Coronavirus: A genus of the family CORONAVIRIDAE which causes respiratory or gastrointestinal disease in a variety of vertebrates.Coronavirus Infections: Virus diseases caused by the CORONAVIRUS genus. Some specifics include transmissible enteritis of turkeys (ENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF TURKEYS); FELINE INFECTIOUS PERITONITIS; and transmissible gastroenteritis of swine (GASTROENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF SWINE).Coronavirus 229E, Human: A species in the genus CORONAVIRUS causing the common cold and possibly nervous system infections in humans. It lacks hemagglutinin-esterase.Coronavirus, Bovine: A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting neonatal calves, presenting as acute diarrhea, and frequently leading to death.Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus: A class I viral fusion protein that forms the characteristic spikes, or peplomers, found on the viral surface that mediate virus attachment, fusion, and entry into the host cell. During virus maturation, it is cleaved into two subunits: S1, which binds to receptors in the host cell, and S2, which mediates membrane fusion.SARS Virus: A species of CORONAVIRUS causing atypical respiratory disease (SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME) in humans. The organism is believed to have first emerged in Guangdong Province, China, in 2002. The natural host is the Chinese horseshoe bat, RHINOLOPHUS sinicus.Coronavirus OC43, Human: A species in the genus CORONAVIRUS causing the common cold and possibly nervous system infections in humans. It contains hemagglutinin-esterase.Coronavirus, Feline: A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting cats of all ages and commonly found in catteries and zoos. Cats are often found carrying the virus but only a small proportion develop disease. Feline coronavirus and Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) are virtually the same virus in genetic and antigenetic terms, and are morphologically indistinguishable. Since they only differ in their disease potential (with FIPV causing a more serious illness), they are considered biotypes of each other.Coronaviridae: Spherical RNA viruses, in the order NIDOVIRALES, infecting a wide range of animals including humans. Transmission is by fecal-oral and respiratory routes. Mechanical transmission is also common. There are two genera: CORONAVIRUS and TOROVIRUS.Coronavirus, Canine: A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting dogs. Onset of symptoms is usually sudden and includes vomiting, diarrhea, and dehydration.Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome: A viral disorder characterized by high FEVER, dry COUGH, shortness of breath (DYSPNEA) or breathing difficulties, and atypical PNEUMONIA. A virus in the genus CORONAVIRUS is the suspected agent.Coronaviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by CORONAVIRIDAE.Murine hepatitis virus: A species of the CORONAVIRUS genus causing hepatitis in mice. Four strains have been identified as MHV 1, MHV 2, MHV 3, and MHV 4 (also known as MHV-JHM, which is neurotropic and causes disseminated encephalomyelitis with demyelination as well as focal liver necrosis).Transmissible gastroenteritis virus: A species of CORONAVIRUS causing a fatal disease to pigs under 3 weeks old.Infectious bronchitis virus: A species of CORONAVIRUS causing infections in chickens and possibly pheasants. Chicks up to four weeks old are the most severely affected.Coronavirus NL63, Human: A species in the genus CORONAVIRUS causing upper and lower RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS. It shares the receptor used by the SARS VIRUS.Nucleocapsid Proteins: Viral proteins found in either the NUCLEOCAPSID or the viral core (VIRAL CORE PROTEINS).Coronavirus, Rat: A species of CORONAVIRUS causing pneumonia in newborn rats but a clinically inapparent infection in adults. It is separate but antigenically related to MURINE HEPATITIS VIRUS.Coronavirus, Turkey: A species of CORONAVIRUS causing enteritis in turkeys and pullets.Porcine Respiratory Coronavirus: A mutant strain of TRANSMISSIBLE GASTROENTERITIS VIRUS causing mild or subclinical respiratory infections in young SWINE. It may also play a role in post-weaning porcine respiratory disease complex, especially when combined with other respiratory agents.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Feline Infectious Peritonitis: Common coronavirus infection of cats caused by the feline infectious peritonitis virus (CORONAVIRUS, FELINE). The disease is characterized by a long incubation period, fever, depression, loss of appetite, wasting, and progressive abdominal enlargement. Infection of cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage appears to be essential in FIP pathogenesis.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Gastroenteritis, Transmissible, of Swine: A condition of chronic gastroenteritis in adult pigs and fatal gastroenteritis in piglets caused by a CORONAVIRUS.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Viverridae: The family of civets which are small and medium-sized Old World carnivores, often striped or spotted.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.RNA Replicase: An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Enteritis, Transmissible, of Turkeys: An acute, highly contagious virus disease of turkeys characterized by chilling, anorexia, decreased water intake, diarrhea, dehydration and weight loss. The infectious agent is a CORONAVIRUS.Viral Matrix Proteins: Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.Viral Nonstructural Proteins: Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.Antigens, CD13: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.Nucleocapsid: A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Middle East: The region of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)Communicable Diseases, Emerging: Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.Defective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.Cysteine Endopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.Virus Internalization: The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.Hepatitis, Viral, Animal: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in animals due to viral infection.Chiroptera: Order of mammals whose members are adapted for flight. It includes bats, flying foxes, and fruit bats.Chronology as Topic: The temporal sequence of events that have occurred.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Dysentery: Acute inflammation of the intestine associated with infectious DIARRHEA of various etiologies, generally acquired by eating contaminated food containing TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL derived from BACTERIA or other microorganisms. Dysentery is characterized initially by watery FECES then by bloody mucoid stools. It is often associated with ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; and DEHYDRATION.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Central Nervous System Viral Diseases: Viral infections of the brain, spinal cord, meninges, or perimeningeal spaces.Polyproteins: Proteins which are synthesized as a single polymer and then cleaved into several distinct proteins.Nidovirales: An order comprising three families of eukaryotic viruses possessing linear, nonsegmented, positive sense RNA genomes. The families are CORONAVIRIDAE; ARTERIVIRIDAE; and RONIVIRIDAE.Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A: A peptidyl-dipeptidase that catalyzes the release of a C-terminal dipeptide, -Xaa-*-Xbb-Xcc, when neither Xaa nor Xbb is Pro. It is a Cl(-)-dependent, zinc glycoprotein that is generally membrane-bound and active at neutral pH. It may also have endopeptidase activity on some substrates. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.4.15.1.Saudi ArabiaSwine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Viral Tropism: The specificity of a virus for infecting a particular type of cell or tissue.Virus Attachment: The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.Cat Diseases: Diseases of the domestic cat (Felis catus or F. domesticus). This term does not include diseases of the so-called big cats such as CHEETAHS; LIONS; tigers, cougars, panthers, leopards, and other Felidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Hemagglutinins, Viral: Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral: Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Camels: Hoofed mammals with four legs, a big-lipped snout, and a humped back belonging to the family Camelidae.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Nandiniidae: A family in the suborder Feliformia, order CARNIVORA, comprising one genus Nandinia binotata.Encephalomyelitis: A general term indicating inflammation of the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD, often used to indicate an infectious process, but also applicable to a variety of autoimmune and toxic-metabolic conditions. There is significant overlap regarding the usage of this term and ENCEPHALITIS in the literature.Pneumonia, Viral: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Common Cold: A catarrhal disorder of the upper respiratory tract, which may be viral or a mixed infection. It generally involves a runny nose, nasal congestion, and sneezing.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Arterivirus: A genus of the family ARTERIVIRIDAE, in the order NIDOVIRALES. The type species is ARTERITIS VIRUS, EQUINE.Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Papain: A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Carica papaya. It is also the name used for a purified mixture of papain and CHYMOPAPAIN that is used as a topical enzymatic debriding agent. EC 3.4.22.2.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Viral Fusion Proteins: Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.Cell Fusion: Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.Helper Viruses: Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.Hong Kong: The former British crown colony located off the southeast coast of China, comprised of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and New Territories. The three sites were ceded to the British by the Chinese respectively in 1841, 1860, and 1898. Hong Kong reverted to China in July 1997. The name represents the Cantonese pronunciation of the Chinese xianggang, fragrant port, from xiang, perfume and gang, port or harbor, with reference to its currents sweetened by fresh water from a river west of it.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Demyelinating Diseases: Diseases characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin in the central or peripheral nervous system.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Zoonoses: Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Frameshifting, Ribosomal: A directed change in translational READING FRAMES that allows the production of a single protein from two or more OVERLAPPING GENES. The process is programmed by the nucleotide sequence of the MRNA and is sometimes also affected by the secondary or tertiary mRNA structure. It has been described mainly in VIRUSES (especially RETROVIRUSES); RETROTRANSPOSONS; and bacterial insertion elements but also in some cellular genes.Mice, Inbred BALB CDisease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.QatarProtein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Membrane Fusion: The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.Enteritis: Inflammation of any segment of the SMALL INTESTINE.Swine Diseases: Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.Genes, pol: DNA sequences that form the coding region for retroviral enzymes including reverse transcriptase, protease, and endonuclease/integrase. "pol" is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Cinanserin: A serotonin antagonist with limited antihistaminic, anticholinergic, and immunosuppressive activity.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Beluga Whale: The species Delphinapterus leucas, in the family Monodontidae, found primarily in the Arctic Ocean and adjoining seas. They are small WHALES lacking a dorsal fin.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Acetylesterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of acetate esters and water to alcohols and acetate. EC 3.1.1.6.Torovirus: A genus of the family CORONAVIRIDAE characterized by enveloped, peplomer-bearing particles containing an elongated tubular nucleocapsid with helical symmetry. Toroviruses have been found in association with enteric infections in horses (Berne virus), cattle (Breda virus), swine, and humans. Transmission probably takes place via the fecal-oral route.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Animals, ZooEncephalitis, Viral: Inflammation of brain parenchymal tissue as a result of viral infection. Encephalitis may occur as primary or secondary manifestation of TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PARAMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; and ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.5' Untranslated Regions: The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.

