Coroners and Medical Examiners
Cause of Death
Wounds and Injuries
Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
Off-Road Motor Vehicles
Substance Abuse Detection
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Autopsies and death certification in deaths due to blunt trauma: what are we missing? (1/99)OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency, body region and severity of injuries missed by the clinical team in patients who die of blunt trauma, and to examine the accuracy of the cause of death as recorded on death certificates. DESIGN: A retrospective review. SETTING: London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ont. PATIENTS: One hundred and eight deaths due to blunt trauma occurring during the period Apr. 1, 1991, to Mar. 31, 1997. Two groups were considered: clinically significant missed injuries were identified by comparing patient charts only (group 1) and more detailed injury lists from the autopsies and charts of the patients (group 2). OUTCOME MEASURES: Chart and autopsy findings. RESULTS: Of the 108 patients, 78 (72%) were male, and they had a median age of 39 years (range from 2 to 90 years). The most common cause of death was neurologic injury (27%), followed by sepsis (17%) and hemorrhage (15%). There was disagreement between the treating physicians and the causes of death listed on the death certificate in 40% of cases and with the coroner in 7% of cases. Seventy-seven clinically significant injuries were missed in 51 (47%) of the 108 patient deaths. Injuries were missed in 29% of inhospital deaths and 100% of emergency department deaths. Abdominal and head injuries accounted for 43% and 34% of the missed injuries, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The information contained on the death certificate can be misleading. Health care planners utilizing this data may draw inaccurate conclusions regarding causes of death, which may have an impact on trauma system development. Missed injuries continue to be a concern in the management of patients with major blunt trauma. (+info)
What is a natural cause of death? A survey of how coroners in England and Wales approach borderline cases. (2/99)AIM: Many deaths fall in the "grey" area between those that are clearly natural and those that are unnatural. There are no guidelines to help doctors in dealing with such cases and death certification is often arbitrary and inconsistent. In an attempt to initiate debate on these difficult areas, and with the ultimate aim of achieving national consensus, the views of coroners in England and Wales were sought. METHODS: Sixteen clinical scenarios, with causes of death, were circulated to all coroners in England and Wales. For each case they were asked to provide a verdict, with explanation. The deaths fell into three groups: (1) postoperative, (2) a combination of trauma and natural disease, and (3) infectious disease. RESULTS: Sixty four questionnaires were returned. There was near consensus (> 80% concordance) in only two of the 16 cases. In five, there was no significant agreement between coroners in the verdicts returned ("natural causes" versus "misadventure/accidental"). These included all three cases in which death resulted from a combination of trauma and natural disease (a fall after a grand mal fit; falls resulting in fractures of bones affected by metastatic carcinoma and osteoporosis), bronchopneumonia after hip replacement for osteoarthritis, and new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. The comments made for each case indicate that the variation between coroners in whether or not to hold an inquest, and the verdict arrived at, reflect the lack of a definition for natural causes, together with differences in the personal attitudes of each coroner. CONCLUSIONS: There is considerable variation in the way in which coroners approach these borderline cases, many of which are common in clinical practice. This study indicates a need for discussion, working towards a national consensus on such issues. It highlights the importance of good communication between coroners and medical staff at a local level. (+info)
Are coroners' necropsies necessary? A prospective study examining whether a "view and grant" system of death certification could be introduced into England and Wales. (3/99)AIMS: To determine whether the cause of death could be accurately predicted without the need for a necropsy, and thus to consider whether a "view and grant" system of issuing a cause of death could be introduced into England and Wales. METHOD: A one year prospective necropsy study was performed incorporating 568 deaths. Before necropsy, in each case the cause of death was predicted from the available history without examination of the body, and this cause was then compared with the cause of death found at necropsy. RESULTS: The ability of the pathologist involved in the study to predict a cause of death before necropsy, either while in the mortuary or as a paper exercise, was shown to vary between 61% and 74% of cases. After the necropsy, the number of correct predicted causes of death ranged from 39% to 46%. Ischaemic heart disease was found to be the most common and most accurately predicted cause of death. Some natural diseases were frequently misdiagnosed, whereas certain types of unnatural disease were always identified correctly. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the advantages and disadvantages of a view and grant system. Although it identifies a potential use of such a system, in some cases such as natural cardiac disease, because of the potentially high diagnostic error rate, the continuation of the present system of postmortem examination as part of the coroner's enquiry is recommended. (+info)
