A species in the genus CORONAVIRUS causing upper and lower RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS. It shares the receptor used by the SARS VIRUS.
A genus of the family CORONAVIRIDAE which causes respiratory or gastrointestinal disease in a variety of vertebrates.
Virus diseases caused by the CORONAVIRUS genus. Some specifics include transmissible enteritis of turkeys (ENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF TURKEYS); FELINE INFECTIOUS PERITONITIS; and transmissible gastroenteritis of swine (GASTROENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF SWINE).
A species in the genus CORONAVIRUS causing the common cold and possibly nervous system infections in humans. It lacks hemagglutinin-esterase.
Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.
A class I viral fusion protein that forms the characteristic spikes, or peplomers, found on the viral surface that mediate virus attachment, fusion, and entry into the host cell. During virus maturation, it is cleaved into two subunits: S1, which binds to receptors in the host cell, and S2, which mediates membrane fusion.
A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting neonatal calves, presenting as acute diarrhea, and frequently leading to death.
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing atypical respiratory disease (SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME) in humans. The organism is believed to have first emerged in Guangdong Province, China, in 2002. The natural host is the Chinese horseshoe bat, RHINOLOPHUS sinicus.
A species in the genus CORONAVIRUS causing the common cold and possibly nervous system infections in humans. It contains hemagglutinin-esterase.
A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting cats of all ages and commonly found in catteries and zoos. Cats are often found carrying the virus but only a small proportion develop disease. Feline coronavirus and Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) are virtually the same virus in genetic and antigenetic terms, and are morphologically indistinguishable. Since they only differ in their disease potential (with FIPV causing a more serious illness), they are considered biotypes of each other.
Spherical RNA viruses, in the order NIDOVIRALES, infecting a wide range of animals including humans. Transmission is by fecal-oral and respiratory routes. Mechanical transmission is also common. There are two genera: CORONAVIRUS and TOROVIRUS.
A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting dogs. Onset of symptoms is usually sudden and includes vomiting, diarrhea, and dehydration.
A viral disorder characterized by high FEVER, dry COUGH, shortness of breath (DYSPNEA) or breathing difficulties, and atypical PNEUMONIA. A virus in the genus CORONAVIRUS is the suspected agent.
Virus diseases caused by CORONAVIRIDAE.
A species of the CORONAVIRUS genus causing hepatitis in mice. Four strains have been identified as MHV 1, MHV 2, MHV 3, and MHV 4 (also known as MHV-JHM, which is neurotropic and causes disseminated encephalomyelitis with demyelination as well as focal liver necrosis).
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing a fatal disease to pigs under 3 weeks old.
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing infections in chickens and possibly pheasants. Chicks up to four weeks old are the most severely affected.
Viral proteins found in either the NUCLEOCAPSID or the viral core (VIRAL CORE PROTEINS).
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing pneumonia in newborn rats but a clinically inapparent infection in adults. It is separate but antigenically related to MURINE HEPATITIS VIRUS.
Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.
Inflammation involving the GLOTTIS or VOCAL CORDS and the subglottic larynx. Croup is characterized by a barking cough, HOARSENESS, and persistent inspiratory STRIDOR (a high-pitched breathing sound). It occurs chiefly in infants and children.
Inflammation of the LARYNGEAL MUCOSA, including the VOCAL CORDS. Laryngitis is characterized by irritation, edema, and reduced pliability of the mucosa leading to VOICE DISORDERS such as APHONIA and HOARSENESS.
Tracheitis is an inflammation of the trachea, often caused by viral or bacterial infections, characterized by symptoms such as cough, sore throat, and difficulty swallowing.
The type species of the genus ILTOVIRUS found on every continent and affecting mainly chickens and occasionally pheasants.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
A racemic mixture of d-epinephrine and l-epinephrine.

Differentiation between human coronaviruses NL63 and 229E using a novel double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on specific monoclonal antibodies. (1/17)

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Infection with human coronavirus NL63 enhances streptococcal adherence to epithelial cells. (2/17)

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Human rhinovirus infection in young African children with acute wheezing. (3/17)

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A virus-binding hot spot on human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 is critical for binding of two different coronaviruses. (4/17)

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Comparison of SARS and NL63 papain-like protease binding sites and binding site dynamics: inhibitor design implications. (5/17)

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The dominance of human coronavirus OC43 and NL63 infections in infants. (6/17)

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Epidemiology of coronavirus-associated respiratory tract infections and the role of rapid diagnostic tests: a prospective study. (7/17)

1. Coronaviruses accounted for 1.6% (98/6272) of respiratory tract infections based on nasopharyngeal aspirate samples. 2. HCoV-OC43 was the most common coronavirus detected,followed by HCoV-NL63, CoVHKU1,and HCoV-229E. 3. Although CoV-HKU1 infections were most often associated with the upper respiratory tract, more severe illness (pneumonia,acute bronchiolitis, and asthmatic exacerbation) may occur, especially in those with underlying disease. In young children, CoV-HKU1 infection is associated with a high rate of febrile seizures (50%). 4. CoV-HKU1 and HCoV-OC43 infections peaked in winter, in contrast to HCoV-NL63, which mainly occurred in early summer and autumn, but was absent in winter. 5. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction is useful for the rapid diagnosis of coronavirus infections.  (+info)

Human coronavirus NL63 in children: epidemiology, disease spectrum, and genetic diversity. (8/17)

1. Human coronaviruses (HCoVs)were detected in 2.5% of 2982 local children hospitalised for acute respiratory infections in 2005 to 2007. 2. Using the 'pancoronavirus' reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay, detection rates were 0.6% for HCoVNL63,1.2% for HCoV-OC43,0.5% for HCoV-HKU1, and 0.2% for HCoV-229E. Notably, HCoV-NL63 infections were significantly more common among children hospitalised in 2006/2007 (1.2%) than in 2005/2006 (0.3%).3. The peak season for HCoVNL63 infection was autumn(September to October). 4. HCoV-NL63 infection was associated with younger age,croup, febrile convulsion, and acute gastroenteritis. Such disease associations were not found with the other three HCoVs. 5. Most local HCoV-NL63 isolates were closely related to the prototype strain in Netherlands(NL496), but a few were phylogenetically distinct from the major cluster.  (+info)

Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) is a single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the family Coronaviridae and the genus Alphacoronavirus. It was first identified in 2004 in a child with bronchiolitis and conjunctivitis in the Netherlands.

HCoV-NL63 is responsible for causing respiratory tract infections, ranging from mild upper respiratory symptoms to severe lower respiratory tract illnesses such as pneumonia and bronchiolitis. The virus is transmitted through respiratory droplets and direct contact with infected individuals.

The incubation period of HCoV-NL63 ranges from 2 to 14 days, and the symptoms typically last for 7 to 10 days. In addition to respiratory symptoms, HCoV-NL63 has been associated with febrile seizures, Kawasaki disease, and croup in children.

There is no specific treatment or vaccine available for HCoV-NL63 infection, and management is primarily supportive. Preventive measures such as hand hygiene, wearing masks, and social distancing can help reduce the transmission of the virus.

A coronavirus is a type of virus that causes respiratory illnesses, such as the common cold, and more severe diseases including Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). These viruses are typically spread through close contact with an infected person when they cough or sneeze. They can also spread by touching a surface or object that has the virus on it and then touching your own mouth, nose, or eyes.

Coronaviruses are named for the crown-like spikes on their surface. They are zoonotic, meaning they can be transmitted between animals and people. Common signs of infection include fever, cough, and shortness of breath. In more severe cases, infection can cause pneumonia, severe acute respiratory syndrome, kidney failure, and even death.

One of the most recently discovered coronaviruses is SARS-CoV-2, which causes the disease COVID-19. This virus was first identified in Wuhan, China in late 2019 and has since spread to become a global pandemic.

Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that can cause illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as pneumonia. The name "coronavirus" comes from the Latin word "corona," which means crown or halo, reflecting the distinctive appearance of the virus particles under electron microscopy, which have a crown-like structure due to the presence of spike proteins on their surface.

Coronaviruses are zoonotic, meaning they can be transmitted between animals and humans. Some coronaviruses are endemic in certain animal populations and occasionally jump to humans, causing outbreaks of new diseases. This is what happened with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in 2002-2003, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) in 2012, and the most recent Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by SARS-CoV-2.

Coronavirus infections typically cause respiratory symptoms such as cough, shortness of breath, and fever. In severe cases, they can lead to pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and even death, especially in older adults or people with underlying medical conditions. Other symptoms may include fatigue, muscle aches, headache, sore throat, and gastrointestinal issues such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.

Preventive measures for coronavirus infections include frequent hand washing, wearing face masks, practicing social distancing, avoiding close contact with sick individuals, and covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing. There are currently vaccines available to prevent COVID-19, which have been shown to be highly effective in preventing severe illness, hospitalization, and death from the disease.

Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) is a species of coronavirus that causes respiratory infections in humans. It is one of the several coronaviruses known to cause the common cold. HCoV-229E was first identified in the 1960s and is named after the number assigned to it in the laboratory where it was discovered.

HCoV-229E infects the human body through the respiratory tract, and it primarily affects the upper respiratory system, causing symptoms such as runny nose, sore throat, cough, and fever. In some cases, HCoV-229E can also cause lower respiratory infections, such as pneumonia, especially in individuals with weakened immune systems or underlying medical conditions.

HCoV-229E is an enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the family Coronaviridae and the genus Alphacoronavirus. It is transmitted through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or talks. The virus can also survive on surfaces for several hours, making it possible to contract the infection by touching contaminated objects.

There is no specific treatment for HCoV-229E infections, and most people recover within a week or two with rest and symptomatic relief. However, severe cases may require hospitalization and supportive care, such as oxygen therapy and mechanical ventilation. Preventive measures, such as hand hygiene, wearing masks, and avoiding close contact with infected individuals, can help reduce the transmission of HCoV-229E and other respiratory viruses.

Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are infections that affect the respiratory system, which includes the nose, throat (pharynx), voice box (larynx), windpipe (trachea), bronchi, and lungs. These infections can be caused by viruses, bacteria, or, less commonly, fungi.

RTIs are classified into two categories based on their location: upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs). URTIs include infections of the nose, sinuses, throat, and larynx, such as the common cold, flu, laryngitis, and sinusitis. LRTIs involve the lower airways, including the bronchi and lungs, and can be more severe. Examples of LRTIs are pneumonia, bronchitis, and bronchiolitis.

Symptoms of RTIs depend on the location and cause of the infection but may include cough, congestion, runny nose, sore throat, difficulty breathing, wheezing, fever, fatigue, and chest pain. Treatment for RTIs varies depending on the severity and underlying cause of the infection. For viral infections, treatment typically involves supportive care to manage symptoms, while antibiotics may be prescribed for bacterial infections.

A spike glycoprotein in coronaviruses is a type of protein that extends from the surface of the virus and gives it its characteristic crown-like appearance (hence the name "corona," which is Latin for "crown"). This protein plays a crucial role in the infection process of the virus. It allows the virus to attach to and enter specific cells in the host organism, typically through binding to a receptor on the cell surface. In the case of SARS-CoV-2, the coronavirus responsible for COVID-19, the spike protein binds to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor found on cells in various tissues, including the lungs, heart, and gastrointestinal tract.

The spike protein is composed of two subunits: S1 and S2. The S1 subunit contains the receptor-binding domain (RBD), which recognizes and binds to the host cell receptor. After binding, the S2 subunit mediates the fusion of the viral membrane with the host cell membrane, allowing the viral genome to enter the host cell and initiate infection.

The spike protein is also a primary target for neutralizing antibodies generated by the host immune system during infection or following vaccination. Neutralizing antibodies bind to specific regions of the spike protein, preventing it from interacting with host cell receptors and thus inhibiting viral entry into cells.

In summary, a spike glycoprotein in coronaviruses is a crucial structural and functional component that facilitates viral attachment, fusion, and entry into host cells. Its importance in the infection process makes it an essential target for vaccine development and therapeutic interventions.

Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is a species of coronavirus that infects cattle and other animals such as yaks, deer, and occasionally humans. It is an enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus belonging to the genus Betacoronavirus in the family Coronaviridae.

BCoV primarily causes respiratory and enteric diseases in cattle, resulting in symptoms such as pneumonia, coughing, diarrhea, and decreased appetite. The virus is transmitted through direct contact with infected animals or their feces, contaminated food, water, or fomites.

In humans, BCoV infection is rare but has been associated with respiratory illnesses in people working closely with cattle, such as farmers, abattoir workers, and veterinarians. The symptoms of human BCoV infection are similar to those caused by other coronaviruses, including fever, cough, and shortness of breath.

Prevention measures for BCoV include good hygiene practices, wearing personal protective equipment when working with cattle, and vaccination of animals against the virus. There is currently no specific treatment or vaccine available for human BCoV infection.

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) is a viral respiratory illness caused by the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). This virus is a member of the Coronaviridae family and is thought to be transmitted most readily through close person-to-person contact via respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes.

The SARS outbreak began in southern China in 2002 and spread to several other countries before it was contained. The illness causes symptoms such as fever, chills, and body aches, which progress to a dry cough and sometimes pneumonia. Some people also report diarrhea. In severe cases, the illness can cause respiratory failure or death.

It's important to note that SARS is not currently a global health concern, as there have been no known cases since 2004. However, it remains a significant example of how quickly and widely a new infectious disease can spread in today's interconnected world.

Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) is a species of coronavirus that causes respiratory infections in humans. It is one of the several coronaviruses known to cause the common cold. HCoV-OC43 belongs to the genus Betacoronavirus and is an enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus.

The virus was first identified in 1967 and has since been found to be widely distributed throughout the human population. It is estimated that HCoV-OC43 infections occur annually, with a peak incidence during the winter months in temperate climates. The symptoms of HCoV-OC43 infection are typically mild and include nasal congestion, runny nose, sore throat, and cough.

HCoV-OC43 is transmitted through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person talks, coughs, or sneezes. The virus can also be spread by touching contaminated surfaces and then touching the mouth, nose, or eyes. There is no specific treatment for HCoV-OC43 infections, and management is generally supportive, with rest, hydration, and symptomatic relief of fever and cough.

HCoV-OC43 has been identified as one of the coronaviruses that have the potential to cause severe respiratory illness in immunocompromised individuals or those with underlying medical conditions. However, most HCoV-OC43 infections are mild and do not require hospitalization.

Feline coronavirus (FCoV) is a type of virus that primarily infects cats. It is part of the Coronaviridae family and has a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome. There are two types of feline coronavirus: feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) and feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV).

FECV is a relatively harmless virus that primarily causes mild to no symptoms in infected cats, and it is spread through fecal-oral transmission. FECV mainly affects the intestines and can cause diarrhea in some cases.

FIPV, on the other hand, is a mutated form of FECV that can cause a severe and often fatal disease called feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). FIP is an immune-mediated disease characterized by inflammation and accumulation of fluid in the abdomen or chest. It can also affect other organs, such as the eyes, brain, and liver.

It's important to note that not all cats infected with FECV will develop FIP. The development of FIP depends on various factors, including the cat's age, immune system, and the specific strain of the virus. There is no cure for FIP, but supportive care can help manage the symptoms and improve the cat's quality of life.

Coronaviridae is a family of enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses. They are named for the crown-like (corona) appearance of their surface proteins. Coronaviruses infect a wide range of animals, including mammals and birds, and can cause respiratory, gastrointestinal, and neurological diseases. Some coronaviruses, such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), can cause severe and potentially fatal illness in humans. The most recent example is SARS-CoV-2, which causes COVID-19.

