A genus of the family CORONAVIRIDAE which causes respiratory or gastrointestinal disease in a variety of vertebrates.
Virus diseases caused by the CORONAVIRUS genus. Some specifics include transmissible enteritis of turkeys (ENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF TURKEYS); FELINE INFECTIOUS PERITONITIS; and transmissible gastroenteritis of swine (GASTROENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF SWINE).
A species in the genus CORONAVIRUS causing the common cold and possibly nervous system infections in humans. It lacks hemagglutinin-esterase.
A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting neonatal calves, presenting as acute diarrhea, and frequently leading to death.
A class I viral fusion protein that forms the characteristic spikes, or peplomers, found on the viral surface that mediate virus attachment, fusion, and entry into the host cell. During virus maturation, it is cleaved into two subunits: S1, which binds to receptors in the host cell, and S2, which mediates membrane fusion.
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing atypical respiratory disease (SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME) in humans. The organism is believed to have first emerged in Guangdong Province, China, in 2002. The natural host is the Chinese horseshoe bat, RHINOLOPHUS sinicus.
A species in the genus CORONAVIRUS causing the common cold and possibly nervous system infections in humans. It contains hemagglutinin-esterase.
A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting cats of all ages and commonly found in catteries and zoos. Cats are often found carrying the virus but only a small proportion develop disease. Feline coronavirus and Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) are virtually the same virus in genetic and antigenetic terms, and are morphologically indistinguishable. Since they only differ in their disease potential (with FIPV causing a more serious illness), they are considered biotypes of each other.
Spherical RNA viruses, in the order NIDOVIRALES, infecting a wide range of animals including humans. Transmission is by fecal-oral and respiratory routes. Mechanical transmission is also common. There are two genera: CORONAVIRUS and TOROVIRUS.
A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting dogs. Onset of symptoms is usually sudden and includes vomiting, diarrhea, and dehydration.
A viral disorder characterized by high FEVER, dry COUGH, shortness of breath (DYSPNEA) or breathing difficulties, and atypical PNEUMONIA. A virus in the genus CORONAVIRUS is the suspected agent.
Virus diseases caused by CORONAVIRIDAE.
A species of the CORONAVIRUS genus causing hepatitis in mice. Four strains have been identified as MHV 1, MHV 2, MHV 3, and MHV 4 (also known as MHV-JHM, which is neurotropic and causes disseminated encephalomyelitis with demyelination as well as focal liver necrosis).
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing a fatal disease to pigs under 3 weeks old.
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing infections in chickens and possibly pheasants. Chicks up to four weeks old are the most severely affected.
A species in the genus CORONAVIRUS causing upper and lower RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS. It shares the receptor used by the SARS VIRUS.
Viral proteins found in either the NUCLEOCAPSID or the viral core (VIRAL CORE PROTEINS).
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing pneumonia in newborn rats but a clinically inapparent infection in adults. It is separate but antigenically related to MURINE HEPATITIS VIRUS.
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing enteritis in turkeys and pullets.
A mutant strain of TRANSMISSIBLE GASTROENTERITIS VIRUS causing mild or subclinical respiratory infections in young SWINE. It may also play a role in post-weaning porcine respiratory disease complex, especially when combined with other respiratory agents.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Common coronavirus infection of cats caused by the feline infectious peritonitis virus (CORONAVIRUS, FELINE). The disease is characterized by a long incubation period, fever, depression, loss of appetite, wasting, and progressive abdominal enlargement. Infection of cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage appears to be essential in FIP pathogenesis.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A condition of chronic gastroenteritis in adult pigs and fatal gastroenteritis in piglets caused by a CORONAVIRUS.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The family of civets which are small and medium-sized Old World carnivores, often striped or spotted.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An acute, highly contagious virus disease of turkeys characterized by chilling, anorexia, decreased water intake, diarrhea, dehydration and weight loss. The infectious agent is a CORONAVIRUS.
Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.
A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
The region of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)
Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.
The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in animals due to viral infection.
Order of mammals whose members are adapted for flight. It includes bats, flying foxes, and fruit bats.
The temporal sequence of events that have occurred.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Acute inflammation of the intestine associated with infectious DIARRHEA of various etiologies, generally acquired by eating contaminated food containing TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL derived from BACTERIA or other microorganisms. Dysentery is characterized initially by watery FECES then by bloody mucoid stools. It is often associated with ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; and DEHYDRATION.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Viral infections of the brain, spinal cord, meninges, or perimeningeal spaces.
Proteins which are synthesized as a single polymer and then cleaved into several distinct proteins.
An order comprising three families of eukaryotic viruses possessing linear, nonsegmented, positive sense RNA genomes. The families are CORONAVIRIDAE; ARTERIVIRIDAE; and RONIVIRIDAE.
A peptidyl-dipeptidase that catalyzes the release of a C-terminal dipeptide, -Xaa-*-Xbb-Xcc, when neither Xaa nor Xbb is Pro. It is a Cl(-)-dependent, zinc glycoprotein that is generally membrane-bound and active at neutral pH. It may also have endopeptidase activity on some substrates. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.4.15.1.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The specificity of a virus for infecting a particular type of cell or tissue.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
Diseases of the domestic cat (Felis catus or F. domesticus). This term does not include diseases of the so-called big cats such as CHEETAHS; LIONS; tigers, cougars, panthers, leopards, and other Felidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Hoofed mammals with four legs, a big-lipped snout, and a humped back belonging to the family Camelidae.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A family in the suborder Feliformia, order CARNIVORA, comprising one genus Nandinia binotata.
A general term indicating inflammation of the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD, often used to indicate an infectious process, but also applicable to a variety of autoimmune and toxic-metabolic conditions. There is significant overlap regarding the usage of this term and ENCEPHALITIS in the literature.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
A catarrhal disorder of the upper respiratory tract, which may be viral or a mixed infection. It generally involves a runny nose, nasal congestion, and sneezing.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A genus of the family ARTERIVIRIDAE, in the order NIDOVIRALES. The type species is ARTERITIS VIRUS, EQUINE.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Carica papaya. It is also the name used for a purified mixture of papain and CHYMOPAPAIN that is used as a topical enzymatic debriding agent. EC 3.4.22.2.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.
Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.
Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.
The former British crown colony located off the southeast coast of China, comprised of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and New Territories. The three sites were ceded to the British by the Chinese respectively in 1841, 1860, and 1898. Hong Kong reverted to China in July 1997. The name represents the Cantonese pronunciation of the Chinese xianggang, fragrant port, from xiang, perfume and gang, port or harbor, with reference to its currents sweetened by fresh water from a river west of it.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Diseases characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin in the central or peripheral nervous system.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
A directed change in translational READING FRAMES that allows the production of a single protein from two or more OVERLAPPING GENES. The process is programmed by the nucleotide sequence of the MRNA and is sometimes also affected by the secondary or tertiary mRNA structure. It has been described mainly in VIRUSES (especially RETROVIRUSES); RETROTRANSPOSONS; and bacterial insertion elements but also in some cellular genes.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.
Inflammation of any segment of the SMALL INTESTINE.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for retroviral enzymes including reverse transcriptase, protease, and endonuclease/integrase. "pol" is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A serotonin antagonist with limited antihistaminic, anticholinergic, and immunosuppressive activity.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The species Delphinapterus leucas, in the family Monodontidae, found primarily in the Arctic Ocean and adjoining seas. They are small WHALES lacking a dorsal fin.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of acetate esters and water to alcohols and acetate. EC 3.1.1.6.
A genus of the family CORONAVIRIDAE characterized by enveloped, peplomer-bearing particles containing an elongated tubular nucleocapsid with helical symmetry. Toroviruses have been found in association with enteric infections in horses (Berne virus), cattle (Breda virus), swine, and humans. Transmission probably takes place via the fecal-oral route.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
Inflammation of brain parenchymal tissue as a result of viral infection. Encephalitis may occur as primary or secondary manifestation of TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PARAMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; and ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.
The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.

Rat coronaviruses infect rat alveolar type I epithelial cells and induce expression of CXC chemokines. (1/8)

We analyzed the ability of two rat coronavirus (RCoV) strains, sialodacryoadenitis virus (SDAV) and Parker's RCoV (RCoV-P), to infect rat alveolar type I cells and induce chemokine expression. Primary rat alveolar type II cells were transdifferentiated into the type I cell phenotype. Type I cells were productively infected with SDAV and RCoV-P, and both live virus and UV-inactivated virus induced mRNA and protein expression of three CXC chemokines: CINC-2, CINC-3, and LIX, which are neutrophil chemoattractants. Dual immunolabeling of type I cells for viral antigen and CXC chemokines showed that chemokines were expressed primarily by uninfected cells. Virus-induced chemokine expression was reduced by the IL-1 receptor antagonist, suggesting that IL-1 produced by infected cells induces uninfected cells to express chemokines. Primary cultures of alveolar epithelial cells are an important model for the early events in viral infection that lead to pulmonary inflammation.  (+info)

Rat respiratory coronavirus infection: replication in airway and alveolar epithelial cells and the innate immune response. (2/8)

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Effect of time of exposure to rat coronavirus and Mycoplasma pulmonis on respiratory tract lesions in the Wistar rat. (3/8)

The effects of time of exposure on the progression of pulmonary lesions in rats inoculated with Mycoplasma pulmonis and the rat coronavirus, sialodacryoadenitis virus (SDAV) were studied, using six groups of 18 SPF Wistar rats (n = 108). Rats were inoculated intranasally as follows: Group 1, sterile medium only; Group 2, sterile medium followed one week later by 150 TCID50 SDAV; Group 3, sterile medium followed by 10(5.7) colony forming units of M. pulmonis; Group 4, SDAV followed one week later by M. pulmonis; Group 5, M. pulmonis followed one week later by SDAV; Group 6, M. pulmonis followed two weeks later by SDAV. Six rats from each group were euthanized at one, two and three weeks after the final inoculation. In a separate experiment, six additional animals were inoculated in each of groups 3, 5 and 6 (n = 18) and were sampled at five weeks after they had received M. pulmonis. Bronchoalveolar lavage and quantitative lung mycoplasma cultures were conducted on two-thirds of the rats. Histopathological examination and scoring of lesion severity were performed on all animals. Based on the prevalence and extent of histopathological lesions, bronchoalveolar lavage cell numbers, neutrophil differential cell counts and the isolation of M. pulmonis, the most severe disease occurred in the groups that received both agents. There was no significant difference in lesion severity between the groups receiving both agents other than in those examined during the acute stages of SDAV infection. Based on these results, it is evident that SDAV enhances lower respiratory tract disease in Wistar rats whether exposure occurs at one week prior to or at various intervals following M. pulmonis infections.  (+info)