Improving the National Board of Medical Examiners internal Medicine Subject Exam for use in clerkship evaluation. (4/99)OBJECTIVE: To provide a consensus opinion on modifying the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) Medicine Subject Exam (Shelf) to: 1) reflect the internal medicine clerkship curriculum, developed by the Society of General Internal Medicine (SGIM) and the Clerkship Directors in Internal Medicine (CDIM); 2) emphasize knowledge important for a clerkship student; and 3) obtain feedback about students' performances on the Shelf. DESIGN: Two-round Delphi technique. PARTICIPANTS: The CDIM Research and Evaluation Committee and CDIM members on NBME Step 2 Committees. MEASUREMENTS: Using 1-5 Likert scales (5 = highest ratings), the group rated test question content for relevance to the SGIM-CDIM Curriculum Guide and importance for clerkship students' knowledge. The Shelf content is organized into 4 physician tasks and into 11 sections that are generally organ system based. Each iteration of the Shelf has 100 questions. Participants indicated a desired distribution of questions by physician task and section, topics critical for inclusion on each exam, and new topics to include. They specified the types of feedback clerkship directors desired on students' performances. Following the first round, participants viewed pooled results prior to submitting their second-round responses. RESULTS: Of 15 individuals contacted, 12 (80%) participated in each round. The desired distribution by physician task was: diagnosis (43), treatment (23), mechanism of disease (20), and health maintenance (15). The sections with the most questions requested were the cardiovascular (17), respiratory (15), and gastroenterology (12) sections. The fewest were requested in aging/ethics (4) and neurology, dermatology, and immunology (5 each). Examples of low-rated content were Wilson's Disease, chancroid and tracheal rupture (all <2.0). Health maintenance in type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease all received 5.0 ratings. Participants desired feedback by: section (4.6) and physician task (3.9), on performances of the entire class (4.0), and for individual students (3.8). CONCLUSION: Clerkship directors identified test content that was relevant to the curricular content and important for clerkship students to know, and they indicated a desired question distribution. They would most like feedback on their students' performance by organ system-based sections for the complete academic year. This collaborative effort could serve as a model for aligning national exams with course goals. (+info)
Surveillance for anthrax cases associated with contaminated letters, New Jersey, Delaware, and Pennsylvania, 2001. (5/99)In October 2001, two inhalational anthrax and four cutaneous anthrax cases, resulting from the processing of Bacillus anthracis-containing envelopes at a New Jersey mail facility, were identified. Subsequently, we initiated stimulated passive hospital-based and enhanced passive surveillance for anthrax-compatible syndromes. From October 24 to December 17, 2001, hospitals reported 240,160 visits and 7,109 intensive-care unit admissions in the surveillance area (population 6.7 million persons). Following a change of reporting criteria on November 8, the average of possible inhalational anthrax reports decreased 83% from 18 to 3 per day; the proportion of reports requiring follow-up increased from 37% (105/286) to 41% (47/116). Clinical follow-up was conducted on 214 of 464 possible inhalational anthrax patients and 98 possible cutaneous anthrax patients; 49 had additional laboratory testing. No additional cases were identified. To verify the limited scope of the outbreak, surveillance was essential, though labor-intensive. The flexibility of the system allowed interim evaluation, thus improving surveillance efficiency. (+info)
Bioterrorism-related anthrax surveillance, Connecticut, September-December, 2001. (6/99)On November 19, 2001, a case of inhalational anthrax was identified in a 94-year-old Connecticut woman, who later died. We conducted intensive surveillance for additional anthrax cases, which included collecting data from hospitals, emergency departments, private practitioners, death certificates, postal facilities, veterinarians, and the state medical examiner. No additional cases of anthrax were identified. The absence of additional anthrax cases argued against an intentional environmental release of Bacillus anthracis in Connecticut and suggested that, if the source of anthrax had been cross-contaminated mail, the risk for anthrax in this setting was very low. This surveillance system provides a model that can be adapted for use in similar emergency settings. (+info)