Rat coronaviruses infect rat alveolar type I epithelial cells and induce expression of CXC chemokines. (1/8)

We analyzed the ability of two rat coronavirus (RCoV) strains, sialodacryoadenitis virus (SDAV) and Parker's RCoV (RCoV-P), to infect rat alveolar type I cells and induce chemokine expression. Primary rat alveolar type II cells were transdifferentiated into the type I cell phenotype. Type I cells were productively infected with SDAV and RCoV-P, and both live virus and UV-inactivated virus induced mRNA and protein expression of three CXC chemokines: CINC-2, CINC-3, and LIX, which are neutrophil chemoattractants. Dual immunolabeling of type I cells for viral antigen and CXC chemokines showed that chemokines were expressed primarily by uninfected cells. Virus-induced chemokine expression was reduced by the IL-1 receptor antagonist, suggesting that IL-1 produced by infected cells induces uninfected cells to express chemokines. Primary cultures of alveolar epithelial cells are an important model for the early events in viral infection that lead to pulmonary inflammation.  (+info)

Rat respiratory coronavirus infection: replication in airway and alveolar epithelial cells and the innate immune response. (2/8)

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Effect of time of exposure to rat coronavirus and Mycoplasma pulmonis on respiratory tract lesions in the Wistar rat. (3/8)

The effects of time of exposure on the progression of pulmonary lesions in rats inoculated with Mycoplasma pulmonis and the rat coronavirus, sialodacryoadenitis virus (SDAV) were studied, using six groups of 18 SPF Wistar rats (n = 108). Rats were inoculated intranasally as follows: Group 1, sterile medium only; Group 2, sterile medium followed one week later by 150 TCID50 SDAV; Group 3, sterile medium followed by 10(5.7) colony forming units of M. pulmonis; Group 4, SDAV followed one week later by M. pulmonis; Group 5, M. pulmonis followed one week later by SDAV; Group 6, M. pulmonis followed two weeks later by SDAV. Six rats from each group were euthanized at one, two and three weeks after the final inoculation. In a separate experiment, six additional animals were inoculated in each of groups 3, 5 and 6 (n = 18) and were sampled at five weeks after they had received M. pulmonis. Bronchoalveolar lavage and quantitative lung mycoplasma cultures were conducted on two-thirds of the rats. Histopathological examination and scoring of lesion severity were performed on all animals. Based on the prevalence and extent of histopathological lesions, bronchoalveolar lavage cell numbers, neutrophil differential cell counts and the isolation of M. pulmonis, the most severe disease occurred in the groups that received both agents. There was no significant difference in lesion severity between the groups receiving both agents other than in those examined during the acute stages of SDAV infection. Based on these results, it is evident that SDAV enhances lower respiratory tract disease in Wistar rats whether exposure occurs at one week prior to or at various intervals following M. pulmonis infections.  (+info)

Morphologic changes in the nasal cavity associated with sialodacryoadenitis virus infection in the Wistar rat. (4/8)

A sequential study of lesions of the nasal cavity associated with sialodacryoadenitis virus (SDAV) infection was made in the laboratory rat. Wistar rats were intranasally inoculated with approximately 10(3) TCID50 of the coronavirus SDAV. Transverse sections of four regions of the nasal cavity from inoculated and control animals were examined by light microscopy and immunohistochemistry at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 14 days postinoculation (PI). Lesions were observed in the following regions of the upper respiratory tract: respiratory epithelium, transitional epithelium, olfactory epithelium, nasolacrimal duct, vomeronasal organ, and the submucosal glands of the nasal passages. In general, in structures lined by ciliated epithelial cells, there was focal to segmental necrosis with exfoliation of affected cells and polymorphonuclear cell infiltration during the acute stages, progressing to squamous metaplasia during the reparative stages. Repair in these regions was essentially complete by 14 days PI. In the olfactory epithelium and the vomeronasal organ, there was interstitial edema with necrosis and exfoliation of epithelial cells and minimal to moderate inflammatory cell response during the acute stages. Residual reparative lesions were still evident in the olfactory epithelium, the columnar epithelium and neuroepithelium of the vomeronasal organ, and the nasolacrimal duct at 14 days PI. Viral antigen was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry in all regions during the acute stages of the disease, with the exception of the vomeronasal organ. In view of these findings, infections of the respiratory tract with viruses such as SDAV could have significant effects on functions such as olfaction and chemoreception for > or = 2 weeks postexposure in this species.  (+info)

Coronavirus infections in the laboratory rat: degree of cross protection following immunization with a heterologous strain. (5/8)

One hundred and twenty-one specific pathogen-free male Wistar rats eight to ten weeks of age were used to evaluate the efficacy of Parker's rat coronavirus (PRC) in affording cross protection on subsequent challenge with virulent sialodacryoadenitis (SDA) virus. Sixty-two animals were inoculated intranasally on day 0 and 21 days later with approximately 10(2) median tissue culture infective doses (TCID50) of the tenth passage of PRC replicated in L-2 cells. Animals were selected at random postvaccination to evaluate the safety and efficacy of PRC by histopathology, immunohistochemistry and serology. At three and six months postvaccination (PV), vaccinated and seronegative control rats were inoculated intranasally with approximately 10(3) TCID50 doses of virulent SDA virus. Challenged rats were then killed at 6, 10 and 14 days postchallenge and necropsied. Evaluations were based on lesion indices in lacrimal and salivary glands and respiratory tract, the presence of viral antigen by immunohistochemistry, and antibody response. Lesions were observed in rats killed PV, but in general, they were significantly reduced compared with those present in seronegative animals post-exposure to virulent SDA virus (p < or = 0.05). However, they were still considered to be an unacceptable level for a routine vaccination procedure. Potvaccination antibody titers to rat coronavirus were evident in all animals tested at three or six months prior to challenge with SDA virus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)  (+info)

