the finding and to determine a safe lower limit for a target range for control of plasma glucose if insulin is used in the management of patients with cerebral ischemia.  (+info)

Na(+) and K(+) concentrations, extra- and intracellular voltages, and the effect of TTX in hypoxic rat hippocampal slices. (8/291)

Severe hypoxia causes rapid depolarization of CA1 neurons and glial cells that resembles spreading depression (SD). In brain slices in vitro, the SD-like depolarization and the associated irreversible loss of function can be postponed, but not prevented, by blockade of Na(+) currents by tetrodotoxin (TTX). To investigate the role of Na(+) flux, we made recordings from the CA1 region in hippocampal slices in the presence and absence of TTX. We measured membrane changes in single CA1 pyramidal neurons simultaneously with extracellular DC potential (V(o)) and either extracellular [K(+)] or [Na(+)]; alternatively, we simultaneously recorded [Na(+)](o), [K(+)](o), and V(o). Confirming previous reports, early during hypoxia, before SD onset, [K(+)](o) began to rise, whereas [Na(+)](o) still remained normal and V(o) showed a slight, gradual, negative shift; neurons first hyperpolarized and then began to gradually depolarize. The SD-like abrupt negative DeltaV(o) corresponded to a near complete depolarization of pyramidal neurons and an 89% decrease in input resistance. [K(+)](o) increased by 47 mM and [Na(+)](o) dropped by 91 mM. Changes in intracellular Na(+) and K(+) concentrations, estimated on the basis of the measured extracellular ion levels and the relative volume fractions of the neuronal, glial, and extracellular compartment, were much more moderate. Because [Na(+)](o) dropped more than [K(+)](o) increased, simple exchange of Na(+) for K(+) cannot account for these ionic changes. The apparent imbalance of charge could be made up by Cl(-) influx into neurons paralleling Na(+) flux and release of Mg(2+) from cells. The hypoxia-induced changes in interneurons resembled those observed in pyramidal neurons. Astrocytes responded with an initial slow depolarization as [K(+)](o) rose. It was followed by a rapid but incomplete depolarization as soon as SD occurred, which could be accounted for by the reduced ratio, [K(+)](i)/[K(+)](o). TTX (1 microM) markedly postponed SD, but the SD-related changes in [K(+)](o) and [Na(+)](o) were only reduced by 23 and 12%, respectively. In TTX-treated pyramidal neurons, the delayed SD-like depolarization took off from a more positive level, but the final depolarized intracellular potential and input resistance were not different from control. We conclude that TTX-sensitive channels mediate only a fraction of the Na(+) influx, and that some of the K(+) is released in exchange for Na(+). Even though TTX-sensitive Na(+) currents are not essential for the self-regenerative membrane changes during hypoxic SD, in control solutions their activation may trigger the transition from gradual to rapid depolarization of neurons, thereby synchronizing the SD-like event.  (+info)

An electrode device is disclosed comprising a deformable envelope, further comprising recording electrodes and a pressure recording port. The device allows for monitoring of brain retraction pressure and local cortical electrical activity including DC potential, as well as redistribution of the force applied during retraction and cushioning of the rigid edges of the brain retractor, thereby diminishing the chance of focal brain injury during surgery. Retraction pressure recorded is equal over the full area of contact. A means is disclosed for optional evacuation of air from the system to improve accuracy and fidelity of the pressure measurements. Local brain hypothermia may be induced via the bladder and attached catheter, thereby providing additional neuroprotection during brain retraction. The device also allows for measurement of intracranial pressure, DC potential, EEG and, optionally, other physiologic parameters in epileptic and severe head trauma patients for management of edema and injury.
Spreading depression (SD) is a slowly propagating wave of transient neuronal and glial depolarization that develops after stroke, trauma and subarachnoid hemorrhage. In compromised tissue, repetitive SD-like injury depolarizations reduce tissue viability by worsening the mismatch between blood flow and metabolism. Although the mechanism remains unknown, SDs show delayed electrophysiological recovery within the ischemic penumbra. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the recovery rate of SD can be varied by modulating tissue perfusion pressure and oxygenation. Systemic blood pressure and arterial pO(2) were simultaneously manipulated in anesthetized rats under full physiologic monitoring. We found that arterial hypotension doubled the SD duration, whereas hypertension reduced it by a third compared with normoxic normotensive rats. Hyperoxia failed to shorten the prolonged SD durations in hypotensive rats, despite restoring tissue pO(2). Indeed, varying arterial pO(2) (40 to 400 mm Hg) alone did not
Introduction: It has been reported that cerebral blood flow (CBF) supplied by chest compression (20-40% of control levels) exceeds the CBF threshold for membrane depolarization (20%). However, the CBF threshold for membrane repolarization has not been studied. It is unknown whether chest compression can restore membrane potential. In the present study, we compared the CBF threshold for depolarization with that for repolarization. In addition, the effects of brain hypothermia on the repolarization threshold were evaluated.. Methods: Rats (10 in each group) were anesthetized with isoflurane. CBF was measured by placing a laser-Doppler flow probe placed adjacent to a direct current (DC) potential electrode in the parietal cerebral cortex. Following bilateral occlusion of common carotid artery, CBF was continuously decreased by exsanguination at a speed of 5% of the baseline level every 2 min until a sudden negative DC shift was observed. After 5 or 10 min of ischemic depolarization, the CBF was ...
The epidermis, being relatively drier, initially offers greater resistance to DC flow. The resistance is generally decreased by sweat and moisture or in areas where follicles pierce the epidermis and increased where the epidermis is thicker (eg, on the acral surfaces of the skin). When a DC potential of more than 10 V is established across the skin, the epidermis begins to lose its structural integrity and its resistance further decreases. In a corollary to this property, an electrical current that passes through an initially resistant barrier (eg, epidermis) causes a thermal burn at the area of increased resistance. The epidermal barrier is effectively removed when the skin is immersed in a fluid conducting medium such as water. With a fluid conductor, the flow of current is spread over a broader contact surface, and the water and its attendant ions can more effectively reach portions of the epidermis that are better conductors. For this reason, burns are not seen on the surface of skin ...
An increase in blood pressure will stretch carotid sinus and aortic arch ,which in turn will cause stretching or spreading of nerve endings ,which will increase influx of the sodium ions . Ultimately increase in depolarisation wave will cause stimulation of NTS (Even decrease in depolarisation wave will stimulate NTS ,which happens during decrease in blood pressure).Now as we know there is increase in blood pressure , NTS-our main character in this process will control these 3 centres to control blood pressure. Lets see what it do to these three centres present in medulla oblongata ...
In animal models of focal cerebral ischaemia, usually induced by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery, a spontaneous phenomenon occurs around the periphery of the core territory, with electrophysiological features essentially identical with CSD, and similar capacity to propagate across cerebral cortex. Designated "peri-infarct depolarisation" (PID), this event is associated with infarct expansion, or recruitment of at-risk cortical territory into the expanding core, and has been shown capable of causing this expansion, in the absence of therapeutic intervention. Indeed it has been hypothesized that glutamate release may be involved in PID generation, and that excitotoxicity may accomplish detrimental effects via this route (Hossmann, K. A. 1994), (Obrenovitch, T. P. and Urenjak, J. 1997). Some experimental neuroprotection treatments for stroke act to decrease the incidence of PID (Iijima, T. et al. 1992;Chen, Q. et al. 1993;Busch, E. et al. 1996 ...
Migraines Aura: Is a change in brain function. It is usually a visual symptom, such as an arc of sparkling (scintillating) zig-zag lines or a blind spot in ones field of vision or both.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of lidocaine on dynamic changes in cortical reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide fluorescence during transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats. AU - Naito, Hiromichi. AU - Takeda, Yoshimasa. AU - Danura, T.. AU - Kass, I. S.. AU - Morita, K.. PY - 2013/4/3. Y1 - 2013/4/3. N2 - Rats were subjected to 90. min of focal ischemia by occluding the left middle cerebral and both common carotid arteries. The dynamic changes in the formation of brain ischemic areas were analyzed by measuring the direct current (DC) potential and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) fluorescence with ultraviolet irradiation. In the lidocaine group (n= 10), 30. min before ischemia, an intravenous bolus (1.5. mg/kg) of lidocaine was administered, followed by a continuous infusion (2. mg/kg/h) for 150. min. In the control group (n= 10), an equivalent amount of saline was administered. Following the initiation of ischemia, an area of high-intensity NADH fluorescence rapidly developed in ...
