The gradual destruction of a metal or alloy due to oxidation or action of a chemical agent. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A tissue preparation technique that involves the injecting of plastic (acrylates) into blood vessels or other hollow viscera and treating the tissue with a caustic substance. This results in a negative copy or a solid replica of the enclosed space of the tissue that is ready for viewing under a scanning electron microscope.
A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions for use in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.
A solution used for irrigating the mouth in xerostomia and as a substitute for saliva.
A tough, malleable, iron-based alloy containing up to, but no more than, two percent carbon and often other metals. It is used in medicine and dentistry in implants and instrumentation.
A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Specific alloys not less than 85% chromium and nickel or cobalt, with traces of either nickel or cobalt, molybdenum, and other substances. They are used in partial dentures, orthopedic implants, etc.
Alloys that contain a high percentage of gold. They are used in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions.
Stainless steel. A steel containing Ni, Cr, or both. It does not tarnish on exposure and is used in corrosive environments. (Grant & Hack's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Chemical reaction that occurs when saliva comes into contact with the metals in dental fillings. This reaction can send electric currents through the brain causing negative symptoms.
Wires of various dimensions and grades made of stainless steel or precious metal. They are used in orthodontic treatment.
A technique of measuring the dielectric properties of materials, which vary over a range of frequencies depending on the physical properties of the material. The technique involves measuring, over a range of frequencies, ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE and phase shift of an electric field as it passes through the material.
Solution titration in which the end point is read from the electrode-potential variations with the concentrations of potential determining ions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Determination of the quantity of a material present in a mixture by measurement of its effect on the electrical conductivity of the mixture. (Webster, 3d ed)
The utilization of an electrical current to measure, analyze, or alter chemicals or chemical reactions in solution, cells, or tissues.
Neodymium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Nd, atomic number 60, and atomic weight 144.24, and is used in industrial applications.
A trace element with the atomic symbol Ni, atomic number 28, and atomic weight 58.69. It is a cofactor of the enzyme UREASE.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Coating with a metal or alloy by electrolysis.
Destruction by passage of a galvanic electric current, as in disintegration of a chemical compound in solution.
An electrochemical technique for measuring the current that flows in solution as a function of an applied voltage. The observed polarographic wave, resulting from the electrochemical response, depends on the way voltage is applied (linear sweep or differential pulse) and the type of electrode used. Usually a mercury drop electrode is used.
The placing of a body or a part thereof into a liquid.
Substances that inhibit or arrest DENTAL CARIES formation. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
Strong alkaline chemicals that destroy soft body tissues resulting in a deep, penetrating type of burn, in contrast to corrosives, that result in a more superficial type of damage via chemical means or inflammation. Caustics are usually hydroxides of light metals. SODIUM HYDROXIDE and potassium hydroxide are the most widely used caustic agents in industry. Medically, they have been used externally to remove diseased or dead tissues and destroy warts and small tumors. The accidental ingestion of products (household and industrial) containing caustic ingredients results in thousands of injuries per year.
The study of the energy of electrons ejected from matter by the photoelectric effect, i.e., as a direct result of absorption of energy from electromagnetic radiation. As the energies of the electrons are characteristic of a specific element, the measurement of the energy of these electrons is a technique used to determine the chemical composition of surfaces.
The joining of pieces of metal through the use of an alloy which has a lower melting point, usually at least 100 degrees Celsius below the fusion temperature of the parts being soldered. In dentistry, soldering is used for joining components of a dental appliance, as in assembling a bridge, joining metals to orthodontic bands, or adding to the bulk of certain structures, such as the establishment of proper contact areas on inlays and crowns with adjacent teeth. (Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)
A trace element that plays a role in glucose metabolism. It has the atomic symbol Cr, atomic number 24, and atomic weight 52. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP85-002,1985), chromium and some of its compounds have been listed as known carcinogens.
Holding a DENTAL PROSTHESIS in place by its design, or by the use of additional devices or adhesives.
Supplies used in building.
The spectrometric analysis of fluorescent X-RAYS, i.e. X-rays emitted after bombarding matter with high energy particles such as PROTONS; ELECTRONS; or higher energy X-rays. Identification of ELEMENTS by this technique is based on the specific type of X-rays that are emitted which are characteristic of the specific elements in the material being analyzed. The characteristic X-rays are distinguished and/or quantified by either wavelength dispersive or energy dispersive methods.
Platinum. A heavy, soft, whitish metal, resembling tin, atomic number 78, atomic weight 195.09, symbol Pt. (From Dorland, 28th ed) It is used in manufacturing equipment for laboratory and industrial use. It occurs as a black powder (platinum black) and as a spongy substance (spongy platinum) and may have been known in Pliny's time as "alutiae".
Tests or bioassays that measure the skin sensitization potential of various chemicals.
The retention of a denture in place by design, device, or adhesion.
Creation of a smooth and glossy surface finish on a denture or amalgam.
A source of inorganic fluoride which is used topically to prevent dental caries.
Identification and measurement of ELEMENTS and their location based on the fact that X-RAYS emitted by an element excited by an electron beam have a wavelength characteristic of that element and an intensity related to its concentration. It is performed with an electron microscope fitted with an x-ray spectrometer, in scanning or transmission mode.
The process of producing a form or impression made of metal or plaster using a mold.
Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.
Silver. An element with the atomic symbol Ag, atomic number 47, and atomic weight 107.87. It is a soft metal that is used medically in surgical instruments, dental prostheses, and alloys. Long-continued use of silver salts can lead to a form of poisoning known as ARGYRIA.
A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.
The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Costs which are directly identifiable with a particular service.
Value of all final goods and services produced in a country in one year.
The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.
Substances or materials used in the course of housekeeping or personal routine.
Objects of precious metal usually containing gems and worn to enhance personal appearance. Health concerns include possible contamination from lead content or bacteria.
Sound that expresses emotion through rhythm, melody, and harmony.

Fatigue and tensile strength of dental gallium alloys after artificial saliva immersion. (1/201)

Fatigue strength using the stair-case method and tensile strength of dental gallium alloys after artificial saliva immersion were measured for evaluating the effects of corrosive environment storage on the mechanical properties of the gallium alloys. The fatigue and the tensile strengths of both gallium alloys stored in artificial saliva were significantly decreased after 12-month storage, while those stored in air increased with storage period. The fracture surfaces of the specimens in artificial saliva showed not only metallic luster but also dark areas. In the dark area, the matrix might have dissolved during immersion. These results suggested that the concern over corrosion resistance of gallium alloys still remained.  (+info)

The durability of parylene coatings on neodymium-iron-boron magnets. (2/201)

A parylene coating is frequently used to prevent corrosion of neodymium-iron-boron magnets when they are used intra-orally. This in vitro study was designed to test the durability of parylene coating in a simulated oral environment. Single and double parylene-coated magnets were subjected to grinding and crushing forces in an industrial ball mill. The results demonstrate that abrasion and wear was visible around the edges after 1 hour of testing, with a breach of the coating noted under high magnification scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The conclusion of the study is that parylene coating is unlikely to withstand intra-oral forces. The shape of the magnets, the manufacturing process involved in their production, and the thickness of the parylene coating are important factors to consider with respect to the durability of magnets used in the mouth.  (+info)

Isothermal age-hardening behaviour in a multi-purpose dental casting gold alloy. (3/201)

The isothermal age-hardening behaviour of a multi-purpose dental casting gold alloy was investigated by means of hardness testing, X-ray diffraction study, scanning electron microscopic observations and energy dispersive spectroscopy. By ageing of the solution-treated specimen at 400-500 degrees C, two phases of the Au-rich alpha 1 phase with an f.c.c. structure and the alpha 2 phase with an ordered f.c.c. structure based on Pt3In were transformed into three phases of the alpha 1 phase, the alpha 2 phase and the beta phase with an ordered f.c.t. structure based on PtZn. Hardening was attributed to the fine nodular precipitation resulting from the formation of the beta phase in the alpha 1 matrix. Softening was due to the coarsening of the fine nodular precipitates as the result of consumption of the alpha 2 phase.  (+info)

Surface characterization of retrieved NiTi orthodontic archwires. (4/201)

The structure and morphological condition of retrieved NiTi orthodontic archwires was evaluated and any possible alterations in the surface composition of the alloy following 1-6 months in vivo were characterized. NiTi wires (GAC, German Orthodontics, ORMCO) of various cross-sections were collected through a retrieval protocol and were subjected to multi-technique characterization. Optical microscopy revealed islands of amorphous precipitants and accumulated microcrystalline particles. Micro MIR-FTIR investigation of the retrieved samples demonstrated the presence of a proteinaceous biofilm, the organic constituents of which were mainly amide, alcohol, and carbonate. Scanning electron microscope and X-ray microanalysis showed that the elemental species precipitated on the material surface were Na, K, Cl, Ca, and P, forming NaCl, KCl, and Ca-P precipitates. Increased intra-oral exposure was consistently associated with the presence of a mature film, while evidence of alloy delamination, pitting, and crevice corrosion, as well as a notable reduction in the alloy grain size was observed. Intra-oral exposure of NiTi wires alters the topography and structure of the alloy surface through surface attack in the form of pitting or crevice corrosion or formation of integuments. Further in vivo research is required to resolve the implications of the described ageing pattern in the corrosion resistance of the alloy, the potential for nickel leaching, as well as bracket-archwire friction variants.  (+info)

Unusual indelible enamel staining following fixed appliance treatment. (5/201)

Two cases are described of indelible enamel staining following fixed appliance therapy. The acquired pigmentation occurred in patients with an identifiable enamel defect prior to treatment. The interaction of factors to cause the staining is discussed and it's prevention in future cases highlighted. Subsequent restoration of the affected teeth is shown.  (+info)

Influence of finishing on the electrochemical properties of dental alloys. (6/201)

Dental alloy surface finishing procedures of may influence their electrochemical behavior, which is used to evaluate their corrosion resistance. We examined the polarization resistance and potentiodynamic polarization profile of the precious-metal alloys, Type 4 gold alloy and silver-palladium alloy, and the base-metal alloys, nickel-chromium alloy, cobalt-chromium alloy, and CP-titanium. Three types of finishing procedure were examined: mirror-finishing using 0.05 micron alumina particles, polishing using #600 abrasive paper and sandblasting. Dissolution of the alloy elements in 0.9% NaCl solution was also measured and compared with the electrochemical evaluation. The corrosion resistance of the dental alloys was found to relate to finishing as follows: The polarization resistance and potentiodynamic polarization behavior revealed that the corrosion resistance improved in the order of sandblasting, #600-abrasive-paper polishing, and mirror-finishing. While the corrosion potential, critical current density and passive current density varied depending on the type of finishing, the transpassive potential remained unchanged. The influence of finishing on the corrosion resistance of precious-metal alloys was less significant than on that of base-metal alloys. A mirror-finishing specimen was recommended for use in evaluation of the corrosion resistance of various dental alloys.  (+info)

Corrosion resistance of the Pt-Fe-Nb magnets for dental-casting. (7/201)

Magnetic attachments have been used in clinical dental practice, but there is some difficulties associated with removable bridges. One possible solution is to make whole bridges of Pt-Fe magnet alloys and its abutment out of magnetic stainless steel by casting. In terms of castability and magnetic properties, the promising composition of the Pt-Fe-Nb magnet alloy is Pt-30.0 mass% Fe-0.6 mass% Nb and Pt-30.0 mass% Fe-0.5 mass% Nb-0.03 mass% Si. In the present study, the corrosion resistance of these alloys was investigated based on the elusion test, electrochemical behavior and surface characterization by EPMA analysis. The released elements from the Pt-Fe-Nb magnets were mainly Fe ions in quantities similar to that of stainless steel for biomedical use, and the Pt-Fe-Nb magnet alloy, the Pt-Fe-Nb-Si magnet alloy and platinum resembled each other in electrochemical behavior. The present findings suggest, that the Pt-Fe-Nb magnet alloy provides excellent corrosion resistance and has important clinical dental applications.  (+info)

Corrosion characteristics of ferric and austenitic stainless steels for dental magnetic attachment. (8/201)

The corrosion behaviors of four ferric stainless steels and two austenitic stainless steels were examined in a simulated physiological environment (0.9% NaCl solution) to obtain basic data for evaluating the appropriate composition of stainless steels for dental magnetic attachments. The corrosion resistance was evaluated by electrochemical techniques and the analysis of released metal ions by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The surface of the stainless steels was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The breakdown potential of ferric stainless steels increased and the total amount of released metal ions decreased linearly with increases in the sum of the Cr and Mo contents. The corrosion rate of the ferric stainless steels increased 2 to 6 times when they were galvanically coupled with noble metal alloys but decreased when coupled with commercially pure Ti. For austenitic stainless steels, the breakdown potential of high N-bearing stainless steel was approximately 500 mV higher than that of SUS316L, which is currently used as a component in dental magnetic attachments. The enriched nitrogen at the alloy/passive film interface may be effective in improving the localized corrosion resistance.  (+info)

Corrosion is a process of deterioration or damage to a material, usually a metal, caused by chemical reactions with its environment. In the medical context, corrosion may refer to the breakdown and destruction of living tissue due to exposure to harsh substances or environmental conditions. This can occur in various parts of the body, such as the skin, mouth, or gastrointestinal tract, and can be caused by factors like acid reflux, infection, or exposure to chemicals.