Preliminary characterization of the structural proteins of the coronaviruses, sialodacryoadenitis virus and Parker's rat coronavirus. (6/8)

A procedure was developed for the partial purification of the rat coronaviruses, sialodacryoadenitis virus (SDAV) and Parker's rat coronavirus (PRC). The SDAV and PRC were replicated in L-2 cell monolayer cultures, precipitated with ammonium sulphate, and further concentrated using sucrose density gradient centrifugation. The major SDAV and PRC proteins were identified by immunoblotting and compared with those of the JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus (MHV-JHM). Monoclonal antibodies (MAb) against the M protein of JHM recognized proteins interpreted to be slightly smaller in immunoblots of SDAV and PRC (22.8 vs 23K for JHM). Similarly, a monoclonal antibody against the JHM N protein reacted with proteins of 53K in SDAV and PRC (vs 56 K for JHM). Polyclonal antisera to all three viruses also cross-reacted with the M and N proteins. Some cross-reactivity amongst the S proteins was observed. Based on these data, the structural proteins of the rat coronaviruses, SDAV and PRC are closely related to those of MHV-JHM.  (+info)

Comparative severity of respiratory lesions of sialodacryoadenitis virus and Sendai virus infections in LEW and F344 rats. (7/8)

In several chronic diseases, lesions are more severe in LEW rats than in F344 rats. To determine whether or not acute viral diseases also are more severe in LEW rats than in F344 rats, we inoculated 6-7-week-old LEW and F344 rats with 10(7.2) cell culture infective units of sialodacryoadenitis virus or 10(4.7) infective units of Sendai virus. Twenty-four rats of each strain were given each virus. Lesions in nasal passages, tracheas, intrapulmonary airways, and pulmonary alveoli in 6 or 12 rats inoculated with each virus were assessed by scoring 5, 10, and 14 days after inoculation. Both viruses caused typical patchy necrotizing rhinitis, tracheitis, bronchitis, and bronchiolitis, with multifocal pneumonitis, in rats of both strains. Mean lesion indices for LEW rats given sialodacryoadenitis virus were significantly different from those for F344 rats for nasal passages on days 10 (0.999 vs. 0.680) and 14 (0.736 vs. 0.278), bronchi on day 5 (0.479 vs. 0.361), and alveoli on day 5 (0.677 vs. 0.275). Lesion indices for LEW rats given Sendai virus were significantly different from those for F344 rats for nasal passages on days 10 (1.000 vs. 0.611) and 14 (0.778 vs. 0.583); trachea on day 10 (0.625 vs. 0.028); bronchi on days 5 (0.476 vs. 0.331), 10 (0.123 vs. 0.013), and 14 (0.038 vs. 0); and alveoli on days 5 (0.413 vs. 0.114) and 10 (0.185 vs. 0.020). Thus, at the tested doses, both viruses caused more severe respiratory tract lesions in LEW rats than in F344 rats.  (+info)

Replication of rat coronaviruses in intestinal cell line, RCN-9, derived from F344 rats. (8/8)

To examine the susceptibility of the epithelial cell line to rat coronavirus (RCV), we inoculated sialodacryoadenitis virus and Parker's RCV into five cell lines; JTC-19, rat L2, LLC, RCN-9 and LBC cells originating in the lungs, intestines and mammary tumors of rodents. Both RCVs were replicated in LBC and RCN-9 cells, but not in the others. The infectivity titers of both RCVs grown in RCN-9 cells were significantly higher than those in LBC cells in every passage (2.5-3.9 log rate). Both RCVs replicated in LBC cells showed higher tropism to RCN-9 cells than to LBC cells, suggesting that RCN-9 cells are more suitable for the replication of RCVs than LBC cells. The RCN-9 cell line would be useful for the investigation of RCV infection in rodents.  (+info)

