Paired or fused ganglion-like bodies in the head of insects. The bodies secrete hormones important in the regulation of metamorphosis and the development of some adult tissues.
Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.
Major egg yolk proteins from egg-laying animals such as non-mammalian VERTEBRATES; ARTHROPODS; and others. They are high-density lipoglycoproteins derived from circulating precursors, VITELLOGENINS. Vitellins serve as nutrients for the growing non-mammalian embryos (EMBRYO, NONMAMMALIAN).
Insects of the order Dictyoptera comprising several families including Blaberidae, BLATTELLIDAE, Blattidae (containing the American cockroach PERIPLANETA americana), Cryptocercidae, and Polyphagidae.
A colorless liquid extracted from oils of plants such as citronella, neroli, cyclamen, and tuberose. It is an intermediate step in the biological synthesis of cholesterol from mevalonic acid in vertebrates. It has a delicate odor and is used in perfumery. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A large order of insects comprising the butterflies and moths.
Hormones secreted by insects. They influence their growth and development. Also synthetic substances that act like insect hormones.
The yellow body derived from the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE after OVULATION. The process of corpus luteum formation, LUTEINIZATION, is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.
Sesquiterpenes are a class of terpenes consisting of three isoprene units, forming a 15-carbon skeleton, which can be found in various plant essential oils and are known for their diverse chemical structures and biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic properties.
A system of NEURONS that has the specialized function to produce and secrete HORMONES, and that constitutes, in whole or in part, an ENDOCRINE SYSTEM or organ.
Broad plate of dense myelinated fibers that reciprocally interconnect regions of the cortex in all lobes with corresponding regions of the opposite hemisphere. The corpus callosum is located deep in the longitudinal fissure.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
Birth defect that results in a partial or complete absence of the CORPUS CALLOSUM. It may be isolated or a part of a syndrome (e.g., AICARDI'S SYNDROME; ACROCALLOSAL SYNDROME; ANDERMANN SYNDROME; and HOLOPROSENCEPHALY). Clinical manifestations include neuromotor skill impairment and INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY of variable severity.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Ductless glands that secrete HORMONES directly into the BLOOD CIRCULATION. These hormones influence the METABOLISM and other functions of cells in the body.
The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)
Juvenile hormone analog and insect growth regulator used to control insects by disrupting metamorphosis. Has been effective in controlling mosquito larvae.
Slender-bodies diurnal insects having large, broad wings often strikingly colored and patterned.

Antidiuretic effects of a factor in brain/corpora cardiaca/corpora allata extract on fluid reabsorption across the cryptonephric complex of Manduca sexta. (1/39)

Extracts of the brain/corpora cardiaca/corpora allata (Br/CC/CA) complex of Manduca sexta larvae elicit an antidiuretic effect, measured by an increase in fluid reabsorption across the cryptonephric complex of larval M. sexta. Separation of the extract by reversed-phase liquid chromatography gave two fractions with antidiuretic effects. The more potent of these two factors was further characterized for its effects on the cryptonephric complex. Its antidiuretic effect is not inhibited by bumetanide, a drug that inhibits M. sexta diuretic hormone (Mas-DH)-stimulated fluid reabsorption. These data indicate that the mechanism of the antidiuretic effect of the factor is different from that of Mas-DH on the cryptonephric complex. The basal reabsorption of the cryptonephric complex is blocked when treated on the lumen side with bafilomycin A(1), an inhibitor of the H(+)-ATPase, or with amiloride, an inhibitor of the H(+)/K(+) antiporter. However, the antidiuretic-factor-stimulated fluid reabsorption is not affected by either bafilomycin A(1) or amiloride. The increase in reabsorption triggered by the semi-purified factor can be inhibited by Cl(-) channel blockers or by removing Cl(-) from the lumen side of the cryptonephric complex. It appears that this factor activates a Cl(-) pump associated with the cryptonephric complex. Forskolin mimics the effect of this factor on fluid reabsorption, and the effect of forskolin is not inhibited by bumetanide. A selective and potent inhibitor of protein kinase A, H-89, also inhibits antidiuretic-factor-stimulated fluid reabsorption. Addition of the factor to cryptonephric complexes maintained in vitro caused a significant increase in cyclic AMP levels extracted from these tissues compared with values for controls. These data suggest that the antidiuretic effect of the factor in Br/CC/CA extract is mediated by cyclic AMP.  (+info)

A mutant Drosophila insulin receptor homolog that extends life-span and impairs neuroendocrine function. (2/39)

The Drosophila melanogaster gene insulin-like receptor (InR) is homologous to mammalian insulin receptors as well as to Caenorhabditis elegans daf-2, a signal transducer regulating worm dauer formation and adult longevity. We describe a heteroallelic, hypomorphic genotype of mutant InR, which yields dwarf females with up to an 85% extension of adult longevity and dwarf males with reduced late age-specific mortality. Treatment of the long-lived InR dwarfs with a juvenile hormone analog restores life expectancy toward that of wild-type controls. We conclude that juvenile hormone deficiency, which results from InR signal pathway mutation, is sufficient to extend life-span, and that in flies, insulin-like ligands nonautonomously mediate aging through retardation of growth or activation of specific endocrine tissue.  (+info)

Juvenile hormone regulation of longevity in the migratory monarch butterfly. (3/39)

Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) of eastern North America are well known for their long-range migration to overwintering roosts in south-central Mexico. An essential feature of this migration involves the exceptional longevity of the migrant adults; individuals persist from August/September to March while their summer counterparts are likely to live less than two months as adults. Migrant adults persist during a state of reproductive diapause in which both male and female reproductive development is arrested as a consequence of suppressed synthesis of juvenile hormone. Here, we describe survival in monarch butterflies as a function of the migrant syndrome. We show that migrant adults are longer lived than summer adults when each are maintained under standard laboratory conditions, that the longevity of migrant adults is curtailed by treatment with juvenile hormone and that the longevity of summer adults is increased by 100% when juvenile hormone synthesis is prevented by surgical removal of its source, the corpora allatum. Thus, monarch butterfly persistence through a long winter season is ensured in part by reduced ageing that is under endocrine regulation, as well as by the unique environmental properties of their winter roost sites. Phenotypic plasticity for ageing is an integral component of the monarch butterflies' migration-diapause syndrome.  (+info)

Insect NMDA receptors mediate juvenile hormone biosynthesis. (4/39)

In vertebrates, the N-methyl-D-aspartate subtype of glutamate receptors (NMDAR) appears to play a role in neuronal development, synaptic plasticity, memory formation, and pituitary activity. However, functional NMDAR have not yet been characterized in insects. We have now demonstrated immunohistochemically glutamatergic nerve terminals in the corpora allata of an adult female cockroach, Diploptera punctata. Cockroach corpus allatum (CA) cells, exposed to NMDA in vitro, exhibited elevated cytosolic [Ca(2+)], but not in culture medium nominally free of calcium or containing NMDAR-specific channel blockers: MK-801 and Mg(2+). Sensitivity of cockroach corpora allata to NMDA changed cyclically during the ovarian cycle. Highly active glands of 4-day-old mated females, exposed to 3 microM NMDA, produced 70% more juvenile hormone (JH) in vitro, but the relatively inactive glands of 8-day-old mated females showed little response to the agonist. The stimulatory effect of NMDA was eliminated by augmenting the culture medium with MK-801, conantokin, or high Mg(2+). Having obtained substantive evidence of functioning NMDAR in insect corpora allata, we used reverse transcription PCR to demonstrate two mRNA transcripts, DNMDAR1 and DNMDAR2, in the ring gland and brain of last-instar Drosophila melanogaster. Immunohistochemical labeling, using mouse monoclonal antibody against rat NMDAR1, showed that only one of the three types of endocrine cells in the ring gland, CA cells, expressed rat NMDAR1-like immunoreactive protein. This antibody also labeled two brain neurons in the lateral protocerebrum, one neuron per brain hemisphere. Finally, we used the same primers for DNMDAR1 to demonstrate a fragment of putative NMDA receptor in the corpora allata of Diploptera punctata. Our results suggest that the NMDAR has a role in regulating JH synthesis and that ionotropic-subtype glutamate receptors became specialized early in animal evolution.  (+info)

In vivo membrane trafficking role for an insect N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor which is developmentally regulated in endocrine cells. (5/39)

The hexameric ATPase, N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) is implicated in the release of neurotransmitters and in mediating fusion between intracellular membranes. Due to the conservation of proteins in constitutive and regulated membrane fusion reactions, NSF and its downstream targets have been predicted also to participate in fusion reactions underlying endocrine function, but there is little experimental evidence to support such a role for NSF in insect neuroendocrine secretion. Here we have characterized the NSF orthologue (MsNSF) from the endocrine model for development Manduca sexta. MsNSF is developmentally regulated in endocrine organs of the protocerebral complex. Enrichment of MsNSF in corpora cardiaca (CC) and not in corpora allata (CA) indicates that it might play a preferential role in releasing hormones produced in CC. Endocrine/paracrine cells of the enteric system in M. sexta exhibit selective MsNSF enrichment. Together the data point to a more selective participation of MsNSF in development of M. sexta by its involvement in a subset of factors, whereas other as-yet-unidentified homolog(s) might regulate secretion from CA and a large set of endocrine/paracrine cells. We further characterized the in vivo role of MsNSF by heterologous expression. In contrast to vertebrate NSF, MsNSF is functional in yeast membrane fusion in vivo. MsNSF rectifies defects in SEC18 (yeast NSF homologue) at nearly all discernible steps where Sec18p has been implicated in the biosynthetic route. This underscores the utility of our approach to delineate functional roles for proteins from systems that are not currently amenable to in vitro reconstitution.  (+info)

The retinoic-like juvenile hormone controls the looping of left-right asymmetric organs in Drosophila. (6/39)

In vertebrate development, the establishment of left-right asymmetry is essential for sidedness and the directional looping of organs like the heart. Both the nodal pathway and retinoic acid play major and conserved regulatory roles in these processes. We carried out a novel screen in Drosophila to identify mutants that specifically affect the looping of left-right asymmetric organs. We report the isolation of spin, a novel mutant in which the looping of the genitalia and spermiduct are incomplete; under-rotation of the genitalia indicates that spin controls looping morphogenesis but not direction, thus uncoupling left-right asymmetry and looping morphogenesis. spin is a novel, rotation-specific allele of the fasciclin2 (Fas2) gene, which encodes a cell-adhesion protein involved in several aspects of neurogenesis. In spin mutants, the synapses connecting specific neurosecretory cells to the corpora allata are affected. The corpus allatum is part of the ring gland and is involved in the control of juvenile hormone titers during development. Our genetic and pharmacological results indicate that Fas2(spin) rotation defects are linked to an abnormal endocrine function and an elevated level of juvenile hormone. As juvenile hormone is an insect sesquiterpenoid related to retinoic acid, these results establish a new genetic model for studying organ looping and demonstrate an evolutionarily conserved role for terpenoids in this process.  (+info)

Stimulation of JH biosynthesis by the corpora allata of adult female Aedes aegypti in vitro: effect of farnesoic acid and Aedes allatotropin. (7/39)

