Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.
A deaminated metabolite of LEVODOPA.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Cell-surface proteins that bind dopamine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
An alkaloid from Hydrastis canadensis L., Berberidaceae. It is also found in many other plants. It is relatively toxic parenterally, but has been used orally for various parasitic and fungal infections and as antidiarrheal.
The yellow body derived from the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE after OVULATION. The process of corpus luteum formation, LUTEINIZATION, is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.
Broad plate of dense myelinated fibers that reciprocally interconnect regions of the cortex in all lobes with corresponding regions of the opposite hemisphere. The corpus callosum is located deep in the longitudinal fissure.
The black substance in the ventral midbrain or the nucleus of cells containing the black substance. These cells produce DOPAMINE, an important neurotransmitter in regulation of the sensorimotor system and mood. The dark colored MELANIN is a by-product of dopamine synthesis.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Birth defect that results in a partial or complete absence of the CORPUS CALLOSUM. It may be isolated or a part of a syndrome (e.g., AICARDI'S SYNDROME; ACROCALLOSAL SYNDROME; ANDERMANN SYNDROME; and HOLOPROSENCEPHALY). Clinical manifestations include neuromotor skill impairment and INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY of variable severity.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The phylogenetically newer part of the CORPUS STRIATUM consisting of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and PUTAMEN. It is often called simply the striatum.
Paired or fused ganglion-like bodies in the head of insects. The bodies secrete hormones important in the regulation of metamorphosis and the development of some adult tissues.
Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.
The external reproductive organ of males. It is composed of a mass of erectile tissue enclosed in three cylindrical fibrous compartments. Two of the three compartments, the corpus cavernosa, are placed side-by-side along the upper part of the organ. The third compartment below, the corpus spongiosum, houses the urethra.
Process of maintaining the functions of CORPORA LUTEA, specifically PROGESTERONE production which is regulated primarily by pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in cycling females, and by PLACENTAL HORMONES in pregnant females. The ability to maintain luteal functions is important in PREGNANCY MAINTENANCE.
A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
Degradation of CORPUS LUTEUM. In the absence of pregnancy and diminishing trophic hormones, the corpus luteum undergoes luteolysis which is characterized by the involution and cessation of its endocrine function.
The largest and most lateral of the BASAL GANGLIA lying between the lateral medullary lamina of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and the EXTERNAL CAPSULE. It is part of the neostriatum and forms part of the LENTIFORM NUCLEUS along with the GLOBUS PALLIDUS.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
A neurotransmitter analogue that depletes noradrenergic stores in nerve endings and induces a reduction of dopamine levels in the brain. Its mechanism of action is related to the production of cytolytic free-radicals.
The study of the effects of drugs on mental and behavioral activity.
The inner portion of the adrenal gland. Derived from ECTODERM, adrenal medulla consists mainly of CHROMAFFIN CELLS that produces and stores a number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS, mainly adrenaline (EPINEPHRINE) and NOREPINEPHRINE. The activity of the adrenal medulla is regulated by the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The cells of the body which stain with chromium salts. They occur along the sympathetic nerves, in the adrenal gland, and in various other organs.
Organelles in CHROMAFFIN CELLS located in the adrenal glands and various other organs. These granules are the site of the synthesis, storage, metabolism, and secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
A portion of the nucleus of ansa lenticularis located medial to the posterior limb of the internal capsule, along the course of the ansa lenticularis and the inferior thalamic peduncle or as a separate nucleus within the internal capsule adjacent to the medial GLOBUS PALLIDUS (NeuroNames, http://rprcsgi.rprc. washington.edu/neuronames/ (September 28, 1998)). In non-primates, the entopeduncular nucleus is analogous to both the medial globus pallidus and the entopeduncular nucleus of human.
The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.
The scientific discipline concerned with the physiology of the nervous system.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The period of history before 500 of the common era.
A historical and cultural entity dispersed across a wide geographical area under the influence of Greek civilization, culture, and science. The Greek Empire extended from the Greek mainland and the Aegean islands from the 16th century B.C., to the Indus Valley in the 4th century under Alexander the Great, and to southern Italy and Sicily. Greek medicine began with Homeric and Aesculapian medicine and continued unbroken to Hippocrates (480-355 B.C.). The classic period of Greek medicine was 460-136 B.C. and the Graeco-Roman period, 156 B.C.-576 A.D. (From A. Castiglioni, A History of Medicine, 2d ed; from F. H. Garrison, An Introduction to the History of Medicine, 4th ed)
Bodies preserved either by the ancient Egyptian technique or due to chance under favorable climatic conditions.
An oath, attributed to Hippocrates, that serves as an ethical guide for the medical profession.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
Large, long-tailed reptiles, including caimans, of the order Loricata.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
Large, chiefly nocturnal mammals of the cat family FELIDAE, species Panthera leo. They are found in Africa and southern Asia.
A group comprised of several species of aquatic carnivores in different genera, in the family Otariidae. In comparison to FUR SEALS, they have shorter, less dense hair.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)

Retinoids are produced by glia in the lateral ganglionic eminence and regulate striatal neuron differentiation. (1/4611)

In order to identify molecular mechanisms involved in striatal development, we employed a subtraction cloning strategy to enrich for genes expressed in the lateral versus the medial ganglionic eminence. Using this approach, the homeobox gene Meis2 was found highly expressed in the lateral ganglionic eminence and developing striatum. Since Meis2 has recently been shown to be upregulated by retinoic acid in P19 EC cells (Oulad-Abdelghani, M., Chazaud, C., Bouillet, P., Sapin, V., Chambon, P. and Dolle, P. (1997) Dev. Dyn. 210, 173-183), we examined a potential role for retinoids in striatal development. Our results demonstrate that the lateral ganglionic eminence, unlike its medial counterpart or the adjacent cerebral cortex, is a localized source of retinoids. Interestingly, glia (likely radial glia) in the lateral ganglionic eminence appear to be a major source of retinoids. Thus, as lateral ganglionic eminence cells migrate along radial glial fibers into the developing striatum, retinoids from these glial cells could exert an effect on striatal neuron differentiation. Indeed, the treatment of lateral ganglionic eminence cells with retinoic acid or agonists for the retinoic acid receptors or retinoid X receptors, specifically enhances their striatal neuron characteristics. These findings, therefore, strongly support the notion that local retinoid signalling within the lateral ganglionic eminence regulates striatal neuron differentiation.  (+info)

Activated macrophages and microglia induce dopaminergic sprouting in the injured striatum and express brain-derived neurotrophic factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor. (2/4611)

Nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons undergo sprouting around the margins of a striatal wound. The mechanism of this periwound sprouting has been unclear. In this study, we have examined the role played by the macrophage and microglial response that follows striatal injury. Macrophages and activated microglia quickly accumulate after injury and reach their greatest numbers in the first week. Subsequently, the number of both cell types declines rapidly in the first month and thereafter more slowly. Macrophage numbers eventually cease to decline, and a sizable group of these cells remains at the wound site and forms a long-term, highly activated resident population. This population of macrophages expresses increasing amounts of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA with time. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA is also expressed in and around the wound site. Production of this factor is by both activated microglia and, to a lesser extent, macrophages. The production of these potent dopaminergic neurotrophic factors occurs in a similar spatial distribution to sprouting dopaminergic fibers. Moreover, dopamine transporter-positive dopaminergic neurites can be seen growing toward and embracing hemosiderin-filled wound macrophages. The dopaminergic sprouting that accompanies striatal injury thus appears to result from neurotrophic factor secretion by activated macrophages and microglia at the wound site.  (+info)

N-Acetylaspartate distribution in rat brain striatum during acute brain ischemia. (3/4611)

Brain N-acetylaspartate (NAA) can be quantified by in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) and is used in clinical settings as a marker of neuronal density. It is, however, uncertain whether the change in brain NAA content in acute stroke is reliably measured by 1H-MRS and how NAA is distributed within the ischemic area. Rats were exposed to middle cerebral artery occlusion. Preischemic values of [NAA] in striatum were 11 mmol/L by 1H-MRS and 8 mmol/kg by HPLC. The methods showed a comparable reduction during the 8 hours of ischemia. The interstitial level of [NAA] ([NAA]e) was determined by microdialysis using [3H]NAA to assess in vivo recovery. After induction of ischemia, [NAA]e increased linearly from 70 micromol/L to a peak level of 2 mmol/L after 2 to 3 hours before declining to 0.7 mmol/L at 7 hours. For comparison, [NAA]e was measured in striatum during global ischemia, revealing that [NAA]e increased linearly to 4 mmol/L after 3 hours and this level was maintained for the next 4 h. From the change in in vivo recovery of the interstitial space volume marker [14C]mannitol, the relative amount of NAA distributed in the interstitial space was calculated to be 0.2% of the total brain NAA during normal conditions and only 2 to 6% during ischemia. It was concluded that the majority of brain NAA is intracellularly located during ischemia despite large increases of interstitial [NAA]. Thus, MR quantification of NAA during acute ischemia reflects primarily changes in intracellular levels of NAA.  (+info)

Measurement of striatal D2 dopamine receptor density and affinity with [11C]-raclopride in vivo: a test-retest analysis. (4/4611)

Subacute and long-term stability of measurements of D2 dopamine receptor density (Bmax), affinity (Kd) was studied with positron emission tomography in eight healthy male volunteers. [11C]-Raclopride and the transient equilibrium method were used to measure D2 receptor characteristics. The interval between measurements (scan pairs) was 3 to 7 weeks (subacute) for four subjects and 6 to 11 months (long-term) for four subjects. A test-retest analysis of quantitative measurements of D2 receptor Bmax and Kd was compared with that done on binding potential (BP, Bmax/Kd) measures. In addition, the effect of error in defining the transient equilibrium time (tmax) in the parameter estimation procedure was explored with simulations. The subacute test-retest indicates good reproducibility of D2 receptor density, affinity, and BP ratio measurements with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.90, 0.96, and 0.86, respectively. The variability of the measurements after 6 to 11 months was slightly higher than that seen in a subacute testing for Kd and more clearly so for binding potential and Bmax. The absolute variability in Bmax (14.5%) measurements was consistently higher than that of Kd (8.4%) or BP (7.9%) both in subacute and long-term measurements. Simulations indicated that the Bmax and Kd estimation procedure is more sensitive to error in the tmax than that for the BP. The results indicate a good overall stability of the equilibrium method with [11C]raclopride for measuring dopamine D2 receptor binding characteristics in the striatum. The BP approach is more stable than Kd and especially Bmax measurements. Error in defining the tmax in particular in the low specific radioactivity scan may be one source of greater variability in Bmax versus BP. However, a higher intraindividual variability in measurements of the D2 receptor Bmax also may include a component of continuous regulation of this parameter over time. These methodologic aspects should be considered in the design and interpretation of longitudinal studies on D2 dopamine receptor characteristics with [11C]-raclopride.  (+info)

Loss of D2 receptor binding with age in rhesus monkeys: importance of correction for differences in striatal size. (5/4611)

The relation between striatal dopamine D2 receptor binding and aging was investigated in rhesus monkeys with PET. Monkeys (n = 18, 39 to 360 months of age) were scanned with 11C-raclopride; binding potential in the striatum was estimated graphically. Because our magnetic resonance imaging analysis revealed a concomitant relation between size of striatum and age, the dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) data were corrected for possible partial volume (PV) artifacts before parameter estimation. The age-related decline in binding potential was 1% per year and was smaller than the apparent effect if the age-related change in size was ignored. This is the first in vivo demonstration of a decline in dopamine receptor binding in nonhuman primates. The rate of decline in binding potential is consistent with in vitro findings in monkeys but smaller than what has been measured previously in humans using PET. Previous PET studies in humans, however, have not corrected for PV error, although a decline in striatal size with age has been demonstrated. The results of this study suggest that PV correction must be applied to PET data to accurately detect small changes in receptor binding that may occur in parallel with structural changes in the brain.  (+info)

(S)-(-)-Cotinine, the major brain metabolite of nicotine, stimulates nicotinic receptors to evoke [3H]dopamine release from rat striatal slices in a calcium-dependent manner. (6/4611)