Rats infected with rat coronavirus begin to show symptoms as early as 5 days, with respiratory involvement and cervical swelling by 7-8 days. The infection often presents as a characteristic inflammation of submaxillary and parotid salivary glands, which can result in tissue necrosis. Cervical lymph nodes and/or the harderian and intraorbital lacrimal glands behind the eyes may also be affected. As a result, bulging eyes, ocular lesions, facial swelling, lacerations, porphyrin discharge, bleeding or squinting due to photosensitivity may be observed. Sometimes symptoms may give the appearance of a shortened or swollen neck. In extreme cases, eyesight can be lost or compromised permanently due to the infection or from self-mutilation caused by scratching. Eye bulging may take several weeks to subside due to retro-orbital swelling ...
Consistent with a previous report on SDAV structural proteins (1), the coding sequences for the S, M, and N proteins were identified. Downstream of the S-protein gene, two overlapping potentially nonstructural-protein genes were located, and these were predicted to encode 15- and 12.6-kDa nonstructural proteins. A small internal ORF (ORF7b) was also found in the +2 frame within the N-protein-coding sequence. Following the N-protein gene, the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) was identified to be 298 nucleotides, followed by a stretch of polyadenylation tail.. The nonstructural NS2 gene, located immediately downstream of RNA polymerase gene 1b, has been shown to be heterogeneous in coronavirus. In MHV JHM variant Wb1, a large portion of the 5′ end of the NS2 gene is deleted, and as a result, the NS2 protein is not expressed (29). However, in SDAV the NS2 nonstructural-protein gene was identified to code for a polypeptide of 274 amino acids.. Similar to the NS2 gene, the hemagglutinin-esterase (HE) ...
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In an accompanying editorial, Kenneth McIntosh of Harvard University commented that discovery of a new human respiratory coronavirus would not be surprising, since studies in the 1960s and 1970s had pointed to a number of novel coronavirus strains but the findings were not adequately followed up because methods to do so were unavailable at the time. The statistically strong association with Kawasaki disease, however, was "quite surprising." Noting that previous attempts to link Kawasaki disease to bacteria or other viruses had failed and thus justified healthy skepticism about the present findings, Dr. McIntosh pointed out some "tantalizing facts": onset of Kawasaki disease is often preceded by a respiratory syndrome; both the disease and respiratory coronavirus infections are seasonal, peaking in the winter and spring; recent studies have described a powerful immune response in the respiratory tract and other organs in acute cases of Kawasaki disease, suggesting the involvement of a specific ...
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Hi: IB Ma5 vaccine might not give good immune protection against a field strain of IBV if there is significant genetic difference. Do you know what filed strain of IBV infected the flock? If not phylogenetic sequencing might be advised to find what strain of IBV is present and proper vaccine should be administered. There are many strains of IBV and cross protection might be not present if vaccine and the filed strain is genetically different. ...
I am a strep carrier and have chronic swollen nasal passages that are most likely the result of lifelong allergies. Even though strep carriers are not supposed to become more ill than others, I alway...
Members brought some of their toughest cases to Dr. Lew Schon at this dynamic live event. Join us to hear his advice and the discussions that ensued for the following cases ...
Summary A case is presented of a 43 year old white male who was bitten by the deadly snake, Bungarus caeruleus, and who made a complete recovery without specific therapy. The recovery of this individual presents the possibility of a cross protection existing between the venoms of the species Bungarus and those of the Indian, African and Egyptian cobras. The phenomenon of cross protection should be investigated further with the possibility of producing a common antivenin. This would not only be of great value to the Armed Forces but to the ever increasing number of individuals who travel to areas where poisonous reptiles abound.
Curing virus infected plant is difficult because antiviral chemicals are not available presently. Hence, the current approaches employed to control virus diseases of chilli are, use of resistant cultivars, cultural measures, crop hygiene or eradication of diseased plants and alternative hosts, biological control using mild strain cross protection and insecticides to control the vectors. A number of research strategies have been initiated over the last decades to combat virus diseases of chilli. These include understanding virus pathosystem, preventing or delaying virus infection through ecological engineering and breeding for resistance by both conventional and pre-emptive breeding strategies. Several chilli accessions that are virus resistant have been identified. Our current research focuses on the introgression of this ...
Special Instructions for Large Volume Rinse: Stand in front of a sink, bend forward to comfort level and tilt your head down. Keep your mouth open and, without holding your breath, place the tip snugly in the nostril and squeeze the actuator until the solution starts draining from the opposite nasal passage or from your mouth. Allow the flow to continue for 2 to 3 seconds. Do not swallow the solution. Blow your nose gently, without pinching your nose completely, to avoid applying pressure on your eardrums. If tolerable, sniff in any residual solution remaining in the nasal passage once or twice prior to blowing your nose. This may clean out the posterior nasopharyngeal area, which is the area at the back of your nasal passage. At times, some solution may reach the back of your throat. If so, please spit it out. To help improve drainage of any residual solution, blow your nose gently while tilting your head to the side. Now repeat these steps on your other nasal passage. ...
The practice of nasal cleansing purifies the air sinuses, invigorates the brain, tones up the optic nerves and thus improves sight.
The Murine coronavirus, Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), is a coronavirus that causes an epidemic murine illness with high ... Baker, David G. (1998). "Natural Pathogens of Laboratory Mice, Rats, and Rabbits and Their Effects on Research". Clinical ... Prior to the discovery of SARS-CoV, MHV had been the best-studied coronavirus both in vivo and in vitro as well as at the ... Significant research efforts have been focused on elucidating the viral pathogenesis of these animal coronaviruses, especially ...
Several diseases, like Rat Coronavirus Infection (RCI), Sendai virus, and Murine Respiratory Mycoplasmosis (MRM, Mycoplasma ... Another risk to rat owners is Rat-bite fever. This is a rare disease among domesticated rats and is most often found in rats ... "Rat & Mouse Club of America. Retrieved 10 November 2008.. *^ a b "The History of Fancy Rats". American Fancy Rat and Mouse ... These rat-catchers would then either kill the rats, or, more likely, sell the rats to be used in blood sport.[6] Rat-baiting ...
... may stand for: Ranked Choice Voting Radio Club Venezolano, an amateur radio organization in Venezuela Rat coronavirus ...
... coronavirus oc43, human MeSH B04.820.504.540.150.260 --- coronavirus, rat MeSH B04.820.504.540.150.300 --- coronavirus, turkey ... coronavirus oc43, human MeSH B04.909.777.500.540.150.260 --- coronavirus, rat MeSH B04.909.777.500.540.150.300 --- coronavirus ... coronavirus MeSH B04.820.504.540.150.150 --- coronavirus, bovine MeSH B04.820.504.540.150.160 --- coronavirus, canine MeSH ... coronavirus MeSH B04.909.777.500.540.150.150 --- coronavirus, bovine MeSH B04.909.777.500.540.150.160 --- coronavirus, canine ...
a b {{cite web , title=On the menu at Wuhan virus market: Rats and live wolf pups , website=CNA , date=22 Januari 2020 , url= ... "Here's What It's Like in Wuhan, the City at the Center of Coronavirus". Time (dalam bahasa Inggeris). Dicapai pada 23 Januari ... "The West Blames the Wuhan Coronavirus on China's Love of Eating Wild Animals. The Truth Is More Complex". Time. 24 January 2020 ... "Why wild animals are a key ingredient in China's coronavirus outbreak". bangkokpost.com. 23 Januari 2020. Dicapai pada 24 ...
"IBM's Summit-The Supercomputer Fighting Coronavirus". MedicalExpo e-Magazine. 16 April 2020. Retrieved 12 May 2020.. ... group also succeeded in using a supercomputer to simulate a number of artificial neurons equivalent to the entirety of a rat's ... In early 2020, Coronavirus was front and center in the world. Supercomputers used different simulations to find compounds that ... "The world's fastest supercomputer identified chemicals that could stop coronavirus from spreading, a crucial step toward a ...
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus has been found to bind to DPP4. DPP4 is found on the surface of cells in the ... "Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor attenuates hepatic fibrosis via suppression of activated hepatic stellate cell in rats". ... "Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 is a functional receptor for the emerging human coronavirus-EMC". Nature. ScienceNews. 495 (7440): 251-4 ...
