Process of maintaining the functions of CORPORA LUTEA, specifically PROGESTERONE production which is regulated primarily by pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in cycling females, and by PLACENTAL HORMONES in pregnant females. The ability to maintain luteal functions is important in PREGNANCY MAINTENANCE.
The yellow body derived from the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE after OVULATION. The process of corpus luteum formation, LUTEINIZATION, is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.
Degradation of CORPUS LUTEUM. In the absence of pregnancy and diminishing trophic hormones, the corpus luteum undergoes luteolysis which is characterized by the involution and cessation of its endocrine function.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
Corpus luteum hormones are steroid hormones, specifically progesterone and small amounts of estrogen, produced and secreted by the corpus luteum, a temporary endocrine structure formed in the ovary after ovulation during the menstrual cycle.
PROGESTERONE-producing cells in the CORPUS LUTEUM. The large luteal cells derive from the GRANULOSA CELLS. The small luteal cells derive from the THECA CELLS.
The period in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE that follows OVULATION, characterized by the development of CORPUS LUTEUM, increase in PROGESTERONE production by the OVARY and secretion by the glandular epithelium of the ENDOMETRIUM. The luteal phase begins with ovulation and ends with the onset of MENSTRUATION.
Broad plate of dense myelinated fibers that reciprocally interconnect regions of the cortex in all lobes with corresponding regions of the opposite hemisphere. The corpus callosum is located deep in the longitudinal fissure.
A naturally occurring prostaglandin that has oxytocic, luteolytic, and abortifacient activities. Due to its vasocontractile properties, the compound has a variety of other biological actions.
An acyclic state that resembles PREGNANCY in that there is no ovarian cycle, ESTROUS CYCLE, or MENSTRUAL CYCLE. Unlike pregnancy, there is no EMBRYO IMPLANTATION. Pseudopregnancy can be experimentally induced to form DECIDUOMA in the UTERUS.
The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.
The period of cyclic physiological and behavior changes in non-primate female mammals that exhibit ESTRUS. The estrous cycle generally consists of 4 or 5 distinct periods corresponding to the endocrine status (PROESTRUS; ESTRUS; METESTRUS; DIESTRUS; and ANESTRUS).
Birth defect that results in a partial or complete absence of the CORPUS CALLOSUM. It may be isolated or a part of a syndrome (e.g., AICARDI'S SYNDROME; ACROCALLOSAL SYNDROME; ANDERMANN SYNDROME; and HOLOPROSENCEPHALY). Clinical manifestations include neuromotor skill impairment and INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY of variable severity.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.
The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.
Chemical compounds causing LUTEOLYSIS or degeneration.
A nonapeptide hormone released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). It differs from VASOPRESSIN by two amino acids at residues 3 and 8. Oxytocin acts on SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, such as causing UTERINE CONTRACTIONS and MILK EJECTION.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
Catalyze the oxidation of 3-hydroxysteroids to 3-ketosteroids.
Supporting cells for the developing female gamete in the OVARY. They are derived from the coelomic epithelial cells of the gonadal ridge. Granulosa cells form a single layer around the OOCYTE in the primordial ovarian follicle and advance to form a multilayered cumulus oophorus surrounding the OVUM in the Graafian follicle. The major functions of granulosa cells include the production of steroids and LH receptors (RECEPTORS, LH).
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
A family of herbivorous leaping MAMMALS of Australia, New Guinea, and adjacent islands. Members include kangaroos, wallabies, quokkas, and wallaroos.
A water-soluble polypeptide (molecular weight approximately 8,000) extractable from the corpus luteum of pregnancy. It produces relaxation of the pubic symphysis and dilation of the uterine cervix in certain animal species. Its role in the human pregnant female is uncertain. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A phase of the ESTROUS CYCLES that follows METESTRUS. Diestrus is a period of sexual quiescence separating phases of ESTRUS in polyestrous animals.
The flattened stroma cells forming a sheath or theca outside the basal lamina lining the mature OVARIAN FOLLICLE. Thecal interstitial or stromal cells are steroidogenic, and produce primarily ANDROGENS which serve as precusors of ESTROGENS in the GRANULOSA CELLS.
A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.
Those protein complexes or molecular sites on the surfaces and cytoplasm of gonadal cells that bind luteinizing or chorionic gonadotropic hormones and thereby cause the gonadal cells to synthesize and secrete sex steroids. The hormone-receptor complex is internalized from the plasma membrane and initiates steroid synthesis.
(9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-Trihydroxyprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGF(1 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11,alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGF(2 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGF(3 alpha)). A family of prostaglandins that includes three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. All naturally occurring PGF have an alpha configuration at the 9-carbon position. They stimulate uterine and bronchial smooth muscle and are often used as oxytocics.
An infraclass of MAMMALS, also called Metatheria, where the young are born at an early stage of development and continue to develop in a pouch (marsupium). In contrast to Eutheria (placentals), marsupials have an incomplete PLACENTA.
A synthetic prostaglandin F2alpha analog. The compound has luteolytic effects and is used for the synchronization of estrus in cattle.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Formation of CORPUS LUTEUM. This process includes capillary invasion of the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE, hypertrophy of the GRANULOSA CELLS and the THECA CELLS, and the production of PROGESTERONE. Luteinization is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.
The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.
A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.
A synthetic progestational hormone used often as the progestogenic component of combined oral contraceptive agents.
Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in females. Use for female contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Chemical substances which inhibit the process of spermatozoa formation at either the first stage, in which spermatogonia develop into spermatocytes and then into spermatids, or the second stage, in which spermatids transform into spermatozoa.
The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.
A synthetic progestational hormone with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE and about twice as potent as its racemic or (+-)-isomer (NORGESTREL). It is used for contraception, control of menstrual disorders, and treatment of endometriosis.
Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.
A slightly movable cartilaginous joint which occurs between the pubic bones.
A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the physiology and disorders primarily of the female genital tract, as well as female endocrinology and reproductive physiology.
Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.
Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.
Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.
Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both.
The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.

Pregnancy, parturition, and lactation in hypophyseal stalk-transected beef heifers. (1/99)

Progesterone secretion is crucial for maintaining pregnancy to parturition in mammalian species, and in cattle the corpus luteum is the primary source of this hormone. This study determined the roles of prolactin (PRL), growth hormone (GH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in the luteotropic process in beef heifers hypophyseal stalk-transected (HST, n=7) or sham operated (sham operated controls, SOC, n=9) during midgestation. The main finding was that endogenous PRL and GH maintained progesterone secretion in HST heifers in a similar manner to that in SOC throughout pregnancy. Serum PRL averaged 37 vs 187 and GH 2 vs 4 ng/ml in HST heifers compared with SOC, whereas LH abruptly decreased to undetectable levels after HST compared with a modest 0.4 ng/ml in SOC heifers. The second finding was that parturition and lactation occurred in HST heifers with calf delivery induced to occur at the same time as SOC. Milk production in HST animals was severely limited, and postpartum estrus obliterated compared with SOC. The suckling stimulus sustained milk ejection in HST heifers in spite of diminished PRL, GH, thyroid stimulating hormone, thyroxine and tri-iodothyronine secretion. The results suggest that PRL, GH and possibly placental lactogen are luteotropic during pregnancy in cattle.  (+info)

Source and site of action of anti-luteolytic interferon in red deer (Cervus elaphus): possible involvement of extra-ovarian oxytocin secretion in maternal recognition of pregnancy. (2/99)

Six conceptuses were collected from red deer hinds on day 22 after synchronization of oestrus with intravaginal progesterone-releasing devices (removal of device = day 0). Within 24 h of culture in vitro, the supernatant from five of six conceptuses showed detectable antiviral activity. Interferon alpha (IFN-alpha) receptors were identified by immunohistochemistry on the luminal surface of the endometrium, in the neurohypophysis and paraventricular hypothalamus, but not in the ovaries of the hinds from which the conceptuses were collected. Another 16 intact hinds were synchronized as above. Injection of 4 mg IFN i.m. twice a day on days 13-15 had no effect on cloprostenol-induced oxytocin secretion on day 15 and did not prevent cloprostenol-induced luteal regression. Sixteen ovariectomized hinds received a protocol of steroid treatment to mimic ovarian hormone secretion during the normal oestrous cycle. On day 16, hinds showed undulant oxytocin secretion that showed a degree of temporal association with uterine PGF2 alpha release. Treatment with 4 mg IFN-alpha I 1 twice a day on days 13-16 had no effect on this spontaneous oxytocin secretion, but reduced the magnitude of cloprostenol-induced oxytocin secretion on day 17 (P < 0.05). These results indicate that red deer conceptuses secrete an anti-luteolytic IFN to which the endometrium expresses a receptor during early pregnancy. The presence of IFN receptors in the hypothalamus and posterior pituitary and the IFN-induced suppression of extra-ovarian oxytocin secretion provides tentative evidence of an involvement of the central nervous system in maternal recognition of pregnancy in deer.  (+info)

Rearrangement of extracellular matrix during cluster formation by human luteinising granulosa cells in culture. (3/99)

Human ovarian granulosa cells were cultured on a basement membrane preparation (Matrigel) to investigate the role of extracellular matrix components in granulosa cell cluster formation. Time-lapse videomicroscopy of these cultures revealed a rapid aggregation of cells which was initiated during the first 2-4 h of culture so that by 8 h most of the granulosa cells were incorporated into clusters. Further amalgamation then occurred with the transfer of cells along 'bridges' between combining clusters. The clustering process, which was complete by about 24 h, was accompanied by reorganisation of matrix which was visualised by immunolabelling of laminin. Clustering cells appeared to gather matrix which became distributed around the clusters. Confocal microscopy showed matrix to be present over the surface of each cluster as well as around the base apparently anchoring the aggregate to the culture surface. Results suggest the potential for active rearrangement of matrix by granulosa-derived cells during corpus luteum development.  (+info)

Relationship between different stages of the corpus luteum and the expression of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma protein in bovine large lutein cells. (4/99)

