Corpus Luteum: The yellow body derived from the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE after OVULATION. The process of corpus luteum formation, LUTEINIZATION, is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.Luteolysis: Degradation of CORPUS LUTEUM. In the absence of pregnancy and diminishing trophic hormones, the corpus luteum undergoes luteolysis which is characterized by the involution and cessation of its endocrine function.Corpus Luteum Maintenance: Process of maintaining the functions of CORPORA LUTEA, specifically PROGESTERONE production which is regulated primarily by pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in cycling females, and by PLACENTAL HORMONES in pregnant females. The ability to maintain luteal functions is important in PREGNANCY MAINTENANCE.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Corpus Luteum HormonesLuteal Cells: PROGESTERONE-producing cells in the CORPUS LUTEUM. The large luteal cells derive from the GRANULOSA CELLS. The small luteal cells derive from the THECA CELLS.Luteal Phase: The period in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE that follows OVULATION, characterized by the development of CORPUS LUTEUM, increase in PROGESTERONE production by the OVARY and secretion by the glandular epithelium of the ENDOMETRIUM. The luteal phase begins with ovulation and ends with the onset of MENSTRUATION.Corpus Callosum: Broad plate of dense myelinated fibers that reciprocally interconnect regions of the cortex in all lobes with corresponding regions of the opposite hemisphere. The corpus callosum is located deep in the longitudinal fissure.Dinoprost: A naturally occurring prostaglandin that has oxytocic, luteolytic, and abortifacient activities. Due to its vasocontractile properties, the compound has a variety of other biological actions.Pseudopregnancy: An acyclic state that resembles PREGNANCY in that there is no ovarian cycle, ESTROUS CYCLE, or MENSTRUAL CYCLE. Unlike pregnancy, there is no EMBRYO IMPLANTATION. Pseudopregnancy can be experimentally induced to form DECIDUOMA in the UTERUS.Estrus: The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.Estrous Cycle: The period of cyclic physiological and behavior changes in non-primate female mammals that exhibit ESTRUS. The estrous cycle generally consists of 4 or 5 distinct periods corresponding to the endocrine status (PROESTRUS; ESTRUS; METESTRUS; DIESTRUS; and ANESTRUS).Agenesis of Corpus Callosum: Birth defect that results in a partial or complete absence of the CORPUS CALLOSUM. It may be isolated or a part of a syndrome (e.g., AICARDI'S SYNDROME; ACROCALLOSAL SYNDROME; ANDERMANN SYNDROME; and HOLOPROSENCEPHALY). Clinical manifestations include neuromotor skill impairment and INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY of variable severity.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Pregnancy, Animal: The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Chorionic Gonadotropin: A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Ovarian Follicle: An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Ovulation: The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.Menstrual Cycle: The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.Luteolytic Agents: Chemical compounds causing LUTEOLYSIS or degeneration.Oxytocin: A nonapeptide hormone released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). It differs from VASOPRESSIN by two amino acids at residues 3 and 8. Oxytocin acts on SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, such as causing UTERINE CONTRACTIONS and MILK EJECTION.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases: Catalyze the oxidation of 3-hydroxysteroids to 3-ketosteroids.Granulosa Cells: Supporting cells for the developing female gamete in the OVARY. They are derived from the coelomic epithelial cells of the gonadal ridge. Granulosa cells form a single layer around the OOCYTE in the primordial ovarian follicle and advance to form a multilayered cumulus oophorus surrounding the OVUM in the Graafian follicle. The major functions of granulosa cells include the production of steroids and LH receptors (RECEPTORS, LH).Macropodidae: A family of herbivorous leaping MAMMALS of Australia, New Guinea, and adjacent islands. Members include kangaroos, wallabies, quokkas, and wallaroos.Relaxin: A water-soluble polypeptide (molecular weight approximately 8,000) extractable from the corpus luteum of pregnancy. It produces relaxation of the pubic symphysis and dilation of the uterine cervix in certain animal species. Its role in the human pregnant female is uncertain. (Dorland, 28th ed)Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Diestrus: A phase of the ESTROUS CYCLES that follows METESTRUS. Diestrus is a period of sexual quiescence separating phases of ESTRUS in polyestrous animals.Theca Cells: The flattened stroma cells forming a sheath or theca outside the basal lamina lining the mature OVARIAN FOLLICLE. Thecal interstitial or stromal cells are steroidogenic, and produce primarily ANDROGENS which serve as precusors of ESTROGENS in the GRANULOSA CELLS.Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.Receptors, LH: Those protein complexes or molecular sites on the surfaces and cytoplasm of gonadal cells that bind luteinizing or chorionic gonadotropic hormones and thereby cause the gonadal cells to synthesize and secrete sex steroids. The hormone-receptor complex is internalized from the plasma membrane and initiates steroid synthesis.Prostaglandins F: (9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-Trihydroxyprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGF(1 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11,alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGF(2 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGF(3 alpha)). A family of prostaglandins that includes three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. All naturally occurring PGF have an alpha configuration at the 9-carbon position. They stimulate uterine and bronchial smooth muscle and are often used as oxytocics.Marsupialia: An infraclass of MAMMALS, also called Metatheria, where the young are born at an early stage of development and continue to develop in a pouch (marsupium). In contrast to Eutheria (placentals), marsupials have an incomplete PLACENTA.Cloprostenol: A synthetic prostaglandin F2alpha analog. The compound has luteolytic effects and is used for the synchronization of estrus in cattle.Luteinization: Formation of CORPUS LUTEUM. This process includes capillary invasion of the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE, hypertrophy of the GRANULOSA CELLS and the THECA CELLS, and the production of PROGESTERONE. Luteinization is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.Uterus: The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Prolactin: A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.Embryo Implantation, Delayed: Delay in the attachment and implantation of BLASTOCYST to the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The blastocyst remains unattached beyond the normal duration thus delaying embryonic development.Corpora Allata: Paired or fused ganglion-like bodies in the head of insects. The bodies secrete hormones important in the regulation of metamorphosis and the development of some adult tissues.20-alpha-Dihydroprogesterone: A biologically active 20-alpha-reduced metabolite of PROGESTERONE. It is converted from progesterone to 20-alpha-hydroxypregn-4-en-3-one by the 20-ALPHA-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASE in the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA.Receptors, Prostaglandin: Cell surface receptors that bind prostaglandins with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Prostaglandin receptor subtypes have been tentatively named according to their relative affinities for the endogenous prostaglandins. They include those which prefer prostaglandin D2 (DP receptors), prostaglandin E2 (EP1, EP2, and EP3 receptors), prostaglandin F2-alpha (FP receptors), and prostacyclin (IP receptors).Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Estrus Synchronization: Occurrence or induction of ESTRUS in all of the females in a group at the same time, applies only to non-primate mammals with ESTROUS CYCLE.Follicular Phase: The period of the MENSTRUAL CYCLE representing follicular growth, increase in ovarian estrogen (ESTROGENS) production, and epithelial proliferation of the ENDOMETRIUM. Follicular phase begins with the onset of MENSTRUATION and ends with OVULATION.Menstruation: The periodic shedding of the ENDOMETRIUM and associated menstrual bleeding in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE of humans and primates. Menstruation is due to the decline in circulating PROGESTERONE, and occurs at the late LUTEAL PHASE when LUTEOLYSIS of the CORPUS LUTEUM takes place.Postpartum Period: In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).Callithrix: A genus of the subfamily CALLITRICHINAE occurring in forests of Brazil and Bolivia and containing seventeen species.Follicle Stimulating Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Pregnancy Maintenance: Physiological mechanisms that sustain the state of PREGNANCY.Animals, Inbred Strains: Animals produced by the mating of progeny over multiple generations. The resultant strain of animals is virtually identical genotypically. Highly inbred animal lines allow the study of certain traits in a relatively pure form. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Penis: The external reproductive organ of males. It is composed of a mass of erectile tissue enclosed in three cylindrical fibrous compartments. Two of the three compartments, the corpus cavernosa, are placed side-by-side along the upper part of the organ. The third compartment below, the corpus spongiosum, houses the urethra.Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone: A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Macaca radiata: A species of macaque monkey that mainly inhabits the forest of southern India. They are also called bonnet macaques or bonnet monkeys.Receptors, Oxytocin: Cell surface proteins that bind oxytocin with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Oxytocin receptors in the uterus and the mammary glands mediate the hormone's stimulation of contraction and milk ejection. The presence of oxytocin and oxytocin receptors in neurons of the brain probably reflects an additional role as a neurotransmitter.Embryo Implantation: Endometrial implantation of EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN at the BLASTOCYST stage.Aromatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the desaturation (aromatization) of the ring A of C19 androgens and converts them to C18 estrogens. In this process, the 19-methyl is removed. This enzyme is membrane-bound, located in the endoplasmic reticulum of estrogen-producing cells of ovaries, placenta, testes, adipose, and brain tissues. Aromatase is encoded by the CYP19 gene, and functions in complex with NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE in the cytochrome P-450 system.Steroids: A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Gonanes: Steroids containing the fundamental tetracyclic unit with no methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and with no side chain at C-17. The concept includes both saturated and unsaturated derivatives.Pinnipedia: The suborder of aquatic CARNIVORA comprising the WALRUSES; FUR SEALS; SEA LIONS; and EARLESS SEALS. They have fusiform bodies with very short tails and are found on all sea coasts. The offspring are born on land.Pregnancy, Ectopic: A potentially life-threatening condition in which EMBRYO IMPLANTATION occurs outside the cavity of the UTERUS. Most ectopic pregnancies (>96%) occur in the FALLOPIAN TUBES, known as TUBAL PREGNANCY. They can be in other locations, such as UTERINE CERVIX; OVARY; and abdominal cavity (PREGNANCY, ABDOMINAL).Progesterone Congeners: Steroidal compounds related to PROGESTERONE, the major mammalian progestational hormone. Progesterone congeners include important progesterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with progestational activities.Gonadotropins, Equine: Gonadotropins secreted by the pituitary or the placenta in horses. This term generally refers to the gonadotropins found in the pregnant mare serum, a rich source of equine CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. Unlike that in humans, the equine LUTEINIZING HORMONE, BETA SUBUNIT is identical to the equine choronic gonadotropin, beta. Equine gonadotropins prepared from pregnant mare serum are used in reproductive studies.Hysterectomy: Excision of the uterus.Follicular Cyst: Cyst due to the occlusion of the duct of a follicle or small gland.Gonadotropins: Hormones that stimulate gonadal functions such as GAMETOGENESIS and sex steroid hormone production in the OVARY and the TESTIS. Major gonadotropins are glycoproteins produced primarily by the adenohypophysis (GONADOTROPINS, PITUITARY) and the placenta (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN). In some species, pituitary PROLACTIN and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN exert some luteotropic activities.Hypophysectomy: Surgical removal or destruction of the hypophysis, or pituitary gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)Pregnenediones: Unsaturated pregnane derivatives containing two keto groups on side chains or ring structures.Insemination, Artificial: Artificial introduction of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.Hydroxyprogesterones: Metabolites or derivatives of PROGESTERONE with hydroxyl group substitution at various sites.Receptors, Prolactin: Labile proteins on or in prolactin-sensitive cells that bind prolactin initiating the cells' physiological response to that hormone. Mammary casein synthesis is one of the responses. The receptors are also found in placenta, liver, testes, kidneys, ovaries, and other organs and bind and respond to certain other hormones and their analogs and antagonists. This receptor is related to the growth hormone receptor.20-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases: A group of enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction-oxidation reaction of 20-hydroxysteroids, such as from a 20-ketosteroid to a 20-alpha-hydroxysteroid (EC 1.1.1.149) or to a 20-beta-hydroxysteroid (EC 1.1.1.53).Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.20-alpha-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase: An enzymes that catalyzes the reversible reduction-oxidation reaction of 20-alpha-hydroxysteroids, such as from PROGESTERONE to 20-ALPHA-DIHYDROPROGESTERONE.Superovulation: Occurrence or induction of release of more ova than are normally released at the same time in a given species. The term applies to both animals and humans.Ovulation Induction: Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.Follicular Fluid: The fluid surrounding the OVUM and GRANULOSA CELLS in the Graafian follicle (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). The follicular fluid contains sex steroids, glycoprotein hormones, plasma proteins, mucopolysaccharides, and enzymes.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Endometrium: The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.Prostaglandins F, Synthetic: Analogs or derivatives of prostaglandins F that do not occur naturally in the body. They do not include the product of the chemical synthesis of hormonal PGF.Hormone Antagonists: Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Bromocriptine: A semisynthetic ergotamine alkaloid that is a dopamine D2 agonist. It suppresses prolactin secretion.Neurophysins: Carrier proteins for OXYTOCIN and VASOPRESSIN. They are polypeptides of about 10-kDa, synthesized in the HYPOTHALAMUS. Neurophysin I is associated with oxytocin and neurophysin II is associated with vasopressin in their respective precursors and during transportation down the axons to the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR).Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Proestrus: A phase of the ESTROUS CYCLE that precedes ESTRUS. During proestrus, the Graafian follicles undergo maturation.Inhibins: Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectivelyPlacenta: A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).Buffaloes: Ruminants of the family Bovidae consisting of Bubalus arnee and Syncerus caffer. This concept is differentiated from BISON, which refers to Bison bison and Bison bonasus.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Pregnancy Proteins: Proteins produced by organs of the mother or the PLACENTA during PREGNANCY. These proteins may be pregnancy-specific (present only during pregnancy) or pregnancy-associated (present during pregnancy or under other conditions such as hormone therapy or certain malignancies.)5-alpha-Dihydroprogesterone: A biologically active 5-alpha-reduced metabolite of plasma PROGESTERONE. It is the immediate precursor of 5-alpha-pregnan-3-alpha-ol-20-one (ALLOPREGNANOLONE), a neuroactive steroid that binds with GABA(A) RECEPTOR.Metestrus: The period following ESTRUS during which the phenomena of estrus subside in those animals in which pregnancy or pseudopregnancy does not occur.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Progestins: Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Labor, Obstetric: The repetitive uterine contraction during childbirth which is associated with the progressive dilation of the uterine cervix (CERVIX UTERI). Successful labor results in the expulsion of the FETUS and PLACENTA. Obstetric labor can be spontaneous or induced (LABOR, INDUCED).Abortifacient Agents: Chemical substances that interrupt pregnancy after implantation.Pituitary Hormone-Releasing Hormones: Peptides, natural or synthetic, that stimulate the release of PITUITARY HORMONES. They were first isolated from the extracts of the HYPOTHALAMUS; MEDIAN EMINENCE; PITUITARY STALK; and NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. In addition, some hypophysiotropic hormones control pituitary cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and hormone synthesis. Some can act on more than one pituitary hormone.Buserelin: A potent synthetic analog of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE with D-serine substitution at residue 6, glycine10 deletion, and other modifications.17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone: A metabolite of PROGESTERONE with a hydroxyl group at the 17-alpha position. It serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of HYDROCORTISONE and GONADAL STEROID HORMONES.Androstenedione: A delta-4 C19 steroid that is produced not only in the TESTIS, but also in the OVARY and the ADRENAL CORTEX. Depending on the tissue type, androstenedione can serve as a precursor to TESTOSTERONE as well as ESTRONE and ESTRADIOL.Ovarian Cysts: General term for CYSTS and cystic diseases of the OVARY.Progesterone Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of a 3 beta-hydroxy-delta(5)-steroid to 3-oxo-delta(4)-steroid in the presence of NAD. It converts pregnenolone to progesterone and dehydroepiandrosterone to androstenedione. EC 1.1.1.145.Ovulation Detection: Method to determine the occurrence of OVULATION by direct or indirect means. Indirect methods examine the effects of PROGESTERONE on cervical mucus (CERVIX MUCUS), or basal body temperature. Direct ovulation detection, generally used in fertility treatment, involves analyses of circulating hormones in blood and ULTRASONOGRAPHY.Anestrus: A state of sexual inactivity in female animals exhibiting no ESTROUS CYCLE. Causes of anestrus include pregnancy, presence of offspring, season, stress, and pathology.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Prostaglandins: A group of compounds derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, primarily arachidonic acid, via the cyclooxygenase pathway. They are extremely potent mediators of a diverse group of physiological processes.Penile Erection: The state of the PENIS when the erectile tissue becomes filled or swollen (tumid) with BLOOD and causes the penis to become rigid and elevated. It is a complex process involving CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS; HORMONES; SMOOTH MUSCLES; and vascular functions.