Göke B, Stöckmann F, Müller R, Lankisch PG, Creutzfeldt W (1984). "Effect of a specific serine protease inhibitor on the rat ... Protease inhibitors targeting coronavirus and filovirus entry. Antiviral Res. 2015 Apr;116:76-84. doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral. ... activity in rat - liver lysosomes". Pharmacol Res Commun. 15 (5): 451-9. doi:10.1016/S0031-6989(83)80065-4. PMID 6412250. ...
Rat-bite fever. Streptobacillus moniliformis and Spirillum minus. Ionfhabhtú Respiratory syncytial virus. Respiratory syncytial ... usually rhinoviruses and coronaviruses.. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). CJD prion. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF). ...
It was also once observed inhabiting the scrotum of a rat. The adult female beetle lays usually about 200 to 400 eggs, but it ... It transmits animal viruses such as rotavirus, the turkey coronavirus, the chicken viruses that cause Marek's disease and ... 2000). Limited transmission of turkey coronavirus in young turkeys by adult Alphitobius diaperinus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae ...
Mouse and rat poison is commonly found in the house or garage. Dogs readily eat these poisons, which look like small green ... and canine coronavirus, should be made between an owner and a veterinarian, taking into account factors specific to the dog. ... Mouse and rat poisons containing cholecalciferol cause hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia in dogs. Clinical signs include ...
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is caused by a new type of coronavirus. Other coronaviruses were known to cause mild ... Marburg viruses are transmitted to humans by monkeys, and Lassa fever by rats (Mastomys natalensis). Zoonotic infections can be ... 34-50 Levins, p. 419 Mahy, (b) p. 459 Weiss SR, Leibowitz JL (2011). "Coronavirus pathogenesis". Advances in Virus Research. ...
Rat-bite fever Streptobacillus moniliformis, Spirillum minus rats, mice bites of rats but also urine and mucus secretions ... MERS coronavirus bats, camels close contact Monkeypox Monkeypox virus rodents, primates contact with infected rodents, primates ... rats, cotton rats consuming raw or undercooked snails, slugs, other mollusks, crustaceans, contaminated water, and unwashed ... SARS coronavirus bats, civets close contact, respiratory droplets Swine influenza any strain of the influenza virus endemic in ...
The masked palm civet is an omnivore feeding on rats and birds as well as on fruit such as figs, mangoes, bananas, and leaves. ... All the cases of SARS associated with the outbreak appeared to be part of the bat branch of the coronavirus phylogeny. Asian ... Isolation and characterization of viruses related to the SARS coronavirus from animals in southern China. Science 302 (5643): ... Kong and the Guangzhou Centre for Disease Control and Prevention established a direct genetic link between the SARS coronavirus ...
Coronavirus pandemic in Malaysia. 2020. 2020 Political Crisis. 2020. Movement Control Order. 2020. ...
Rats and mice were also sources of disease, which was dangerous for ships at sea for long periods of time. Cats have been ... Feline coronavirus was the next most common infection, found in 18.3% of the cats, although they noted that the antibody levels ... Cats were primarily brought aboard to catch mice and rats, which can cause damage to ropes, woodwork, and eventually as ... Traders from Phoenicia brought them to Europe to control rat populations, and monks brought them further into Asia. Roman ...
SARS coronavirus causes severe acute respiratory syndrome in humans. Syrian hamsters may be infected with the virus, and like ... rats and fish) for that year in that country. According to the Canadian Council for Animal Care, a total of 1,931 hamsters were ... "Rat and hamster species differences in susceptibility to elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema relate to differences in elastase ... "Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection of golden Syrian hamsters". Journal of Virology. 79 (1): 503-11. doi: ...
Fleas such as the human flea, Pulex irritans and the Oriental rat flea, Xenopsylla cheopis, transmit bubonic plague, murine ... Li W, Shi Z, Yu M, Ren W, et al. Bats are natural reservoirs of SARS-like coronaviruses. Science. 2005 Oct 28;310(5748):676-9. ... and the SARS like coronaviruses[14][15] and in many cases as a vector for various viruses such as the lyssaviruses including ... typhus and tapeworms.[7] Rodents, such as rats and mice carry the fleas, and spread them.[8][9] ...
... and faecal coronaviruses. He, along with H.G. Pereira also discovered picobirnaviruses, and with other colleagues first ... "A virus with a bisegmented double-stranded RNA genome in rat (Oryzomys nigripes) intestines". Journal of General Virology. 69 ( ...
... and coronaviruses. There is controversy over whether homologous recombination occurs in negative-sense ssRNA viruses like ... and because they are based on human genomes rather than rat genomes. Furthermore, certain technologies enable the knock-in of a ...
Hemilä H (2003). "Vitamin C and SARS coronavirus". J Antimicrob Chemother. 52 (6): 1049-50. doi:10.1093/jac/dkh002. PMID ... Ovcharov R, Todorov S (1974). "[The effect of vitamin C on the estrus cycle and embryogenesis of rats]". Akusherstvo i ... "The synthesis of L-ascorbic acid in the rat from D-glucuronolactone and L-gulonolactone". J Biol Chem. 223 (2): 897-905. PMID ...
6A Human betaherpesvirus 6B Human betaherpesvirus 7 Human coronavirus 229E Human coronavirus HKU1 Human coronavirus NL63 Human ... Flexal mammarenavirus Flock House virus Florida wood cockroach cyclovirus Foot-and-mouth disease virus Forest pouched giant rat ... africanus polyomavirus 1 Miniopterus bat coronavirus 1 Miniopterus bat coronavirus HKU8 Mink circovirus Mink coronavirus 1 Mint ... 1 Basella rugose mosaic virus Bat circovirus 1 Bat circovirus 2 Bat circovirus 3 Bat coronavirus CDPHE15 Bat coronavirus HKU10 ...
For example, in brown rats (but not mice), a subset of dendritic cells exists that displays pronounced killer cell-like ... 2004). "pH-Dependent Entry of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Is Mediated by the Spike Glycoprotein and Enhanced ...
"Discovery of a rich gene pool of bat SARS-related coronaviruses provides new insights into the origin of SARS coronavirus". ... An East Nigerian tale tells that the bat developed its nocturnal habits after causing the death of his partner, the bush-rat, ... They're insectivores, which means they eat only insects." - K.O. Tramoyeres Blasco, L. "Lo Rat Penat en el escudo de armas de ... Li, W.; Shi, Z.; Yu, M.; Ren, W. (28 October 2005). "Bats are natural reservoirs of SARS-like coronaviruses". Science. 310 ( ...
Rat-bite fevers (A25.0) Spirillosis (A25.1) Streptobacillosis (A25.9) Rat-bite fever, unspecified (A26) Erysipeloid (A27) ... Coronavirus as the cause of diseases classified to other chapters (B97.3) Retrovirus as the cause of diseases classified to ...
"Discovery of a rich gene pool of bat SARS-related coronaviruses provides new insights into the origin of SARS coronavirus". ... "Lo Rat Penat en el escudo de armas de Valencia" [The Rat Penat in the coat of arms of Valencia] (in Spanish). Retrieved 14 ... Li, W.; Shi, Z.; Yu, M.; Ren, W. (28 October 2005). "Bats are natural reservoirs of SARS-like coronaviruses". Science. 310 ( ... since they serve as natural hosts for coronaviruses, several from a single cave in Yunnan, one of which developed into the SARS ...
... Anyone can post and discuss breaking science news or science-related public policy ... Re: Year of the Rat fears over new Corona Virus. by Forest_Dump on April 23rd, 2020, 9:58 am ... Re: Year of the Rat fears over new Corona Virus. by Forest_Dump on April 24th, 2020, 9:40 am ... Re: Year of the Rat fears over new Corona Virus. by Serpent on April 2nd, 2020, 12:49 pm ...
... Anyone can post and discuss breaking science news or science-related public policy ... Re: Year of the Rat fears over new Corona Virus. by Forest_Dump on April 2nd, 2020, 8:35 am ... Re: Year of the Rat fears over new Corona Virus. by BadgerJelly on March 28th, 2020, 9:05 am ... Re: Year of the Rat fears over new Corona Virus. by Lomax on March 28th, 2020, 8:02 pm ...
... Anyone can post and discuss breaking science news or science-related public policy ... Re: Year of the Rat fears over new Corona Virus. by Mossling on May 27th, 2020, 11:21 pm ... Re: Year of the Rat fears over new Corona Virus. by Serpent on May 28th, 2020, 12:08 am ... Re: Year of the Rat fears over new Corona Virus. by Mossling on May 28th, 2020, 5:12 am ...
Re: Year of the Rat fears over new Corona Virus. Posted: April 2nd, 2020, 12:49 pm ... Re: Year of the Rat fears over new Corona Virus. Posted: April 2nd, 2020, 4:08 pm ... Re: Year of the Rat fears over new Corona Virus. Posted: April 4th, 2020, 10:17 am ... Re: Year of the Rat fears over new Corona Virus. Posted: April 8th, 2020, 2:24 pm ...
Detection of potentially novel paramyxovirus and coronavirus viral RNA in bats and rats in the Mekong Delta region of southern ...