In the case of medical devices made of metal, corrosion can also refer to the degradation of the device due to chemical reactions with bodily fluids or tissues. This can compromise the function and safety of the device, potentially leading to complications or failure. Therefore, understanding and preventing corrosion is an important consideration in the design and use of medical devices made of metal.

Corrosion casting is a specialized technique used in anatomy and pathology to create detailed casts or molds of biological specimens, particularly vascular systems. This method is also known as "acid etching" or "corrosive casting." Here's the medical definition:

Corrosion casting is a process that involves injecting a special resin or plastic material into the vasculature or other hollow structures of a biological specimen, such as an organ or tissue. The injected material thoroughly fills the cavity and then hardens once it has set. After hardening, the surrounding tissues are corroded or dissolved using strong acids or bases, leaving behind only the cast or mold of the internal structures.

This technique results in a detailed three-dimensional representation of the complex internal networks, like blood vessels, which can be used for further study, research, and education. Corrosion casting is particularly useful in visualizing the intricate branching patterns and structural relationships within these systems.

Dental alloys are materials made by combining two or more metals to be used in dental restorations, such as crowns, bridges, fillings, and orthodontic appliances. These alloys can be classified into three main categories based on their composition:

1. Precious Alloys: Predominantly composed of precious metals like gold, platinum, palladium, and silver. They are highly corrosion-resistant, biocompatible, and durable, making them suitable for long-term use in dental restorations. Common examples include high noble (gold) alloys and noble alloys.
2. Base Metal Alloys: Contain primarily non-precious metals like nickel, chromium, cobalt, and beryllium. They are more affordable than precious alloys but may cause allergic reactions or sensitivities in some patients. Common examples include nickel-chromium alloys and cobalt-chromium alloys.
3. Castable Glass Ionomer Alloys: A combination of glass ionomer cement (GIC) powder and metal liquid, which can be cast into various dental restorations. They have the advantage of being both strong and adhesive to tooth structure but may not be as durable as other alloy types.

Each type of dental alloy has its unique properties and applications, depending on the specific clinical situation and patient needs. Dental professionals consider factors like cost, biocompatibility, mechanical properties, and esthetics when selecting an appropriate alloy for a dental restoration.

Artificial saliva is a synthetic solution that mimics the chemical composition and properties of natural saliva. It is often used for patients with dry mouth (xerostomia) caused by conditions such as Sjögren's syndrome, radiation therapy, or certain medications that reduce saliva production. Artificial saliva may contain ingredients like carboxymethylcellulose, mucin, and electrolytes to provide lubrication, moisture, and pH buffering capacity similar to natural saliva. It can help alleviate symptoms associated with dry mouth, such as difficulty speaking, swallowing, and chewing, as well as protect oral tissues from irritation and infection.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "steel" is not a medical term. It is a term used to describe an alloy made primarily of iron and carbon. If you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, I'd be happy to help!

Titanium is not a medical term, but rather a chemical element (symbol Ti, atomic number 22) that is widely used in the medical field due to its unique properties. Medically, it is often referred to as a biocompatible material used in various medical applications such as:

1. Orthopedic implants: Titanium and its alloys are used for making joint replacements (hips, knees, shoulders), bone plates, screws, and rods due to their high strength-to-weight ratio, excellent corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility.
2. Dental implants: Titanium is also commonly used in dental applications like implants, crowns, and bridges because of its ability to osseointegrate, or fuse directly with bone tissue, providing a stable foundation for replacement teeth.
3. Cardiovascular devices: Titanium alloys are used in the construction of heart valves, pacemakers, and other cardiovascular implants due to their non-magnetic properties, which prevent interference with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans.
4. Medical instruments: Due to its resistance to corrosion and high strength, titanium is used in the manufacturing of various medical instruments such as surgical tools, needles, and catheters.

In summary, Titanium is a chemical element with unique properties that make it an ideal material for various medical applications, including orthopedic and dental implants, cardiovascular devices, and medical instruments.

Chromium alloys are materials made by combining chromium with other metals, such as nickel, cobalt, or iron. The addition of chromium to these alloys enhances their properties, making them resistant to corrosion and high temperatures. These alloys have a wide range of applications in various industries, including automotive, aerospace, and medical devices.

Chromium alloys can be classified into two main categories: stainless steels and superalloys. Stainless steels are alloys that contain at least 10.5% chromium by weight, which forms a passive oxide layer on the surface of the material, protecting it from corrosion. Superalloys, on the other hand, are high-performance alloys designed to operate in extreme environments, such as jet engines and gas turbines. They contain significant amounts of chromium, along with other elements like nickel, cobalt, and molybdenum.

Chromium alloys have several medical applications due to their excellent properties. For instance, they are used in surgical instruments, dental implants, and orthopedic devices because of their resistance to corrosion and biocompatibility. Additionally, some chromium alloys exhibit superelasticity, a property that allows them to return to their original shape after being deformed, making them suitable for use in stents and other medical devices that require flexibility and durability.

Gold alloys are not strictly a medical term, but they are often used in medical applications, particularly in the field of dentistry. Therefore, I will provide both a general definition and a dental-specific definition for clarity.

A gold alloy is a mixture of different metals, where gold is the primary component. The other metals are added to modify the properties of gold, such as its hardness, melting point, or color. These alloys can contain varying amounts of gold, ranging from 30% to 75%, depending on their intended use.

In dentistry, gold alloys refer to a specific type of alloy used for dental restorations like crowns, inlays, and onlays. These alloys typically contain between 60% and 90% gold, along with other metals such as silver, copper, and sometimes palladium or zinc. The high gold content ensures excellent biocompatibility, corrosion resistance, and durability, making these alloys a popular choice for dental applications. Additionally, their malleability allows for precise shaping and adjustment during the fabrication process.

I'm happy to help! However, I must clarify that "materials testing" is not a medical term per se. It is a term used in various fields, including engineering and materials science, to describe the process of subjecting materials to different tests to evaluate their properties and performance under various conditions.

In the context of medical devices or implants, materials testing may refer to the evaluation of the physical and mechanical properties of materials used in their construction. These tests can include assessments of strength, durability, biocompatibility, and other factors that are critical to ensuring the safety and efficacy of medical devices.

Medical device manufacturers must comply with regulatory standards for materials testing to ensure that their products meet specific requirements for performance, safety, and quality. These standards may vary depending on the type of device, its intended use, and the country or region in which it will be marketed and sold.

'Alloys' is not a medical term. It is a term used in materials science and engineering to describe a mixture or solid solution composed of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal. The components are typically present in significant amounts (>1% by weight). The properties of alloys, such as their strength, durability, and corrosion resistance, often differ from those of the constituent elements.

While not directly related to medicine, some alloys do have medical applications. For example, certain alloys are used in orthopedic implants, dental restorations, and other medical devices due to their desirable properties such as biocompatibility, strength, and resistance to corrosion.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Stainless Steel" is not a medical term. It is a type of steel that contains at least 10.5% chromium content by mass, and usually contains nickel as well. The chromium forms a passive film that protects the metal from corrosion and staining. Stainless steel is widely used in various industries including medicine, for example, in medical equipment and surgical instruments due to its resistance to rust and corrosion.

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is a type of electron microscopy that uses a focused beam of electrons to scan the surface of a sample and produce a high-resolution image. In SEM, a beam of electrons is scanned across the surface of a specimen, and secondary electrons are emitted from the sample due to interactions between the electrons and the atoms in the sample. These secondary electrons are then detected by a detector and used to create an image of the sample's surface topography. SEM can provide detailed images of the surface of a wide range of materials, including metals, polymers, ceramics, and biological samples. It is commonly used in materials science, biology, and electronics for the examination and analysis of surfaces at the micro- and nanoscale.

Intraoral electrogalvanism is a rare oral condition that occurs due to the presence of two or more dissimilar dental restorative materials in the mouth, which generate electrical potentials when in contact with saliva. This phenomenon is also known as "oral galvanic electricity" or simply "galvanism."

The electrical currents generated by these dissimilar materials can cause various symptoms, such as a metallic taste, tongue and lip tingling or burning sensations, and pain or discomfort in the affected area. The severity of the symptoms may vary depending on factors like the number of dissimilar materials present, the distance between them, and the individual's sensitivity to electrical currents.

To diagnose intraoral electrogalvanism, dental professionals typically perform a thorough examination of the oral cavity, including checking for any existing restorations made from different metals. They may also use specialized equipment, such as a galvanic cell tester or a potentiometer, to measure and compare the electrical potentials between various dental materials in the mouth.

Treatment usually involves replacing the dissimilar dental restorations with materials that have similar electrochemical properties, thus minimizing or eliminating the generation of electrical currents. In some cases, simply removing one of the offending restorations may be sufficient to alleviate the symptoms. However, if multiple restorations are involved, a more comprehensive treatment plan may be necessary to address all contributing factors and ensure long-term relief.

Orthodontic wires are typically made of stainless steel, nickel-titanium alloy, or other shape memory alloys, and are used in orthodontics to move teeth into the desired position. They are attached to brackets bonded to the teeth and exert a continuous force to align the teeth and correct malocclusions (bites that do not fit together correctly). The wires come in various sizes, shapes, and materials, each with specific properties that make them suitable for different stages of treatment. Some wires are flexible and used during the initial alignment phase, while others are more rigid and used during the finishing phase to achieve precise tooth movements.

Dielectric spectroscopy is a type of material characterization technique that measures the dielectric properties of a material as a function of frequency. The dielectric property of a material refers to its ability to store electrical energy in the form of polarization when an external electric field is applied. In dielectric spectroscopy, the material's response to an alternating electric field is measured, and the resulting complex permittivity (which includes both real and imaginary components) is used to characterize the material's dielectric behavior.

The technique involves applying a small amplitude AC voltage to the material while measuring the current flow through it. The frequency of the applied voltage can be varied over a wide range, typically from millihertz to gigahertz. By analyzing the phase shift and amplitude of the resulting current, the complex permittivity of the material can be determined as a function of frequency.

Dielectric spectroscopy is widely used in materials science, physics, chemistry, and biology to study the structure, dynamics, and composition of various materials, including polymers, ceramics, glasses, colloids, and biological tissues. The technique can provide valuable information about the material's molecular mobility, relaxation processes, conductivity, and other dielectric properties, which can be used for quality control, process monitoring, and fundamental research.

Potentiometry is a method used in analytical chemistry to measure the potential (or voltage) difference between two electrodes, which reflects the concentration of an ion or a particular molecule in a solution. It involves setting up an electrochemical cell with two electrodes: a working electrode and a reference electrode. The working electrode is immersed in the test solution and its potential is measured against the stable potential of the reference electrode.

The Nernst equation can be used to relate the potential difference to the concentration of the analyte, allowing for quantitative analysis. Potentiometry is often used to measure the activity or concentration of ions such as H+, Na+, K+, and Cl-, as well as other redox-active species.

In medical testing, potentiometry can be used to measure the concentration of certain ions in biological fluids such as blood, urine, or sweat. For example, it can be used to measure the pH of a solution (the concentration of H+ ions) or the concentration of glucose in blood using a glucometer.