Luteal regression in the normally cycling rat: apoptosis, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and inflammatory cell involvement. (1/1885)

In hypophysectomized rats, prolactin induces regression of the corpora lutea. Luteal regression is accompanied by infiltration of monocytes/macrophages, declines in luteal mass and plasma progestins, and increased staining for monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). We investigated whether similar events are induced during the estrous cycle, after the proestrous prolactin surge. Rats were killed on proestrus or on estrus, and one ovary was frozen for immunohistochemical detection of MCP-1, monocytes/macrophages (ED1-positive), and differentiated macrophages (ED2-positive) and for in situ detection of apoptotic nuclei. Corpora lutea of the current (proestrus) or preceding (estrus) cycle were dissected from the ovaries of additional rats and frozen for the same analyses and for determination of total protein content. In sections of whole ovaries, intensity and distribution of MCP-1 staining were increased in corpora lutea of multiple ages on estrus as compared to proestrus, as were numbers of differentiated macrophages and apoptotic nuclei per high-power field. Sections of isolated corpora lutea showed these increases on estrus, and the number of monocytes/macrophages per high-power field was also significantly increased. Accompanying these inflammatory/immune events, the corpora lutea on estrus showed decreased weight and total protein per corpus luteum, as compared to corpora lutea on proestrus. These changes are consistent with a proposed role for prolactin in the initiation of luteal apoptosis and of a sequence of inflammatory/immune events that accompany regression of the rat corpus luteum during the normal estrous cycle.  (+info)

Prolonged mating in prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) increases likelihood of ovulation and embryo number. (2/1885)

Prairie voles are induced ovulators that mate frequently in brief bouts over a period of approximately 24 h. We examined 1) impact of mating duration on ovulation and embryo number, 2) incidence of fertilization, 3) temporal pattern of embryo development, 4) embryo progression through the reproductive tract over time, and 5) embryo development in culture. Mating was videotaped to determine first copulation, and the ovaries were examined and the reproductive tracts flushed at 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 20, and 24 h and 2, 3, and 4 days after first copulation. The number of mature follicles and fresh corpora lutea and the number and developmental stage of embryos were quantified. One, two-, and four-cell embryos were cultured in Whitten's medium. Mature follicles were present at the earliest time examined (6 h). Thirty-eight percent of females that had been paired for < 12 h after the first copulation ovulated, whereas all females paired >/= 12 h after the first copulation ovulated. Virtually all (> 99%) oocytes recovered from females paired for >/= 12 h after first copulation were fertilized. Pairing time after first copulation and mean copulation-bout duration were significant (p < 0.05) determinants of embryo number. Embryos entered the uterine horns and implanted on Days 3 and 4, respectively, after first copulation (Day 0). Embryos cultured in vitro underwent approximately one cell division per day, a rate similar to that in vivo. We conclude that prairie voles ovulate reliably after pairing for >/= 12 h, although some females showed exceptional sensitivity not predicted by the variables quantified. Prolonged mating for longer than 12 h increased the total embryos produced. This mechanism likely has adaptive significance for increasing offspring number.  (+info)

Expression of oestrogen receptor alpha and beta mRNA in corpus luteum of human subjects. (3/1885)

To investigate the role of oestrogen receptor beta (ERbeta) in the function of human ovarian corpus luteum, the levels of luteal ERalpha and ERbeta mRNA were determined using competitive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction-Southern blot analysis. The expression of ERalpha and ERbeta mRNA was detected in all luteal samples analysed. Luteal ERalpha and ERbeta mRNA levels were significantly lower (P<0.01 and P<0.05 respectively) at the late secretory phase than those at the early and mid-secretory phases of the endometrium. The ratio of ERalpha to ERbeta mRNA levels showed no change during the secretory phase of the endometrium. This study demonstrates that ERbeta is co-expressed with ERalpha in human corpus luteum and is likely to play a biological role in the regulation of steroidal action of the corpus luteum with ERalpha.  (+info)

Fas and Fas ligand messenger ribonucleic acid and protein expression in the rat corpus luteum during apoptosis-mediated luteolysis. (4/1885)

Apoptosis has been found to occur during regression of the corpus luteum (CL) in many species. The Fas (APO-1/CD95) receptor, a transmembrane protein that induces apoptosis in the cell when bound to Fas ligand (FasL), may be involved. This study established and quantitated the presence and regulation of Fas receptor and FasL in the rat CL during pregnancy and postpartum. Using immunohistochemistry, FasL was localized in CL during pregnancy and postpartum. Fas was localized at Day 1 of pregnancy and at the time of luteolysis. Both Fas and FasL mRNA were found to be expressed throughout pregnancy and postpartum using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Relative quantitative RT-PCR established that expression of FasL mRNA increased significantly at Day 22 of pregnancy and decreased by Day 3 postpartum. Spontaneous apoptosis of rat CL placed in an in vitro culture model with serum-free medium was examined by analysis of extracted DNA using 3' end-labeling. Treatment with an anti-rat Fas monoclonal antibody demonstrated a reduction in the occurrence of spontaneous apoptosis. These data support a role for Fas receptor and FasL in rat CL apoptosis during luteolysis.  (+info)

A quantitative study of changes in the human corpus luteum microvasculature during the menstrual cycle. (5/1885)

Endothelial cells are the most abundant cell type in the corpus luteum (CL), and changes in blood vessels have been proposed to play a pivotal role in CL regression. We have studied quantitatively the changes in the human granulosa-luteal microvasculature in CL of various ages: young (Days 17-19 of the cycle), mature (Days 20-24), old (Days 25-27), early regressing (follicular phase of the following cycle), and late regressing (luteal phase of the following cycle). Blood vessels were identified by immunohistochemical staining for the endothelial cell marker CD34. Because of the anisotropy of blood vessels, both vertical and transverse sections of the granulosa-lutein layer (GLL) were used to estimate relative (volume, surface, and length densities) and absolute (mean cross-sectional area) vascular variables. Full luteinization from young to mature CL was accompanied by a 61% increase in the mean cross-sectional area of vascular profiles and a 52% increase in the mean volume of granulosa-lutein cells, as an estimator of changes in the volume of the GLL. In old and early regressing CL, there was a progressive increase in relative structural vascular variables, due to the shrinkage of the GLL, whereas the mean cross-sectional area of capillaries showed a 53% decrease from mature to old CL. Finally, in late regressing CL, there was a decrease in most relative structural variables, in spite of the increasingly shrunken GLL. The decrease in the capillary diameter found at the late luteal phase most likely leads to a decreased blood flow, and early changes in blood vessels could initiate and/or accelerate CL regression.  (+info)

A proposed sequence of hormones controlling the induction of luteal 20alpha-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase and progesterone withdrawal in the late-pregnant rat. (6/1885)

1. The previously reported induction of luteal 20alpha-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase by administration of aminoglutethimide to late-pregnant rats was shown to be unaffected by prior removal of the foetuses. Aminoglutethimide therefore does not act via the foetuses in this context. 2. The ability of injected oestrogen to prevent the above induction was lost by delaying the injection for 12h after aminoglutethimide, although the increase in enzyme activity begins only after 24h. 3. Induction of 20alpha-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase by foetoplacental removal on day 18 of pregnancy was inhibited by human choriogonadotropin, lutropin (luteinizing hormone) and pregnant-mare serum gonadotropin, but not by somatotropin (growth hormone), thyrotropin or follitropin (follicle-stimulating hormone) 4. Indomethacin blocked the normal induction of 20alpha-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase in late pregnancy and that caused by aminoglutethimide. It partially blocked that caused by human choriogonadotropin given on days 19-20 and that caused by 2-bromo-alpha-ergocryptine on days 5-6, but failed to block that caused by human choriogonadotropin on days 15-16 or by foetoplacental removal on day 18 of pregnancy. 5. These findings, and the control of progesterone synthesis in late pregnancy, are interpreted in terms of a sequence of hormonal or enzymic syntheses, each of which is inhibited by the product of the preceding synthesis.  (+info)

Accumulation of caspase-3 messenger ribonucleic acid and induction of caspase activity in the ovine corpus luteum following prostaglandin F2alpha treatment in vivo. (7/1885)

Caspase-3, a vertebrate homologue of the protein encoded by the Caenorhabditis elegans cell death gene, ced-3, induces apoptosis when overexpressed in eukaryotic cells. Since apoptosis occurs during corpus luteum (CL) regression in many species, including the ewe, these studies were conducted to 1) isolate a cDNA encoding ovine caspase-3, 2) measure steady state amounts of caspase-3 mRNA in the CL during luteolysis induced by prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha) and during the time of maternal recognition of pregnancy, and 3) measure changes in caspase activity during PGF2alpha-initiated luteal regression. Oligonucleotide primers corresponding to a human caspase-3 cDNA sequence were combined with total RNA from ovine CL in a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction-based procedure to amplify a 640-base pair partial cDNA with a nucleotide sequence 86% and 81% identical to the human and rat caspase-3 cDNAs, respectively. CL were collected from ewes at 0, 12, or 24 h after treatment with PGF2alpha on Day 10 of the estrous cycle and from nonpregnant and pregnant ewes on Day 12 or Day 14 of the cycle. Northern blot analysis of total cellular RNA from ovine CL and a radiolabeled ovine caspase-3 cRNA probe indicated the presence of a single mRNA transcript of approximately 2.5 kilobases. Levels of caspase-3 mRNA were approximately 3-fold higher (p < 0.05) in CL at 12 h and 24 h after PGF2alpha in comparison to those levels measured in matched CL from untreated ewes. There were no differences (p > 0.05) in amounts of caspase-3 mRNA in CL on Day 12 or Day 14 of the estrous cycle compared to Day 12 or Day 14 of pregnancy, respectively. Caspase activity in CL (measured by the ability of CL lysates to cleave an artificial caspase substrate) was also significantly (p < 0.05) increased in CL collected after treatment with PGF2alpha compared to CL collected from nontreated ewes. We conclude that physiological cell death during PGF2alpha-induced luteal regression in the ewe is mediated, at least in part, via increased expression and activity of the caspase family of pro-apoptotic proteases.  (+info)