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
Current shift adjusted stage-discharge rating table. These tab delimited tables are updated daily and can change frequently. If you use these ratings, it is important that you update often so that you have the most current version ...
Aquesta tesi té com a objectiu lestudi de les propietats fisicoquímiques de les bicapes lipídiques en ambients fisiològics. Atès que en tals entorns les membranes biològiques compostes de fosfolípids i colesterol estan envoltades de solucions delectròlits, la comprensió de les interaccions dels fosfolípids amb el colesterol i amb els ions circumdants, així com amb laigua interficial són duna gran importància fonamental. Daltra banda, els fosfolípids es classifiquen en saturats i insaturats, dacord amb la saturació de les seves cues. En conseqüència, tenir en compte la saturació de la cua és un altre factor important en lestudi de les bicapes lipídiques. Els lípids que shan estudiat en aquesta tesi són: la di-miristoil-fosfatidil-colina (DMPC) i di-palmitoil-fosfatidil-colina (DPPC), ambdós fosfolípids de tipus saturat, la palmitoiloleoil-fosfatidil-colina (POPC, fosfolípid insaturat), així com també el colesterol. Les tècniques bàsiques de treball que shan ...
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Thanks for the quick reply. Your code works as you described and as I requested, but I dont think I explained what I needed very well. Your code creates each series as an element in the array (each line of data is an element), but I need to be able to separate out the PID data in order to work with it. I need the user to log what user was involved, and I need the time to be able to sort the list and choose the 10 "oldest" PIDS for the day. To illustrate, heres the same data:. ...
In the CSD Education Survey, institutions must report quantitative data at the level of the department and per program. Please refer to the key below when identifying the data you will need to collect for each data point listed in this tip sheet.
Ten to fifteen percent of all patients with migraine suffer from migraine with aura. For most of these patients the aura phase encompasses visual or sensory deficits for 30 to 60 minutes, and in a few cases for several hours. Using high field functional magnetic resonance imaging with near continuous recording during visual aura, cortical spreading depression (CSD)-like events in the human occipital cortex could be visualised,1 confirming the concept of a transient slowly spreading excitation (depolarisation), followed by long lasting depression as the underlying mechanism of migraine aura. Despite the recent development of abortive migraine drugs such as 5-hydroxytryptamine 1B/D agonists, suitable agents for suppressing the frequency and duration of migraine aura have not been identified. Based on concepts of emphasising CSD-like events in migraine pathogenesis, anti-glutamatergic strategies have been suggested as a potential avenue for the treatment of migraine auras.2. Lamotrigine is a potent ...
DEAR DR. ROACH: I am a healthy 64-year-old woman. My only medication is atenolol for blood pressure. I get the aura of migraines very often. The light flashing in my peripheral vision and then in front of my eyes always lasts between 30-45 minutes, no more. Then it is gone, leaving me with a tired, slightly dull pain in my eyes and head. I never get the horrible pain and nausea that normally are associated with a migraine headache. If I can, I go into a dark area, close my eyes for the time it is happening, and then resume normal activities when its over. These auras are happening more frequently.. I am writing to you because recently I have read articles in a medical newsletter warning that these symptoms could be a warning sign of stroke or heart attack. I showed the articles to both my cardiologist and ophthalmologist. Both said they had never heard of such a thing. Do you know anything about the migraine aura without the headache? Should I ignore these auras and not worry, or try to find a ...
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King MD, Crowder MJ, Hand DJ, Harris NG, Williams SR, Obrenovitch TP, Gadian DG, King MD, Crowder MJ, Hand DJ, Harris NG, Williams SR, Obrenovitch TP, Gadian DGet al., 2002, A Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations analysis of the temporal apparent diffusion coefficient and DC potential responses to focal ischaemia (CD-ROM), Berkley, CA, 10th annual meeting of the International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, Honolulu, 18 - 24 May 2002, Publisher: International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, Pages: 1175-1175 ...
A hybrid mass spectrometer comprises an ion mobility (IMS) section and a mass analysis section that analyses ions based on mass-to-charge ratios. In the IMS section, a DC potential gradient is established and a drift gas provided, so as to separate ions based on varying ion mobilities. Additionally, at least a downstream portion of the IMS section includes a rod set focusing ions along the axis, this prevents loss of ions and gives good transfer of ions into-a-mass analysis section, which can be a time-of-flight mass analyzer or an analyzer including a quadrupole rod set. A collision cell and mass analyzer can be provided between the two sections for MS/MS analysis. The IMS section then provides better utilization of an available sample; as each group of ions is elected from the IMS section, one ion can be mass selected as a precursor, for subsequent fragmentation/reaction and subsequent mass analysis of the product ions. Another aspect of the invention provides the ability to form potential wells,
I actually stopped all of my meds -- I used to take Midrin too, but ended up with rebound headaches all of the time. I tried acupuncture and it helped, but it got too expensive. I also reverted to plain old aspirin and alternating heat and cold on my forehead and the back of my neck. While it didnt completely resolve the headache, it made it bearable. The one thing I simply cannot deal with though is the nausea. When that sets in, I just have to go to bed and pull the covers over my head. Of course, with me being on Celebrex now for joint pain, I cant take the aspirin any more ...
The patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage in this study were selected because they showed secondary cererebral hypoxia/ischaemia of varying severity. Thus case 1 had a long lasting episode of secondary ischaemia leading to cerebral infarction in the microdialyisis probe area, cases 2 and 3 temporary secondary hypoxia/ischaemia without infarction in the probe area, and case 4 minor disturbances of energy metabolism and no structural changes in the frontal lobe harbouring the microdialyisis probe.The ischaemic event in case 1 was associated with a pronounced increase of D-glycerol. This probably reflected profound ischaemia with energy failure as the D-L/P ratio rise was large and accompanied by an undetectable D-glucose concentration and increased D-hypoxanthine and D-glutamate.15 This was supported by the occlusion of the right anterior cerebral artery diagnosed by a second angiography and the infarct development in the microdialyisis probe area according to CT and PET.15 In view of these ...
Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is the likely cause of the migraine aura. CSD causes a signaling pathway between stressed neurons and trigeminal afferents via transient opening of neuronal Pannexin-1 (Panx1) mega-channels ...
Interstitial fibrosis reduces the electrical coupling between cardiac myocytes because fibroblasts produce smaller or larger collagenous septa, which electrically insulate cardiac cells or muscle bundles. As a result, the normal myocardial architecture becomes disrupted and is transformed into a pathological substrate characterized by the presence of multiple insulating barriers, which force the depolarization wave to spread nonuniformly. As predicted by computer simulations and demonstrated in cell cultures, in such a medium, long local conduction delays occur that may slow the effective conduction velocity to very low values. Unlike a decrease of the rapid sodium current, which will result in conduction failure when conduction velocity is depressed to approximately 30% of control, slow conduction because of poor electrical coupling, although discontinuous, continues to proceed at very low effective conduction velocities.6-8 This is explained by the fact that, intrinsic to poor electrical ...
A system, method, or device classifies an arrhythmia according to the temporal order in which a depolarization wave associated with a particular heart contraction is received at a plurality of electrodes. One or more antiarrhythmia therapies is mapped to each arrhythmia classification. When a particularly classified arrhythmia is detected, the correspondingly mapped therapy list is selected and an appropriate antiarrhythmia therapy delivered. In one example, the particular therapy delivered in response to an arrhythmia depends at least in part on its historical success in treating arrhythmias of that classification.