Rat coronavirus (SDAV) Test code: S0143 - Ultrasensitive qualitative detection of rat coronavirus (Sialodacryoadenitis virus or ... Rats infected with rat coronavirus begin to show symptoms as early as 5 days, with respiratory involvement and cervical ... Rat coronavirus or Sialodacryoadenitis (SDA) virus is an airborne RNA virus whose primary route of infection is via respiratory ... Help ensure that rat colonies are free of SDAV. * Early prevention of spread of SDAV among a population or in a geographic area ...
Quantitative sandwich ELISA for measuring Rat Coronavirus in samples from cell culture supernatants, serum, whole blood, plasma ... Product ELISA kit for Rat Coronavirus From Abbkine - ... ELISA kit for Rat Coronavirus. Supplier Abbkine · Catalog ... Quantitative sandwich ELISA for measuring Rat Coronavirus in samples from cell culture supernatants, serum, whole blood, plasma ...
Desert Rats in one of the biggest exercises of its kind in a decade on ITV News, videos, stories and all the latest Anglia news ... What is the strain of coronavirus known as Covid-19 and what are the symptoms? ... Desert Rats training on Salisbury Plain in Wiltshire Credit: ITV News Anglia. "Its a very large training area. Theres lots of ... Desert Rats in one of the biggest exercises of its kind in a decade. Credit: ITV News Anglia. More than two thousand soldiers ...
Replication of this SARS coronavirus (SCV) occurs mainly in the lower respiratory tract, and causes diffuse alveolar damage2,7, ... Seoul Virus Tropism and Pathology in Naturally Infected Feeder Rats *Miriam Maas ... A novel coronavirus associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome. N. Engl. J. Med. 348, 1953-1966 (2003). ... The primary cause of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a newly discovered coronavirus1,2,3,4,5,6,7. Replication of ...
... and other businesses during the coronavirus pandemic has reportedly lead to an increase in aggressiveness in rats as they ... Rats are not believed to carry the coronavirus but they do carry dozens of other diseases. ... NYC rats are desperate. New York City rats are getting more aggressive because of a lack of enough food. One exterminator told ... Warning about ravenous rats. New York City rats usually have plenty to eat from the food scraps they find from restaurant ...
Coronavirus: What to know now and what we can learn. * ONE World: Global pandemic demands global response. ... Yes, you read that right: rats. To most people, the sight of a giant rat is disgusting. But for many scientists, these rats are ... Enter the super-rat!. African rats are being trained by a Belgium nongovernmental organization to detect TB within minutes in ... And you thought the rats were gross!). The rats are presented with ten samples of this mucus, or sputum, and when they detect ...
... have tested positive for coronavirus, a health officer said on Thursday. ... The Chinese employees of the firm had come to the Chakan plant before the coronavirus-induced lockdown was enforced and were ... have tested positive for coronavirus, a health officer said on Thursday. ...
Molecular Biologist Says Coronavirus Could Have Leaked From Wuhan Biolab. Science & Tech ... Using rat heart cells and silicone polymer, researchers have bioengineered a "jellyfish" that knows how to swim. ... Swimming Jellyfish Built out of Rat Cells & Silicone. July 24, 2012 Comments ... Harvard Doctor Tells White House Talking And Breathing Is Spreading Coronavirus. Science & Tech ...
Is Swedens coronavirus strategy a cautionary tale or a success story? * Everything you need to know about Russias coronavirus ... Hearing restored in rats by modifying ear cells to respond to light. ... Sarah Gilbert on how her team is making the Oxford coronavirus vaccine. ...
Naked mole rats might not be the most appealing members of the animal kingdom, aesthetically speaking, but what they lack in ... 3 An unknown pneumonia thats deadlier than coronavirus was just discovered * 4 This is the good coronavirus vaccine news the ... So, if the rats are essentially ageless, why arent there 1,000-year-old mole rats? The scientists dont have a great ... Naked mole rats simply dont experience this phenomenon, and their risk of dying stay at roughly 1-in-10,000 for the entirety ...
Suburban areas seeing an uptick in rats .cls-1{fill:#fff;fill-rule:evenodd}. Video ... Coronavirus COVID-19 Global Cases LATEST: An interactive map of the Coronavirus Coronavirus / 5 months ago. ... Coronavirus News HIRING: Demand for board games, manufacturer in East Longmeadow is looking for more workers Hampden County / 1 ... More Coronavirus Stories HIRING: Demand for board games, manufacturer in East Longmeadow is looking for more workers Aug 14, ...
The Wuhan coronavirus has put the worlds #2 economy into lockdown. Most global supply chains run through China. World trade is ... It was spread by shipping routes and ship rats. Rome, Persia and Byzantium lost so many people that they became much weaker and ... Definitely too late to stop spread of coronavirus, expert says. Coronavirus updates: 14 Americans aboard quarantined cruise ... Definitely too late to stop spread of coronavirus, expert says. The spread of the coronavirus is "definitely too late" to ...
With restaurants closed, rat sightings are increasing across the United States Want to buy a used car? Rental car companies are ... With restaurants closed, rat sightings are increasing across the United States News / 1 hour ago. ... Newsfeed Now Coronavirus: Facts Not Fear morning update - Memorial Day News / 10 mins ago. ... Join the Nexstar coverage team for a pre-race show that continues to examine the return to racing in the coronavirus reality ...
Rat on a train. June.16.2020 at 12:23 pm Does "spike" mean any increase in quantity regardless of actual numerical values? Do ... Reason Roundup Playgrounds Coronavirus Quarantine Federal Reserve New Mexico North Korea. Media Contact & Reprint Requests ... Theres probably no better demonstration of the nonsensical nature of Americas ongoing coronavirus lockdowns than the scene ... Theres probably no better demonstration of the nonsensical nature of Americas ongoing coronavirus lockdowns than the scene ...
A new study hints at the secret to rats success. Not only are they, and their close relatives, versatile biters, they can gnaw ... Stay up to date on the coronavirus outbreak by signing up to our newsletter today. ... Lowly Rat Gnaws & Chews to Top of the Rodent World. By Wynne Parry 27 April 2012. ... Rats and their close relatives, including mice, make up nearly a quarter of known mammal species. New research offers a clue to ...
... muscle cells that were taken from rat hearts, a new study finds. ... Stay up to date on the coronavirus outbreak by signing up to ... Containing about 200,000 rat heart-muscle cells, the robot measures 0.63 inches (1.6 centimeters) long and weighs just 10 grams ... A new robot stingray can swim with help from an unexpected source: muscle cells that were taken from rat hearts, a new study ... Stingray Robot Uses Light-Activated Rat Cells to Swim. By Charles Q. Choi 08 July 2016. ...
... that can reduce the absorption of fats from food with no discernable side effects in rats, lowering total body weight by about ... Health officials expect coronavirus to spread worldwide Attempts to contain cases in China have proved ineffective ... A daily, 10-microliter dose of CAGE caused rats to gain 12 percent less weight than rats that received either a 5-microliter ... The untreated rats usually ate about 10 grams of food every day, whereas the high-dose CAGE cohort ate about 8 grams of food, ...
Rats can smell TB. They can identify it faster than a lab technician. And they work cheap - a bit of banana will do. USAID just ... High School Football And Other Sports Cement Spring 2021 Seasons As Colorado Coronavirus Cases Fall ... The rats, which can grow to 3 feet long (including tail), are trained and ready for disease-sniffing at the age of 9 months. ... Chewa is a 3-pound African giant-pouched rat.. An untreated tuberculosis patient can infect up to a dozen people a year. Almost ...
  • NEW YORK - The lack of available food sources due to the shutdown of bars, restaurants, and other businesses during the coronavirus pandemic has reportedly lead to an increase in aggressiveness in rats as they become desperate for food. (ktvu.com)
  • This is the state of affairs all across America nearly three months after quarantines, lockdowns, and stay-at-home orders were first imposed to "flatten the curve" of the coronavirus pandemic. (reason.com)
  • The coronavirus pandemic has also led some businesses to sell products they claim can fight the virus. (yahoo.com)
  • Health experts issued an ominous warning about a coronavirus pandemic 3 months ago. (yahoo.com)
  • The global case tally for the coronavirus illness COVID-19 climbed to 9.5 million on Thursday, a day after the U.S. recorded its highest one-day peak since late April and cases continued to climb in Brazil, Mexico and other countries, in the latest indication that the pandemic is far from contained. (marketwatch.com)
  • Rat coronavirus or Sialodacryoadenitis (SDA) virus is an airborne RNA virus whose primary route of infection is via respiratory aerosol. (zoologix.com)
  • Infection of laboratory rats with this virus has been a major problem in animal facilities in many countries (Lussier and Desc teaux, 1986). (zoologix.com)