Conductometry is a method used to measure the electrical conductivity of a solution, which can change in the presence of certain ions or chemical reactions. In conductometry, a conductivity probe or electrode is placed in the solution and an electrical current is passed through it. The resistance of the solution is then measured and converted into a measurement of conductivity.

Conductometry is often used to monitor chemical reactions that produce or consume ions, such as acid-base titrations, oxidation-reduction reactions, and complexation reactions. By measuring changes in conductivity over time, researchers can gain insights into the rate and extent of these reactions.

In medical research, conductometry may be used to study the electrical properties of biological tissues, such as skin or blood, or to monitor chemical processes in the body, such as the metabolism of drugs or other substances. However, it is not a commonly used diagnostic tool in clinical medicine.

Electrochemical techniques are a group of analytical methods used in chemistry and biochemistry that involve the study of chemical processes that cause electrons to move. These techniques use an electrochemical cell, which consists of two electrodes (a working electrode and a counter electrode) immersed in an electrolyte solution. An electrical potential is applied between the electrodes, which drives redox reactions to occur at the electrode surfaces. The resulting current that flows through the cell can be measured and related to the concentration of analytes in the solution.

There are several types of electrochemical techniques, including:

1. Voltammetry: This technique measures the current that flows through the cell as a function of the applied potential. There are several types of voltammetry, including cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry, and square wave voltammetry.
2. Amperometry: This technique measures the current that flows through the cell at a constant potential.
3. Potentiometry: This technique measures the potential difference between the working electrode and a reference electrode at zero current flow.
4. Impedance spectroscopy: This technique measures the impedance of the electrical circuit formed by the electrochemical cell as a function of frequency.

Electrochemical techniques are widely used in various fields, such as environmental monitoring, pharmaceuticals, food analysis, and biomedical research. They offer several advantages, including high sensitivity, selectivity, and simplicity, making them a powerful tool for chemical analysis.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Neodymium" is not a medical term. It is a chemical element with the symbol Nd and atomic number 60. Neodymium is a rare-earth metal that has been used in various industrial and technological applications, such as magnets, lasers, and glass coloration. It is not directly related to medical terminology or healthcare.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Nickel" is not a medical term. It is a chemical element with the symbol Ni and atomic number 28. Nickel is a hard, silvery-white lustrous metal with a slight golden tinge. It is one of four elements that are ferromagnetic and is used as a common component in various alloys due to its properties such as resistance to corrosion and heat.

However, in a medical context, nickel may refer to:

* Nickel allergy: A type of allergic contact dermatitis caused by an immune system response to the presence of nickel in jewelry, clothing fasteners, or other items that come into contact with the skin. Symptoms can include redness, itching, and rash at the site of exposure.
* Nickel carbonyl: A highly toxic chemical compound (Ni(CO)4) that can cause respiratory and neurological problems if inhaled. It is produced during some industrial processes involving nickel and carbon monoxide and poses a health risk to workers if proper safety measures are not taken.

If you have any concerns about exposure to nickel or symptoms related to nickel allergy, it's best to consult with a healthcare professional for further evaluation and treatment.

Surface properties in the context of medical science refer to the characteristics and features of the outermost layer or surface of a biological material or structure, such as cells, tissues, organs, or medical devices. These properties can include physical attributes like roughness, smoothness, hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity, and electrical conductivity, as well as chemical properties like charge, reactivity, and composition.

In the field of biomaterials science, understanding surface properties is crucial for designing medical implants, devices, and drug delivery systems that can interact safely and effectively with biological tissues and fluids. Surface modifications, such as coatings or chemical treatments, can be used to alter surface properties and enhance biocompatibility, improve lubricity, reduce fouling, or promote specific cellular responses like adhesion, proliferation, or differentiation.

Similarly, in the field of cell biology, understanding surface properties is essential for studying cell-cell interactions, cell signaling, and cell behavior. Cells can sense and respond to changes in their environment, including variations in surface properties, which can influence cell shape, motility, and function. Therefore, characterizing and manipulating surface properties can provide valuable insights into the mechanisms of cellular processes and offer new strategies for developing therapies and treatments for various diseases.

Electroplating is not a medical term, but rather a process used in the industrial field. It refers to the process of coating an electrically conductive object with a thin layer of metal through the use of an electrical current. This process involves immersing the object in a solution containing dissolved ions of the metal to be deposited, and then passing an electric current through the solution. The object serves as the cathode, and the metal ions are reduced at its surface, forming a thin layer of pure metal.

While electroplating is not directly related to medicine, it does have some medical applications. For example, medical devices such as pacemakers or implantable defibrillators may be coated with gold or other metals through electroplating to improve their biocompatibility and reduce the risk of corrosion or rejection by the body. Similarly, dental restorations may be electroplated with precious metals to enhance their strength and durability.

Electrolysis is a medical procedure that involves the use of electrical current to permanently remove hair growth. It works by passing a thin, solid metal electrode (called a probe) into the natural opening of the hair follicle and applying an electrical charge to destroy the hair root. This process can be used to remove hair from any part of the body, including the face, legs, arms, underarms, and bikini area.

During electrolysis, a trained professional called an electrologist inserts a small needle into the hair follicle and applies a mild electrical current. The current heats up and destroys the hair root, preventing future growth. Multiple treatments are usually necessary to achieve permanent hair removal, as only one or two hairs can be treated at a time.

Electrolysis is considered a safe and effective method for permanent hair removal, but it can cause some discomfort during and after treatment. Common side effects include redness, swelling, and tenderness in the treated area. These side effects typically resolve within a few hours to a few days after treatment.

It's important to note that electrolysis should only be performed by a licensed and trained electrologist. Improper technique can cause scarring, infection, or other complications. Before undergoing electrolysis, it's recommended to consult with a dermatologist or other healthcare provider to discuss the risks and benefits of the procedure.

Polarography is a type of electrochemical analysis technique used to determine the concentration of an ion or electron-transferring species in a solution. It involves measuring the current that flows through an electrode as the voltage is varied, which can provide information about the redox potential and the number of electrons transferred during a reaction. The technique is particularly useful for analyzing complex mixtures and for detecting trace amounts of substances.

In polarography, a dropping mercury electrode (DME) is typically used as the working electrode. As the mercury droplets fall from the electrode, they create fresh surfaces for analysis, which helps to minimize interference from surface-adsorbed species. The DME is immersed in a solution containing the analyte along with a supporting electrolyte, and a potential is applied between the DME and a reference electrode.

As the potential is scanned, reduction or oxidation of the analyte occurs at the DME surface, leading to a current that can be measured. The resulting polarogram (a plot of current vs. voltage) shows peaks or waves corresponding to the redox potentials of the analyte, which can be used to identify and quantify the species present in the solution.

Polarography is a sensitive and selective technique that has been widely used in fields such as environmental analysis, pharmaceuticals, and biochemistry. However, it has largely been replaced by more modern electrochemical techniques, such as cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry, which offer higher sensitivity and better resolution of complex mixtures.

In medical terms, "immersion" is not a term with a specific clinical definition. However, in general terms, immersion refers to the act of placing something or someone into a liquid or environment completely. In some contexts, it may be used to describe a type of wound care where the wound is covered completely with a medicated dressing or solution. It can also be used to describe certain medical procedures or therapies that involve submerging a part of the body in a liquid, such as hydrotherapy.

Cariostatic agents are substances or medications that are used to prevent or inhibit the development and progression of dental caries, also known as tooth decay or cavities. These agents work by reducing the ability of bacteria in the mouth to produce acid, which can erode the enamel and dentin of the teeth and lead to cavities.

There are several types of cariostatic agents that are commonly used in dental care, including:

1. Fluorides: These are the most widely used and well-studied cariostatic agents. They work by promoting the remineralization of tooth enamel and making it more resistant to acid attacks. Fluoride can be found in toothpaste, mouthwashes, gels, varnishes, and fluoridated water supplies.
2. Antimicrobial agents: These substances work by reducing the population of bacteria in the mouth that contribute to tooth decay. Examples include chlorhexidine, triclosan, and xylitol.
3. Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP): This is a complex protein that has been shown to help remineralize tooth enamel and reduce the risk of dental caries. It can be found in some toothpastes and mouthwashes.
4. Silver diamine fluoride: This is a topical fluoride compound that contains silver ions, which have antimicrobial properties. It has been shown to be effective in preventing and arresting dental caries, particularly in high-risk populations such as young children and older adults with dry mouth.

It's important to note that while cariostatic agents can help reduce the risk of tooth decay, they are not a substitute for good oral hygiene practices such as brushing twice a day, flossing daily, and visiting the dentist regularly.

Electrochemistry is a branch of chemistry that deals with the interconversion of electrical energy and chemical energy. It involves the study of chemical processes that cause electrons to move, resulting in the transfer of electrical charge, and the reverse processes by which electrical energy can be used to drive chemical reactions. This field encompasses various phenomena such as the generation of electricity from chemical sources (as in batteries), the electrolysis of substances, and corrosion. Electrochemical reactions are fundamental to many technologies, including energy storage and conversion, environmental protection, and medical diagnostics.

In medical terms, "caustics" refer to substances that can cause burns or destroy living tissue due to their corrosive nature. They can cause chemical burns upon contact with skin, eyes, or mucous membranes, leading to inflammation, necrosis (tissue death), and potential scarring. Common caustic substances include strong acids and bases, such as sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, and sodium hydroxide (lye).

In dermatology, the term "caustics" may also refer to chemical peeling agents used for the treatment of various skin conditions, such as hyperpigmentation, acne scars, or fine lines. These substances, which include trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and phenol, cause a controlled injury to the skin, leading to exfoliation and the stimulation of new tissue growth. However, they must be used with caution, as improper application can result in unwanted side effects or complications.

Photoelectron Spectroscopy (PES) is not typically considered a medical definition, but it is a term used in physical and analytical chemistry. However, I can provide a definition for you:

Photoelectron Spectroscopy (PES) is a technique used to study the electronic structure of atoms, molecules, and solids by irradiating them with photons (usually from a laser or a synchrotron light source) and measuring the kinetic energy of the ejected electrons. The technique provides information about the energy levels of the electrons in the sample, which can be used to determine its chemical composition, bonding, and electronic structure. PES is a valuable tool in surface science, materials research, and environmental analysis.

Dental soldering is a procedure in which two or more metal components are joined together by melting and flowing a filler metal into the joint, creating a strong metallic bond. In dentistry, this technique is primarily used to repair or construct dental restorations such as crowns, bridges, and orthodontic appliances.

The process typically involves:

1. Cleaning and preparing the surfaces to be soldered by removing any oxides, oils, or contaminants that might interfere with the bond.
2. Applying a flux to the prepared surfaces to prevent further oxidation during heating.
3. Positioning the components accurately so they can be joined correctly.
4. Heating the parts using a soldering torch or other heat source, while simultaneously applying the filler metal (solder) to the joint.
5. Allowing the solder to cool and solidify, creating a strong metallic bond between the components.
6. Finishing and polishing the soldered area for smooth integration with the surrounding dental restoration.

Dental soldering requires precision, skill, and knowledge of various metals and alloys used in dentistry. Proper safety measures, including protective eyewear and a well-ventilated workspace, should be taken during the procedure to minimize potential hazards from heat, flames, or fumes.

Chromium is an essential trace element that is necessary for human health. It is a key component of the glucose tolerance factor, which helps to enhance the function of insulin in regulating blood sugar levels. Chromium can be found in various foods such as meat, fish, whole grains, and some fruits and vegetables. However, it is also available in dietary supplements for those who may not get adequate amounts through their diet.

The recommended daily intake of chromium varies depending on age and gender. For adults, the adequate intake (AI) is 20-35 micrograms per day for women and 35-50 micrograms per day for men. Chromium deficiency is rare but can lead to impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, and increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

It's important to note that while chromium supplements are marketed as a way to improve insulin sensitivity and blood sugar control, there is limited evidence to support these claims. Moreover, excessive intake of chromium can have adverse effects on health, including liver and kidney damage, stomach irritation, and hypoglycemia. Therefore, it's recommended to consult with a healthcare provider before taking any dietary supplements containing chromium.