Morphologic changes in the nasal cavity associated with sialodacryoadenitis virus infection in the Wistar rat. (4/8)

A sequential study of lesions of the nasal cavity associated with sialodacryoadenitis virus (SDAV) infection was made in the laboratory rat. Wistar rats were intranasally inoculated with approximately 10(3) TCID50 of the coronavirus SDAV. Transverse sections of four regions of the nasal cavity from inoculated and control animals were examined by light microscopy and immunohistochemistry at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 14 days postinoculation (PI). Lesions were observed in the following regions of the upper respiratory tract: respiratory epithelium, transitional epithelium, olfactory epithelium, nasolacrimal duct, vomeronasal organ, and the submucosal glands of the nasal passages. In general, in structures lined by ciliated epithelial cells, there was focal to segmental necrosis with exfoliation of affected cells and polymorphonuclear cell infiltration during the acute stages, progressing to squamous metaplasia during the reparative stages. Repair in these regions was essentially complete by 14 days PI. In the olfactory epithelium and the vomeronasal organ, there was interstitial edema with necrosis and exfoliation of epithelial cells and minimal to moderate inflammatory cell response during the acute stages. Residual reparative lesions were still evident in the olfactory epithelium, the columnar epithelium and neuroepithelium of the vomeronasal organ, and the nasolacrimal duct at 14 days PI. Viral antigen was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry in all regions during the acute stages of the disease, with the exception of the vomeronasal organ. In view of these findings, infections of the respiratory tract with viruses such as SDAV could have significant effects on functions such as olfaction and chemoreception for > or = 2 weeks postexposure in this species.  (+info)

Coronavirus infections in the laboratory rat: degree of cross protection following immunization with a heterologous strain. (5/8)

One hundred and twenty-one specific pathogen-free male Wistar rats eight to ten weeks of age were used to evaluate the efficacy of Parker's rat coronavirus (PRC) in affording cross protection on subsequent challenge with virulent sialodacryoadenitis (SDA) virus. Sixty-two animals were inoculated intranasally on day 0 and 21 days later with approximately 10(2) median tissue culture infective doses (TCID50) of the tenth passage of PRC replicated in L-2 cells. Animals were selected at random postvaccination to evaluate the safety and efficacy of PRC by histopathology, immunohistochemistry and serology. At three and six months postvaccination (PV), vaccinated and seronegative control rats were inoculated intranasally with approximately 10(3) TCID50 doses of virulent SDA virus. Challenged rats were then killed at 6, 10 and 14 days postchallenge and necropsied. Evaluations were based on lesion indices in lacrimal and salivary glands and respiratory tract, the presence of viral antigen by immunohistochemistry, and antibody response. Lesions were observed in rats killed PV, but in general, they were significantly reduced compared with those present in seronegative animals post-exposure to virulent SDA virus (p < or = 0.05). However, they were still considered to be an unacceptable level for a routine vaccination procedure. Potvaccination antibody titers to rat coronavirus were evident in all animals tested at three or six months prior to challenge with SDA virus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)  (+info)

Preliminary characterization of the structural proteins of the coronaviruses, sialodacryoadenitis virus and Parker's rat coronavirus. (6/8)

A procedure was developed for the partial purification of the rat coronaviruses, sialodacryoadenitis virus (SDAV) and Parker's rat coronavirus (PRC). The SDAV and PRC were replicated in L-2 cell monolayer cultures, precipitated with ammonium sulphate, and further concentrated using sucrose density gradient centrifugation. The major SDAV and PRC proteins were identified by immunoblotting and compared with those of the JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus (MHV-JHM). Monoclonal antibodies (MAb) against the M protein of JHM recognized proteins interpreted to be slightly smaller in immunoblots of SDAV and PRC (22.8 vs 23K for JHM). Similarly, a monoclonal antibody against the JHM N protein reacted with proteins of 53K in SDAV and PRC (vs 56 K for JHM). Polyclonal antisera to all three viruses also cross-reacted with the M and N proteins. Some cross-reactivity amongst the S proteins was observed. Based on these data, the structural proteins of the rat coronaviruses, SDAV and PRC are closely related to those of MHV-JHM.  (+info)

Comparative severity of respiratory lesions of sialodacryoadenitis virus and Sendai virus infections in LEW and F344 rats. (7/8)

In several chronic diseases, lesions are more severe in LEW rats than in F344 rats. To determine whether or not acute viral diseases also are more severe in LEW rats than in F344 rats, we inoculated 6-7-week-old LEW and F344 rats with 10(7.2) cell culture infective units of sialodacryoadenitis virus or 10(4.7) infective units of Sendai virus. Twenty-four rats of each strain were given each virus. Lesions in nasal passages, tracheas, intrapulmonary airways, and pulmonary alveoli in 6 or 12 rats inoculated with each virus were assessed by scoring 5, 10, and 14 days after inoculation. Both viruses caused typical patchy necrotizing rhinitis, tracheitis, bronchitis, and bronchiolitis, with multifocal pneumonitis, in rats of both strains. Mean lesion indices for LEW rats given sialodacryoadenitis virus were significantly different from those for F344 rats for nasal passages on days 10 (0.999 vs. 0.680) and 14 (0.736 vs. 0.278), bronchi on day 5 (0.479 vs. 0.361), and alveoli on day 5 (0.677 vs. 0.275). Lesion indices for LEW rats given Sendai virus were significantly different from those for F344 rats for nasal passages on days 10 (1.000 vs. 0.611) and 14 (0.778 vs. 0.583); trachea on day 10 (0.625 vs. 0.028); bronchi on days 5 (0.476 vs. 0.331), 10 (0.123 vs. 0.013), and 14 (0.038 vs. 0); and alveoli on days 5 (0.413 vs. 0.114) and 10 (0.185 vs. 0.020). Thus, at the tested doses, both viruses caused more severe respiratory tract lesions in LEW rats than in F344 rats.  (+info)

Replication of rat coronaviruses in intestinal cell line, RCN-9, derived from F344 rats. (8/8)

To examine the susceptibility of the epithelial cell line to rat coronavirus (RCV), we inoculated sialodacryoadenitis virus and Parker's RCV into five cell lines; JTC-19, rat L2, LLC, RCN-9 and LBC cells originating in the lungs, intestines and mammary tumors of rodents. Both RCVs were replicated in LBC and RCN-9 cells, but not in the others. The infectivity titers of both RCVs grown in RCN-9 cells were significantly higher than those in LBC cells in every passage (2.5-3.9 log rate). Both RCVs replicated in LBC cells showed higher tropism to RCN-9 cells than to LBC cells, suggesting that RCN-9 cells are more suitable for the replication of RCVs than LBC cells. The RCN-9 cell line would be useful for the investigation of RCV infection in rodents.  (+info)