Cotinine, a major peripheral metabolite of nicotine, has recently been shown to be the most abundant metabolite in rat brain after peripheral nicotine administration. However, little attention has been focused on the contribution of cotinine to the pharmacological effects of nicotine exposure in either animals or humans. The present study determined the concentration-response relationship for (S)-(-)-cotinine-evoked 3H overflow from superfused rat striatal slices preloaded with [3H]dopamine ([3H]DA) and whether this response was mediated by nicotinic receptor stimulation. (S)-(-)-Cotinine (1 microM to 3 mM) evoked 3H overflow from [3H]DA-preloaded rat striatal slices in a concentration-dependent manner with an EC50 value of 30 microM, indicating a lower potency than either (S)-(-)-nicotine or the active nicotine metabolite, (S)-(-)-nornicotine. As reported for (S)-(-)-nicotine and (S)-(-)-nornicotine, desensitization to the effect of (S)-(-)-cotinine was observed. The classic nicotinic receptor antagonists mecamylamine and dihydro-beta-erythroidine inhibited the response to (S)-(-)-cotinine (1-100 microM). Additionally, 3H overflow evoked by (S)-(-)-cotinine (10-1000 microM) was inhibited by superfusion with a low calcium buffer. Interestingly, over the same concentration range, (S)-(-)-cotinine did not inhibit [3H]DA uptake into striatal synaptosomes. These results demonstrate that (S)-(-)-cotinine, a constituent of tobacco products and the major metabolite of nicotine, stimulates nicotinic receptors to evoke the release of DA in a calcium-dependent manner from superfused rat striatal slices. Thus, (S)-(-)-cotinine likely contributes to the neuropharmacological effects of nicotine and tobacco use.  (+info)

Ergoline derivative LEK-8829-induced turning behavior in rats with unilateral striatal ibotenic acid lesions: interaction with bromocriptine. (7/4611)

LEK-8829 [9,10-didehydro-N-methyl-(2-propynyl)-6-methyl-8- aminomethylergoline bimaleinate] is an antagonist of dopamine D2 receptors and serotonin (5-HT)2 and 5-HT1A receptors in intact animals and a D1 receptor agonist in dopamine-depleted animals. In the present study, we used rats with unilateral striatal lesions with ibotenic acid (IA) to investigate the dopamine receptor activities of LEK-8829 in a model with innervated dopamine receptors. The IA-lesioned rats circled ipsilaterally when challenged with apomorphine, the mixed agonist on D1/D2 receptors. LEK-8829 induced a dose-dependent contralateral turning that was blocked by D1 receptor antagonist SCH-23390. The treatment with D1 receptor agonist SKF-82958 induced ipsilateral turning, whereas the treatment with D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol induced contralateral posture. The combined treatment with SKF-82958 and haloperidol resulted in a weak contralateral turning, indicating the possible receptor mechanism of contralateral turning induced by LEK-8829. Bromocriptine induced a weak ipsilateral turning that was blocked by haloperidol. The ipsilateral turning induced by bromocriptine was significantly potentiated by the coadministration of a low dose but not by a high dose of LEK-8829. The potentiation of turning was blocked either by SCH-23390 or by haloperidol. The potentiation of ipsilateral turning suggests the costimulation of D2 and D1 receptors by bromocriptine and LEK-8829, respectively, whereas the lack of potentiation by the highest dose of LEK-8829 may be explained by the opposing activity of LEK-8829 and bromocriptine at D2 receptors. We propose that the D2 and 5HT2 receptor-blocking and D1 receptor-stimulating profile of LEK-8829 is promising for the treatment of negative symptoms of schizophrenia.  (+info)

Differential addressing of 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B receptors in epithelial cells and neurons. (8/4611)

The 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B serotonin receptors are expressed in a variety of neurons in the central nervous system. While the 5-HT1A receptor is found on somas and dendrites, the 5-HT1B receptor has been suggested to be localized predominantly on axon terminals. To study the intracellular addressing of these receptors, we have used in vitro systems including Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK II) epithelial cells and primary neuronal cultures. Furthermore, we have extended these studies to examine addressing in vivo in transgenic mice. In epithelial cells, 5-HT1A receptors are found on both apical and basolateral membranes while 5-HT1B receptors are found exclusively in intracellular vesicles. In hippocampal neuronal cultures, 5-HT1A receptors are expressed on somatodendritic membranes but are absent from axons. In contrast, 5-HT1B receptors are found on both dendritic and axonal membranes, including growth cones where they accumulate. Using 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B knockout mice and the binary tTA/tetO system, we generated mice expressing these receptors in striatal neurons. These in vivo experiments demonstrate that, in striatal medium spiny neurons, the 5-HT1A receptor is restricted to the somatodendritic level, while 5-HT1B receptors are shipped exclusively toward axon terminals. Therefore, in all systems we have examined, there is a differential sorting of the 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B receptors. Furthermore, we conclude that our in vivo transgenic system is the only model that reconstitutes proper sorting of these receptors.  (+info)