Canine coronavirus (CCoV) is a species of coronavirus that infects dogs. It is related to the coronaviruses that cause respiratory illness in humans, such as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, but it is not known to infect people. CCoV primarily affects the gastrointestinal tract and can cause symptoms such as vomiting and diarrhea. It is usually spread through contact with infected feces. There are two main types of CCoV, called Type I and Type II, which are classified based on their genetic makeup. Both types can cause illness in dogs, but Type II is more likely to cause severe disease. Vaccines are available to help protect dogs against CCoV infection.

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) is a viral respiratory illness characterized by fever, cough, shortness of breath, and sometimes severe pneumonia. It is caused by the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV).

The syndrome is considered severe due to its potential to cause rapid spread in communities and healthcare settings, and for its high case fatality rate. In the global outbreak of 2002-2003, approximately 8,000 people were infected and nearly 800 died. Since then, no large outbreaks have been reported, although there have been isolated cases linked to laboratory accidents or animal exposures.

SARS is transmitted through close contact with an infected person's respiratory droplets, such as when they cough or sneeze. It can also be spread by touching a surface contaminated with the virus and then touching the mouth, nose, or eyes. Healthcare workers and others in close contact with infected individuals are at higher risk of infection.

Preventive measures include good personal hygiene, such as frequent handwashing, wearing masks and other protective equipment when in close contact with infected individuals, and practicing respiratory etiquette (covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing). Infected individuals should be isolated and receive appropriate medical care to help manage their symptoms and prevent transmission to others.

Coronaviridae is a family of enveloped, positive-sense RNA viruses that cause various diseases in animals and humans. Human coronavirus infections most commonly result in mild to moderate upper respiratory tract illnesses, such as the common cold. However, two highly pathogenic coronaviruses have emerged in the past two decades: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV). These viruses can cause severe and potentially fatal respiratory illnesses.

In general, coronaviruses are transmitted through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or talks. In some cases, people may become infected by touching a surface contaminated with the virus and then touching their mouth, nose, or eyes. Preventive measures include frequent handwashing, avoiding close contact with sick individuals, and practicing good respiratory etiquette (e.g., covering coughs and sneezes).

Treatment for coronavirus infections is primarily supportive, focusing on relieving symptoms and managing complications. For severe cases of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV infections, antiviral medications and supportive care in an intensive care unit may be necessary. Vaccines have been developed to protect against SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, and are being distributed globally.

Murine hepatitis virus (MHV) is a type of coronavirus that primarily infects laboratory mice. It is not related to the human hepatitis viruses A, B, C, D, or E. MHV causes a range of diseases in mice, including hepatitis (liver inflammation), encephalomyelitis (inflammation of the brain and spinal cord), and enteritis (inflammation of the intestine). The virus is transmitted through fecal-oral route and respiratory droplets. It's widely used in research to understand the pathogenesis, immunity, and molecular biology of coronaviruses.

Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is a porcine coronavirus that primarily affects the pig's intestinal tract, causing severe diarrhea, vomiting, and dehydration. The infection is highly contagious and can lead to significant mortality in young piglets. TGEV is transmitted through the fecal-oral route and can also be spread by contaminated fomites or aerosols. It primarily infects enterocytes in the small intestine, leading to villous atrophy and malabsorption of nutrients. There are no specific antiviral treatments for TGEV infection, and control measures typically focus on biosecurity, vaccination, and preventing the spread of the virus between herds.

Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV) is a single-stranded, enveloped RNA virus belonging to the genus Gammacoronavirus and family Coronaviridae. It is the causative agent of infectious bronchitis (IB), a highly contagious respiratory disease in birds, particularly in chickens. The virus primarily affects the upper respiratory tract, causing tracheitis, bronchitis, and sinusitis. In addition to respiratory issues, IBV can also lead to decreased egg production, poor growth rates, and impaired immune response in infected birds. Several serotypes and variants of IBV exist worldwide, making vaccine development and disease control challenging.

Nucleocapsid proteins are structural proteins that are associated with the viral genome in many viruses. They play a crucial role in the formation and stability of the viral particle, also known as the virion. In particular, nucleocapsid proteins bind to the viral RNA or DNA genome and help to protect it from degradation by host cell enzymes. They also participate in the assembly and disassembly of the virion during the viral replication cycle.

In some viruses, such as coronaviruses, the nucleocapsid protein is also involved in regulating the transcription and replication of the viral genome. The nucleocapsid protein of SARS-CoV-2, for example, has been shown to interact with host cell proteins that are involved in the regulation of gene expression, which may contribute to the virus's ability to manipulate the host cell environment and evade the immune response.

Overall, nucleocapsid proteins are important components of many viruses and are often targeted by antiviral therapies due to their essential role in the viral replication cycle.

A coronavirus that primarily infects rats is called "rat coronavirus." It is a type of virus that belongs to the genus Betacoronavirus, which also includes coronaviruses that can infect humans, such as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV.

Rat coronavirus is closely related to coronaviruses that infect mice and can cause respiratory illness in rats. It is typically transmitted through direct contact with infected rats or their feces and urine. Rat coronavirus infection is not known to spread to humans or other animals outside of laboratory settings.

It's worth noting that the current global pandemic is caused by a novel coronavirus called SARS-CoV-2, which is distinct from rat coronavirus and other known coronaviruses that infect animals.

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) infections refer to the clinical illnesses caused by the Respiratory Syncytial Virus. RSV is a highly contagious virus that spreads through respiratory droplets, contact with infected surfaces, or direct contact with infected people. It primarily infects the respiratory tract, causing inflammation and damage to the cells lining the airways.

RSV infections can lead to a range of respiratory illnesses, from mild, cold-like symptoms to more severe conditions such as bronchiolitis (inflammation of the small airways in the lungs) and pneumonia (infection of the lung tissue). The severity of the infection tends to depend on factors like age, overall health status, and presence of underlying medical conditions.

In infants and young children, RSV is a leading cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia, often resulting in hospitalization. In older adults, people with weakened immune systems, and those with chronic heart or lung conditions, RSV infections can also be severe and potentially life-threatening.

Symptoms of RSV infection may include runny nose, cough, sneezing, fever, wheezing, and difficulty breathing. Treatment typically focuses on managing symptoms and providing supportive care, although hospitalization and more aggressive interventions may be necessary in severe cases or for high-risk individuals. Preventive measures such as hand hygiene, wearing masks, and avoiding close contact with infected individuals can help reduce the spread of RSV.

Croup is a common respiratory condition that mainly affects young children. It is characterized by a harsh, barking cough and difficulty breathing, which can sometimes be accompanied by stridor (a high-pitched, wheezing sound that occurs when breathing in). Croup is typically caused by a viral infection that leads to inflammation of the upper airway, including the larynx (voice box) and trachea (windpipe).

The medical definition of croup is:

* Acute laryngotracheitis or laryngotracheobronchitis
* Inflammation of the larynx and trachea, often with involvement of the bronchi
* Characterized by a barking cough, stridor, and hoarseness
* Most commonly caused by viral infections, such as parainfluenza virus
* Typically affects children between 6 months and 3 years of age.

Laryngitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the larynx, or voice box. This inflammation can lead to hoarseness, throat pain, and difficulty speaking or swallowing. Laryngitis can be caused by viral infections, bacterial infections, vocal strain, or other factors such as exposure to irritants like smoke or chemicals. In some cases, laryngitis may be a symptom of a more serious underlying condition, so it is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist for more than a few days or are accompanied by other concerning symptoms.

Tracheitis is a medical condition that involves inflammation of the trachea, or windpipe. It can cause symptoms such as cough, sore throat, difficulty swallowing, and fever. Tracheitis can be caused by viral or bacterial infections, and it may also occur as a complication of other respiratory conditions. In some cases, tracheitis may require medical treatment, including antibiotics for bacterial infections or corticosteroids to reduce inflammation. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience symptoms of tracheitis, especially if they are severe or persistent.