Coverage of work related fatalities in Australia by compensation and occupational health and safety agencies. (7/99)AIMS: To determine the levels of coverage of work related traumatic deaths by official occupational health and safety (OHS) and compensation agencies in Australia, to allow better understanding and interpretation of officially available statistics. METHODS: The analysis was part of a much larger study of all work related fatalities that occurred in Australia during the four year period 1989 to 1992 inclusive and which was based on information from coroners' files. For the current study, State, Territory, and Commonwealth OHS and compensation agencies were asked to supply unit record information for all deaths identified by the jurisdictions as being due to non-suicide traumatic causes and which were identified by them as being work related, using whatever definitions the agencies were using at the relevant time. This information was matched to cases identified during the main study. RESULTS: The percentage of working deaths not covered by any agency was 34%. Only 35% of working deaths were covered by an OHS agency, while 57% were covered by a compensation agency. The OHS agencies had minimal coverage of work related deaths that occurred on the road (to workers (8%) or commuters (3%)), whereas the compensation system covered these deaths better than those of workers in incidents that occurred in a workplace (65% versus 53%). There was virtually no coverage of bystanders (less than 8%) by either type of agency. There was marked variation in the level of coverage depending on the industry, occupation, and employment status of the workers, and the type of injury event involved in the incident. CONCLUSIONS: When using data from official sources, the significant limitations in coverage identified in this paper need to be taken into account. Future surveillance, arising from a computerised National Coroners Information System, should result in improved coverage of work related traumatic deaths in Australia. (+info)
Necropsy practice after the "organ retention scandal": requests, performance, and tissue retention. (8/99)AIMS: After the so called "organ retention scandal" in the UK this study set out to assess the impact on death certification and hospital (consent) necropsies, including the postmortem retention of tissues and organs. METHODS: Data were prospectively gathered over a one year period for all deaths occurring at the Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield, UK to determine the frequencies with which death certificates were completed and necropsies were requested. The seniority of the clinician undertaking these duties was recorded. Pathologists were asked to record the extent of every necropsy during the study period. The type and planned uses of tissues retained were recorded. RESULTS: Death certificates were issued for 88.5% of the 966 deaths for which clinicians completed proformas. Of these, 88.9% were issued by preregistration and senior house officers. Consent was sought for a necropsy in 6.2% of cases (usually by non-consultant staff) and was granted in 43.4% of these. The overall, medicolegal, and hospital necropsy rates were 13.4%, 9.9%, and 3.5%, respectively. Tissues were retained from 55.4% of necropsies for diagnostic purposes, although sampling does not appear to be systematic. CONCLUSIONS: Death certification and seeking consent for a necropsy are frequently delegated to junior clinical staff. This may explain the low standard of death certification reported by others and the low necropsy rate. The decline in the necropsy rate and the low rate of sampling for histological examination highlight the decline of the hospital necropsy and the lack of a systematic approach to tissue sampling. (+info)
There are several types of drug overdoses, including:
1. Opioid overdose: This is the most common type of drug overdose and is caused by taking too much of an opioid medication or street drug like heroin.
2. Stimulant overdose: This occurs when someone takes too much of a stimulant drug like cocaine or amphetamines.
3. Depressant overdose: This is caused by taking too much of a depressant drug like alcohol, benzodiazepines, or barbiturates.
4. Hallucinogenic overdose: This happens when someone takes too much of a hallucinogenic drug like LSD or psilocybin mushrooms.
The symptoms of a drug overdose can vary depending on the type of drug taken, but common signs include:
1. Confusion and disorientation
2. Slurred speech and difficulty speaking
3. Dizziness and loss of balance
4. Nausea and vomiting
5. Slow or irregular breathing
6. Seizures or convulsions
7. Cold, clammy skin
8. Blue lips and fingernails
9. Coma or unresponsiveness
If you suspect someone has overdosed on drugs, it is essential to seek medical attention immediately. Call emergency services or bring the person to the nearest hospital.
Treatment for drug overdoses usually involves supportive care, such as oxygen therapy, fluids, and medication to manage symptoms. In severe cases, a patient may need to be placed on life support or receive other intensive treatments.
Preventing drug overdoses is crucial, and this can be achieved by avoiding the use of drugs altogether, using drugs only as directed by a medical professional, and having access to naloxone, a medication that can reverse the effects of an opioid overdose.