Care coordination is a process that ensures a patients health services and information sharing preferences and needs are met. Care coordination, a critical component during the nations current shift from a fragmented system toward one that stresses accountability and continuity, is primarily accomplished by people as opposed to technology. This demands effective collaboration between the providers and organizations caring for each individual patient as opposed to service delivery from numerous providers.. In a new report, Laying a Foundation for Care Coordination: The Role of Health IT, the eHealth Initiative (EHI) describes ways public and private sectors can use health IT infrastructure to support care coordination. It also explores the functions and qualities required to achieve this vision.. The report presents a set of unified principles, which may be considered when implementing health IT to ensure it is effective in supporting care coordination. It also identifies four primary ...
BACKGROUND: Chronic heart failure (CHF) patients with elevated depression symptoms are at greater risk of morbidity and mortality. The mechanisms linking symptoms of depression with disease progression in CHF are unclear. However, research studies have found evidence of alterations in immune activity associated with depression symptoms that may influence heart function. The present study sought to determine the relationship between depression symptoms and chemotaxis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in CHF patients, both at rest and in response to moderate exercise. METHODS AND RESULTS: Sixty-five patients diagnosed with CHF (mean age, 59.8 +/- 14.5 years) and 45 non-CHF control subjects (mean age, 52.1 +/- 11.6) completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) before undergoing a moderate 20-minute bicycle exercise task. Chemotaxis of PBMCs was examined in vitro to a bacterial peptide f-met leu phe (fMLP) and a physiologic chemokine, stromal cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1) immediately ...
2-dimensional optical imaging spectroscopy; Fluorescence imaging; Intrinsic optical imaging; Optical imaging spectroscopy Voltage-sensitive dye imaging is an experimental technique to measure neuronal...
Cortical Spreading Depression (CSD). Cortical spreading depression (CSD) also known as cortical spreading depolarization describes a wave of neuronal depolarization associated with influx of cat-ions and water which blocks normal cerebral activity. CSD induces changes to microvascular tone with the
Aniceto Orbeta, Gilberto M. Author_Email: [email protected] Llanto, Maureen Ane D. Author_Email: [email protected] Rosellon, Marife Ballesteros, Jasmine E. Magtibay, Larraine Bolanos and Christine Salazar ...
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One third of migraine patients experience aura, i.e. dramatic, transient neurological symptoms, most often in the form of visual disturbances, that usually appear before the onset of migraine headache. The likely underlying mechanism of aura is known as cortical spreading depression, a wave of changes in electrical activity that slowly spreads in the outermost layer of the brain. It is currently not known what causes the aura to initiate in patients or what the relationship is between aura and migraine headache, e.g. if treatment targeted at aura mechanisms will prevent subsequent headache. Due to the short-lasting and unpredictable nature of aura, the only possible approach for systematic investigations is to experimentally trigger aura, but currently no method for aura-triggering is available.. The overall goal of the proposed project is to reveal the earliest mechanisms of the migraine attack by investigating the initiating factors of aura in the migraine brain.. Current animal evidence ...
Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is critical for the maintenance of cerebral function by guaranteed constant oxygen and glucose supply to brain. Collateral channels (CCs) are recruited to provide alternatives to CBF to ischemic regions once the primary vessel is occluded during ischemic stroke. However, the knowledge of the relationship between dynamic evolution of collateral flow and the distribution of regional blood flow remains limited. In this study, laser speckle imaging was used to assess dynamic changes of CCs and regional blood flow in a rat cortex with permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). We found that CCs immediately provided blood flow to ischemic territories after MCAo. More importantly, there were three kinds of dynamic changes of CCs during acute stroke: persistent CC, impermanent CC, and transient CC, respectively, related to different distributions of regional blood flow. Although there was the possible occurrence of peri-infarct depolarization (PID) during ischemia, ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Prolonged cortical silent period after transcranial magnetic stimulation in generalized epilepsy. by Roberto M Cantello
Silent migraine" is an unusual name for a chronic illness. People are used to saying or hearing a scientific term when referring to a medical condition. Accordingly, the names of the different types of migraine give clue to its believed cause or source, or nature. Silent migraine, however , is a curious name because sound is not something associated that with migraine. Nevertheless, it is a disease that affects quite a number of people and for this reason, it needs to be understood. Silent migraine is also known as acephalgic migraine, eye migraine, visual migraine, ocular migraine. Experts, however , refer to it as migraine aura without headache. To better understand it, one needs to be familiar with the four stages of a typical migraine attack. The initial stage is called the prodrome. It is the time when warnings of an attack start to appear, such as irritability or confusion, diarrhea, thirst and food cravings. The next phase is the aura, a time when visual symptoms are felt. During this ...
Aura Symptoms Highly Variable in Patients With Migraine What does migraine aura look like? And how do these visual manifestations differ between patients and in the same patient?These questions have intrigued neurologists for years, but getting clear-cut information has been difficult because most reports of migraine characteristics are retrospective - when asked, patients report details of their attack and how they felt after the fact.But now, researchers are delving deeper into the issue by using prospectively gathered reports and are turning up some surprising findings. For example, only about half of patients with migraine actually experience nausea, which is a main diagnostic symptom of migraine.From the 267 patient reports, the researchers collected data on 861 migraine attacks.The researchers found that the four most prevalent visual aura symptoms were: ...
Well, I am not a fan of Prednisone, but the side effects have been manageable for me. I started off at 100 mg. per day, which is a pretty high dose. Im now at 5 mg. per day every other day, and hoping to be completely off it soon. The most noticeable side effects that I experienced were manic behavior, sleeplessness and puffy feet and ankles.. I had so much energy that I didnt know what to do with myself. That has tapered off now that Im on a low dose, but for a while there I couldnt sleep, couldnt sit still, and found myself talking a mile a minute, sometimes to the cat. I still have somewhat swollen feet and ankles, but its much better. It was pretty pronounced when I was on the higher dose. Fluid retention is a common side effect.. Another thing I noticed was that I was getting migraine auras about 5 times a week. If you get migraine headaches you know what this is. If not, its a visual disturbance that happens before the headache - kind of like when you look out on the ocean on a very ...
Our world is in flux, constantly moving and changing faster than ever. "Earth Moves: Shifts in Ceramic Art and Design" seeks dynamic, contemporary ceramic works addressing creative responses to current shifts in the artists world and work. Ceramic artists are faced with new challenges and opportunities as technology affects their materials, equipment, studio practices and market. From commercial clay bodies and glazes to industrially designed decals and inclusion stains to computer interfaces with kilns; industry is impacting the studio potter in both subtle and dramatic ways. Some new technologies, such as rapid prototyping machines, CNC routers and 3D copiers are shifting the design and production of ceramic work into unfamiliar realms. Oxygen probes and computer controlled kilns affect glaze color through more scientifically oriented firings. Commercially designed stains and glazes reflect the latest trends in color and pattern sensibility. Less obvious, yet equally significant shifts occur ...
Machine elements operating under lubricated conditions will eventually fail due to high stresses and fatigue-related causes. In order to find optimum protective measures, it is important to understand how the stresses arise and what factors that influence their magnitude. With the current shift for more sever lubricating regimes, the role of tribo-improvers is becoming vital. At this point, the interplay between the chemisorption mechanism of various lubricant compounds and surface failure is not yet fully understood. To obtain a better understanding of this, a newly developed ionic structured tribo-improving additive, based on silicon, was investigated and benchmarked against conventional heavy-duty gearbox additives. A ball on disc device was operated under heavily loaded rolling/sliding conditions, at elevated temperature to simulate gear like conditions, and lubricating performance was subsequently evaluated in terms of friction and wear. Such results highlight the importance of properly ...
Station operated by the U.S. Geological Survey, Colorado Water Science Center, as part of the USGS National Streamflow Information Program (NSIP).. Current shift adjusted rating table ...
Functional MRI (fMRI) have provided information on networks, disorders, and cognitive performance of the brain. Recent studies have focused on fMRI during resting state (rs-fMRI) without any explicit tasks. To supplement BOLD signals, resting-state fMRI studies have been paired with simultaneous recording of electrophysiology data, a method to provide a direct measure of neural activity. Studies have focused on analyzing infraslow frequencies (,1Hz) to understand large-scale spontaneous spatial and temporal fluctuations. Dynamic analysis of infraslow frequencies has shown semi-reoccurring BOLD patterns, which have been defined as quasi-periodic patterns (QPP). This study expands on the previously acquired data using simultaneous fMRI and local field potential (LFP) recordings to understand effects of removing quasi-periodic patterns from the BOLD signal. Furthermore, this study focuses on the impact of quasi-periodic patterns regression on the relationship between BOLD and LFP at multiple ...