Striatal output neurons (SONs) integrate glutamatergic synaptic inputs originating from the cerebral cortex. In vivo electrophysiological data have shown that a prior depolarization of SONs induced a short-term (1 sec)increase in their membrane excitability, which facilitated the ability of corticostriatal synaptic potentials to induce firing. Here we propose, using a computational model of SONs, that the use-dependent, short-term increase in the responsiveness of SONs mainly results from the slow kinetics of a voltage-dependent, slowly inactivating potassium A-current. This mechanism confers on SONs a form of intrinsic short-term memory that optimizes the synaptic inputâ€output relationship as a function of their past activation ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - c-Fos induction in mesotelencephalic dopamine pathway projection targets and dorsal striatum following oral intake of sugars and fats in rats. AU - Dela Cruz, J. A. D.. AU - Coke, T.. AU - Karagiorgis, T.. AU - Sampson, C.. AU - Icaza-Cukali, D.. AU - Kest, K.. AU - Ranaldi, R.. AU - Bodnar, R. J.. PY - 2015/2. Y1 - 2015/2. KW - Ventral tegmental area. KW - Basolateral amygdala. KW - Central-cortico-medial amygdala. KW - Prelimbic medial prefrontal cortex. KW - Infralimbic medial prefrontal cortex. KW - Nucleus accumbens core. KW - Nucleus accumbens shell. KW - Dorsal striatum. U2 - 10.1016/j.brainresbull.2014.11.002. DO - 10.1016/j.brainresbull.2014.11.002. M3 - Article. C2 - 25460109. VL - 111. SP - 9. EP - 19. JO - Brain Research Bulletin. JF - Brain Research Bulletin. SN - 0361-9230. ER - ...
Information processing in the striatum is critical for basal ganglia function and strongly influenced by neuromodulators (e.g., dopamine). The striatum also receives modulatory afferents from the histaminergic neurons in the hypothalamus which exhibit a distinct diurnal rhythm with high activity during wakefulness, and little or no activity during sleep. In view of the fact that the striatum also expresses a high density of histamine receptors, we hypothesized that released histamine will affect striatal function. We studied the role of histamine on striatal microcircuit function by performing whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of neurochemically identified striatal neurons combined with electrical and optogenetic stimulation of striatal afferents in mouse brain slices. Bath applied histamine had many effects on striatal microcircuits. Histamine, acting at H(2) receptors, depolarized both the direct and indirect pathway medium spiny projection neurons (MSNs). Excitatory, glutamatergic input to both
We compared for the first time the effects of de novo versus long-term l-Dopa treatment inducing abnormal involuntary movement on striatal gene profiles and related bio-associations in the 6-hydroxydopamine rat model of Parkinsons disease. We examined the pattern of striatal messenger RNA expression over 4854 genes in hemiparkinsonian rats treated acutely or chronically with l-Dopa, and subsequently verified some of the gene alterations by in situ hybridization or real-time quantitative PCR. We found that de novo and long-term l-Dopa share common gene regulation features involving phosphorylation, signal transduction, secretion, transcription, translation, homeostasis, exocytosis and synaptic transmission processes. We also found that the transcriptomic response is enhanced by long-term l-Dopa and that specific biological alterations are underlying abnormal motor behavior. Processes such as growth, synaptogenesis, neurogenesis and cell proliferation may be particularly relevant to the long-term action
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Generation of Human Striatal Neurons by MicroRNA-Dependent Direct Conversion of Fibroblasts. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Marinković, R.; Polzović, A.; Gudović, R.; Mijatov-Ukropina, L.; Marjanović, M., 1987: Stereologic analysis of the development of the corpus striatum between the 14th and 19th week of gestational age
In sum, we have been able to attenuate the function of CREB family transcription factors in dorsal striatum through expression of a dominant-negative CREB mutant, KCREB. These animals have a specific deficit in distinct forms of striatum-dependent procedural learning, without showing deficits in either motor learning on the rotarod or in spatial learning in the Morris water maze (data not shown). Furthermore, the mutant animals show a marked deficit in both LTP and LTD at the glutamatergic corticostriatal projection.. Whereas the role of the dorsal striatum in cognitive processes is increasingly appreciated, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of striatum-dependent procedural learning are poorly understood. Although corticostriatal synaptic plasticity has been extensively investigated, its relationship to striatum-dependent procedural learning remains unclear.. One obstacle to clarifying this relationship has been the difficulty of identifying clearly dorsal striatum-dependent learning tasks. ...
Understanding neural representations of behavioral routines is critical for understanding complex behavior in health and disease. We demonstrate here that accentuated activity of striatal projection neurons (SPNs) at the beginning and end of such behavioral repertoires is a supraordinate representat …
Foetal brain tissue. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of a section through the corpus striatum of a foetal brain. The corpus striatum is filled with neurons (nerve cells), which are responsible for passing information around the central nervous system (CNS). Each neuron consists of a cell body (round) surrounded by many extensions called dendrites. Dendrites collect information from other neurons or from sensory cells. Each neuron also has one process called an axon, which passes information to other neurons. The corpus striatum, which forms part of the basal ganglia deep in the cerebral hemispheres, is involved in the control of posture and movement. - Stock Image P360/0466
耶魯大學的團隊,透過偵測大鼠大腦的基底節(basal ganglia)紋狀體區(striatal areas)的多巴胺(dopamine)分泌後發現,紋狀體區的背側(dorsal striatal sector,DS)負責對糖的能量進行反應,而紋狀體區的腹側(ventral striatal sector,VS)則負責對糖的甜味進行反應。. 當以葡萄糖餵食大鼠時,大鼠的紋狀體背區與紋狀體腹區都分泌多巴胺;而以人工甘味(蔗糖素,sucralose,為所有人工甘味中口味最接近天然糖的)餵食大鼠時,大鼠只有紋狀體腹區分泌多巴胺。而當研究團隊以苦味劑苯甲地那銨(denatonium benzoate,全世界最苦的化合物,即使只有10 ppm ...
Basal Ganglia are evolutionarily conserved brain nuclei involved in several physiologically important animal behaviors like motor control and reward learning. Striatum, which is the input nuclei of basal ganglia, integrates inputs from several neurons, like cortical and thalamic glutamatergic input and local GABAergic inputs. Several neuromodulators, such as dopamine, accetylcholine and serotonin modulate the functional properties of striatal neurons. Aberrations in the intracellular signaling of these neurons lead to several debilitating neurodegenerative diseases, like Parkinsons disease. In order to understand these aberrations we should first identify the role of different molecular players in the normal physiology.. The long term goal of this research is to understand the molecular mechanisms responsible for the integration of different neuromodulatory signals by striatal medium spiny neurons (MSN). This signal integration is known to play important role in learning. This is manifested via ...
Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is an agonist of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) and has been described to exhibit neuroprotective properties when administered locally in animal models of several neurological disorder models, including stroke and Parkinsons disease. However, there is little information regarding the effectiveness of systemic administration of OEA on Parkinsons disease. In the present study, OEA-mediated neuroprotection has been tested on in vivo and in vitro models of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OH-DA)-induced degeneration. The in vivo model was based on the intrastriatal infusion of the neurotoxin 6-OH-DA, which generates Parkinsonian symptoms. Rats were treated 2 h before and after the 6-OH-DA treatment with systemic OEA (0.5, 1, and 5 mg/kg). The Parkinsonian symptoms were evaluated at 1 and 4 wk after the development of lesions. The functional status of the nigrostriatal system was studied through tyrosine-hydroxylase (TH) and hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1, oxidation ...
There were two sets of experiments. The first set placed bi-directional tracers into different regions of the striatum (see Fig.1 a). These cases were analyzed first for the distribution of labeled cells in the frontal cortex. On the basis of the cortical labeling pattern, each injection site was classified as follows. (1) Motor striatum were injection sites that labeled cells primarily in frontal cortical areas 4 and 6 with few labeled cells in areas 9 and 46, and scattered cells, or none, in orbitofrontal regions or in areas 32, 25, 24, a or b; (2) limbic striatum were injection sites that labeled cells primarily in areas 32, 25, 24, a and b, and medial orbitofrontal cortex, areas 10, 14, and 13, with few labeled cells in areas 9 and 46 and none in areas 4 and 6. We defined the shell as the ventral striatal region that was calbindin (CaBP) negative and the rest of the ventromedial striatum as the core (Meredith et al., 1996). (3) Association areas comprised injection sites that labeled ...
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Postmortem volumetry of the human striatum and its subdivisions (putamen, n.caudatus, n.accumbens) was performed on serial coronal sections of complete hemispheres. Both hemispheres of 9 male schizophrenic patients younger than 65 years were closely matched in age with the hemispheres of 9 male cont …
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Sensory Striatum Is Permanently Impaired by Transient Developmental Deprivation. AU - Mowery, Todd M.. AU - Penikis, Kristina B.. AU - Young, Stephen K.. AU - Ferrer, Christopher E.. AU - Kotak, Vibhakar C.. AU - Sanes, Dan. PY - 2017/6/20. Y1 - 2017/6/20. N2 - Corticostriatal circuits play a fundamental role in regulating many behaviors, and their dysfunction is associated with many neurological disorders. In contrast, sensory disorders, like hearing loss (HL), are commonly linked with processing deficits at or below the level of the auditory cortex (ACx). However, HL can be accompanied by non-sensory deficits, such as learning delays, suggesting the involvement of regions downstream of ACx. Here, we show that transient developmental HL differentially affected the ACx and its downstream target, the sensory striatum. Following HL, both juvenile ACx layer 5 and striatal neurons displayed an excitatory-inhibitory imbalance and lower firing rates. After hearing was restored, ...
Author Summary Recent brain imaging and neurophysiological studies suggest that the striatum, the start of the basal ganglia circuit, plays a major role in value-based decision making and behavioral disorders such as drug addiction. The plasticity of synaptic input from the cerebral cortex to output neurons of the striatum, which are medium spiny neurons, depends on interactions between glutamate input from the cortex and dopaminergic input from the midbrain. It also links sensory and cognitive states in the cortex with reward-oriented action outputs. The mechanisms involved in molecular cascades that transmit glutamate and dopamine inputs to changes in postsynaptic glutamate receptors are very complex and it is difficult to intuitively understand the mechanism. Therefore, a biochemical network model was constructed, and computer simulations were performed. The model reproduced dopamine-dependent and calcium-dependent forms of long-term depression (LTD) and potentiation (LTP) of corticostriatal synapses
Foetal brain cells. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of neurons (nerve cells) in the corpus striatum of a foetal brain. Neurons are responsible for passing information around the central nervous system (CNS). Each neuron consists of a cell body (red) surrounded by many extensions called dendrites. Dendrites collect information from other neurons or from sensory cells. Each neuron also has one process called an axon, which passes information to other neurons. The corpus striatum, which forms part of the basal ganglia deep in the cerebral hemispheres, is involved in the control of posture and movement. - Stock Image P360/0464
Results: As consequence of AAV-mediated A53T overexpression, significant decrease of [18F]FMT accumulation was recorded in the striatum ipsilateral to the lesion. Lesioned rats had dramatically reduced uptake constant Ki in the ipsilateral striatum compared to the contralateral striatum (p,0.001 for [18F]FMT) and to the ipsilateral striatum of sham-treated rats (p,0.001). Significant deficit in stepping adjustment was observed with the contralateral forepaw at 4, 12 and 18 weeks. Significant reduction of the time spent on the rotarod was also measured at 12 and 18 weeks ...
E18 Mouse Striatum, Primary Cells, Primary Neurons, Cell Assays. Fresh E18 intact Striatum from a C57/BL6 mouse with media provided to maintain the cells while being shipped. Media is also included to initiate a culture. 3.8 Million Cells.
The ventral striatum is a relatively small area tucked deep inside the brain near the basal ganglia. Until recently, not much was known about it. But its recently been linked to reward, decisions, and risk, and as a result is getting much more press than it used to. Its important in what we perceive as rewarding (such as status and keeping up with the Joneses) and how rewarding it is. Its been linked to pathological gambling, and it matters when youre thinking about what to do next with your portfolio.. The ventral striatum consists of two portions, the nucleus accumbens and the olfactory tubercle. Its most important neurotransmitter-to our current knowledge-is dopamine. Dopamine is associated with pleasure and with motor functions. (Dopamine-increasing drugs are used to treat Parkinsons disease.) The ventral striatum is closely linked with the limbic system, which involves emotion and motivation: it receives input from it and sends output to it, mainly inhibitory. Its thought that the ...
Sentence processing takes place in real-time. Previous words in the sentence can influence the processing of the current word in the timescale of hundreds of milliseconds. Recent neurophysiological studies in humans suggest that the fronto-striatal system (frontal cortex, and striatum - the major input locus of the basal ganglia) plays a crucial role in this process. The current research provides a possible explanation of how certain aspects of this real-time processing can occur, based on the dynamics of recurrent cortical networks, and plasticity in the cortico-striatal system. We simulate prefrontal area BA47 as a recurrent network that receives on-line input about word categories during sentence processing, with plastic connections between cortex and striatum. We exploit the homology between the cortico-striatal system and reservoir computing, where recurrent frontal cortical networks are the reservoir, and plastic cortico-striatal synapses are the readout. The system is trained on sentence-meaning
The thrust of this paper is that the noncoding RNA BC1 is responsible for regulating D2-mediated synaptic transmission. Perhaps the greatest strength of the study is the robust neurophysiology and pharmacology with tight controls. That data set shows, using corticostriatal slice preparations, that the dopaminergic perturbation (hypersensitivity) is specific for the D2 receptor in BC1-knockout mice. This is especially important in light of the anxiety phenotype these mice express, and the probable role(s) of striatal dopamine in human psychiatric diseases. The authors then show that BC1 is apparently present in axons and in striatal GABAergic cells.. A challenge for this work is that the actual mechanism by which BC1 works is as yet poorly understood. That BC1 may be present in axons has been shown previously; however, the significance of axonal BC1 remains obscure. The authors show that D2DR mRNA and protein levels are not dramatically decreased (protein appears increased) in the BC1 KO mice, ...