Previous studies have demonstrated that the synthesis of juvenile hormone (JH) by the isolated corpora allata (CA) complex in vitro as well as the JH titer in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti are elevated before feeding and low after a blood meal. In the present study, we used an in vitro radiochemical assay to analyze the effect of farnesoic acid (FA) and Aedes allatotropin (Aedes-AT) on the biosynthesis of JH and methyl farnesoate (MF) by the isolated CA complex of A. aegypti adult female. CA complex from day-0 females (0-1 h after emergence) exhibited a low basal juvenile hormone III (JH III) biosynthetic activity and did not respond to either allatotropic or FA stimulation. However, incubation of CA complexes from newly emerged females with Aedes-AT plus FA resulted in very high production of JH III. This is the first report suggesting that allatotropin makes corpora allata in newly emerged females capable for JH biosynthesis. When we studied CA complexes dissected from females 1 day after emergence, the stimulatory action of Aedes-AT was strong and dose-dependent, with maximum stimulation in the range of 10(-8)-10(-9) mol l(-1), suggesting that Aedes-AT is indeed a true allatotropin (a molecule with allatotropic activity) in A. aegypti. The addition to the culture medium of 40 micro mol l(-1) FA, a JH precursor, resulted in a 9-fold increase in JH III biosynthesis in 2-, 4- and 6-day-old sugar-fed females. The two major labeled products synthesized by the stimulated CA complex were identified as JH III and MF by RP-HPLC and GC-MS. Treatment of CA complexes with FA, but not Aedes-AT, resulted in an increase in MF. Application of both Aedes-AT and FA to the CA complexes of 2-, 4- and 6-day-old females resulted in the same effects as FA alone. These data suggest that in sugar-fed females, FA and Aedes-AT exert different effects on the terminal steps in JH biosynthesis.  (+info)

Juvenile hormone and division of labor in honey bee colonies: effects of allatectomy on flight behavior and metabolism. (8/39)

Three experiments were performed to determine why removal of the corpora allata (the glands that produce juvenile hormone) causes honey bees to fail to return to their hive upon initiating flight. In Experiment 1, the naturally occurring flights of allatectomized bees were tracked with radar to determine whether the deficit is physical or cognitive. The results indicated a physical impairment: allatectomized bees had a significantly slower ground speed than sham and untreated bees during orientation flights, but otherwise attributes such as flight range and area were normal. Flight impairment was confirmed in Experiment 2, based on observations of takeoff made in the field at the hive entrance. The allatectomized group had a significantly smaller percentage of flightworthy bees than did the sham and untreated groups. Experiment 3 confirmed the flight impairment in laboratory tests and showed that allatectomy causes a decrease in metabolic rate. Allatectomized bees had significantly lower metabolic rates than untreated and sham bees, while allatectomized bees receiving hormone replacement had intermediate values. These results indicate that allatectomy causes flight impairment, probably partly due to effects on metabolic rate. They also suggest that juvenile hormone plays an additional, previously unknown, role in coordinating the physiological underpinning of division of labor in honey bee colonies.  (+info)

The corpora allata are small endocrine glands found in the head of insects, located near the brain. They are part of the insect endocrine system and produce important hormones that regulate various physiological processes, including growth, development, reproduction, and molting. The most well-known hormone produced by the corpora allata is juvenile hormone (JH), which plays a crucial role in maintaining the larval or nymphal stage of insects and preventing metamorphosis into the adult form. As the insect grows and develops, the production of JH decreases, allowing for the initiation of metamorphosis and the emergence of the adult form.

Juvenile hormones (JHs) are a class of sesquiterpenoid compounds that play a crucial role in the regulation of insect development, reproduction, and other physiological processes. They are primarily produced by the corpora allata, a pair of endocrine glands located in the head of insects.

JHs are essential for maintaining the larval or nymphal stage of insects, preventing the expression of adult characteristics during molting. As the concentration of JH decreases in the hemolymph (insect blood), a molt to the next developmental stage occurs, and if the insect has reached its final instar, it will metamorphose into an adult.

In addition to their role in development, JHs also influence various aspects of insect reproductive physiology, such as vitellogenesis (yolk protein synthesis), oocyte maturation, and spermatogenesis. Furthermore, JHs have been implicated in regulating diapause (a period of suspended development during unfavorable environmental conditions) and caste determination in social insects like bees and ants.

Overall, juvenile hormones are vital regulators of growth, development, and reproduction in insects, making them attractive targets for the development of novel pest management strategies.

Vitellins are a group of precursor proteins found in the yolk of eggs of many animals, including birds and reptiles. They play a crucial role in the development of the embryo by providing it with essential nutrients, such as amino acids, lipids, and carbohydrates. Vitellins are synthesized in the liver of the female animal and then transported to the ovaries, where they are stored in the yolk granules of developing eggs. During embryonic development, vitellins are broken down into smaller peptides and free amino acids, which can be easily absorbed and utilized by the growing embryo.

In a medical context, vitellins may be studied in relation to reproductive biology, nutrition, and developmental biology. However, they do not have direct clinical relevance to human health or disease, as humans do not produce eggs with yolks containing vitellins.

Cockroaches are not a medical condition or disease. They are a type of insect that can be found in many parts of the world. Some species of cockroaches are known to carry diseases and allergens, which can cause health problems for some people. Cockroach allergens can trigger asthma symptoms, especially in children. Additionally, cockroaches can contaminate food and surfaces with bacteria and other germs, which can lead to illnesses such as salmonellosis and gastroenteritis.

If you have a problem with cockroaches in your home or workplace, it is important to take steps to eliminate them to reduce the risk of health problems. This may include cleaning up food and water sources, sealing entry points, and using pesticides or hiring a professional pest control service.