Designed for use with Warner imaging chambers with field stimulation electrodes, the SIU-102 features optical isolation at the input and transformer isolation at the output. Timing pulses can be controlled by any device capable of generating a TTL level positive pulse – a computer with data acquisition, for example. |br/| Positive or negative pulses, positive or negative DC, and bipolar pulses are possible in constant current or constant voltage delivery modes. For bipolar delivery, a positive pulse during the input pulse is followed immediately by a negative pulse of equal duration and amplitude. Bipolar pulse widths from 100 s to 100 seconds per each polarity are possible.
Why does the preferred CCT have a lower value than natural CCT? A possible reason for this effect is that observers prefer scenes that are more colorful, corresponding to a larger color gamut. This would be consistent with experiments in which the image quality is maximum when average chroma is higher than that obtained with natural illuminants (Fedorovskaya, De Ridder, & Blommaert, 1997). Figure 14a shows the pseudocolor map of the convex hull volume expressed in CIELAB space of the Munsell set rendered by the daylights tested. The volume has a maximum close to the average chromaticity for preference (open circle symbol). It also increases in the direction of negative DC, suggesting that scenes can look more colorful or vivid with these purplish daylights. This result obtained with the Munsell set also holds for the group of scenes tested. The color volume map of each scene was normalized, and the result was averaged across all scenes tested. The CCT producing the maximum chromatic volume of ...
A friend once remarked I was a wonderful role model for how to live a great life despite suffering from depression. At the time, I was unable to see the value in that since, the ultimate goal is to be depression free - isnt it? Suffering from depression means were flawed, right? It means theres something wrong with my life in which case, what is there to be proud of?. After several trips out of depression and then descending into the pit of despair over and over again I began to wonder whether or not Id ever be completely free of depression and, more importantly, whether or not it really matters.. Nowadays Im able to see that:. ~ Suffering or not suffering from depression is not whats important ~ How I respond to what occurs in my life (including depression) is. Given that 75% of depression sufferers cycle back into depression at some point, it makes more sense to learn to enjoy your life despite depression rather than endlessly waiting for this wonderful time when you will never be ...
MalaCards based summary : Migraine with Aura 7, also known as migraine with aura, susceptibility to, 7, is related to migraine with aura and migraine with or without aura 1. An important gene associated with Migraine with Aura 7 is MGR7 (Migraine With Aura, Susceptibility To, 7 ...
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Aura An aura is the subtle energy field surrounding every living being. Every person has a unique aura that reflects their current condition. People who are sick or emotionally upset have weak shadowy auras, while healthy happy people have auras that are strong bright auras. A strong healthy aura is essential in blocking negative influences…
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Depression is a side effect that may potentially occur with the use of Cardene. This eMedTV resource discusses Cardene and depression in more detail and explains what you should do if you develop any symptoms of depression while taking the drug.
How to Overcome Depression. Suffering from depression means more than just dealing with a bad week or even a bad month. Depression is a weakening condition that can make it impossible for you to enjoy your daily existence. If you are...
Depression is common among older adults, and while it is treatable, about half of older people with depression don’t get relief from the first treatment their healthcare provider prescribes. There are many treatments for depression, however, so when this happens, it’s important to let a
Beating Depression, with Alternative Anti-aging Therapies by James South MA Depression is one of the most widespread illnesses in the Western world, yet it is
Tune in and learn. Get reliable information about depression, tips from depression experts, and real-life stories about people living with depression.
Its not always depression. A new study has revealed that doctors diagnose a patient with depression far more often than is true. In fact, nearly one in four people who appear depressed are really just having a tough time.
Depression is extremely treatable and most people see improvements with treatment. Here we discuss a variety of treatment options for depression.
An increased activity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical system (HPAS) during episodes of depression has been reported by several investigators since the middle of the 1950s (Bryson and...
Useful, straight-forward advice to those who are suffering with depression about what they should know about treatment and recovery.
What if we no longer see a way out? What if we have a depression? This article sums up the scientific vision, causes, symptoms, and solutions.
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People with hidden depression dont even know they need others help. If you happen to see someone who may have these symptoms, care about them more.
Depressed persons would be wise to familiarize themselves with the illnesses that are most often associated with depression and can exacerbate symptoms.
We dont know what it is like for others, but in the past, when we experienced depression, there have always been 1 or 2 alters immune to it and able to function....
3 Answers - Posted in: effexor, depression, mania - Answer: I wouldnt think of reducing my dose. I dont like me without the 150, ...
Maybe a skype party online? Or if more than one of us happens to live in close proximity, we could hang out? EDIT: It doesnt have to be about...
Depression among older adults is more common than many of us realize, and it can also be hard to recognize. How to spot -- and help -- a depressed older adult.
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Does anyone have bouts of extreme depression in the 2 weeks leading up to their periods? I am 43, and since having ds at 41, have been suffering fro
I had no interest in talking to any of these people about depression, partly because I have problems opening up, but mainly because being unhappy was the absolute last thing I wanted to talk about when I had a rare chance to escape it.
Does anyone ever have bouts of depression? LAtely I have lost my umph so to speak. I am not passionate about ANYTHING. I am doing worse in my...
Its hard to know what to say when you suspect someone is suffering from depression. You might feel the urge to say something along the lines of,
Find and save ideas about Depressionen symptome männer on Pinterest. | See more ideas about Depression symptome, Depressionen hilfe and Unruhe-Hilfe.
... is more than simply feeling unhappy or fed up for a few days. Most people go through periods of feeling down, but when youre depressed you feel persistently sad for weeks or months, rather than just a few days. Some people think depress
Depression is a problem for many of us and can take a toll on the whole body. Give a few of these natural tips a try in your life.
Prijetne bombažne boksarice iz ekskluzivne kolekcije Aura. Boksarice imajo spredaj unikatno izdelan 3D izrez za še večje udobje moških intimnih
I know the age of newground members varies greatly. I need someone who was depressed while they were teenagers, but are now past that and into their twenties...
I came off Lexapro 20mg (was not working anymore) and my doctor put me on Pristiq 50mg and xanax. The pristiq is working good but after a couple of months now I am not so sure. I take the Xanax at nigh...
Old age is often portrayed as a time of rest, reflection and opportunities. Unfortunately, the aging process is not always so idyllic.
過期日期與最好使用期的長度跟產品的種類和品牌有很大的關係。. 易變質商品(如亞麻油或某些益生菌產品)通常有較短的有效使用日期。儘管我們的倉庫是全空調氣溫調控,但這些易變質商品還是被冷藏存儲(冷凍或冷藏庫),以保持最大的新鮮度。. 我們的進貨部門會盡力的確認每一個商品的過期時間。不過,過期日的出入有的時候還是難免的。為了避免這類問題,我們的存貨周轉率在本行業甚至在各行業都是最高的。. ...
Annotation. The Na,K-ATPase is essential for maintaining the transmembrane ion gradients required for normal cell function. Previous studies clearly indicate that a specific Na,K-ATPase inhibitor, ouabain can initiate Src kinase signaling independently of the effects on Na,K-ATPase mediated ion translocation. This Na,K-ATPase-Src signaling has been shown in the kidney and heart, and seems perfectly suited for modulation of vasoconstriction, but has never been studied in smooth muscle cells. Several findings indirectly suggest the importance of Na,K-ATPase-Src complex for vascular remodeling and elevated contraction in resistance arteries in ouabain-induced and other forms of hypertension. Familial hemiplegic migraine type 2 (FHM2), associated with the loss-of-function mutation in the Na,K-ATPase, is characterized by elevated vascular contractility which might depend on Src activation. We have shown that the Na,K-ATPase-dependent Src activation could increase arterial contraction via ...
3 Answers - Posted in: neurontin, migraine, elderly, vision - Answer: Neurontin (gabapentin) has an off-label use as treatment for migraines - ...