Gallid herpesvirus 1 (GaHV-1), also known as Marek's disease virus (MDV), is a member of the Herpesviridae family and specifically the Alphaherpesvirinae subfamily. It is a double-stranded DNA virus that primarily infects chickens and causes Marek's disease, a highly contagious neoplastic disease characterized by T-cell lymphomas in various organs of the chicken.

The virus is transmitted through the respiratory route and establishes latency in CD4+ T-lymphocytes. GaHV-1 has a complex genome, encoding for more than 100 open reading frames (ORFs), including several virulence factors that contribute to its oncogenic properties.

GaHV-1 infection can lead to various clinical manifestations, such as neurological signs, paralysis, and immunosuppression, in addition to the development of tumors. Vaccination is an effective control measure against Marek's disease, although new strains with increased virulence have emerged, requiring continuous monitoring and vaccine development efforts.

Viral diseases are illnesses caused by the infection and replication of viruses in host organisms. These infectious agents are obligate parasites, meaning they rely on the cells of other living organisms to survive and reproduce. Viruses can infect various types of hosts, including animals, plants, and microorganisms, causing a wide range of diseases with varying symptoms and severity.

Once a virus enters a host cell, it takes over the cell's machinery to produce new viral particles, often leading to cell damage or death. The immune system recognizes the viral components as foreign and mounts an immune response to eliminate the infection. This response can result in inflammation, fever, and other symptoms associated with viral diseases.

Examples of well-known viral diseases include:

1. Influenza (flu) - caused by influenza A, B, or C viruses
2. Common cold - usually caused by rhinoviruses or coronaviruses
3. HIV/AIDS - caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
4. Measles - caused by measles morbillivirus
5. Hepatitis B and C - caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), respectively
6. Herpes simplex - caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) or type 2 (HSV-2)
7. Chickenpox and shingles - both caused by varicella-zoster virus (VZV)
8. Rabies - caused by rabies lyssavirus
9. Ebola - caused by ebolaviruses
10. COVID-19 - caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)

Prevention and treatment strategies for viral diseases may include vaccination, antiviral medications, and supportive care to manage symptoms while the immune system fights off the infection.

Racepinephrine is not typically referred to as a "race" in the medical context, but rather as a form of epinephrine (also known as adrenaline). Racepinephrine is the optical isomer of epinephrine, meaning that it is a molecule with the same chemical formula but a different arrangement of atoms in space.

Racepinephrine is a naturally occurring catecholamine, a type of neurotransmitter and hormone that is produced by the adrenal glands and is involved in the "fight or flight" response. It is also used as a medication, typically in the form of the racemic mixture of epinephrine, which contains equal amounts of both isomers (R- and S-epinephrine).

Racepinephrine has similar effects to epinephrine, including increasing heart rate and blood pressure, improving respiratory function, and enhancing mental alertness. It is used in the treatment of anaphylaxis, cardiac arrest, and other emergency situations where rapid restoration of cardiovascular function is necessary.

It's important to note that while racepinephrine and epinephrine have similar effects, they are not identical and may have different therapeutic uses and potential side effects.