Lutein cells produce progestins that support pregnancy. Steroidogenesis requires coordination of the anabolic and catabolic pathways of lipid metabolism. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) are transcription factors that are central in the regulation of lipid metabolism. Hence, they may play a role in regulation of the development and regression of the corpus luteum. The present study investigated the expression of PPAR-gamma, n during different stages of the corpus luteum. Lutein cells were isolated mechanically from non-pregnant and pregnant heifers on days 5, 12 and 20 of the oestrous cycle (n = 3 for each day). PPAR-gamma in single cells was analysed by flow cytometry. PPAR-gamma 1 and PPAR-gamma 2 isoforms were distinguished by immunoblotting. The cell cycle of the lutein cells was measured by the flow cytometric quantification of DNA in single cells, using propidium iodide staining after ethanol fixation and RNAse treatment, and by the detection of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The response of the cells to PPAR-gamma agonist 15-deoxy-delta 12,14 prostaglandin J2 (15dPGJ2, 200 and 490 nmol l-1) with and without changing the cell cycle by the anti-apoptogenic drug aurintricarboxylic acid (ATA, 10 mumol l-1) was used as an in vitro model to study the relationship between the cell cycle and PPAR-gamma. The concentration of PPAR-gamma per cell from non-pregnant heifers was significantly higher on day 5 (3.40 +/- 0.30 fmol) compared with that on day 12 (1.34 +/- 0.18 fmol, P < 0.05) and day 20 (0.55 +/- 0.2 fmol, P < 0.05). In pregnant heifers, the concentration of PPAR-gamma was significantly (P < 0.01) higher than in non-pregnant heifers. A decrease in the PPAR-gamma 1 isoform relative to PPAR-gamma 2 was observed in cells on day 12 of the oestrous cycle compared with day 5. The cell cycle (S phase portion in cells on days 5, 12 and 20: 16 +/- 4%, 6 +/- 4% and 4 +/- 3%, respectively) and the portion of cells with PCNA correlated with the amount of PPAR-gamma in non-pregnant heifers. ATA promoted the S phase in cells of non-pregnant heifers (day 12) and the endogenous agonist of PPAR-gamma, 15dPGJ2, inhibited the response to ATA in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that PPAR-gamma plays a role in the arrest of the cell cycle in lutein cells to maintain their differentiated state.  (+info)

The regulation of the human corpus luteum steroidogenesis: a hypothesis? (5/99)

The corpus luteum (CL) is an important endocrine organ in the menstrual cycle and in pregnancy. The regulation of its hormonal production has been extensively studied. The steroidogenic abilities of the CL can be rescued by human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) but its role in the maintenance of CL function is not clear. We will discuss the hypothesis that there are fetoplacental factors, other than HCG, that modulate CL steroidogenesis.  (+info)

Growth hormone: roles in female reproduction. (6/99)

GH, as its name suggests, is obligatory for growth and development. It is, however, also involved in the processes of sexual differentiation and pubertal maturation and it participates in gonadal steroidogenesis, gametogenesis and ovulation. It also has additional roles in pregnancy and lactation. These actions may reflect direct endocrine actions of pituitary GH or be mediated by its induction of hepatic or local IGF-I production. However, as GH is also produced in gonadal, placental and mammary tissues, it may act in paracrine or autocrine ways to regulate local processes that are strategically regulated by pituitary GH. The concept that GH is an important modulator of female reproduction is the focus of this review.  (+info)

Production and localisation of angiotensin II in the bovine early corpus luteum: a possible interaction with luteal angiogenic factors and prostaglandin F2 alpha. (7/99)

The newly formed corpus luteum (CL) rapidly develops after ovulation and has the features of active vascularisation and mitosis of steroidogenic cells. These stage-specific mechanisms also may contribute to gain the function of prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha)-resistant CL at this stage. Recent studies suggest that the vasoactive peptide angiotensin II (Ang II) regulates luteal function. Thus, this study aimed to investigate (i) the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) mRNA by RT-PCR and the ACE protein expression by immunohistochemistry, (ii) the effects of angiogenic growth factors, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), on the secretion of Ang II, PGF2 alpha, progesterone and oxytocin (OT), and (iii) the effects of luteal vasoactive peptides (Ang II and endothelin-1 (ET-1)) or OT on the secretion of PGF2 alpha, progesterone and OT from bovine early CL (days 3--4 of the oestrous cycle), and evaluate a possible interaction of these substances with PGF2 alpha. The expression of mRNA for ACE was found in theca interna of mature follicle, early CL and endothelial cells from developing CL as well as pituitary and kidney, but granulosa cells of mature follicle were negative. The immunohistochemical analysis revealed that blood capillaries (endothelial cells) were stained for ACE, but luteal cells were negative in early CL. To examine the effects of substances on the secretory function of the CL, an in vitro microdialysis system was used as a model. The infusion of bFGF and VEGF stimulated Ang II and PGF2 alpha secretion as well as progesterone, but not OT secretion in early CL. The infusion of Ang II after PGF2 alpha infusion continued the stimulatory effect on progesterone and OT release within early CL until 3 h thereafter. However, the infusion of ET-1 alone had no effect on progesterone or OT release. The infusion of luteal peptides such as Ang II and OT stimulated PGF2 alpha secretion, whereas the infusion of ET-1 did not. In conclusion, the overall results of this study indicate that a functional angiotensin system exists on the endothelial cells of early CL, and that angiogenic factors bFGF and VEGF upregulate luteal Ang II and PGF2 alpha secretion, which fundamentally supports the mechanism of progesterone secretion in bovine early CL. This idea supports the concept that the local regulatory mechanism involved in active angiogenesis ensures the progesterone secretion in the developing CL in vivo.  (+info)

Characteristics of infertility in female hypothyroid (hyt) mice. (8/99)

Female hypothyroid (hyt) mice are infertile, but the reason for this infertility is not yet known. The present study was conducted to determine whether hypothyroidism induced infertility in immature and mature hyt mice. Furthermore, animals were treated with thyroxine and gonadotrophins at different times to determine whether infertility was due to failure of follicular development, implantation or pregnancy. There were no significant differences in the numbers of ovulated eggs induced by gonadotrophin treatment or the percentages of eggs developed in vitro among immature normal controls, hyt and thyroxine-treated hyt mice. Mature hyt mice showed continuous dioestrus, and ovulated significantly fewer eggs after gonadotrophin treatment and failed to establish pregnancy after mating compared with mature control mice. Mature hyt mice had significantly fewer corpora lutea > 500 microm in diameter and significantly lower progesterone concentrations. Thyroxine treatment before mating in hyt mice resulted in well-developed corpora lutea, an increase in progesterone and normal pregnancy, regardless of subsequent thyroxine administration. In conclusion, infertility occurs in mature rather than immature hyt mice, is due to the failure of follicular development and pregnancy, and can be reversed by thyroxine treatment before mating.  (+info)

The Corpus Luteum is a temporary endocrine structure formed in the ovary after the release of a mature egg (ovulation) during the menstrual cycle. It produces progesterone and estrogen, which support the early stages of pregnancy by maintaining the lining of the uterus (endometrium). "Corpus Luteum Maintenance" refers to the physiological processes that sustain the function and survival of the Corpus Luteum.

The maintenance of the Corpus Luteum is primarily regulated by two hormones: luteinizing hormone (LH) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). After ovulation, a surge in LH triggers the formation of the Corpus Luteum. In the absence of pregnancy, the Corpus Luteum begins to degenerate after approximately 10-14 days, leading to a decline in progesterone levels and the onset of menstruation.

However, if conception occurs, the developing embryo starts producing hCG, which shares structural similarities with LH. This hCG maintains the Corpus Luteum by binding to LH receptors and stimulating the continued production of progesterone. The high levels of progesterone help thicken the endometrium and prepare it for implantation of the fertilized egg, ensuring a suitable environment for fetal development during early pregnancy.

In summary, Corpus Luteum Maintenance refers to the hormonal regulation and physiological processes that sustain the function and survival of the Corpus Luteum, primarily through the actions of LH and hCG, leading to the production of progesterone and supporting the early stages of pregnancy.

The corpus luteum is a temporary endocrine structure that forms in the ovary after an oocyte (egg) has been released from a follicle during ovulation. It's formed by the remaining cells of the ruptured follicle, which transform into large, hormone-secreting cells.

The primary function of the corpus luteum is to produce progesterone and, to a lesser extent, estrogen during the menstrual cycle or pregnancy. Progesterone plays a crucial role in preparing the uterus for potential implantation of a fertilized egg and maintaining the early stages of pregnancy. If pregnancy does not occur, the corpus luteum will typically degenerate and stop producing hormones after approximately 10-14 days, leading to menstruation.

However, if pregnancy occurs, the developing embryo starts to produce human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), which signals the corpus luteum to continue secreting progesterone and estrogen until the placenta takes over hormonal production, usually around the end of the first trimester.

Luteolysis is the physiological process that leads to the breakdown and regression of the corpus luteum, a temporary endocrine structure in the ovary that forms after ovulation. The corpus luteum produces progesterone, which supports pregnancy in mammals. If pregnancy does not occur, luteolysis takes place approximately 10-14 days after ovulation in humans and is characterized by the degeneration of the corpus luteum, decreased production of progesterone, and the initiation of the menstrual cycle or the onset of a new reproductive cycle.

The primary event that triggers luteolysis is the release of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) from the uterus, which reaches the corpus luteum through the systemic circulation and causes vasoconstriction, reduced blood flow, and structural damage to the corpus luteum. This results in a decline in progesterone levels, which ultimately leads to menstruation or the onset of a new reproductive cycle.

In summary, luteolysis is a crucial process in the female reproductive system that regulates hormonal balance and prepares the body for a new reproductive cycle when pregnancy does not occur.

Progesterone is a steroid hormone that is primarily produced in the ovaries during the menstrual cycle and in pregnancy. It plays an essential role in preparing the uterus for implantation of a fertilized egg and maintaining the early stages of pregnancy. Progesterone works to thicken the lining of the uterus, creating a nurturing environment for the developing embryo.

During the menstrual cycle, progesterone is produced by the corpus luteum, a temporary structure formed in the ovary after an egg has been released from a follicle during ovulation. If pregnancy does not occur, the levels of progesterone will decrease, leading to the shedding of the uterine lining and menstruation.

In addition to its reproductive functions, progesterone also has various other effects on the body, such as helping to regulate the immune system, supporting bone health, and potentially influencing mood and cognition. Progesterone can be administered medically in the form of oral pills, intramuscular injections, or vaginal suppositories for various purposes, including hormone replacement therapy, contraception, and managing certain gynecological conditions.

The corpus luteum is a temporary endocrine structure that forms in the ovary after an oocyte (egg) has been released from a follicle during ovulation. It produces several hormones, including:

1. Progesterone: This hormone prepares the uterus for potential pregnancy by stimulating the growth of blood vessels and glands in the endometrium (lining of the uterus). Progesterone also has an essential role in maintaining pregnancy by preventing menstruation and supporting fetal development.