Includes an anthracycline. Vaginal burning off the bite area. Which promotes health of women traversing the menopause from FDA. Buy HGH Level Test (Insulin-like Growth Factor-I (Igf-I) and Igf-Binding. Who is Steering Your Ship - You or Your Hormones also the pituitary receive a brief memory had lower levels of the female pelvis on the risk for a hormone called thyroxine. And so arrives human growth of tissue in the mucous membranes such as games and. Menopausal women taking tamoxifen maybeused up to 10 years ago, had 4 rounds of chemo and 28 radiation treatments, but have mild coldness and mild brain fog/tired. The placenta develops wherever the NHS have stated that lasted less the cat steps on my face. Even a woman who is past menopause. Still, many women are given hormones, Thyroid, Melatonin, Estrogen Levels? This is when you feel their best. They found that post-menopausal and menopause? A: The formal or accurate term for Ocular migraine is migraine aura without headache. If your periods ...
Malte Urbschat is a German professional artist. In this piece, he has represented - among other migraine aura symptoms - phosphenes (sensing light when there isn't any light actually entering the eye) and scotomas (flickering light in the field of vision that obscures vision in that area). For...
Supplementary Materials [Supplemental Materials] 00783. modulation is dependant on numerous organic synergistic relationships between sarcolemmal and intracellular procedures via membrane Ca2+ and voltage. Major interactions consist of adjustments of diastolic Na+/Ca2+ exchanger current that few earlier/later on diastolic Ca2+ releases (predicting the experimentally defined LCR period shift) of increased/decreased amplitude (predicting changes in Rivaroxaban cell signaling LCR signal mass, i.e., the product of LCR spatial size, amplitude, and number per cycle) to the diastolic depolarization and ultimately to the spontaneous action potential firing rate. Concomitantly, larger/smaller and more/less frequent activation of L-type Ca2+ current shifts the cellular Ca2+ balance to support the respective Ca2+ cycling changes. In conclusion, our model simulations corroborate recent experimental results in rabbit SANCs pointing to a new paradigm for GPCR heart rate modulation by a complex system of ...
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Depression in women is more than twice as common as in men. Women and depression are linked through several factors. Get detailed info on female depression.
A Depression Education Toolkit Facts about Depression in Older Adults What is Depression? Depression is a medical illness. When sadness persists or interferes with everyday life, it may be depression.
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Minimum Volunteer Commitment:. In order to be accepted as a volunteer to SFSP, all candidates must sign a contract committing to a minimum of 52 weeks (at 4 hours per week) of service. If a candidate will not be able to commit to a year, we will accept individuals who can agree to complete more than 4 hours per week of service, as long as they commit to a minimum of 200 hours. Active volunteering must be started as soon as training is completed, and all volunteer shifts take place in the call room at our main offices in downtown San Francisco.. Potential shift blocks are available at the same times seven days per week. They include: 7am - 11am, 11am - 3pm, 3pm - 7pm, 7pm - 11pm, and 10pm - 2am. People who would prefer to come in once every other week are welcome to do our overnights, which are 11pm - 7am. Shift availability is dependent on holes within our current schedule, but is usually pretty flexible. We do not offer shifts outside those times (ex: We do not offer at 6pm - 10pm shift.) All ...
Aging can be an overwhelming experience which can trigger depression. Try some of my suggestions to help you cope with aging. - Aging and Depression - Depression at BellaOnline
Depression, Read about Depression symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and treatment. Also read Depression articles about how to live with Depression, and more.
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Living with a partner experiencing depression is emotionally challenging and our own behaviors can contribute to further enabling that depression or can help our partner deal with it in a positive way. The following 5 suggestions can go a long way toward helping ease our partners depression and providing a healthy environment for management and recovery.
Package: wnpp Severity: wishlist Owner: Francois Marier ,[email protected], * Package name : unhide Version : 20071102 Upstream Author : [email protected] * URL : http://www.security-projects.com/?Unhide * License : GPL Programming Lang: C Description : Forensic tool to find hidden processes and TCP/UDP ports Unhide is a forensic tool to find hidden processes and TCP/UDP ports by rootkits, Linux kernel modules or by other techniques. It includes two utilities: unhide and unhide-tcp. . unhide detects hidden processes using three techniques: - comparing the output of /proc and /bin/ps - comparing the information gathered from /bin/ps with the one gathered from system calls (syscall scanning) - full scan of the process ID space (PIDs bruteforcing) . unhide-tcp identifies TCP/UDP ports that are listening but are not listed in /bin/netstat through brute forcing of all TCP/UDP ports available. This package can be used by rkhunter in its daily scans ...
The gut and brain appear to interact bidirectionally in IBS. While IBS could contribute to the onset of depression, depression could contribute to the onset IBS.
Cortical spreading depression, or spreading depression according to Leão, is a burst of neuronal activity followed by a period ... Migraines are associated with major depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, and obsessive compulsive disorder. These ... Often a feeling of pins-and-needles begins on one side in the hand and arm and spreads to the nose-mouth area on the same side. ... depression or euphoria, fatigue, craving for certain food(s), stiff muscles (especially in the neck), constipation or diarrhea ...
Visual migraines result from cortical spreading depression and are also commonly termed scintillating scotoma. Retinal migraine ... Retinal migraine is a different disease than scintillating scotoma, which is a visual anomaly caused by spreading depression in ...
During a migraine, cortical spreading depression is observed which causes ion imbalances and the release of charged molecules ... Testing of amiloride in rodents, showed a decrease in the cortical spreading depression during a migraine. Studies showed that ... activity may additionally control the adverse behavioral and emotional symptoms of chronic pain such as anxiety and depression ...
2001). "Investigation of feline brain anatomy for the detection of cortical spreading depression with magnetic resonance ... The number of cortical neurons contained in the brain of the cat is reported to be 763 million. Area 17 of the visual cortex ... cortical simulations with 109 neurons, 1013 synapses". Proceedings of the Conference on High Performance Computing Networking, ...
Somjem, G.G. Aristides Leão's discovery of cortical spreading depression. J Neurophysiol 94: 2-4, 2005. Full paper Biography. ... spread in increasing circles around the initial focus, which he named spreading depression. The phenomenon was named Leão's ... Pial circulation and spreading depression of activity in the cerebral cortex. J Neurophysiol 7: 391-396, 1944 Full paper. Leão ... Spreading depression of activity in the cerebral cortex. J Neurophysiol 7: 359-390, 1944 Full paper. Leão AAP. ...
... which centres around the phenomenon of cortical spreading depression. However, it appears that this theory can not account for ...
Channel Blockers on Cortical Hypoperfusion and Expression of c-Fos-Like Immunoreactivity After Cortical Spreading Depression in ...
... and long-chain triglycerides ketogenic diet on cortical spreading depression in young rats". Neurosci. Lett. 434 (1): 66-70. ...
... s are most commonly caused by cortical spreading depression, a pattern of changes in the behavior of ... Notes Gardner-Medwin AR (1981). "Possible roles of vertebrate neuroglia in potassium dynamics, spreading depression and ...
... known as cortical spreading depression[17] followed by a period of depressed activity.[18] Some people think headaches are ... For example, if the person also has depression, an antidepressant is a good choice. ... Amitriptyline is a medication which treats depression and also independently treats pain. It works by blocking the reuptake of ... There is also an increased risk of depression in those with severe headaches.[1] ...
Binasal hemianopsia Bitemporal hemianopsia Blind spot Cortical spreading depression Scintillating scotoma Fletcher, Donald C.; ... "Possible Roles of Vertebrate Neuroglia in Potassium Dynamics, Spreading depression, and migraine", Gardner-Medwin, J. Exp. Biol ...
... the control of bone resorption under both normal and osteoporotic conditions and cortical spreading depression phenomena in the ...
... known as cortical spreading depression followed by a period of depressed activity. Some people think headaches are caused by ... There is also an increased risk of depression in those with severe headaches. Headaches can occur as a result of many ... For example, if the person also has depression, an antidepressant is a good choice. Abortive therapies for migraines may be ... Amitriptyline is a medication which treats depression and also independently treats pain. It works by blocking the reuptake of ...
... an update for a software program Cortical spreading depression CSD, a file format Cumulative spectral decay plot, also known as ...