Angiotensin II interacts with prostaglandin F2alpha and endothelin-1 as a local luteolytic factor in the bovine corpus luteum in vitro. (8/1885)

Recent findings suggest that the ovarian renin-angiotensin system may regulate ovarian function through the paracrine/autocrine actions of angiotensin II (Ang II). In this study, we have examined and characterized the local effects of Ang II as a luteolytic factor and its interaction with prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) in the bovine corpus luteum (CL) of the mid-luteal phase, by using an in vitro microdialysis system (MDS). Ang II was detected in the MDS perfusate (4 pg/ml), and infusion of PGF2alpha (10(-6) M) for 2 h increased the Ang II release by 50-100% during the following experimental period, in addition to its stimulation of ET-1 release. Two 2-h infusions of Ang II (10(-7)-10(-5) M) separated by a 2-h interval induced a dose- and time-dependent decrease of progesterone (P4) release by 41-66%. When the luteal explants were pre-perfused with PGF2alpha (10(-6) M) for 2 h, two consecutive perfusions of Ang II (10(-6) M) at a 2-h interval rapidly reduced the P4 release (by 50%). This reduction occurred 6 h earlier than those of infusions of PGF2alpha or Ang II alone. The simultaneous infusion of either 1) Ang II (10(-6) M) with PGF2alpha (10(-6) M), 2) ET-1 (10(-7) M) with PGF2alpha, or 3) Ang II + ET-1 with PGF2alpha (10(-6) M) for 2 h also induced a rapid and pronounced (60%) decrease in P4 release. Perfusion with the Ang II antagonist blocked the P4-suppressing activity of Ang II alone or PGF2alpha + Ang II infusion. Ang II stimulated the release of ET-1 and oxytocin during infusion but inhibited them after infusion. These results show that Ang II is released in the bovine midcycle CL in vitro, and this peptide, either alone or together with PGF2alpha, can suppress the release of P4. As PGF2alpha directly stimulated Ang II release, Ang II may influence the critical period for starting the cascade of functional luteolysis in vivo and might lead to structural luteolysis with ET-1 as a major vasoconstrictor. The overall results suggest that Ang II may have an important role at luteolysis in the bovine CL.  (+info)