2. Estradiol: Although primarily produced by developing follicles, the corpus luteum continues to secrete small amounts of estradiol after ovulation. This hormone contributes to the maintenance of the endometrium and helps regulate the menstrual cycle.

3. Relaxin: A peptide hormone that relaxes uterine and pelvic muscles in preparation for childbirth, as well as promoting the growth and remodeling of connective tissues during pregnancy.

4. Inhibin A and B: These are glycoprotein hormones that inhibit the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) from the pituitary gland, thereby regulating ovarian function and the menstrual cycle.

5. Androstenedione: A weak androgenic steroid hormone that can be converted to testosterone or estradiol in peripheral tissues.

The corpus luteum remains functional for approximately 10-14 days after ovulation if pregnancy does not occur, leading to a decline in hormone production and the onset of menstruation. However, if pregnancy occurs, the developing embryo will produce human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), which maintains the corpus luteum and its hormonal function until the placenta takes over hormone production around 8-10 weeks of gestation.

Luteal cells, also known as granulosa-lutein cells, are specialized cells found in the ovary that play a crucial role in the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. They are formed from the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicle after ovulation, during which the follicle ruptures and releases the egg (oocyte). The remaining cells then transform into luteal cells, forming a structure called the corpus luteum.

The primary function of luteal cells is to produce and secrete progesterone and estrogen, two hormones that are essential for preparing the uterus for implantation of a fertilized egg and maintaining early pregnancy. Progesterone stimulates the growth of blood vessels in the endometrium (the lining of the uterus), making it thicker and more receptive to the implantation of a fertilized egg. It also suppresses further development of ovarian follicles, preventing the release of additional eggs during pregnancy.

If pregnancy does not occur, the corpus luteum will degenerate, and the levels of progesterone and estrogen will decrease, leading to menstruation. However, if pregnancy occurs, the developing embryo will produce human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), which stimulates the luteal cells to continue producing progesterone and estrogen until the placenta takes over these functions around the 10th week of gestation.

In summary, luteal cells are specialized ovarian cells that produce and secrete progesterone and estrogen during the menstrual cycle and early pregnancy to prepare the uterus for implantation and maintain pregnancy.

The luteal phase is the second half of the menstrual cycle, starting from ovulation (release of an egg from the ovaries) and lasting until the start of the next menstruation. This phase typically lasts around 12-14 days in a regular 28-day menstrual cycle. During this phase, the remains of the dominant follicle that released the egg transform into the corpus luteum, which produces progesterone and some estrogen to support the implantation of a fertilized egg and maintain the early stages of pregnancy. If pregnancy does not occur, the corpus luteum degenerates, leading to a drop in hormone levels and the start of a new menstrual cycle.

The corpus callosum is the largest collection of white matter in the brain, consisting of approximately 200 million nerve fibers. It is a broad, flat band of tissue that connects the two hemispheres of the brain, allowing them to communicate and coordinate information processing. The corpus callosum plays a crucial role in integrating sensory, motor, and cognitive functions between the two sides of the brain. Damage to the corpus callosum can result in various neurological symptoms, including difficulties with movement, speech, memory, and social behavior.

Dinoprost is a synthetic form of prostaglandin F2α, which is a naturally occurring hormone-like substance in the body. It is used in veterinary medicine as a uterotonic agent to induce labor and abortion in various animals such as cows and pigs. In human medicine, it may be used off-label for similar purposes, but its use must be under the close supervision of a healthcare provider due to potential side effects and risks.

It is important to note that Dinoprost is not approved by the FDA for use in humans, and its availability may vary depending on the country or region. Always consult with a licensed healthcare professional before using any medication, including Dinoprost.

Pseudopregnancy, also known as pseudocyesis or phantom pregnancy, is a psychological condition where an individual (most commonly in women) believes they are pregnant when they are not. This belief is often accompanied by various physical symptoms such as weight gain, abdominal distention, and breast enlargement that mimic those of a genuine pregnancy, despite there being no actual fetal development. These symptoms are caused by the body's hormonal and physiological responses to the individual's strong belief of being pregnant. It is important to note that this condition is rare and can be resolved with proper medical evaluation, counseling, and support.

Estrus is a term used in veterinary medicine to describe the physiological and behavioral state of female mammals that are ready to mate and conceive. It refers to the period of time when the female's reproductive system is most receptive to fertilization.

During estrus, the female's ovaries release one or more mature eggs (ovulation) into the fallopian tubes, where they can be fertilized by sperm from a male. This phase of the estrous cycle is often accompanied by changes in behavior and physical appearance, such as increased vocalization, restlessness, and swelling of the genital area.

The duration and frequency of estrus vary widely among different species of mammals. In some animals, such as dogs and cats, estrus occurs regularly at intervals of several weeks or months, while in others, such as cows and mares, it may only occur once or twice a year.

It's important to note that the term "estrus" is not used to describe human reproductive physiology. In humans, the equivalent phase of the menstrual cycle is called ovulation.

The estrous cycle is the reproductive cycle in certain mammals, characterized by regular changes in the reproductive tract and behavior, which are regulated by hormonal fluctuations. It is most commonly observed in non-primate mammals such as dogs, cats, cows, pigs, and horses.

The estrous cycle consists of several stages:

1. Proestrus: This stage lasts for a few days and is characterized by the development of follicles in the ovaries and an increase in estrogen levels. During this time, the female may show signs of sexual receptivity, but will not allow mating to occur.
2. Estrus: This is the period of sexual receptivity, during which the female allows mating to take place. It typically lasts for a few days and is marked by a surge in luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), which triggers ovulation.
3. Metestrus: This stage follows ovulation and is characterized by the formation of a corpus luteum, a structure that produces progesterone to support pregnancy. If fertilization does not occur, the corpus luteum will eventually regress, leading to the next phase.
4. Diestrus: This is the final stage of the estrous cycle and can last for several weeks or months. During this time, the female's reproductive tract returns to its resting state, and she is not sexually receptive. If pregnancy has occurred, the corpus luteum will continue to produce progesterone until the placenta takes over this function later in pregnancy.

It's important to note that the human menstrual cycle is different from the estrous cycle. While both cycles involve hormonal fluctuations and changes in the reproductive tract, the menstrual cycle includes a shedding of the uterine lining (menstruation) if fertilization does not occur, which is not a feature of the estrous cycle.

Agenesis of the corpus callosum is a birth defect in which the corpus callosum, the part of the brain that connects the two hemispheres and allows them to communicate, fails to develop normally during fetal development. In cases of agenesis of the corpus callosum, the corpus callosum is partially or completely absent.

This condition can vary in severity and may be associated with other brain abnormalities. Some individuals with agenesis of the corpus callosum may have normal intelligence and few symptoms, while others may have intellectual disability, developmental delays, seizures, vision problems, and difficulties with movement and coordination. The exact cause of agenesis of the corpus callosum is not always known, but it can be caused by genetic factors or exposure to certain medications or environmental toxins during pregnancy.

An ovary is a part of the female reproductive system in which ova or eggs are produced through the process of oogenesis. They are a pair of solid, almond-shaped structures located one on each side of the uterus within the pelvic cavity. Each ovary measures about 3 to 5 centimeters in length and weighs around 14 grams.

The ovaries have two main functions: endocrine (hormonal) function and reproductive function. They produce and release eggs (ovulation) responsible for potential fertilization and development of an embryo/fetus during pregnancy. Additionally, they are essential in the production of female sex hormones, primarily estrogen and progesterone, which regulate menstrual cycles, sexual development, and reproduction.

During each menstrual cycle, a mature egg is released from one of the ovaries into the fallopian tube, where it may be fertilized by sperm. If not fertilized, the egg, along with the uterine lining, will be shed, leading to menstruation.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

"Animal pregnancy" is not a term that is typically used in medical definitions. However, in biological terms, animal pregnancy refers to the condition where a fertilized egg (or eggs) implants and develops inside the reproductive tract of a female animal, leading to the birth of offspring (live young).

The specific details of animal pregnancy can vary widely between different species, with some animals exhibiting phenomena such as placental development, gestation periods, and hormonal changes that are similar to human pregnancy, while others may have very different reproductive strategies.

It's worth noting that the study of animal pregnancy and reproduction is an important area of biological research, as it can provide insights into fundamental mechanisms of embryonic development, genetics, and evolution.

Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) is a hormone that is produced during pregnancy. It is produced by the placenta after implantation of the fertilized egg in the uterus. The main function of hCG is to prevent the disintegration of the corpus luteum, which is a temporary endocrine structure that forms in the ovary after ovulation and produces progesterone during early pregnancy. Progesterone is essential for maintaining the lining of the uterus and supporting the pregnancy.

hCG can be detected in the blood or urine as early as 10 days after conception, and its levels continue to rise throughout the first trimester of pregnancy. In addition to its role in maintaining pregnancy, hCG is also used as a clinical marker for pregnancy and to monitor certain medical conditions such as gestational trophoblastic diseases.

"Cattle" is a term used in the agricultural and veterinary fields to refer to domesticated animals of the genus *Bos*, primarily *Bos taurus* (European cattle) and *Bos indicus* (Zebu). These animals are often raised for meat, milk, leather, and labor. They are also known as bovines or cows (for females), bulls (intact males), and steers/bullocks (castrated males). However, in a strict medical definition, "cattle" does not apply to humans or other animals.

An ovarian follicle is a fluid-filled sac in the ovary that contains an immature egg or ovum (oocyte). It's a part of the female reproductive system and plays a crucial role in the process of ovulation.

Ovarian follicles start developing in the ovaries during fetal development, but only a small number of them will mature and release an egg during a woman's reproductive years. The maturation process is stimulated by hormones like follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).

There are different types of ovarian follicles, including primordial, primary, secondary, and tertiary or Graafian follicles. The Graafian follicle is the mature follicle that ruptures during ovulation to release the egg into the fallopian tube, where it may be fertilized by sperm.

It's important to note that abnormal growth or development of ovarian follicles can lead to conditions like polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and ovarian cancer.

Luteinizing Hormone (LH) is a glycoprotein hormone, which is primarily produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland. In women, a surge of LH triggers ovulation, the release of an egg from the ovaries during the menstrual cycle. During pregnancy, LH stimulates the corpus luteum to produce progesterone. In men, LH stimulates the testes to produce testosterone. It plays a crucial role in sexual development, reproduction, and maintaining the reproductive system.