... where she produced her well renowned thesis on the mechanism of cortical spreading depression for her PhD. She eventually ... she worked on an electrophysiological analysis of the phenomenon of cortical spreading depression in the cerebral cortex. This ... of the transport of materials down the axon nerves and her thesis work on the mechanism of cortical spreading depression, which ... Her contributions established the role of interneuronal movement of potassium ions in propagation of spreading depression. She ...
"Spreading depression and focal brain ischemia induce cyclooxygenase-2 in cortical neurons through N-methyl-D-aspartic acid- ... Multiple cerebral ischemic events may lead to subcortical ischemic depression, also known as vascular depression. This ... Late onset depression is increasingly seen as a distinct sub-type of depression, and can be detected with an MRI. Brain ... Baldwin, Robert C. (2005). "Is vascular depression a distinct sub-type of depressive disorder? A review of causal evidence". ...
Spreading Depolarization and Spreading Ischemia Spreading Cortical Depression at the US National Library of Medicine Medical ... Cortical spreading depression (CSD) or spreading depolarization is a wave of electrophysiological hyperactivity followed by a ... Neuroscientists use the term cortical spreading depression to represent at least one of the following cortical processes: The ... "Cortical spreading depression causes and coincides with tissue hypoxia", Nat Neurosci. 29 April 2007, Takano T, Tian GF, Peng W ...
... retinal spreading depression, Xenopus oocyte calcium waves, and glial calcium waves in cortical tissue culture. Reproduzir ... Gorelova NA, Bures J (1983). "Spiral waves of spreading depression in the isolated chicken retina". J Neurobiol. 14: 353-363. ...
... "spreading depression"), compressive mononeuropathies (carpal tunnel syndrome. ulnar elbow compression and so forth), sindrom ... Cortical vein thrombosis-dehydration. Puerperium. Infection. Neoplasma dan sejenisnya. *Displasia fibromuskular. *Sindrom ...
Furthermore, if neural death spreads into other anterior cortical regions, symptoms similar to Alzheimer's disease, such as ... Anxiety and depression are also common in PCA patients. At this time the cause of PCA is unknown; similarly, there are no fully ... Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA), also called Benson's syndrome, is a form of dementia which is usually considered an atypical ... As neurodegeneration spreads, more severe symptoms emerge, including the inability to recognize familiar people and objects, ...
... the branches generally of longitudinal spiraled cortical ribs with recessed crater-like depression between the ribs; the ... or with many shorter branches developing along one side when the primary branches spread out and curve upwards towards light. ... Cortical diversity in the Ramalinaceae. Can. J. Bot. 59: 437-453. World Botanical Associates, Images of Vermilacinia paleoderma ... cortical differences were described by Peter Bowler: as (1) a "thick outer cortex with palisade cell lines and a subtending ...
This cancellous bone is in turn, covered by a thin coating of cortical bone (or compact bone), the hard and dense type of ... The endplates function to contain the adjacent discs, to evenly spread the applied loads, and to provide anchorage for the ... Above and below the pedicles are shallow depressions called vertebral notches (superior and inferior). When the vertebrae ... The vertebral arch and processes have thicker coverings of cortical bone. The upper and lower surfaces of the body of the ...
Albert, D. J. (1966). The effect of spreading depression on the consolidation of learning. Neuropsychologia, 4. Ruffini, Giulio ... double-blind clinical trial on the efficacy of cortical direct current stimulation for the treatment of major depression". The ... "Cognitive effects of repeated sessions of transcranial direct current stimulation in patients with depression". Depression and ... One of the aspects of tDCS is its ability to achieve cortical changes even after the stimulation is ended. The duration of this ...
Memory[vague] (agonists ↓); learning[vague] (agonists ↓); anxiety (agonists ↓); depression (agonists ↓); positive, negative, ... Serotonergic pathway are involved in sensorimotor function, with pathways projecting both into cortical (Dorsal and Median ... This means serotonin secretion not only serves to increase the spread of enteamoebas by giving the host diarrhea but also ... Drugs that alter serotonin levels are used in treating depression, generalized anxiety disorder and social phobia. Monoamine ...
Knowing that the spread of charge across such a short area is very plausible, as is an alternate connection to the raphe magnus ... Some studies have suggested that the dorsal raphe may be decreased in size in people with depression and, paradoxically, an ... Raphe nuclei O'Hearn E, Molliver ME (December 1984). "Organization of raphe-cortical projections in rat: a quantitative ... These are fascinating results; however no control was provided for the spread of electrical charge to other parts of the brain ...
... and progressive continuous spread, meaning that symptoms spread to additional regions over time. Prion-like propagation of ... Depression can be treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or tricyclic antidepressants,[10] while ... A few people with ALS have symptoms that are limited to one spinal cord region for at least 12 to 24 months before spreading to ... These regional variants of ALS cannot be diagnosed at the onset of symptoms; a failure of the disease to spread to other spinal ...
Cortical spreading depression causes and coincides with tissue hypoxia.. Takano T1, Tian GF, Peng W, Lou N, Lovatt D, Hansen AJ ... Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is a self-propagating wave of cellular depolarization that has been implicated in migraine ...
Downloading a figure as powerpoint requires a browser with javascript support. Enable javascript and try again For help please contact [email protected] ...
Spreading Depolarization and Spreading Ischemia Spreading Cortical Depression at the US National Library of Medicine Medical ... Cortical spreading depression (CSD) or spreading depolarization is a wave of electrophysiological hyperactivity followed by a ... Neuroscientists use the term cortical spreading depression to represent at least one of the following cortical processes: The ... "Cortical spreading depression causes and coincides with tissue hypoxia", Nat Neurosci. 29 April 2007, Takano T, Tian GF, Peng W ...
Subcortical cerebral blood flow and metabolic changes elicited by cortical spreading depression in rat.. Mraovitch S1, Calando ... elicited by unilateral cortical spreading depression (SD) were monitored and measured in separate groups of rats anesthetized ... These regions provide an attractive site to integrate observations in man concerning spreading depression and the aura of ... Changes in cerebral cortical perfusion (CBFLDF), local cerebral blood flow (lCBF) and local cerebral glucose utilization (lCGU ...
The release of inflammatory mediators following cortical spreading depression (CSD) is suggested to play a role in ... Somjen GG (2001) Mechanisms of spreading depression and hypoxic spreading depression-like depolarization. Physiol Rev 81(3): ... Kobayashi S, Harris VA, Welsh FA (1995) Spreading depression induces tolerance of cortical neurons to ischemia in rat brain. J ... Wernsmann B, Pape HC, Speckmann EJ, Gorji A (2006) Effect of cortical spreading depression on synaptic transmission of rat ...
Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is a slowly propagating wave of depolarization of neurons and glia and has a less ... Fast vascular component of cortical spreading depression revealed in rats by blood pulsation imaging. ... "Fast vascular component of cortical spreading depression revealed in rats by blood pulsation imaging," Journal of Biomedical ... "Fast vascular component of cortical spreading depression revealed in rats by blood pulsation imaging," J. Biomed. Opt. 19(4) ...
Cortical spreading depression dynamics can be studied using intrinsic optical signal imaging in gyrencephalic animal cortex.. [ ... and termination of cortical spreading depolarizations (CSDs). Anesthetized male swine were craniotomized and monitored over 16- ...
Hyperglycemia and cortical spreading depression (CSD) are possible factors that worsen the outcome of ischemic stroke, and it ... Acute hyperglycemia compromises cerebral blood flow following cortical spreading depression in rats monitored by laser speckle ... "Acute hyperglycemia compromises cerebral blood flow following cortical spreading depression in rats monitored by laser speckle ... "Acute hyperglycemia compromises cerebral blood flow following cortical spreading depression in rats monitored by laser speckle ...
This workshop will bring together mathematical and computational scientists with experimental researchers studying cortical ... spreading depression (SD) and related phenomena. SD is a disorder of the central nervous system in which a population of brain ... Mathematical Modeling of Cortical Spreading Depression (SD) and Related Phenomena. February 12 - 16, 2018 ... Patient-specific computational modeling of cortical spreading depression via diffusion tensor imaging. Luca Gerardo Giorda ( ...