In conclusion, drug overdoses are a significant public health issue that can have severe consequences, including death. It is important to be aware of the signs and symptoms of drug overdoses and seek medical attention immediately if you suspect someone has overdosed. Additionally, prevention measures such as avoiding drug use and having access to naloxone can help reduce the risk of overdose.
There are different types of drowning, including:
1. Fatal drowning: This type of drowning occurs when a person dies as a result of being submerged in water or another liquid.
2. Non-fatal drowning: This type of drowning occurs when a person survives but experiences severe respiratory and cardiac problems as a result of the submersion.
3. Dry drowning: This type of drowning occurs when a person experiences respiratory symptoms, such as coughing and difficulty breathing, after being submerged in water or another liquid.
4. Wet drowning: This type of drowning occurs when a person experiences respiratory symptoms while still in the water or liquid.
Symptoms of drowning can include:
1. Difficulty breathing
3. Chest pain
5. Loss of consciousness
6. Pale or blue-tinged skin
7. Liquid in the lungs
Drowning can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
1. Accidental submersion in water or another liquid
2. Intentional submersion, such as suicide
3. Near-drowning, which occurs when a person experiences respiratory distress after being submerged in water or another liquid
4. Secondary drowning, which occurs when water or another liquid enters the lungs and causes an infection or inflammation.
Treatment for drowning depends on the severity of the condition and can include:
1. Resuscitation techniques, such as CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) and first aid
2. Oxygen therapy
3. Mechanical ventilation
4. Antibiotics to treat any infections or inflammation in the lungs
5. Supportive care, such as fluid replacement and pain management.
Prevention is always better than cure, so it is important to take precautions when engaging in water activities, especially for children and inexperienced swimmers. Some ways to prevent drowning include:
1. Swimming lessons
2. Supervision of children and inexperienced swimmers
3. Use of life jackets or other flotation devices
4. Safe storage of pools and spas
5. Avoidance of alcohol and drugs while swimming
6. Knowledge of water conditions and depth before entering the water.
In conclusion, drowning is a serious and potentially fatal condition that can be caused by a variety of factors. It is important to be aware of the signs and symptoms of drowning and to take preventive measures to reduce the risk of this condition. If you suspect someone has drowned, it is essential to seek medical attention immediately.
Sudden death is death that occurs unexpectedly and without warning, often due to a cardiac arrest or other underlying medical condition.
In the medical field, sudden death is defined as death that occurs within one hour of the onset of symptoms, with no prior knowledge of any serious medical condition. It is often caused by a cardiac arrhythmia, such as ventricular fibrillation or tachycardia, which can lead to cardiac arrest and sudden death if not treated promptly.
Other possible causes of sudden death include:
1. Heart disease: Coronary artery disease, heart failure, and other heart conditions can increase the risk of sudden death.
2. Stroke: A stroke can cause sudden death by disrupting blood flow to the brain or other vital organs.
3. Pulmonary embolism: A blood clot in the lungs can block blood flow and cause sudden death.
4. Trauma: Sudden death can occur as a result of injuries sustained in an accident or other traumatic event.
5. Drug overdose: Taking too much of certain medications or drugs can cause sudden death due to cardiac arrest or respiratory failure.
6. Infections: Sepsis, meningitis, and other severe infections can lead to sudden death if left untreated.
7. Genetic conditions: Certain inherited disorders, such as Long QT syndrome, can increase the risk of sudden death due to cardiac arrhythmias.
The diagnosis of sudden death often requires an autopsy and a thorough investigation into the individual's medical history and circumstances surrounding their death. Treatment and prevention strategies may include defibrillation, CPR, medications to regulate heart rhythm, and lifestyle modifications to reduce risk factors such as obesity, smoking, and high blood pressure.
There are several types of poisoning, including:
1. Acute poisoning: This occurs when a person is exposed to a large amount of a poisonous substance over a short period of time. Symptoms can include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and difficulty breathing.
2. Chronic poisoning: This occurs when a person is exposed to a small amount of a poisonous substance over a longer period of time. Symptoms can include fatigue, weight loss, and damage to organs such as the liver or kidneys.