HCoV-NL63 is one of seven known coronaviruses to infect humans. The other six are: Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) Human ... Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) is a species of coronavirus, specifically a Setracovirus from among the Alphacoronavirus ... Many studies have reported the co-occurrence of HCoV-NL63 with other human coronavirus, Influenza A virus, Human ... for the spike glycoprotein of the human coronavirus HCoV-NL63 and the human severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, ...
"Surveillance of Bat Coronaviruses in Kenya Identifies Relatives of Human Coronaviruses NL63 and 229E and Their Recombination ... Abdul-Rasool, Sahar; Fielding, Burtram C (25 May 2010). "Understanding Human Coronavirus HCoV-NL63". The Open Virology Journal ... "Evidence supporting a zoonotic origin of human coronavirus strain NL63". Journal of Virology. 86 (23): 12816-12825. doi:10.1128 ... Human coronaviruses were discovered in the 1960s, through a variety of experiments in the United States and the United Kingdom ...
The other six are: Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) Human coronavirus HKU1 (HCoV-HKU1) ... inhibits the replication of Human coronavirus 229E in cell culture. Human HCoV-229E, and human HCoV-NL63, likely originated ... Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) is a species of coronavirus which infects humans and bats. It is an enveloped, positive- ... "Surveillance of Bat Coronaviruses in Kenya Identifies Relatives of Human Coronaviruses NL63 and 229E and Their Recombination ...
"Evidence Supporting a Zoonotic Origin of Human Coronavirus Strain NL63". Journal of Virology. 86 (23): 12816-12825. doi:10.1128 ... Hays, J. N. (2005). Epidemics and pandemics their impacts on human history. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. p. 103. ISBN 978- ... Throughout history, malaria may have killed 50-60 billion people, or about half of all humans that have ever lived. ... J. N. Hays (2005). Epidemics and pandemics: their impacts on human history. ABC-CLIO. p. 236. ISBN 978-1-85109-658-9. Retrieved ...
"Evidence supporting a zoonotic origin of human coronavirus strain NL63". Journal of Virology. 86 (23): 12816-12825. doi:10.1128 ... For example, the coronaviruses of dog (Canine respiratory coronavirus), cattle (Bovine coronavirus), and human (HCoV-OC43) ... The species was split into Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-OC229E) and Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) in 1995. While HCoV- ... as Murine coronavirus in 2009. 229E and OC43 were collectively named Human respiratory virus but merged as Human coronavirus ...
"Human coronavirus NL63 employs the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus receptor for cellular entry". Proceedings of ... "Human aminopeptidase N is a receptor for human coronavirus 229E". Nature. 357 (6377): 420-422. Bibcode:1992Natur.357..420Y. doi ... Lim, Yvonne; Ng, Yan; Tam, James; Liu, Ding (25 July 2016). "Human Coronaviruses: A Review of Virus-Host Interactions". ... Künkel, Frank; Herrler, Georg (July 1993). "Structural and Functional Analysis of the Surface Protein of Human Coronavirus OC43 ...
... β-CoV Human coronavirus HKU1 (HCoV-HKU1), β-CoV Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E), α-CoV Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63), α ... Canine coronavirus), Human coronavirus 229E, Human coronavirus NL63, Miniopterus bat coronavirus 1, Miniopterus bat coronavirus ... Many human coronaviruses have their origin in bats. The human coronavirus NL63 shared a common ancestor with a bat coronavirus ... Bovine Coronavirus, Human coronavirus OC43), Hedgehog coronavirus 1, Human coronavirus HKU1, Middle East respiratory syndrome- ...
It has been reported that human coronavirus NL63 relies on the M protein as well as the S protein to mediate host cell ... "Membrane Protein of Human Coronavirus NL63 Is Responsible for Interaction with the Adhesion Receptor". Journal of Virology. 93 ... Coronaviruses are moderately pleomorphic and conformational variations of M appear to be associated with virion size. M forms ... The M protein is the most abundant protein in coronavirus virions. It is essential for viral replication. The primary function ...
Distant homologs of ORF3a have been identified in Alphacoronavirus, which includes the human coronaviruses 229E and NL63, but ... "Human Coronavirus NL63 Open Reading Frame 3 encodes a virion-incorporated N-glycosylated membrane protein". Virology Journal. 7 ... which includes the human coronaviruses HKU1 and OC43. It may be distantly related to ORF5 in Merbecovirus, which includes MERS- ... In hCoV-NL63, it is N-glycosylated. Along with the genes for other accessory proteins, the ORF3a gene is located near those ...
Inhibition of TMPRSS2 partially blocked infection by SARS-CoV and Human coronavirus NL63 in HeLa cell cultures. Another in ... Kawase M, Shirato K, van der Hoek L, Taguchi F, Matsuyama S (June 2012). "Simultaneous treatment of human bronchial epithelial ... 2020). "Camostat Mesylate May Reduce Severity of Coronavirus Disease 2019 Sepsis: A First Observation". Crit Care Explor. 2 (11 ... "Protease inhibitors targeting coronavirus and filovirus entry". Antiviral Research. 116: 76-84. doi:10.1016/j.antiviral.2015.01 ...
In the article, they noted four respiratory human coronaviruses (HCoV) known to be endemic: 229E, OC43, NL63, and HKU1. In May ... Most infections with human coronaviruses are mild and associated with common colds. The seven coronaviruses known to infect ... Lu, Guangwen; Liu, Di (2012). "SARS-like virus in the Middle East: A truly bat-related coronavirus causing human diseases". ... Zaki and co-authors from the Erasmus Medical Center published more details, including a scientific name, Human Coronavirus- ...
Many α-coronaviruses utilize aminopeptidase N (APN) as their receptor, SARS-CoV and HCoV-NL63 use angiotensin-converting enzyme ... September 2020). "Engineering human ACE2 to optimize binding to the spike protein of SARS coronavirus 2". Science. 369 (6508): ... mACE2 also serves as the entry point into cells for some coronaviruses, including HCoV-NL63, SARS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2. The SARS ... As a transmembrane protein, mACE2 serves as the main entry point into cells for some coronaviruses, including HCoV-NL63, SARS- ...
The other six are: Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) ... Human coronavirus HKU1 (HCoV-HKU1) is a species of coronavirus in humans and animals. It causes an upper respiratory disease ... Sloots, T; McErlean, P; Speicher, D; Arden, K; Nissen, M; MacKay, I (2006). "Evidence of human coronavirus HKU1 and human ... which is a strain of Human coronavirus NL63. In July 2005, six cases were reported in France. In these cases, French ...
"Epidemiology and clinical presentations of the four human coronaviruses 229E, HKU1, NL63, and OC43 detected over 3 years using ... Human coronavirus HKU1 Lee, Paul (2007). Molecular epidemiology of human coronavirus OC43 in Hong Kong (Thesis). The University ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Human coronavirus OC43. Wikispecies has information related to Human coronavirus OC43. ... Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) is a member of the species Betacoronavirus 1, which infects humans and cattle. The infecting ...
Coronaviruses infect humans, other mammals, including livestock and companion animals, and avian species. Human coronaviruses ... SARS-CoV-2 is the seventh known coronavirus to infect people, after 229E, NL63, OC43, HKU1, MERS-CoV, and the original SARS-CoV ... alongside four other human coronaviruses. A February 2023 review of the four common cold coronaviruses concluded that the virus ... "Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) technical guidance: Laboratory testing for 2019-nCoV in humans". World Health Organization (WHO ...
Coronaviruses infect humans, other mammals, including livestock and companion animals, and avian species. Human coronaviruses ... NL63, OC43, HKU1, MERS-CoV, and the original SARS-CoV. Like the SARS-related coronavirus implicated in the 2003 SARS outbreak, ... The virus previously had the provisional name 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), and has also been called human coronavirus ... Kuo L (21 January 2020). "China confirms human-to-human transmission of coronavirus". The Guardian. Archived from the original ...
PMID: 11385510 Human coronavirus NL63: A previously undescribed coronavirus associated with respiratory disease in humans ... human coronavirus NL63, SARS coronavirus, MERS coronavirus, and influenza A virus subtype H16. Fouchier is elected member of ... PMID: 12748632 MERS coronavirus: Isolation of a novel coronavirus from a man with pneumonia in Saudi Arabia Zaki AM, van ... Human metapneumovirus: A newly discovered human pneumovirus isolated from young children with respiratory tract disease van den ...
... hamsters Avian coronavirus (IBV) Turkey coronavirus Porcine deltacoronavirus HKU15 including a human case Parrot coronavirus ... 229E NL63 PEDV (adding Trypsin to Vero cells), propagated in piglets, repeated passage in Vero cells, using Vero/TMPRSS2 and ... Human Coronavirus HKU1 Infects, Replicates, and Produces Progeny Virions in Human Ciliated Airway Epithelial Cell Cultures - ... HKU1 Parker rat coronavirus Dromedary camel HKU23 Canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV) Equine coronavirus SARS HKU3 SARS-RBD ...
... as well as strains of alpha-coronavirus NL-63 and beta-coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, etc. In vitro studies using influenza virus- ... infected normal human bronchial epithelial cells conducted at the Illinois Institute of Technology Research Institute (IITRI), ...