function out = RunSimulation(SIMPARAMS) % set the path to the simulation files addpath(pwd, [pwd /Simulation]); % these are currently redundent parameters that may be required again when % I put the cortical pulse code back into the simulation SIMPARAMS.CTX_state = [1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0]; SIMPARAMS.initCTX = rand(2); % check the parameter types before calling the c++ funciton checkStriatumInputs(SIMPARAMS); % Run the simulation - using original version: as per NN model % Run the simulation - using version striatum_RK2_B: no scaling of synaptic input by 1/ts [out.t, out.Vms, out.Vfs, out.STms, out.STfs, out.VMS, out.UMS, out.VFS, out.UFS, out.VFSGAP, out.MSGLU_AMPA, out.MSGLU_NMDA, out.MSGABA, out.MSSEQ, out.FSGLU, out.FSGABA, out.FSSEQ, out.RecordChan_MS] = ... striatum_RK2(SIMPARAMS.sim.tstart,SIMPARAMS.sim.tfinal,... SIMPARAMS.sim.dt, ... SIMPARAMS.physiology.MSparams,SIMPARAMS.physiology.FSparams,... SIMPARAMS.physiology.Eglu, SIMPARAMS.physiology.Egaba, SIMPARAMS.physiology.ts_glu_AMPA, ...
The unexpected finding that neurons can co-release two neurotransmitter molecules, dopamine and GABA, through a common mechanism provides a further advance in our understanding of the nervous system. See Letter p.262 The striatum sits at a crossroads for a variety of brain inputs, including those from the cortex, hippocampus and midbrain. Large populations of dopaminergic neurons in the basal ganglia project to the striatum; recent genetic tools have made it possible to isolate these neurons and control them with light exposure using optogenetic techniques. Here, Bernardo Sabatini and colleagues report an unexpected function for these dopaminergic neurons in inhibiting striatal output. They find that the fast-acting neurotransmitter GABA is the source of this inhibition. Interestingly, GABA was not loaded into vesicles through the usual route, but through the VMAT2 transporter that also transfers dopamine. These findings extend the dynamics of dopaminergic neuron signalling and represent an example of
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TY - CHAP. T1 - Organization of Prefrontal-Striatal Connections. AU - Groenewegen, HJ. AU - Wouterlood, FG. AU - Uylings, HBM. PY - 2017. Y1 - 2017. N2 - This chapter describes the organization of the prefrontal-striatal projections. There exists a topographical relationship in these projections, such that sensorimotor cortices project to the dorsolateral part of the striatum, associative cortical regions to more ventral and medial regions, and the limbic cortical areas to the most ventromedial striatal areas. Whereas the parallel, segregated nature of these projections has been emphasized for a long time, more recent studies, taking into account the so-called focal and diffuse types of termination of cortical afferents in the striatum, show that there is considerable overlap between projections from different prefrontal cortical projection areas in the striatum. This allows for specific integration of information. Further, the relationship of the prefrontal cortex with the striatal ...
The neurotoxic consequences of opiate drug and HIV-1 interactions on striatal neurons and on the underlying intracellular signaling pathways (autophagy, ER-stre...
Glutamic Acid;Central Nervous System;Neurons;Neurotransmitter Agents;Carrier Proteins;Corpus Striatum;Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases;Dopamine;Excitatory Amino Acids;Receptors, Metabotropic Glutamate;Synaptic Transmission;Rats, Sprague- ...
Take the eduMIP and hook it up with the DSTR app in order to control the Mobile Inverted Pendulum from your very own cell phone!. Find this and other hardware projects on Hackster.io.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Functional connectome of the striatal medium spiny neuron. AU - Chuhma, Nao. AU - Tanaka, Kenji F.. AU - Hen, René. AU - Rayport, Stephen. PY - 2011/1/26. Y1 - 2011/1/26. N2 - Dopamine system disorders ranging from movement disorders to addiction and schizophrenia involve striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs), yet their functional connectivity has been difficult to determine comprehensively. We generated a mouse with conditional channelrhodopsin-2 expression restricted to medium spiny neurons and assessed the specificity and strength of their intrinsic connections in the striatum and their projections to the globus pallidus and the substantia nigra. In the striatum, medium spiny neurons connected with other MSNs and tonically active cholinergic interneurons, but not with fast-spiking GABA interneurons. In the globus pallidus, medium spiny neurons connected strongly with one class of electrophysiologically identified neurons, but weakly with the other. In the substantia nigra, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effect of ASIC3 knockout on corticostriatal circuit and mouse self-grooming behavior. AU - Wu, Wei-Li. AU - Cheng, Sin Jhong. AU - Lin, Shing Hong. AU - Chuang, Yu Chia. AU - Huang, Eagle Yi Kung. AU - Chen, Chih Cheng. PY - 2019/1/29. Y1 - 2019/1/29. N2 - Stereotypic and/or repetitive behavior is one of the major symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Increase of self-grooming behavior is a behavioral phenotype commonly observed in the mouse models for ASD. Previously, we have shown that knockout of acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3) led to the increased self-grooming behavior in resident-intruder test. Given the facts that ASIC3 is mainly expressed in the peripheral dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and conditional knockout of ASIC3 in the proprioceptors induced proprioception deficits. We speculate a hypothesis that stereotypic phenotype related to ASD, pararalled with striatal dysfunction, might be caused by proprioception defect in the peripheral sensory neuron origin. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Striatal dopamine release during unrewarded motor task in human volunteers. AU - Badgaiyan, Rajendra D.. AU - Fischman, Alan J.. AU - Alpert, Nathaniel M.. PY - 2003/8/6. Y1 - 2003/8/6. N2 - Striatal dopamine is associated with the processing of rewarded motor tasks. Its involvement in mediating unrewarded tasks is, however, unclear. We used a recently developed PET technique to dynamically measure the rate of displacement of a dopamine receptor ligand raclopride in healthy volunteers performing a finger opposition task. Rapid displacement of the ligand from the posterior putamen and the caudate immediately after the task initiation suggested striatal dopamine release during task performance. Since dopamine release was observed in the striatal areas that are implicated in unrewarded tasks by neuroimaging studies, the results demonstrate that the PET method can be used to extend the findings of conventional neuroimaging techniques, that do not provide information about signal ...
BioAssay record AID 63789 submitted by ChEMBL: Evaluated for the affinity against Dopamine receptor D2 in rat striatal membranes.
The mechanism underlying a hypercholinergic state in Parkinsons disease (PD) remains uncertain. Here, we show that disruption of the K(v)1 channel-mediated function causes hyperexcitability of striatal cholinergic interneurons in a mouse model of PD. Specifically, our data reveal that Kv1 channels containing K(v)1.3 subunits contribute significantly to the orphan potassium current known as I-sAHP in striatal cholinergic interneurons. Typically, this Kv1 current provides negative feedback to depolarization that limits burst firing and slows the tonic activity of cholinergic interneurons. However, such inhibitory control of cholinergic interneuron excitability by K(v)1.3-mediated current is markedly diminished in the parkinsonian striatum, suggesting that targeting Kv1.3 subunits and their regulatory pathways may have therapeutic potential in PD therapy. These studies reveal unexpected roles of Kv1.3 subunit-containing channels in the regulation of firing patterns of striatal cholinergic ...
The chronic use of nicotine, the main psychoactive ingredient of tobacco smoking, alters diverse physiological processes and consequently generates physical dependence. To understand the impact of chronic nicotine on neuropeptides, which are potential molecules associated with dependence, we conducted qualitative and quantitative neuropeptidomics on the rat dorsal striatum, an important brain region implicated in the preoccupation/craving phase of drug dependence. We used extensive LC-FT-MS/MS analyses for neuropeptide identification and LC-FT-MS in conjunction with stable isotope addition for relative quantification. The treatment with chronic nicotine for 3 months led to moderate changes in the levels of endogenous dorsal striatum peptides. Five enkephalin opioid peptides were up-regulated, although no change was observed for dynorphin peptides. Specially, nicotine altered levels of nine non-opioid peptides derived from precursors, including somatostatin and cerebellin, which potentially ...
In this study we examined the stereoselectivity of catecholamine uptake into synaptosomes prepared from rat cerebral cortex or corpus striatum with isomers of ephedrine, methylphenidate and phenyl-2-piperidyl carbinol, compounds possessing two asymmetric carbons, hence, four possible stereoisomers. The four ephedrine isomers were more potent inhibitors of catecholamine uptake in the cerebral cortex than in the corpus striatum. There was a 100-fold variation in potency among the ephedrine isomers in the cerebral cortex but only a 7-fold variation in the corpus striatum. The optimal configuration at the α (S) and β(R) carbons (erythro configuration) for activity of the ephedrines in both brain regions corresponds to the configurations of (+)-amphetamine and (-)-norepinephrine, respectively. In contrast, the four phenyl-2-piperidyl carbinol isomers were more potent in the corpus striatum than in the cerebral cortex, and the configuration of the most potent isomer was R at both α and β carbons, ...
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous disease, but genetically defined models can provide an entry point to studying the molecular underpinnings of this disorder. We generated germline mutant mice with loss-of-function mutations in Chd8, a de novo mutation strongly associated with ASD, and demonstrate that these mice display hallmark ASD behaviors, macrocephaly, and craniofacial abnormalities similar to patient phenotypes. Chd8 mice display a broad, brain-region-specific dysregulation of major regulatory and cellular processes, most notably histone and chromatin modification, mRNA and protein processing, Wnt signaling, and cell-cycle regulation. We also find altered synaptic physiology in medium spiny neurons of the nucleus accumbens. Perturbation of Chd8 in adult mice recapitulates improved acquired motor learning behavior found in Chd8 animals, suggesting a role for CHD8 in adult striatal circuits. These results support a mechanism linking chromatin modification to striatal ...
Our previous findings reveal that A2A and D2 receptors are co-expressed on adult rat striatal astrocytes and on the astrocyte processes, and that A2A-D2 receptorCreceptor conversation can control the release of glutamate from your processes. (and that these heteromers can play functions in the control of the striatal glutamatergic transmission) may shed light on the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. = 3). (B) Aliquots (300 g) of Triton X-100-soluble proteins obtained from gliosomes were immunoprecipitated with 1 g of anti-D2 antibody as explained in Methods. IP and Output were analyzed by immunoblotting using the anti-D2 antibody. IP and Output were also analyzed using anti-A2A antibody. A representative blot (of three) is usually shown. A2A immunoreactive bands were quantified and the data were reported in the graph. Values are means SEM (= 3). 2.2. D2 and A2A Receptors Expressed on Striatal Astrocytes Can Form Heteromers As illustrated in Physique 2 astrocytes ...
Chronic intoxication by 3-nitropropionic acid in the Lewis rat reproduces many features reminiscent of Huntingtons disease including behavioural alterations and cortico-striatal degeneration. In particular, in this model, striatal degeneration is accompanied by calpain activation as found in the human disease. The present study was undertaken to determine whether the expression of Alix (apoptosis linked gene-2 interacting protein), a widespread protein involved in neuronal death, would be modified in the striatum and cortex of 3NP-treated rats. The results clearly show that Alix immunoreactivity is increased in the neuronal cell bodies of the lateral striatum, where degeneration is massive. The medial striatum and the cortex that lack neurodegeneration remain only weakly labelled. This is further evidence suggesting an involvement of Alix in the events driving neuronal death.
Like the hippocampus, the striatum receives excitatory afferents from the cerebral cortex but, in the case of the striatum, very little is known about the molecular events associated with plasticity after lesions of this pathway. Using immunohistochemical techniques, we have examined the effects of cortical lesions induced either by aspiration of the frontoparietal cortex or by thermocoagulation of pial blood vessels on axonal and glial molecules associated with neuronal plasticity in the striatum. The growth associated protein GAP-43, a molecule present in axons and growth cones, decreased in the dorsolateral striatum after aspiration but not after thermocoagulatory lesions. In contrast, synaptophysin, a marker of synaptic vesicles, remained unchanged in the denervated striatum after both types of lesions. Immunostaining for basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) markedly decreased in striatal astrocytes after both lesions, despite an increased staining for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). The
Substantial evidence indicates that the dorsolateral striatum is needed to execute sensorimotor habits (Yin et al., 2004, 2006; Redgrave et al., 2010). Such behaviors are highly repetitive, are mediated by stimulus-response (S-R) associations, and are expressed even in the absence of reinforcement. In rats, focal lesions in the dorsolateral striatum disrupt the normal sequence of repetitive, stereotyped grooming behaviors [Cromwell and Berridge, 1996). Although the normal sequence of grooming behavior is clearly disrupted, the capacity to emit individual grooming movements is not affected. Consistent with this distinction, neurons in the dorsolateral striatum appear to encode the serial order of sequential grooming movements (Aldridge and Berridge, 1998). Furthermore, the striatal sites associated with stereotyped grooming behaviors are located in regions that receive corticostriatal projections from the forepaw and, to a lesser extent, the whisker representations in SI cortex (Hoover et al., ...
p,Striatal interneurons display a morphological and chemical heterogeneity that has been particularly well characterized in rats, monkeys and humans. By comparison much less is known of striatal interneurons in mice, although these animals are now widely used as transgenic models of various neurodegenerative diseases. The present immunohistochemical study aimed at characterizing striatal interneurons expressing calretinin (CR) in mice compared to those in squirrel monkeys and humans. The mouse striatum contains both small (9-12 μm) and medium-sized (15-20 μm) CR+ cells. The small cells are intensely stained with a single, slightly varicose and moderately arborized process. They occur throughout the striatum (77±9 cells/mm(3)), but prevail in the area of the subventricular zone and subcallosal streak, with statistically significant anteroposterior and dorsoventral decreasing gradients. The medium-sized cells are less intensely immunoreactive and possess 2-3 long, slightly varicose and poorly ...
Intrastriatal application of the D1 antagonist SCH 23390 by two procedures, reverse dialysis (20-mu-M) and local injection (0.45 nmol per striatum), elicited a reduction in acetylcholine (ACh) release superimposable on that induced by systemic administration. The novel selective D1 antagonist SCH 39166 produced a similar decreasing effect on striatal ACh release on local injection (0.45 nmol per striatum). On the other hand, local application of SCH 23390 into the frontal cortices (0.45 nmol per side) failed to alter striatal ACh overflow, indicating that the drug does not diffuse out of its injection site to any significant extent. The dopamine release inducer d-amphetamine (2 mg/kg s.c.) and the dopamine uptake inhibitor cocaine raised ACh release like the D1 agonists. These effects were completely blocked by 10-mu-M SCH 23390 applied by reverse dialysis. The results suggest that D1 receptors regulating ACh release are located in the striatum.. ...