  • Because of the airborne route of infection, SDAV is highly contagious in rat colonies. (zoologix.com)
  • New coronavirus is adapting to different populations A genetic analysis of samples from more than 7,500 people infected with COVID-19 suggests that as the new coronavirus spreads quickly around the world, it is adapting to its human hosts, researchers reported on Tuesday in the medical journal Infection, Genetics and Evolution . (canoe.com)
  • Infection can become more severe with other illnesses, and the ovaries and uterus can be infected in female Rat. (hubpages.com)
  • Rats are sentinels for human disease," W. Ian Lipkin, director of Columbia University's Center for Infection and Immunity and senior author of the study, said in a statement. (livescience.com)
  • New Yorkers are constantly exposed to rats and the pathogens they carry, perhaps more than any other animal," Cadhla Firth, who led the study as a research scientist at Columbia's Center for Infection and Immunity, said in a statement. (livescience.com)
  • The scientists also discovered two rat hepaciviruses, dubbed NrHV-1 and NrHV-2, which are close relatives of human hepatitis C. That could also be good news for researchers developing medical treatments for the 3.2 million Americans who have a chronic hepatitis C virus infection, which can lead to liver cancer and cirrhosis. (livescience.com)
  • Determining the exact source of infection for rat lungworm disease in any patient is difficult since it requires a deep dive into a person's food consumption history," said Health Director Bruce Anderson. (westhawaiitoday.com)
  • The findings shed light on why those with hypertension and diabetes are at increased risk of complications following coronavirus infection. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • Using MERSpv-St16, we demonstrated the inability of rat DPP4 to serve as a functional receptor for MERS-CoV, suggesting that rats are not susceptible to MERS-CoV infection. (deepdyve.com)
  • During the SARS epidemic, which began in southern China in 2003, authorities banned the sale of many wild animals including rats amid fear that the deadly disease could be contracted from contaminated meat. (medindia.net)
  • The Chinese employees of the firm had come to the Chakan plant before the coronavirus-induced lockdown was enforced and were stuck here, he added. (yahoo.com)
  • With India now in a 21-day lockdown to prevent the spread of the coronavirus, there's been plenty of advice shared on how to prevent or cure the disease. (yahoo.com)
  • A new study published in eLife reveals that naked mole rats don't actually age - or at least they don't age in the way that basically every other creature on the planet, including humans, seems to. (bgr.com)
  • If researchers can determine why the rats boast such incredible longevity, it might be good news for humans, too. (bgr.com)
  • Moreover, using cow-dung could prove counter-productive as bovine faecal matter could contain a coronavirus which might replicate in humans. (yahoo.com)
  • Previous research has examined the effects on rats of rodenticides, including anticoagulants, which are used as blood thinners in humans but can be deadly in large doses. (ucla.edu)
  • Scientists in Japan have designed artificial molecules that when used with rats successfully reversed liver cirrhosis, a serious chronic disease in humans that until now can only be cured by transplants. (freedomsphoenix.com)
  • The murine coronavirus-induced demyelinating disease in rodents is one such model for demyelinating disease in humans. (nih.gov)
  • Slugs or snails infected with rat lungworm parasites can pass them along to humans who happen to eat all or part of the tiny animals, often on raw, unwashed produce. (staradvertiser.com)
  • The coronaviruses (order Nidovirales , family Coronaviridae , genus Coronavirus ) are a diverse group of large, enveloped, positive-stranded RNA viruses that cause respiratory and enteric diseases in humans and other animals. (sciencemag.org)
  • With the help of a rat casino, University of British Columbia brain researchers have successfully reduced behaviours in rats that are commonly associated with compulsive gambling in humans. (healthcanal.com)
  • In 2006, scientists from the Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention of the University of Hong Kong and the Guangzhou Centre for Disease Control and Prevention established a direct genetic link between the SARS coronavirus appearing in civets and humans, bearing out claims that the disease had jumped across species. (wikipedia.org)
  • A MASSIVE hit to the global economy will directly result from the damage the Wuhan coronavirus is currently doing. (peakprosperity.com)
  • Tentative diagnoses showed 41 cases suffer from pneumonia caused by a preliminarily determined new type of coronavirus by Friday, according to the Wuhan Municipal Health Commission. (xinhuanet.com)
  • Pune, Jun 18 (PTI) Seven persons, including a Chinese national, employed at a Chinese firm in Chakan town of Maharashtra's Pune district, have tested positive for coronavirus, a health officer said on Thursday. (yahoo.com)
  • Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and turkey coronavirus (TCV) comprise group 3 ( 4 ). (asm.org)
  • It transmits animal viruses such as rotavirus, the turkey coronavirus, the chicken viruses that cause Marek's disease and infectious bursal disease, and the viruses that cause Newcastle disease, avian influenza, and fowlpox. (wikipedia.org)
  • The complete genome sequence of CoV-HKU1 is a 29,926-nucleotide, polyadenylated RNA, with G+C content of 32%, the lowest among all known coronaviruses with available genome sequence. (asm.org)
  • Analysis of the complete genome sequence of 2 strains, FRCoV4370 and FRCoV063, revealed that FRECV shared 49.9%-68.9% nucleotide sequence identity with known coronaviruses. (cdc.gov)
  • However, only partial sequences of FRCoV have been analyzed, including portions of open reading frame (ORF) 1b and the full-length spike protein (S), nonstructural protein 3c (3c), envelope protein (E), membrane protein (M), nucleocapsid protein (N), and accessory genes (3x and 7b), and only in 3 strains: 1 ferret systemic coronavirus (FRSCV), FRSCV MSU-1 strain (GenBank accession no. (cdc.gov)
  • Fragmentary crania, mandibles and molars of Brown Rat (Rattus norvegicus), from an owl pellet. (horniman.ac.uk)
  • Cranium and mandible of Brown Rat (Rattus norvegicus). (horniman.ac.uk)
  • Genetic analyses based on these partial sequences showed that the ferret coronavirus is closer to mink coronavirus (MCoV) than to other CoVs and appears to be a member of the genus Alphacoronavirus in the subfamily Coronovirinae , which also contains the genera Betacoronavirus and Gammacoronavirus ( 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The state Health Department said Tuesday there has been another laboratory-confirmed case of rat lungworm disease in an adult visitor to Hawaii island, the seventh so far this year. (staradvertiser.com)
  • Another case of rat lungworm disease has been confirmed in an adult visitor to Hawaii island. (staradvertiser.com)
  • HONOLULU - The Hawaii Department of Health (DOH) has confirmed a recent case of rat lungworm disease in an infant from East Hawaii. (westhawaiitoday.com)
  • To find out whether rats could out-bite other rodents, a team of scientists from the United Kingdom, France and Japan, used computer models to simulate the bites of rodents. (livescience.com)
  • But rats turned out to be more efficient at gnawing and chewing than the other rodents . (livescience.com)
  • The researchers - from the Institute of Cytology and Genetics in Russia - examined physiological changes in rodents using an ISIAH rat model, which is short for inherited stress-induced arterial hypertension. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Angiostrongyliasis, commonly known as rat lungworm disease, is caused by a parasitic roundworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis is found in rodents that can pass along the larvae of the worm in their feces. (staradvertiser.com)
  • The scientists trapped 133 rats from five locations in Manhattan and took DNA samples from the rodents' tissue, feces, urine and saliva. (livescience.com)
  • Lussier, G. and Desc teaux, J.P. (1986) Prevalence of natural virus infections in laboratory mice and rats used in Canada. (zoologix.com)
  • Rats and their close relatives, including mice, make up nearly a quarter of known mammal species. (livescience.com)
  • Others, a group called myomorphs that includes rats and mice, have taken the middle road by staying flexible and adapted to doing both at different times. (livescience.com)
  • This goes some way to explaining why rats and mice are so successful, as well as destructive, as their versatile feeding behavior allows them to eat through a wide variety of materials efficiently. (livescience.com)
  • Cats were primarily brought aboard to catch mice and rats, which can cause damage to ropes, woodwork, and eventually as technology progressed, electrical wiring. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rats and mice were also sources of disease, which was dangerous for ships at sea for long periods of time. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2014 in the United States, animal research used about 120,000 hamsters, which was 14.6% of the total research animal use (under the Animal Welfare Act which excludes mice, rats and fish) for that year in that country. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since its inception in December 2017, the group has been primarily focused on supporting survivors and their caregivers, who are living through long-term effects of rat lungworm disease. (westhawaiitoday.com)