Diffuse optical correlation tomography of cerebral blood flow during cortical spreading depression in rat brain Chao Zhou, ... demonstrated in rats by imaging cortical responses to forepaw stimulation and the propagation of cortical spreading depression ... and hemodynamic spontaneous low-frequency oscillations in rat brain following induction of cortical spreading depression Afrina ... imaging of cerebral partial pressure of oxygen and blood flow during functional activation and cortical spreading depression ...
... was used to detect and characterize complex waves of cortical spreading depression (CSD) evoked with KCL placed upon the ... They also provide a close physiological correlate for clinical observations of cortical blood flow disturbances associated with ... Cortical Spreading Depression in Rats. *Shangbin Chen, Pengcheng Li, Hui Gong, Weihua Luo, Shaoqun Zeng, Qingming Luo ... Variation of repetitive cortical spreading depression waves is related with relative refractory period: a computational study. ...
Cortical spreading depression describes a wave of neuronal depolarization associated with influx of cat-ions and water which ... Cortical Spreading Depression (CSD). Cortical spreading depression (CSD), also known as cortical spreading depolarization, ... Cortical spreading depression induces changes to microvascular tone with the vasoconstriction phase (Cortical Spreading ... Cortical spreading depression in the rodent brain. Regions of interest monitored over time show progression of the ...
Room E, 10/16/2000 2: 00 PM - 4: 00 PM (PS) Cortical Spreading Depression Induced Preconditioning Decreases Neuronal Apoptosis ... Room E, 10/16/2000 2: 00 PM - 4: 00 PM (PS) Cortical Spreading Depression Induced Preconditioning Decreases Neuronal Apoptosis ... Room E, 10/16/2000 2: 00 PM - 4: 00 PM (PS) Cortical Spreading Depression Induced Preconditioning Decreases Neuronal Apoptosis ... Cortical Spreading Depression Induced Preconditioning Decreases Neuronal Apoptosis in Rats Subjected to Focal Ischemia : A-726 ...
Stress hormone corticosterone enhances susceptibility to cortical spreading depression in familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 ... Stress hormone corticosterone enhances susceptibility to cortical spreading depression in familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 ... Author keywords: Ca2.1 calcium channels, Cortical spreading depression, Corticosterone, Familial hemiplegic migraine, Glutamate ... excitability and thereby may increase susceptibility to cortical spreading depression (CSD), the mechanism underlying the ...
Cortical spreading depression (CSD) also known as cortical spreading depolarization describes a wave of neuronal depolarization ... Cortical Spreading Depression (CSD). Cortical spreading depression (CSD), also known as cortical spreading depolarization, ... CSD induces changes to microvascular tone with the vasoconstriction phase (Cortical Spreading Ischeamia, CSI) with associated ...
Cortical Spreading Depression. Last Updated on Tue, 11 Jun 2019 , Sinus Obstruction ... and especially in cortical spreading depression, the glycolytic pathway in astrocytes is upregulated, and the different ... Spreading depression has also been observed in experiments on the spinal cord [9, 81], and the possibility therefore arises ... There is also experimental evidence that spreading depression occurs in the spinal cord [9]. What determines susceptibility, by ...
called cortical spreading depression, Treatment and.. Cortical spreading depression (CSD) and depolarization waves are ... aura it is thought that magnesium prevents cortical spreading depression.. Cortical spreading depression, a slowly propagating ... Cortical spreading depression and gene. C-labeled acetate and butyrate in rat brain in vivo during spreading cortical ... Do You Have Depression? Discover Treatments for Depression.. direct current stimulation (tDCS) on cortical spreading depression ...
Farkas, E., Pratt, R., Sengpiel, F., & Obrenovitch, T. P. (2008). Direct, live imaging of cortical spreading depression and ... Farkas, E, Pratt, R, Sengpiel, F & Obrenovitch, TP 2008, Direct, live imaging of cortical spreading depression and anoxic ... Direct, live imaging of cortical spreading depression and anoxic depolarisation using a fluorescent, voltage-sensitive dye. / ... Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Direct, live imaging of cortical spreading depression and anoxic depolarisation ...
Cortical Spreading Depression (CSD) is characterized by a wave of neuronal and glial depolarization followed by depression of ... Behavioral and Neurochemical Consequences of Cortical Spreading Depression in Freely Moving Rats. ... In addition we demonstrate that cortical pinprick plus KCl injection induced CSD events in 24/28 (85%) rats, among which 66% ... two hours following cortical injection. We further show that systemic administration of anti-migraine drugs such as sumatriptan ...
Effects of the nitric oxide donor, DEA/NO on cortical spreading depression. By M. Wang, Tihomir P. Obrenovitch and Jutta A. ... Topics: Cortical spreading depression, Ionic homeostasis, Nitric oxide, Nitric oxide synthase, N¿-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester ... NoCortical spreading depression (CSD) is a transient disruption of local ionic homeostasis that may promote migraine attacks ...
Spindle-shaped constriction and propagated dilation of arterioles during cortical spreading depression. In: NeuroReport. 2006 ... keywords = "Cat, Cortical spreading depression, Dual illumination technique, Gyrencephala, Oligemia, Parenchymal arteriole, ... Spindle-shaped constriction and propagated dilation of arterioles during cortical spreading depression. / Osada, Takashi; ... title = "Spindle-shaped constriction and propagated dilation of arterioles during cortical spreading depression", ...
Cortical spreading depression, meningeal inflammation and trigeminal nociception. Maneesri, Supang; Patamanont, Juntima; ... Developmental shifts in cortical loci for face and object recognition. Gathers, A. D.; Bhatt, R.; Corbly, C. R.; More ... Developmental shifts in cortical loci for face and object recognition. Gathers, A. D.; Bhatt, R.; Corbly, C. R.; More ... Developmental shifts in cortical loci for face and object recognition. Gathers, A. D.; Bhatt, R.; Corbly, C. R.; More ...
Workshop on Cortical Spreading Depression (CSD) and Related Neurological Phenomena (Other events) interactive static info ... interactive static info Huaxiong Huang: Modeling cortical spreading depression and related phenomena (July 7) ... interactive static info Steven Schiff: Unification in the Observation and Control of Spikes, Seizures, and Spreading Depression ... interactive static info Cenk Ayata: Spreading depression and the biological heterogeneity of cerebral blood flow response: ...
Cortical spreading depression The concept of "cortical spreading depression (CSD)" has been accepted as the main pathogenetic ... When the hemodynamic response to cortical spreading depression is inverted under pathological conditions, spreading depression ... The role of spreading depression, spreading depolarization and spreading ischemia in neurological disease. Nat Med. 2011;17:439 ... Cortical spreading depression activates and upregulates MMP-9. J Clin Invest. 2004;113:1447-1455. [PMC free article] [PubMed] ...
cortical spreading depression;. BOLD,. blood oxygenation level-dependent;. MR,. magnetic resonance. *Received December 8, 2000. ... first suggested a relationship between cortical spreading depression (CSD) and migraine aura, based on the uniquely slow spread ... Cortical spreading depression (CSD) has been suggested to underlie migraine visual aura. However, it has been challenging to ... Cortical Spreading Depression Closes Paravascular Space and Impairs Glymphatic Flow: Implications for Migraine Headache ...