Farnesol is a chemical compound classified as a sesquiterpene alcohol. It is produced by various plants and insects, including certain types of roses and citrus fruits, and plays a role in their natural defense mechanisms. Farnesol has a variety of uses in the perfume industry due to its pleasant, floral scent.

In addition to its natural occurrence, farnesol is also synthetically produced for use in various applications, including as a fragrance ingredient and as an antimicrobial agent in cosmetics and personal care products. It has been shown to have antibacterial and antifungal properties, making it useful for preventing the growth of microorganisms in these products.

Farnesol is not typically used as a medication or therapeutic agent in humans, but it may have potential uses in the treatment of certain medical conditions due to its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties. However, more research is needed to fully understand its effects and safety profile in these contexts.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Lepidoptera" is not a medical term. It is a taxonomic order that includes moths and butterflies, which are insects known for their distinctive wing scales. This term is used in the field of biology, not medicine.

Insect hormones are chemical messengers that regulate various physiological and behavioral processes in insects. They are produced and released by endocrine glands and organs, such as the corpora allata, prothoracic glands, and neurosecretory cells located in the brain. Insect hormones play crucial roles in the regulation of growth and development, reproduction, diapause (a state of dormancy), metamorphosis, molting, and other vital functions. Some well-known insect hormones include juvenile hormone (JH), ecdysteroids (such as 20-hydroxyecdysone), and neuropeptides like the brain hormone and adipokinetic hormone. These hormones act through specific receptors, often transmembrane proteins, to elicit intracellular signaling cascades that ultimately lead to changes in gene expression, cell behavior, or organ function. Understanding insect hormones is essential for developing novel strategies for pest management and control, as well as for advancing our knowledge of insect biology and evolution.

The corpus luteum is a temporary endocrine structure that forms in the ovary after an oocyte (egg) has been released from a follicle during ovulation. It's formed by the remaining cells of the ruptured follicle, which transform into large, hormone-secreting cells.

The primary function of the corpus luteum is to produce progesterone and, to a lesser extent, estrogen during the menstrual cycle or pregnancy. Progesterone plays a crucial role in preparing the uterus for potential implantation of a fertilized egg and maintaining the early stages of pregnancy. If pregnancy does not occur, the corpus luteum will typically degenerate and stop producing hormones after approximately 10-14 days, leading to menstruation.

However, if pregnancy occurs, the developing embryo starts to produce human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), which signals the corpus luteum to continue secreting progesterone and estrogen until the placenta takes over hormonal production, usually around the end of the first trimester.

"Aedes" is a genus of mosquitoes that are known to transmit various diseases, including Zika virus, dengue fever, chikungunya, and yellow fever. These mosquitoes are typically found in tropical and subtropical regions around the world. They are distinguished by their black and white striped legs and thorax. Aedes aegypti is the most common species associated with disease transmission, although other species such as Aedes albopictus can also transmit diseases. It's important to note that only female mosquitoes bite and feed on blood, while males feed solely on nectar and plant juices.

Sesquiterpenes are a class of terpenes that consist of three isoprene units, hence the name "sesqui-" meaning "one and a half" in Latin. They are composed of 15 carbon atoms and have a wide range of chemical structures and biological activities. Sesquiterpenes can be found in various plants, fungi, and insects, and they play important roles in the defense mechanisms of these organisms. Some sesquiterpenes are also used in traditional medicine and have been studied for their potential therapeutic benefits.

Neurosecretory systems are specialized components of the nervous system that produce and release chemical messengers called neurohormones. These neurohormones are released into the bloodstream and can have endocrine effects on various target organs in the body. The cells that make up neurosecretory systems, known as neurosecretory cells, are found in specific regions of the brain, such as the hypothalamus, and in peripheral nerves.

Neurosecretory systems play a critical role in regulating many physiological processes, including fluid and electrolyte balance, stress responses, growth and development, reproductive functions, and behavior. The neurohormones released by these systems can act synergistically or antagonistically to maintain homeostasis and coordinate the body's response to internal and external stimuli.

Neurosecretory cells are characterized by their ability to synthesize and store neurohormones in secretory granules, which are released upon stimulation. The release of neurohormones can be triggered by a variety of signals, including neural impulses, hormonal changes, and other physiological cues. Once released into the bloodstream, neurohormones can travel to distant target organs, where they bind to specific receptors and elicit a range of responses.

Overall, neurosecretory systems are an essential component of the neuroendocrine system, which plays a critical role in regulating many aspects of human physiology and behavior.

The corpus callosum is the largest collection of white matter in the brain, consisting of approximately 200 million nerve fibers. It is a broad, flat band of tissue that connects the two hemispheres of the brain, allowing them to communicate and coordinate information processing. The corpus callosum plays a crucial role in integrating sensory, motor, and cognitive functions between the two sides of the brain. Damage to the corpus callosum can result in various neurological symptoms, including difficulties with movement, speech, memory, and social behavior.

Neuropeptides are small protein-like molecules that are used by neurons to communicate with each other and with other cells in the body. They are produced in the cell body of a neuron, processed from larger precursor proteins, and then transported to the nerve terminal where they are stored in secretory vesicles. When the neuron is stimulated, the vesicles fuse with the cell membrane and release their contents into the extracellular space.

Neuropeptides can act as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators, depending on their target receptors and the duration of their effects. They play important roles in a variety of physiological processes, including pain perception, appetite regulation, stress response, and social behavior. Some neuropeptides also have hormonal functions, such as oxytocin and vasopressin, which are produced in the hypothalamus and released into the bloodstream to regulate reproductive and cardiovascular function, respectively.