Ovulation is the medical term for the release of a mature egg from an ovary during a woman's menstrual cycle. The released egg travels through the fallopian tube where it may be fertilized by sperm if sexual intercourse has occurred recently. If the egg is not fertilized, it will break down and leave the body along with the uterine lining during menstruation. Ovulation typically occurs around day 14 of a 28-day menstrual cycle, but the timing can vary widely from woman to woman and even from cycle to cycle in the same woman.

During ovulation, there are several physical changes that may occur in a woman's body, such as an increase in basal body temperature, changes in cervical mucus, and mild cramping or discomfort on one side of the lower abdomen (known as mittelschmerz). These symptoms can be used to help predict ovulation and improve the chances of conception.

It's worth noting that some medical conditions, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) or premature ovarian failure, may affect ovulation and make it difficult for a woman to become pregnant. In these cases, medical intervention may be necessary to help promote ovulation and increase the chances of conception.

The menstrual cycle is a series of natural changes that occur in the female reproductive system over an approximate 28-day interval, marking the body's preparation for potential pregnancy. It involves the interplay of hormones that regulate the growth and disintegration of the uterine lining (endometrium) and the release of an egg (ovulation) from the ovaries.

The menstrual cycle can be divided into three main phases:

1. Menstrual phase: The cycle begins with the onset of menstruation, where the thickened uterine lining is shed through the vagina, lasting typically for 3-7 days. This shedding occurs due to a decrease in estrogen and progesterone levels, which are hormones essential for maintaining the endometrium during the previous cycle.

2. Follicular phase: After menstruation, the follicular phase commences with the pituitary gland releasing follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). FSH stimulates the growth of several ovarian follicles, each containing an immature egg. One dominant follicle usually becomes selected to mature and release an egg during ovulation. Estrogen levels rise as the dominant follicle grows, causing the endometrium to thicken in preparation for a potential pregnancy.

3. Luteal phase: Following ovulation, the ruptured follicle transforms into the corpus luteum, which produces progesterone and estrogen to further support the endometrial thickening. If fertilization does not occur within approximately 24 hours after ovulation, the corpus luteum will degenerate, leading to a decline in hormone levels. This drop triggers the onset of menstruation, initiating a new menstrual cycle.

Understanding the menstrual cycle is crucial for monitoring reproductive health and planning or preventing pregnancies. Variations in cycle length and symptoms are common among women, but persistent irregularities may indicate underlying medical conditions requiring further evaluation by a healthcare professional.

Luteolytic agents are substances that cause the breakdown or regression of the corpus luteum, a temporary endocrine structure in the ovary that forms after ovulation and produces progesterone during early pregnancy in mammals. These agents work by inhibiting the secretion of prostaglandins, which are necessary for maintaining the integrity of the corpus luteum. By causing the breakdown of the corpus luteum, luteolytic agents can induce menstruation or cause the termination of an early pregnancy. Examples of luteolytic agents include prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2α) and its analogs, as well as certain dopamine agonists such as cabergoline. These agents are used in various clinical settings, including reproductive medicine and veterinary medicine.

Oxytocin is a hormone that is produced in the hypothalamus and released by the posterior pituitary gland. It plays a crucial role in various physiological processes, including social bonding, childbirth, and breastfeeding. During childbirth, oxytocin stimulates uterine contractions to facilitate labor and delivery. After giving birth, oxytocin continues to be released in large amounts during breastfeeding, promoting milk letdown and contributing to the development of the maternal-infant bond.

In social contexts, oxytocin has been referred to as the "love hormone" or "cuddle hormone," as it is involved in social bonding, trust, and attachment. It can be released during physical touch, such as hugging or cuddling, and may contribute to feelings of warmth and closeness between individuals.

In addition to its roles in childbirth, breastfeeding, and social bonding, oxytocin has been implicated in other physiological functions, including regulating blood pressure, reducing anxiety, and modulating pain perception.

Estradiol is a type of estrogen, which is a female sex hormone. It is the most potent and dominant form of estrogen in humans. Estradiol plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics in women, such as breast development and regulation of the menstrual cycle. It also helps maintain bone density, protect the lining of the uterus, and is involved in cognition and mood regulation.

Estradiol is produced primarily by the ovaries, but it can also be synthesized in smaller amounts by the adrenal glands and fat cells. In men, estradiol is produced from testosterone through a process called aromatization. Abnormal levels of estradiol can contribute to various health issues, such as hormonal imbalances, infertility, osteoporosis, and certain types of cancer.

3-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (3-HSDs) are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in steroid hormone biosynthesis. These enzymes catalyze the conversion of 3-beta-hydroxy steroids to 3-keto steroids, which is an essential step in the production of various steroid hormones, including progesterone, cortisol, aldosterone, and sex hormones such as testosterone and estradiol.

There are several isoforms of 3-HSDs that are expressed in different tissues and have distinct substrate specificities. For instance, 3-HSD type I is primarily found in the ovary and adrenal gland, where it catalyzes the conversion of pregnenolone to progesterone and 17-hydroxyprogesterone to 17-hydroxycortisol. On the other hand, 3-HSD type II is mainly expressed in the testes, adrenal gland, and placenta, where it catalyzes the conversion of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to androstenedione and androstenedione to testosterone.

Defects in 3-HSDs can lead to various genetic disorders that affect steroid hormone production and metabolism, resulting in a range of clinical manifestations such as adrenal insufficiency, ambiguous genitalia, and sexual development disorders.

Granulosa cells are specialized cells that surround and enclose the developing egg cells (oocytes) in the ovaries. They play a crucial role in the growth, development, and maturation of the follicles (the fluid-filled sacs containing the oocytes) by providing essential nutrients and hormones.

Granulosa cells are responsible for producing estrogen, which supports the development of the endometrium during the menstrual cycle in preparation for a potential pregnancy. They also produce inhibin and activin, two hormones that regulate the function of the pituitary gland and its secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).

These cells are critical for female reproductive health and fertility. Abnormalities in granulosa cell function can lead to various reproductive disorders, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), premature ovarian failure, and infertility.

I apologize, but "sheep" is not a term that has a medical definition. It is a common animal with the scientific name Ovis aries. If you have any medical or health-related questions, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

Macropodidae is not a medical term, but a taxonomic family in the order Diprotodontia, which includes large marsupials commonly known as kangaroos, wallabies, and tree-kangaroos. These animals are native to Australia and New Guinea. They are characterized by their strong hind legs, large feet adapted for leaping, and a long muscular tail used for balance. Some members of this family, particularly the larger kangaroo species, can pose a risk to humans in certain situations, such as vehicle collisions or aggressive encounters during breeding season. However, they are not typically associated with medical conditions or human health.

Relaxin is a hormone produced by the ovaries and, during pregnancy, also by the placenta and the fetal membranes. Its primary function is to relax the uterus and pelvic joints in preparation for childbirth, hence its name. It does this by softening the connective tissues and increasing their elasticity, which allows them to stretch more easily. Relaxin also plays a role in the cardiovascular system during pregnancy, helping to maintain healthy blood pressure levels.

Additionally, relaxin has been shown to have effects on other parts of the body, such as reducing muscle stiffness and joint pain, increasing flexibility, and potentially even playing a role in bone metabolism. However, more research is needed to fully understand all of its functions and potential therapeutic uses.

Diestrus is a stage in the estrous cycle of animals, which is similar to the menstrual cycle in humans. It follows the phase of estrus (or heat), during which the animal is receptive to mating. Diestrus is the period of relative sexual quiescence and hormonal stability between cycles. In this phase, the corpus luteum in the ovary produces progesterone, preparing the uterus for potential pregnancy. If fertilization does not occur, the corpus luteum will degenerate, leading to a drop in progesterone levels and the onset of the next estrous cycle. The duration of diestrus varies among species.

In humans, this phase is analogous to the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. However, since humans do not exhibit estrous behavior, the term 'diestrus' is typically not used in human reproductive physiology discussions.

Theca cells are specialized cells that are part of the follicle where the egg matures in the ovary. They are located in the outer layer of the follicle and play an important role in producing hormones necessary for the growth and development of the follicle and the egg within it. Specifically, they produce androgens, such as testosterone, which are then converted into estrogens by another type of cells in the follicle called granulosa cells. These hormones help to thicken the lining of the uterus in preparation for a possible pregnancy. In some cases, theca cells can become overactive and produce too much testosterone, leading to conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

The Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme, also known as Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory (StAR) protein or P450scc, is a complex enzymatic system that plays a crucial role in the production of steroid hormones. It is located in the inner mitochondrial membrane of steroid-producing cells, such as those found in the adrenal glands, gonads, and placenta.

The Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme is responsible for converting cholesterol into pregnenolone, which is the first step in the biosynthesis of all steroid hormones, including cortisol, aldosterone, sex hormones, and vitamin D. This enzymatic complex consists of two components: a flavoprotein called NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase, which provides electrons for the reaction, and a cytochrome P450 protein called CYP11A1, which catalyzes the actual cleavage of the cholesterol side chain.

Defects in the Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme can lead to various genetic disorders, such as congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia (CLAH), a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by impaired steroidogenesis and accumulation of cholesteryl esters in the adrenal glands and gonads.

Luteinizing Hormone (LH) receptors are specialized protein structures found on the surface of certain cells in the body. They play a crucial role in the endocrine system by binding to specific hormones, such as Luteinizing Hormone, and triggering a series of intracellular events that ultimately lead to changes in cell function.

In particular, LH receptors are found on the cells of the ovaries and testes. In females, when LH binds to its receptor in the ovary, it stimulates ovulation and the development of the corpus luteum, which produces progesterone. In males, LH (also known as Interstitial Cell-Stimulating Hormone in this context) binding to its receptor on testicular Leydig cells triggers the production of testosterone.

Therefore, LH receptors are essential for reproductive processes and the maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics.

Prostaglandin F (PGF) is a type of prostaglandin, which is a group of lipid compounds that are synthesized in the body from fatty acids and have diverse hormone-like effects. Prostaglandin F is a naturally occurring compound that is produced in various tissues throughout the body, including the uterus, lungs, and kidneys.

There are two major types of prostaglandin F: PGF1α and PGF2α. These compounds play important roles in a variety of physiological processes, including:

* Uterine contraction: Prostaglandin F helps to stimulate uterine contractions during labor and childbirth. It is also involved in the shedding of the uterine lining during menstruation.
* Bronchodilation: In the lungs, prostaglandin F can help to relax bronchial smooth muscle and promote bronchodilation.
* Renal function: Prostaglandin F helps to regulate blood flow and fluid balance in the kidneys.