Dental prosthesis retention refers to the means by which a dental prosthesis, such as a denture, is held in place in the mouth. The retention can be achieved through several methods, including:

1. Suction: This is the most common method of retention for lower dentures, where the shape and fit of the denture base create suction against the gums to hold it in place.
2. Mechanical retention: This involves the use of mechanical components such as clasps or attachments that hook onto remaining natural teeth or dental implants to hold the prosthesis in place.
3. Adhesive retention: Dental adhesives can be used to help secure the denture to the gums, providing additional retention and stability.
4. Implant retention: Dental implants can be used to provide a more secure and stable retention of the dental prosthesis. The implant is surgically placed in the jawbone and acts as an anchor for the prosthesis.

Proper retention of a dental prosthesis is essential for optimal function, comfort, and speech. A well-retained prosthesis can help prevent sore spots, improve chewing efficiency, and enhance overall quality of life.

Construction materials are substances or components that are used in the building and construction of infrastructure, such as buildings, roads, bridges, and other structures. These materials can be naturally occurring, like wood, stone, and clay, or they can be manufactured, like steel, concrete, and glass. The choice of construction material depends on various factors, including the project's requirements, structural strength, durability, cost, and sustainability.

In a medical context, construction materials may refer to the substances used in the construction or fabrication of medical devices, equipment, or furniture. These materials must meet strict regulations and standards to ensure they are safe, biocompatible, and do not pose a risk to patients or healthcare workers. Examples of medical construction materials include surgical-grade stainless steel, medical-grade plastics, and radiation-shielding materials used in the construction of medical imaging equipment enclosures.

X-ray emission spectrometry is a technique used to analyze the elements present in a sample by measuring the characteristic X-rays that are emitted when the sample is bombarded with high-energy X-rays or charged particles. The sample is excited to emit X-rays, which have specific energies (wavelengths) that correspond to the energy levels of the electrons in the atoms of the elements present in the sample. These X-ray emissions are then detected and analyzed using a spectrometer, which separates and measures the intensity of the different X-ray energies. The resulting spectrum provides information about the identity and quantity of the elements present in the sample. This technique is widely used in materials analysis, particularly for the identification and quantification of heavy metals and other elements in a variety of samples, including geological, biological, and industrial materials.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Platinum" is not a medical term. Platinum is a chemical element with the symbol Pt and atomic number 78. It is a dense, malleable, ductile, highly unreactive, precious, silverish-white transition metal.

However, in the field of oncology, platinum-based compounds are used as chemotherapeutic drugs. These include:

1. Cisplatin: This is a platinum-containing drug that is used to treat various types of cancers such as testicular cancer, ovarian cancer, bladder cancer, and others. It works by forming crosslinks with the DNA of cancer cells, which disrupts their function and leads to cell death.

2. Carboplatin: This is another platinum-based chemotherapy drug that is used to treat various types of cancers such as ovarian cancer, lung cancer, and others. It is less toxic than cisplatin but has similar mechanisms of action.

3. Oxaliplatin: This is a third platinum-based chemotherapy drug that is used to treat colon cancer and rectal cancer. Like the other two drugs, it forms crosslinks with DNA and disrupts cell function leading to cell death.

These drugs are not made of pure platinum but contain platinum compounds that have been synthesized for medical use.

Skin irritancy tests are experimental procedures used to determine the potential of a substance to cause irritation or damage to the skin. These tests typically involve applying the substance to intact or abraded (damaged) skin of human volunteers or animals, and then observing and measuring any adverse reactions that occur over a specified period. The results of these tests can help assess the safety of a substance for use in consumer products, pharmaceuticals, or industrial applications. It is important to note that the ethical considerations and regulations surrounding animal testing have led to an increased focus on developing alternative methods, such as in vitro (test tube) tests using reconstructed human skin models.

Denture retention, in the field of dentistry, refers to the ability of a dental prosthesis (dentures) to maintain its position and stability within the mouth. It is achieved through various factors including the fit, shape, and design of the denture, as well as the use of dental implants or adhesives. Proper retention helps ensure comfortable and effective chewing, speaking, and smiling for individuals who have lost some or all of their natural teeth.

Dental polishing is a procedure in dentistry that is performed to smooth and clean the surfaces of teeth after professional dental cleaning (prophylaxis), restoration, or other dental treatments. It is usually done using a slow-speed handpiece with a soft, rubber cup attached to it, which holds a polishing paste or a slurry of pumice and water. The polishing paste may contain an abrasive agent, fluoride, or a flavoring agent. The dental professional moves the handpiece in a circular motion over the tooth surface to remove stains, plaque, and minor surface roughness, leaving the teeth smooth and shiny. Dental polishing helps to prevent the buildup of plaque and tartar, reduce the risk of decay and gum disease, and improve the overall oral hygiene and aesthetics of the teeth.

Sodium fluoride is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula NaF. Medically, it is commonly used as a dental treatment to prevent tooth decay, as it is absorbed into the structure of teeth and helps to harden the enamel, making it more resistant to acid attacks from bacteria. It can also reduce the ability of bacteria to produce acid. Sodium fluoride is often found in toothpastes, mouth rinses, and various dental treatments. However, excessive consumption can lead to dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis, which cause changes in bone structure and might negatively affect health.

Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA) is a technique used in materials science and geology to analyze the chemical composition of materials at very small scales, typically on the order of microns or less. In this technique, a focused beam of electrons is directed at a sample, causing the emission of X-rays that are characteristic of the elements present in the sample. By analyzing the energy and intensity of these X-rays, researchers can determine the concentration of different elements in the sample with high precision and accuracy.

EPMA is typically performed using a specialized instrument called an electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA), which consists of an electron column for generating and focusing the electron beam, an X-ray spectrometer for analyzing the emitted X-rays, and a stage for positioning and manipulating the sample. The technique is widely used in fields such as mineralogy, geochemistry, metallurgy, and materials science to study the composition and structure of minerals, alloys, semiconductors, and other materials.

One of the key advantages of EPMA is its ability to analyze the chemical composition of small regions within a sample, even in cases where there are spatial variations in composition or where the sample is heterogeneous. This makes it an ideal technique for studying the distribution and behavior of trace elements in minerals, the microstructure of alloys and other materials, and the composition of individual grains or phases within a polyphase material. Additionally, EPMA can be used to analyze both conductive and non-conductive samples, making it a versatile tool for a wide range of applications.

The dental casting technique is a method used in dentistry to create accurate replicas or reproductions of teeth and oral structures. This process typically involves the following steps:

1. Making an impression: A dental professional takes an impression of the patient's teeth and oral structures using a special material, such as alginate or polyvinyl siloxane. The impression material captures the precise shape and contours of the teeth and surrounding tissues.
2. Pouring the cast: The impression is then filled with a casting material, such as gypsum-based stone, which hardens to form a positive model or replica of the teeth and oral structures. This model is called a dental cast or die.
3. Examining and modifying the cast: The dental cast can be used for various purposes, such as analyzing the patient's bite, planning treatment, fabricating dental appliances, or creating study models for teaching or research purposes. Dental professionals may also modify the cast to simulate various conditions or treatments.
4. Replicating the process: In some cases, multiple casts may be made from a single impression, allowing dental professionals to create identical replicas of the patient's teeth and oral structures. This can be useful for comparing changes over time, creating duplicate appliances, or sharing information with other dental professionals involved in the patient's care.

The dental casting technique is an essential part of many dental procedures, as it enables dentists to accurately assess, plan, and implement treatments based on the unique characteristics of each patient's oral structures.

Biocompatible materials are non-toxic and non-reacting substances that can be used in medical devices, tissue engineering, and drug delivery systems without causing harm or adverse reactions to living tissues or organs. These materials are designed to mimic the properties of natural tissues and are able to integrate with biological systems without being rejected by the body's immune system.

Biocompatible materials can be made from a variety of substances, including metals, ceramics, polymers, and composites. The specific properties of these materials, such as their mechanical strength, flexibility, and biodegradability, are carefully selected to meet the requirements of their intended medical application.

Examples of biocompatible materials include titanium used in dental implants and joint replacements, polyethylene used in artificial hips, and hydrogels used in contact lenses and drug delivery systems. The use of biocompatible materials has revolutionized modern medicine by enabling the development of advanced medical technologies that can improve patient outcomes and quality of life.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Silver" is not a medical term. It is a chemical element with the symbol Ag and atomic number 47. Silver is a soft, white, lustrous transition metal that occurs in its pure, free form (native silver) as an alloy with gold and other metals, and in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite.

In the medical field, silver compounds have been used for their antimicrobial properties. For example, silver sulfadiazine is a common topical cream used to prevent or treat wound infections. Colloidal silver, a suspension of silver particles in a liquid, has also been promoted as a dietary supplement and alternative treatment for various conditions, but its effectiveness and safety are not well-established.

I'm sorry for the confusion, but "Palladium" is not a medical term. It is a chemical element with symbol Pd and atomic number 46. It is a rare and lustrous silvery-white metal discovered in 1803 by William Hyde Wollaston. It's used in various applications, including jewelry, dental work, electronics, and chemical reactions. If you have any medical terms you would like me to define, please let me know!

Equipment Failure Analysis is a process of identifying the cause of failure in medical equipment or devices. This involves a systematic examination and evaluation of the equipment, its components, and operational history to determine why it failed. The analysis may include physical inspection, chemical testing, and review of maintenance records, as well as assessment of design, manufacturing, and usage factors that may have contributed to the failure.

The goal of Equipment Failure Analysis is to identify the root cause of the failure, so that corrective actions can be taken to prevent similar failures in the future. This is important in medical settings to ensure patient safety and maintain the reliability and effectiveness of medical equipment.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

Direct service costs are expenses that can be directly attributed to the delivery of a specific service or program. These costs are typically related to items such as personnel, supplies, and equipment that are used exclusively for the provision of that service. Direct service costs can be contrasted with indirect costs, which are expenses that are not easily linked to a particular service or program and may include things like administrative overhead, rent, and utilities.

Examples of direct service costs in a healthcare setting might include:

* Salaries and benefits for medical staff who provide patient care, such as doctors, nurses, and therapists
* Costs of medications and supplies used to treat patients
* Equipment and supplies needed to perform diagnostic tests or procedures, such as X-ray machines or surgical instruments
* Rent or lease payments for space that is dedicated to providing patient care services.

It's important to accurately track direct service costs in order to understand the true cost of delivering a particular service or program, and to make informed decisions about resource allocation and pricing.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Gross Domestic Product" (GDP) is an economic term, not a medical one. GDP is the total monetary or market value of all the finished goods and services produced within a country's borders in a specific time period. It serves as a comprehensive measure of a nation’s overall economic activity.

If you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, I would be happy to help!

Health care costs refer to the expenses incurred for medical services, treatments, procedures, and products that are used to maintain or restore an individual's health. These costs can be categorized into several types:

1. Direct costs: These include payments made for doctor visits, hospital stays, medications, diagnostic tests, surgeries, and other medical treatments and services. Direct costs can be further divided into two subcategories:
* Out-of-pocket costs: Expenses paid directly by patients, such as co-payments, deductibles, coinsurance, and any uncovered medical services or products.
* Third-party payer costs: Expenses covered by insurance companies, government programs (like Medicare, Medicaid), or other entities that pay for health care services on behalf of patients.
2. Indirect costs: These are the expenses incurred as a result of illness or injury that indirectly impact an individual's ability to work and earn a living. Examples include lost productivity, absenteeism, reduced earning capacity, and disability benefits.
3. Non-medical costs: These are expenses related to caregiving, transportation, home modifications, assistive devices, and other non-medical services required for managing health conditions or disabilities.