Rats infected with rat coronavirus begin to show symptoms as early as 5 days, with respiratory involvement and cervical swelling by 7-8 days. The infection often presents as a characteristic inflammation of submaxillary and parotid salivary glands, which can result in tissue necrosis. Cervical lymph nodes and/or the harderian and intraorbital lacrimal glands behind the eyes may also be affected. As a result, bulging eyes, ocular lesions, facial swelling, lacerations, porphyrin discharge, bleeding or squinting due to photosensitivity may be observed. Sometimes symptoms may give the appearance of a shortened or swollen neck. In extreme cases, eyesight can be lost or compromised permanently due to the infection or from self-mutilation caused by scratching. Eye bulging may take several weeks to subside due to retro-orbital swelling ...
Consistent with a previous report on SDAV structural proteins (1), the coding sequences for the S, M, and N proteins were identified. Downstream of the S-protein gene, two overlapping potentially nonstructural-protein genes were located, and these were predicted to encode 15- and 12.6-kDa nonstructural proteins. A small internal ORF (ORF7b) was also found in the +2 frame within the N-protein-coding sequence. Following the N-protein gene, the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) was identified to be 298 nucleotides, followed by a stretch of polyadenylation tail.. The nonstructural NS2 gene, located immediately downstream of RNA polymerase gene 1b, has been shown to be heterogeneous in coronavirus. In MHV JHM variant Wb1, a large portion of the 5′ end of the NS2 gene is deleted, and as a result, the NS2 protein is not expressed (29). However, in SDAV the NS2 nonstructural-protein gene was identified to code for a polypeptide of 274 amino acids.. Similar to the NS2 gene, the hemagglutinin-esterase (HE) ...
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In an accompanying editorial, Kenneth McIntosh of Harvard University commented that discovery of a new human respiratory coronavirus would not be surprising, since studies in the 1960s and 1970s had pointed to a number of novel coronavirus strains but the findings were not adequately followed up because methods to do so were unavailable at the time. The statistically strong association with Kawasaki disease, however, was quite surprising. Noting that previous attempts to link Kawasaki disease to bacteria or other viruses had failed and thus justified healthy skepticism about the present findings, Dr. McIntosh pointed out some tantalizing facts: onset of Kawasaki disease is often preceded by a respiratory syndrome; both the disease and respiratory coronavirus infections are seasonal, peaking in the winter and spring; recent studies have described a powerful immune response in the respiratory tract and other organs in acute cases of Kawasaki disease, suggesting the involvement of a specific ...
CD Duplication, DVD Duplication, Audio Cassette Duplication, Video Cassette Duplication, Audio Mastering, Skilled Studio Recording, Video Manufacturing, Audio Editing, Audio Transfers, Video Transfers, Video Editing, DVD Authoring, Graphic Design, Onsite Printing, Packaging, 8mm Movie Transfers, Voice Over Recording Fairview Duplication give you the complete service, all below one roof, which allows us to take your project from begin to end with no fuss or hassle copy cd. Requiem Mass and Interviews Filmed, Edited and similar day uploaded to New Zealand / Video Production. All the merchandise on our lineup are primarily based across the same concept. The Autoloading DVD duplicators save money and time. Remember, trying to improve or alter a duplicator yourself or utilizing a non-licensed service provider will void the warranty.. We use them each day here at SDAV for file sharing, transferring, and getting remaining products and initiatives out and on-line. Please feel free to contact us with any ...
A couple of weeks ago I got The Plague. And by The Plague, I mean a summer cold. An over-statement, perhaps, but have you had a summer cold lately? It will knock a girl out. Mine was made all the more lovely by the fact that it occurred when my husband was out of town…
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A mouse model was used to determine if protective immunity to influenza A virus infection differs between the sexes. The median lethal dose of H1N1 or H3N2 was lower for naïve females than males. After a sublethal, primary infection with H1N1 or H3N2, females and males showed a similar transient mor …
CD Duplication, DVD Duplication, Audio Cassette Duplication, Video Cassette Duplication, Audio Mastering, Skilled Studio Recording, Video Manufacturing, Audio Editing, Audio Transfers, Video Transfers, Video Editing, DVD Authoring, Graphic Design, Onsite Printing, Packaging, 8mm Movie Transfers, Voice Over Recording Fairview Duplication give you the complete service, all below one roof, which allows us to take your project from begin to end with no fuss or hassle copy cd. Requiem Mass and Interviews Filmed, Edited and similar day uploaded to New Zealand / Video Production. All the merchandise on our lineup are primarily based across the same concept. The Autoloading DVD duplicators save money and time. Remember, trying to improve or alter a duplicator yourself or utilizing a non-licensed service provider will void the warranty.. We use them each day here at SDAV for file sharing, transferring, and getting remaining products and initiatives out and on-line. Please feel free to contact us with any ...
Hi: IB Ma5 vaccine might not give good immune protection against a field strain of IBV if there is significant genetic difference. Do you know what filed strain of IBV infected the flock? If not phylogenetic sequencing might be advised to find what strain of IBV is present and proper vaccine should be administered. There are many strains of IBV and cross protection might be not present if vaccine and the filed strain is genetically different. ...
I am a strep carrier and have chronic swollen nasal passages that are most likely the result of lifelong allergies. Even though strep carriers are not supposed to become more ill than others, I alway...
Members brought some of their toughest cases to Dr. Lew Schon at this dynamic live event. Join us to hear his advice and the discussions that ensued for the following cases ...
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Summary A case is presented of a 43 year old white male who was bitten by the deadly snake, Bungarus caeruleus, and who made a complete recovery without specific therapy. The recovery of this individual presents the possibility of a cross protection existing between the venoms of the species Bungarus and those of the Indian, African and Egyptian cobras. The phenomenon of cross protection should be investigated further with the possibility of producing a common antivenin. This would not only be of great value to the Armed Forces but to the ever increasing number of individuals who travel to areas where poisonous reptiles abound.
Curing virus infected plant is difficult because antiviral chemicals are not available presently. Hence, the current approaches employed to control virus diseases of chilli are, use of resistant cultivars, cultural measures, crop hygiene or eradication of diseased plants and alternative hosts, biological control using mild strain cross protection and insecticides to control the vectors. A number of research strategies have been initiated over the last decades to combat virus diseases of chilli. These include understanding virus pathosystem, preventing or delaying virus infection through ecological engineering and breeding for resistance by both conventional and pre-emptive breeding strategies. Several chilli accessions that are virus resistant have been identified. Our current research focuses on the introgression of this ...
Special Instructions for Large Volume Rinse: Stand in front of a sink, bend forward to comfort level and tilt your head down. Keep your mouth open and, without holding your breath, place the tip snugly in the nostril and squeeze the actuator until the solution starts draining from the opposite nasal passage or from your mouth. Allow the flow to continue for 2 to 3 seconds. Do not swallow the solution. Blow your nose gently, without pinching your nose completely, to avoid applying pressure on your eardrums. If tolerable, sniff in any residual solution remaining in the nasal passage once or twice prior to blowing your nose. This may clean out the posterior nasopharyngeal area, which is the area at the back of your nasal passage. At times, some solution may reach the back of your throat. If so, please spit it out. To help improve drainage of any residual solution, blow your nose gently while tilting your head to the side. Now repeat these steps on your other nasal passage. ...
The practice of nasal cleansing purifies the air sinuses, invigorates the brain, tones up the optic nerves and thus improves sight.
"Banksy: New coronavirus-inspired artwork appears on Tube". BBC. July 14, 2020. "Banksy: Masked London Underground rats get ... "Banksy Coronavirus London Underground Art Removed". Washington Post. July 15, 2020. "Banksy's latest artwork on the coronavirus ...
Martin reported rat infested pile of filth in Mill Hill after receiving reports from the app that resulted in the mess being ... It was reported that due to dump closures and an increase in DIY projects during the coronavirus lockdown figures from ... "Huge rat-infested pile of rubbish keeps growing in Mill Hill". ITV News. Retrieved 2020-07-09. Browne, Ed. "Incidents of ' ... Horton, Helena (2020-04-14). "Fly-tipping increases by 80 per cent in wake of coronavirus lockdown". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307- ...
"Covid 19 coronavirus: Seagulls begin to hunt rats on streets of Rome". NZ Herald. 4 May 2020. ISSN 1170-0777. Retrieved 4 May ... Squires, Nick (1 May 2020). "Seagulls in Rome take to killing rats and pigeons as lockdown deprives them of food scraps". The ... when the lack of food scraps led the yellow-legged gulls of Rome to take prey as large as rats and rock doves. Yellow-legged ...
"Croatia confirms 11th case of coronavirus". The Voice of Croatia. "New coronavirus case confirmed in Varaždin". The Voice of ... R. I. (18 March 2020). "Milanović se izvanredno obratio javnosti: Ovo nije rat, ali posljedice će dugo ostati". Index.hr (in ... "16th case of coronavirus confirmed in Croatia". The Voice of Croatia. "U Hrvatskoj tri nova slučaja, broj zaraženih popeo se na ... "Eighth case of coronavirus confirmed in Croatia - The Dubrovnik Times". www.thedubrovniktimes.com. "Beroš o zaraženom iz ...
"The coronavirus has turned Syracuse's Joe Girard into a gym rat without a gym". The Post-Standard. Retrieved March 22, 2020. ...
There are roaches and mice in the dorms and rats in the hallway. It's a good place for disease to hang out. I don't want to be ... Bryant, Miranda (April 1, 2020). "Coronavirus spread at Rikers is a 'public health disaster', says jail's top doctor". The ... It was beautiful." The island was also plagued with rats, which at one point were so prevalent that after "poison gas, poison ... "A View From Inside Rikers Island, Where Coronavirus is Spreading Behind Bars". The Indypendent. March 29, 2020. Retrieved April ...
"On the menu at Wuhan virus market: Rats and live wolf pups". CNA. 22 January 2020. Archived from the original on 22 January ... "The West Blames the Wuhan Coronavirus on China's Love of Eating Wild Animals. The Truth Is More Complex". Time. 24 January 2020 ... "Here's What It's Like in Wuhan, the City at the Center of Coronavirus". Time. 2020-01-22. Retrieved 2020-01-24. Page, Jeremy ( ... Xie, Echo; Cai, Jane; Rui, Guo (22 January 2020). "Why wild animals are a key ingredient in China's coronavirus outbreak". ...
... is a subgenus of viruses in the genus Alphacoronavirus, consisting of a single species, Lucheng Rn rat coronavirus ...