The role of dopamine in plasticity at glutamatergic synapses in the striatum is central to our understanding of basal ganglia functions and dopamine-dependent reward mechanisms. Long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) at these synapses are thought to be dependent on D1 and D2 dopamine receptors, respectively. However, the mechanisms of LTP and LTD in the striatum are controversial. Using brain slices from transgenic mice, Shen et al. show that LTP and LTD can occur in both D1- and D2-expressing neurons but with different molecular mechanisms. Dopaminergic modulation of plasticity is receptor and cell-type specific. The findings suggest that the control of bidirectional plasticity is not exerted through a monolithic mechanism, as previously asserted, but by cell-type-specific mechanisms depending on the subtype of dopamine receptor expressed.. W. Shen, M. Flajolet, P. Greengard, D. J. Surmeier, Dichotomous dopaminergic control of striatal synaptic plasticity. Science 321, ...
L1 antigen promotes neurite outgrowth from dopaminergic neurons in tissue culture. In the present study, we examined the effects of dopaminergic deafferentation of the striatum on L1 expression. In the medial-periventricular part of the striatum, both complete and partial substantia nigra (SN) lesions decreased L1 expression. Complete lesions increased L1 expression in the dorso-medial and ventrolateral parts of the striatum on the lesioned side when compared with that on the non-lesioned side. The decrease in the ventro-lateral area was maintained in animals examined three months after the lesioning. Animals with partial SN lesions showed a different pattern of altered L1 expression. After frontal cortex lesions, changes in L1 expression also occur preferentially in the dorso-medial and periventricular striatum. Therefore, the results indicate a complex regulation of L1 expression after damage of striatal circuitry, manifested by a preferential occurrence of changes in periventricular regions.
Suprathreshold corticostriatal responses recorded from medium spiny neurons (MSNs) from the direct and indirect pathways of the basal ganglia are different. Their differences readily distinguish D1- and D2-type receptor expressing MSNs in both bacterial artificial chromosome-transgenic mice and their control littermates as well as in rats: indirect pathway neurons are more excitable than direct pathway neurons revealing autoregenerative spikes underlying their spike trains, whereas direct pathway neurons exhibit more prolonged plateau potentials and spike trains. SFK 81297, a selective agonist for D1-class receptors enhanced corticostriatal responses in direct pathway neurons, while quinelorane, a selective agonist for D2-class receptors reduced orthodromic and autoregenerative responses in indirect pathway neurons thus making both neuron classes similarly excitable. Because dopaminergic postsynaptic actions target CaV1 (L) class voltage-gated calcium channels in MSNs, we hypothesized that these
Mice carrying bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenes have become important tools for neuroscientists, providing a powerful means of dissecting complex neural circuits in the brain. Recently, it was reported that one popular line of these mice--mice possessing a BAC transgene with a D(2) dopamine receptor (Drd2) promoter construct coupled to an enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) reporter--had abnormal striatal gene expression, physiology, and motor behavior. Unlike most of the work using BAC mice, this interesting study relied upon mice backcrossed on the outbred Swiss Webster (SW) strain that were homozygous for the Drd2-eGFP BAC transgene. The experiments reported here were conducted to determine whether mouse strain or zygosity was a factor in the reported abnormalities. As reported, SW mice were very sensitive to transgene expression. However, in more commonly used inbred strains of mice (C57BL/6, FVB/N) that were hemizygous for the transgene, the Drd2-eGFP BAC transgene did ...
The striatum, a major component of the basal ganglia, performs multiple functions including control of movement, reward, and addiction. Dysfunction and death of striatal neurons are the main causes for the motor disorders associated with Huntingtons disease (HD). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a member of the neurotrophin family, is among factors that promote survival and proper function of this neuronal population. Here, we review recent studies showing that BDNF determines the size of the striatum by supporting survival of the immature striatal neurons at their origin, promotes maturation of striatal neurons, and facilitates establishment of striatal connections during brain development. We also examine the role of BDNF in maintaining proper function of the striatum during adulthood, summarize the mechanisms that lead to a deficiency in BDNF signaling and subsequently striatal degeneration in HD, and highlight a potential role of BDNF as a therapeutic target for HD treatment.
Voluntary wheel running reduces voluntary consumption of ethanol in mice: identification of candidate genes through striatal gene expression profiling Journal Article ...
G. C. TOMBAUGH, S. GELMAN, A. BRADAIA, K. WADEL, V. GARDES, C. TOULLER, A. SERS, A. GHAVAMI, B. BUISSON, G. BATES, M. MIELCAREK, C. DOMINGUEZ, M. MAILLARD, V. BEAUMONT. Huntingtons disease (HD) is a lethal autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder that leads to deficits in motor control widely believed to reflect structural and/or functional changes in neurons of the basal ganglia. In-vitro brain slice recordings of both the R6/2 and Q175 mouse models of HD have revealed a paucity of glutamatergic innervation of the striatum as well as alterations in intrinsic membrane properties of striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs, exemplified by a large increase in membrane resistance (Rm) and a reduced rheobasic current (Rh). Such changes are reflective of corticostriatal pathway degeneration and MSN hyper-excitability and are likely to result in aberrant striatal output. A 50 % reduction in HDAC4 restored these and other electrophysiological changes in both the R6/2 model, a transgenic over-expresser ...
Using whole-cell patch-clamp recording in brain slices17-19⇓⇓ and in vivo microdialysis methods,20 the major target neurons of A2A receptor-mediated modulation were identified as GABAergic striatopallidal medium spiny neurons (MSNs).1 These striatal projection neurons may receive A2A receptor-mediated regulation in two distinct modes. The main loci of this adenosine A2A receptor-mediated dual modulation in the striatopallidal system1,21⇓ are as follows. 1) In the striatum, A2A receptors control excitability of the projection neurons through the intrastriatal GABAergic feedback and feed-forward inhibition network.17 Major elements regulating the excitability of MSNs in the striatum are GABAergic inputs, which come from axon collaterals of the MSNs themselves and GABAergic interneurons. A2A receptors on the axon terminals of these GABAergic neurons suppress GABA release, resulting in an increase in MSN excitability via relief of intrastriatal GABAergic inhibitory inputs onto the MSNs. This ...
Parkinsons disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that results in the death of dopaminergic neurons within the substantia nigra pars compacta and the reduction in dopaminergic control over striatal output neurons, leading to a movement disorder most commonly characterized by akinesia or bradykinesia, rigidity and tremor. Also, PD is less frequently depicted by sensory symptoms (pain and tingling), hyposmia, sleep alterations, depression and anxiety, and abnormal executive and working memory related functions. On the other hand, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is an endocrine, paracrine and autocrine hormone with several functions including tissue growth and development, insulin-like activity, proliferation, pro-survival, anti-aging, antioxidant and neuroprotection, among others. Herein this review tries to summarize all experimental and clinical data to understand the pathophysiology and development of PD, as well as its clear association with IGF-1, supported by several lines of evidence:
The cyclic nucleotides cAMP and cGMP are common signaling molecules synthesized in neurons following the activation of adenylyl or guanylyl cyclase. In the striatum, the synthesis and degradation of cAMP and cGMP is highly regulated as these second messengers have potent effects on the activity of striatonigral and striatopallidal neurons. This review will summarize the literature on cyclic nucleotide signaling in the striatum with a particular focus on the impact of cAMP and cGMP on the membrane excitability of striatal medium-sized spiny output neurons (MSNs). The effects of non-selective and selective phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors on membrane activity and synaptic plasticity of MSNs will also be reviewed. Lastly, this review will discuss the implications of the effects PDE modulation on electrophysiological activity of striatal MSNs as it relates to the treatment of neurological disorders such as Huntingtons and Parkinsons disease.
In this chapter, we develop a model of μ- and δ-opioid receptor (OR) effects on cellular activity in the corticostriatal circuit after reviewing clinical data on cognitive and mood impairments in opioid substance use disorder (OUD), we use this model to derive information on the relevance of opioid actions in this circuit for cognition and reward. We find that the cognitive impairments and rewarding properties of acute μ-OR activation can reasonably explained by pharmacological actions in the corticostriatal circuit. However, long-term cognitive impairments and mood dysfunction observed in OUD are probably induced by opiate abuse-related degenerative mechanisms. ...
Electrophysiological and microfluorometric measurements were combined to analyse the responses of rat striatal medium spiny (MS) and large aspiny (LA) interneurons to the mitochondrial uncoupler carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylidrazone (FCCP). FCCP produced a membrane depolarisation coupled to an irreversible increase in intracellular calcium [Ca2+]i in MS. Conversely, LA interneurons hyperpolarised and a moderate [Ca2+]i rise was observed. Cyclosporin A, inhibitor of the mitochondrial membrane transition pore, prevented the FCCP-induced changes in LA interneurons, whereas only a partial reduction was observed in MS cells. The present results indicate that mitochondrial Ca2+ released into the cytosol may contribute to the selective vulnerability to metabolic impairment in striatal neuronal subtypes.. ...
The strength and specificity with which a neuron forms synapses is a fundamental question in evaluating its function. To address this for striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs), Chuhma et al used an optogenetic approach reminiscent of the aforementioned Bardi et al study. First, they bred a mouse that selectively expressed ChR2 in striatal MSNs. Then, they recorded (in…
Previous work showed differences in the polysynaptic activation of GABAergic synapses during corticostriatal suprathreshold responses in direct and indirect striatal projection neurons (dSPNs and iSPNs). Here, we now show differences and similarities in the polysynaptic activation of cortical glutamatergic synapses on the same responses. Corticostriatal contacts have been extensively studied. However, several questions remain unanswered, e.g.: what are the differences and similarities in the responses to glutamate in dSPNs and iSPNs? Does glutamatergic synaptic activation exhibits a distribution of latencies over time in vitro? That would be a strong suggestion of polysynaptic cortical convergence. What is the role of kainate receptors in corticostriatal transmission? Current-clamp recordings were used to answer these questions. One hypothesis was: if prolonged synaptic activation distributed along time was present, then it would be mainly generated from the cortex, and not from the striatum. ...
In the striatum dopamine receptors are mainly situated on postsynaptic striatal neurons and thus dopamine receptor binding indirectly reflects the state of striatal neurons. In PD the striatum is relatively well preserved whereas in MSA, PSP and corticobasal degeneration (CBD) there is striatal degeneration. Therefore, in PD D2 binding is generally normal (or even shows initial upregulation) but is reduced in MSA and PSP.1,23 In CBD the impairment of dopaminergic system is asymmetrical, usually also affecting the caudate nucleus in addition to the putamen, as can be seen as reduced FDOPA uptake whereas D2 receptor binding is less consistently affected.24-26. Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is a glucose analogue the up-take of which indirectly reflects neuronal and synaptic activity. Striatal FDG uptake in PD is normal (or even hypermetabolism at early stage may be seen). In contrast, in MSA, already at early stage of the disease striatal FDG uptake is reduced indicating striatal neuronal dysfunction ...
Dopamine (DA) release varies within subregions and local environments of the striatum, suggesting that controls intrinsic and extrinsic to the DA fibers and terminals regulate release. While applying fast-scan cyclic voltammetry and using tonic and phasic stimulus trains, we investigated the regulation of DA release in the dorsolateral to ventral striatum. The ratio of phasic-to-tonic-evoked DA signals varied with the average ongoing firing frequency, and the ratio was generally higher in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) compared with the dorsolateral striatum. At the normal average firing frequency, burst stimulation produces a larger increase in the DA response in the NAc than the dorsolateral striatum. This finding was comparable whether the DA measurements were made using in vitro brain slices or were recorded in vivo from freely moving rodents. Blockade of the dopamine transporters and dopamine D2 receptors particularly enhanced the tonic DA signals. Conversely, blockade of nicotinic ...
The function of striatopallidal neurons is regulated by N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and dopamine D2 receptors. Previous studies show that immediate early gene induction by D2 receptor blockade is suppressed by NMDA receptor antagonists. Because the pharmacology of NMDA receptors depends on the incorporation of different NR2 subunits and NR2 subunits show regional and cellular differences in their expression in striatum, our study examined whether different NMDA receptor antagonists would have differential effects on eticlopride-induced immediate early gene expression in striatum. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with vehicle, CGS 19755, MK-801 or ifenprodil. Rats then received injections of eticlopride and were killed 40 min later. In situ hybridization histochemistry was used to determine the expression of c-fos andzif268 in the striatum. Eticlopride increased immediate early gene expression in striatum, with the increase generally being greater in lateral than in medial striatum. ...
Top 10 tissues for 38921_at (Homo sapiens, Affymetrix Probeset): associative striatum, dorsal striatum, putamen, striatum, corpus striatum, basal ganglia, mesenchymal stem cell derived adipocyte, lateral thalamic nucleus, accumbens nucleus, posterior superior temporal gyrus (Brodmann area 22)
Stress induces a shift from hippocampus-dependent cognitive toward dorsal striatum-dependent habit memory. However, not all individuals are susceptible to this shift under stress. Based on pharmacological studies indicating a critical role of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in the stress-induced bias toward dorsal striatal learning, we hypothesized that MR gene variants contribute to these individual differences. In two experiments, healthy participants were genotyped, exposed to a stressor or control manipulation and performed a learning task that can be solved using hippocampal or dorsal striatal systems, while electroencephalography (EEG; Experiment I) or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI; Experiment II) measurements were taken ...
The effects of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), 3-morfolinosydnonimine (SIN-1), or S-nitroso-Nacetylpenicillamine (SNAP), on striatal dopamine release in freely moving rats, were evaluated using microdialysis 1 . When infused (1 mM) for 180 min, both SNP (n=3) and SIN-1 (n=3) increased DA dialysate concentrations (baseline levels 6.73±1.02 and 7.15±1.12 nM, respectively). The SNP-induced DA increase was inhibited by deferoxamine co-infusion, thus suggesting a key role for iron in SNP-induced increases in DA release. SNAP 1 mM 180 min infusion decreased dialysate DA (baseline levels 5.34±0.80 nM, n=3). The decrease was a consequence of SNAP-induced non-enzymatic oxidation of extracellular DA; in fact, the decrease was inhibited by N-acetyl-cysteine or uric acid co-infusion. Both SNP and SNAP greatly decreased dialysate ascorbic acid (AA, baseline values 10.82±2.5 and 8.55±2.62 μM, respectively); on the contrary, SIN-1 did not affect dialysate AA (baseline levels 7.90±0.73 μM). These finding ...