3. Occupational poisoning: This occurs when a worker is exposed to a poisonous substance in the course of their work. Examples include exposure to pesticides, lead, and mercury.
4. Environmental poisoning: This occurs when a person is exposed to a poisonous substance in their environment, such as through contaminated water or soil.
5. Food poisoning: This occurs when a person eats food that has been contaminated with a poisonous substance, such as bacteria or viruses. Symptoms can include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and stomach cramps.
Treatment for poisoning depends on the type of poison and the severity of the exposure. Some common treatments include activated charcoal to absorb the poison, medications to counteract the effects of the poison, and supportive care such as fluids and oxygen. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.
Prevention is key in avoiding poisoning. This includes proper storage and disposal of household chemicals, using protective gear when working with hazardous substances, and avoiding exposure to known poisons such as certain plants and animals. Education and awareness are also important in preventing poisoning, such as understanding the symptoms of poisoning and seeking medical attention immediately if suspected.
Acute wounds and injuries are those that occur suddenly and heal within a relatively short period of time, usually within a few days or weeks. Examples of acute wounds include cuts, scrapes, and burns. Chronic wounds and injuries, on the other hand, are those that persist over a longer period of time and may not heal properly, leading to long-term complications. Examples of chronic wounds include diabetic foot ulcers, pressure ulcers, and chronic back pain.
Wounds and injuries can be caused by a variety of factors, including accidents, sports injuries, violence, and medical conditions such as diabetes or circulatory problems. Treatment for wounds and injuries depends on the severity of the injury and may include cleaning and dressing the wound, applying antibiotics, immobilizing broken bones, and providing pain management. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair damaged tissues or restore function.
Preventive measures for wounds and injuries include wearing appropriate protective gear during activities such as sports or work, following safety protocols to avoid accidents, maintaining proper hygiene and nutrition to prevent infection, and seeking medical attention promptly if an injury occurs.
Overall, wounds and injuries can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, and it is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms persist or worsen over time. Proper treatment and management of wounds and injuries can help to promote healing, reduce the risk of complications, and improve long-term outcomes.
The severity of a gunshot wound is determined by the location, size, and depth of the wound, as well as the type and caliber of the weapon used. Treatment for gunshot wounds usually involves immediate medical attention, including surgery to repair damaged tissues and organs, and antibiotics to prevent infection. In some cases, these wounds may require lengthy hospital stays and rehabilitation to recover fully.
Gunshot wounds can be classified into several types, including:
1. Entry wound: The point of entry where the bullet enters the body.
2. Exit wound: The point where the bullet exits the body.
3. Penetrating wound: A wound that penetrates through the skin and underlying tissues, causing damage to organs and other structures.
4. Perforating wound: A wound that creates a hole in the body but does not penetrate as deeply as a penetrating wound.
5. Grazing wound: A superficial wound that only scratches the surface of the skin, without penetrating to deeper tissues.
6. Fracture wound: A wound that causes a fracture or break in a bone.
7. Soft tissue injury: A wound that affects the soft tissues of the body, such as muscles, tendons, and ligaments.
8. Nerve damage: A wound that damages nerves, causing numbness, weakness, or paralysis.
9. Infection: A wound that becomes infected, leading to symptoms such as redness, swelling, and pain.
10. Sepsis: A severe infection that can spread throughout the body, leading to organ failure and death if left untreated.
Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Symptoms
The symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning can vary depending on the level and duration of exposure, but they typically include:
* Dizziness or nausea
* Slurred speech
* Loss of consciousness
In severe cases, carbon monoxide poisoning can cause brain damage, coma, and even death.
Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Causes
Carbon monoxide is a byproduct of incomplete combustion of fuels such as gasoline, natural gas, or wood. Sources of carbon monoxide poisoning include:
* Faulty heating systems or water heaters
* Poorly vented appliances like stoves and fireplaces
* Clogged chimneys or vents
* Running cars in enclosed spaces like garages
* Overcrowding with too many people in a small, poorly ventilated space
Diagnosis of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
Doctors may suspect carbon monoxide poisoning based on symptoms and medical history. Blood tests can measure the level of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) in red blood cells, which indicates CO exposure. Chest X-rays or CT scans may also be used to check for signs of lung damage.