There are hundreds of different neuropeptides that have been identified in the nervous system, and many of them have multiple functions and interact with other signaling molecules to modulate neural activity. Dysregulation of neuropeptide systems has been implicated in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as chronic pain, addiction, depression, and anxiety.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Insect Proteins" is not a recognized medical term. However, I can provide some information about insect protein from a nutritional and food science perspective.

Insect proteins refer to the proteins that are obtained from insects. Insects are a rich source of protein, and their protein content varies by species. For example, mealworms and crickets have been found to contain approximately 47-63% and 60-72% protein by dry weight, respectively.

In recent years, insect proteins have gained attention as a potential sustainable source of nutrition due to their high protein content, low environmental impact, and the ability to convert feed into protein more efficiently compared to traditional livestock. Insect proteins can be used in various applications such as food and feed additives, nutritional supplements, and even cosmetics.

However, it's important to note that the use of insect proteins in human food is not widely accepted in many Western countries due to cultural and regulatory barriers. Nonetheless, research and development efforts continue to explore the potential benefits and applications of insect proteins in the global food system.

A larva is a distinct stage in the life cycle of various insects, mites, and other arthropods during which they undergo significant metamorphosis before becoming adults. In a medical context, larvae are known for their role in certain parasitic infections. Specifically, some helminth (parasitic worm) species use larval forms to infect human hosts. These invasions may lead to conditions such as cutaneous larva migrans, visceral larva migrans, or gnathostomiasis, depending on the specific parasite involved and the location of the infection within the body.

The larval stage is characterized by its markedly different morphology and behavior compared to the adult form. Larvae often have a distinct appearance, featuring unsegmented bodies, simple sense organs, and undeveloped digestive systems. They are typically adapted for a specific mode of life, such as free-living or parasitic existence, and rely on external sources of nutrition for their development.

In the context of helminth infections, larvae may be transmitted to humans through various routes, including ingestion of contaminated food or water, direct skin contact with infective stages, or transmission via an intermediate host (such as a vector). Once inside the human body, these parasitic larvae can cause tissue damage and provoke immune responses, leading to the clinical manifestations of disease.

It is essential to distinguish between the medical definition of 'larva' and its broader usage in biology and zoology. In those fields, 'larva' refers to any juvenile form that undergoes metamorphosis before reaching adulthood, regardless of whether it is parasitic or not.

Agenesis of the corpus callosum is a birth defect in which the corpus callosum, the part of the brain that connects the two hemispheres and allows them to communicate, fails to develop normally during fetal development. In cases of agenesis of the corpus callosum, the corpus callosum is partially or completely absent.

This condition can vary in severity and may be associated with other brain abnormalities. Some individuals with agenesis of the corpus callosum may have normal intelligence and few symptoms, while others may have intellectual disability, developmental delays, seizures, vision problems, and difficulties with movement and coordination. The exact cause of agenesis of the corpus callosum is not always known, but it can be caused by genetic factors or exposure to certain medications or environmental toxins during pregnancy.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

Endocrine glands are ductless glands in the human body that release hormones directly into the bloodstream, which then carry the hormones to various tissues and organs in the body. These glands play a crucial role in regulating many of the body's functions, including metabolism, growth and development, tissue function, sexual function, reproduction, sleep, and mood.

Examples of endocrine glands include the pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, adrenal glands, pineal gland, pancreas, ovaries, and testes. Each of these glands produces specific hormones that have unique effects on various target tissues in the body.

The endocrine system works closely with the nervous system to regulate many bodily functions through a complex network of feedback mechanisms. Disorders of the endocrine system can result in a wide range of symptoms and health problems, including diabetes, thyroid disease, growth disorders, and sexual dysfunction.

I apologize for any confusion, but "insects" are not a medical term. Insects are small air-breathing arthropods that have a segmented body with six legs and usually have wings. They make up the largest group of animals on Earth, with over a million described species.

If you're looking for information about a specific medical condition or topic, please provide more details so I can offer a relevant response.

Methoprene is an insect growth regulator (IGR) that disrupts the developmental process in insects, preventing them from reaching maturity and reproducing. It works by mimicking the natural hormones found in insects, specifically juvenile hormone, which regulates their molting and metamorphosis. By interfering with this process, methoprene causes immature insects to continue molting without ever becoming adults, or it prevents larvae from transforming into pupae or adults.

Methoprene is commonly used in pest control applications, including public health, agriculture, and household settings, to control a wide range of insect pests, such as mosquitoes, fleas, ticks, ants, cockroaches, and stored product pests. It has low toxicity to non-target organisms, including mammals, making it a relatively safe option for use in sensitive environments. However, like any pesticide, methoprene should be used responsibly and according to label instructions to minimize potential risks to human health and the environment.

"Butterflies" is not a medical term, but rather a colloquial or informal term that is often used to describe a feeling of nervousness or excitement in the stomach. It is thought to be due to the release of adrenaline and the increased heart rate and breathing that can occur when someone is anxious or excited. The sensation may be caused by the contraction of the muscles in the stomach, which can feel like fluttering or flips. This feeling is not a medical condition and does not typically require treatment, but if it is severe or persistent, it may be helpful to speak with a healthcare provider to address any underlying anxiety or stress.