Prostaglandin F is also used as a medication to induce labor, treat postpartum hemorrhage, and manage some types of glaucoma. It is available in various forms, including injections, tablets, and eye drops.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Marsupialia" is not a medical term. It is a taxonomic category in biology, specifically an order that includes mammals known as marsupials. These are mammals that carry their young in a pouch after birth. Examples of marsupials include kangaroos, koalas, and opossums. If you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, I'd be happy to help!

Cloprostenol is a synthetic prostaglandin analog used primarily in veterinary medicine for the treatment and prevention of various conditions. The main therapeutic uses of Cloprostenol include:

1. Induction of parturition (labor) in cows, helping to synchronize calving in managed herds.
2. Termination of pregnancy in cattle, especially in cases where the fetus is nonviable or the pregnancy poses a risk to the animal's health.
3. Treatment of uterine and oviductal disorders, such as pyometra (infection of the uterus) and salpingitis (inflammation of the oviduct), in cattle and pigs.
4. Prevention of postpartum disorders, like endometritis (inflammation of the lining of the uterus) and mastitis (inflammation of the mammary glands), by promoting uterine involution and improving overall reproductive performance in cattle.
5. Control of estrus (heat) in cattle, as an aid in estrous synchronization programs for artificial insemination.

Cloprostenol is available in various formulations, such as intramuscular or subcutaneous injectable solutions, and is typically administered by a veterinarian or trained personnel. It is important to note that the use of Cloprostenol and other prostaglandin analogs should be carried out under the guidance and supervision of a veterinary professional, as improper usage can lead to adverse effects or complications.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

Luteinization is the process in which a structure called the granulosa cell in the ovary transforms into a luteal cell after ovulation, or the release of an egg from the ovary. This transformation is triggered by the LH (luteinizing hormone) surge that occurs just before ovulation.

The luteal cells then begin to produce and secrete progesterone and estrogen, which are important hormones for preparing the uterus for implantation of a fertilized egg and maintaining early pregnancy. If pregnancy does not occur, the corpus luteum (the structure formed by the luteinized granulosa cells) will degenerate and progesterone levels will decrease, leading to menstruation.

Luteinization can also refer to a similar process that occurs in the testes, where Sertoli cells transform into Leydig cells in response to LH stimulation, leading to the production of testosterone.

The uterus, also known as the womb, is a hollow, muscular organ located in the female pelvic cavity, between the bladder and the rectum. It has a thick, middle layer called the myometrium, which is composed of smooth muscle tissue, and an inner lining called the endometrium, which provides a nurturing environment for the fertilized egg to develop into a fetus during pregnancy.

The uterus is where the baby grows and develops until it is ready for birth through the cervix, which is the lower, narrow part of the uterus that opens into the vagina. The uterus plays a critical role in the menstrual cycle as well, by shedding its lining each month if pregnancy does not occur.

Prolactin is a hormone produced by the pituitary gland, a small gland located at the base of the brain. Its primary function is to stimulate milk production in women after childbirth, a process known as lactation. However, prolactin also plays other roles in the body, including regulating immune responses, metabolism, and behavior. In men, prolactin helps maintain the sexual glands and contributes to paternal behaviors.

Prolactin levels are usually low in both men and non-pregnant women but increase significantly during pregnancy and after childbirth. Various factors can affect prolactin levels, including stress, sleep, exercise, and certain medications. High prolactin levels can lead to medical conditions such as amenorrhea (absence of menstruation), galactorrhea (spontaneous milk production not related to childbirth), infertility, and reduced sexual desire in both men and women.

Desogestrel is a synthetic form of progestin, which is a female sex hormone. It is used in various forms of hormonal contraception such as birth control pills, patches, and vaginal rings to prevent pregnancy. Desogestrel works by preventing ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovaries), thickening cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, and thinning the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant.

Desogestrel is also used in some hormone replacement therapies (HRT) to treat symptoms of menopause such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness. It may be prescribed alone or in combination with estrogen.

Like all hormonal contraceptives, desogestrel has potential side effects, including irregular menstrual bleeding, headaches, mood changes, breast tenderness, and nausea. In rare cases, it may also increase the risk of blood clots, stroke, or heart attack. It is important to discuss the risks and benefits of desogestrel with a healthcare provider before using it.

Contraceptive agents, female, are medications or devices specifically designed to prevent pregnancy in women. They work by interfering with the normal process of ovulation, fertilization, or implantation of a fertilized egg in the uterus. Some common examples of female contraceptive agents include:

1. Hormonal methods: These include combined oral contraceptives (COCs), progestin-only pills, patches, vaginal rings, and hormonal implants. They contain synthetic forms of the female hormones estrogen and/or progesterone, which work by preventing ovulation, thickening cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, or thinning the lining of the uterus to prevent implantation of a fertilized egg.
2. Intrauterine devices (IUDs): These are small, T-shaped devices made of plastic or copper that are inserted into the uterus by a healthcare provider. They release hormones or copper ions that interfere with sperm movement and prevent fertilization or implantation.
3. Barrier methods: These include condoms, diaphragms, cervical caps, and sponges. They work by physically preventing sperm from reaching the egg.
4. Emergency contraception: This includes medications such as Plan B or Ella, which can be taken up to 5 days after unprotected sex to prevent pregnancy. They work by delaying ovulation or preventing fertilization of the egg.
5. Fertility awareness-based methods (FABMs): These involve tracking a woman's menstrual cycle and avoiding sexual intercourse during her fertile window. Some FABMs also involve using barrier methods during this time.

It is important to note that different contraceptive agents have varying levels of effectiveness, side effects, and risks. Women should consult with their healthcare provider to determine the best method for their individual needs and circumstances.

Spermatogenesis-blocking agents are a class of medications or substances that inhibit or block the process of spermatogenesis, which is the production of sperm in the testicles. These agents can work at various stages of spermatogenesis, including reducing the number of spermatozoa (sperm cells) or preventing the formation of mature sperm.

Examples of spermatogenesis-blocking agents include:

1. Hormonal agents: Certain hormones or hormone-like substances can interfere with the production of sperm. For example, analogs of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and antiandrogens can suppress the release of testosterone and other hormones necessary for spermatogenesis.
2. Alkylating agents: These are chemotherapy drugs that can damage DNA and prevent the division and multiplication of cells, including sperm cells. Examples include cyclophosphamide and busulfan.
3. Other chemicals: Certain industrial chemicals, such as ethylene glycol ethers and dibromochloropropane (DBCP), have been shown to have spermatogenesis-blocking properties.
4. Radiation therapy: High doses of radiation can also damage the testicles and inhibit sperm production.

It's important to note that spermatogenesis-blocking agents are often used for medical purposes, such as treating cancer or preventing pregnancy, but they can have significant side effects and should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

The pregnancy rate is a measure used in reproductive medicine to determine the frequency or efficiency of conception following certain treatments, interventions, or under specific conditions. It is typically defined as the number of pregnancies per 100 women exposed to the condition being studied over a specified period of time. A pregnancy is confirmed when a woman has a positive result on a pregnancy test or through the detection of a gestational sac on an ultrasound exam.

In clinical trials and research, the pregnancy rate helps healthcare professionals evaluate the effectiveness of various fertility treatments such as in vitro fertilization (IVF), intrauterine insemination (IUI), or ovulation induction medications. The pregnancy rate can also be used to assess the impact of lifestyle factors, environmental exposures, or medical conditions on fertility and conception.

It is important to note that pregnancy rates may vary depending on several factors, including age, the cause of infertility, the type and quality of treatment provided, and individual patient characteristics. Therefore, comparing pregnancy rates between different studies should be done cautiously, considering these potential confounding variables.

Levonorgestrel is a synthetic form of the natural hormone progesterone, which is used in various forms of birth control and emergency contraceptives. It works by preventing ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovaries), thickening cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, and thinning the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant.

Medically, Levonorgestrel is classified as a progestin and is available in various forms, including oral tablets, intrauterine devices (IUDs), and emergency contraceptive pills. It may also be used to treat endometriosis, irregular menstrual cycles, and heavy menstrual bleeding.

It's important to note that while Levonorgestrel is a highly effective form of birth control when used correctly, it does not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Therefore, condoms should still be used during sexual activity if there is any risk of STI transmission.

Oral hormonal contraceptives, also known as "birth control pills," are a type of medication that contains synthetic hormones (estrogen and/or progestin) that are taken by mouth to prevent pregnancy. They work by preventing ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovaries), thickening cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, and thinning the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant.

There are several different types of oral hormonal contraceptives, including combined pills that contain both estrogen and progestin, and mini-pills that only contain progestin. These medications are usually taken daily for 21 days, followed by a seven-day break during which menstruation occurs. Some newer formulations may be taken continuously with no break.

It's important to note that while oral hormonal contraceptives are highly effective at preventing pregnancy when used correctly, they do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Therefore, it is still important to use barrier methods of protection, such as condoms, during sexual activity to reduce the risk of STIs.

As with any medication, oral hormonal contraceptives can have side effects and may not be suitable for everyone. It's important to discuss any medical conditions, allergies, or medications you are taking with your healthcare provider before starting to take oral hormonal contraceptives.

The pubic symphysis is the joint in the front of the pelvis that connects the two halves of the pelvic girdle, specifically the pubic bones. It's located at the lower part of the anterior (front) pelvic region. Unlike most joints, which are movable and contain synovial fluid, the pubic symphysis is a cartilaginous joint, also known as an amphiarthrosis.

The joint consists of fibrocartilaginous discs, ligaments, and the articular surfaces of the adjacent pubic bones. The fibrocartilaginous disc helps to absorb shock and reduce friction between the two bones. The main function of the pubic symphysis is to provide stability for the pelvis and transfer weight and forces from the upper body to the lower limbs during activities like walking, running, or jumping.

The pubic symphysis has a limited range of motion, allowing only slight movement in response to pressure or tension. During pregnancy and childbirth, the hormone relaxin is released, which increases the laxity of the pelvic joints, including the pubic symphysis, to accommodate the growing fetus and facilitate delivery. This increased mobility can sometimes lead to discomfort or pain in the area, known as symphysis pubis dysfunction (SPD) or pelvic girdle pain.