Health care costs can vary significantly depending on factors such as the type of medical service, geographic location, insurance coverage, and individual health status. Understanding these costs is essential for patients, healthcare providers, policymakers, and researchers to make informed decisions about treatment options, resource allocation, and health system design.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Household Products" is not a term with a specific medical definition. Household products generally refer to items that are used in the home for cleaning, maintenance, and personal care. They can include things like cleaning supplies, laundry detergent, dish soap, personal care products (such as shampoo, toothpaste, and lotion), and other similar items. However, there is no medical context in which "household products" has a specific or technical meaning. If you have any concerns about the safety or health effects of a particular household product, I would recommend consulting with a healthcare professional or reaching out to the manufacturer for more information.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "jewelry" is not a term that has a medical definition. Jewelry refers to decorative items worn for personal adornment, such as rings, necklaces, bracelets, and earrings, which are typically made from precious metals and stones or other valuable materials. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I'd be happy to try to help answer those for you!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "music" is not a term that has a medical definition. Music is a form of art that uses sound organized in time. It may include elements such as melody, harmony, rhythm, and dynamics. While music can have various psychological and physiological effects on individuals, it is not considered a medical term with a specific diagnosis or treatment application. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I'd be happy to try to help answer those for you!

... the resulting major modes of corrosion may include pitting corrosion, crevice corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking. Certain ... Microbial corrosion, or commonly known as microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC), is a corrosion caused or promoted by ... "Different Types of Corrosion: Pitting Corrosion - Causes and Prevention". WebCorr Corrosion Consulting ... The materials most resistant to corrosion are those for which corrosion is thermodynamically unfavorable. Any corrosion ...
"Different types of corrosion: generalized corrosion, pitting corrosion, galvanic corrosion, MIC corrosion". ... Chloride attack Corrosion Corrosion engineering Crevice corrosion Micro pitting Panel edge staining Pitting resistance ... Pitting corrosion, or pitting, is a form of extremely localized corrosion that leads to the random creation of small holes in ... Pitting corrosion can also help initiate stress corrosion cracking, as happened when a single eyebar on the Silver Bridge in ...
"Gary Numan - Dream Corrosion at Discogs". Retrieved 14 February 2012. "Gary Numan - Dream Corrosion (CD, Album) at ... Dream Corrosion is a 1994 live album by the British electronic musician Gary Numan. It was recorded at the London Hammersmith ... "Images for Gary Numan - Dream Corrosion". Retrieved 14 February 2012. (Use dmy dates from November 2021, Use ...
... (also called bimetallic corrosion or dissimilar metal corrosion) is an electrochemical process in which one ... "Electrochemical corrosion protection". Retrieved 25 May 2023. "Galvanic corrosion... What it is and how ... "Handbook of Corrosion Engineering". Wikimedia Commons has media related to Galvanic corrosion. ( ... galvanic corrosion will contribute to accelerated corrosion of parts of the system. Corrosion inhibitors such as sodium nitrite ...
A broader term for this class of corrosion is lamellar corrosion. Alloys of iron are susceptible to lamellar corrosion, as the ... 4] Intergranular corrosion induced by environmental stresses is termed stress corrosion cracking. Inter granular corrosion can ... transgranular corrosion.) This situation can happen in otherwise corrosion-resistant alloys, when the grain boundaries are ... The dark lines consist of carbides and corrosion products. Intergranular corrosion is generally considered to be caused by the ...
... biochemical corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and corrosion control methods, as well as surface science and engineering. ... Established in 1961, it covers a wide range of topics in the study of pure/applied corrosion and corrosion engineering, ... "Source details: Corrosion Science". Scopus Preview. Elsevier. Retrieved 1 February 2022. "Corrosion Science". 2021 Journal ... Corrosion Science is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Elsevier in 16 issues per year. ...
Corrosion engineering Tribocorrosion Tribology Wear D. Aylor (2003). Evaluating Erosion Corrosion, Cavitation, and Impingement ... enhanced corrosion of the material, if the corrosion rate of the material depends on the thickness of the oxide layer. The ... Erosion corrosion is a degradation of material surface due to mechanical action, often by impinging liquid, abrasion by a ... Alan Levy (1995). "Solid Particle Erosion and Erosion-Corrosion of Materials", ASM International. v t e v t e (Articles with ...
Both terms "RBI Corrosion loops" or "RBI corrosion circuits" are generic terms used to indicate the systematization of piping ... It is suggested that a "true" corrosion loop should be a grouping were the degradation mechanism is "likely" to be the same i.e ... Corrosion loop(s) are systematized analysis "loops" used during Risk-based inspection analysis. ... Corrosion, All stub articles, Electrochemistry stubs, Chemical process stubs, Metal stubs). ...
... corrosion types, corrosion forms, pipe corrosion, generalized corrosion, pitting corrosion, galvanic corrosion, MIC corrosion ... "Different Types of Corrosion: Crevice Corrosion -Causes and Prevention. Different Forms of Corrosion: ... but note pitting and crevice corrosion are not the same phenomenon, filiform corrosion (this type of crevice corrosion that may ... Crevice corrosion can be viewed as a less severe form of localized corrosion when compared with pitting. The depth of ...
Crack propagation under corrosion fatigue may be classified as a) true corrosion fatigue, b) stress corrosion fatigue or c) a ... Corrosion Cyclic corrosion testing Metal Fatigue Stress corrosion cracking Stress P. T. Gilbert, Metallurgical Reviews 1 (1956 ... In true corrosion fatigue, the fatigue-crack-growth rate is enhanced by corrosion; this effect is seen in all three regions of ... However, in corrosion fatigue crack nucleation is facilitated by corrosion; typically, about 10 percent of life is sufficient ...
In this article, the difference between corrosion monitoring and corrosion protection, its difference with corrosion inspection ... the purpose is to evaluate or estimate the corrosion time in order to replace or correct the corrosion, while in corrosion ... Corrosion monitoring is the use of a corrator (corrosion meter) or set of methods and equipment to provide offline or online ... The corrosion rate of these probes can be measured online or transferred to the control system by using corrosion handheld or ...
... (also known as hydrogen corrosion) is a form of metal corrosion occurring in anoxic water. Typically ... The overall process of corrosion can be represented by a bimodal function, where the type of corrosion varies with time, ... Of these, the most notable process is the microbiologically-influenced corrosion in terms of the magnitude of corrosion. The ... Corrosion Bacterial anaerobic corrosion Electrochemistry Sulfate-reducing microorganism Redox reaction Melchers, Robert E. ( ...
Crevice corrosion is a type of localized corrosion with a very similar mechanism to pitting corrosion. Stress corrosion ... Anodic protection Coating Corrosion Corrosion societies Corrosion inhibitor Corrosion in ballast tanks DCVG (direct current ... general corrosion, pitting corrosion, microbial corrosion, and fluid corrosivity. The same principals of external corrosion ... Atmospheric corrosion generally refers to general corrosion in a non-specific environment. Prevention of atmospheric corrosion ...
"This Corrosion" is a song by English rock band The Sisters of Mercy, released as the lead single from their second studio album ... "This Corrosion" was written by Andrew Eldritch and produced by Jim Steinman, and is one of the band's most well-known songs. It ... The lyrics of "This Corrosion" are a parody of Hussey's style. The track was featured in the 2013 science-fiction comedy film, ... While none of the mixes have names, the 7", 12", CD and cassette versions of "This Corrosion" are all different. "Colours" is ...
Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC) Biogenic sulfide corrosion Corrosion Rusticle Bacterial Anaerobic Corrosion ... Microbial corrosion, also called microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC), microbially induced corrosion (MIC) or ... 1]. Bacterial corrosion may appear in form of pitting corrosion, for example in pipelines of the oil and gas industry. ... Anaerobic corrosion is evident as layers of metal sulfides and hydrogen sulfide smell. On cast iron, a graphitic corrosion ...
Octel-Starreon Refinery Fuel Additives Corrosion Inhibitors for hydrocarbon fuels - corrosion inhibitor and corrosion ... Benzotriazole inhibits the corrosion and staining of copper surfaces. Corrosion inhibitors are often added to paints. A pigment ... "Corrosion Resistance - DECC Company". Retrieved 2015-10-15.*"Nitriding for Corrosion and Wear Fatigue Resistance ... M. Finšgarand and I. Milošev "Inhibition of copper corrosion by 1,2,3-benzotriazole: A review" Corrosion Science 2010, Volume ...
European Federation of Corrosion (EFC) is an association of individual European country Corrosion societies joined in a larger ... Corrosion societies are professional societies for corrosion engineers for the purpose of sharing experience and discoveries. ... The Institute of Corrosion (I.Corr) is a United Kingdom-based organisation and offers designator letters after a name to ... The Australasian Corrosion Association works with NACE in Australia and New Zealand offering accredited NACE courses in the ...
Corrosion is the third full-length studio album by Vancouver industrial band Front Line Assembly, released in 1988. All tracks ... Lamacq, Steve (May 7, 1988). "Front Line Assembly - Corrosion". NME. London: IPC Media. v t e (Use mdy dates from March 2019, ... Stubbs, David (February 20, 1988). "Front Line Assembly - Corrosion". Melody Maker. London: IPC Media. Davis, Sarah (August 6, ... 2-3. Front Line Assembly: Corrosion > Credits at AllMusic. Retrieved July 8, 2014. ...
"Storm Corrosion - Storm Corrosion". Allmusic. Retrieved 4 July 2012. "Storm Corrosion - Albums". Retrieved ... "Storm Corrosion - Fan Q&A: Working Together". YouTube. Retrieved 9 June 2012. "Biography". Storm Corrosion Official Website. ... In early 2011, Storm Corrosion was announced as the project's title. After more than a year of writing, Storm Corrosion's first ... "Storm Corrosion - Storm Corrosion - Awards". Allmusic. Retrieved 20 February 2013. (Webarchive template wayback links, CS1 ...
... (CUI) is a severe form of localized external corrosion that occurs in carbon and low alloy steel ... Corrosion Under Insulation (CUI) - Inspectioneering Journal v t e (Corrosion, All stub articles, Electrochemistry stubs, ... This form of corrosion occurs when water is absorbed by or collected in the insulation. The equipment begins to corrode as it ... Corrosion occurs where there is thermal cycling. In this instance the moist condenses back on to the core material until it is ...
... is the third and final release by technical death metal band Oppressor. It was released in 1998. ... photography Oppressor at Encyclopedia Metallum Elements of Corrosion at AllMusic Oppressor on Myspace v t e (Articles with ...
Corrosion should not affect the resin, only dissolving tissue. The final product is a 3D network of blood vessels. Corrosion ... The earliest known use of corrosion casting was by Robert Boyle in 1663. Vascular corrosion casting requires the use of a ... Vascular corrosion casting uses resin to capture the 3D structure of blood vessels within human and animal tissue. It is widely ... The most common resin used for vascular corrosion casting is Batson's 17. The process begins with the draining of blood from ...
"Storm Corrosion - Storm Corrosion". Allmusic. Retrieved 2012-05-10. Angel (1 May 2012). "Review: Storm Corrosion - Storm ... Storm Corrosion". BBC. Retrieved 2012-06-23. Garrison, Marc (2012-04-29). "Storm Corrosion 'Storm Corrosion' (2012)". Powerline ... Storm Corrosion is the self-titled only album from Storm Corrosion, the musical collaboration between Mikael Åkerfeldt, ... "Storm Corrosion interview - Steven Wilson (part 5)" on YouTube "Storm Corrosion (Opeth/Porcupine Tree) Detail Debut Album, Prep ...
The Australasian Corrosion Association (ACA) is a non-profit membership association, headquartered in the state of Victoria, ... The Association proactively promotes corrosion awareness in Australia and New Zealand, and holds annual conferences on the ... "NACE International and Australasian Corrosion Association Sign Five-Year Cooperative Agreement". Archived from ... which disseminates information on corrosion and its prevention or control, by providing training, seminars, conferences, ...
... or Corrosion loop / Piping Circuitization and Corrosion Modelling, is carried out as part of either a ... recommended by corrosion/materials engineer CML/TML installed and documented on piping isometric drawings Corrosion engineering ... Use an experienced corrosion/materials engineer to define systems in each unit Define corrosion circuits within each system ... Corrosion Circuits are utilized in the Integrity Management Plan (IMP) which forms a part of the overall Asset integrity ...
For bacterial anaerobic corrosion there is general corrosion of substrates as well as another form of corrosion known as ... Corrosion Microbial corrosion Methanogen Denitrifying Bacteria Loto, C. A. (2017). "Microbiological corrosion: mechanism, ... Corrosion of metals typically alters the metal to a form that is more stable. Thus, bacterial anaerobic corrosion typically ... Corrosion of concrete mediums leads to considerable losses in industrial settings. When considering the corrosion of concrete ...