Expression of ghrelin and the ghrelin receptor in different stages of porcine corpus luteum development and the inhibitory effects of ghrelin on progesterone secretion, 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3 beta-honestly significant difference (HSD)) activity and protein ...
A Corpus luteum cyst is a type of ovarian cyst which may rupture about the time of menstruation, and take up to three months to disappear entirely. A corpus luteum cyst rarely occurs at age 50+, because eggs are no longer being released in menopausal women. Corpus luteum cysts may contain blood and other fluids. The physical shape of a corpus luteum cyst may appear as an enlargement of the ovary itself, rather than a distinct mass -like growth on the surface of the ovary. This type of functional cyst occurs after an egg has been released from a follicle. The follicle then becomes a secretory gland that is known as the corpus luteum. The ruptured follicle begins producing large quantities of estrogen and progesterone in preparation for conception. If a pregnancy doesnt occur, the corpus luteum usually breaks down and disappears. It may, however, fill with fluid or blood, causing the corpus luteum to expand into a cyst, and stay in the ovary. Usually, this cyst is on only one side, and does not ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The function and regulation of the primate corpus luteum during the fertile menstrual cycle.. AU - Stouffer, Richard. AU - Ottobre, J. S.. AU - Molskness, T. A.. AU - Zelinski, Mary. PY - 1989. Y1 - 1989. N2 - Figure 2 summarizes the changes in endocrine function and the factors which regulate the primate corpus luteum during the fertile menstrual cycle. The classical luteotropic role of LH during the menstrual cycle is superceded by CG at or before the time of implantation. The role of local factors in modulating luteal function is an area of continued research, as some factors are deemed less important (i.e., estrogen, at least prior to luteal rescue) and other possibilities (progesterone, prostaglandins, and relaxin) arise. The role of local factors has not yet been studied in the corpus luteum following its rescue in early pregnancy. Finally, it is apparent that a different type of "shift" precedes the recognized luteal-placental shift in early pregnancy, when the corpus ...
OpenPagesTop}} ==Introduction== Corpus Luteum is latin for "yellow body". The corpus luteum is the structure formed during luteinisation of the follicle after ovulation. The corpus luteum is, however, actually only yellow in the cow and in all other domestic species it is red. The yellow colouration of the corpus luteum is due to the pigment, lutein. ==Structure== There are two types of luteal cells present within the corpus luteum: 1. Small luteal cells (,20µm) Small luteal cells are formed from remodelled follicular theca cells. These cells proliferate during luteinisation. Small luteal cells contain many lipid droplets within their cytoplasm, which is an important source of cholesterol esters for [[Ovaries_Endocrine_Function_- Anatomy & Physiology#Progesterone,progesterone]] synthesis. 2. Large luteal cells (20-40µm) Large luteal cells are formed from follicular granulosa cells that have undergone hypertrophy. These large luteal cells are the endocrine cells of ...
Thus, it turns out that the corpus luteum in the ovary is formed in the body of a woman every month, and every month resolved.Its perfectly normal to experience and because of this is meaningless.However, there is a likelihood that in case of pregnancy, the corpus luteum does not resolve, and continue to produce progesterone, or after pregnancy the corpus luteum will continue to grow.In this case we speak of the corpus luteum cyst.. cystic corpus luteum usually has a larger than usual size.In this case, the symptoms are the same as during pregnancy: delayed menstruation, nagging feeling in the stomach, its all a result of the work of the hormone.However, pregnancy test gives a negative result.However, most of this state and is not at risk, even during pregnancy.. However, a cyst could still be a problem, if it is too large.In this case, the cyst may burst as a result of mechanical action.For example, if a large impact or physical exertion.And it is internal bleeding, ie the state, threatening ...
Evidence as to the precise role of the corpus luteum during pregnancy is contradictory, especially when different species are compared. Most observers agree that the presence of the corpus luteum is necessary during the early stages of gestation. During the second half of pregnancy, however, the removal of the corpus luteum in certain animals does not lead to immediate abortion. In the guinea-pig Loeb and Hesselberg (1917), Herrick (1928) and Courrier, Kehl and Raynaud (1929) have found that pregnancy may continue for some weeks after double ovariectomy, and Ash-Upmark (1926) has listed a large number of clinical cases in which ovariectomy in women has not disturbed pregnancy. The evidence for the rabbit (summarised by Hammond, 1925), is slightly contradictory, but tends to show that the corpus luteum is necessary during the whole of pregnancy, although this was not the conclusion of Niskoubina (1909). In the rat it appears that double ovariectomy towards the end of pregnancy does not always ...
Ma, T.; Jiang, H.; Gao, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Dai, L.; Xiong, Q.; Xu, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhang, J., 2012: Microarray analysis of differentially expressed microRNAs in non-regressed and regressed bovine corpus luteum tissue; microRNA-378 may suppress luteal cell apoptosis by targeting the interferon gamma receptor 1 gene
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A modified superfusion technique is described with which it was demonstrated that the action of gonadotrophin on progesterone secretion by pig corpus luteum tissue is twofold, in that it first stimulates the rapid release of progesterone (either performed or partially synthesized), which is followed by prolonged synthesis of the steroid de novo from acetate.. ...
When the dominant antral follicle ovulates, slight localised haemorrhage occurs at the site of ovulation and fills the former cavity. The small amount of bloody tissue can be observed by the naked eye. Loss of fluid from the antral cavity causes the follicle to collapse into many folds. As a result, some granulosal and thecal layers are pushed into the apex of the ruptured follicle. The protrusion of tissue and ruptured blood vessels forms a structure known as the corpus haemorrhagicum. Following this, the theca interna and granulosa cells differentiate into large and small luteal cells. Luteal cells contain increased quantities of lipid droplets and the pigment lutein. As the blood is resorbed, a solid corpus luteum is formed by proliferation of granulosa and theca intera cells as well as blood vessels. This remains on the surface of the ovary. In the non-pregnant animal, corpora lutea are transient structures. Cyclic corpora lutea undergo proliferation and vascularisation directly after ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of low density and high density lipoprotein receptors in the rat corpus luteum and their regulation by gonadotropin. AU - Hwang, J.. AU - Menon, K. M J. PY - 1982. Y1 - 1982. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0020046436&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0020046436&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0020046436. VL - 41. JO - Federation Proceedings. JF - Federation Proceedings. SN - 0014-9446. IS - 4. ER - ...
Corpus luteum cysts could be agonizing and might set off alterations in menstrual bleeding. Generally this type of cyst will dissolve on its own personalized inside of of various months of forming. At other situations, nonetheless, these are in a position to expand becoming rather substantial and heavy. The fat in the cyst may well trigger the ovary to increase for being twisted. A twisted ovary is incredibly agonizing and may phone for well-being-related consideration. And it actually is this ache that typically leads females to look for out the support of their health care medical doctor ...
The corpus luteum (plural: corpora lutea) is a temporary endocrine structure involved in ovulation and early pregnancy. During ovulation, the primary follicle forms the secondary follicle and subsequently the mature vesicular follicle. At ovula...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Seasonal changes in luteal progesterone concentration and mRNA expressions of progesterone synthesis-related proteins in the Corpus Luteum of Mares. AU - Kozai, Keisuke. AU - Hojo, Takuo. AU - Takahashi, Masashi. AU - Acosta, Tomas J.. AU - Nambo, Yasuo. AU - Okuda, Kiyoshi. PY - 2012. Y1 - 2012. N2 - Although circulating progesterone (P4) levels tend to change with the season, little is known about the seasonal changes of P4 synthesis-related proteins in the corpus luteum (CL) of mares. To examine these changes, seventy-four ovaries containing a CL were collected from Anglo-Norman mares at a local abattoir in Kumamoto, Japan (~N32°), five times during one year. The stages of the CLs were classified as early, mid and regressed by macroscopic observation of the CL and follicles. The mid CL, which had the highest P4 concentration, was used to evaluate the seasonal changes in P4 synthesis. The luteal P4 concentration and mRNA expression of luteinizing hormone receptor (LHCGR) were ...
After ovulation we enter the Luteal phase (Day 14-28) where here we observe that the surge of Luteinising Hormone (LH) has come and gone, and we are left with relatively steady levels of FSH and LH. However what you will note on the graph above is that progesterone levels have increased dramatically from around day 15 to 25 and this correlates with the rise in basal body temperature/basal metabolic rate (by-product of increased progesterone levels/ovulation) as well as the transition of the ruptured ovarian follicle that released the oocyte to the corpus luteum. Thus it is the corpus luteum that under the influence of Luteinising Hormone secretes and is responsible for the high progesterone levels. Interesting to note that the corpus luteum also secretes a hormone called inhibin which inhibits the anterior pituitary from further secreting Follicle stimulating hormone. Now the main effects of progesterone as secreted by the corpus luteum, is to increase blood vessel growth (vascularisation) in ...
Recent studies suggest that chemokines may mediate the luteolytic action of PGF2α (PGF). Our objective was to identify chemokines induced by PGF in vivo and to determine the effects of IL8 on specific luteal cell types in vitro. Midcycle cows were injected with saline or PGF, ovaries were removed after 0.5 - 4 h and chemokine expression was analyzed by qPCR. In vitro expression of IL8 was analyzed after PGF administration and with cell signaling inhibitors to determine the mechanism of PGF-induced chemokine expression. Purified neutrophils were analyzed for migration and activation in response to IL8 and PGF. Purified luteal cell types (steroidogenic, endothelial and fibroblast cells) were used to identify which cells respond to chemokines. Neutrophils and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were co-cultured with steroidogenic cells to determine their effect on progesterone production. IL8, CXCL2, CCL2, and CCL8 transcripts were rapidly increased following PGF treatment in vivo and. The
View Notes - Sexual Structures from BIO BSC1010 at Broward College. a luteal phase (presence of the corpus luteum ). These cyclic phases are interrupted only by pregnancy and continue until
1. What factor do the syncytiotrophoblast cells secrete to support the ongoing pregnancy? Shortly after implantation of the blastocyst within the endometrium, the syncytiotrophoblast cells secrete the hormone human Chorionic Gonadotopin (hCG) which stimulates the corpus luteum. hCG supports the ongoing pregnancy by stimulating the corpus luteum to produce increased levels of the essential progesterone and estrogen hormones, thereby preventing menstruation and proliferation of the endometrium. hCG is continually secreted throughout the pregnancy however only at low levels for the final half of the pregnancy. 2. What does the corpus luteum secrete to prevent continuation of the menstrual cycle? The corpus luteum secretes both progesterone and estrogen, however it is primarily the elevated levels of progesterone that maintain stimulation of the endometrial cells. ...
It is extremely important, subsequently that pregnant patients present as soon as rib pain associated with pregnancy to corpuus emergency room for evaluation should they develop any irregular stomach pain signs. The above device makes it easy to regulate for these types of shift by letting you specify your data. Correct relationship of pregnancy is important, because it is utilized in calculating the outcomes of assorted prenatal assessments(for example, in the triple take a look at ). Hold a few seconds and release. Its possible youll be wondering whether you may be a superb provider, a good comforter, a superb disciplinarian. Corpus luteum cysts early pregnancy lteum your aspect and not in your back. Usually in the third trimester the tiredness, which you might have experienced in the first trimester, starts to kick in again. Pregnant ladies should continue to comply with present Earlyy steering that they take paracetamol at the lowest effective dose for the shortest possible time, according ...
Answer: Dear Desiree, A corpus luteum cyst forms after the egg has been released during ovulation. The egg is inside a sac called follicle. At ovulation,
A ecografia com recurso Doppler é uma tecnologia emergente que tem demonstrado ter potencial para melhorar as capacidades de diagnóstico dos veterinários de equinos. Esta tecnologia baseia-se nos príncipios do Doppler, onde as frequências de ultra-som estão dependentes do movimento dos eritrócitos dentro dos vasos sanguíneos. A função do Corpo Lúteo (CL) está dependente do aporte sanguíneo, o qual fornece não só percursores esteroides mas também permite libertação de progesterona (P4) na circulação sistémica. Desta forma uma técnica Doppler mais sensível, o modo Power Doppler, foi utilizada para avaliar uma possível relação entre as características do Corpo lúteo e a concentração da progesterona plasmática. Para este estudo nove éguas (n=9) foram seguidas durante o início da estação reprodutiva. O diâmetro, área e volume do Corpo Lúteo foram então obtidos através do modo B, bem como a sua vascularização através do modo Power Doppler.As análises da ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Histologische und hormonelle Untersuchungen am Corpus luteum des Rindes.. AU - Okuda, Kiyoshi. PY - 1984. Y1 - 1984. M3 - Article. VL - 19. SP - 169. EP - 181. JO - Zuchthygiene. JF - Zuchthygiene. ER - ...
AM Focus Sessions and Flash Talks:. Session 1: Male Gametes in The Age of Precision Agriculture. Session 2: CHA Health Systems Symposium: Prenatal Programming from Different Perspectives. Session 3: Dr. Milton K.H.Leong Session: Immune Response to Infection in the Male Reproductive Tract. Session 4: The Placenta: Development and Functional Significance Session 5: Anita Payne Session: Corpus Luteum Development ...
According to Moreira and Hansen, cows typically show estrus, or signs of heat, approximately every 21 days. After a cow is inseminated, either naturally or by artificial insemination, the animals corpus luteum will not regress.. The corpus luteum, or yellow body, is a structure that develops from ovarian follicles during ovulation. Moreira and Hanson say that in the event of pregnancy, "The corpus luteum will not regress, progesterone concentrations will remain high, and the cow will not return to estrus.". If the cow is not observed to enter back into estrus approximately 21 days after end of the previous cycle, it is highly possible the cow is pregnant. Visual signs to detect estrus include tail chalking, mucus production from the vagina, swollen vulva and a willingness to be mounted.. ...
8 Following ovulation, during the luteal phase of the ovarian cycle, LH stimulates the transformation of the follicular tissue left behind in the ovary to form the corpus luteum, a glandular structure. (LH is named for this "luteinising" function.) Under continued stimulation by LH during this phase of the ovarian cycle, the corpus luteum secretes progesterone and oestrogen. As the levels of progesterone and estrogen rise, the combination of these hormones exerts negative feedback on the hypothalamus and pituitary, inhibiting the secretion of LH and FSH. Near the end of the luteal phase, the corpus luteum disintegrates, causing concentrations of estrogen and progesterone to decline sharply. The dropping levels of ovarian hormones liberate the hypothalamus and pituitary from the inhibitory effects of these hormones. The pituitary can then begin to secrete enough FSH to stimulate the growth of new follicles in the ovary, initiating the next ovarian cycle. ...