  • But for many scientists, these rats are extremely helpful. (one.org)
  • Naked mole rats might not be the most appealing members of the animal kingdom, aesthetically speaking, but what they lack in visual appeal they more than make up for with a long list of bizarre traits that have puzzled scientists for decades. (bgr.com)
  • Using several thousand data points, scientists were able to determine that the naked rats don't conform to the mortality laws that govern when all other animals meet their maker. (bgr.com)
  • Individual rats topping 30 years of age have been observed, but there's not much concrete data beyond that point, which has led scientists to suggest that perhaps the rats simply have a delayed-aging mechanism that gives them several decades to flourish before things start to go south. (bgr.com)
  • On the top of the robot, the scientists placed muscle cells from rat hearts. (livescience.com)
  • The scientists induced stress-sensitive hypertension in ISIAH rats, which then developed high BP at 4-6 weeks of age. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In ISIAH rats, the scientists also noticed a decrease in renal vascular resistance that occurred with age. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Scientists in Malaysia have said they were "stunned" to discover monkeys regularly killing and eating rats on palm oil plantations, providing a natural anti-pest measure in the country, which is responsible for 30% of the world's palm oil production. (yahoo.com)
  • Doctors may be missing signs of serious and potentially fatal brain disorders triggered by coronavirus, as they emerge in mildly affected or recovering patients, scientists have warned. (sott.net)
  • Rats treat themselves to takeout in a New York City park, where scientists from Columbia screened the critters for disease. (livescience.com)
  • In this investigation we have evaluated the methanol extract of leaves for its hepatoprotective potential against CCl4 induced hepatic injuries in rat. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Further, significant decrease in GSH while increase in lipid peroxides (TBARS), H2O2, DNA damages and comet length was induced with CCl4 in hepatic tissues of rat. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Coronaviruses have been subdivided into three major antigenic groups based on antigenic differences identified by serological analyses, and these findings have been substantiated by nucleotide sequence analyses ( 21 , 22 , 29 ). (asm.org)
  • The team then added the DHA-CAGE mixture to healthy rat intestines ex vivo . (harvard.edu)
  • Thus, using a rat contusion spinal cord injury model we examined the efficacy of the construct on tissue sparing, glial scar severity, the extent of axonal regeneration, recovery of motor function, and analyzed the expression of the recombinant genes VEGF and GNDF in vitro and in vivo" comments one of the authors Yana Mukhamedshina. (brightsurf.com)
  • A report released in Current Biology on Monday, showed that southern pig-tailed macaques, generally thought to eat mainly fruit plus occasionally lizards and birds, foraged for rats on plantations. (yahoo.com)
  • I was stunned when I first observed that macaques feed on rats in plantations," said Nadine Ruppert, senior zoology lecturer at University Sains Malaysia, who co-wrote the report. (yahoo.com)
  • Antigenic and genomic characterizations of the virus (isolate NC99) were based on serological comparison with other avian and mammalian coronaviruses and sequence analysis of the nucleocapsid (N) protein gene. (asm.org)
  • the complete N protein of NC99 (446 amino acids) was then compared with published N protein sequences of other avian and mammalian coronaviruses. (asm.org)
  • The strongest rats will start killing the weaker rats to get that protein instead of what the restaurant was providing, or they start moving down blocks or to areas where people have never seen rats before. (ktvu.com)
  • In addition, rats fed oxidized cholesterol supplemented diets had significantly lower relative concentrations of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) than rats fed pure cholesterol supplemented diets. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Six-month (400-600 g) Wistar rats were unilaterally injected with amyloid beta-protein fragment 25-35 (Abeta(25-35)) 10 microg (5 g/l, 2 microl) into the right hippocampus. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The mean femoral length of ORX animals was also significantly shorter than Sham animals, but ORX rats that were fed SOY diet did not experience this reduction in bone length, implicating a role for soy protein in bone growth (4.02 ± 0.02, 3.93 ± 0.01, 3.99 ± 0.02, 3.91 ± 0.01 for Sham, ORX, SOY, SOY-, respectively). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms underlying low-intensity exercise-induced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) protein expression in rat skeletal muscles. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Terada S, Tabata I. Effects of acute bouts of running and swimming exercise on PGC-1alpha protein expression in rat epitrochlearis and soleus muscle. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • TY - JOUR T1 - Effects of acute bouts of running and swimming exercise on PGC-1alpha protein expression in rat epitrochlearis and soleus muscle. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Additionally, some coronaviruses also contain a fourth major structural protein, the hemagglutinin-esterase protein (120 to 140 kDa) ( 12 , 26 ). (asm.org)
  • APOPO, which also trains rats to sniff out land mines, this past fall received a USAID Development Innovations Ventures Grant to expand its work with rats and disease detection. (cpr.org)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has tips for keeping rats at bay including sealing up access into homes and businesses, removing debris and heavy vegetation, keeping garbage in tightly covered bins, and removing pet and bird food from their yards. (ktvu.com)
  • The rats, which can grow to 3 feet long (including tail), are trained and ready for disease-sniffing at the age of 9 months. (cpr.org)
  • The present study was undertaken to investigate the protective effects of icariin on the learning and memory abilities in Alzheimer's disease model rats and explore its protection mechanisms. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • All tests indicated icariin improved the ability of spatial learning and memory in Alzheimer's disease model rats. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • These results demonstrate that icariin can improve the learning and memory abilities in Abeta(25-35)-induced Alzheimer's disease rats. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • When in doubt, cooking food by boiling for three to five minutes or heating to an internal temperature of 165 degrees Fahrenheit for at least 15 seconds can kill the parasite that causes rat lungworm disease. (staradvertiser.com)
  • More information about rat lungworm disease and how to prevent its spread is available from the DOH website . (staradvertiser.com)
  • Washing fresh fruits and vegetables carefully no matter where they come from is an important step to preventing rat lungworm disease," said Dr. Sarah Park, state epidemiologist, in a news release. (staradvertiser.com)
  • Angiostrongyliasis, commonly known as rat lungworm disease, is caused by a parasitic roundworm and can have debilitating effects on an infected person's brain and spinal cord. (staradvertiser.com)
  • Are rats really the dread disease-carriers they're said to be, and , even if they're not, what can you do to keep them off your property? (health24.com)
  • But with about 2.1 million cases of foodborne illness each year in the city, rats in homes and restaurants should probably be considered a risk factor for the transmission of gastrointestinal disease, the authors of the study wrote. (livescience.com)
  • We know this is how most children who become ill with rat lungworm disease get infected, so it's important keep our keiki away from these harmful vectors as much as possible. (westhawaiitoday.com)
  • For the pinworm, you barely have any signs from your Rat, but your Rat can affect others with his contaminated feces. (hubpages.com)
  • But, rats can also be affected when coming into contact with an infected cat's feces. (hubpages.com)
  • Human beings become infected with the Lassa virus from exposure to urine or feces of infected mastomys rats. (xinhuanet.com)
  • A coronavirus was isolated from feces of a diarrheic foal and serially propagated in human rectal adenocarcinoma (HRT-18) cells. (asm.org)
  • A coronavirus antigenically related to BCV was identified in feces and intestinal tissues of a diarrheic foal, based on immunohistochemistry and an antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, but virus isolation attempts were unsuccessful ( 7 ). (asm.org)