Defects in gene transcription and mitochondrial function have been implicated in the dominant disease process that leads to the loss of striatal neurons in Huntingtons disease (HD). Here we have used precise genetic HD mouse and striatal cell models to investigate the hypothesis that decreased cAMP responsive element (CRE)-mediated gene transcription may reflect impaired energy metabolism. We found that reduced CRE-signaling in HdhQ111 striatum, monitored by brain derived neurotrophic factor and phospho-CRE binding protein (CREB), predated inclusion formation. Furthermore, cAMP levels in HdhQ111 striatum declined from an early age (10 weeks), and cAMP was significantly decreased in HD postmortem brain and lymphoblastoid cells, attesting to a chronic deficit in man. Reduced CRE-signaling in cultured STHdhQ111 striatal cells was associated with cytosolic CREB binding protein that mirrored diminished cAMP synthesis. Moreover, mutant cells exhibited mitochondrial respiratory chain impairment, ...
However, two recent repor ts challenge this interpretation by demonstrating that fusion is responsible for the appearance of donorder ived neurons after systemic administration of bone marrow cells. Recent findings in rodents suggest an alternative approach to cell therapy in stroke based on selfrepair. These immature neurons migrate into the damaged striatum, where they express markers of striatal medium spiny projection neurons.Thus, the new neurons seem to Aniracetam differentiate into the phenotype of most neurons destroyed by the ischemic lesion.However, because of the new neurons die during the first weeks after stroke, they only replace a small fraction of the mature striatal neurons that have died.Several factors can increase adult neurogenesis by stimulating formation andor improving survival of new neurons, including fibroblast growth factor, stem cell factor, erythropoietin, brainderived neurotrophic factor, caspase inhibitors and antiinflammatory drugs. Whether the new neurons formed ...
To understand the principles of operation of the striatum it is critical to elucidate the properties of the main excitatory inputs from cortex and thalamus, as well as their ability to activate the main neurons of the striatum, the medium spiny neurons (MSNs). As the thalamostriatal projection is
Since the proposal of the classical model of the BG (3), substantial efforts have been made to uncover the selective contributions of the direct and indirect pathways to behavior. However, progress has been limited by the inability to access these neuronal populations due to the fact that they are anatomically intermixed. Here we used a genetic approach to dissect the function of these pathways by conditionally deleting the key striatal phosphoprotein, DARPP-32, in striatonigral and striatopallidal pathway neurons, using the D1R and D2R promoters to drive cell type-specific Cre recombinase expression (12). DARPP-32 plays an essential role in integrating signals from a number of behaviorally important neurotransmitters and neuromodulators that target the striatum (24). Thus, a loss of this protein would be expected to result in loss of function in each neuronal population. Supporting this, we found that deletion of DARPP-32 abolishes a key functional property of MSNs, corticostriatal LTP, in ...
Another name for the primary visual cortex (Area V1), showing in cross-section alternating bands of white matter and grey matter unrelated to the striped ocular-dominance columns and orientation columns that are made visible only by special staining procedures. Often confused with the corpus striatum and the striatum. [From Latin striatus streaked, from stria a furrow or a flute of a column] ...
In this book, he described the pineal gland and what he believed the function was, and was able to draw the corpus striatum ... "Chapter 5. The Corpus Striatum, Rhinencephalon, Connecting Fibers, and Diencephalon". CMSD 620 Neuroanatomy of Speech, ...
Greenberg, N. (2003). "Sociality, stress, and the corpus striatum of the green anolis lizard". Physiology & Behavior. 79 (3): ...
Haug H, Eggers R (August 1991). "Morphometry of the human cortex cerebri and corpus striatum during aging". Neurobiology of ...
He described the corpora striata and optic thalami; the four orbicular eminences, with the bridge, which he first named annular ... He noted the parallel lines of the mesolobe (corpus callosum), afterwards minutely described by Félix Vicq-d'Azyr. He seems to ...
Wilson SAK (1914). "An experimental research into the anatomy and physiology of the corpus striatum" (PDF). Brain. 36: 427-92. ... are prominent myelinated fibres that connect the striatum to the globus pallidus. Their distinctive appearance allows the ...
"Effect of Guilingji on expression of neurofilament protein in cerebral cortex and corpus striatum". Chinese Journal of Anatomy ...
They concluded that ″dopamine is concerned with the function of the corpus striatum and thus with the control of motor function ... The concentration was highest in the corpus striatum, which contained only traces of noradrenaline. Carlsson's group had ... who had been introduced to dopamine by Blaschko and was carrying out a colour reaction on extracts of human corpus striatum in ... the reaction vials containing the extracts of the Parkinson's disease striatum showed hardly a tinge of pink discoloration″. In ...
Communicata all'Academia di Medicina di Torino, 1883 - Nota preventiva on fine anatomy of the corpus striatum. Communication of ... Nota preventiva sulla fina anatomia dei corpi striati. ...
Projection tracts connect the cerebral cortex with the corpus striatum, diencephalon, brainstem and the spinal cord. The ... which connect the cerebral cortex with the corpus striatum, diencephalon, brain stem and the spinal cord Saladin, Kenneth (2012 ... The great majority of commissural tracts pass through the largest commissure the corpus callosum. A few tracts pass through the ...
The corpus striatum is the main input center of the basal ganglia, specifically upper neurons of motor areas in the frontal ... There is another indirect pathway present between the corpus striatum and part of the globus pallidus. This indirect pathway ... The basal ganglia include groups of motor nuclei located deep within the cerebral hemispheres, including the corpus striatum, ...
However Willis' conceptualized the corpus striatum as the seat of motor power in the late 17th century. In mid-19th-century ... movement disorders were localized to striatum by Choreaby Broadbent and Jackson, and athetosis by Hammond. By the late 19th ...
The view that the corpus striatum played such a large role in motor functions was the most prominent one until the 19th century ... Soon it would be discovered that the theory about the corpus striatum would not be completely incorrect. By the late 19th ... About a century later, Thomas Willis noticed that the corpus striatum was typically discolored, shrinkened, and abnormally ... John Hughlings Jackson posited that the motor cortex was more relevant to motor function than the corpus striatum after ...
The floor of the left lateral ventricle, thalamus, and corpus striatum were softened to the point of unrecognition. These ... thalamus and corpus striatum. There were similar right sided numbness in some patients, coldness of the extremities, and ...
He also noted that its large corpus striatum implied that it had a sophisticated repertoire of instinctive behaviors. He ...
Lesions to the brain are most often the direct cause of the symptoms, particularly to the corpus striatum. This symptom does ... as well as the corpus striatum; therefore children during the developmental age could possibly suffer from severe communication ... The striatum receives excitatory inputs from the cortex and inhibits the pallidum. By doing so it frees the thalamus from ... "Effects of hypoxia on the activity of the dopaminergic neuron system in the rat striatum as studied by in vivo brain ...
... in lacunar lesions of the corpus striatum]". Rev. Neurol. (Paris) (in French). 144 (10): 571-7. PMID 3194605. Carota A, Staub F ... The cause of this condition has been hypothesized to derive from abnormalities in the limbic frontal cortex, the striatum, ...
The putamen and caudate nucleus are also collectively called the corpus striatum after their striped appearance.[65][66] ... The two hemispheres are joined beneath the cortex by the corpus callosum. The cerebral cortex is the largest site of neural ... Examples of neocortical areas include the granular primary motor cortex, and the striate primary visual cortex. The neocortex ... "Receptive fields of single neurones in the cat's striate cortex". The Journal of Physiology. 148 (3): 574-91. doi:10.1113/ ...
... which connect the cerebral cortex with the corpus striatum, diencephalon, brain stem and the spinal cord. Greig LC, Woodworth ...
... which connect the cerebral cortex with the corpus striatum, diencephalon, brain stem and the spinal cord. Standring, Susan ( ...
In a study on slices of rat corpus striatum and substantia nigra fencamfamin acted as an indirect dopamine agonist. It released ...
... to the corpus striatum (Latin, "striped body").[citation needed] This naming can extend to include any number of structures in ... Arcuate fasciculus Cerebral peduncle Corpus callosum Pyramidal tracts - corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts Medial forebrain ... Examples of these include the great commissures of the brain such as the corpus callosum (Latin, "hard body"; not to be ...
4-dihydroxyphenylethylamine uptake sites in corpus striatum: correlation with the stimulant properties of ritalinic acid esters ... particularly in the striatum and meso-limbic system. Moreover, it is thought to "increase the release of these monoamines into ...
... and the vessels belonging to it supply the thalami and corpora striata; the longer is the cortical system, and its vessels ...
The caudate nucleus is one of the structures that make up the corpus striatum, which is a component of the basal ganglia. While ... the medial dorsal striatum (the caudate) and the lateral dorsal striatum (the putamen). In this vein, the two are functionally ... Two views of a model of the striatum (on the right side of the brain): A, lateral aspect; B, medial aspect. Coronal section ... Early damage is most evident in the striatum, but as the disease progresses, other areas of the brain are also more ...
He did major research on the anatomy and disorders of the corpus striatum and the extrapyramidal system, and described several ...
In 1911, Vogt-Mugnier rediscovered the so-called 'status marmoratus' of the corpus striatum, characterized by slow, writhing, ... in which she noted the mottled appearance of the striatum. In 1922, the Vogts defined the concept of pathoclisis through their ...
The striatum, in red, includes the caudate nucleus (top), the putamen (right), and, when including the term 'corpus' striatum, ... This is a transverse section of the striatum from a structural MR image. ... is an inherited disorder that causes progressive degeneration of neurons within the cerebral cortex and striatum of the brain[ ... brain specific histone H3 hypoacetylation and decreased histone association at specific downregulated genes within the striatum ...
Its gray substance is confluent above with that of the corpus striatum, and is perforated anteriorly by numerous small blood ...
... that destroys cells in the corpus striatum of the basal ganglia. PANDAS is a hypothesis that there exists a subset of children ... These include the striatum, (composed of the putamen and caudate nucleus), globus pallidus, substantia nigra, and the ... The syndrome is believed to be due to damage to areas of the basal ganglia or frontal cortex, specifically the striatum and ... This process is regulated by dopamine secreted by the striatum onto the D1 dopamine receptor on the SNc. Dopamine excites ...
Dopamine binds to G-protein-coupled receptors in many areas of the brain, especially the corpus striatum where it mediates the ...
in 1995 that found that classical musicians between the ages of 21 and 36 have significantly greater anterior corpora callosa ... ventral striatum, midbrain, and the ventral medial prefrontal cortex. Many of these areas appear to be linked to reward, ... and a great increase in the size of the corpus callosum.[82] These fibers join together the left and right hemispheres and ... Musicians have been found to have more developed anterior portions of the corpus callosum in a study by Cowell et al. in 1992. ...
... which connect the cerebral cortex with the corpus striatum, diencephalon, brain stem and the spinal cord.. .mw-parser-output ... Corpus callosum[edit]. Main article: Corpus callosum. The corpus callosum is the largest commissural tract in the human brain. ... A recent study of individuals with agenesis of the corpus callosum suggests that the corpus callosum plays a vital role in ... Age-related decline in the commissural fiber tracts that make up the corpus callosum indicate the corpus callosum is involved ...
Adolescents have enlarged oviducal glands with distinguishable oocytes and no or few corpora lutea. Adults have large ovaries ... Northern sawtail catshark (F. striatus). Galeus. *Antilles catshark (G. antillensis). *Roughtail catshark (G. arae) ...
Sa karamdaman ni Parkinson, ang naaapektuhang bahagi ng utak ay ang corpus striatum, na maaaring nagmula sa isang malubha at ...
It was first described by Jules Bernard Luys in 1865,[1] and the term corpus Luysi or Luys' body is still sometimes used. ... Some axons from the lateral pallidum go to the striatum.[16] The activity of the medial pallidum is influenced by afferences ... The efferent axons are glutamatergic (excitatory). Except for the connection to the striatum (17.3% in macaques), most of the ...
Ventral striatum - The ventral striatum is a group of subcortical structures thought to play an important role in emotion and ... Cingulate gyrus - The cingulate gyrus is located above the corpus callosum and is usually considered to be part of the limbic ... One part of the ventral striatum called the nucleus accumbens is thought to be involved in the experience pleasure.[24] ... and the ventral striatum /mid insula/ left hippocampus, which the authors suggest plays a role in motivation, contributing to ...
It is continued anteriorly by the subgenual area (Brodmann area 25), located below the genu of the corpus callosum). It is ... "Convergent Inputs from Thalamic Motor Nuclei and Frontal Cortical Areas to the Dorsal Striatum in the Primate". The Journal of ... The name was likely chosen because this cortex, in great part, surrounds the corpus callosum. The cingulate cortex is a part of ... The cingulate cortex includes the entire cingulate gyrus, which lies immediately above the corpus callosum, and the ...
otsaju tüveosa - juttkeha (corpus striatum) ja. *haistmissibul.. Mantli perifeerses osas on ajukoor, mis on ühtlasi ...
Uz T, Akhisaroglu M, Ahmed R, Manev H (2003). "The pineal gland is critical for circadian Period1 expression in the striatum ... Pinealocyte · Corpora arenacea. यह सम्पूर्ण पृष्ठ या इसके कुछ अनुभाग हिन्दी के अतिरिक्त अन्य भाषा(ओं) में भी लिखे गए हैं। आप ...
Dense connections to the thalamus in the form of a continuous strip that crosses numerous pulvinar nuclei and the striatum. ... the corpus callosum (inferiorly), the parieto-occipital sulcus (posteriorly), and Brodmann area 24 (anteriorly).[4] ...
... not subgranular zone or corpus callosum". Journal of Neuro-Oncology. 132 (2): 341-349. doi:10.1007/s11060-017-2374-3. PMC ... of neurons in the striatum and neocortex being destroyed, but the cell types of the SVZ killed were as non-uniform as the ... neuroblasts that migrate directly to the striatum) type. Along with the effects of NPY injection on striatal dopamine, GABA and ... and to the striatum. Such data supports the author's hypothesis in that neurogenesis would be stimulated through introduction ...
2005). "Mechanisms for selection of basic motor programs-roles for the striatum and pallidum". Trends in Neurosciences. 28 (7 ... a medical treatise in the Hippocratic Corpus, came down unequivocally in favor of the brain, writing: .mw-parser-output . ...
... that destroys cells in the corpus striatum of the basal ganglia.[4][7][8] Molecular mimicry to streptococcal antigens leading ...