Isomerization of isopentenyl pyrophosphate and homoisopentenyl pyrophosphate by Manduca sexta corpora cardiaca - corpora allata ... the removal of the corpora allata from juveniles will result in a diminutive adult at the next moult. Implantation of corpora ... When the corpora allata of the third instar insect were removed, the level of JH was equal in both insects to that in the ... When the fourth instar Rhodnius had its corpora allata removed, both contained a third instar level of JH and hence one ...
Juvenile hormone is synthesised in the corpora allata. In every insect tested, at least one of the three types of Allatostatin ... This is achieved by paracrine release of Allatostatin from neurons in the brain which terminate in the corpora allata. The ...
A larger corpora allata also influences the determination of dominance. A higher reproductive capacity is indicative of the ...
If the corpora allata are removed, the females do not produce pheromones. Juvenile hormones, however, interfere more indirectly ... These are produced in mostly paired corpora allata located behind the brain and released into the hemolymph. There they bind to ...
The corpora allata is responsible for the production of juvenile hormone (JH). In the bean bug, Riptortus pedestris, clusters ... The neuroendocrine system of insects consists primarily of neurosecretory cells in the brain, the corpora cardiaca, corpora ... on the protocerebrum called the pars lateralis maintain reproductive diapause by inhibiting JH production by the corpora allata ... allata and the prothoracic glands. There are several key hormones involved in the regulation of diapause: juvenile hormone (JH ...
In insects, Allatostatin controls growth through paracrine action on the corpora allata.[citation needed] In mature organisms, ...
doi:10.1016/0022-1910(90)90066-o. Rachinsky A (1994). "Octopamine and serotonin influence on corpora allata activity in honey ... release in the corpora allata of honey bee (Apis mellifera), but Woodring and Hoffmann found that synephrine had no effect on ...
1946 The role of the corpora allata in the development of Leucophaea maderae (Orthoptera). Endocrinology, 38:35-45. 1963 The ... 1987 Gastrin/CCK-like immunoreactivity in the corpus cardiacum-corpus allatum complex of the cockroach Leucophaea maderae. Cell ... 1970 Ultrastructural study of the sites of origin and release of a cellular product in the corpus allatum of insects. Proc. ... 1938 The structure of the ring-gland (corpus allatum) in normal and lethal larvae of Drosophila melanogaster. Proc. Natl. Acad ...
Axons from neurosecretory cells trace to corpora cardiaca and corpora allata and produce and secrete a brain hormone which ... Neurosecretory cells, found in clusters in the medial and lateral parts of the brain, control corpora allata activity by ... and they suggested the presence of multilobed corpora allata in this lepidopteran insect. Soleymani T, Chen TY, Gonzalez- ...
Oöcyte growth in the brown-banded cockroach correlated with corpora allata activity in vitro. Ovariectomies were conducted: ... calling behaviour and release is regulated directly and indirectly by the corpora allata and juvenile hormone. Smith and Schal ... both pheromone production and calling could be restored by a corpora allata implantation or treatment with juvenile hormones; ... "Corpus Allatum Control of Sex Pheromone Production and Calling in the Female Brown-banded Cockroach, Supella longipalpa (F.) ( ...
This hormone is produced by corpora allata and corpora cardiaca, where it is also stored. Some glands are specialized to ... the corpora allata also produces juvenile hormones, and the prothorocic glands produce moulting hormones. In the digestive ... perform certain task such as producing silk or producing saliva in the palpi.: 65, 75 While the corpora cardiaca produce PTTH, ...
In this species, pheromones suppress activity of the corpora allata and juvenile hormone (JH) secretion. The corpora allata is ... "A rapid partition assay for routine analysis of juvenile hormone released by insect corpora allata". Analytical Biochemistry. ...
Caracterização das mudas ontogenéticas e biometria dos corpora allata de Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides Lep. (Hymenoptera ...
75 While the corpora cardiaca produce PTTH, the corpora allata also produces juvenile hormones, and the prothorocic glands ... This hormone is produced by corpora allata and corpora cardiaca, where it is also stored. Some glands are specialized to ... These glands are part of the endocrine system: 1. Neurosecretory cells 2. Corpora cardiaca 3. Prothoracic glands 4. Corpora ... Strong neurone connections connect the neurohemal corpora cardiaca to the brain and frontal ganglion, where the closely related ...
Once insects have reached their species-specific size, the corpora allata atrophies and JH production halts due to decreased ... to active JHs in the final stages of JH biosynthesis in the corpora allata of insects. More specifically, the enzyme catalyzes ... cloning of the enzymes in the mevalonate pathway and assessment of their developmental expression in the corpora allata". ... "Molecular and functional characterization of a juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase expressed in the corpora allata of ...
They are also consistent with a model advanced by others that corpora allata maintained in vitro of day 0 M. sexta larva ... Juvenile hormone production, juvenile hormone esterase, and juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase in corpora allata of ...
When the corpora allata is removed in females, the ovaries are underdeveloped, whereas in insects with intact corpora allata, ... The corpora allata is an endocrine gland that when removed, causes pheromone synthesis and calling behavior to cease. The ... The juvenile hormone, released by the corpora allota, is necessary for females to produce and release pheromones through their ...
Among queenless B. terrestris workers, the corpora allata, which secrete JH, was noticeably enlarged compared to queenright ...