... corrosion (31 July 2008) "INSECTION, PREVENTION, CONTROL, AND REPAIR OF CORROSION ON AVIONICS EQUIPMENT" (PDF). v t e ... The corrosion is identifiable by presence of patches of brown-red powder deposit on the exposed copper. Red plague is caused by ... PSS-01-720 Corrosion of Silver-Plated Copper Conductors ECSS-Q-ST-70-20C - Determination of the susceptibility of silver-plated ... It is not to be confused with purple plague, a type of galvanic corrosion that occurs between gold and aluminum. "RED PLAGUE ...
Corrosion Microbial corrosion Sulfide Brongers, M.P.H., Virmani, P.Y., Payer, J.H., 2002. Drinking Water and Sewer Systems in ... of the total length may/will suffer from biogenic corrosion. In these specific areas, biogenic sulfide corrosion can ... Hydrogen Sulphide Corrosion in Wastewater Collection and Treatment Systems (Technical Report) Morton R.L., Yanko W.A., Grahom D ... Biogenic sulfide corrosion is a bacterially mediated process of forming hydrogen sulfide gas and the subsequent conversion to ...
In metallurgy, exfoliation corrosion (also called lamellar corrosion) is a severe type of intergranular corrosion that raises ... "Lamellar Corrosion or Exfoliation?". "Exfoliation Corrosion". v t e (All articles with unsourced statements, Articles with ... surface grains from metal by forming corrosion products at grain boundaries under the surface. It is frequently found on ... unsourced statements from November 2021, Corrosion, All stub articles, Electrochemistry stubs, Chemical process stubs, Metal ...
... is the corrosion of materials occurring in outer space. Instead of moisture and oxygen acting as the primary ... Corrosion in space has the highest impact on spacecraft with moving parts. Early satellites tended to develop problems with ... Different materials resist corrosion in space differently. For example, aluminium is slowly eroded by atomic oxygen, while gold ... The process of space corrosion is being actively investigated. One of the efforts aims to design a sensor based on zinc oxide, ...
... the resulting major modes of corrosion may include pitting corrosion, crevice corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking. Certain ... Microbial corrosion, or commonly known as microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC), is a corrosion caused or promoted by ... "Different Types of Corrosion: Pitting Corrosion - Causes and Prevention". WebCorr Corrosion Consulting ... The materials most resistant to corrosion are those for which corrosion is thermodynamically unfavorable. Any corrosion ...
... analyzing and preventing corrosion-fatigue failure in structural steels, high alloy specialty steels, lightweight titanium and ... aluminum alloys, heat resistant nickel-base alloys, and corrosion ... Corrosion-Fatigue Technology. Editor(s): H. L. Craig, Jr, T. W ... 18 papers offer a broad view of technology for characterizing, analyzing and preventing corrosion-fatigue failure in structural ...
... is a natural process that converts a refined metal into a more chemically stable form such as oxide, hydroxide, ... Corrosion is a natural process that converts a refined metal into a more chemically stable form such as oxide, hydroxide, ...
Use fine steel wool to remove any corrosion from the brass. Scrub the surface of the item with steel wool until until all rust ... Over time, brass tends to build up a black coating called tarnish. Tarnish is a type of rusting, or corrosion, that is caused ... The brass cleaner provides a seal to prevent future corrosion and damage to the item. ... This coating must be removed before the corrosion under the seal can be removed. ...
Mitigate the impact of corrosion and safeguard your assets with Knovel Corrosion. ... Knovel Corrosion has corrosion data and tools for corrosion prevention. ... Knovel Corrosion. Protect your assets from corrosion with multidimensional corrosion tools and resources. ... Knovel Corrosion Tools. *. ●. Flexible tools help you find the corrosion data you need quickly - a must-have when downtime can ...
Shop for vinyl, CDs, and more from Corrosion Of Conformity on Discogs. ... Viewing All , Corrosion Of Conformity. CoC, COC III, Corrosion Of Conformity COC III, C.O.C., CxOxCx, C. O. C., C-O-C, C.O.C, ...
Maintenance Facility tested prototypes of new equipment under actual work conditions during the first Submarine Corrosion ...
Materials and Corrosion publishes papers on all aspects of the behavior of materials in corrosive environments as well as ... Materials and Corrosion Materials and Corrosion is a leading international journal in its field, providing rapid and ... Several sections exclusive to Materials and Corrosion bring you closer to the current events in the field of corrosion research ... Materials and Corrosion provides you with strictly peer-reviewed, high-quality papers on all aspects of the behavior of ...
This comprehensive publication presents 16 international papers on atmospheric corrosion and corrosion testing. Provides an ... ... This comprehensive publication presents 16 international papers on atmospheric corrosion and corrosion testing. Provides an ... Corrosion on basic metals and alloys used in construction, including: carbon steel, stainless steel, weathering steel, zinc, ... No comments were found for Atmospheric Corrosion. Be the first to comment! ...
Laboratory-accelerated cyclic corrosion tests with repeated c ... Assessment of Cyclic Corrosion Test Protocols for Magnesium ... accelerated cyclic corrosion test protocols utilized by original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) have been developed based on a ... Laboratory-accelerated cyclic corrosion tests with repeated cycles of wet, dry, humid, and/or corrosive media application have ... Over the last several years, Meridian has completed a long-term assessment of the corrosion performance of as-cast and powder- ...
An understanding of corrosion and an ability to predict corrosion rate of a material in a particular environment plays a vital ... In this paper we investigate the use of genetic programming and genetic algorithms in the derivation of corrosion-rate ... Genetic programming is used to automatically evolve corrosion-rate expressions while a genetic algorithm is used to evolve the ... We show that both evolutionary techniques yield corrosion-rate expressions that have good accuracy. ...
... a state-of-the art environment in which to conduct advanced corrosion research to better understand the principles of corrosion ... The Corrosion Research Laboratory provides a state-of-the art environment in which to conduct advanced corrosion research to ... alternate immersion corrosion test stations, Gamry corrosion testing systems, EG & G electrochemical testing systems, and slow ... localized corrosion, and (in conjunction with the Fracture Mechanics Laboratory) environmentally-assisted cracking of different ...
Use of Corrosion Inhibitor in Solid Form to Prevent Internal Corrosion of Pipelines and Acidification Process (Articles) ... Conductivity Method as a New Monitoring Technique for Corrosion and Corrosion Inhibition Processes of Zinc Metal (Articles) ... Corrosion aspect of dental implants-An overview and literature review (Review) Anuja Agarwal, Amit Tyagi, Anshuman Ahuja, ... Corrosion of Nanocrystalline Ni-W Coated Copper (Articles) Christos N. Panagopoulos, Georgios D. Plainakis, Maria G. Tsoutsouva ...
Corrosion Resistance. Edited by: Hong Shih. ISBN 978-953-51-0467-4, PDF ISBN 978-953-51-6188-2, Published 2012-03-30 ... Recent Researches in Corrosion Evaluati... Edited by Reza Shoja Razavi. Recent Researches in Corrosion Evaluation and ... The authors have contributed their chapters on corrosion characterization and corrosion resistance. The applications of ... The authors have contributed their chapters on corrosion characterization and corrosion resistance. The applications of ...
16, 2020 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- The Global Corrosion Resistant Alloys Market 2020-2024 report has been added to ... This study identifies the growing demand for corrosion resistant alloy as one of the prime reasons driving the corrosion ... Worldwide Corrosion Resistant Alloys Industry to 2024 - Key Drivers, Challenges and Trends. 16 oct. 2020 07h13 HE. , Source: ... The corrosion resistant alloys market is poised to grow by $ 2.61 billion during 2020-2024 progressing at a CAGR of 7% during ...
TRT Terms: Bridges, Concrete--Corrosion, Reinforcing bars--Corrosion, Corrosion and anti-corrosives, Reinforced concrete-- ... Corrosion Protection of Prestressed Concrete Bridge Members *Field Investigations. *Laboratory Investigation *Corrosion- ... Premature corrosion of reinforcing steel has caused many concrete bridges in the United States to deteriorate before their ... Corrosion Control for Rehabilitation of Existing Concrete Structures *Conventional Rehabilitation Methods. *Cathodic Protection ...
Required by court order to appear before a judge in Syracuse, New York, on July 12, some out-of-towners had already arrived there when the court granted the prosecutions last-minute request for more time to prepare its case against us, the Jerry Berrigan Brigade, for our nonviolent witness against drone warfare on Jan. 28, 2016. A trial date is likely to be set in a month or two, or perhaps three (so much for our Sixth Amendment right to a speedy trial).. Back in January 2016, we stood behind 30 larger-than-life-sized wooden silhouettes of Syracuse peacemaker Jerry Berrigan, who died at age 95 on July 26, 2015.. A widely loved and respected educator, Jerry - like his brothers Dan and Phil - was himself larger than life. Even in his early 90s, Jerry could be seen braving the elements, witnessing against the extrajudicial killings enabled by Hancock drone base in Syracuse.. Jerry was asked at one point if there were anything he would change in his life. "I would have resisted more often and been ...
Corrosion resistant amorphous metals and methods of forming corrosion resistant amorphous metals Patent Farmer, Joseph C [Tracy ... Corrosion resistant amorphous metals and methods of forming corrosion resistant amorphous metals Patent Farmer, Joseph C.; Wong ... title = {CORROSION RESISTANT JACKETED METAL BODY},. author = {Brugmann, E W},. abstractNote = {Jacketed metal bodies of the ... PATENTS; CONFIGURATION; CORROSION PROTECTION; FISSIONABLE MATERIALS; FUEL ELEMENTS; JACKETS; MECHANICAL STRUCTURES; METALS; ...
The ACP temperature probe is constructed from 300-Series stainless steel and is available in NTC thermistor or RTD versions.
Cortec unleashes boiler Reptiles on corrosion. DUBAI, March 7, 2021. Boiler layup season for heating systems is just around ... In contrast, Cortecs boiler reptiles are very friendly to users and very effective for avoiding corrosion inside idle boilers ... The Boiler Lizard contains VpCIVapour phase Corrosion Inhibitors packaged in a water-soluble bag. Application is easy: remove ... or doing nothing to prevent corrosion while the boiler is not in active use. ...
Aviation takes corrosion control to a whole new level! Featuring the latest advances in Polar Bonding and Fluid Thin Film ... Corrosion X is great stuff. I prevents corrosion on tools, guns. fishing reels and just about any metal items that are exposed ... Q: What is the difference between Corrosion-X original and Corrosion-X Aviation Formula? How much would be needed for a Cessna ... Q: I have a PA32R that I want to treat for corrosion prevention. How much Corrosion X will I need? ...
... waterproofing and corrosion-inhibiting admixture designed to prevent or retard corrosion of steel reinforcement... ... waterproofing and corrosion-inhibiting admixture designed to prevent or retard corrosion of steel reinforcement in new concrete ...
CORROSION may be costing U.S. petroleum refiners as much as $250 million p.a., according to an estimate based on a study being ... 1954), "Corrosion Commentary", Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, Vol. 1 No. 2, pp. 29-30. ... One of the objectives of this study is to work out more reasonable methods for determining losses due to corrosion. ... made by an American Petroleum Institute sub‐committee on corrosion. ...
Keywords: research, structures, Reinforced concrete, bridges, corrosion resistance, corrosion testing, high performance ... Reinforced concrete Corrosion Evaluation, Bridges, Concrete Corrosion. Scheduled Update: Archive - No Update needed ... Corrosion rate for the other bars was intermediate and shared a common scatter band. Performance of the clad bars was mixed in ... Corrosion initiation was defined as having occurred when current density reached 10 µA/cm2. For bars that became active, the ...
Localized corrosion of aluminum (Al, here including Al alloys) involves a series of physico-chemical processes at the interface ... DFT calculations of initial localized corrosion of aluminum. Influence of aqueous ad-layer, chloride ions, and intermetallic ... The mechanisms that govern localized corrosion are quite complex and have been the subject of many experimental studies. ... to gain a deeper mechanistic understanding of some of the most influential factors for the initiation of localized corrosion of ...
... factors affecting the performance of properly sited and installed solar water heating systems include scaling and corrosion. ... Corrosion. Most well-designed solar systems experience minimal corrosion. When they do, it is usually galvanic corrosion, an ... solar water heating system scaling and corrosion The two major factors affecting the performance of properly sited and ... installed solar water heating systems include scaling (in liquid or hydronic-based systems) and corrosion (in hydronic and air ...
Calcium Nitrite based admixtures designed to inhibit the corrosion of reinforcing steel in concrete. ...
This article describes various methods that can be used to protect a metallic system against corrosion. ... Corrosion rate of an actively corrosion metal is determined by the intersection of the kinetic curves that characterize the ... This type of protection is based on the principle that the corrosion rate can be reduced if either of these reaction can be ... The method depends of the removal of a constituent of the corrosion reaction from the medium, or in some cases adding a ...