... s are among the animals that can be infected with the coronavirus.[19] Transmission of the virus from minks to humans was ... to kill pest animals such as rats.[17][18] From available sources, the mink used seem to be black or nearly black ("mahogany") ... "Mink and Dogs Killing Over 20 Rats!!!" - via YouTube.. *^ Huang, Pien. [Dutch Minks Contract COVID-19 - And Appear To Infect ...
During the COVID-19 pandemic it emerged that Synairgen's SNG001 was a potential treatment for coronavirus disease. In a ... Glucose induces closure of single potassium channels in isolated rat pancreatic β-cells Davies, Donna E.; Holgate, Stephen T.; ... less likely to develop a serious form of coronavirus disease. After news of the successful drug trail, share prices in ... "Glucose induces closure of single potassium channels in isolated rat pancreatic β-cells". Nature. 312 (5993): 446-448. doi: ...
... rats, deer, and donkeys. Except for the rats, the project was essentially completed in 2006. Rats have only been eliminated ... "The islands that once inspired Charles Darwin struggle to adapt to the coronavirus". Associated Press. 11 May 2020. Retrieved ... Also, where the black rat is found, the endemic rat has disappeared. Cattle and donkeys eat all the available vegetation and ... The black rat (Rattus rattus) attacks small Galápagos tortoises when they leave the nest, so in Pinzón they stopped the ...
Statistics on the coronavirus cases in Myanmar Coronavirus COVID-19 Global Cases and historical data by Johns Hopkins ... Naing, Shoon (23 October 2020). "'Eating rats': Myanmar's second lockdown drives hunger in city slums". Reuters. Retrieved 21 ... Control and Treat the 2019 Novel Coronavirus was formed one day after the World Health Organization declared the coronavirus ... The Committee for Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) will oversee the emergency response of the government against the ...
... his Instagram account a series of pictures showing stencilled rats causing mayhem in a private bathroom during the coronavirus ... "Coronavirus: Who is behind Glasgow's Covid street art?". BBC News. 2020-05-18. Retrieved 2020-05-18. "Thrift Store Wood ... "Banksy: New coronavirus-inspired artwork appears on Tube". BBC News. 2020-07-14. Retrieved 2020-07-15. "Black Lives Matter ... "Coronavirus: Banksy makes 'bathroom' lockdown art". BBC News. 2020-04-16. Retrieved 2020-04-16. Small, Zachary (March 24, 2020 ...
... but now delayed until February 2021 due to the Coronavirus Pandemic. Phillip Noyce's next film will be Rats of Tobruk adapted ...
December 2020). "Addendum: A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin". Nature. 588 (7836): ... June 2014). "Novel Henipa-like virus, Mojiang Paramyxovirus, in rats, China, 2012". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 20 (6): 1064- ...
He has performed character voices for a video game for Sony PlayStation 3 called Rat Race. Varnado is a member of Chicago City ... deadline.com/2020/09/pete-davidson-hannibal-buress-ilana-glazer-bring-back-laughs-coronavirus-1234585023/ Glawogger, Michael. " ... Rat Race' Writer Explains PS3's First Sitcom Video Game, MTV News https:// ...
Bat SARS-like coronavirus RsSHC014 Bat SARS-like coronavirus WIV1 "Taxonomy browser (Bat coronavirus RaTG13)". www.ncbi.nlm.nih ... In order to discover the possible cause of the infection, different animals (including bats, rats, and musk shrews) were ... October 2020). "Animal coronaviruses and coronavirus disease 2019: Lesson for One Health approach". Open Veterinary Journal. 10 ... Bat coronavirus RaTG13 is a SARS-like betacoronavirus that infects the horseshoe bat Rhinolophus affinis. It was discovered in ...
Norway rat) Ricinus communis (castor bean) Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding yeast) Schizosaccharomyces pombe (fission yeast) ... Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV) Monodelphis domestica (gray short-tailed opossum) Mus musculus ... Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) ... Selaginella moellendorffii Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) ...
... coronavirus 229e, human MeSH B04.820.504.540.150.220 - coronavirus oc43, human MeSH B04.820.504.540.150.260 - coronavirus, rat ... coronavirus oc43, human MeSH B04.909.777.500.540.150.260 - coronavirus, rat MeSH B04.909.777.500.540.150.300 - coronavirus, ... coronavirus MeSH B04.820.504.540.150.150 - coronavirus, bovine MeSH B04.820.504.540.150.160 - coronavirus, canine MeSH B04.820. ... coronavirus MeSH B04.909.777.500.540.150.150 - coronavirus, bovine MeSH B04.909.777.500.540.150.160 - coronavirus, canine MeSH ...
Duvinacovirus Human coronavirus 229E Luchacovirus Lucheng Rn rat coronavirus Minacovirus Mink coronavirus 1 Ferret coronavirus ... coronavirus 512 Rhinacovirus Rhinolophus bat coronavirus HKU2 Setracovirus Human coronavirus NL63 NL63-related bat coronavirus ... coronavirus T14 Sunacovirus Suncus murinus coronavirus X74 Tegacovirus Alphacoronavirus 1 Canine coronavirus Feline coronavirus ... Both types of Alphacoronavirus 1, feline coronavirus (FCoV) and canine coronavirus (CCoV), are known to exist in two serotypes ...
Several diseases, like Rat Coronavirus Infection (RCI), Sendai virus, and Murine Respiratory Mycoplasmosis (MRM, Mycoplasma ... Another risk to rat owners is Rat-bite fever. This is a rare disease among domesticated rats and is most often found in rats ... "Rat & Mouse Club of America. Retrieved 10 November 2008.. *^ a b "The History of Fancy Rats". American Fancy Rat and Mouse ... These rat-catchers would then either kill the rats, or, more likely, sell the rats to be used in blood sport.[6] Rat-baiting ...
Sialodacryoadenitis virus (SDAV), which is a strain Rat coronavirus, is highly infectious coronavirus of laboratory rats, which ... Species Murine hepatitis virus; Puffinosis coronavirus; Rat coronavirus (these are to be united in a new species Murine ... Murine coronavirus (M-CoV) is a species of coronavirus which infects mice. It is an enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded ... The Murine coronavirus is a coronavirus that causes an epidemic murine illness with high mortality, especially among colonies ...
"Rat coronavirus (RCV): A prevalent, naturally occurring pneumotropic virus of rats". Archiv für die gesamte Virusforschung. 31 ... Mouse hepatitis virus approved in 1971 was merged with Rat coronavirus (discovered in 1970) as Murine coronavirus in 2009. 229E ... Bovine coronavirus (discovered in 1973), Human enteric coronavirus (discovered in 1975), Equine coronavirus (discovered in 2000 ... The history of coronaviruses is a reflection of the discovery of the diseases caused by coronaviruses and identification of the ...
... way before coronavirus") and Hernandez's cooperation with federal prosecutors and testimony ("Tell me how I ratted, came home ... Retrieved July 24, 2020.[permanent dead link] "Rapper Tekashi 6ix9ine is requesting home confinement over coronavirus fears, ... A SoundCloud-Rap Rat". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 16, 2020. "6ix9ine Shares Video for New Song " ...
... referencing the required self-isolation-with coronavirus as the theme and "stir-crazy rats" as its subject. He published ... In July he continued the rats theme, with several stencil graffiti of rats wearing and playing with facemasks in a London tube ... Coronavirus is an Indian Telugu-language film that explores life of a middle-class family amidst COVID-19 lockdown in India. ... "Coronavirus Movie Review: A slow narrative proves bane for this attempt to rightly question disastrous health policies". The ...
... www.nytimes.com/2020/06/19/science/coronavirus-rats-vietnam.html Jared M. Diamond (January 2006). Collapse: How Societies ... Adult rat snakes and ball pythons, for example, are fed a diet of mostly rats in captivity. Rats are readily available (live or ... A recipe for grilled rats, Bordeaux-style, calls for the use of alcoholic rats who live in wine cellars. These rats are skinned ... Rat meat is the meat of various species of rat: medium-sized, long-tailed rodents. It is a food that, while taboo in some ...
... , or RCV, is a strain or subspecies of Murine coronavirus that infects rats. The earliest discovered strains of ... Parker's rat coronavirus, or PRC and most other rat coronavirus strains cause respiratory illness. Both SDAV and PRC can cause ... They cannot be distinguished morphologically from other members of the genus Coronavirus. The rat coronavirus is a single- ... Ann Story (May-June 2009). "Rat Coronavirus". Pro-Rat-a (171). Retrieved 2020-06-11. Yoo, Dongwan; Pei, Yanlong; Christie, ...
Several diseases, like Rat Coronavirus Infection (RCI), Sendai virus, and Murine Respiratory Mycoplasmosis (MRM, Mycoplasma ... These rat-catchers would then either kill the rats, or, more likely, sell the rats to be used in blood sport. Rat-baiting was a ... Another risk to rat owners is rat-bite fever. This is a rare disease among domesticated rats and is most often found in rats ... Fancy mouse Experimental evolution List of fictional mice and rats Rat agility Rat genome database Working rat Langton, Jerry ( ...
"The continuing 2019-nCoV epidemic threat of novel coronaviruses to global health - The latest 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak ... The Huanan market sold "live wolf pups, salamanders, civets, and bamboo rats" amongst other species. Alternate theories and ... "New Coronavirus 'Won't Be the Last' Outbreak to Move from Animal to Human". Goats and Soda. NPR. 5 February 2020. Archived from ... After the novel coronavirus broke out in Wuhan, China in late December 2019, it didn't take long for conspiracy theorists to ...
a b {{cite web , title=On the menu at Wuhan virus market: Rats and live wolf pups , website=CNA , date=22 Januari 2020 , url= ... "Here's What It's Like in Wuhan, the City at the Center of Coronavirus". Time (dalam bahasa Inggeris). Dicapai pada 23 Januari ... "The West Blames the Wuhan Coronavirus on China's Love of Eating Wild Animals. The Truth Is More Complex". Time. 24 January 2020 ... "Why wild animals are a key ingredient in China's coronavirus outbreak". bangkokpost.com. 23 Januari 2020. Dicapai pada 24 ...
Rat-bite fever Streptobacillus moniliformis, Spirillum minus rats, mice bites of rats but also urine and mucus secretions ... MERS coronavirus bats, camels close contact Monkeypox Monkeypox virus rodents, primates contact with infected rodents, primates ... rats, cotton rats consuming raw or undercooked snails, slugs, other mollusks, crustaceans, contaminated water, and unwashed ... SARS coronavirus bats, civets close contact, respiratory droplets Swine influenza any strain of the influenza virus endemic in ...
"Discovery of a rich gene pool of bat SARS-related coronaviruses provides new insights into the origin of SARS coronavirus". ... "Lo Rat Penat en el escudo de armas de Valencia" [The Rat Penat in the coat of arms of Valencia] (in Spanish). Retrieved 14 ... Li, W.; Shi, Z.; Yu, M.; Ren, W. (28 October 2005). "Bats are natural reservoirs of SARS-like coronaviruses". Science. 310 ( ... since they serve as natural hosts for coronaviruses, several from a single cave in Yunnan, one of which developed into the SARS ...
B97.2) Coronavirus as the cause of diseases classified to other chapters ... A25.) Rat-bite fevers *(A25.0) Spirillosis *Sodoku. *(A25.1) Streptobacillosis ...
"IBM's Summit-The Supercomputer Fighting Coronavirus". MedicalExpo e-Magazine. 16 April 2020. Retrieved 12 May 2020.. ... group also succeeded in using a supercomputer to simulate a number of artificial neurons equivalent to the entirety of a rat's ... In early 2020, Coronavirus was front and center in the world. Supercomputers used different simulations to find compounds that ... "The world's fastest supercomputer identified chemicals that could stop coronavirus from spreading, a crucial step toward a ...
SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV),[150] adenovirus[150] and measles virus.[151] The other strategy is to block the initial viral ... "Knockdown of orexin type 1 receptor in rat locus coeruleus increases REM sleep during the dark period". The European Journal ...
Coronavirus pandemic in Malaysia. 2020. 2020 Political Crisis. 2020. Movement Control Order. 2020. ...
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus has been found to bind to DPP4. DPP4 is found on the surface of cells in the ... "Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor attenuates hepatic fibrosis via suppression of activated hepatic stellate cell in rats". ... "Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 is a functional receptor for the emerging human coronavirus-EMC". Nature. ScienceNews. 495 (7440): 251-4 ...
"IBM's Summit-The Supercomputer Fighting Coronavirus". MedicalExpo e-Magazine. 16 April 2020. Retrieved 12 May 2020.. ... group also succeeded in using a supercomputer to simulate a number of artificial neurons equivalent to the entirety of a rat's ... "The world's fastest supercomputer identified chemicals that could stop coronavirus from spreading, a crucial step toward a ...
Fleas such as the human flea, Pulex irritans and the Oriental rat flea, Xenopsylla cheopis, transmit bubonic plague, murine ... Li W, Shi Z, Yu M, Ren W, et al. Bats are natural reservoirs of SARS-like coronaviruses. Science. 2005 Oct 28;310(5748):676-9. ... and the SARS like coronaviruses[14][15] and in many cases as a vector for various viruses such as the lyssaviruses including ... typhus and tapeworms.[7] Rodents, such as rats and mice carry the fleas, and spread them.[8][9] ...
Rat HEV was first isolated from Norway rats in Germany,[36] and a 2018 CDC article indicated the detection of rat HEV RNA in a ... MERS coronavirus *Middle East respiratory syndrome. *SARS coronavirus 2 *Coronavirus disease 2019 ... the black rat (Rattus rattus brunneusculus) and the Asian house shrew (Suncus murinus). A new virus designated rat hepatitis E ... A number of other small mammals have been identified as potential reservoirs: the lesser bandicoot rat (Bandicota bengalensis ...
IV: SARS coronavirus *Severe acute respiratory syndrome. *V: Orthomyxoviridae: Influenzavirus A/B/C/D *Influenza/Avian ...
IV: SARS coronavirus *Severe acute respiratory syndrome. *V: Orthomyxoviridae: Influenza virus A/B/C/D *Influenza/Avian ...
"Analysis of the sites of integration of viral DNA sequences in rat cells transformed by adenovirus 2 or SV40". Cold Spring ... IV: SARS coronavirus *Severe acute respiratory syndrome. *V: Orthomyxoviridae: Influenzavirus A/B/C *Influenza/Avian influenza ...
102.0 102.1 Hemilä H (2003). "Vitamin C and SARS coronavirus". J Antimicrob Chemother 52 (6): 1049-50. doi:10.1093/jac/dkh002. ... Ovcharov R, Todorov S (1974). "[The effect of vitamin C on the estrus cycle and embryogenesis of rats]" (in Bulgarian). ... "The synthesis of L-ascorbic acid in the rat from D-glucuronolactone and L-gulonolactone". J Biol Chem. 223 (2): 897-905. ...
Coronavirus pandemic in Malaysia. 2020. 2020 Political Crisis. 2020. Movement Control Order. 2020. ...
Addressing the coronavirus pandemic taking place during the summer of 2020, the Washington Post added that "by allowing people ... "until the dogs stop biting us in the South and the rats stop biting us in the North."[88] ...
Hemilä H (2003). "Vitamin C and SARS coronavirus". J Antimicrob Chemother. 52 (6): 1049-50. doi:10.1093/jac/dkh002. PMID ... Ovcharov R, Todorov S (1974). "[The effect of vitamin C on the estrus cycle and embryogenesis of rats]". Akusherstvo i ... "The synthesis of L-ascorbic acid in the rat from D-glucuronolactone and L-gulonolactone". J Biol Chem. 223 (2): 897-905. PMID ...
Rat-bite fever. Streptobacillus moniliformis and Spirillum minus. Ionfhabhtú Respiratory syncytial virus. Respiratory syncytial ... usually rhinoviruses and coronaviruses.. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). CJD prion. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF). ...
It has also been shown that HPV 16 and 18 cannot immortalize primary rat cells alone; there needs to be activation of the ras ... IV: SARS coronavirus *Severe acute respiratory syndrome. *V: Orthomyxoviridae: Influenzavirus A/B/C *Influenza/Avian influenza ...
"Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Treatment Guidelines. National Institutes of Health (NIH). July 17, 2020. Retrieved ... the naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber), when fed on a carrot diet". The British Journal of Nutrition. 69 (1): 233-41. doi: ... such as the naked mole-rat, are naturally cholecalciferol-deficient, as serum 25-OH vitamin D levels are undetectable.[179] ... an association that is not specific to coronavirus infections.[213] A number of trials in different countries are underway to ...
The explanation for these epidemiological findings is not known, but the parallelism between the DMBA-induced rat mammary ... President Donald Trump noted that he might dismiss an FDA proposal to improve standards for emergency use of a coronavirus ... Abortion would interrupt this process, leaving in the gland undifferentiated structures like those observed in the rat mammary ... leaders desperately need people to accept a vaccine in order to create the immunity necessary to defeat the novel coronavirus ...
Kim JC, Spence RA, Currier PF, Lu X, Denison MR (April 1995). "Coronavirus protein processing and RNA synthesis is inhibited by ... "Neurovascular and neuronal protection by E64d after focal cerebral ischemia in rats". Journal of Neuroscience Research. 84 (4 ...
The high risk areas cannot be well defined by any known biogeographical or environmental breaks except for the multimammate rat ... "Nigeria is already dealing with a deadlier viral outbreak than the coronavirus epidemic". Quartz Africa. Retrieved 13 March ... Lassa virus commonly spreads to humans from other animals, specifically the natal multimammate mouse or African rat, also ... called the natal multimammate rat (Mastomys natalensis). This is probably the most common mouse in equatorial Africa, common in ...
Utkarsh Ambudkar as Real Estate Rat. Tim Story as Pigeon Announcer. Ben Shephard and Kate Garraway as Cecil and Malcolm, two ... Sweney, Mark (May 19, 2020). "How coronavirus has animated one section of the film industry". The Guardian. Archived from the ...
"Coronavirus: Manchester students pull down COVID security fences in protest". Sky News. 6 November 2020. Retrieved 13 November ... "Involvement of prostaglandins in cachexia induced by T-cell leukemia in the rat". Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental. 46 (4 ... Pidd, Helen (12 November 2020). "UK coronavirus: 33,470 people test positive in a day; NI lockdown extended by a week - as it ... 270m loss over coronavirus pandemic". Manchester Evening News. Retrieved 13 November 2020. Batty, David (25 April 2020). " ...
Coronavirus disease - COVID-19 - Rattus norvegicus (rat) [ Pathway menu , Pathway entry , Download KGML , Show description , ... Coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly contagious respiratory infection that is caused by the severe acute ... respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). SARS-CoV-2 infects alveolar epithelial cells [mainly alveolar epithelial type ...
Rat coronavirus, or RCV, is a strain or subspecies of Murine coronavirus that infects rats. The earliest discovered strains of ... Parkers rat coronavirus, or PRC and most other rat coronavirus strains cause respiratory illness. Both SDAV and PRC can cause ... They cannot be distinguished morphologically from other members of the genus Coronavirus. The rat coronavirus is a single- ... Ann Story (May-June 2009). "Rat Coronavirus". Pro-Rat-a (171). Retrieved 2020-06-11. Yoo, Dongwan; Pei, Yanlong; Christie, ...
Go home rats: Tourists urged to stay away from coastal and rural towns during coronavirus outbreak. *. ... Residents living in rural and coastal towns around Wales have erected signs urging tourists to stay away during the coronavirus ... A sign which has appeared in Bala reads go home, rats - signalling the strength of feeling by people living in the area. ... Mountain rescuers warned visitors of Snowdonia National Park they cannot guarantee help amid the coronavirus crisis.. On Monday ...
... Anyone can post and discuss breaking science news or science-related public policy ... Re: Year of the Rat fears over new Corona Virus. by Forest_Dump on April 23rd, 2020, 9:58 am ... Re: Year of the Rat fears over new Corona Virus. by Forest_Dump on April 24th, 2020, 9:40 am ... Re: Year of the Rat fears over new Corona Virus. by Serpent on April 2nd, 2020, 12:49 pm ...
... Anyone can post and discuss breaking science news or science-related public policy ... Re: Year of the Rat fears over new Corona Virus. by Forest_Dump on April 2nd, 2020, 8:35 am ... Re: Year of the Rat fears over new Corona Virus. by BadgerJelly on March 28th, 2020, 9:05 am ... Re: Year of the Rat fears over new Corona Virus. by Lomax on March 28th, 2020, 8:02 pm ...
... Anyone can post and discuss breaking science news or science-related public policy ... Re: Year of the Rat fears over new Corona Virus. by Mossling on May 27th, 2020, 11:21 pm ... Re: Year of the Rat fears over new Corona Virus. by Serpent on May 28th, 2020, 12:08 am ... Re: Year of the Rat fears over new Corona Virus. by Mossling on May 28th, 2020, 5:12 am ...
Detection of potentially novel paramyxovirus and coronavirus viral RNA in bats and rats in the Mekong Delta region of southern ...
Rat coronavirus (SDAV) Test code: S0143 - Ultrasensitive qualitative detection of rat coronavirus (Sialodacryoadenitis virus or ... Rats infected with rat coronavirus begin to show symptoms as early as 5 days, with respiratory involvement and cervical ... Rat coronavirus or Sialodacryoadenitis (SDA) virus is an airborne RNA virus whose primary route of infection is via respiratory ... Help ensure that rat colonies are free of SDAV. * Early prevention of spread of SDAV among a population or in a geographic area ...
Coronavirus. COVID-19 cluster identified at Granite Quarry Elementary. Coronavirus. More than half of North Carolinians have ... Coronavirus. Health department drops quarantine time from 14 to 10 days. Crime. Blotter: More than $100,000 in property ... Gill said rats started appearing on the back porches of her house and those owned by her neighbors. They also started turning ... Gill said she drives through an alley every day to go to work and sees rats in the alley. One neighbor told her she sees them ...
This file consists of estimations in the time series software RATS (Regression Analysis of Time Series). In this file program ... Estimations Procedures with RATS 8.0 or higher for Commandeur and Koopmans Book: Introduction to State Space Time Series ... This file consists of estimations in the time series software RATS (Regression Analysis of Time Series). In this file program ... Josheski, Dushko, Estimations Procedures with RATS 8.0 or higher for Commandeur and Koopmans Book: Introduction to State Space ...
Love in the Time of Coronavirus Fire in the Time of Coronavirus If we venture out our front door we might inhale both a deadly ...
Quantitative sandwich ELISA for measuring Rat Coronavirus in samples from cell culture supernatants, serum, whole blood, plasma ... Product ELISA kit for Rat Coronavirus From Abbkine - ... ELISA kit for Rat Coronavirus. Supplier Abbkine · Catalog ... Quantitative sandwich ELISA for measuring Rat Coronavirus in samples from cell culture supernatants, serum, whole blood, plasma ...
It also includes data on comparative genomics between rats, humans, and mice. ... The RGD hosts rat genomics, genetics, physiology, and functional data. ... The Rat Genome Database API allows developers to programmatically access information and annotations stored in the Rat Genome ... Coronavirus Developer Resource Center. COVID-19 APIs, SDKs, coverage, open source code and other related dev resources » ...