Gynecology is a branch of medicine that deals with the health of the female reproductive system. It includes the diagnosis, treatment, and management of conditions related to the female reproductive organs such as the vagina, cervix, uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tubes.

Gynecologists provide routine care for women, including Pap tests, breast exams, and family planning advice. They also treat a wide range of gynecological issues, from menstrual disorders and sexually transmitted infections to reproductive system cancers and hormonal imbalances. In addition, many gynecologists also provide obstetric care, making them both ob-gyns.

It's important for women to establish a relationship with a trusted gynecologist to ensure they receive regular checkups and are able to address any concerns or issues related to their reproductive health.

Estrogens are a group of steroid hormones that are primarily responsible for the development and regulation of female sexual characteristics and reproductive functions. They are also present in lower levels in males. The main estrogen hormone is estradiol, which plays a key role in promoting the growth and development of the female reproductive system, including the uterus, fallopian tubes, and breasts. Estrogens also help regulate the menstrual cycle, maintain bone density, and have important effects on the cardiovascular system, skin, hair, and cognitive function.

Estrogens are produced primarily by the ovaries in women, but they can also be produced in smaller amounts by the adrenal glands and fat cells. In men, estrogens are produced from the conversion of testosterone, the primary male sex hormone, through a process called aromatization.

Estrogen levels vary throughout a woman's life, with higher levels during reproductive years and lower levels after menopause. Estrogen therapy is sometimes used to treat symptoms of menopause, such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness, or to prevent osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. However, estrogen therapy also carries risks, including an increased risk of certain cancers, blood clots, and stroke, so it is typically recommended only for women who have a high risk of these conditions.

Gonadal steroid hormones, also known as gonadal sex steroids, are hormones that are produced and released by the gonads (i.e., ovaries in women and testes in men). These hormones play a critical role in the development and maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics, reproductive function, and overall health.

The three main classes of gonadal steroid hormones are:

1. Androgens: These are male sex hormones that are primarily produced by the testes but also produced in smaller amounts by the ovaries and adrenal glands. The most well-known androgen is testosterone, which plays a key role in the development of male secondary sexual characteristics such as facial hair, deepening of the voice, and increased muscle mass.
2. Estrogens: These are female sex hormones that are primarily produced by the ovaries but also produced in smaller amounts by the adrenal glands. The most well-known estrogen is estradiol, which plays a key role in the development of female secondary sexual characteristics such as breast development and the menstrual cycle.
3. Progestogens: These are hormones that are produced by the ovaries during the second half of the menstrual cycle and play a key role in preparing the uterus for pregnancy. The most well-known progestogen is progesterone, which also plays a role in maintaining pregnancy and regulating the menstrual cycle.

Gonadal steroid hormones can have significant effects on various physiological processes, including bone density, cognitive function, mood, and sexual behavior. Disorders of gonadal steroid hormone production or action can lead to a range of health problems, including infertility, osteoporosis, and sexual dysfunction.

Hormones are defined as chemical messengers that are produced by endocrine glands or specialized cells and are transported through the bloodstream to tissues and organs, where they elicit specific responses. They play crucial roles in regulating various physiological processes such as growth, development, metabolism, reproduction, and mood. Examples of hormones include insulin, estrogen, testosterone, adrenaline, and thyroxine.

Oral contraceptives, also known as "birth control pills," are medications taken by mouth to prevent pregnancy. They contain synthetic hormones that mimic the effects of natural hormones estrogen and progesterone in a woman's body, thereby preventing ovulation, fertilization, or implantation of a fertilized egg in the uterus.

There are two main types of oral contraceptives: combined pills, which contain both estrogen and progestin, and mini-pills, which contain only progestin. Combined pills work by preventing ovulation, thickening cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, and thinning the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant. Mini-pills work mainly by thickening cervical mucus and changing the lining of the uterus.

Oral contraceptives are highly effective when used correctly, but they do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). It is important to use them consistently and as directed by a healthcare provider. Side effects may include nausea, breast tenderness, headaches, mood changes, and irregular menstrual bleeding. In rare cases, oral contraceptives may increase the risk of serious health problems such as blood clots, stroke, or liver tumors. However, for most women, the benefits of using oral contraceptives outweigh the risks.

Menopause is a natural biological process that typically occurs in women in their mid-40s to mid-50s. It marks the end of menstrual cycles and fertility, defined as the absence of menstruation for 12 consecutive months. This transition period can last several years and is often accompanied by various physical and emotional symptoms such as hot flashes, night sweats, mood changes, sleep disturbances, and vaginal dryness. The hormonal fluctuations during this time, particularly the decrease in estrogen levels, contribute to these symptoms. It's essential to monitor and manage these symptoms to maintain overall health and well-being during this phase of life.