From the start of one period to ovulation (Day 1 to Day 14) egg producing follicles develop in one of the two ovaries. The growing follicles produce estrogens. About the middle of the cycle (Day 14) when the developed follicle is ripe, it bursts and releases it egg. This call ovulation. The released egg then starts its journey down the fallopian tube. If the woman have intercourse and there are sperm in the fallopian tubes, a sperm might fertilize the egg.. After ovulation, the empty follicle turns into a corpus luteum or yellow body, so called because it look like a small yellow mass on the ovary. The corpus luteum produces estrogens and progesterone. About one week after ovulation, if the egg has not been fertilized, the corpus luteum stops producing its hormones and it shrinks in size.. Before ovulation, only estrogens are produced by the follicles in the ovary. The amount of the estrogens increases, reaching a peak just before ovulation. After ovulation, both estrogens and progesterone are ...
Progesterone Levels and Egg Quality. Most of you might be aware that progesterone is playing a significant role when it comes to infertility treatments today. Its also known to play an important role in pregnancy and miscarriage. But, several people ask us what progesterone does with the egg quality. Is there any relationship between these two entities? Lets try to understand this here now…. Understanding about Progesterone Synthesis:. Now, lets try to understand about the progesterone synthesis here. There is a common misconception that progesterone is being produced by the ovary. But, its not so. The primary producer of this hormone is the corpus luteum, which is formed after the fertilization of your egg. The hormone will be released from the dominant follicle of the corpus luteum for the first 6 to 8 weeks of pregnancy.. The Relationship between Egg Quality and Progesterone Synthesis:. Now, understand that the ovary will produce a dominant follicle every month, which will be carrying ...
In ruminants, uterine pulses of prostaglandin (PG) F 2α characterize luteolysis, while increased PGE 2 /PGE 1 distinguish early pregnancy. This study evaluated intrauterine (IU) infusions of PGF 2α and PGE 1 pulses on corpus luteum (CL) function and gene expression. Cows on day 10 of estrous cycle received 4 IU infusions (every 6 h; n = 5/treatment) of saline, PGE 1 (2 mg PGE 1), PGF 2α (0.25 mg PGF 2α), or PGE 1 + PGF 2α. A luteal biopsy was collected at 30 min after third infusion for determination of gene expression by RNA-Seq. As expected, IU pulses of PGF 2α decreased (P , 0.01) P4 luteal volume. However, there were no differences in circulating P4 or luteal volume between saline, PGE 1, and PGE 1 + PGF 2α, indicating inhibition of PGF 2α -induced luteolysis by IU pulses of PGE 1. After third pulse of PGF 2α, luteal expression of 955 genes were altered (false discovery rate [FDR] , 0.01), representing both typical and novel luteolytic transcriptomic changes. Surprisingly, after ...
Fertility is a complex biological process that requires exquisite timing. At birth, the female has produced her lifetime supply of eggs. During each menstrual or estrus cycle, a few eggs will complete meiosis and undergo the final maturation process. The mature egg(s) must be fertilized by spermatozoa within a small window, usually 2-3 days, for the zygote to successfully implant within the uterus. A successful pregnancy requires the exact timing of many hormones and processes. For example, the corpus luteum on the ovary must produce progesterone to establish and maintain the pregnancy. During this time, the zygote continues development to form a blastocyst, producing chorionic gonadotrophin and developing the placenta, which will continue progesterone production. The dysregulation of fertility and pregnancy itself are highly studied processes, especially in the developed world where couples often choose to produce offspring during their later, less fertile years. These biological processes are ...
Fertility is a complex biological process that requires exquisite timing. At birth, the female has produced her lifetime supply of eggs. During each menstrual or estrus cycle, a few eggs will complete meiosis and undergo the final maturation process. The mature egg(s) must be fertilized by spermatozoa within a small window, usually 2-3 days, for the zygote to successfully implant within the uterus. A successful pregnancy requires the exact timing of many hormones and processes. For example, the corpus luteum on the ovary must produce progesterone to establish and maintain the pregnancy. During this time, the zygote continues development to form a blastocyst, producing chorionic gonadotrophin and developing the placenta, which will continue progesterone production. The dysregulation of fertility and pregnancy itself are highly studied processes, especially in the developed world where couples often choose to produce offspring during their later, less fertile years. These biological processes are ...
The objective was to characterize effects of Escherichia coli LPS (given iv) on corpus luteum (CL) and embryonic viability in early pregnant cattle. Eight non-lactating German Holstein cows were given 0.5 µg/kg LPS on 35 ± 3 d (mean ± SEM) of pregnancy, whereas seven heifers, 41 ± 6 d pregnant, were given 10 ml saline (Control group). Transrectal B-mode examinations of the CL were done at -1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h relative to treatment. Blood samples were collected at -1, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h. At 12 and 48 h, the CL was biopsied. None of the cows still in the experiment 10 d after LPS (n=7) had embryonic loss. In LPS-treated cows, luteal area decreased (from 4.1 to 3.1 cm2; P≤0.05) within 6 h and until 48 h. Luteal blood flow decreased by 39% (P≤0.05) within the first 6 h after LPS, but returned to pre-treatment values by 48 h. Plasma P4 decreased by 62% (P≤0.05), reached a nadir (2.7±0.6 ng/mL) at 12 h after LPS and was not restored to ...
If youre trying to have a baby- this is when you want to have sex! During ovulation, our libido increases, and men find us more attractive- research proves this! One study has went as far as to have men sniff "dirty t-shirts" and determined that they still find ovulating women more attractive! We want that released egg to meet up with sperm so that it can implant on the uterine wall. Not to fear- if you DONT want to get pregnant, avoid sex at this time.. After the peak in LH stimulating ovulation, there is a drop in estrogen levels. The next phase- the luteal phase, is dominated by progesterone. The luteal phase is typically 14 days long. Following ovulation, the remaining cells that are not released at ovulation become enlarged. This eventually forms the corpus luteum. The corpus luteum is a transient (short lived) endocrine organ that primarily secretes progesterone. This is why the second half of the cycle is dominated by progesterone! The purpose of this is to prepare the previously ...
கருத்தரிக்காவிட்டால் உதிரும் மாதவிலக்குக் கட்டம் (The Menstrual Phase): இந்நிலையில் முட்டை வேளியேறியதும் விடுபட்ட கருமுட்டைப் பை நீர்க்கட்டி (corpus luteum, இதுவே கருப்பை இயக்க நீரைச் சுரந்து கொண்டிருக்கிறது)கொஞ்சம் கொஞ்சமாகச் சுருங்கிக் கொண்டிருக்கிறது. கருப்பையை நோக்கிப் பயணித்திக் கொண்டிருக்கும் முட்டை கருக்கட்டப்பட்டால், கரு இன்னொரு இயக்க நீரான chorionic gonadotropin ஜச் சுரக்க, இவ்வியக்கநீர் corpus ...
Principal Investigator:OKUDA Kiyoshi, Project Period (FY):2013-04-01 - 2015-03-31, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Challenging Exploratory Research, Research Field:Animal production science
The aromatase enzyme (CYP19A1) is required for the biosynthesis of estradiol, a steroid needed for normal follicular and luteal cell function and essential for...
oestrogen stimulates LH production. LH produced by pituitary gland. LH stimulates ovulation LH stimulates formation of corpus luteum LH stimulates production of progesterone (by corpus luteum). progesterone maintains / thickens uterine lining LH inhibits FSH production without ovulation there is no egg release / no egg to fertilise. ...
I still cant imagine how we have now been this blessed, I thank my fortunate stars each evening. Then again some ladies really feel no signs at all. And finding and studying women stabes are trying to get pregnant is challenging, as theres such a narrow window between when they start trying and when some will succeed. For those who continue to obtain an error message, please call customer support at 1-800-620-5474. Most miscarriages happen during this period, the placenta will takes over hormone manufacturing round week 12 from the corpus luteum Sometimes, the failure earrly the corpus luteum to adequately support the earlu with progesterone can result in an early pregnancy loss. Or, second, you can collect your urine in a sterile cup and then hold the test into the urine for up to twenty seconds. Endometriosis affects women during their reproductive years and my contribute to infertility. Infertility information is your best resource for helping to pinpoint the cause of your infertility ...
Gecaj, Rreze M.; Schanzenbach, Corina I.; Kirchner, Benedikt; Pfaffl, Michael W.; Riedmaier, Irmgard; Tweedie-Cullen, Ry Y.; Berisha, Bajram (2017): The Dynamics of microRNA Transcriptome in Bovine Corpus Luteum during Its Formation, Function, and Regression. In: Frontiers in Genetics, Vol. 8, 213 [PDF, 2MB] ...
Sotiris, A. and Prokopiou, S. A. and Byrne, H. M. and Jeffrey, M. R. and Robinson, R. S. and Mann, G. E. and Owen, M. R. (2013) Mathematical analysis of a model for the growth of the bovine corpus luteum. Journal of Mathematical Biology . (Submitted) ...
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Fraenkel, Dieses Archiv. Bd. 68, 91. Zeitschr. f. Geburtsh. und Gynäk. Bd. 64. Zentralbl. f. Gyn. 1911. Nr. 46.Google Scholar ...
Sboros V, Averkiou M, Lampaskis M, et al. Imaging of the Ovine Corpus Luteum Microcirculation with Contrast Ultrasound. Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. 2011;37:59-68. doi:10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2010.10.013 ...
Corpus Albicans Definition - A corpus albicans is a mass of white scar tissue in the ovary that is formed after the degeneration of the corpus luteum...
Regumate is simply synthetic progesterone. It is typically ONLY needed for the first 90 days or so when the progesterone to maintain the pregnancy is being secreted by the corpus luteum (some mares just dont have sufficient progesterone at this point). Once the placenta takes over, Regumate just making expensive urine. The only way to KNOW is to run blood in the first couple of weeks after conception to see what the mares progesterone level is. You only "definitely" need it for a mare whose progesterone level, at about 25 days or so, is not sufficient to maintain the pregnancy ...
Regumate is simply synthetic progesterone. It is typically ONLY needed for the first 90 days or so when the progesterone to maintain the pregnancy is being secreted by the corpus luteum (some mares just dont have sufficient progesterone at this point). Once the placenta takes over, Regumate just making expensive urine. The only way to KNOW is to run blood in the first couple of weeks after conception to see what the mares progesterone level is. You only "definitely" need it for a mare whose progesterone level, at about 25 days or so, is not sufficient to maintain the pregnancy ...
SUGINO Norihiro , OKUDA Kiyoshi Luteolysis is defined as the loss of function and subsequent involution of the luteal structure. The luteolytic process is usually subdivided, whereby the decline in progesterone is described as funct … Journal of Reproduction and Development 53(5), 977-986, 2007-10-01 J-STAGE Ichushi Web References (65) Cited by (4) ...
During IVF, both the follicle and egg are retrived. So, given that there are no follicle left behind in the ovary, it cant turn into a corpus luteum and do its natural job. Thats one of the main reasons why doctors will prescribe progesterone right after egg retrieval, because your body hasnt ovulated and the placenta isnt mature enough. Taking progesterone during the first trimester also reduces the risks of miscarriage. Some docs feel comfortable stopping the progesterone at 10 weeks, while others play it safe and wait until week 12. It depends on many factors. Be prepared, though... its very common to have brownish discharge a couple of days after you stop taking progesterone. Its absolutely normal and its not the baby bleeding. It happened to me, lasted a couple of days, and then stopped. No big deal. Had I not been warned, I wouldnt have appreciated the surprise ...
A hormone produced by the corpus luteum that prepares a uterus for the impanation of fertilized ovum, maintains pregnancy and also promotes development of the mammary glands.
Polütsüstilised munasarjad ehk munasarjade polütsüstiline haigus (lühend PCO) - munasarjad on mahult suurenenud ja sisaldavad arvukalt perifeerselt paiknevaid tsüste, mille suurus võib ulatuda kuni 8 millimeetrini. Tsüstide näol on tegemist lõpuni küpsemata folliikulitega (munarakualged). PCOSi kandvad naised ongi sageli viljatud tulenevalt sellest, et munarakk ei ole lõpuni arenenud, ei teki ovulatsiooni (munarakk ei vabane) ning ei moodustu kollakeha (corpus luteum). [5] Polütsüstilised munasarjad tekivad, kui munasarjad on mingil põhjusel hakanud tootma ülemäärast kogust androgeene (meessuguhormoone), eelkõige testosterooni, mille põhjuseks võivad olla kas hüpofüüsi poolt toodetud liigne luteiniseeriv hormoon (LH) või liigne insuliin veres (hüperinsulineemia), naiste hulgas, kelle munasarjad on tundlikud liigsele insuliinile. [2] [8] [7] ...
Quantitative or qualitative determination or its constituents and metabolites of an antiestrogenic steroid believed to be the active principle of the corpus luteum ...
Tytuł projektu: Rozbudowa i przekształcenie bibliograficznej bazy danych AGRO w bazę bibliograficzno-abstraktową z wykorzystaniem oprogramowania YADDA. Nr umowy: POIG 02.03.02-00-031/09 (okres realizacji 2009-2013 ...
The chart seems interesting. However it only allow me to analyse NOP. The chart shows some outliers regarding this metric such as fitlibraryforfitnesse, exoportal and nakedobjects. The larger the systems (in terms of LOC), the higher the NOP. Which is expected, systems grow by adding more packages to the system. However, the variance of NOP seems high (TODO: calculate it). I depicted the median NOP (is 33) showing that the median is not affected by the outliers. Note that the median NOP of the largest systems is very close to the median of the corpus.. Finally, the scale does not benefit the analysis of NOC, NOM and LOC. The values of theses metrics are too low with respect to the scale, so it is difficult to see the lines. even more to compare it with the median of the corpus. However, the visualisation allows the user to zoom in, I preferred to change the scale and remove NOP from the chart to concentrate on the rest of the metrics. The result of this is showed below (do it ...
Shankaracharya on the non-triviality of the entire Vedic corpus It is well known that non-Advaitins have a charge on Shankara that he gave undue importance to the Vedanta, Upanishads and trivialized the karma part or veda purva bhaaga. However one who is familiar with the Bhashya and other literature of Shankara would easily conclude that such a charge is born of lack of a proper study and correct understanding of the Bhashyas. Here are some passages from Shankara that give us a glimpse of the heart of Shankara on this matter: न हि वेदवाक्यानां कस्यचिदर्थवत्त्वम् कस्यचिदनर्थवत्त्वमिति युक्तं प्रतिपत्तुम् , प्रमाणत्वाविशेषात् । Brahmasutra Bhashyam 3.2.15 [It is not reasonable to think that some of the Vedic passages are meaningful and some are not. This is because all vedic passages are equally authoritative.] He has ...
Menstru ci s zavarok s vagy medd s g luteum praemenstruati s syndroma oedema-k pz d s fejf j s sz kreked s psych s fibrocyst s mastopathia.
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מועדון כושר ועיצוב גוף. מידע על קורסים, חוגים חדשות כושר ומאמרים. קורפוס - מועדון הכושר שלך.
Define corpus luteum hormone. corpus luteum hormone synonyms, corpus luteum hormone pronunciation, corpus luteum hormone translation, English dictionary definition of corpus luteum hormone. n another name for progesterone
Looking for online definition of corpus luteum hematoma in the Medical Dictionary? corpus luteum hematoma explanation free. What is corpus luteum hematoma? Meaning of corpus luteum hematoma medical term. What does corpus luteum hematoma mean?
1. Sepharose 6B gel-filtration analysis of soluble adenylate cyclase from bovine corpus luteum is described. Both zonal and frontal techniques of analysis were used. 2. Under conditions of zonal analysis recoveries of activity were low. It was concluded that dissociation of two or more components of the adenylate cyclase complex was occurring on the column and that the maintenance of the complex was essential for the high-activity state of the catalytic unit. Two peaks of adenylate cyclase activity, of approximate mol. wts. 45,000 and 160,000 were detected. 3. The theory of frontal analysis (or steady-state gel filtration), applied to the study of the interacting components of the adenylate cyclase complex is discussed, and activity profiles are predicted. Activity profiles obtained experimentally be frontal analysis compared well with the theoretically predicted profile and provide evidence that dissociation of a high-activity complex, with concomitant loss of activity, does occur. Recoveries ...
The expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GNRH) receptor (GNRHR) and the direct role of GNRH1 on corpora lutea function were studied in Mediterranean buffalo during diestrus. Immunohistochemistry evidenced at early, mid, and late luteal stages the presence of GNRHR only in large luteal cells and GNRH1 in both small and large luteal cells. Real-time-PCR revealed GNRHR and GNRH1 mRNA at the three luteal stages, with lowest values in late corpora lutea. In vitro corpora lutea progesterone production was greater in mid stages and less in late luteal phases, while prostaglandin (PG) F2alpha (PGF2alpha) increased from early to late stages, and PGE2 was greater in the earlier-luteal phase. Cyclooxygenase 1 (prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 1, PTGS1) activity did not change during diestrus, while PTGS2 increased from early to late stages, and PGE2-9-ketoreductase (PGE2-9-K) was greater in late corpora lutea. PTGS1 activity was greater than PTGS2 in early corpora lutea and less in late luteal ...
The corpus luteum (CL) is a temporary organ involved in the maintenance of pregnancy. In the course of its life-cycle, the CL undergoes two distinct and consecutive processes for its inevitable removal through apoptosis: functional and structural luteolysis. We isolated a gene encoding for a novel rat zinc finger protein (ZFP), named rat ZFP96 (rZFP96) from an ovarian lambda cDNA library. Sequence analysis revealed close sequence and structural similarity to mouse ZFP96 and human zinc finger protein 305 (ZNF305). Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed a positive correlation with the end of pregnancy, that is, the onset of structural luteolysis of the CL. Messenger RNA levels increased 3-fold (P < 0.01) between days 13 and 22 of pregnancy and 8-fold (P < 0.01) between day 13 of pregnancy and day 1 post-partum. In addition, we detected rZFP96 expression in mammary, placenta, heart, kidney and skeletal muscle. Sequence analysis predicted that rZFP96 has a ...
These changes centre about a follicle, or "egg sac." A new follicle develops after each menstrual period, casts off an egg (ovulation), and, after ovulation, forms a new structure (the corpus luteum). If the egg is fertilized, it is sustained for a short time by the hormones produced by the corpus luteum. Progesterone and estrogen, secreted by the corpus luteum, are essential for the preservation of the pregnancy during its early months. If pregnancy does not occur, the egg disintegrates and the corpus luteum shrinks. As it shrinks, the stimulating effect of its hormones, progesterone and estrogen, is withdrawn from the endometrium (the lining of the uterus), and menstruation occurs.. The cycle then begins again. Pregnancy, if it occurs, maintains the corpus luteum by means of the hormones produced by the young placenta. The corpus luteum is not essential in human pregnancy after the first few weeks because of the takeover of its functions by the placenta. In fact, human pregnancies have gone on ...
Abstract Interference with the pregnancy-maintaining influence of progesterone is the basis of most methods for termination of unwanted pregnancy in dogs. The currently available methods are based on induction of luteolysis or blocking of the progesterone receptor. Inhibition of progesterone synthesis using a competitive inhibitor of 3 -hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3 ... read more -HSD) could be another strategy to terminate unwanted pregnancies. In this study we investigated the effects of the 3 -HSD inhibitor trilostane on corpus luteum function in non-pregnant bitches. Trilostane was administered orally for seven consecutive days in either the pituitary-independent part of the luteal phase (PIP, start of treatment on D11 after ovulation, n 6) or the pituitary-dependent part (PDP, start of treatment on D31 after ovulation, n 6), in an oral dose of about 4.5 mg/kg bw, twice daily. Results were compared with those obtained in control bitches (n 6). ACTH stimulation tests were performed to ...
Looking for online definition of corpora lutea in the Medical Dictionary? corpora lutea explanation free. What is corpora lutea? Meaning of corpora lutea medical term. What does corpora lutea mean?
Mitochondria are essential to the process of cell respiration and steroidogenesis. Both of these processes impact the viability of the corpus luteum, which is required to maintain early pregnancy. In cattle and other species, progesterone supports gestation, regulates embryogenesis and works in concert with estrogen to maintain the reproductive tract. Many investigators have sought to understand the processes that control regression of the corpus luteum. Two prostaglandins, PGF2a and PGE2, have been implicated in the functioning of this transient gland. It is accepted by most researchers that the primary luteolysin responsible for functional and structural demise of the corpus luteum is PGF2a. However, there is ambiguity between reported effects of PGF2a and PGE2 on whole cells and on animals in vivo. Therefore, the specific effects of these prostaglandins on oxygen consumption and progesterone secretion in mitochondria isolated from bovine corpora lutea are the focus of this dissertation. A decrease in
Overall appearance is of large volume hemorrhage centered on the left ovary, and this is most likely due to a ruptured corpus luteum. ​Findings were confirmed intraoperatively. Differential consideration in a pregnant patient would be a ruptured ...
The effects of hypo-and hyperthyroidism on proliferation, apoptosis and expression of angiogenic factors and COX-2 in the corpus luteum among the pregnant rats in this study were distinct.. Hypothyroidism significantly reduced the proliferation rate in the corpus luteum, both of luteal cells and of endothelial cells and pericytes. This result demonstrates that thyroid hypofunction affects not only the mitotic activity of the luteal cells of pregnant rats but also of the vascular cells. On the other hand, the corpus luteum of hyperthyroid animals showed an increased proliferative activity of the endothelial cells and pericytes at 14 days of gestation, suggesting the role of thyroid hormones on luteal angiogenesis. This is in agreement with Macchiarelli et al. [41] who observed that thyroid hormones stimulate the luteal angiogenesis. Our result is important because deficiency in luteal angiogenesis has been reported to substantially contribute to subfertility [17], and hypothyroidism in women ...
Define luteotropic. luteotropic synonyms, luteotropic pronunciation, luteotropic translation, English dictionary definition of luteotropic. adj. affecting the corpus luteum
A complex hormonal process orchestrates ovulation and governs the menstrual cycle. The cycle begins in the brain, where the hypothalamus gland sends out a hormone that instructs the pituitary gland to produce luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone. These hormones help launch the follicular phase of the cycle, during which several follicles and their eggs begin to mature. Several egg-bearing follicles start the journey, but only one will fully ripen and make it across the ovarian finish line.. At ovulation, the egg ruptures the follicle as it emerges from the ovary. The follicle then transforms into a corpus luteum, and begins to secrete progesterone to help prepare the uterus for implantation of the fertilized egg. If conception does not occur, the corpus luteum deteriorates in two weeks - the time of menstruation. But if there is a pregnancy, the corpus luteum continues secreting progesterone as well as another hormone for the first two trimesters. After that point, the fetus ...
PROGESTERONE-producing cells in the CORPUS LUTEUM. The large luteal cells derive from the GRANULOSA CELLS. The small luteal cells derive from the THECA CELLS.
Figure 2: Hormonal development during oestrus cycle.. Out of these, Progesterone has been chosen to be analysed by Herd Navigator™ because it is the one that can provide the most information about the reproductive status of the cow throughout the whole lactation.. After calving the cow has no ovarian activity (anoestrus) and will not produce any progesterone. After some weeks the cow will start ovarian activity, will show heat signs and ovulate. After the ovulation the corpus luteum will be formed in the ovary and start producing Progesterone. Progesterone production will cease when the cow is approaching a new heat and will restart again after the new ovulation. This cycle is repeated every 18 to 24 days until the cow becomes pregnant. In this case the corpus luteum will continue producing Progesterone to maintain the pregnancy (Figure 3). Progesterone production will continue until calving unless the cow aborts, in this case Progesterone production will stop.. ...
Figure 2: Hormonal development during oestrus cycle.. Out of these, Progesterone has been chosen to be analysed by Herd Navigator™ because it is the one that can provide the most information about the reproductive status of the cow throughout the whole lactation.. After calving the cow has no ovarian activity (anoestrus) and will not produce any progesterone. After some weeks the cow will start ovarian activity, will show heat signs and ovulate. After the ovulation the corpus luteum will be formed in the ovary and start producing Progesterone. Progesterone production will cease when the cow is approaching a new heat and will restart again after the new ovulation. This cycle is repeated every 18 to 24 days until the cow becomes pregnant. In this case the corpus luteum will continue producing Progesterone to maintain the pregnancy (Figure 3). Progesterone production will continue until calving unless the cow aborts, in this case Progesterone production will stop.. ...
Until recently, most estrous synchronization of dairy cows was performed using PGF2α or analogues (Lutalyse or Estrumate). These compounds cause the regression of the corpus luteum (CL), the expression of estrous behavior and ovulation of a follicle 2-5 days after administration. In order for PGF2α to act on a cow, she must have a functional CL on an ovary. The exact time from PGF2α administration until estrus depends on the population of follicles on the ovary. If there are no large follicles on the ovary, it will take more time for them to develop. Since all cows will not be in the same stage of the estrous cycle when injected with PGF2α, they will show estrus at different times after injection of PGF2α. The Targeted BreedingTM (Pharmacia-Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI) scheme uses additional synchronization doses of PGF2α to produce cows that are in the middle of the estrous cycles that all have dominant CLs (2 weeks after estrus). Cows at this stage give the most consistent response to a ...
The objective of this research was to increase the proportion of cows with at least 1 functional corpus luteum (CL) and elevated progesterone at the onset of the timed artificial insemination (TAI) program. Postpartum ...
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Corpus luteal (CL) cysts are a type of functional ovarian cyst that results when a corpus luteum fails to regress following the release of an ovum. When associated with pregnancy, it is the most common pelvic mass encountered within the 1st trime...
The ability of antibodies generated by the vaccine Pr-β-HCG-TT in two species of animals to neutralize the biological activity of HCG has been investigated. The antisera from an immunized goat and serveral rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) abolished the HCG induced rise in ventral prostate weight of immature male rats and of uterine weight in prepubertal mice. These were also found to be effective in preventing the binding of 125I-HCG to receptors in rat testes and goat corpora lutea preparations. The antisera also blocked the HCG induced synthesis and secretion of progesterone in corpus luteum slices in vitro. These investigations show that the antibodies elicited by the conjugate (Pr-β-HCG-TT) form a complex with HCG, which is biologically inactive. ...
Software corpora facilitate reproducibility of analyses, however, static analysis for an entire corpus still requires considerable effort, often duplicated unnecessarily by multiple users. Moreover, most corpora are designed for single languages increasing the effort for cross-language analysis. To address these aspects we propose Pangea, an infrastructure allowing fast development of static analyses on multi-language corpora. Pangea uses language-independent meta-models stored as object model snapshots that can be directly loaded into memory and queried without any parsing overhead. To reduce the effort of performing static analyses, Pangea provides out-of-the box support for: creating and refining analyses in a dedicated environment, deploying an analysis on an entire corpus, using a runner that supports parallel execution, and exporting results in various formats. In this tool demonstration we introduce Pangea and provide several usage scenarios that illustrate how it reduces the cost of ...
Selain itu, LH merangsang folikel yang telah kosong untuk berubah menjadi badan kuning (Corpus Luteum). Badan kuning menghasilkan hormon progesteron yang berfungsi mempertebal lapisan endometrium yang kaya dengan pembuluh darah untuk mempersiapkan datangnya embrio. Periode ini disebut fase luteal, selain itu progesteron juga berfungsi menghambat pembentukan FSH dan LH, akibatnya korpus luteum mengecil dan menghilang, pembentukan progesteron berhenti sehingga pemberian nutrisi kepada endometriam terhenti, endometrium menjadi mengering dan selanjutnya akan terkelupas dan terjadilah perdarahan (menstruasi) pada hari ke-28. Fase ini disebut fase perdarahan atau fase menstruasi. Oleh karena tidak ada progesteron, maka FSH mulai terbentuk lagi dan terjadilan proses oogenesis kembali. ...
Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) is also known as the "pregnancy hormone" as it is produced once a woman becomes pregnant. It can be detected both in the urine and in the blood, is produced by the early placenta and keeps the corpus luteum producing progesterone when conception occurs. The purpose of hCG is to keep estrogen and progesterone at their appropriate levels until the placenta has developed enough to take over this function. ...
... on the efficiency of superovulation in Formosan sambar dose. Hsin-Hung Lin, Chih-Hua Wang, Shann-Ren Kang, Wen-Lin Song, Chin-Hui Tseng, Mu-Jung Cheng, Shyh-Shyan Liu, and Perng-Chih Shen. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of different eCG concentrations on the efficacy of superovulation in Formosan Sambar does. All the does were implanted with CIDR for 12 days and superovulation was induced by intramuscularly injection with different concentrations of eCG at day 10. Embryos were collected by flushing the oviduct through midventral laparotomy at day 4 after mating. Results showed that the corpus luteum (CL) numbers of dose superovulated with 1500 (7.3), 2000 (10.6), 3000 (8.5) IU of eCG were significantly higher than that superovulated with 1000 IU of eCG (3.5). However, the embryo recovery rates of dose superovulated with 1000 (85.7%) and 1500 (62.0%) IU of eCG were significantly higher than those superovulated with 2000 (25.5%) and 3000 ...
Good morning friends.Today Ill post a brief review on the 2nd hormonal assay for pregnancy diagnosis: SERUM PROGESTERONE.Progesterone is a steroid hormone that is produced by the corpus luteum,which prepares the uterus for pregnancy ...
Progesterone is a female sex hormone that is produced by the adrenal glands and the mass of cells formed in the ovaries called the corpus luteum, as well as the placenta in pregnant individuals.
File scanned at 300 ppi (Monochrome, 256 Grayscale) using Capture Perfect 3.0.82 on a Canon DR-9080C in PDF format. CVista PdfCompressor 4.0 was used for pdf compression and textual OCR ...
What is happening internally? The corpus luteum continues to release high amounts of progesterone, to maintain the uterine lining. If conception occurred, the blastocyst (the fertilized egg) is floating out of the fallopian tube and into the uterus.
What is happening internally? The corpus luteum continues to release high amounts of progesterone, to maintain the uterine lining. The ovum (egg), if fertilized, changes from the ball of cells known as a morula, into a blastocyst - a cluster of cells with a fluid-filled cavity.
Ultrasound Failures On occasion, our females can seem to proceed perfectly as planned, spitting-off the male like clockwork until we come to wheeling in the computer. Then we see nothing to support our theory that we have a pregnancy. No liquid filled uterus, no evidence of a fetus. Sometimes this is down to what is called a retained corpus luteum (retained CL). If the follicle fails to regress following a lack of fertilization or subsequent absorption of a newly formed embryo then progesterone continues to be produced. We have a phantom pregnancy. Our girl mistakenly thinks she is pregnant and continues to refuse the amorous advances of our stud. We blindly continue with our spit-offs until it is ultrasound time. Fortunately this happens only rarely and there is a solution. Drug time again. Estrumate is a synthetic prostaglandin that causes regression of the CL. Administered as a single 1ml IM injection it will allow return to normal receptivity. Do not administer however if there is doubt as ...