Corpora allata are small, paired glandular bodies originating from the epithelium located on either side of the foregut. They ... Corpora cardiaca are a pair of neuroglandular bodies that are found behind the brain and on either sides of the aorta. These ...
In insect physiology and anatomy, the corpus allatum (plural: corpora allata) is an endocrine gland that generates juvenile ... Similarly, transplantation of corpora allata from a young larva to a fully mature larva can greatly extend the larval stage, ... Surgical removal of the corpora allata (an allatectomy) can cause an immature larva to pupate at its next molt, resulting in a ... In many Diptera species, the corpus allatum is fused with the corpus cardiacum, forming a "ring gland", also known as ...
Further it was demonstrated that the corpora allata secrete the juvenile hormone which prevents the premature development into ...
Corpus allata activity is also affected by external factors, as it tends to be greater when mating and egg-laying are occurring ... It is possible that the production by the corpus allata may be affected by nervous stimulation or inhibition of the glands. The ... which is produced in the corpus allata. The production of this juvenile hormone fluctuates. Patterns of behavior are correlated ...
PTTH also stimulates the corpora allata, a retrocerebral organ, to produce juvenile hormone, which prevents the development of ...
... and corpora allata surgically removed. Eclosion rhythms were only abolished with the removal of the brain, indicating that the ... Truman demonstrated that eclosion rhythms persist in Hyalophora cecropia moths that have had their compound eyes, corpora ...
Further, foundresses with larger corpora allata, a region of the female wasp brain responsible for the synthesis and secretion ...
These food sources promote maturation by producing hormones from the corpora allata (CA) and medial neurosecretory cell ... aegypti, and ovary derivation from a blood-fed mosquito caused corpus cardiacum stimulating factor production, indicating that ... has been shown to cause release of corpus cardiacum (CC) stimulating factor in the ovaries, which spurs research of egg ...
... diapause in monarchs is known to result from juvenile hormone deficiency in the corpora cardiaca-corpora allata complex, but ...
... released by the corpora allata (CA), is necessary for the production and release of the sex pheromone. The CA releases JH which ...
Theodor Mommsen, CIL, Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, Inscriptiones Sardiniae, G. Reimerum, Berlin, 1883, 7th paragraph, pag. ... ALLATA ESSET SE EAM QVAE IN PROVINCIA ESSET SECVTVRVM EGO QVOQVE ADITVS A GALILLENSIBVS EXCVSANTIBVS QVOD NONDVM FORMA ALLATA ... Theodor Mommsen, CIL, Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, Inscriptiones Sardiniae, G. Reimerum, Berlin, 1883 Epistole ad Eusebio, ... Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, Inscriptiones Sardiniae, G. Reimerum, Berlin, 1883, 4th paragraph, pag.789. - Greek text: Εἰς ...
Gospels, Corpus of Christian Palestinian Aramaic, IIA (Groningen, 1998), pp. 52-55. ISBN 90-5693-018-4 Alain Desreumaux, Codex ... Constantin von Tischendorf, Anecdota sacra et Profana ex Oriente et Occidente allata: sive, Notitia codicum graecorum, ... Gospels, Corpus of Christian Palestinian Aramaic, IIA (Groningen, 1998). ISBN 90-5693-018-4 Christa Müller-Kessler and Michael ... Acts of the Apostles and Epistles, Corpus of Christian Palestinian Aramaic IIB (Groningen, 1998). ISBN 90-5693-019-2 Christa ...
Isomerization of isopentenyl pyrophosphate and homoisopentenyl pyrophosphate by Manduca sexta corpora cardiaca - corpora allata ... the removal of the corpora allata from juveniles will result in a diminutive adult at the next moult. Implantation of corpora ... When the corpora allata of the third instar insect were removed, the level of JH was equal in both insects to that in the ... When the fourth instar Rhodnius had its corpora allata removed, both contained a third instar level of JH and hence one ...
Hormonal control of the division of labor in adult honeybees (Apis mellifera L.). I. Effect of methoprene on corpora allata and ...
Corpora allata, neurosécrétion et effet de groupe chez labeille dhiver. G. Sitbon. Insectes Sociaux 18 (3) 161 (1971). https ...
Janet, 1899b: 295 (Myrmica cranial nerves, corpora allata); Pietschker, 1910 PDF: 43 (brain structure); Thompson, 1913: 515 ( ... "corpus pedunculatum"); Goll, 1967: 143 (Formica neuroanatomy); Masson, 1969: 171 (Camponotus deutocerebrum); Bressac & Rabitsch ...
Janet, 1899b: 295 (Myrmica cranial nerves, corpora allata); Pietschker, 1910 PDF: 1 (brain structure); Thompson, 1913: 515 ( ... "corpus pedunculatum"); Goll, 1967: 143 (Formica neuroanatomy); Masson, 1969: 171 (Camponotus deutocerebrum); Bressac & Rabitsch ...
... synthesized from the corpora allata (CA) glands. Whereas a JH-free period during the last juvenile instar triggers ... corpora allata (CA), ovary (Ov), fat body (FB), brain (B), accesory glands (AG), prothoracic gland (PG), and gut (G). Fold ... Chiang, A. S., Gadot, M., Burns, E. L. & Schal, C. Sexual differentiation of nymphal corpora allata and the effects of ... Juvenile hormone (JH), a sesquiterpenoid hormone produced and released by the corpora allata (CA) glands, controls critical ...
Muster aus zwei verschiedenen Kutikulen liegt ein Empfindlichkeitsmuster der Epidermis für das Jugendhormon der Corpora allata ...
Changes in the sensitivity of adult cockroach corpora allata to a brain allatostatin. Pratt, G.E., Farnsworth, D.E., Feyereisen ... There are major changes in the sensitivity of corpora allata from the cockroach Diploptera punctata toward the allatostatic ... from the corpora allata (CA) [7].. *In insects, on the other hand, because the CA of adults of both sexes are active, it ... Hmgcr in the Corpus Allatum Controls Sexual Dimorphism of Locomotor Activity and Body Size via the Insulin Pathway in ...