Treatment of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
The treatment of carbon monoxide poisoning involves moving the patient to a location with fresh air and administering oxygen therapy to help remove CO from the bloodstream. In severe cases, medication may be given to help stimulate breathing and improve oxygenation of tissues. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy may also be used in some cases.
Prevention of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
Prevention is key when it comes to carbon monoxide poisoning. Some steps you can take to prevent CO poisoning include:
* Installing a carbon monoxide detector in your home
* Regularly inspecting and maintaining appliances like furnaces, water heaters, and chimneys
* Properly venting appliances and ensuring they are installed in well-ventilated areas
* Not running cars or generators in enclosed spaces
* Avoiding overcrowding and ensuring there is adequate ventilation in living spaces
Carbon monoxide poisoning is a serious condition that can be fatal if not treated promptly. It's important to be aware of the sources of CO exposure and take steps to prevent it, such as installing carbon monoxide detectors and regularly maintaining appliances. If you suspect CO poisoning, seek medical attention immediately.
Early Postmortem Changes:
1. Cessation of metabolic processes: After death, the body's metabolic processes come to a standstill, leading to a decrease in body temperature, cellular respiration, and other physiological functions.
2. Decline in blood pressure: The heart stops pumping blood, causing a rapid decline in blood pressure.
3. Cardiac arrest: The heart stops beating, leading to a lack of oxygen supply to the body's tissues.
4. Brain death: The brain ceases to function, causing a loss of consciousness and reflexes.
5. Rigor mortis: The muscles become stiff and rigid due to the buildup of lactic acid and other metabolic byproducts.
6. Livor mortis: Blood settles in the dependent parts of the body, causing discoloration and swelling.
7. Algor mortis: The body's temperature cools, causing the skin to feel cool to the touch.
Late Postmortem Changes:
1. Decomposition: Bacteria and other microorganisms begin to break down the body's tissues, leading to putrefaction and decay.
2. Autolysis: Enzymes within the body's cells break down cellular components, causing self-digestion and softening of the tissues.
3. Lipid decomposition: Fats and oils in the body undergo oxidation, leading to the formation of offensive odors.
4. Coagulative necrosis: Blood pools in the body's tissues, causing damage to the cells and tissues.
5. Putrefaction: Bacteria in the gut and other parts of the body cause the breakdown of tissues, leading to the formation of gases and fluids.
It is important to note that postmortem changes can significantly impact the interpretation of autopsy findings and the determination of cause of death. Therefore, it is essential to consider these changes when performing an autopsy and interpreting the results.
There are several types of asphyxia, including:
1. Respiratory asphyxia: This occurs when the individual's respiratory system is unable to provide enough oxygen to the body due to obstruction or paralysis of the respiratory muscles.
2. Cardiac asphyxia: This occurs when the heart is unable to pump enough blood to the body, leading to a lack of oxygen and nutrients.
3. Cerebral asphyxia: This occurs when the brain does not receive enough oxygen, leading to impaired consciousness, confusion, seizures, and even death.
4. Hypoxic-ischemic asphyxia: This occurs when there is a lack of oxygen and blood flow to the body's tissues, leading to tissue damage and cell death.
Asphyxia can cause a range of symptoms depending on its severity and duration, including:
1. Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath
2. Confusion, disorientation, or loss of consciousness
3. Slurred speech or inability to speak
4. Seizures or convulsions
5. Pale or blue-tinged skin
6. Low blood pressure
7. Slow heart rate
8. Decreased level of consciousness
Treatment for asphyxia depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. In mild cases, treatment may involve providing oxygen therapy, administering medications to stimulate breathing, or performing other respiratory support measures. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary, and treatment may involve mechanical ventilation or other life-saving interventions.
Prevention of asphyxia is essential, and it can be achieved by avoiding situations that can lead to respiratory distress, such as smoking, alcohol consumption, and exposure to toxic substances. It is also important to ensure proper ventilation in enclosed spaces and to use appropriate safety equipment when working with hazardous materials or in confined areas.
In conclusion, asphyxia is a serious condition that can lead to tissue damage and cell death due to a lack of oxygen and blood flow. Prompt recognition and treatment are essential to prevent long-term brain damage and death. Prevention measures include avoiding situations that can lead to respiratory distress and ensuring proper ventilation in enclosed spaces.