Natural progestin - progesterone 21C steroid , derive from cholesterol , secreted by corpus luteum* / placenta* Synthetic progestins - high oral activity -prog…
WEBB, C. et al. Effect of two types of weaning and the application of a progestagen on the fertility in Bos indicus cattle. Arch. med. vet. [online]. 2004, vol.36, n.2, pp.147-154. ISSN 0301-732X. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0301-732X2004000200005.. A total of 55 Zebu females, on average of 67 days postpartum, were synchronized with synthetic progesterone (Crestar, Lab Intervet, México). At the moment of implant withdrawal the calves were separated for 72h and mothers and calves were divided into three groups: Group A (n = 20) mantained visual and olfatory with their calves (CCV). Group B (n = 20) had neither visual nor olfatory contact with their calves (SCV) and the control group C (n = 15) contained synchronized cows wich were not separated from their calves (SS). For the CCV group the percentage of animals cycling at hhe onset of the experiment was 10% (2/20). When exposed to bulls the percentage increased to 85% (17/20). In the group SCV 20% (4/20) showed an active corpus luteum (CL) at the ...
Yesterday was my post-op appointment. The first thing my doctor says is "Good God, you made me work!!". LOL I knew my surgery was more complicated than my previous ones, but did not realize just how much. When he got in there it was actually not a hydrosalpinx (fluid filled tube) as originally suspected, but a 7-8 cm corpus luteum cyst that was attached to my bowels, tube and ovary. He had to drain it to even begin and then called in a general surgeon to detach it from my bowels. He then removed it, taking part of my tube and part of my ovary as well. He showed me the pics from it and yuck! I so did not need to see that. This tube has always been blocked and this ovary is attached to my bowels and unable to detach without losing it, so this ovary is "uselss" unless we do IVF. Which we have no plans to do. Yet I felt sad that another part of my reproductive organs had been removed. I already lost part of my other ovary years ago. Now a tube and part of the other ovary? There really is little ...
What is cholesterol? Cholesterol is a waxy fat, sterol group of animal origin, which was first isolated in gallstones, and present in abundance in the brain, adrenal glands, uterus and corpus luteum especially in the circulating blood (lymph , plasma and erythrocytes), and is missing in plants.
Anybody ever had a large (9cm) corpus luteum cyst and everything turn out ok? I had my first ob appt today and am 5 weeks 6 days and they said it should be around 2cm but mine is 9cm! Ive had no pains or blood as of yet and just wondering if anybody else has experienced a larger CL cyst? I saw other boards but none said how big their cysts were. Im trying to stay calm since my Dr seemed optimistic but I know Im gojng to worry some til my next ultrasound in a few weeks.
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BioAssay record AID 751042 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of GSK3beta in mouse MA-10 cells assessed as stimulation of progesterone production at 50 uM after 15 to 120 mins by RIA.
La théorie des réseaux collocationnels est basée sur une définition textuelle du phénomène de collocation dans un corpus électronique. Les réseaux se construisent à partir dun nœud central en explorant les associations significatives entre la base et ses collocats. Ceci repose sur une mesure de signifiance statistique à laide de linformation mutuelle. Les réseaux, extraits dun corpus de communauté de discours soigneusement élaboré, révèlent le lexique significatif et les combinaisons collocationnelles participant à des structures plus complexes. Ces réseaux sont actuellement exploités pour lextraction des entrées destinées à un dictionnaire pédagogique spécialisé.
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Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Expression and Luteal Cell DNA Fragmentation of Porcine Cyclic Corpora Lutea - Nitric Oxide Synthase;Corpora Lutea;Apoptosis;Estrous Cycle;
Prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α in prostanoid nomenclature), pharmaceutically termed dinoprost (INN), is a naturally occurring prostaglandin used in medicine to induce labor and as an abortifacient. In domestic mammals, it is produced by the uterus when stimulated by oxytocin, in the event that there has been no implantation during the luteal phase. It acts on the corpus luteum to cause luteolysis, forming a corpus albicans and stopping the production of progesterone. Action of PGF2α is dependent on the number of receptors on the corpus luteum membrane. The PGF2α isoform 8-iso-PGF2α was found in significantly increased amounts in patients with endometriosis, thus being a potential causative link in endometriosis-associated oxidative stress. PGF2α acts by binding to the prostaglandin F2α receptor. It is released in response to an increase in oxytocin levels in the uterus, and stimulates both luteolytic activity and the release of oxytocin. Because PGF2α is linked with an increase in uterine ...
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In this study, the ovaries of 27 wild collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) fromthe Amazonian region of northeastern Peru were examined macroscopically and microscopically, and expression of major steroidogenic enzymes was detected by immunohistochemistry. Our observations suggest a mean ovulation rate of 2.3 +/- 0.6 follicles and a low rate of reproductive wastage (0.4 +/- 0.6 oocytes or embryos per pregnancy). The collared peccary seems to exhibit follicular waves involving the synchronous growth of a cohort of follicles, several of which seem to attain selection. The presence of antral follicles in pregnant females suggests that follicular turnover continues during pregnancy. In cyclic animals, corpora lutea were characterised by the presence of distinct large and small luteal cell populations. The luteal volume in pregnant females was larger than that recorded for non-pregnant females. Through immunohistochemistry, it was observed that luteal cells from active corpora lutea exhibit intensive 3 ...
Actinomyces pyogenes from a case of endometritis was used to study the effects of infection of the bovine embryo between days 27 and 41 of pregnancy. From 10(9) to 10(10) washed organisms were introduced into the uterine lumen of four pregnant cows. Two pregnant cows were inoculated with sterile saline and four pregnant cows were treated with cloprostenol. Embryonic death and abortion followed 29 to 144 hours after the inoculation of the live bacteria. The aborted embryos were macerated or clearly degenerating and yielded profuse pure cultures of A pyogenes. Abortion was accompanied by a sustained increase in uterine tone, opening of the cervix, presence of vaginal pus and a vulval discharge and the persistence of the corpus luteum for at least eight days after abortion. Intrauterine inoculation with saline did not affect pregnancy, but embryonic death, abortion and regression of the corpus luteum occurred 66 to 72 hours after the treatment with cloprostenol. The results suggest that A pyogenes ...
The human LH receptor (LHR) plays a key role in luteal function and the establishment of pregnancy through its interaction with the gonadotropins LH and human chorionic gonadotropin. We previously identified four splice variants of the LHR in human luteinized granulosa cells (LGCs) and corpora lutea (CL). Real-time quantitative PCR revealed that expression of the full-length LHR (LHRa) and the most truncated form (LHRd) changed significantly in CL harvested at different stages of the ovarian cycle (P , 0.01, ANOVA). LHRa expression was reduced in the late luteal CL (P,0.05). Conversely, an increase in LHRd expression was observed in the late luteal CL (P,0.01). Chronic manipulation of human chorionic gonadotropin in LGC primary cultures supported the in vivo findings. LHRd encodes a protein lacking the transmembrane and carboxyl terminal domains. COS-7 cells expressing LHRd were unable to produce cAMP in response to LH stimulation. COS-7 cells coexpressing LHRd and LHRa also failed to generate ...
Mol Hum Reprod. 2014 Jan 26. [Epub ahead of print] Chang HM, Cheng JC, Taylor E, Leung PC. Author information Abstract In the ovary, connexin-coupled gap junctions in granulosa cells play crucial roles in follicular and oocyte development as well as in corpus luteum formation. Our previous work has shown that theca cell-derived bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)4 and BMP7 decrease gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) activity via the down-regulation of connexin43 (Cx43) expression in immortalized human granulosa cells. However, the effects of oocyte-derived growth factors on Cx43 expression remain to be elucidated. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of oocyte-derived growth differentiation factor (GDF)9 and BMP15 on the expression of Cx43 in a human granulosa cell line, SVOG. We also examined the effect relative to GJIC activity and investigated the potential mechanisms of action. In SVOG cells, treatment with BMP15 but not GDF9 significantly decreased Cx43 mRNA ...
Weekes, H.C. (1934). "The corpus luteum in certain oviparous and viviparous reptiles". Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 69: 380-391. ...
Corpus luteum, a temporary endocrine structure in female mammals. *Lift coefficient (CL), in aerodynamics ...
The main function of hCG is to sustain the ovarian corpus luteum during pregnancy past the time it would normally decay as part ... For the first 7-9 weeks in humans, the corpus luteum secretes the progesterone necessary to maintain the viability of the ... Csapo, AL; MO Pulkkinen; B Rutter; JP Sauvage; WG Wiest (1972). "The significance of the human corpus luteum in pregnancy ...
A rise in pituitary FSH caused by the disintegration of the corpus luteum at the conclusion of the twelfth menstrual cycle ... Inhibin, which is also secreted by the corpus luteum, contributes to FSH inhibition. The endocrine system coincides with the ... Following ovulation, LH stimulates the formation of the corpus luteum. Estrogen has since dropped to negative stimulatory ... The ruptured follicle will undergo a dramatic transformation into the corpus luteum, a steroidiogenic cluster of cells that ...
After rupturing, the follicle is turned into a corpus luteum. In a larger perspective, the whole folliculogenesis from ...
The corpus luteum secretes progesterone. Depending on breed, on average, 16% of mares have double ovulations, allowing them to ... It decreases 12-15 days after ovulation, when the corpus luteum begins to decrease in size. Prostaglandin: secreted by the ... causes luteolysis and prevents the corpus luteum from secreting progesterone eCG - equine chorionic gonadotropin - also called ...
During this day the corpora lutea grow to a maximal volume, achieved within 24 hours of ovulation. They remain at that size for ... During four phases of its estrous cycle, mean weight of corpus luteum has been found to be 1.23±0.22 (metestrus), 3.15±0.10 ( ... The female is not yet sexually receptive; the old corpus luteum gets degenerated; the uterus and the vagina get distended and ... The signs of estrogen stimulation subside and the corpus luteum starts to form. The uterine lining begins to appear. In the ...
Corpus luteum cysts appear after ovulation. The corpus luteum is the remnant of the follicle after the ovum has moved to the ... A corpus luteum that is more than 3 cm is defined as cystic. Theca lutein cysts occur within the thecal layer of cells ... For the corpus luteum, a dominant ovulating follicle that typically appears as a cyst with circumferentially thickened walls ... Most ovarian cysts are related to ovulation, being either follicular cysts or corpus luteum cysts. Other types include cysts ...
FP receptor activation contributes to the regression of the corpus luteum and thereby the estrus cycle in many species of farm ... Luteal cells of corpus luteum. The FP receptor is the least selective of the prostenoid receptors in that it is responsive to ... follicles and corpus luteum). Studies in mice indicate that FP mRNA and/or protein is expressed in diverse tissues including ... That is, these FP-/- mice fail to enter labor even if induced by oxytocin due to a failure in copus luteum regression and ...
Also in the cortex is the corpus luteum derived from the follicles. The innermost layer is the ovarian medulla.[7] It can be ... Corpora lutea are found only in mammals, and in some elasmobranch fish; in other species, the remnants of the follicle are ... The follicle remains functional and reorganizes into a corpus luteum, which secretes progesterone in order to prepare the ...
... hCG prevents degeneration of the corpus luteum. Progesterone serves to maintain the integrity of the uterine lining and, until ... it is aided by the corpus luteum graviditatis. The syncytiotrophoblast lacks proliferative capacity and instead is maintained ...
Rupture of corpus luteum in some cases. Less commonly, bleeding due to a perforated gastric ulcer. Bleeding due to rupture of ...
The hormones produced by the corpus luteum also suppress production of the FSH and LH that the corpus luteum needs to maintain ... which is very similar to LH and which preserves the corpus luteum. The corpus luteum can then continue to secrete progesterone ... Consequently, the level of FSH and LH fall quickly over time, and the corpus luteum subsequently atrophies.[81] Falling levels ... The loss of the corpus luteum is prevented by fertilization of the egg. The syncytiotrophoblast, which is the outer layer of ...
Adolescents have enlarged oviducal glands with distinguishable oocytes and no or few corpora lutea. Adults have large ovaries ...
This allows the corpus luteum to secrete the hormone progesterone during the first trimester. Progesterone enriches the uterus ... Human chorionic gonadotropin interacts with the LHCG receptor of the ovary and promotes the maintenance of the corpus luteum ... As HCG supports the corpus luteum, administration of HCG is used in certain circumstances to enhance the production of ...
1999). "Immunolocalization of glutaredoxin in the human corpus luteum". Mol. Hum. Reprod. 5 (10): 914-9. doi:10.1093/molehr/ ...
Hartmann M, Wettstein A (1934). „Ein krystallisiertes Hormon aus Corpus luteum". Helvetica Chimica Acta. 17: 878-882. doi: ... Slotta KH, Ruschig H, Fels E (1934). „Reindarstellung der Hormone aus dem Corpusluteum". Berichte Deutsche chemische ... Butenandt A, Westphal U (1934). „Zur Isolierung und Charakterisierung des Corpusluteum-Hormons". Berichte Deutsche chemische ...
"Physiology of the corpus luteum, V: the preparation and some chemical properties of progestin, a hormone of the corpus luteum ... On May 5, I had the crystalline corpus luteum hormone. On May 18, my daughter, Lucille, was born. My friends gave me double ...
1999 Mar; 83(1):115-9. Frobenius W., "Ludwig Fraenkel, corpus luteum and discovery of progesterone." Zentralbl Gynakol. 1998; ...
... is synthesized by corpora lutea of several species, including ruminants and primates. Along with estrogen, it is ... including in females in the corpus luteum[34][35] and the placenta;[36] in males in the testicles' interstitial cells of Leydig ... "Post-translational processing of oxytocin-neurophysin prohormone in the ovine corpus luteum: activity of peptidyl glycine alpha ... involved in inducing the endometrial synthesis of prostaglandin F2α to cause regression of the corpus luteum.[43] ...
In females, an acute rise of LH ("LH surge") triggers ovulation and development of the corpus luteum. In males, where LH had ... In females: ovulation, maintaining of corpus luteum and secretion of progesterone. In males: testosterone secretion. LH ... but also initiating the conversion of the residual follicle into a corpus luteum that, in turn, produces progesterone to ... causes a drastic reduction in estrogen synthesis and a marked increase in secretion of progesterone by the corpus luteum in the ...
It acts on the corpus luteum to cause luteolysis, forming a corpus albicans and stopping the production of progesterone. Action ... there is evidence that PGF2α and oxytocin form a positive feedback loop to facilitate the degradation of the corpus luteum.[4] ... PGF2α can cause an abortion by degrading the corpus luteum, which nourishes the fetus in the womb. Since the fetus is not ... PGF2α and oxytocin also inhibit the production of progesterone, a hormone that facilitates corpus luteum development. ...
... is expressed in the ovary and corpus luteum, where its expression is induced by progesterone and during pregnancy, ... Cai Z, Stocco C (Dec 2005). "Expression and regulation of progestin membrane receptors in the rat corpus luteum". Endocrinology ...
Paraspeckles form a significant portion of the corpus luteum of the ovary; in Neat1 impaired mice, corpus luteum formation is ... 2014), "The lncRNA Neat1 is required for corpus luteum formation and the establishment of pregnancy in a subpopulation of mice ...