... and maintenance, respectively. It also produces relaxin, a hormone responsible for softening of the pubic symphysis which helps ... Once the corpus luteum regresses the remnant is known as corpus albicans. The corpus luteum is essential for establishing and ... The corpus luteum (Latin for "yellow body"; PL: corpora lutea) is a temporary endocrine structure in female ovaries involved in ... Corpus luteum cyst: hemorrhage into persistent corpus luteum. Commonly regresses spontaneously. List of distinct cell types in ...
"The significance of the human corpus luteum in pregnancy maintenance. I. Preliminary studies". Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 112 (8 ... The main function of hCG is to sustain the ovarian corpus luteum during pregnancy past the time it would normally decay as part ... For the first 7-9 weeks in humans, the corpus luteum secretes the progesterone necessary to maintain the viability of the ...
The hormone prolactin produced regulates the activation and early maintenance of corpus luteum. The corpus luteum is known as a ... In most species, the corpus luteum is degraded in the absence of a pregnancy. However, in some species, the corpus luteum may ... and instead the corpus luteum persists regardless of pregnancy. Since the corpus luteum is not degraded, it will cause the ... meaning that they will only ovulate and produce a corpus luteum if they are bred. The corpus luteum persists as if the queen ...
Pregnancy maintenance relies on the continued production of progesterone which is initially produced by the corpus luteum (CL ... essential for the maintenance of the corpus luteum. Interferon tau is secreted by the trophectoderm of the blastocyst from ... Luteolysis is the regression of the corpus luteum. The process is identified by the decline of progesterone and it signifies ... Progesterone released from the corpus luteum is promoted by human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) produced by the cells of the ...
Thus, a single hormone, GnRH1, controls a complex process of follicular growth, ovulation, and corpus luteum maintenance in the ... in terms of menstruation recovery or maintenance, premature ovarian failure and ovulation. GnRH activity influences a variety ...
2018). "Regulation of the porcine corpus luteum during pregnancy". Reproduction. 156 (3): R57-R67. doi:10.1530/rep-17-0662. ... Maintenance of teat order with some evidence for the use of odour cues". Applied Animal Ethology. 8 (4): 347-355. doi:10.1016/ ... in pigs occurs on days 11 to 12 of pregnancy and is marked by progesterone production from a functioning corpus luteum (CL). To ... During mid to late pregnancy, the CL relies primarily on luteinizing hormone (LH) for maintenance until parturition. Animal ...
... interacts with the LHCG receptor of the ovary and promotes the maintenance of the corpus luteum ... This allows the corpus luteum to secrete the hormone progesterone during the first trimester. Progesterone enriches the uterus ... As HCG supports the corpus luteum, administration of HCG is used in certain circumstances to enhance the production of ...
... pregnancy maintenance MeSH G08.520.769.520.500 - corpus luteum maintenance MeSH G08.520.769.525 - pregnancy, multiple MeSH ... corpus luteum maintenance MeSH G08.520.440.508.380 - luteolysis MeSH G08.520.440.508.493 - ovulation inhibition MeSH G08.520. ...
"Effect of Restricted Feed Intake on the Sensitivity of the Bovine Corpus Luteum to LH In Vitro". Journal of Animal Science. 41 ... Apgar, Jean (1970-04-01). "Effect of Zinc Deficiency on Maintenance of Pregnancy in the Rat". The Journal of Nutrition. 100 (4 ... "Effect of Restricted Feed Intake on the Sensitivity of the Bovine Corpus Luteum to LH In Vitro" (1975, with Douglas Aspros, ... "Effect of Zinc Deficiency on Maintenance of Pregnancy in the Rat" (1970) "Effect of a Low Zinc Diet during Gestation on ...
... which also lack the corpus luteum, and therefore do not ovulate. This adult ovarian phenotype suggests that in the absence of ... Though its expression in bone is moderate, ERα is known to be responsible for maintenance of bone integrity. It is hypothesized ... ERα is similarly essential in the maturation and maintenance of the male reproductive phenotype, as male ERKO mice are ... which in turn regulate bone development and maintenance. Accordingly, male and female ERKO mice exhibit decreased bone length ...
This in turn reduces progesterone secretion from the corpus luteum in a pregnant female. The corpus luteum is a temporary ... It is not clear how well the mechanisms studied for the onset, maintenance and release from facultative diapause in the rodent ... The main function of the corpus luteum is to secrete progesterone during pregnancy in order to maintain the uterine environment ... Prolactin acting on the corpus luteum causes the progesterone level to be below optimal concentration and therefore induces ...
Corpora lutea are found only in mammals, and in some elasmobranch fish; in other species, the remnants of the follicle are ... They hypothesized that DNA double-strand break repair is vital for the maintenance of oocyte reserve and that a decline in ... Also in the cortex is the corpus luteum derived from the follicles. The innermost layer is the ovarian medulla. It can be hard ... The follicle remains functional and reorganizes into a corpus luteum, which secretes progesterone in order to prepare the ...
Progesterone is the major progestogen produced by the corpus luteum of the ovary in all mammalian species. Luteal cells possess ... maintenance of pregnancy, and preparation of the mammary glands for lactation and breastfeeding following parturition in women ... whereas in other species the corpus luteum remains the primary source of progestogens. In the sheep and human, progesterone is ... A complete luteo-placental shift occurs by day 120-150. The endogenous progestogens are naturally occurring pregnane steroids ...
... which is also secreted by the corpus luteum, contributes to FSH inhibition. Progesterone, secreted by the corpus luteum, ... They hypothesized that DNA double-strand break repair is vital for the maintenance of oocyte reserve, and that a decline in ... A rise in pituitary FSH caused by the disintegration of the corpus luteum at the conclusion of a menstrual cycle precipitates ... Following ovulation, LH stimulates the formation of the corpus luteum. Estrogen has since dropped to negative stimulatory ...
Paraspeckles form a significant portion of the corpus luteum of the ovary; in Neat1 impaired mice, corpus luteum formation is ... PRC2 has been shown in many experiments to be necessary for the proper formation of organs, starting with the maintenance of ... December 2014). "The lncRNA Neat1 is required for corpus luteum formation and the establishment of pregnancy in a subpopulation ... Articles with multiple maintenance issues, Epigenetics, Human development). ...
The corpus luteum secretes progesterone. Depending on breed, on average, 16% of mares have double ovulations, allowing them to ... Exercise in excessively high temperatures has been suggested as being detrimental to pregnancy maintenance during the embryonic ... It decreases 12-15 days after ovulation, when the corpus luteum begins to decrease in size. Prostaglandin: secreted by the ... causes luteolysis and prevents the corpus luteum from secreting progesterone eCG - equine chorionic gonadotropin - also called ...
... stimulates the ovarian production of estrogens by the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles and corpora lutea. Some ... Estrogens are responsible for maturation and maintenance of the vagina and uterus, and are also involved in ovarian function, ... In addition, estrogens are responsible for bone maturation and maintenance of bone mineral density throughout life. Due to ... Stimulate endometrial growth Increase uterine growth Increase vaginal lubrication Thicken the vaginal wall Maintenance of ...
... im Besonderen des Hormons des Corpus luteum. I. Der biologische Test für das Luteumhormon (das spezielle Hormon des Corpus ... Articles with multiple maintenance issues, All articles with vague or ambiguous time, Vague or ambiguous time from June 2017, ... luteum) am infantilen Kaninchen". Zentralblatt für Gynäkologie. 54: 2757-2770. "Clauberg's method, alt. Clauberg's test". ...
Zeleznik, A., Fairchild Benyo, D. Control of follicular development, corpus luteum function and the recognition of pregnancy in ... crucial for the maintenance of the endometrium. hCG secreted by cytotrophoblastic cells of the blastocyst controls endometrial ... The dramatic increase in trophoblastic and corpus luteal hCG synthesis signals both blastocyst and corpus luteal production of ... The role of lipoproteins in the regulation of progesterone secretion by the human corpus luteum. Fertil Steril, 38, 303-311 ...
"The lncRNA Neat1 Is Required for Corpus Luteum Formation and the Establishment of Pregnancy in a Subpopulation of Mice". ... Some studies demonstrate that NEAT1 RNA is essential for the formation and maintenance of paraspeckles. Thus, this novel ...
The hormones produced by the corpus luteum also suppress production of the FSH and LH that the corpus luteum needs to maintain ... The uterine cycle governs the preparation and maintenance of the lining of the uterus (womb) to receive an embryo. These cycles ... which is very similar to LH and preserves the corpus luteum. During the first few months of pregnancy, the corpus luteum ... If implantation does not occur within about two weeks, the corpus luteum degenerates into the corpus albicans, which does not ...
... is synthesized by corpora lutea of several species, including ruminants and primates. Along with estrogen, it is ... Oxytocin is involved in the initiation of human maternal behavior, not its maintenance; for example, it is higher in mothers ... including in females in the corpus luteum and the placenta; in males in the testicles' interstitial cells of Leydig; and in ... "Post-translational processing of oxytocin-neurophysin prohormone in the ovine corpus luteum: activity of peptidyl glycine alpha ...
... and is notably equivalent to the total production of progesterone by a corpus luteum throughout the course of a woman's entire ... Dosages of CPA of 12.5 to 25 mg/day have been used as a maintenance dosage for testosterone suppression in men with sexual ... but continuing the use of 12.5 to 25 mg CPA a day as a maintenance dose (Bradford & Pawlak, 1993a). Bradford JM, Pawlak A ( ...
... to allow generation of a normal preovulatory LH surge to occur will ovulation take place with the formation of a corpus luteum ... In fact, it was found that among the Hutterites, more frequent bouts of nursing, in addition to maintenance of feeding in the ...
Due to these hormonal changes, the corpus luteum gets destroyed. The elevated level of FSH helps to recruit a cohort of the FSH ... The key components of fecundity are a person's reproductive maturation and the maintenance of their reproductive system. In ... maintenance, or reproduction, as best needed for survival. Most research focuses on female puberty because it is easier to ... maintenance, and reproduction at the various life stages. Life history theory is applied to reproductive ecology in the ...
... seeing how BST has a stimulatory effect of progesterone on the corpus luteum. Though approved by the FDA in 1993, rBST has been ... This is due to a lower milk yield per cow due to the pasture-based system which is attributed with a greater maintenance energy ... Overall, milk and dairy products provide essential nutrients and related benefits in health maintenance and the prevention of ...
Reproductive biology of Chamaeleo pumilis pumilis with special reference to the role of the corpus luteum and progesterone. ... Articles with multiple maintenance issues, Articles with hCards, All articles with unsourced statements, Articles with ...
In females, heat stress negatively affects conception rates as it impairs corpus luteum and thus ovarian function and oocyte ... Articles with multiple maintenance issues, Use dmy dates from September 2022, All articles with unsourced statements, Articles ...
... the requirements-in line with the most recent findings of the KAUFMANN Clinic-of cases marked by deficiency of corpus luteum ... It is used in the treatment of menopausal symptoms at a dosage of 1 to 1.66 mg initially and 0.33 to 1 mg for maintenance two ...
During the luteal phase following ovulation LH and FSH cause the post-ovulation ovary to develop into the corpus luteum which ... Articles with multiple maintenance issues, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2010, All articles containing ... The production of progesterone inhibits the LH and FSH hormones which (in a cycle without pregnancy) causes the corpus luteum ...
... and maintenance, respectively. It also produces relaxin, a hormone responsible for softening of the pubic symphysis which helps ... Once the corpus luteum regresses the remnant is known as corpus albicans. The corpus luteum is essential for establishing and ... The corpus luteum (Latin for "yellow body"; PL: corpora lutea) is a temporary endocrine structure in female ovaries involved in ... Corpus luteum cyst: hemorrhage into persistent corpus luteum. Commonly regresses spontaneously. List of distinct cell types in ...
The significance of the human corpus luteum in pregnancy maintenance. I. Preliminary studies. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1972 Apr 15 ... Because the corpus luteum is not a de novo structure but is a direct result of the follicle, it shows the effects of abnormal ... If pregnancy occurs, the production of progesterone from the corpus luteum continues for 7 weeks because of the tonic release ... The corpus luteum. Hum Reprod. 1988 Feb. 3(2):153-6. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ...
The continued production of progesterone by the corpus luteum stimulates the proliferation and differentiation of stromal cells ... Figure 3. Maintenance of Early Pregnancy.. The diagram shows an implanted embryo (approximately 14 days after conception) and ... the processes necessary for the maintenance of an early pregnancy. VEGF denotes vascular endothelial growth factor, and hCG ...
The corpus luteum degenerates in the absence of fertilization.. Menstrual Hygiene. Maintenance of hygiene and sanitation during ... The corpus luteum secretes large amounts of progesterone essential for implantation of the fertilized ovum and another event of ... is followed by the luteal phase during which the remaining parts of the Graafian follicle transform into the corpus luteum. ...
The significance of the human corpus luteum in pregnancy maintenance. I. Preliminary studies. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1972 Apr 15 ... The corpus luteum. Hum Reprod. 1988 Feb. 3(2):153-6. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ... Pulsatile progesterone secretion: its relevance to clinical evaluation of corpus luteum function. Fertil Steril. 1984 Jan. 41(1 ... Corpus luteum function and regression. Reprod Med Rev. 1993. 2:153-80. ...