Coronaviruses in rat and bat meat supply chains *Annisa Chand. Nature Food 1, 528 ... This systematic review on antibody response to coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and endemic ... A systematic review of antibody mediated immunity to coronaviruses: kinetics, correlates of protection, and association with ... coronaviruses provides insights into kinetics, correlates of protection, and association with disease severity. ...
Dominic Cummings accused of being Downing Street Chatty Rat leaker. Dominic Cummings was on Thursday night named by Downing ... Coronavirus: UK medical officials snubbed offers from top institutions to boost testing. Read full article. ... Coronavirus: what happened today. Click here to sign up to the latest news, advice and information with our daily Catch-up ... Latest coronavirus news, updates and advice. Live: Follow all the latest updates from the UK and around the world ...
Desert Rats in one of the biggest exercises of its kind in a decade on ITV News, videos, stories and all the latest Anglia news ... What is the strain of coronavirus known as Covid-19 and what are the symptoms? ... Desert Rats training on Salisbury Plain in Wiltshire Credit: ITV News Anglia. "Its a very large training area. Theres lots of ... Desert Rats in one of the biggest exercises of its kind in a decade. Credit: ITV News Anglia. More than two thousand soldiers ...
Orkin lists Hartford as one of rattiest cities in US; pandemic could be affecting rat population ... The New Hampshire House, whose 400 members are second in size only to the U.S. House, has continue to meet despite coronavirus ... The number of confirmed coronavirus cases is increasing. In the U.S., the total has topped 1,200, with three dozen deaths. ... Judith Spang has been quarantined for more than a week because she recently traveled to Italy, where the coronavirus has hit ...
Replication of this SARS coronavirus (SCV) occurs mainly in the lower respiratory tract, and causes diffuse alveolar damage2,7, ... Seoul Virus Tropism and Pathology in Naturally Infected Feeder Rats *Miriam Maas ... A novel coronavirus associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome. N. Engl. J. Med. 348, 1953-1966 (2003). ... The primary cause of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a newly discovered coronavirus1,2,3,4,5,6,7. Replication of ...
... and other businesses during the coronavirus pandemic has reportedly lead to an increase in aggressiveness in rats as they ... Rats are not believed to carry the coronavirus but they do carry dozens of other diseases. ... NYC rats are desperate. New York City rats are getting more aggressive because of a lack of enough food. One exterminator told ... Warning about ravenous rats. New York City rats usually have plenty to eat from the food scraps they find from restaurant ...
Coronavirus: What to know now and what we can learn. * ONE World: Global pandemic demands global response. ... Yes, you read that right: rats. To most people, the sight of a giant rat is disgusting. But for many scientists, these rats are ... Enter the super-rat!. African rats are being trained by a Belgium nongovernmental organization to detect TB within minutes in ... And you thought the rats were gross!). The rats are presented with ten samples of this mucus, or sputum, and when they detect ...
... have tested positive for coronavirus, a health officer said on Thursday. ... The Chinese employees of the firm had come to the Chakan plant before the coronavirus-induced lockdown was enforced and were ... have tested positive for coronavirus, a health officer said on Thursday. ...
Molecular Biologist Says Coronavirus Could Have Leaked From Wuhan Biolab. Science & Tech ... Using rat heart cells and silicone polymer, researchers have bioengineered a "jellyfish" that knows how to swim. ... Swimming Jellyfish Built out of Rat Cells & Silicone. July 24, 2012 Comments ... Harvard Doctor Tells White House Talking And Breathing Is Spreading Coronavirus. Science & Tech ...
CureVac-GSK coronavirus variant vaccine generates good immune response in rats. A second-generation COVID-19 vaccine developed ... produced a high level of immune response in a trial in rats, the companies said on Thursday. CureVac in February said it would ... by CureVac and GlaxoSmithKline, designed to protect against coronavirus variants, ...
... scientists have identified two new species of shrew-rat, an animal whose limited habitat plays host to remarkable biodiversity. ... Coronavirus News Animals Worms lure two new species of hopping rats out of obscurity. The rodents exemplify the rich ... NEW FACES Two new species of shrew-rat (Rhynchomys migan illustrated at left, R. labo at right) were found high up on mountain ...
... tropical weather conditions for the Maha Rat area. ... Maha Rat Weather Forecasts. Weather Underground provides local ... Coronavirus. This data is only available for US locations currently.. View on WunderMap. Coronavirus Preparedness. ... Maha Rat, Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya, Thailand Weather Conditionsstar_ratehome. 82 °F. Don Mueang International Airport Station, ...
An analysis of mitochondrial DNA from Pacific rats supports a theory that ancestors of todays Polynesians migrated from ... A new genetic analysis of Pacific rats, which canoe-traveling Lapita colonists brought with them for food and introduced to ... Wood carving depicts an ancestral Polynesian colonist of Oceania accompanied by Pacific rats, which are now offering genetic ... A mutation-rich stretch of the rats mitochondrial DNA exhibits three geographically distinct nucleotide-sequence patterns, the ...
An 8-year-old Menifee girl is recovering from Rat Bite Fever at Rady Childrens Hospital. Her mother says she was at deaths ... STOLEN Coronavirus Pandemic Local Listen: NBC 7s Podcasts NBC 7 Community NBC 7 Responds Down to Earth With Dagmar Military ... She wasnt bitten but somehow, perhaps a break in her skin, either rat saliva or urine was transferred and in it was Rat Bite ... Parent, Doctor Warn of Rat Bite Fever After 8-Year-Olds Brush With Death By Dave Summers • Published May 31, 2019. • Updated ...
... which is very long in rat years - is due to better-constructed proteins. ... Researchers Draw More Links between Vaping, Smoking, Young People, and Coronavirus URMC Researchers Receive New Support to ... which is very long in rat years - is due to better-constructed proteins. ...
Is Swedens coronavirus strategy a cautionary tale or a success story? * Everything you need to know about Russias coronavirus ... Hearing restored in rats by modifying ear cells to respond to light. ... Sarah Gilbert on how her team is making the Oxford coronavirus vaccine. ...
These days, there is a lot of anxiety inherent in living in the time of the coronavirus pandemic and COVID-19. Here are tips on ... As coronavirus surges across the US, only 2 states are trending in the right direction. ... Drugmaker Pfizer has plans to start testing its experimental coronavirus vaccine in children as young as 12, and parents have ... For people with anxiety disorders, here are tips on coping with coronavirus pandemic. ...
  • NEW YORK - The lack of available food sources due to the shutdown of bars, restaurants, and other businesses during the coronavirus pandemic has reportedly lead to an increase in aggressiveness in rats as they become desperate for food. (ktvu.com)
  • Here's what experts have to say about washing bedding during the coronavirus pandemic. (columbustelegram.com)
  • This is the state of affairs all across America nearly three months after quarantines, lockdowns, and stay-at-home orders were first imposed to "flatten the curve" of the coronavirus pandemic. (reason.com)
  • The coronavirus pandemic has also led some businesses to sell products they claim can fight the virus. (yahoo.com)
  • THE HAGUE, Netherlands (AP) - The Dutch government plans to invest in protecting jobs and businesses during the coronavirus crisis but warned Tuesday as it laid out its spending plans for the coming year that the Netherlands must brace for the harsh economic impact of the pandemic. (beatricedailysun.com)
  • Movement to new areas and cannibalism are known rat behaviors, made obvious on a large scale during this pandemic. (cornell.edu)
  • The Coronavirus pandemic will not create super rats, but can help us in the fight to reduce their populations and impacts - if we choose to do so. (cornell.edu)
  • The global case tally for the coronavirus illness COVID-19 climbed to 9.5 million on Thursday, a day after the U.S. recorded its highest one-day peak since late April and cases continued to climb in Brazil, Mexico and other countries, in the latest indication that the pandemic is far from contained. (marketwatch.com)
  • Zoonotic species such as Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the aetiological agent of the COVID-19 pandemic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Residents living in rural and coastal towns around Wales have erected signs urging tourists to stay away during the coronavirus outbreak after destinations saw a huge rise in visitors at the weekend. (itv.com)
  • Stay up to date on the coronavirus outbreak by signing up to our newsletter today. (livescience.com)
  • An outbreak of Seoul virus linked to pet rats had infected at least 13 people as of Feb. 15. (avma.org)
  • As an entomologist that specializes in pest management, the Coronavirus outbreak has resulted in some unique concerns. (cornell.edu)
  • Click here to see our full coverage of the coronavirus outbreak. (staradvertiser.com)
  • The deadly coronavirus has been finally named by the World Health Organisation more than six weeks after its outbreak. (dailystar.co.uk)
  • In a report published to their website it said: 'To fight further spread of the new coronavirus outbreak in China and globally, and protect states with weaker health systems, the international community has launched a US$675 million preparedness and response plan covering the months of February through to April 2020. (dailystar.co.uk)
  • A second-generation COVID-19 vaccine developed by CureVac and GlaxoSmithKline, designed to protect against coronavirus variants, produced a high level of immune response in a trial in rats, the companies said on Thursday. (yahoo.com)
  • An effective vaccine against enteric bovine coronavirus (BCV) must be able to induce mucosal immunity. (illinois.edu)
  • Synthetic biology may offer a "universal coronavirus vaccine" that can be quickly modified to combat future mutated forms at the speed of light. (abovetopsecret.com)
  • Ad5 is also considered a good choice if you want your payloads delivered to the liver and not much of anywhere else - it tends to concentrate there, and it wouldn't surprise me if a lot of the coronavirus protein production with the CanSino vaccine is taking place in that tissue. (sciencemag.org)
  • The Missouri Senate chamber sits empty on Thursday, March 12, 2020, in Jefferson City, Missouri, after senators adjourned for the day and announced they would not reconvene in a full session until at least March 30 because of concerns over the new coronavirus. (wtnh.com)
  • On the worst day in April 2020, a little more than 5,000 people were in the hospital with coronavirus-related illness. (wgntv.com)
  • Coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly contagious respiratory infection that is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). (genome.jp)
  • Rat coronavirus or Sialodacryoadenitis (SDA) virus is an airborne RNA virus whose primary route of infection is via respiratory aerosol. (zoologix.com)
  • Infection of laboratory rats with this virus has been a major problem in animal facilities in many countries (Lussier and Desc teaux, 1986). (zoologix.com)
  • Because of the airborne route of infection, SDAV is highly contagious in rat colonies. (zoologix.com)