... atresia and corpus luteum regression: a role for apoptosis". Reprod. Biomed. Online. 11 (1): 93-103. doi:10.1016/S1472-6483(10) ... the follicle from which the oocyte was released becomes the corpus luteum. The rest undergo follicular atresia. Atresia is a ...
Theca cells with granulosa cells help form the corpus luteum. Theca cells are only correlated with developing ovarian follicles ...
Also in the cortex is the corpus luteum derived from the follicles. ...
... im Besonderen des Hormons des Corpus luteum. I. Der biologische Test für das Luteumhormon (das spezielle Hormon des Corpus ... luteum) am infantilen Kaninchen". Zentralblatt für Gynäkologie. 54: 2757-2770. "Clauberg's method, alt. Clauberg's test". ...
corpus luteum hormone synonyms, corpus luteum hormone pronunciation, corpus luteum hormone translation, English dictionary ... definition of corpus luteum hormone. n another name for progesterone ... corpus luteum hormone. Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia. corpus luteum hormone. n (Biochemistry) another name ... Corpus luteum hormone - definition of corpus luteum hormone by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/corpus+ ...
PTGS1 activity was greater than PTGS2 in early corpora lutea and less in late luteal phase. In corpora lutea cultured in vitro ... PTGS1 activity was greater than PTGS2 in early corpora lutea and less in late luteal phase. In corpora lutea cultured in vitro ... with lowest values in late corpora lutea. In vitro corpora lutea progesterone production was greater in mid stages and less in ... with lowest values in late corpora lutea. In vitro corpora lutea progesterone production was greater in mid stages and less in ...
These changes coincide with increased level of CYP11A1 expression in human corpus luteum. In this study, we examined the role ... These changes coincide with increased level of CYP11A1 expression in human corpus luteum. In this study, we examined the role ... These changes coincide with increased level of CYP11A1 expression in human corpus luteum. In this study, we examined the role ... These changes coincide with increased level of CYP11A1 expression in human corpus luteum. In this study, we examined the role ...
The effect of some factors such as follicles and corpus luteum numbers, postpartum period on the fertility of synchronized ... È stato valutato anche leffetto di parametri come il numero di follicoli, la presenza di corpi lutei e i giorni di lattazione ... corpo luteo al momento dellinizio del protocollo Inoltre, non sono state evidenziate significati effetti del numero di ... follicoli e di corpi lutei. Lo studio indica che la cronologia del trattamento dovrebbe essere preso in considerazione per i ...
The fertility drug clomiphene citrate (clomid, serophene), used to induce ovulation, increases the risk of a corpus luteum cyst ...
Corpus Luteum Cysts , Ovarian Dermoid Cyst ». No Responses to " Hemorrhagic Ovarian Cyst " Sorry, comments for this entry are ...
Corpus Luteum cyst: hemorrhage into persistent corpus luteum. Commonly regresses spontaneously.. References[edit]. *^ " ... The corpus luteum (Latin for "yellow body"; plural corpora lutea) is a temporary endocrine structure in female ovaries and is ... The corpus luteum is essential for establishing and maintaining pregnancy in females. The corpus luteum secretes progesterone, ... From this point on, the corpus luteum is called the corpus luteum graviditatis. ...
... cysts are a type of functional ovarian cyst that results when a corpus luteum fails to regress following the release of an ovum ... a corpus luteum cyst is formed. There is some overlap in the definitions of a corpus luteum cyst and a haemorrhagic corpus ... Corpus luteal (CL) cysts are a type of functional ovarian cyst that results when a corpus luteum fails to regress following the ... The natural history of a normal corpus luteum is to regress by the end of the 1st trimester if pregnancy has occurred. If a ...
corpus luteum* A mass of yellow tissue that remains after ovulation when a mature Graafian follicle [1] ruptures from the ovary ... then the corpus luteum quickly degenerates. If fertilization occurs, then the corpus luteum persists and continues to secrete ... corpus luteum (yellow body) The yellowish mass of tissue that forms from the granulosa cells in the cavity of a Graafian ... corpus luteum A mass of yellow tissue that remains after ovulation when a mature Graafian follicle ruptures from the ovary of a ...
We also take a look at corpus luteum cysts. ... Learn about the corpus luteum, a structure that develops in the ... At times, the corpus luteum can fill with fluid. This buildup causes what is called a corpus luteum cyst, which is a type of ... What is a corpus luteum cyst?. Painful menstrual bleeding can be a symptom of a corpus luteum cyst. ... In most cases, corpus luteum cysts will go away on their own without treatment. Corpus luteum cysts may disappear in a few ...
The search for unifying concepts and mechanisms concerning the hormonal regulation of the corpus luteum has been frustrated by ... Estrogen Action in the Corpus Luteum. In: Channing C.P., Marsh J.M., Sadler W.A. (eds) Ovarian Follicular and Corpus Luteum ... Corpus Luteum Estrogen Action Normal Horse Serum Serum Progesterone Progesterone Secretion These keywords were added by machine ... In those species in which estrogen is thought to act on the corpus luteum, the mechanism is unknown and the role of pituitary ...
Fraenkel, Dieses Archiv. Bd. 68, 91. Zeitschr. f. Geburtsh. und Gynäk. Bd. 64. Zentralbl. f. Gyn. 1911. Nr. 46.Google Scholar ...
Corpus luteum cysts may contain blood and other fluids. The physical shape of a corpus luteum cyst may appear as an enlargement ... the corpus luteum usually breaks down and disappears. It may, however, fill with fluid or blood, causing the corpus luteum to ... A Corpus luteum cyst is a type of ovarian cyst which may rupture about the time of menstruation, and take up to three months to ... A corpus luteum cyst rarely occurs at age 50+, because eggs are no longer being released in menopausal women. ...
PROLONGATION OF THE CORPUS LUTEUM IN THE PSEUDOPREGNANT RABBIT Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ...
Home , March 1969 - Volume 33 - Issue 3 , BLEEDING CORPUS LUTEUM FROM ANTICOAGULATION THERAPY ...
Buy Ovarian Follicular and Corpus Luteum Function by C. P. Channing from Waterstones today! Click and Collect from your local ... Ovarian Follicular and Corpus Luteum Function - Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 112 (Paperback). C. P. Channing ( ... the field of ovarian follicular and corpus luteum function. This workshop was sponsored by the Center of Population Research, ...
Cysts of the corpora lutea ( Figure 1. , Figure 2. , Figure 3. and Figure 4. ) are larger than a normal corpus luteum and may ... Ovary, Corpus luteum - Cyst in a female F344/N rat from a subchronic study. The cyst is thick walled and fluid filled, and a ... Ovary, Corpus luteum - Cyst in a female F344/N rat from a chronic study. The cyst is at the periphery of the ovary. ... Ovary, Corpus luteum - Cyst in a female F344/N rat from a subchronic study (higher magnification of Figure 1). The cyst wall is ...
by Reproductive Physiology of Mammals, From Farm to Field and Beyond; Science and technology, general Corpus luteum ... regulation of corpus luteum function, and 3) regression of the corpus luteum. DEVELOPMENT OF THE CORPUS LUTEUM The process by ... REGRESSION OF THE CORPUS LUTEUM The regression of the corpus luteum which marks the end of the luteal phase is commonly ... The corpus luteum of the cow is responsive to [PGF.sub.2[alpha]] by day 4 of the estrous cycle. In addition, the corpus luteum ...
Transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of a section through the corpus luteum of an ovary, showing several luteal cells. ... Corpus luteum. Transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of a section through the corpus luteum of an ovary, showing several ... The corpus luteum is the tissue formed from a mature ovarian follicle after the follicle has released its oocyte during ...
... corpus luteum cyst explanation free. What is corpus luteum cyst? Meaning of corpus luteum cyst medical term. What does corpus ... Looking for online definition of corpus luteum cyst in the Medical Dictionary? ... corpus luteum cyst. cor·pus lu·te·um cyst (kōrpŭs lūtē-ŭm sist) Persistent corpus luteum with cyst formation. ... corpus luteum spuriumcorpus luteum verum. *corpus luteum spuriumcorpus luteum verum. *corpus luteum spuriumcorpus luteum verum ...
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Some physicians believe that corpus luteum defect is a frequent cause of miscarriage in the first trimester. The corpus luteum ... Corpus luteum defect, also known as luteal phase defect, is a controversial topic among doctors. ... The corpus luteum produces progesterone which is necessary for a healthy pregnancy. If the corpus luteum is not functioning ... How is corpus luteum defect diagnosed?. BBT charting. There are several ways that doctors can diagnose corpus luteum defect. ...
... and increased VEGF expression in the corpus luteum. In contrast, hyperthyroidism increased the level of apoptosis in the corpus ... Effects of Hypo- and Hyperthyroidism on Proliferation, Angiogenesis, Apoptosis and Expression of COX-2 in the Corpus Luteum of ... Hypothyroidism reduced the intensity and area of COX-2 expression in the corpus luteum (p , 0.05), while hyperthyroidism did ... Hypothyroidism significantly reduced the expression of CDC-47 in endothelial cells and pericytes in the corpus luteum, whereas ...
... corpus luteum) Definition: Corpus luteum is 1 to 2 cm, round yellow, lobulated structure with cystic center. It has luteinized ... Progesterone from the corpus luteum maintains the uterus for implantation.. The corpus luteum secretes progesterone which ... Definition: Corpus luteum is 1 to 2 cm, round yellow, lobulated structure with cystic center. It has luteinized granulosa and ... Home , E. Pathology by systems , Reproductive system , Female genital system , Ovaries (Ovary) , corpus luteum ...
What is accessory corpus lutea? Meaning of accessory corpus lutea as a legal term. What does accessory corpus lutea mean in law ... Definition of accessory corpus lutea in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... corpus. (redirected from accessory corpus lutea). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Financial, Encyclopedia. ... Associated concepts: corpus delicti, corpus juris, corpus of a trust. See also: body, bulk, cornerstone, corpse, entity, person ...
  • In vitro corpora lutea progesterone production was greater in mid stages and less in late luteal phases, while prostaglandin (PG) F2alpha (PGF2alpha) increased from early to late stages, and PGE2 was greater in the earlier-luteal phase. (unicam.it)
  • These changes coincide with increased level of CYP11A1 expression in human corpus luteum. (elsevier.com)
  • Cyclooxygenase 1 (prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 1, PTGS1) activity did not change during diestrus, while PTGS2 increased from early to late stages, and PGE2-9-ketoreductase (PGE2-9-K) was greater in late corpora lutea. (unicam.it)
  • PTGS1 activity was greater than PTGS2 in early corpora lutea and less in late luteal phase. (unicam.it)
  • 1. Sepharose 6B gel-filtration analysis of soluble adenylate cyclase from bovine corpus luteum is described. (biochemj.org)
  • In this study, we have examined and characterized the local effects of Ang II as a luteolytic factor and its interaction with prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) in the bovine corpus luteum (CL) of the mid-luteal phase, by using an in vitro microdialysis system (MDS). (ovid.com)
  • Activation of adenylate cyclase in bovine corpus-luteum membra. (mysciencework.com)
  • This dissertation describes a study of the mechanisms regulating the genesis and subsequent involution of the temporary endocrine structure, the corpus luteum (CL), through the use of a bovine model. (unmc.edu)
  • Insulin-like factor 3 (INSL3) is a local regulator in mammalian gonads, but little is known of its function in bovine corpus luteum (CL). (elsevier.com)
  • Most observers agree that the presence of the corpus luteum is necessary during the early stages of gestation. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Parkes, 1928), where the presence of the corpus luteum is essential during the whole of gestation. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The development of the corpus luteum is accompanied by an increase in the level of the steroidogenic enzyme P450scc that converts cholesterol to pregnenolone in the mitochondria. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human corpus luteum (CL) is an astonishing short-lived gland formed after ovulation by rapid angiogenesis and cellular differentiation. (adasouthsudan.org)
  • Return to Paper - Studies on the human corpus luteum 1 . (edu.au)
  • The subcellular distribution of progesterone and oxytocin within the ovine corpus luteum was investigated using differential and density gradient centrifugation. (bioscientifica.com)
  • Furthermore, the level of messenger RNA encoding the FP receptor is high in the midluteal phase ovine corpus luteum and decreases during luteolysis. (elsevier.com)
  • Glucose transporter 1 expression accompanies hypoxia sensing in the cyclic canine corpus luteum. (uzh.ch)
  • Human chorionic gonadotropin increases serum progesterone, number of corpora lutea and angiogenic factors in pregnant sheep. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We hypothesized treating pregnant ewes with hCG would increase serum P4, number of corpora lutea (CLs) and concepti, augment steroidogenic enzymes, and increase membrane P4 receptors (PAQRs) and angiogenic factors in reproductive tissues. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Nevertheless, the supply of progesterone (P4) depends on corpora lutea (CL) as its primary source in both conditions, resulting in P4 levels that are similar in pregnant and non-pregnant bitches during almost the entire luteal life span prior to the prepartum luteolysis. (uzh.ch)
  • This experiment provided evidence that the combination of ISG expression patterns and PSPB concentrations is a reasonable method to determine EM around the period of corpus luteum maintenance by IFNT because cows with evidence of EM had patterns of ISG expression more similar to pregnant than cyclic cows or cows with no embryo. (ovid.com)
  • In the non-pregnant animal, corpora lutea are transient structures. (wikivet.net)
  • On the other hand, we have demonstrated that aromatase expression in corpora lutea of pregnant rats correlates with changes in the binding of luteal nuclear proteins to an activation protein 3 response element (AP3-RE) found in the proximal promoter. (grantome.com)
  • Corpora lutea from 12 pregnant women were prepared for immunohistochemical localization of relaxin using a highly specific antiserum. (uclouvain.be)
  • A corpus luteum cyst rarely occurs at age 50+, because eggs are no longer being released in menopausal women. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although thyroid dysfunction occurs frequently in humans and some animal species, the mechanisms by which hypo- and hyperthyroidism affect the corpus luteum have not been thoroughly elucidated. (wiley.com)
  • A corpus luteum cyst rarely occurs in women over the age of 50, because eggs are no longer being released after menopause. (adasouthsudan.org)
  • However, it is possible to get some bleeding into a corpus luteum, which can cause pain, or the corpus luteum can form a cyst that may cause some discomfort. (justanswer.com)
  • This study evaluated the levels of proliferative activity, angiogenesis, apoptosis and expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in the corpus luteum of female rats with thyroid dysfunction. (wiley.com)
  • The corpus luteum (CL) is a site of intense angiogenesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Angiogenesis in the corpus luteum - Descarga este documento en PDF. (duhnnae.com)
  • Some physicians believe that corpus luteum defect is a frequent cause of miscarriage in the first trimester. (justmommies.com)
  • Our concern in this chapter will be progesterone production by the corpus luteum. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • HCG injections help to stimulate the corpus luteum which results in higher progesterone production. (justmommies.com)
  • The 5-day corpus luteum is presumed to represent, in terms of fine structure, the ultrastructural aspects of high progesterone production and is compared to younger differentiating and older regressing specimens. (edu.au)
  • Persistent corpus luteum with cyst formation. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Or worded better- is pain associated with a corpus luteum formation from start to completion or is it not felt at all? (justanswer.com)
  • The formation of the corpus luteum typically does not cause pain. (justanswer.com)
  • Themes for understanding the corpus luteum center on the sudden induction of an immense steroidogenic capacity, the importance of new vessel formation to this process, and the supervening effects of apoptosis in the event of conception failure. (glowm.com)