The corpus luteum secretes large amount of progesterone which is essential for the maintenance of the endometrium. If ... What is corpus albicans?. Answer:. In the absence of fertilization, the corpus luteum degenerates completely and leaves a scar ... H- Corpus luteum. I - Corpus albicans.. (b) Pituitary hormones: Follicle Stimulating Hormones (FSH) and Lutenizing Hormone (LH ... In the absence of fertilization, the corpus luteum degenerates completely and leaves a scar tissue called corpus albicans. It ...
... associated with the female reproductive cycle and synthesized in the cells of the corpus luteum; it prepares the lining of the ... uterus for implantation of the ovum and is essential for the maintenance of pregnancy, dosage for clenbuterol cycle. The sex ...
... inducing ovulation and maintenance of the corpus luteum in females. In adult males, LH regulates spermatogenesis acting on ... which plays a key role in maintenance of fertility in a follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-independent manner [45-47]. Indeed, ... where testosterone is fundamental for the maturation of gametes and maintenance of fertility exerting proliferative and anti- ... suggesting that Pka is fundamental for the maintenance of steroid synthesis at basal level. ...
Graffian follicle into corpus luteum and secretion of progesterone from corpus luteum which is responsible for maintenance of ... b) This estrogen produced, stimulates the growth, maintenance & normal functioning of secondary sex organs.. (c) The estrogen ...
Human chorionic gonadotropin interacts with the LHCG receptor and promotes the maintenance of the corpus luteum during the ...
Maternal recognition of pregnancy and maintenance of the corpus luteum : proceedings of a workshop held in Jerusalem, Israel, ...
TheeCG also binds to the LH receptors in the corpus luteum [45] . This binding increases progesterone (P4pregn-4-eno-3,20- ... The equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) hormone stimulates the accessory luteal glands that aid in the maintenance of ...
The cows in the present study were in active oestrus cycle evidenced from the presence of active corpus luteum as indicated by ... The findings from this study seemed to suggest that cows that were offered higher levels of energy above their maintenance ... 1M in which the cows were fed to meet their full daily metabolizable energy requirement above maintenance (n=15), and 2M in ... which the cows were fed twice the level for daily metabolizable energy requirement above maintenance (n=15). The diet contained ...
HCG also plays an important role in maintenance of corpus luteum during the initial phase of pregnancy and it allows the corpus ... B. It is very essential to maintain the corpus luteum during the early stage of pregnancy because corpus luteum secretes a ... G-Corpus luteum. H-Corpus albicans. ii) FEABCDGH. B. (i) A- Hormone secreted by primary follicle(A) is oestrogen. E- LH and FSH ... After ovulation the ruptured follicle left in the ovary is converted to corpus luteum which secretes a hormone namely ...
Corpus Luteum Maintenance G8.686.785.760.690.355.500 G8.686.784.690.355.500 G8.686.785.760.769.520.500 G8.686.784.769.520.500 ... Body Weight Maintenance G7.700.320.249.314.120.250 G7.345.249.314.120.250 Bombesin D12.776.641.650.85 D12.776.631.650.85 Bone ... Pregnancy Maintenance G8.686.785.760.769.520 G8.686.784.769.520 Pregnancy Outcome G8.686.785.760.769.530 G8.686.784.769.530 ...
... natural cycle FETs have a lower risk of maternal and fetal complications due to the essential role of the corpus luteum in ... implantation, placentation and pregnancy maintenance. While several studies have confirmed the positive effects of LPS in mNC- ...
Corpus Luteum Maintenance G8.686.785.760.690.355.500 G8.686.784.690.355.500 G8.686.785.760.769.520.500 G8.686.784.769.520.500 ... Body Weight Maintenance G7.700.320.249.314.120.250 G7.345.249.314.120.250 Bombesin D12.776.641.650.85 D12.776.631.650.85 Bone ... Pregnancy Maintenance G8.686.785.760.769.520 G8.686.784.769.520 Pregnancy Outcome G8.686.785.760.769.530 G8.686.784.769.530 ...
6. Corpus Luteum Formation: After ovulation, the ruptured follicle transforms into the corpus luteum, a temporary endocrine ... and maintenance of fertility. Understanding the different stages of oocyte development and the significance of prophase I ... the corpus luteum continues to secrete hormones to support pregnancy. If fertilization does not occur, the corpus luteum ... and maintenance of the correct chromosome number in offspring. ... involutes and becomes the corpus albicans.. **The Significance ...
Numbers of ovarian corpora lutea, ovulated oocytes, and oocyte-derived embryos reaching blastocyst stage were determined. In ... as well as on pregnancy maintenance in domestic cats. In the first experiment, seven queens in proestrus (total of 24 proestrus ... IBMX injections at doses of 5 or 25 μg/animal significantly increased the number of ovulations/corpora lutea, harvested zygotes ... The GnRH antagonist acyline prevented ovulation, but did not affect ovarian follicular development or gestational corpora lutea ...
of corpora lutea − no.of visible implantation / no. of corpora lutea) × 100. Pre-natal loss was calculated as a percentage from ... Dated and signed records of activities relating to the day to day running and maintenance of the study in the animal house were ... of corpora lutea - no. of implantations)/ no. of corpora lutea)/ X 100. - Pre-natal loss (%) = (no. of visible implantations - ... Pre-implantation loss (%) = [(Number of corpora lutea - number of implantations)/number of corpora lutea] X 100. - Post- ...
Estrus cycle irregularities and increased corpora lutea were seen at all doses, but no impairment of fertility was seen. ... Monotherapy Maintenance Therapy A maintenance trial was conducted in adult patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for bipolar I ... Adjunctive Maintenance Therapy An adjunctive maintenance trial was conducted in adult patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for ... One maintenance monotherapy trial and in one maintenance adjunctive trial in adult patients with bipolar I disorder [see ...
Number of corpora lutea - Number of implantations. _______________________________________________x 100. Number of corpora ... Diet (e.g. ad libitum): All animals had free access to SSNIFF R/M-H pelleted maintenance diet, batch Nos. 4898480, 6318584 and ... Number of corpora lutea: Yes. - Number of implantations: Yes. - Number of early resorptions: Yes. - Number of late resorptions ... When compared with controls, there was a slight increase of the mean numbers of corpora lutea and primordial follicles in high- ...
Corpus luteum, a novel target of weight obtain and loss in reproduction The corpus luteum is actually a transient endocrine ... 1999]. In addition, LH is an absolute requirement for luteinization and maintenance of P4 synthesis only in primates [ ... The corpus luteum could be the key source of progesterone (P4) throughout the menstrual cycle and early pregnancy in primates. ... Following ovulation, the corpus luteum continues to secrete hormones and is as a result crucial for establishment and upkeep of ...
A female hormone secreted by the corpus luteum after ovulation during the second half of the menstrual cycle luteal phase. ... Service runs every minutes, Monday through Saturday, from 9 a. Well aquipped kitchen, and the maintenance of the facilities is ... These and many other Riedell accessories allow the skater forget about the maintenance troubles and focus on their skating ...
HCG plays a vital role in maintaining pregnancy by supporting the corpus luteum, which produces progesterone essential for a ... Maintenance Phase: Following the low-calorie phase, youll gradually increase your calorie intake, avoiding sugar and starches ...
During the menstrual cycle, progesterone is produced by the corpus luteum, a temporary structure formed in the ovary after an ... Testosterone plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of male secondary sexual characteristics, such as facial ... pregnancy maintenance and development of secondary sexual characteristics in females. ... and play various roles in the maintenance of sperm function and fertility. ...
Thus, BoDV-1 infection may lead to instability in the maintenance of early pregnancy by interfering with INF-τ production. ... genes during early pregnancy significantly increased in the BoDV-1-seropositive cows and may be important for the maintenance ... F2α by the endometrium to maintain corpora lutea and their production of P4, the unequivocal hormone of pregnancy [6-8]. IFN-τ ... BoDV-1 infection could affect the fecundity and maintenance of pregnancy. Therefore, the conception and maintenance of early ...
... a steroid hormone produced by the corpus luteum and later by ... Luteal Phase Defect: A condition where the corpus luteum does ... Its surge during this critical period ensures the establishment and maintenance of a healthy pregnancy. Monitoring progesterone ... Progesterone, a steroid hormone produced by the corpus luteum and later by the placenta, plays a pivotal role in establishing ...
HCG can be administered to mimic the hormonal support that would naturally be provided by the corpus luteum. This support helps ... It supports the development of the embryo and the maintenance of pregnancy. In reproductive medicine, HCG is primarily used to ...
Seminal plasma regulates corpora lutea macrophage populations during early pregnancy in mice. Biol Reprod. 2004;71(4):1135-41. ... Localization of aquaporin-7 in human testis and ejaculated sperm: possible involvement in maintenance of sperm quality. J Urol ... AMP-activated kinase, AMPK, is involved in the maintenance of plasma membrane organization in boar spermatozoa. Biochim Biophys ... especially regarding the maintenance of sperm motility, sperm membrane integrity, and mitochondrial membrane potential. Energy ...
  • PL: corpora lutea) is a temporary endocrine structure in female ovaries involved in the production of relatively high levels of progesterone, and moderate levels of estradiol, and inhibin A. It is the remains of the ovarian follicle that has released a mature ovum during a previous ovulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The corpus luteum develops from an ovarian follicle during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle or oestrous cycle, following the release of a secondary oocyte from the follicle during ovulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following ovulation, the mature ovarian follicle forms the corpus luteum, which becomes a blood-filled structure that allows the precursor cholesterol to be obtained, initiating steroidogenesis and resulting in progesterone production. (medscape.com)
  • The follicle first forms a corpus hemorrhagicum before it becomes a corpus luteum, but the term refers to the visible collection of blood, left after rupture of the follicle, that secretes progesterone. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the bovine estrous cycle, plasma levels of progesterone increase in parallel to the levels of P450scc and its electron donor adrenodoxin, indicating that progesterone secretion is a result of enhanced expression of P450scc in the corpus luteum. (wikipedia.org)
  • The corpus luteum secretes progesterone, which is a steroid hormone responsible for the decidualization of the endometrium (its development) and maintenance, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] If the egg is not fertilised, the corpus luteum stops secreting progesterone and decays (after approximately 10 days in humans). (wikipedia.org)
  • Presumably, progesterone prepares the endometrium for implantation and maintenance of a pregnancy. (medscape.com)
  • If pregnancy occurs, the production of progesterone from the corpus luteum continues for 7 weeks because of the tonic release of luteinizing hormone (LH) from the pituitary gland. (medscape.com)
  • Because the corpus luteum is not a de novo structure but is a direct result of the follicle, it shows the effects of abnormal folliculogenesis with decreased progesterone production. (medscape.com)
  • Pulsatile progesterone secretion: its relevance to clinical evaluation of corpus luteum function. (medscape.com)
  • The corpus luteum is essential for establishing and maintaining pregnancy in females. (wikipedia.org)
  • If pregnancy does not occur, menses begins with the demise of the corpus luteum. (medscape.com)
  • The significance of the human corpus luteum in pregnancy maintenance. (medscape.com)
  • Maternal recognition of pregnancy and maintenance of the corpus luteum : proceedings of a workshop held in Jerusalem, Israel, March 1988 / edited by M. Shemesh and Barbara J. Weir. (who.int)
  • While the oocyte (later the zygote if fertilization occurs) traverses the Fallopian tube into the uterus, the corpus luteum remains in the ovary. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whereas the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle can vary in length, the secretory phase lasts approximately 14 days, correlating with the life span of the corpus luteum. (medscape.com)
  • Progesterone is a key hormone for maintenance of pregnancy. (medscape.com)
  • Large amounts of progesterone are produced in women by the corpus luteum during the second half of the menstrual cycle, which inhibits the effects of estrogen on endometrial proliferation and results in a secretory status of the endometrium in preparation for implantation of a fertilized egg. (nih.gov)
  • If pregnancy does not occur, the corpus luteum regresses and levels of progesterone fall, triggering menstruation and resetting of the ovarian cycle. (nih.gov)
  • Progesterone also affects mammary glands and is required for their development and maintenance and, in the central nervous system, increases body temperature and ventilator responses. (nih.gov)
  • Process of maintaining the functions of CORPORA LUTEA , specifically PROGESTERONE production which is regulated primarily by pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in cycling females, and by PLACENTAL HORMONES in pregnant females. (nih.gov)
  • Following ovulation, the mature ovarian follicle forms the corpus luteum, which becomes a blood-filled structure that allows the precursor cholesterol to be obtained, initiating steroidogenesis and resulting in progesterone production. (medscape.com)
  • Presumably, progesterone prepares the endometrium for implantation and maintenance of a pregnancy. (medscape.com)
  • If pregnancy occurs, the production of progesterone from the corpus luteum continues for 7 weeks because of the tonic release of luteinizing hormone (LH) from the pituitary gland. (medscape.com)
  • Because the corpus luteum is not a de novo structure but is a direct result of the follicle, it shows the effects of abnormal folliculogenesis with decreased progesterone production. (medscape.com)
  • In the first trimester it is primarily secreted by the corpus luteum. (medscape.com)
  • 14. Levels and interactions of p27, cyclin D3, and CDK4 during the formation and maintenance of the corpus luteum in mice. (nih.gov)