  • The Boiler Lizard contains VpCIVapour phase Corrosion Inhibitors packaged in a water-soluble bag. (
  • To control corrosion in water distribution networks the methods most commonly applied are adjusting pH, increasing the alkalinity and/or hardness, or adding corrosion inhibitors such as sodium polyphosphates or silicates and orthophosphate. (
  • As a result, methods to reduce the activity of the exposed surface, such as passivation and chromate conversion, can increase a material's corrosion resistance. (
  • The authors have contributed their chapters on corrosion characterization and corrosion resistance. (
  • The applications of corrosion resistance materials will also bring great values to reader's work at different fields. (
  • Dear Librarian, I would like to recommend the following IntechOpen book to be added to our library catalog: TITLE: 'Corrosion Resistance' PRINT ISBN: 978-953-51-0467-4 Libraries are offered a 20% discount on retail book prices. (
  • Long term immersion tests also showed that CS was significantly more susceptible to corrosion than MS. Polarization resistance was significantly the highest for SP, followed in order by MS, CS and DA, with the latter two materials not significantly different. (
  • However, these materials often suffer from poor corrosion resistance and can be prone to crack formation when components are subjected to hardening heat treatments. (
  • According to the patent, high-entropy alloys meeting this definition exhibit advantageously high hardness and high wear resistance, combined with good corrosion resistance, making them suitable for use in the presence of corrosive solutions such as salt water, acid or alkali. (
  • The former can improve its corrosion resistance and mechanical properties but not its bioactivity [ 6 ]. (
  • At this stage of research, electrochemical corrosion analysis has demonstrated that the magnesium fluoride (MgF 2 ) layer can increase the polarization resistance of magnesium alloys [ 7 - 9 ]. (
  • In addition, in the existing studies to prove that the preparation of MgF 2 coating has a certain influence on the corrosion resistance [ 7 , 10 , 11 ]. (
  • This paper presents features and results of tests carried out on plates and screws used in rigid internal fixation in order to evaluate the corrosion resistance of titanium ASTM F67 and ASTM F136. (
  • Enhanced corrosion resistance by engineering crystallography on metals. (
  • Here we show, by engineering crystallographic configurations upon metal matrices adjacent to their passive films , we obtain great enhancement of corrosion resistance of FeCr15Ni15 single crystal in sulphuric acid , with activation time up to two orders of magnitude longer than that of the non-engineered counterparts. (
  • Applying anodic polarizations under a transpassivation potential, we make the metal matrices underneath the transpassive films highly uneven with {111}-terminated configurations, which is responsible for the enhancement of corrosion resistance. (
  • Alloys that provide for a long-term stable implant need to have a high level of corrosion resistance as well as certain mechanical properties (see Immune Response to Implants ). (
  • EN ISO 6270-1 / ASTM D2247 / EN 13523-26: Determination of resistance to humidity - Part 1: Continuous condensation. (
  • Corrosion can also occur in materials other than metals, such as ceramics or polymers, although in this context, the term "degradation" is more common. (
  • Galvanic corrosion occurs when two different metals have physical or electrical contact with each other and are immersed in a common electrolyte, or when the same metal is exposed to electrolyte with different concentrations. (
  • Some metals are more intrinsically resistant to corrosion than others (for some examples, see galvanic series). (
  • There are various ways of protecting metals from corrosion (oxidation) including painting, hot-dip galvanization, cathodic protection, and combinations of these. (
  • When they do, it is usually galvanic corrosion, an electrolytic process caused by two dissimilar metals coming into contact with each other. (
  • This type of protection is based on the requirement that the metals have a high positive value for the free energy change for conversion of the metal to a corrosion product in the exposed environment. (
  • We know that corrosion of metals affects virtually everyone every day. (
  • Proving that context is everything, it is a fact that submerged metals will be afforded better protection against corrosion when pure metal-to-metal contact is achieved between the surface and the sacrificial anode ( a.k.a, the "zinc. (
  • At the level recommended by the U.S. Public Health Service for fluoridation of public water supplies (0.7 mg/L, or parts per million), the fluoride ion has little influence on either corrosion or on the amounts of corroded metals released into the water. (
  • When metal pipe corrosion occurs, it is a result of the electrochemical electron exchange resulting from the differential galvanic properties between metals, the ionic influences of solutions, aquatic buffering, or the solution pH. (
  • The galvanic interaction of different metals has a significant role in pipe corrosion, because many commercial metals are alloys of various metals. (
  • The fluoride ion interacts weakly with common metals in plumbing materials and the American Water Works Association Research Foundation has reported that fluoride ions contribute to corrosion to the same extent as at the same concentration chloride and sulfate ions. (
  • 18 papers offer a broad view of technology for characterizing, analyzing and preventing corrosion-fatigue failure in structural steels, high alloy specialty steels, lightweight titanium and aluminum alloys, heat resistant nickel-base alloys, and corrosion resistant tantalum. (
  • The results of this study discuss the range of exposure conditions between the accelerated test protocols and the range of observed conditions of the die-cast magnesium between the test protocols and are anticipated to encourage the development of corrosion testing protocols that include magnesium alloys as a consideration in multi-material testing and analysis. (
  • Dublin, Oct. 16, 2020 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- The "Global Corrosion Resistant Alloys Market 2020-2024" report has been added to's offering. (
  • The corrosion resistant alloys market is poised to grow by $ 2.61 billion during 2020-2024 progressing at a CAGR of 7% during the forecast period. (
  • The report on corrosion resistant alloys market provides a holistic analysis, market size and forecast, trends, growth drivers, and challenges, as well as vendor analysis covering around 25 vendors. (
  • The corrosion resistant alloys market analysis includes the end-user segment and geographical landscapes. (
  • This study identifies the growing demand for corrosion resistant alloy as one of the prime reasons driving the corrosion resistant alloys market growth during the next few years. (
  • Also, the corrosion resistant alloys market analysis report includes information on upcoming trends and challenges that will influence market growth. (
  • Localized corrosion of aluminum (Al, here including Al alloys) involves a series of physico-chemical processes at the interface between the metal and the aqueous ad-layer or the aqueous solution. (
  • Dr Michael Ford MIMMM at Haseltine Lake Kempner explores a patent for wear and corrosion-resistant high-entropy alloys. (
  • It describes high-entropy alloys that appear to combine both good hardness and corrosion-resistant properties, making them suitable for use in hazardous conditions. (
  • The composition modification and alloy surface treatment can be used to slow down the corrosion progress of magnesium alloys. (
  • Magnesium and its alloys have been the subject of interest and appear promising as biodegradable implant materials, though their fast corrosion rate in biologic environments has limited their clinical application. (
  • Galvanic corrosion is of major interest to the marine industry and also anywhere water (containing salts) contacts pipes or metal structures. (
  • Galvanic corrosion is often prevented by the use of sacrificial anodes. (
  • The main objective of this work is galvanic corrosion test according to ASTM G71 (98), two substances in electrical contact in a solution of 0.9% sodium chloride (NaCl) at 37 ºC. (
  • Materials and Corrosion provides you with strictly peer-reviewed, high-quality papers on all aspects of the behavior of materials in corrosive environments as well as corrosion testing and protection. (
  • The laboratory supports faculty research, the Materials Engineering Undergraduate Research Program, and instruction in several courses, including the basic Engineering Materials Laboratory course, Mechanical Behavior of Materials, and Corrosion. (
  • Gas Time variation concentration corrosion rate test solution permission Houston corrosion behavior. (
  • Rusting, the formation of iron oxides, is a well-known example of electrochemical corrosion. (
  • AkzoNobel N.V. is another key manufacturer of anti-corrosion coatings. (
  • The product portfolio of the company includes anti-corrosion coatings based on epoxy, acrylic, alkyd, and polyurethane. (
  • The eco-friendly nature of waterborne anti-corrosion coatings has contributed to the growing demand for these coatings from industrial and infrastructure industries, thereby influencing the growth of the waterborne technology segment. (
  • This growth can be attributed to the high demand for anti-corrosion coatings from coal-fired power plants as well as solar and wind energy power plants. (
  • The anti-corrosion coating market in the Asia Pacific region is anticipated to grow at the highest CAGR from 2017 to 2022, owing to the increasing demand for anti-corrosion coatings from the power generation and automotive & transportation industries in this region. (
  • In addition, the rising demand for epoxy anti-corrosion coatings across various end-use industries has further provided lucrative growth opportunities to manufacturers of anti-corrosion coatings in the Asia Pacific region. (
  • This resin resists corrosion and is used to make paints and varnishes. (
  • This HPA had two main objectives: (1) To develop effective and economical methodologies for arresting or reducing the extent of steel corrosion due to chloride-contamination of concrete bridges, thereby reducing maintenance costs of existing concrete bridges and minimizing interruption to traffic and, (2) To develop sound design and construction practices and materials for preventing corrosion of reinforcement in new structures, hence minimizing future deterioration. (
  • MCI®-2012 IntegraPel from Cortec is an integral water-based organic, waterproofing and corrosion-inhibiting admixture designed to prevent or retard corrosion of steel reinforcement in new concrete structures. (
  • One of the objectives of this study is to work out more reasonable methods for determining losses due to corrosion. (
  • Use of the proper alloy for the environment against which protection is sought is the principle behind this form of corrosion protection. (
  • The MAF coating was shown to be effective in controlling the corrosion rate and progression of the magnesium alloy. (
  • Therefore, it is a standing concern for scholars to control the corrosion rate of magnesium alloy. (
  • In corrosion experiments, the Mg 2+ and F - ions produced during the degradation of the alloy are not only nontoxic to the surrounding tissues but also have a nutritional effect on the formation of the bone [ 6 ]. (
  • Grupp et al reported their experience regarding failed modular titanium neck adapters, in combination with a titanium alloy modular short hip stem, after hip arthroplasty, as a result of fretting or corrosion. (
  • The global anti-corrosion coating market is estimated to be USD 24.84 billion in 2017 and is projected to reach USD 31.73 billion by 2022, at a CAGR of 5.0% from 2017 to 2022. (
  • Corrosion occurs in many engineering structures such as bridges, pipelines, and refineries and leads to the destruction of materials in a gradual manner and thus shortening their lifespan. (
  • Corrosion occurs in many engineering structures such as bridges, pipelines, refineries, and so forth and can result in the destruction of materials in a gradual manner and hence shortening their lifespan. (
  • The Corrosion Technology department aims to be world leading within corrosion in oil and gas pipelines and pipelines for CO2 transport. (
  • IFE has a strong position internationally within CO 2 and H 2 S corrosion of oil and gas pipelines. (
  • IFE has conducted large international Joint Industry Projects on corrosion in oil and gas wells and pipelines for 35 years. (
  • IFE has specialized in evaluation and testing of the pH stabilization technique for corrosion control in gas pipelines. (
  • The knowledge from research on CO 2 corrosion in oil and gas production over many years is now used in studies of corrosion in pipelines for transport of CO 2 from carbon capture facilities and injection wells for CO 2 storage. (
  • The laboratory equipment available for experimental work includes a salt spray system, an accelerated weathering tester, alternate immersion corrosion test stations, Gamry corrosion testing systems, EG & G electrochemical testing systems, and slow strain rate test capabilities. (
  • This comprehensive publication presents 16 international papers on atmospheric corrosion and corrosion testing. (
  • Provides an understanding of atmospheric corrosion concerns from the standpoint of economics, safety, and aesthetics, and what is being done about them on four continents. (
  • No comments were found for Atmospheric Corrosion . (
  • Atmospheric corrosion is the type of corrosion we are mainly interested in because (i) it has been reported that atmospheric corrosion is responsible for more corrosion-induced failures than any other corrosion type [ 4 ] and (ii) it is the most major corrosion type in SABIC [ 5 ] industrial sites-where the findings of this work are going to be applied. (
  • IFE studies this type of corrosion in detail and helps the operators to ensure safe operation of flexible pipes. (