  • This is a bacterial infection caused by exposure to rat urine in flooded urban areas," Fantone told AFP in a telephone interview. (co.ke)
  • New coronavirus is adapting to different populations A genetic analysis of samples from more than 7,500 people infected with COVID-19 suggests that as the new coronavirus spreads quickly around the world, it is adapting to its human hosts, researchers reported on Tuesday in the medical journal Infection, Genetics and Evolution . (canoe.com)
  • Infection can become more severe with other illnesses, and the ovaries and uterus can be infected in female Rat. (hubpages.com)
  • Coronaviruses are grouped in the order Nidovirales, named for the Latin nidus , meaning nest, as all viruses in this order produce a 3' co-terminal nested set of subgenomic mRNA's during infection. (bionity.com)
  • To find out whether rats could out-bite other rodents, a team of scientists from the United Kingdom, France and Japan, used computer models to simulate the bites of rodents. (livescience.com)
  • But rats turned out to be more efficient at gnawing and chewing than the other rodents . (livescience.com)
  • Authorities in New Orleans have launched a campaign to trap and kill the rodents, reported CBS News, after videos on social media showed rats scurrying through empty streets usually thronged with revelers. (sleepingrex.com)
  • Rats and other rodents have become more aggressive in their search for food as people have stopped dining out over coronavirus concerns. (dailystar.co.uk)
  • Food sources have therefore dried up, forcing rats and rodents to fight for their fair share. (dailystar.co.uk)
  • To learn more about how the rodents accomplish this mini-hibernation, scientists led by Thomas Park of the University of Illinois at Chicago put naked mole rats into low-oxygen conditions in the laboratory. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • The researchers - from the Institute of Cytology and Genetics in Russia - examined physiological changes in rodents using an ISIAH rat model, which is short for inherited stress-induced arterial hypertension. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The murine coronavirus-induced demyelinating disease in rodents is one such model for demyelinating disease in humans. (nih.gov)
  • Angiostrongyliasis, commonly known as rat lungworm disease, is caused by a parasitic roundworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis is found in rodents that can pass along the larvae of the worm in their feces. (staradvertiser.com)
  • It also includes data on comparative genomics between rats, humans, and mice. (programmableweb.com)
  • Moreover, using cow-dung could prove counter-productive as bovine faecal matter could contain a coronavirus which might replicate in humans. (yahoo.com)
  • The United States Centres for Disease Control and Prevention has issued a rodent warning after scientists noticed starved rats are becoming more aggressive towards humans. (dailystar.co.uk)
  • Scientists in Japan have designed artificial molecules that when used with rats successfully reversed liver cirrhosis, a serious chronic disease in humans that until now can only be cured by transplants. (freedomsphoenix.com)
  • Before humans were isolating, abundant food waste from restaurants, trash cans in parks, subways and housing areas provided nourishment to sustain large urban rat populations. (cornell.edu)
  • Slugs or snails infected with rat lungworm parasites can pass them along to humans who happen to eat all or part of the tiny animals, often on raw, unwashed produce. (staradvertiser.com)
  • Four to five different currently known strains of coronaviruses infect humans. (bionity.com)
  • Coronaviruses cause colds in humans primarily in the winter and early spring seasons. (bionity.com)
  • Rat coronavirus, or RCV, is a strain or subspecies of Murine coronavirus that infects rats. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, if it infects a stressed or young rat, you will see signs of diarrhea, lethargy, rough hair coat, weight loss, and sometimes fatal heavy bleeding. (hubpages.com)
  • Rats are growing increasingly aggressive in their hunt for food as restaurants across the US remain shuttered to slow the spread of the coronavirus, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has warned. (sleepingrex.com)
  • With India now in a 21-day lockdown to prevent the spread of the coronavirus, there's been plenty of advice shared on how to prevent or cure the disease. (yahoo.com)
  • The Chinese employees of the firm had come to the Chakan plant before the coronavirus-induced lockdown was enforced and were stuck here, he added. (yahoo.com)
  • Economically significant coronaviruses of farm animals include porcine coronavirus (transmissible gastroenteritis, TGE) and bovine coronavirus, which both result in diarrhea in young animals. (bionity.com)
  • Pune, Jun 18 (PTI) Seven persons, including a Chinese national, employed at a Chinese firm in Chakan town of Maharashtra's Pune district, have tested positive for coronavirus, a health officer said on Thursday. (yahoo.com)
  • Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) is a coronavirus that causes an epidemic murine illness with high mortality, especially among colonies of laboratory mice. (bionity.com)
  • T his does not usually infect rats, and protozoa rarely cause disease. (hubpages.com)
  • Coronaviruses primarily infect the upper respiratory and gastrointestinal tract of mammals and birds. (bionity.com)
  • The earliest discovered strains of Rat coronavirus were Sialodacryoadenitis virus, also known as SDAV, and Parker's Rat Coronavirus (PRC). (wikipedia.org)
  • This systematic review on antibody response to coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and endemic coronaviruses provides insights into kinetics, correlates of protection, and association with disease severity. (nature.com)
  • This cross-neutralising feature of the antibody is very interesting and suggests it may have potential in mitigation of diseases caused by future-emerging related coronaviruses, Bosch said. (tribuneindia.com)
  • Parker's rat coronavirus, or PRC and most other rat coronavirus strains cause respiratory illness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rats infected with rat coronavirus begin to show symptoms as early as 5 days, with respiratory involvement and cervical swelling by 7-8 days. (zoologix.com)
  • Newly discovered coronavirus as the primary cause of severe acute respiratory syndrome. (nature.com)
  • Coronavirus as a possible cause of severe acute respiratory syndrome. (nature.com)
  • Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus: another zoonotic betacoronavirus causing SARS-like disease. (nih.gov)
  • The most publicized human coronavirus, SARS-CoV which causes SARS , has a unique pathogenesis because it causes both upper and lower respiratory tract infections and can also cause gastroenteritis . (bionity.com)
  • There are two types of canine coronavirus (CCoV), one that causes mild gastrointestinal disease and one that has been found to cause respiratory disease. (bionity.com)
  • Fragmentary crania, mandibles and molars of Brown Rat (Rattus norvegicus), from an owl pellet. (horniman.ac.uk)
  • Cranium and mandible of Brown Rat (Rattus norvegicus). (horniman.ac.uk)
  • In this study, we examined the induction of systemic and mucosal immune responses to the hAdS vector carrying the BCV HE gene (AdBcHE) following intranasal or enteric immunization of cotton rats. (illinois.edu)
  • Feline enteric coronavirus is a pathogen of minor clinical significance, but spontaneous mutation of this virus can result in feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), a disease associated with high mortality. (bionity.com)
  • Replication of Coronavirus begins with entry to the cell takes place in the cytoplasm in a membrane-protected microenvironment, upon entry to the cell the virus particle is uncoated and the RNA genome is deposited into the cytoplasm. (bionity.com)
  • A MASSIVE hit to the global economy will directly result from the damage the Wuhan coronavirus is currently doing. (peakprosperity.com)
  • Tentative diagnoses showed 41 cases suffer from pneumonia caused by a preliminarily determined new type of coronavirus by Friday, according to the Wuhan Municipal Health Commission. (xinhuanet.com)
  • Sprague-Dawley' male rats were used as experimental systems and were fed with TCMGARs extracts at doses of 30, 100, 300mg/kg body weight for two weeks to test the effect on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced acute liver damage. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The team compared the high BP in 10 male ISIAH rats with a normal BP control group of eight male rats. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Barbering and fight wounds occur mostly in male rats. (hubpages.com)
  • MANILA, Oct 9 - A bacterial epidemic caused by water contaminated with rat urine has hit a flood ravaged region in the northern Philippines, killing six people and overwhelming local hospitals, a health official said Wednesday. (co.ke)
  • The CDC has warned that rats are growing increasingly aggressive amid the coronavirus epidemic, and advised on what people can do to stop infestations in their neighborhoods. (sleepingrex.com)
  • Mountain rescuers warned visitors of Snowdonia National Park they cannot guarantee help amid the coronavirus crisis. (itv.com)
  • During the same period, it expects to miss out on an estimated 16.6 billion euros in income such as taxes because of the coronavirus crisis. (beatricedailysun.com)
  • Significant research efforts have been focused on elucidating the viral pathogenesis of these animal coronaviruses, especially by virologists interested in veterinary and zoonotic diseases. (bionity.com)
  • Lawmakers in Washington state, where the greatest number of U.S. COVID-19 deaths have occurred, were scrambling to pass a budget that includes $200 million for the state's coronavirus response before their 60-day session came to its scheduled adjournment Thursday. (wtnh.com)
  • Rats are not believed to carry the coronavirus but they do carry dozens of other diseases. (ktvu.com)
  • Human embryonic stem cells can partly restore vision in blinded rats, and may offer a source of transplants for people with certain eye diseases, researchers at a U.S. company reported. (freedomsphoenix.com)
  • H ighly contagious, these diseases affect the nose, lungs, Harderian gland (behind the eyes) and salivary glands of rats. (hubpages.com)
  • Coronaviruses also cause a range of diseases in farm animals and domesticated pets, some of which can be serious and are a threat to the farming industry. (bionity.com)
  • The history of coronaviruses is a reflection of the discovery of the diseases caused by coronaviruses and identification of the viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another Round of Coronavirus Lockdowns Might Be Coming. (reason.com)
  • There's probably no better demonstration of the nonsensical nature of America's ongoing coronavirus lockdowns than the scene that played out on Monday at a playground in Brooklyn. (reason.com)
  • The state Health Department said Tuesday there has been another laboratory-confirmed case of rat lungworm disease in an adult visitor to Hawaii island, the seventh so far this year. (staradvertiser.com)
  • Another case of rat lungworm disease has been confirmed in an adult visitor to Hawaii island. (staradvertiser.com)
  • It resulted in rodent cannibalism which has emerged as rats move into new territories looking for food. (dailystar.co.uk)
  • Sensational headlines talk of angry, mutant super rats, but what is really happening? (cornell.edu)