... includes Human coronavirus (common cold viruses HCoV-229E, HCoV-HKU1, HCoV-NL63, and HCoV-OC43), MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV-1 and SARS- ... The coronaviruses and toroviruses appear to be distinct families in distinct orders and not distinct genera of the same family ... The nucleic acid is usually single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) but it may be double-stranded (dsRNA). Notable human diseases caused by ... The double-stranded (ds)RNA viruses represent a diverse group of viruses that vary widely in host range (humans, animals, ...
MERS-CoV is one of seven known coronaviruses to infect humans, including HCoV-229E, HCoV-NL63, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-HKU1, the ... commonly called Human coronavirus OC43), Human coronavirus HKU1, Murine coronavirus, Pipistrellus bat coronavirus HKU5, ... Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus Other names: novel coronavirus (nCoV) London1 novel CoV/2012 Human Coronavirus ... Initially called simply novel coronavirus or nCoV, with the provisional names 2012 novel coronavirus (2012-nCoV) and human ...
... a gene conserved in all coronaviruses known to infect humans. While the screens for known coronaviruses were all negative, the ... method to test for distinguishing features of a number of known coronaviruses (such as OC43, 229E, NL63, and SARS-CoV), as well ... MERS-CoV is a virus in the coronavirus family believed to be originally from bats. However, humans are typically infected from ... Lu G, Liu D (November 2012). "SARS-like virus in the Middle East: a truly bat-related coronavirus causing human diseases". ...
Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) Human coronavirus HKU1 ... Human SARS-CoV-1 appears to have had a complex history of recombination between ancestral coronaviruses that were hosted in ... "Coronavirus never before seen in humans is the cause of SARS". United Nations World Health Organization. 2006-04-16. Archived ... Xiyang was identified on Wang, Ning (2018). "Serological Evidence of Bat SARS-Related Coronavirus Infection in Humans, China" ( ...
... coronavirus 512 Rhinacovirus Rhinolophus bat coronavirus HKU2 Setracovirus Human coronavirus NL63 NL63-related bat coronavirus ... 1 Human coronavirus OC43 China Rattus coronavirus HKU24 Human coronavirus HKU1 Murine coronavirus Myodes coronavirus 2JL14 ... Bulbul coronavirus HKU11 Common moorhen coronavirus HKU21 Coronavirus HKU15 Munia coronavirus HKU13 White-eye coronavirus HKU16 ... coronavirus CB17 Cegacovirus Beluga whale coronavirus SW1 Igacovirus Avian coronavirus Avian coronavirus 9203 Duck coronavirus ...
Coronavirus Coronavirus diseases Coronavirus 229E Coronavirus OC43 Coronavirus NL63 Bat SARS-like coronavirus WIV1 Bat-borne ... Although coronaviruses are endemic in humans and infections normally mild, such as the common cold (caused by human ... Novel coronavirus (nCoV) is a provisional name given to coronaviruses of medical significance before a permanent name is ... 2020). "The 2019-2020 Novel Coronavirus (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2) Pandemic: A Joint American College of ...
... coronavirus 512 Rhinacovirus Rhinolophus bat coronavirus HKU2 Setracovirus Human coronavirus NL63 NL63-related bat coronavirus ... Duvinacovirus Human coronavirus 229E Luchacovirus Lucheng Rn rat coronavirus Minacovirus Mink coronavirus 1 Ferret coronavirus ... T14 Sunacovirus Suncus murinus coronavirus X74 Tegacovirus Alphacoronavirus 1 Canine coronavirus Feline coronavirus Human CCoV- ... Both types of Alphacoronavirus 1, feline coronavirus (FCoV) and canine coronavirus (CCoV), are known to exist in two serotypes ...
Jenet was notified by her doctor that he mis-read the results of the test and she instead tested positive for Coronavirus NL63 ... Michaelson Jenet serves as Chair of House Public and Behavioral Healthcare and Human Services Committee. She also serves on the ... "Coronavirus Outbreak: Dafna Michaelson Jenet, Colorado State Representative, Tests Positive". 2020-03-19. Retrieved 2020-03-23 ... "Colorado lawmaker tests positive for coronavirus, but it's not COVID-19 » The Colorado Sun". The Colorado Sun. 2020-03-19. ...
Huleruivirus geocola Human coronavirus 229E Human coronavirus HKU1 Human coronavirus NL63 Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human ... A Human mastadenovirus B Human mastadenovirus C Human mastadenovirus D Human mastadenovirus E Human mastadenovirus F Human ... zip Miniopterus bat coronavirus 1 Miniopterus bat coronavirus HKU8 Minipunavirus MmP1 Minipunavirus MP2 Mink coronavirus 1 ... grass Nitunavirus NIT1 Nitunavirus SPG24 Niuhvovirus limivicinum Niuhvovirus limivivens NL63-related bat coronavirus strain ...
HCoV-NL63 is one of seven known coronaviruses to infect humans. The other six are: Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) Human ... Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) is a species of coronavirus, specifically a Setracovirus from among the Alphacoronavirus ... Many studies have reported the co-occurrence of HCoV-NL63 with other human coronavirus, Influenza A virus, Human ... for the spike glycoprotein of the human coronavirus HCoV-NL63 and the human severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, ...
The human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) was first identified in the Netherlands, and its circulation in France has not been ... Human Coronavirus NL63, France. Volume 11, Number 8-August 2005. Article Views: 3042. Data is collected weekly and does not ... Human Coronavirus NL63, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2005;11(8):1225-1229. doi:10.3201/eid1108.050110.. ... Number of human coronavirus NL63-positive samples per month. Fifty samples from patients hospitalized for acute respiratory ...
HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-HKU1 are two recently discovered coronaviruses that circulate widely and are associated with acute ... In HCoV-NL63-infected patients they were cough, fever, and rhinorrhea. Phylogenetic studies showed that the HCoV-HKU1 ... Thirty-two (8.4%) and 57 (14.9%) of 382 specimens tested positive for HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-HKU1, respectively, by real-time RT- ... respiratory infections (ARI). We detected HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-HKU1 in specimens collected from May 2008 to March 2010 from ...
Information about the six types of coronaviruses including MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV. ... People around the world commonly get infected with human coronaviruses 229E, NL63, OC43, and HKU1. ... Human coronaviruses were first identified in the mid-1960s. The seven coronaviruses that can infect people are:. Common human ... HKU1 (beta coronavirus). Other human coronaviruses. *MERS-CoV (the beta coronavirus that causes Middle East Respiratory ...
... indicating pre-existing cross-reactive responses to seasonal coronaviruses. Importantly, children retained antibody and ... responses against spike protein were high in children and seroconversion boosted responses against seasonal Beta-coronaviruses ... The dominance of human coronavirus OC43 and NL63 infections in infants. J. Clin. Virol. 53, 135-139 (2012). ... Older adults lack SARS CoV-2 cross-reactive T lymphocytes directed to human coronaviruses OC43 and NL63. Sci. Rep. 10, 21447 ( ...
Role of human coronavirus NL63 in hospitalized children with croup. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2010 Sep. 29(9):822-6. [QxMD MEDLINE ... Human metapneumovirus and lower respiratory tract disease in otherwise healthy infants and children. N Engl J Med. 2004 Jan 29 ...
The first case of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Finland was confirmed on 29 January 2020. No secondary cases were detected ... Human coronavirus NL63 and 229E seroconversion in children. J Clin Microbiol. 2008;46(7):2368-73. https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM. ... Antigenic cross-reactivity between severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus and human coronaviruses 229E and ... World Health Organization (WHO). Laboratory testing for 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in suspected human cases. ISBN 978- ...
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Epidemiology of human coronavirus NL63 infection among hospitalized patients with pneumonia in Taiwan. J Microbiol Immunol ... Epidemiology of human coronavirus NL63 infection among hospitalized patients with pneumonia in Taiwan. J Microbiol Immunol ... Epidemiology of human coronavirus NL63 infection among hospitalized patients with pneumonia in Taiwan. J Microbiol Immunol ... Epidemiology of human coronavirus NL63 infection among hospitalized patients with pneumonia in Taiwan. . J Microbiol Immunol ...
Human coronavirus 229E. H02442. T40365. Human coronavirus NL63. H02442. Betacoronavirus. T40362. Human coronavirus OC43. H02442 ... Human parainfluenza virus 1 (Human respirovirus 1). H00400. T40044. Human parainfluenza virus 3 (Human respirovirus 3). H00400 ... Human cytomegalovirus (Human betaherpesvirus 5). H00368. Roseolovirus. T40075. Human herpesvirus 6B (Human betaherpesvirus 6B) ... Human herpesvirus 7 (Human betaherpesvirus 7). H00369. Lymphocryptovirus. T40079. Epstein-Barr virus (Human gammaherpesvirus 4) ...
Background Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are a highly prevalent cause of acute respiratory infection in children. They are ... human coronaviruses (HCoVs) 229E-HCoV, OC43-HCoV, NL63-HCoV and HKU1-HCoV; and tube 5, adenovirus and HBoV. Amplified products ... screening of respiratory tract infections in adults with and without asthma reveals unexpected human coronavirus and human ... Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are a highly p revalent cause of the acute respiratory infection (ARI) defined as the common cold [1] ...