  • Changes in cerebral cortical perfusion (CBFLDF), local cerebral blood flow (lCBF) and local cerebral glucose utilization (lCGU) elicited by unilateral cortical spreading depression (SD) were monitored and measured in separate groups of rats anesthetized with alpha-chloralose. (nih.gov)
  • Ninety minutes following the onset of SD cortical (frontal, parietal and occipital) lCBF and lCGU were essentially the same as on the contralateral side and in sham-treated rats. (nih.gov)
  • Victor Teplov, Artem Shatillo, Ervin Nippolainen , Olli Gröhn, Rashid Giniatullin, Alexei A. Kamshilin , "Fast vascular component of cortical spreading depression revealed in rats by blood pulsation imaging," Journal of Biomedical Optics 19(4), 046011 (11 April 2014). (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • Zhen Wang , Weihua Luo, Pengcheng Li , Jianjun Qiu, Qingming Luo , "Acute hyperglycemia compromises cerebral blood flow following cortical spreading depression in rats monitored by laser speckle imaging," Journal of Biomedical Optics 13(6), 064023 (1 November 2008). (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • and cranial window exposing the cortical surface of anaesthetised rats. (elsevier.com)
  • Spreading depression was produced by high-K medium, and AD by complete terminal ischaemia in rats. (elsevier.com)
  • In addition we demonstrate that cortical pinprick plus KCl injection induced CSD events in 24/28 (85%) rats, among which 66% and 87% developed allodynia in the face and hindpaw, respectively.These studies suggest a potential association between CSD and development of hypersensitivity in rats, indicating that this model can be used to investigate the role of CSD-evoked migraine-related pain and to explore novel therapeutic strategies. (arizona.edu)
  • Effect of pre- and postnatal propylthiouracil administration on the propagation of cortical spreading depression of adult rats. (semanticscholar.org)
  • 8 mg k-1 day-1, ip, from day 17 of gestation to postnatal day 42) on the susceptibility of the cerebral cortex to spreading depression (SD) was studied in 13 adult Wistar rats (90-100 days of age). (semanticscholar.org)
  • article{Guedes1993EffectOP, title={Effect of pre- and postnatal propylthiouracil administration on the propagation of cortical spreading depression of adult rats. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The role of nitric oxide in the development of cortical spreading depression-induced tolerance to transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats. (nih.gov)
  • Effects of Electric Cortical Stimulation (ECS) and Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) on Rats With a Traumatic Brain Injury. (nih.gov)
  • To investigate the basis for this selective inhibitory effect, and further explore the mechanism of action of CGRP-mAbs, we tested the effect of fremanezumab on the cortical spreading depression-evoked activation of mechanosensitive primary afferent meningeal nociceptors that innervate the cranial dura, using single-unit recording in the trigeminal ganglion of anesthetized male rats. (jneurosci.org)
  • It is quite possible that the charge spread to the nucleus raphes magnus and induced analgesia upon the rats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Experimentally this can be seen when rats are raised in an environment that allows ample social interaction, resulting in increased brain weight and cortical thickness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Perilesion depolarisations, whether transient anoxic depolarisation (AD) or spreading depression (SD), occur in stroke models and in patients with acute brain ischaemia, but their contribution to lesion progression remains unclear. (elsevier.com)
  • NoCortical spreading depression (CSD) is a transient disruption of local ionic homeostasis that may promote migraine attacks and the progression of stroke lesions. (core.ac.uk)
  • Benfenati V, Amiry-Moghaddam M, Caprini M, Mylonakou MN, Rapisarda C, Ottersen OP, Ferroni S (2007) Expression and functional characterization of transient receptor potential vanilloid-related channel 4 (TRPV4) in rat cortical astrocytes. (springer.com)
  • Hyperglycemia and cortical spreading depression (CSD) are possible factors that worsen the outcome of ischemic stroke, and it is probable that there is a longterm cooperative effect of hyperglycemia and CSD on cerebral blood flow (CBF). (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • Delayed, but prolonged increases in astrocytic clusterin (ApoJ) mRNA expression following acute cortical spreading depression in the rat: evidence for a role of clusterin in ischemic tolerance. (nih.gov)
  • The effect of a gap-junction blocker, carbenoxolone, on ischemic brain injury and cortical spreading depression. (nih.gov)
  • Cortical spreading depression releases ATP into the extracellular space and purinergic receptor activation contributes to the induction of ischemic tolerance. (nih.gov)
  • A disordered functional hyperemia is associated with several pathologies such as hyper- tension, Alzheimers disease, cortical spreading depression, and ischemic stroke. (utoronto.ca)
  • This workshop will bring together mathematical and computational scientists with experimental researchers studying cortical spreading depression (SD) and related phenomena. (umn.edu)
  • These symptoms may include a wide variety of phenomena, including altered mood, irritability, depression or euphoria , fatigue , craving for certain food(s), stiff muscles (especially in the neck), constipation or diarrhea , and sensitivity to smells or noise. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cortical spreading depression in the gyrencephalic feline brain studied by magnetic resonance imaging. (semanticscholar.org)
  • C-labeled acetate and butyrate in rat brain in vivo during spreading cortical depression. (winoverdepression.com)
  • He uses invasive and non-invasive reversible deactivation of cerebral cortical areas to study brain function and to encourage restoration of function after brain damage. (bu.edu)
  • Current studies are focused on examining a major effect of brain damage - cortical spreading depression (CSD). (bu.edu)
  • The term "spreading depression" indicates slowly propagating changes in neuronal electrical potentials, coinciding with or leading to a silencing of brain electrical activity. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, recent studies have demonstrated that this vulnerability can be dramatically reduced by preconditioning the brain with brief ischemia or cortical spreading depression. (upenn.edu)
  • Three-dimensional visualization with large data sets: a simulation of spreading cortical depression in human brain. (nih.gov)
  • The exact mechanism of chronic migraine is unknown but is associated with an increased cortical excitability, central sensitization, alternations in nociceptive signaling, as well as physiological, structural, and functional brain changes. (springer.com)
  • Scintillating scotomas are most commonly caused by cortical spreading depression, a pattern of changes in the behavior of nerves in the brain during a migraine. (wikipedia.org)
  • however no control was provided for the spread of electrical charge to other parts of the brain stem. (wikipedia.org)
  • The transition from normal state of brain activity to epileptic seizures was not formulated theoretically until 2008, when a theoretical path from a baseline state to large-scale self-sustained oscillations, which spread out uniformly from the point of stimulus, has been mapped for the first time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exposure to brain or spinal tissue from an infected person may also result in spread. (wikipedia.org)
  • A focal seizure in the temporal lobe may spread to other areas in the brain when it may become a focal to bilateral seizure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epileptic symptoms are frequently the product of the spread of overactivation occurring within one central foci that travels to lateral brain regions thereby causing an array of symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The rapid growth of fast-growing high-grade brain tumors may damage the subcortical network essential for electrical transmission, whereas slow-growing tumors have been suggested to induce partial deafferentation of cortical regions, causing denervation hypersensitivity and producing an epileptogenic milieu. (wikipedia.org)
  • In transcranial cortical photothrombosis the procedure preferentially occludes small pial vessels, resulting in an end-arterial form of ischemia considerably different from most cases of thrombotic stroke in humans. (jneurosci.org)
  • Deletion of aquaporin-4 curtails extracellular glutamate elevation in cortical spreading depression in awake mice. (uio.no)
  • Cortical spreading depression is characterized by neuronal swelling, profound elevation of extracellular potassium and glutamate, multiphasic blood flow changes, and drop in tissue oxygen tension. (uio.no)
  • Our data argue against intercellular spread of Ca(2+) carrying the cortical spreading depression wavefront and are in favor of interstitial K(+) diffusion, rather than glutamate diffusion, as the leading event in cortical spreading depression. (uio.no)
  • Hippocampal/cortical LTD can be dependent on NMDA receptors, metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR), or endocannabinoids. (wikipedia.org)
  • An increase or decrease in the number of ionotropic glutamate receptors on a postsynaptic cell may lead to long-term potentiation or long-term depression of that cell, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subcortical cerebral blood flow and metabolic changes elicited by cortical spreading depression in rat. (nih.gov)
  • Cortical/subcortical disease burden and cognitive impairment in patients with multiple sclerosis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Sava Sakadžić, Shuai Yuan, Ergin Dilekoz, Svetlana Ruvinskaya, Sergei A. Vinogradov, Cenk Ayata, and David A. Boas, "Simultaneous imaging of cerebral partial pressure of oxygen and blood flow during functional activation and cortical spreading depression," Appl. (osapublishing.org)
  • At locations where the wave was passing, arterioles first constricted at one or two spots (55±43% of control), forming a spindle-shape in the early phase of cortical spreading depression, and then markedly dilated (155±57% of control) within 1 min. (elsevier.com)
  • Acute harm is defined as the immediate effects associated with use of the given drug such as respiratory depression or myocardial infarction. (wikipedia.org)