... češeriko in corpus striatum, nekaj let kasneje pa še hidrocefalus. Leta 1549 je Jason Pratensis napisal De Cerebri Morbis, eno ... Istega leta je Robert B. Todd opisal vlogo korteksa pri razmišljanju, corpus striatuma pri premikanju in mezencefalona pri ...
However Willis' conceptualized the corpus striatum as the seat of motor power in the late 17th century. In mid-19th-century ... movement disorders were localized to striatum by Choreaby Broadbent and Jackson, and athetosis by Hammond. By the late 19th ...
Males are sexually mature at two years of age.[1] The number of corpora lutea increases directly with age.[15] ...
... subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord due to vitamin deficiency showing changes in the bilateral corpus striatum ...
Hippocratic corpus *^ Bennet S (2008). "Mind and madness in classical antiquity". History of Psychiatry and Medical Psychology ... Hypoactivity in the left ventral striatum is correlated with the severity of negative symptoms.[83] While anhedonia is a ... In Hippocrates' work, the Hippocratic corpus, a holistic explanation for health and disease was developed to include madness ... Activity in the ventral striatum, hippocampus, and ACC are related to the lucidity of hallucinations, and indicate that ...
Connecting each of the hemispheres is the corpus callosum as well as several additional commissures.[8] One of the most ... The telencephalon differentiates into, among other things, the striatum, the hippocampus and the neocortex, and its cavity ...
... corpus striatum). Bazalni gangliji, katerih funkcije so zelo zapletene in še ne dokončno raziskane, v glavnem sodelujejo pri ... agenezija corpus callosum: corpus callosum je delno ali popolnoma odsoten, posledica je umska zaostalost ... Po strogi anatomski definiciji spadata k bazalnim ganglijem tudi amigdalno telo (corpus amygdaloideum) in klavstrum (claustrum ... Eferentno nitje poteka predvsem v striatum. Čelni reženj koordinira vedenje in motoriko ter je pri ljudeh najbolj razvit del ...
... and basal forebrain and interneurons from the striatum and nucleus accumbens. It is not yet clear whether acetylcholine as a ...
1° (Motor cortex → Striatum) → 2° (GPi) → 3° (Lenticular fasciculus/Ansa lenticularis → Thalamic fasciculus → VL of Thalamus ... 1° (Motor cortex → Striatum) → 2° (GPe) → 3° (Subthalamic fasciculus → Subthalamic nucleus) → 4° (Subthalamic fasciculus → GPi ... Corpus callosum. *Anterior commissure. *Amygdalofugal pathway. *Interthalamic adhesion. *Posterior commissure. *Habenular ...
The unknown author of On the Sacred Disease, a medical treatise in the Hippocratic Corpus, came down unequivocally in favor of ... 2005). "Mechanisms for selection of basic motor programs-roles for the striatum and pallidum". Trends in Neurosciences. 28 (7 ...
Corpus striatum definition, a mass of gray matter beneath the cortex and in front of the thalamus in each cerebral hemisphere. ... noun plural corpora striata (straɪˈeɪtə). a striped mass of white and grey matter situated in front of the thalamus in each ... corpus striatum. 1850-55; < New Latin: striated body. Dictionary.com Unabridged Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary ... corpus striatum. New Latin, literally: striated body. Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition ...
... corpus striatum explanation free. What is corpus striatum? Meaning of corpus striatum medical term. What does corpus striatum ... Looking for online definition of corpus striatum in the Medical Dictionary? ... Synonym(s): corpus striatum [TA]. corpus striatum. (strī-ā′təm). n. pl. corpora striata (strī-ā′tə) Either of two gray and ... corpus. [kor´pus] (pl. cor´pora) (L.) body.. corpus al´bicans white fibrous tissue that replaces the regressing corpus luteum ...
These dopamine-sensitive adenylyl cyclases are highly concentrated in the corpus stratum and associated limbic structures of ... Cloning and expression of an adenylyl cyclase localized to the corpus striatum Nature. 1993 Feb 11;361(6412):536-8. doi: ... use in situ hybridization to show that messenger RNA for three of these adenylyl cyclases is not found in the corpus striatum. ... isolated and expressed a complementary DNA encoding new adenylyl cyclase whose selective concentration in the corpus striatum ...
What is corpus striatum? Meaning of corpus striatum as a finance term. What does corpus striatum mean in finance? ... Definition of corpus striatum in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... Corpus striatum financial definition of corpus striatum https://financial-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/corpus+striatum ... corpus. (redirected from corpus striatum). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. ...
History and etymology The term originates from the Latin striatus, meaning striped, referring to the caudatolenticar ... The corpus striatum is a collective name given to the caudate nucleus and lentiform nucleus. ... The corpus striatum is a collective name given to the caudate nucleus and lentiform nucleus. ... The term originates from the Latin "striatus", meaning "striped", referring to the caudatolenticar bridges of grey matter ...
... dopamine at DAT in Wistar rat corpus striatum synaptosomes by liquid scintillation counting. ...
Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase in rat corpus striatum: implications for action of L-dopa in parkinsonism. Neurology. 1981 ... Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase in rat corpus striatum: implications for action of L-dopa in parkinsonism. ... Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase in rat corpus striatum: implications for action of L-dopa in parkinsonism. ...
These results suggest the diabetes-induced changes of the cholinergic activity in the corpus striatum and the regulatory role ... total muscarinic and muscarinic M1 receptor binding and gene expression in the corpus striatum of STZ - diabetic rats and the ... of acetylcholine esterase in the corpus striatum during diabetes to near control state. In diabetic rats there was a decrease ... The striatum, a neuronal nucleus intimately involved in motor behaviour, is one of the brain regions with the highest ...
In response to drug exposure, CREB1 is phosphorylated in the striatum, a structure that is critically involved in reward- ... By increasing dopamine in the striatum, addictive drugs alter the balance of dopamine and glutamate signals converging onto ... Effect of Withania somnifera supplementation on rotenone-induced oxidative damage in cerebellum and striatum of the male mice ... The roles of the medial prefrontal cortex and striatum in reputation processing. ...
Corpus. Striatum. /. physiology. Decision Making. Humans. Biological Sciences. Źródło :. Proceedings of the National Academy of ... Corpus. Striatum. /. physiology. Decision Making/. physiology. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Reaction Time ... Corpus. Striatum. /. physiology. Female. Frontal Lobe/. physiology. Globus Pallidus/. physiology. Humans. Image Processing, ... Corpus. Striatum. /. physiology. Diagnostic Imaging. Dopamine/. physiology. Emotions/. physiology. Fear. Humans. Interpersonal ...
Corpus. Striatum. /metabolism. Corpus. Striatum. /. physiology. Drug-Seeking Behavior/drug effects. Drug-Seeking Behavior/ ... Corpus. Striatum. /diagnostic imaging. Mesh:. Corpus. Striatum. /. physiology. Mesh:Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Mesh: ... Corpus. Striatum. /. physiology. Decision Making. Humans. Biological Sciences. Źródło :. Proceedings of the National Academy of ... Corpus. Striatum. /. physiology. Decision Making/. physiology. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Reaction Time ...
Corpus Striatum. A part of the brain, located in front of the thalamus, that helps regulate motor activities. ... It is caused by one or more small strokes in the corpus striatum (the part of the brain that receives information about ... Striatum. Part of the basal ganglia in the brain controlling movement, balance and walking. It connects to and receives ... Used to describe the bundle of nerve fibres that connects the substantia nigra with the striatum areas in the brain. ...
CORPUS STRIATUM: a bulk of nuclei and myelinated nerve fibers under the cerebral cortex and anterior to the thalamus in both ... CORPUS CAVERNOSUM URETHRAE, CORPUS STRIATUM: "Atrophy of the corpus striatum can sometimes lead to Huntingtons Disease." ... Cite this page: N., Pam M.S., "CORPUS CAVERNOSUM URETHRAE, CORPUS STRIATUM," in PsychologyDictionary.org, April 7, 2013, https ... psychologydictionary.org/corpus-cavernosum-urethrae-corpus-striatum/ (accessed May 8, 2021). ...
... particularly in the striatum. Whether altered epigenetic regulation underlies transcriptional defects in HD is unclear. ... Corpus Striatum / metabolism* * Disease Models, Animal * Down-Regulation * Enhancer Elements, Genetic* * Epigenesis, Genetic ... Together, our results provide evidence for preferential down-regulation of genes controlled by super-enhancers in HD striatum ... Neuronal identity genes regulated by super-enhancers are preferentially down-regulated in the striatum of Huntingtons disease ...
li,,/ul,,ul,,li,Contain: ,/li,,/ul,,ul,,ul,,li,Corpus striatum: ,/li,,/ul,,/ul,,ul,,ul,,ul,,li,Caudate nucleus. ,/li,,/ul,,/ul ... li,,/ul,,ul,,li,Corpus callosum: ,/li,,/ul,,ul,,ul,,li,Major tract of axons that functionally interconnects right and left ... Midbrain ,ul,,li,Contains: ,/li,,/ul,,ul,,ul,,li,Corpora quadrigemina: ,/li,,/ul,,/ul,,ul,,ul,,ul,,li,Superior colliculi: ,/li ...
Cell-free translation of enkephalin-precursor messenger RNA from bovine adrenal medulla and corpus striatum. / Sabol, S. L.; ... Cell-free translation of enkephalin-precursor messenger RNA from bovine adrenal medulla and corpus striatum. Advances in ... title = "Cell-free translation of enkephalin-precursor messenger RNA from bovine adrenal medulla and corpus striatum.", ... T1 - Cell-free translation of enkephalin-precursor messenger RNA from bovine adrenal medulla and corpus striatum. ...
Multicenter study of autologous adrenal medullary transplantation to the corpus striatum in patients with advanced Parkinsons ... The purpose of this innovative operation is to transplant the adrenal medulla into the patients corpus striatum, an area of ... Multicenter study of autologous adrenal medullary transplantation to the corpus striatum in patients with advanced Parkinsons ...
Corpus Striatum. *Corpus Striatum: drug effects. *Corpus Striatum: physiology. *Dopamine. *Dopamine: physiology ... In intact rats, Fos expression was increased by m-CPP (1 mg/kg, i.p.) in the striatum and the subthalamic nucleus. After ... Fos expression remained unchanged in the subthalamic nucleus but was reduced in the medial quadrants of the striatum and was ...
The substantia nigra, corpus striatum, cerebral peduncle, and dorsomedial thalamus were almost always significantly late. ... A indicates amygdala; CP, cerebral peduncle; CS, corpus striatum; DH, dorsal hippocampus; DM, dorsomedial thalamus; EC, ... Nontargeted regions included the cerebral peduncle, neocortex (cingulate and insular cortex), corpus striatum (caudate/putamen ... corpus striatum, neocortex, or nondorsomedial thalamus. However, there was variability in electrode sampling of brain regions ( ...
... the molecular mechanisms that govern striatum function are not fully understood. The extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK ... The striatum is critical for learning and decision making; however, ... Corpus Striatum / physiology*. Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases / metabolism*. Neuronal Plasticity / physiology. ... The striatum is critical for learning and decision making; however, the molecular mechanisms that govern striatum function are ...
C Four distinct telencephalic regions were examined: a = SVZ; b = striatum; c = corpus callosum; d = peri-infarct cortex; i = ... Rare newly born mature oligodendrocytes have been reported within the striatum, corpus callosum and infarcted cortex 1 month ... Coronal sections from the Olig1-EGFP reporter mouse showed an increase in GFP+ cells 7 dpl within the striatum: control (A), ... In contrast to GFP findings, immunofluorescence for Olig1 did not show an increase in Olig1+ cells 7 dpl within the striatum: ...
5. The Corpus Striatum. 6. Physiological Deductions. 7. Physico-Chemical Phenomena of Cerebral Activity. Part II: General ... It includes chapters on the optic thalamus, the corpus striatum, and the memory in exercise. ...
"Chapter 5. The Corpus Striatum, Rhinencephalon, Connecting Fibers, and Diencephalon". CMSD 620 Neuroanatomy of Speech, ... In this book, he described the pineal gland and what he believed the function was, and was able to draw the corpus striatum ...
Stereologic analysis of the development of the corpus striatum between the 14th and 19th week of gestational age ... Stereologic analysis of the development of the corpus striatum between the 14th and 19th week of gestational age. ... Stereologic analysis of the development of the corpus striatum between the 14th and 19th week of gestational age. Medicinski ...
The highest density of [3H]threo‐(±)‐ methylphenidate binding sites was found in the synapto somal fraction of corpus striatum ... The highest density of [3H]threo‐(±)‐ methylphenidate binding sites was found in the synapto somal fraction of corpus striatum ... The highest density of [3H]threo‐(±)‐ methylphenidate binding sites was found in the synapto somal fraction of corpus striatum ... The highest density of [3H]threo‐(±)‐ methylphenidate binding sites was found in the synapto somal fraction of corpus striatum ...
Corpus Striatum. Substantia Nigra. Blood Brain Barrier. LifeART Collection Images Copyright © 1989-2001 by Lippincott Williams ...
The striatum, or corpus striatum (also called the striate nucleus), is a nucleus (a cluster of neurons) in the subcortical ... "Corpus striatum , Radiology Reference Article , Radiopaedia.org". radiopaedia.org. Retrieved 17 January 2018. "Corpus striatum ... Stained brain slice images which include the "striatum" at the BrainMaps project hier-207 at NeuroNames Corpus+Striatum at the ... In primates, the striatum is divided into a ventral striatum, and a dorsal striatum, subdivisions that are based upon function ...
... corpus callosum; LV, lateral ventricle; S, septum; Str, striatum. Scale bars: b, 50 μm; c, 20 μm; d, 10 μm. ... corpus callosum; S, septum; Str, striatum. Scale bars: a-d, 200 μm; e, f, 50 μm. ... The hypercellular nodules in the contralateral SVZ remained prominent (h). *, Lateral ventricle; CC, corpus callosum; Str, ... Consequently, no evidence of dopaminergic (DA) neurogenesis was found in the striatum or substantia nigra in any experimental ...
Rostral Commissure and Corpus Striatum; Optic Chiasm and Telencephalon; Habenular Nucleus and Piriform Lobe; Mamillary Nucleus ... Examples of "Canine Brain Atlas Transverse" Sections include "...Septum and Striate Body; ...
  • Rare newly born mature oligodendrocytes have been reported within the striatum, corpus callosum and infarcted cortex 1 month following hypoxia-ischemia. (nih.gov)
  • The two hemispheres are joined beneath the cortex by the corpus callosum . (wikipedia.org)
  • The corpus striatum is the largest subdivision of the BASAL GANGLIA and consists of the caudate and lentiform nuclei. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The striatum, or corpus striatum (also called the striate nucleus), is a nucleus (a cluster of neurons) in the subcortical basal ganglia of the forebrain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The striatum is the largest structure of the basal ganglia. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this book, he described the pineal gland and what he believed the function was, and was able to draw the corpus striatum which is made up of the basal ganglia and the internal capsule. (wikipedia.org)
  • The basal ganglia refer to a group of closely connected structures including the striatum (the caudate and the putamen), the globus pallidus, the substantia nigra and the subthalamic nucleus. (cerebromente.org.br)
  • Atrophy is most marked in the corpus striatum of the basal ganglia, including the caudate and putamen. (change.org)
  • The caudate nucleus is one of the structures that make up the corpus striatum, a component of the basal ganglia. (medscape.com)
  • In birds there is nothing corresponding to the neopallium, but the basal ganglia (that is, the corpus striatum) are enormously expanded. (britannica.com)
  • The corpus striatum, which forms part of the basal ganglia deep in the cerebral hemispheres, is involved in the control of posture and movement. (sciencephoto.com)