  • This is a case study on tenets of the Theory of Natural Selection, but is it enough to change the evolutionary trajectory of rats to create super rats? (cornell.edu)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has tips for keeping rats at bay including sealing up access into homes and businesses, removing debris and heavy vegetation, keeping garbage in tightly covered bins, and removing pet and bird food from their yards. (ktvu.com)
  • Rat Bite Fever," the disease that led to a multi-million dollar pet store lawsuit in San Diego, sent another child to the emergency room. (nbcsandiego.com)
  • Children may fall in love with unusual pets, but if it's a rat, the sick little girl's mother and doctors want parents to know the risks of disease and what they look like. (nbcsandiego.com)
  • In 2013, 10 year old Aidan Pankey died of the disease less than two weeks after his grandmother bought him a rat from Petco. (nbcsandiego.com)
  • APOPO, which also trains rats to sniff out land mines, this past fall received a USAID Development Innovations Ventures Grant to expand its work with rats and disease detection. (cpr.org)
  • The rats, which can grow to 3 feet long (including tail), are trained and ready for disease-sniffing at the age of 9 months. (cpr.org)
  • COVID-19 is a new coronavirus disease that's prompted a sea change in the way people go about their daily lives . (wbez.org)
  • The seventh individual was an adult U.S. mainland resident traveling in West Hawaii when he or she was infected with the parasite causing rat lungworm disease. (staradvertiser.com)
  • When in doubt, cooking food by boiling for three to five minutes or heating to an internal temperature of 165 degrees Fahrenheit for at least 15 seconds can kill the parasite that causes rat lungworm disease. (staradvertiser.com)
  • More information about rat lungworm disease and how to prevent its spread is available from the DOH website . (staradvertiser.com)
  • Washing fresh fruits and vegetables carefully no matter where they come from is an important step to preventing rat lungworm disease," said Dr. Sarah Park, state epidemiologist, in a news release. (staradvertiser.com)
  • Angiostrongyliasis, commonly known as rat lungworm disease, is caused by a parasitic roundworm and can have debilitating effects on an infected person's brain and spinal cord. (staradvertiser.com)
  • Few infectious agents found in laboratory mice and rats today cause overt, clinical disease. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Arthur Frederick Schalk and Merle C. Fawn at the North Dakota Agricultural College were the first to report what was later identified as coronavirus disease in chickens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Do not create viruses like coronavirus, which pose a danger to humanity, by having [meat of] different kinds of animals. (yahoo.com)
  • [1] Coronaviruses are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome and a helical symmetry. (bionity.com)
  • Making a crucial comparison in 1967, June Almeida and David Tyrrell invented the collective name coronavirus, as all those viruses were characterised by solar corona-like projections (called spikes) on their surfaces. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coronaviruses also have a protein known as a replicase encoded in its genome which allows the RNA viral genome to be translated into RNA through using the host cells machinery. (bionity.com)
  • Mayor de Blasio announced checkpoints for the bridge-and-tunnel crowd to comply with the state's mandatory 14-day coronavirus quarantine rule for those arriving from COVID-19 hotspots. (nydailynews.com)
  • Lussier, G. and Desc teaux, J.P. (1986) Prevalence of natural virus infections in laboratory mice and rats used in Canada. (zoologix.com)
  • According to Robin Toal, community manager at APOPO, "Our rats can screen nearly 100 samples in 20 minutes compared to a laboratory technician, who takes around four days to do that many. (cpr.org)
  • The significance and economic impact of coronaviruses as causative agents of the common cold are hard to assess because, unlike rhinoviruses (another common cold virus), human coronaviruses are difficult to grow in the laboratory. (bionity.com)
  • But for many scientists, these rats are extremely helpful. (one.org)
  • Scientists at the university of Florida taught the 'brain', which was grown from 25,000 neural cells extracted from a rat embryo, to pilot an F-22 jet simulator. (theregister.com)
  • On the top of the robot, the scientists placed muscle cells from rat hearts. (livescience.com)
  • The scientists induced stress-sensitive hypertension in ISIAH rats, which then developed high BP at 4-6 weeks of age. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In ISIAH rats, the scientists also noticed a decrease in renal vascular resistance that occurred with age. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Scientists in Malaysia have said they were "stunned" to discover monkeys regularly killing and eating rats on palm oil plantations, providing a natural anti-pest measure in the country, which is responsible for 30% of the world's palm oil production. (yahoo.com)
  • A report released in Current Biology on Monday, showed that southern pig-tailed macaques, generally thought to eat mainly fruit plus occasionally lizards and birds, foraged for rats on plantations. (yahoo.com)
  • I was stunned when I first observed that macaques feed on rats in plantations," said Nadine Ruppert, senior zoology lecturer at University Sains Malaysia, who co-wrote the report. (yahoo.com)
  • Medical officials have ignored offers of help from some of the UK's leading scientific institutions to boost Britain's rate of coronavirus testing , it has been claimed. (yahoo.com)
  • The strongest rats will start killing the weaker rats to get that protein instead of what the restaurant was providing, or they start moving down blocks or to areas where people have never seen rats before. (ktvu.com)
  • A new 'army' of rats comes in, and whichever army has the strongest rats is going to conquer that area. (dailystar.co.uk)
  • He said his department had 119 of the crucial PCR machines, or thermal cyclers, used to identify tell-tale genetic signs of coronavirus, but that health officials had accepted only one. (yahoo.com)
  • Wood carving depicts an ancestral Polynesian colonist of Oceania accompanied by Pacific rats, which are now offering genetic clues to the human settlement of the region. (sciencenews.org)
  • A new genetic analysis of Pacific rats, which canoe-traveling Lapita colonists brought with them for food and introduced to Oceania, adds weight to an earlier theory that Lapita mariners based in Southeast Asia moved across the region in a series of migrations, from 6,000 to 3,000 years ago. (sciencenews.org)
  • They found almost 200 recurrent genetic mutations of the new coronavirus - SARS-CoV-2 - that show how it may be evolving as it spreads in people. (canoe.com)
  • In its place goes genetic instructions to make coronavirus proteins, and when your infected cells do that, it will set off an immune response. (sciencemag.org)
  • Pest control officials say that some rats are resorting to cannibalism and infanticide to survive. (sleepingrex.com)
  • The rat coronavirus is a single-stranded RNA virus with positive polarity that is approximately 27 to 33 kb long. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1 in 4 people who get the coronavirus may show no symptoms but still be contagious. (yahoo.com)
  • What is the strain of coronavirus known as Covid-19 and what are the symptoms? (itv.com)
  • For most people, the new coronavirus causes only mild or moderate symptoms, such as fever and cough. (wtnh.com)
  • This week, University of Rochester biologists showed that the rodent's longevity - they live a healthy 30 years, which is very long in rat years - is due to better-constructed proteins. (rochester.edu)
  • In the previous study, when the research team exposed rat brain cells to SSRIs, the drug accumulated in the lipid rafts, and G proteins moved out of the rafts. (psychcentral.com)
  • Proteins that contribute to the overall structure of all coronaviruses are the spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N). In the specific case of SARS ( see below ), a defined receptor-binding domain on S mediates the attachment of the virus to its cellular receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). (bionity.com)
  • On being informed, the supervisor and senior TASMAC officials carried out an investigation, which revealed the presence of rats inside the shop, they said. (yahoo.com)
  • They cannot be distinguished morphologically from other members of the genus Coronavirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coronavirus is a genus of animal virus belonging to the family Coronaviridae . (bionity.com)
  • A sign which has appeared in Bala reads 'go home, rats' - signalling the strength of feeling by people living in the area. (itv.com)
  • People are going to start seeing these rats and they'll say, 'Where did these rats come from? (ktvu.com)
  • To most people, the sight of a giant rat is disgusting. (one.org)
  • Staffer Albert Carol ("Uncle Albert"), who is charged with socializing all the facility's baby rats, exposes them to people, tastes, smells - and a variety of situations. (cpr.org)
  • Living in poorly ventilated tunnels with hundreds of other animals, a naked mole rat often has to contend with carbon dioxide levels as high as 10 percent, which is lethal to people. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Across the country, as people retreated to their homes to isolate, once cryptic rats emerged to forage in broad daylight. (cornell.edu)
  • While it may feel longer, people have only been isolating for about two months in the US, enough time for one to two rat generations. (cornell.edu)
  • Rats and their close relatives, including mice, make up nearly a quarter of known mammal species. (livescience.com)
  • Others, a group called myomorphs that includes rats and mice, have taken the middle road by staying flexible and adapted to doing both at different times. (livescience.com)
  • This goes some way to explaining why rats and mice are so successful, as well as destructive, as their versatile feeding behavior allows them to eat through a wide variety of materials efficiently. (livescience.com)
  • One of the most important variables is the effect of infectious agents on research mice and rats. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • The first (1880-1950) was when mice and rats became common research animals. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • The Rat Genome Database API allows developers to programmatically access information and annotations stored in the Rat Genome Database (RGD). (programmableweb.com)
  • The genome sequence of the SARS-associated coronavirus. (nature.com)
  • [2] Members of the group 2 coronaviruses also have a shorter spike-like protein called hemagglutinin esterase (HE) encoded in their genome, but for some reason this protein is not always brought to expression (produced) in the cell. (bionity.com)
  • The Coronavirus genome has a 5' methylated cap and a 3'polyadenylated-A tail to make it look as much like the host RNA as possible. (bionity.com)
  • Is airborne coronavirus transmission possible? (yahoo.com)
  • So these rats are now hungry and turning on each other. (ktvu.com)
  • Rats have a very low tolerance for being hungry," said Corrigan to NJ.com. (ktvu.com)
  • Prior to the discovery of SARS-CoV, MHV had been the best-studied coronavirus both in vivo and in vitro as well as at the molecular level. (bionity.com)
  • Bats are found to be the richest source of different species of coronaviruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The became known as infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), but later officially renamed as Avian coronavirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • In several major cities in the US, reports have emerged of desperate rats swarming the streets in the search for food. (sleepingrex.com)