Includes seasonal human coronaviruses HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-NL63, HCoV-HKU1. ... Human parainfluenza virus. HMPV. Human metapneumovirus. ADV. Adenovirus. EV/RV. Enterovirus/Rhinovirus. HCoV. Human coronavirus ... Positive human coronavirus (HCoV) tests. Figure 9: Positive human coronavirus (HCoV) tests (%) in Canada by region by ... a Human coronavirus excludes human coronaviruses SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2; ...
Study - Possible involvement of infection with human coronavirus 229E, but not NL63, in Kawasaki disease ... Coronavirus: prof.Ravelli, indagine relazione morbo Kawasaki. *MMWR - Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Children - United States, ... Talking to Children About COVID-19 (Coronavirus): A Parent Resource. *7 Ways to Help Kids Cope with Coronavirus (COVID-19) ... Categories COVID19Tags coronavirus, COVID-19, fever, multi-system inflammatory disease, Peter Hotez, SARS-CoV-2, toxic shock ...
Opportunistic human respiratory pathogens could be associated with the triggering or the exacerbation of these disorders whose ... Herein, we present a global portrait of some of the most prevalent or emerging human respiratory viruses that have been ... Like other well-recognized neuroinvasive human viruses, respiratory viruses may damage the CNS as a result of misdirected host ... associated with possible pathogenic processes in CNS infection, with a special emphasis on human coronaviruses. ...
Human ACE2-coupled Magnetic Beads , MBS-K013 , Acro Biosystems , SARS-CoV-2 Magnetic Beads ... Biotinylated HCoV-NL63 Spike protein, His, Avitag™ , SPN-H82E6 , Acro Biosystems , SARS-CoV-2 Other Coronavirus Proteins ... human anti-human IL-6 mAb (2H4Z) , E409C15-h4Z100 , EnoGeneDescription: human anti-human IL-6 mAb (2H4Z) is Available at ... human anti-human IL-6 mAb (3H3H) , E409C15-h3H100 , EnoGeneDescription: human anti-human IL-6 mAb (3H3H) is Available at ...
... are the most common respiratory infectious diseases among humans globally. Surgical mask (SM) wearing has been shown to be ... are the most common respiratory infectious diseases among humans globally. Surgical mask (SM) wearing has been shown to be ... These include influenza viruses, rhinoviruses, and coronaviruses. Coronaviruses, namely, human coronavirus NL63, 229E, OC43, ... The emergence of a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), their biology and therapeutic options. J Clin Microbiol. (2020) 58:e00187-20 ...
Coronavirus surveillance by census region includes the average number of coronavirus tests performed by week, and the 3-week ... The following surveillance information only includes four common human coronavirus types (229E, NL63, OC43, and HKU1), not SARS ... For more information on these common coronavirus types, visit the Human Coronavirus Types webpage. Data for SARS-CoV-2 the ... Each point on the trend graphs below displays the average number of coronavirus tests that were performed by census region, and ...
Coronavirus OC43. Coronavirus NL63. Coronavirus 229E. Coronavirus HKU1. Human Rhinovirus. Cocksackie/echoviruses ...
... the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-in 154 nasopharyngeal and throat swab samples collected at Siriraj ... assay detected severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA with high sensitivity and specificity in ... assay using the enzyme Cas13a from Leptotrichia wadei for the detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 ( ... with no cross-reactivity towards other common human coronaviruses, including human coronavirus OC43 (hCoV-OC43), hCoV-NL63 and ...
Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (HRSV) B. Adenovirus. Coronavirus 229E. Coronavirus OC43. Coronavirus NL63. Coronavirus HKU1 ... Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (HRSV) B. Adenovirus. Coronavirus 229E. Coronavirus OC43. Coronavirus NL63. Coronavirus HKU1 ... Human Parainfluenza Virus (HPIV) 1. Human Parainfluenza Virus (HPIV) 2. Human Parainfluenza Virus (HPIV) 3. Human Parainfluenza ... Human Parainfluenza Virus (HPIV) 1. Human Parainfluenza Virus (HPIV) 2. Human Parainfluenza Virus (HPIV) 3. Human Parainfluenza ...
... human coronavirus NL63 was associated with increased adherence of S. pneumoniae to epithelial cells (130). In turn, ... Infection with human coronavirus NL63 enhances streptococcal adherence to epithelial cells. J Gen Virol. 92:1358-1368. 2011. ... Chilvers MA, McKean M, Rutman A, Myint BS, Silverman M and OCallaghan C: The effects of coronavirus on human nasal ciliated ... Lai CC, Shih TP, Ko WC, Tang HJ and Hsueh PR: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and coronavirus ...
Origins and Evolution of Seasonal Human Coronaviruses. The 229E, NL63, OC43, and HKU1 seasonal human coronaviruses (sHCoVs) are ... Origins and Evolution of Seasonal Human Coronaviruses co-authored by Fogartys James Otieno, Joshua Cherry, David Spiro, and, ... European Journal of Human Genetics, May 16, 2022 * The emergence and transmission dynamics of HIV-1 CRF07_BC in Mainland China ... Proposal for Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Nomenclature below the Species Level, featuring Fogartys Nídia S Trovão as co- ...
Buy Coronaviruses (9781912530359) (9781904455165): Molecular and Cellular Biology: NHBS - Volker Thiel, Caister Academic Press ... the newly recognized bat coronaviruses and human coronavirus NL63, and strategies for coronavirus vaccine development and the ... SARS and Other New Coronaviruses (Leo L.M. Poon). Chapter 15. Human Coronavirus NL63, a Long Lost Brother (Krzysztof Pyrc and ... Grand Challenges in Human Coronavirus Vaccine Development (Barry Rockx and Ralph S. Baric). Chapter 14. ...
MPV, human metapneumovirus; RV, rhinovirus; 229E, human coronavirus 229E; OC43, human coronavirus OC43; NL63, human coronavirus ... human coronavirus 229E, OC43 and NL63, human bocavirus and human metapneumovirus using 8 µL of each specimen per panel. The ... and coronavirus 229E and coronavirus NL63). One athlete suffered from two different coronavirus (OC43 and 229E) infections 20 ... They were caused by coronaviruses 229E, NL63 and OC43, influenza B virus, respiratory syncytial virus A, rhinovirus and human ...
... caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus −2 and started its rapid spread througth the world. The World Health ... Vabret A, Mourez T, Dina J et al Human coronavirus NL63 France.Emerg Infect Dis.2005;11(8):1225-1229.. ... Vassilara F, Spyridaki A, Pothitos G, Deliveliotou A, Papadopulos A. A rare case of human coronavirus 229E associated with ... Seah I, Agrawal R Can the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Affect the Eyes? A Review of Coronaviruses and Ocular ...
Croup is associated with the novel coronavirus NL63. PLoS Med. 2, e240 (2005). ... A newly discovered human pneumovirus isolated from young children with respiratory tract disease. Nat Med 7, 719-24 (2001). ... WHO Coronavirus (COVID-19) Dashboard. WHO Coronavirus (COVID-19) Dashboard , WHO Coronavirus (COVID-19) Dashboard With ... Seasonal trends of human parainfluenza viral infections: United States, 1990-2004. Clin. Infect. Dis. 43, 1016-1022 (2006). ...
A diagnosis with coronavirus 229E, NL63, OC43, or HKU1 is not the same as a COVID-19 diagnosis. Patients with COVID-19 will be ... is not the same as the coronaviruses that commonly circulate among humans and cause mild illness, like the common cold. ... 1. What is Novel Coronavirus?. A novel coronavirus is a new coronavirus that has not been previously identified. The virus ...
A diagnosis with coronavirus 229E, NL63, OC43, or HKU1 is not the same as a COVID-19 diagnosis. Patients with COVID-19 will be ... is not the same as the coronaviruses that commonly circulate among humans and cause mild illness, like the common cold. ... A novel coronavirus is a new coronavirus that has not been previously identified. The virus causing coronavirus disease 2019 ( ... Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses. Some cause illness in people, and others, such as canine and feline coronaviruses ...
False-positive results may occur due to cross reaction with circulating human coronaviruses that can account for up to 10-20% ... of viral respiratory infections (e.g., HKU1, NL63, OC43, 229E).. Furthermore, this is a relatively unregulated and un-validated ... Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Respiratory Infection Updated Guidance for Health Care Providers 2/6. Posted on: February 6, 2020 ... Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Respiratory Infection Updated Guidance for Health Care Providers. Posted on: January 24, 2020 ...
  • The evolution of HCoV-NL63 appears to have involved recombination between an ancestral NL63-like virus circulating in African Triaenops afer bats and a CoV 229E-like virus circulating in Hipposideros bats. (wikipedia.org)
  • An early study investigating children with lower respiratory tract illness, found that HCoV-NL63 was more commonly found in outpatients than hospitalized patients, suggesting that it is a common cold virus similar to HCoV-229E and HCoV-OC43, which generally cause less severe symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phylogenetic analysis showed that HCoV-NL63 is a new group 1 coronavirus, most closely related to HCoV-229E. (cdc.gov)
  • Samples were also tested for human metapneumovirus (HMPV), rhinovirus, enterovirus, and HCoV 229E and OC43 by virus isolation and RT-PCR. (cdc.gov)
  • People around the world commonly get infected with human coronaviruses 229E, NL63, OC43, and HKU1. (cdc.gov)
  • These comprise the Beta-coronaviruses OC43 and HKU-1, which have 38% and 35% amino acid homology with SARS-CoV-2, and the more distantly related Alpha-coronaviruses NL63 and 229E, each with around 31% homology 11 . (nature.com)
  • The following surveillance information only includes four common human coronavirus types (229E, NL63, OC43, and HKU1), not SARS-CoV2 the virus that causes COVID-19. (cdc.gov)