  • In primates, the striatum is divided into a ventral striatum, and a dorsal striatum, subdivisions that are based upon function and connections. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dorsal striatum consists of the caudate nucleus and the putamen. (wikipedia.org)
  • A white matter, nerve tract (the internal capsule) in the dorsal striatum separates the caudate nucleus and the putamen. (wikipedia.org)
  • More studies have been carried out on the dorsal striatum but the compartments have also been identified in the ventral striatum. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the dorsal striatum striosomes make up 10-15 per cent of the striatal volume. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many parts of the neocortex innervate the dorsal striatum. (wikipedia.org)
  • ERK activation in the dorsal striatum is necessary for action-outcome learning and performance of goal-directed actions. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Histologically, the striate body can be subdivided into the generally small-celled striatum, consisting of the caudate nucleus and the outer segment of the lentiform nucleus (the putamen), and a large-celled globus pallidus composed of the two segments. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The term originates from the Latin "striatus", meaning "striped", referring to the caudatolenticar bridges of grey matter crossing the internal capsule from the putamen to the caudate nucleus 2 . (radiopaedia.org)
  • We performed an exploratory, neurohistopathological study to investigate the changes in the corpus striatum (caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus) associated with chronic low-level Mn exposure in South African Mn mine workers. (cdc.gov)
  • the caudate, the putamen and the fundus striati, that ventral part linking the two precedings together ventrally to the inferior part of the internal capsule. (statemaster.com)
  • [1] Grays Fig. ... The putamen is a structure in the middle of the brain, forming the striatum together with the caudate nucleus. (statemaster.com)
  • By increasing dopamine in the striatum, addictive drugs alter the balance of dopamine and glutamate signals converging onto striatal medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) and activate intracellular events involved in long-term behavioral alterations. (isharonline.org)
  • Types of cells in the striatum include: Medium spiny neurons (MSNs), which are the principal neurons of the striatum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Medium spiny projection neurons comprise 95% of the total neuronal population of the human striatum. (wikipedia.org)
  • These neurons of the striatum are not distributed evenly. (wikipedia.org)
  • Injury caused to the striatum stimulates the migration of neuroblasts from the subventricular zone, to the striatum, where they differentiate into adult neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cortical pyramidal neurons projecting to the striatum are located in layers II-VI, with the most dense projections come from layer V. They end mainly on the dendritic spines of the spiny neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many of the symptoms of Parkinson's disease are brought on by loss of or damage to dopamine neurons in this region, which encompasses the striatum, the subthalamic nucleus, and the substantia nigra. (michaeljfox.org)
  • spiny neurons relatively close from the pyramidal neurons of the cortex due to the presence of spines with spine apparatus (acanthodendritic neurons), and make up 96% of the striatum. (statemaster.com)
  • Parkinson disease (PD) is characterized by loss of the A9 nigral neurons that provide dopaminergic innervation to the striatum. (nature.com)
  • The descending branches of those same nerve fibers make contact as pericellular nests of boutons terminaux or boutons en passage neurons of different classes within PVCN and DCN, and here the transformations are quite different from those in AVCN. (scribd.com)
  • These neurons project from the midbrain to an area of the brain called the corpus striatum. (innovations-report.com)
  • The corpus striatum is filled with neurons (nerve cells), which are responsible for passing information around the central nervous system (CNS). (sciencephoto.com)
  • It supplies many deep structures, mainly the corpus striatum, the globus pallidus, and the anterior crus of the internal capsule. (hindawi.com)
  • corpus stria´tum a subcortical mass of gray matter and white matter in front of and lateral to the thalamus in each cerebral hemisphere . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It includes chapters on the optic thalamus, the corpus striatum, and the memory in exercise. (routledge.com)
  • distribution: inferior surface of frontal lobe of cerebrum, extending into thalamus and corpus striatum. (drugs.com)
  • Here we use in situ hybridization to show that messenger RNA for three of these adenylyl cyclases is not found in the corpus striatum. (nih.gov)
  • The researchers focused their attention on the protein Rhes, which is exclusively found in the corpus striatum. (nih.gov)
  • The striatum, a neuronal nucleus intimately involved in motor behaviour, is one of the brain regions with the highest acetylcholine content. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disease associated with extensive down-regulation of genes controlling neuronal function, particularly in the striatum. (nih.gov)
  • Immunohistochemical techniques were used to quantify cell density of neuronal and glial components of the corpus striatum in eight South African Mn mine workers without clinical evidence of a movement disorder and eight age-race-gender matched, non-Mn mine workers. (cdc.gov)
  • The striatum is homogeneous in term of neuronal components. (statemaster.com)
  • In affected patients, neuronal degeneration initiates in the striatum and progresses to the cerebral cortex, following a pattern that correlates to clinical progression of HD. (medscape.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate neuroprotective efficiency of N-methyl D-aspartate ( NMDA ) receptor (NMDAR) blockade on the neuronal damage in the less studied and allegedly less affected CA3 hippocampus and striatum in the Mongolian gerbil model of global cerebral ischemia . (curehunter.com)
  • Consequently, no evidence of dopaminergic (DA) neurogenesis was found in the striatum or substantia nigra in any experimental group, and amphetamine-induced behavioral rotations did not improve. (nih.gov)
  • Interactions of the tricyclic antidepressant drug amitriptyline with L-DOPA in the striatum and substantia nigra of unilaterally 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In intact rats, Fos expression was increased by m-CPP (1 mg/kg, i.p.) in the striatum and the subthalamic nucleus. (mendeley.com)
  • After nigrostriatal lesions, m-CPP-induced Fos expression remained unchanged in the subthalamic nucleus but was reduced in the medial quadrants of the striatum and was markedly enhanced in the entopeduncular nucleus. (mendeley.com)
  • corpus genicula´tum see geniculate bodies , lateral, and geniculate bodies , medial. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Previously it has been proposed that processing one's own reputation requires a reputation representation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and a value representation in the striatum. (isharonline.org)
  • These dopamine-sensitive adenylyl cyclases are highly concentrated in the corpus stratum and associated limbic structures of the brain, where their levels exceed by orders of magnitude those in other areas of the brain. (nih.gov)
  • The ventral striatum is associated with the limbic system and has been implicated as a vital part of the circuitry for decision making and reward-related behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anatomically, the term striatum describes its striped (striated) appearance of grey-and-white matter. (wikipedia.org)
  • This has been noted in the human striatum following an ischemic stroke. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dopaminergic Modulation of the Functional Ventrodorsal Architecture of the Human Striatum. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Using systematic pharmacological manipulation of dopamine D2-receptors and resting-state functional imaging, we defined the functional architecture of the human striatum and quantified the effects of dopaminergic drugs on intrinsic effective connectivity between striatal subregions. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The ventral striatum consists of the nucleus accumbens and the olfactory tubercle. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the ventral striatum, ERK is necessary for the motivating effects of reward-associated stimuli on instrumental performance. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The purpose of this innovative operation is to transplant the adrenal medulla into the patient's corpus striatum, an area of the brain below the cortex. (readabstracts.com)
  • Although cells of the oligodendroglial lineage increased in the brain ipsilateral to hypoxic-ischemic injury, they did not originate from the SVZ but rather arose within the striatum and cortex. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, they resulted from proliferation within the striatum but not within the cortex. (nih.gov)
  • An ideal system for studying mechanisms underlying the development of cortical topographic maps is the system of callosal connections in primary visual cortex (VI, área 17, striate cortex, Fig. 1 ). (scielo.cl)
  • The disease is characterized by degeneration in the striatum, an area associated with motor and learning functions, and the cortex. (medgadget.com)
  • ERK is activated in the striatum by coordinated dopamine and glutamate receptor signaling, where it underlies corticostriatal synaptic plasticity and influences striatal cell excitability. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Current evidence indicates that symptoms of Parkinson's disease are related to depletion of dopamine in the corpus striatum. (drugs.com)
  • Stage 18: The Future Corpus Striatum , the Inferior Cerebellar Peduncles, and the Dentate Nucleus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The corpus striatum is a collective name given to the caudate nucleus and lentiform nucleus . (radiopaedia.org)
  • The striatum is made up of the caudate nucleus and the lentiform nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whereas one wave appears to arise from the ipsilateral (IL) SVZ and migrates through the IL striatum toward the TGFα infusion site, the other wave appears to arise from the contralateral (CL) SVZ and migrates through the septum toward the TGFα infusion site. (nih.gov)
  • Our results suggest that chronic agonism with levodopa can produce postsynaptic dopaminergic hypersensitivity within the striatum. (deepdyve.com)
  • corpus fimbria´tum a band of white matter bordering the lateral edge of the lower cornu of the lateral ventricle of the brain. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Neuroblasts that form in the lateral ventricle adjacent to the striatum, integrate in the striatum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase in rat corpus striatum: implications for action of L-dopa in parkinsonism. (harvard.edu)
  • Divac, I.: Drug-induced syndrome in rats with large, chronic lesions in the corpus striatum. (springer.com)
  • The striatum is a subcortical part of the telencephalon . (statemaster.com)
  • The term neostriatum was forged by comparative anatomists comparing the subcortical structures between vertebrates because it was thought to be a phylogenetically newer section of the corpus striatum. (statemaster.com)
  • These results suggest the diabetes-induced changes of the cholinergic activity in the corpus striatum and the regulatory role of insulin on binding parameters and gene expression of total and muscarinic M1 receptors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cholinergic interneurons release acetylcholine, which has a variety of important effects in the striatum. (wikipedia.org)
  • As judged by morphological and neurological data, the effect of ischemia is also apparent in the presumed less vulnerable regions (CA3 and striatum) which are functionally important in stroke plasticity. (curehunter.com)
  • All 14 brains had diffuse yellowish discoloration affecting the rhombencephalon, mesencephalon, diencephalon, telencephalon and corpus striatum. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Corpus striatum , for example, is defined as that part of the brain that is believed "to modulate or regulate motor and sensory activities of the brain. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It appears in the reptilian brain and forms the largest part of the corpus striatum in mammals. (cerebromente.org.br)
  • But for reasons scientists didn't understand, mutant huntingtin protein only destroys brain cells in the area of the brain responsible for movement, called the corpus striatum. (nih.gov)
  • Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of a section through the corpus striatum of a foetal brain. (sciencephoto.com)
  • In this study, we have investigated the changes of acetylcholine esterase (AChE) enzyme activity, total muscarinic and muscarinic M1 receptor binding and gene expression in the corpus striatum of STZ - diabetic rats and the insulin treated diabetic rats. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Effect of tacrine on in vivo release of dopamine and its metabolites in the striatum of freely moving rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The effects of tacrine (THA) on extracellular concentrations of dopamine (DA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, homovanillic acid and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid were investigated in the striatum of freely moving rats, using a microdialysis technique in which tacrine was administered locally via the microdialysis membrane. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The reasons for this are incompletely understood, though the fact that parts of the striatum lie at the boundary of the arterial supply from the anterior and middle cerebral arteries may be significant. (bmj.com)
  • Neuroprotective efficiency of NMDA receptor blockade in the striatum and CA3 hippocampus after various durations of cerebral ischemia in gerbils. (curehunter.com)
  • ACh has complex and clinically important actions in the striatum that are mediated predominantly by muscarinic receptors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, several serotonin receptors are highly expressed in the striatum and available to modify the action of L-DOPA. (innovations-report.com)
  • We have isolated and expressed a complementary DNA encoding new adenylyl cyclase whose selective concentration in the corpus striatum indicates that it may be responsible for the synaptic actions of dopamine. (nih.gov)
  • Integrating RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) and chromatin-immunoprecipitation followed by massively parallel sequencing (ChIP-seq), we show that down-regulated genes in HD mouse striatum associate with selective decrease in H3K27ac, a mark of active enhancers, and RNA Polymerase II (RNAPII). (nih.gov)
  • Dysregulation of ERK signaling in the striatum by repeated drug exposure contributes to the development of addictive behavior. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These results highlight the importance of ERK signaling in the striatum as a critical substrate for learning and as a regulator of ongoing behavior. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The normal passage of SVZ neuroblasts is to the olfactory bulb but this traffic is diverted to the striatum after an ischemic stroke. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, the molecular mechanisms that govern striatum function are not fully understood. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the term " corpus striatum " was used to designate many distinct, deep, infracortical elements of the hemisphere (i.e. (statemaster.com)
  • Administration of tetrahydrobiopterin restored the decline of dopamine in the striatum induced by an acute action of MPTP. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Acute intraparenchimal hemorrhage (bleeding) in the left corpus striatum with minimal focal mass effect on NECT. (radiologyinfo.org)
  • Damage may be widespread, though the corpus striatum seems particularly vulnerable. (bmj.com)
  • When the researchers gave these mice L-DOPA, they found increased levels of the serotonin 1B receptor and the protein p11 in the striatum. (innovations-report.com)