Juvenile Hormone Biosynthesis Gene Expression in the corpora allata of Honey Bee (Apis mellifera L.) Female Castes. PLoS One, v ...
Breed, M. D. (1983). Correlations between aggressiveness and corpora allata volume, social isolation, age and dietary protein ... In these operations, the corpus callosum is cut. The corpus callosum is a large strand of about 200,000,000 neurons running ... What if we only destroyed 1%, 50% or 99% of their corpus callosum? Would that mean increasing degrees of moral weight from ~1x ... I take it to be an empirical question how much of the corpus callosum needs to be severed to generate such a split. Exploring ...
Glutamatergic neurons, Glial cells, Cholinergic neurons, Neural progenitor cells, Undifferentiated neurons 2, Corpora allata/ ... Corpora allata/Ring gland/Gut, Neurons X, Prothoracic gland, Hemocytes, Muscle cells, C32, Optic lobe epithelium, GABAergic ... Corpora allata, Ring gland, Gut, Neural progenitor cells 2, Glia cells 3, Cholinergic neurons 1 -. ... 8) 4, Terminal Corpus Luteum Cells 2, Dorsal Appendage Forming Follicle Cells, Somatic Cells in the Germarium, Choriogenic ...
Corpora Allata Descriptor French: Corpora allata Entry term(s):. Allata, Corpora. Allatum, Corpus. Corpus Allatum. Corpus ... Corpora Allata - Preferred Concept UI. M0005203. Scope note. Paired or fused ganglion-like bodies in the head of insects. The ... 1977; for CORPUS CARDIACUM see NEUROSECRETORY SYSTEMS 1980-2014. History Note:. 1977; for CORPUS CARDIACUM use NEUROSECRETORY ... corpus allatum cuerpo alado cuerpo cardíaco Scope note:. Cuerpos pares o fusionados de tipo ganglionar presentes en la cabeza ...
author keywords: cockroach; corpora allata; juvenile hormone; JH analog; food intake; ovary; Blattella germanica ...
CORPORA-ALLATA * Corpora allata * Entomology * FARNESOIC ACID * FEMALE AEDES-AEGYPTI * ISOPRENOID BIOSYNTHESIS ...
corpora allata 12% * vitellogenesis 11% * phase transition 11% * fat body 10% * hemolymph 9% ...
1. Corpora allata. 2. Corpora cardiac. 3. Corpus stratum. 4. Corpus callosum ...
Corpora Allata (0) * Crop, Avian (0) * Egg Shell (0) * Electric Organ (0) ...
Corpora Allata/efeitos dos fármacos , Corpora Allata/metabolismo , Corpora Allata/fisiologia , Corte , Drosophila/efeitos dos ... Bombyx/genética , Corpora Allata/fisiologia , Animais , Bombyx/metabolismo , Corpora Allata/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , ... pars intercerebralis to corpora allata projecting (PI-CA) neurons and corpora allata (CA), the latter being solely responsible ... Corpora Allata/efeitos dos fármacos , Corpora Allata/metabolismo , Feminino , Inseticidas/síntese química , Inseticidas/ ...
Corpora Allata Medicine & Life Sciences 92% * Grasshoppers Medicine & Life Sciences 77% * corpora cardiaca Agriculture & ... Adipokinetic hormone content of the corpora cardiaca in gregarious and solitary migratory locusts. / Ayali, A.; Pener, M. P.; ... Ayali, A., Pener, M. P., Sowa, S. M., & Keeley, L. L. (1996). Adipokinetic hormone content of the corpora cardiaca in ... From the age of 12-19 days to that of 25-30 days, AKH content increased significantly in the corpora cardiaca of crowded ...
Two types of artificial trimolters named A and B were induced by excising the corpora allata from the normal tetramolter of ... N2 - Two types of artificial trimolters named A and B were induced by excising the corpora allata from the normal tetramolter ... AB - Two types of artificial trimolters named A and B were induced by excising the corpora allata from the normal tetramolter ... abstract = "Two types of artificial trimolters named A and B were induced by excising the corpora allata from the normal ...
Identification of the corpora allata-projecting neurons in adult Drosophila melanogaster. 水野 陽介; 井村 英輔; 黒木 祥友; 島田 裕子; 近藤 周; 谷本 ... A population of neurons that produce hugin and express the diuretic hormone 44 receptor gene projects to the corpora allata in ... Identification of the corpora allata-projecting neurons in adult Drosophila melanogaster. Mizuno Yosuke; Imura Eisuke; Kurogi ...
Ecdysone agonist halofenozide affects corpora allata and reproductive physiology of the Formosan subterranean termite,� ... Phe-Gly-Leu-amide allatostatin in the termite Reticulitermes flavipes: Content in brain and corpus allatum and effect on ...
Expanding and moulting larvae are usually normally hypermetabolic because of the endogenous release of JH in the corpora allata ...
JH is synthesized in the corpora allata in insects, while its crustacean active analogous compound (the JH precursor, methyl ...
Growth and moulting up to the end of the larval period are controlled by the juvenile hormone of corpora allata. ... it occurs only after the juvenile hormone of corpora allata is not being produced. ...
Ligated larval abdomens were used to remove the influence of the brain, corpora cardiaca, corpora allata and prothoracic glands ... Modulatory effects of biogenic amines on adipokinetic hor-mone secretion from locust corpora cardiaca in vitro. Gen. Comp. ... Development changes in the response of the fat body of Manduca sexta to injections to injections of corpora cardiaca extracts. ... The sequence of Acheta adipokinetic hormone and the variation in corpus cardiacum con-tent and hyperlipaemic response with age ...
Allatotropin- and allatostatin-immunoreactive cell bodies in the brain projected their axons into corpora allata without ... Allatotropin- and allatostatin-immunoreactive cell bodies in the brain projected their axons into corpora allata without ... Allatotropin- and allatostatin-immunoreactive cell bodies in the brain projected their axons into corpora allata without ... Allatotropin- and allatostatin-immunoreactive cell bodies in the brain projected their axons into corpora allata without ...
EFFECTS OF JINLU, AN ANTI-JUVENILE HORMONE ON THE GROWTH, ULTRA-STRUCTURE OF THE CORPORA ALLATA AND PROTHORACIC GLAND OF ...
Strangely, workers with their corpora allata removed, thus lacking the ability to synthesize any juvenile hormone at all, still ...

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