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- The DEA report noted that the "true number is most likely higher because "many coroners' offices and state crime laboratories do not test for fentanyl or its analogs unless given a specific reason to do so. (cdc.gov)
- Public health relies on medical examiners and coroners for quality data about deaths they investigate including those that are sudden, unexpected, or unexplained. (cdc.gov)
- still, at least half of the deaths coming to the attention of the medical examiner will be due to natural causes. (medscape.com)
- Public enlightenment and health education about routine medical screening will help to reduce causes of natural deaths. (who.int)
- 4] Although sudden or violent deaths, death of prisoners or persons in as far back as 44 BC, it is on record that Julius Caesar confinement, cases of homicides, suicides, death of persons was the subject of an official autopsy after his murder undergoing medical or surgical procedures, and accident by rival senators, the first law guiding medicolegal death victims. (who.int)
- The coroner in the San Francisco city morgue laboratory discusses the rise in deaths among the San Francisco homeless. (magnumphotos.com)
- Medical examiners/coroners and toxicologists must work together to evaluate all circumstances as they relate to a case in order to accurately certify drug toxicity deaths. (cdc.gov)
- An autopsy by the state medical examiner's office concludes that Simmons died from accidental drowning 'with heart disease as a contributing factor. (freerepublic.com)
- The bodies will be sent to the state medical examiner for autopsy. (wreg.com)
- An autopsy is pending with the Hidalgo County Medical Examiner and Coroner. (valleycentral.com)
- An autopsy conducted by Sheridan County coroner Dave Fulkerson was inconclusive as to the cause of death. (mtstandard.com)
- The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is jointly accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME), the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE), and the American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC), to provide continuing education for the healthcare team. (cdc.gov)
- The victims have been sent to the state Medical Examiner's Office in Frankfort for autopsies. (wkyt.com)
- Personnel employed in medical examiner and coroner offices are involved in the identification of the deceased, the determination of causes of death, and the communication of this information to relevant parties, including the families of the victims, public health authorities and the criminal justice system. (cdc.gov)
- The aim of this study was to identify predictors of mental and physical health symptoms among employees of medical examiner and coroner offices. (cdc.gov)
- death certificates), medical examiner and coroner offices, and police agencies. (wisconsin.gov)
- Michael Cormier - respected forensic technician for the Los Angeles County Coroner died under suspicious circumstances at his North Hollywood home April 20, the same day Andrew Breitbart s cause of death was finally made public. (freerepublic.com)
- III Institute of Legal Medical of Goiânia, Forensic Police of Goiás - Goiânia - GO - Brazil. (bvsalud.org)
- Scene investigation protocols also differ by jurisdiction, and practices for investigating SUIDs vary among medical examiners, coroners, and others who research SUIDs (2). (cdc.gov)
- Supplemental information is obtained from coroners, medical examiners, and law enforcement agencies who agreed to share their investigation reports, autopsies, and toxicology reports for each decedent. (wa.gov)
- The scene investigation of any drug-related death requires a complete investigation of the circumstances of death, the death scene, and past medical history. (cdc.gov)
- METHODS: From Nov 7, 2021, to Feb 24, 2022, we conducted a public health investigation involving 15 agencies and medical centres in the USA. (cdc.gov)
- This Health Alert Network (HAN) Update is to alert public health departments, health care professionals, first responders, and medical examiners and coroners to important new developments in the evolving opioid overdose epidemic, which increasingly involves illicitly manufactured fentanyl and an array of potent fentanyl analogs (i.e., compounds that are chemically related to fentanyl). (cdc.gov)
- A total of 5035 autopsies were done during the period, 89% of which were coroner cases. (who.int)
- Results indicated variations among job titles in the intensity of mental and physical health symptoms, with investigators, clerical and administrative staff, and coroners reporting the highest levels of symptoms. (cdc.gov)
- Medicolegal death investigations conducted by medical examiners and coroners are crucial to understanding causes of death, monitoring evolving health challenges, and - ultimately - saving lives. (cdc.gov)
- To doctors, nurses, technicians, medical students, residents, pharmacy students, or other healthcare personnel who are involved in taking care of you at Visiting Nurse Health System. (vnhs.org)