  • The cost of corrosion has been reported [ 1 , 2 ] to be as large as 3.1% of the gross domestic product of countries such as the United States, United kingdom, and Australia. (
  • IFE has extensive custom made laboratory equipment and can offer a wide range of corrosion tests in both CO 2 and H 2 S environments, including testing with very high H 2 S content. (
  • The materials most resistant to corrosion are those for which corrosion is thermodynamically unfavorable. (
  • Plastic and concrete pipes tend to be resistant to corrosion. (
  • Duplex Stainless Steels (DSS) are complex high-strength and corrosion resistant materials used in many applications. (
  • The Federal Highway Administration recognized the problem of premature corrosion of reinforced concrete bridges in the early 1970's and established corrosion protection as one of its high-priority areas (HPA's) for research. (
  • Because corrosion is a diffusion-controlled process, it occurs on exposed surfaces. (
  • Wherever metal parts and components are produced, there is a risk of corrosion, and wherever corrosion occurs, it costs money and eats into profits. (
  • New product launches and expansions are key strategies adopted by leading players in the global anti-corrosion coating market. (
  • New product launches and expansions are key growth strategies adopted by leading players to strengthen their positions in the global anti-corrosion coating market. (
  • PPG Industries, Inc. is a key player in the global anti-corrosion coating market. (
  • The company offers anti-corrosion coating products based on epoxy, zinc, alkyd, and acrylic. (
  • The acrylic segment is anticipated to be the fastest-growing type segment of the global anti-corrosion coating market. (
  • The power generation segment is projected to be the fastest-growing end-use industry segment of the global anti-corrosion coating market. (
  • Our results demonstrate a technological implication in the pretreatment process of anti- corrosion engineering . (
  • These options make boiler layup effective and incredibly simple compared to traditional methods of applying desiccant, nitrogen blanketing, maintaining dry air systems, or doing nothing to prevent corrosion while the boiler is not in active use. (
  • Corrosion degrades the useful properties of materials and structures including mechanical strength, appearance, and permeability to liquids and gases. (
  • This report summarizes the research performed over the last 15 to 25 years of developing various cost-effective corrosion protection systems for both new structures and rehabilitating existing salt-contaminated, reinforced and prestressed concrete bridges. (
  • Recognizing the burden that reinforcing steel corrosion imposes on natural resources, the Federal Highway Administration established Corrosion Protection for Concrete Bridges as one of the high-priority areas (HPAs) in its Structures Research Program. (
  • Both short-term laboratory experiments in simulated pore solutions and long-term exposure of concrete specimens reinforced with corrosion resistant rebars exposed to chlorides were performed. (
  • The Corrosion Research Laboratory provides a state-of-the art environment in which to conduct advanced corrosion research to better understand the principles of corrosion and electrochemistry. (
  • Laboratory-accelerated cyclic corrosion tests with repeated cycles of wet, dry, humid, and/or corrosive media application have been developed both separately and in partnerships, such as in the case of SAE J2334, to simulate a severe corrosive field environment for evaluation of cosmetic corrosion performance of painted steel. (
  • The corrosion performance of similarly prepared samples exposed to accelerated laboratory test protocols was also completed. (
  • The work presented here reviews the specifications of several of these OEM accelerated laboratory cyclic corrosion protocols and the results of as-cast and powder-coated magnesium substrates exposed to these protocols, as well as comparisons to die-cast magnesium in an underbody vehicular environment. (
  • To the author's knowledge, this work is the first published assessment of the corrosion performance of powder-coated magnesium exposed to an underbody vehicular environment and compared to accelerated laboratory test protocols. (
  • The 810 square foot facility is well equipped with the necessary research tools to perform detailed studies and investigation of uniform corrosion, localized corrosion, and (in conjunction with the Fracture Mechanics Laboratory) environmentally-assisted cracking of different materials in different corrosive environments. (
  • Field and laboratory studies include surveys of weld-wire mesh corrosion, rock mass conductivity measurements, and sample analyses using a scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. (
  • The surface area ratio of the anode and cathode directly affects the corrosion rates of the materials. (
  • Materials and Corrosion is a leading international journal in its field, providing rapid and comprehensive coverage of the subject and specifically highlighting the increasing importance of corrosion research and prevention. (
  • Several sections exclusive to Materials and Corrosion bring you closer to the current events in the field of corrosion research and add to the impact this journal can make on your work. (
  • Materials and Corrosion is indexed in all important indexing services. (
  • Corrosion refers to the disintegration of materials into their constituent atoms because of chemical or electrochemical reactions with the environment [ 3 ]. (
  • In addition to traditional corrosion study, the book also contains chapters dealing with energy, fuel cell, daily life materials, corrosion study in green materials, and in semiconductor industry. (
  • Nevertheless, one outstanding drawback of magnesium materials is the rapid corrosion rate in human body. (
  • Made entirely in the USA, CorrosionX Aviation is qualified under MIL-PRF-81309 Rev. H Type II (replaces and supersedes MIL-PRF-81309G, MIL-PRF-81309F and MIL-C-81309E) for corrosion prevention and control on airframes and now, general purpose use as well. (
  • Installations that have in place an array of contract vehicles that are specifically designed to support facilities and infrastructure, especially corrosion prevention and control, are more successful at minimizing the effect of corrosion. (
  • Corrosion can occur in many environments such as atmosphere, soil, sea, and so forth where environmental factors affect the material in complicated processes leading to its corrosion. (
  • This is due to a strong oxidizing effect of water on Al, while the effect of chloride seems less pronounced.In all, these and other examples presented show that DFT-calculations can provide more detailed atomistic and molecular information on physico-chemical processes governing localized corrosion of Al than experiments alone can do. (
  • Use fine steel wool to remove any corrosion from the brass. (
  • Scrub the surface of the item with steel wool until until all rust and corrosion are gone. (
  • Historically, accelerated cyclic corrosion test protocols utilized by original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) have been developed based on a great knowledge and abundant vehicle field data of primarily steel-containing vehicle components. (
  • In this paper we investigate the use of genetic programming and genetic algorithms in the derivation of corrosion-rate expressions for steel and zinc. (
  • Corrosion Protection-Steel Bridges, and Timber Bridges. (
  • Premature corrosion of reinforcing steel has caused many concrete bridges in the United States to deteriorate before their design life was attained. (
  • ISO 12289:2016 specifies the characteristics and quality assurance requirements for solid rivets made in corrosion-resisting steel for aerospace construction. (
  • Evaluation and mapping of corrosion in a western USA underground metal mine - year one preliminary results. (
  • Extract corrosion-specific concentration and temperature data. (
  • For bars that became active, the average critical Cl‾ concentration for corrosion, [Cl th ‾], was 0.25 weight percent (w/o) Cl‾ (black bar), 0.47 w/o Cl‾ (3Cr12), 0.87 w/o Cl‾ (MMFX-II™), and 1.06 w/o Cl‾ (2201). (
  • Featuring the latest advances in Polar Bonding and Fluid Thin Film Coating (FTFC) technologies, CorrosionX Aviation is specially formulated to displace moisture, stop corrosion instantly and provide long-lasting protection. (
  • This type of protection is based on the principle that the corrosion rate can be reduced if either of these reaction can be changes such that the point of intersection is at a lower current density. (
  • Temporary corrosion preventives with different film characteristics and variable protection levels for use on all grades of ferrous and many non-ferrous metal surfaces. (
  • These acidic water treatment additives can interfere with corrosion protection. (
  • Identification of sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) would provide evidence for microbial influenced corrosion in this mine. (
  • For example, phosphoric acid may also be used to electropolish copper but it does this by removing copper, not the products of copper corrosion. (
  • During corrosion at a particular spot on the surface of an object made of iron, oxidation takes place and that spot behaves as an anode. (
  • The water and steam side surfaces of a high pressure fossil fuel boiler are subject to a variety of potential corrosion problems. (
  • Therefore, the interior or exterior surfaces of the pipe can provide locations for an electrochemical cell which can start the process of pipe corrosion. (
  • Safeguard your equipment and infrastructure from corrosion with Knovel Corrosion. (
  • Corrosion in oil and gas production and transportation infrastructure can cause catastrophic failure, environmental devastation and has large economic consequences. (
  • They added that with a cobalt-chromium neck, micromotions can be reduced by a factor of 3 and the incidence of fretting corrosion substantially lowered. (
  • Corrosion initiation was defined as having occurred when current density reached 10 µA/cm 2 . (
  • The method depends of the removal of a constituent of the corrosion reaction from the medium, or in some cases adding a component to a medium. (
  • [ 2 ] According to Huber et al, the presence of corrosion products and a hypersensitivity reaction in patients suggests that there is a relation between corrosion and implant-related hypersensitivity. (
  • Corrosion is when metal is dissolved or worn away by a chemical reaction between water and your plumbing. (
  • However, some corrosion mechanisms are less visible and less predictable. (
  • The mechanisms that govern localized corrosion are quite complex and have been the subject of many experimental studies. (
  • PEARL HARBOR, Hawaii (NNS) -- Pearl Harbor Naval Shipyard and Intermediate Maintenance Facility tested prototypes of new equipment under actual work conditions during the first Submarine Corrosion Control Applied Innovation Challenge, April 16-20. (
  • CorrosionX Aviation takes corrosion control to a whole new level! (
  • IFE has also performed several projects on corrosion control for oil and gas fields all over the world. (
  • IFE is now taking the knowledge from corrosion control in the petroleum industry in use in other areas, in particular for corrosion in systems for geothermal energy and in units for hydrogen production. (
  • Corrosion control programs recommended by Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) include two areas of corrosion monitoring. (
  • In contrast, Cortec's boiler reptiles are very friendly to users and very effective for avoiding corrosion inside idle boilers. (
  • Corrosion is a natural process that converts a refined metal into a more chemically stable oxide. (
  • Corrosion removal should not be confused with electropolishing, which removes some layers of the underlying metal to make a smooth surface. (
  • Any corrosion products of gold or platinum tend to decompose spontaneously into pure metal, which is why these elements can be found in metallic form on Earth and have long been valued. (
  • Corrosion is a natural phenomenon that can cause substantial economic and environmental losses which result from the damage incurred in metal constructions over the years. (
  • Corrosion rate of an actively corrosion metal is determined by the intersection of the kinetic curves that characterize the anodic and cathodic corrosion reactions. (
  • Metal pipe corrosion is a continuous and variable process of ion release from the pipe into the water. (
  • For corrosion of metal water pipes to occur, an electrochemical cell must be present. (
  • Tarnish is a type of rusting, or corrosion, that is caused by exposure to the air. (
  • First, on-line monitoring of the water and steam side environment is used to evaluate the duration and degree of exposure to corrodents, and to provide feedback information to assist in minimizing corrosion. (
  • Corrosion costs can be (i) direct when the metallic structure is greatly damaged in which case replacement or expensive maintenance are required or (ii) indirect when the worsened appearance of the construction reduces its value (even if the construction is not greatly damaged and can still be used just fine). (
  • This article describes various methods that can be used to protect a metallic system against corrosion. (
  • In general, time-to-corrosion of the different reinforcements in concrete increased in direct proportion to the chloride threshold that was determined by accelerated testing (AST-2A). (
  • Flexible tools help you find the corrosion data you need quickly - a must-have when downtime can incur heavy daily losses. (
  • Assessing the degree of corrosion of components is important to allow planning for maintenance during scheduled outages and to avoid unscheduled downtime. (
  • The book has covered the state-of-the-art technologies, development, and research progress of corrosion studies in a wide range of research and application fields. (
  • To address this problem, the Spokane Mining Research Division of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health is investigating ground support corrosion at the Greens Creek mine, located near Juneau, Alaska , United States of America. (