- Medical examiners and coroners have increased specific-drug reporting on death certificates up to 94% as of 2019, helping to recognize changes in the pattern of the opioid epidemic. (cdc.gov)
- The Berks County Medical Examiner and Coroner on Saturday night also confirmed three fatalities. (denverpost.com)
- The county coroner said the motive is unknown. (wreg.com)
- WA-VDRS developed partnerships with many county sheriffs, coroners, and medical examiners as well as with numerous city police departments and the Washington State Patrol. (wa.gov)
- We want to include every county coroner and medical examiner as well as every law enforcement agency. (wa.gov)
- Medical examiners and coroners have made a significant contribution to our nation's ability to meet death reporting goals, especially for major public health crises like drug overdose and suicide. (cdc.gov)
- California law allows the state to override religious objection if the coroner "has a reasonable suspicion that the death was caused by the criminal act of another or by a contagious disease constituting a public health hazard. (lacounty.gov)
- The WHO Director-General addressed the Conference noting its importance and that "this is an historical occasion and an historical opportunity to give the medical, epidemiological, and public health communities a cutting-edge statistical tool. (who.int)
- In for entering the sequence of diseases leading to death every European country, the medical certification and the other for mentioning other contributing of death is a statutory requirement. (who.int)
- Four thousand, four hundred and eightyone coroner cases representing 12.5% of all bodies received by the mortuary during the period were studied. (who.int)
- Although the mental health needs of other types of emergency workers (i.e., fire, police, emergency medical services) have been well identified and acknowledged in the literature and in planning efforts, the mental health needs of medical examiner and coroner personnel have not received the same attention. (cdc.gov)
- The value set contains the list of values used to support reporting death information from a medical certifier to an Electronic Death Information System. (cdc.gov)
- the biases objective of the medical death certificate is to al ow the certifier to enter clearly and thoroughly the causes the overall implementation of the WHo of depaathrt. (who.int)
- A medical doctor who specializes in the sub-specialty of pathology that focuses on determining the cause of death by examining a corpse. (lacounty.gov)
- He's awaiting Deras' earlier medical records to allow the state medical examiner to determine what may have happened. (mtstandard.com)
- A person whose poison control center report indicates an exposure to carbon monoxide (Call type= exposure, Substance = carbon monoxide) with minor, moderate, or major health effects (Medical outcome = minor, moderate, major, death). (cdc.gov)
- To modernize the nation's death data and systems and promote quality and timely data, we engage with medical examiners and coroners by offering support and resources. (cdc.gov)
- Data was collected from a convenience sample composed of employees of eight medical examiner sites nationwide, attendees of a coroners' conference, and through the web. (cdc.gov)
- S7) Poison Control Center (PCC) Data: A record of a case with "exposure" recorded as the type of call, when the exposure substance was carbon monoxide, AND a minor medical outcome was reported. (cdc.gov)
- It is usually performed by a specialized medical doctor called a pathologist. (lacounty.gov)
- FGI staff may share information to coordinate needed services such as medical tests, transportation to a doctor or therapy. (foothillsgateway.org)
- Must be a clinician, Medical Doctor, Medical Examiner or Coroner. (cdc.gov)
- Staff provide behavioral and psychiatric evaluation and treatment , medical services, therapeutic interventions, and vocational programming. (wisconsin.gov)
- For example, your PHI may be disclosed to members of the medical staff, risk or quality improvement personnel, and others to evaluate the performance of our staff, assess the quality of care and outcomes in your case and similar cases, and learn how to improve our facilities and services. (virtua.org)
- All employees, staff and other Visiting Nurse Health System personnel authorized to enter information into your patient chart or medical record, including independent and third-party outside contractors. (vnhs.org)
- We may use and disclose your PHI as necessary to provide you with medical treatment or services. (virtua.org)
- an injury or disease that ultimately leads to death of the individual, generally determined by medical examiners or coroners. (lacounty.gov)
- Reading Hospital said Saturday afternoon it had received 10 patients, of which one was transferred to Lehigh Valley Hospital and another to Penn State Health St. Joseph Medical Center. (denverpost.com)
- 1989. "Medical Examiner, City of San Francisco (part 1). (magnumphotos.com)