  • They were caused by coronaviruses 229E, NL63 and OC43, influenza B virus, respiratory syncytial virus A, rhinovirus and human metapneumovirus. (bmj.com)
  • A diagnosis with coronavirus 229E, NL63, OC43, or HKU1 is not the same as a COVID-19 diagnosis. (yakimacounty.us)
  • In a recent study posted to the bioRxiv * preprint server, researchers investigated whether immunity against seasonal human coronavirus (CoV) spike (S) proteins of HKU1, OC43, NL63, or 229E could protect against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in vitro . (news-medical.net)
  • Mice were vaccinated with NL63, 229E, OC43, HKU1, and SARS-CoV-2 S proteins in prime-boost regimens. (news-medical.net)
  • 229E S-vaccinated mice sera reacted robustly with 229E S, whereas activity against NL63 S was lowered, and no activity was observed among the three beta-CoV S. NL63 S appeared to be marginally less immunogenic and generated comparable titers indicating strong activity against the homologous S, lesser reactivity to 229E S and some, although lowered reactivity to β-CoV S. (news-medical.net)
  • You've likely never heard of coronaviruses 229E, NL63, OC43, and HKU1, but your immune system knows them well. (24hrcares.com)
  • Unlike the coronaviruses HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-NL63, and HCoV-HKU, that are pathogenic in humans and are associated with mild clinical symptoms, SARS-CoV-2 resembles both SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), with the potential to cause more severe disease. (frontiersin.org)
  • Along with the three novel coronaviruses that have sparked significant disease outbreaks in recent decades - MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 - there are four types that commonly infect humans: 229E, NL63, OC43, and HKU1. (iflscience.com)
  • Coronaviruses 229E, OC43, NL63, and HKU1 cause about 15 to 30% of cases of the common cold. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Most people are infected with common coronaviruses throughout their lives, but only four of them cause common cold symptoms: alpha coronavirus 229E and NL63 and beta coronavirus OC43, HKU1 (V) 1 . (bvsalud.org)
  • There's some strong evidence that the devastating "Russian flu pandemic" of 1889 to 1891 was not actually influenza, but the coronavirus OC43 having its first foray into the human population. (iflscience.com)
  • In 2004, the increase in research on theses viruses soon led to the discovery of 2 other human coronaviruses, HCoV-NL63 in the Netherlands and, more recently, CoV-HKU1 in China ( 1 - 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The human coronaviruses (HCoVs) HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-HKU1 are two recently discovered coronaviruses that circulate widely and are associated with acute respiratory infections (ARI). (hindawi.com)
  • Thirty-two (8.4%) and 57 (14.9%) of 382 specimens tested positive for HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-HKU1, respectively, by real-time RT-PCR. (hindawi.com)
  • Phylogenetic studies showed that the HCoV-HKU1 nucleoprotein gene was relatively conserved compared to NCBI reference sequences, while the 1ab gene of HCoV-NL63 showed more variation. (hindawi.com)
  • The outbreak of SARS renewed interest in this virus family and resulted in the identification of two additional HCoVs, HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-HKU1. (hindawi.com)
  • In China, several groups have demonstrated the existence of HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-HKU1 as potential respiratory pathogens of infants and the elderly [ 3 - 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In this study, we screened for the presence of HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-HKU1 in children with acute respiratory infection admitted to the Beijing Children's Hospital in an effort to gain a better understanding of the seasonality, epidemiology and genetic diversity of these viruses in a city with a population of more than 22 million. (hindawi.com)
  • In the absence of pharmaceutical interventions such as vaccine and anti-virals for most respiratory viruses including coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) ( 7 ), non-pharmaceutical interventions such as personal protection equipment are crucial to curb community spread ( 7 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Many studies have reported the co-occurrence of HCoV-NL63 with other human coronavirus, Influenza A virus, Human orthopneumovirus (RSV), parainfluenza virus, and Human metapneumovirus (hMPV). (wikipedia.org)
  • Most pathogens were human metapneumovirus (25.4%, 54 cases), rhinovirus (16.4%, 35 cases) and Mycoplasma pneumoniae (13.1%, 23 cases). (who.int)
  • Human metapneumovirus, human coronavirus (but not NL63) and M. pneumoniae were detected in almost all age groups without any significant bias. (who.int)
  • Seasonal human coronaviruses, human metapneumovirus, M. pneumoniae and several other pathogens were detected until April 2020. (who.int)
  • The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends several measures for the prevention of infection with HCoV-NL63 including: washing hands often with soap and water, avoiding close contact with sick individuals, and not touching the eyes, mouth, or nose. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first case of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Finland was confirmed on 29 January 2020. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • A new coronavirus associated with human respiratory disease in China. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • In several Italian centers, where the incidence of Covid-19 was higher - Professor Ravelli told ANSA - more frequent cases of Kawasaki disease have occurred than we have observed before the arrival of the coronavirus. (keepkidshealthy.com)
  • And next came an alert from the CDC on what they are calling multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). (keepkidshealthy.com)
  • Here, we report the clinical validation of the specific high-sensitivity enzymatic reporter unlocking (SHERLOCK) assay using the enzyme Cas13a from Leptotrichia wadei for the detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-in 154 nasopharyngeal and throat swab samples collected at Siriraj Hospital, Thailand. (nature.com)
  • The virus causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is not the same as the coronaviruses that commonly circulate among humans and cause mild illness, like the common cold. (yakimacounty.us)
  • They also investigated the impact of pre-existing immune levels against seasonal CoV S on the immune protection conferred by messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccinations. (news-medical.net)
  • In a recent study posted to the medRxiv * preprint server, a team of researchers used a high throughput systems serology method to compare serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infected individuals with and without long coronavirus disease (COVID) symptoms to determine changes in the SARS-CoV-2 humoral immune responses. (news-medical.net)
  • One of the emerging long-term impacts of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is persistent complications in organ systems other than the respiratory system, such as the nervous system. (news-medical.net)
  • Reported illnesses have ranged from mild symptoms to severe illness and death for confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases. (southmetro.org)
  • The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus, the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has been responsible for the largest respiratory illness pandemic since the influenza pandemic of 1918. (health.mil)
  • Coronavirus disease (COVID)-19, the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, has since spread around the globe as a pandemic. (frontiersin.org)
  • It's not known whether this will become the fifth endemic coronavirus that causes a common cold, whether it will be long-term endemic, or just short-term endemic," Professor David Heymann , an infectious disease epidemiologist from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, told IFLScience. (iflscience.com)
  • Why is the disease being called coronavirus disease 2019, COVID-19? (cdc.gov)
  • The new name of this disease is coronavirus disease 2019, abbreviated as COVID-19. (cdc.gov)
  • Only 7 coronaviruses are known to cause disease in humans. (msdmanuals.com)
  • During the coronavirus disease pandemic in Japan, all patients with respiratory symptoms were initially tested for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). (who.int)
  • 9-11 Unlike other countries, Japan the illness later termed coronavirus disease (COVID-19). (who.int)
  • Melisa Shah] SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 or COVID-19, has placed a lot more attention on the common human coronaviruses. (cdc.gov)
  • All four common human coronaviruses, like you say, generally cause less severe disease than the types of coronaviruses that cause MERS, SARS, and COVID-19. (cdc.gov)
  • More severe disease is generally seen in infants and older adults, and one of the alpha coronaviruses (NL63) has been associated with croup in children. (cdc.gov)
  • All human beings are susceptible to host this virus, however, those with comorbidities, chronic diseases and older than 60 years are more easily affected by the severity of the disease COVID-19. (bvsalud.org)
  • This rate is patterns, gene sequencing, immuno- Centre for Disease Prevention and higher than that of severe acute respira- genicity and the animal-human and hu- Control (ECDC) and the National In- tory syndrome coronavirus (SARS), man-human interfaces. (who.int)
  • These include influenza viruses, rhinoviruses, and coronaviruses. (frontiersin.org)
  • It is difficult to distinguish between symptoms caused by infection of the HCoV-NL63 virus and those caused by other common human viruses, making diagnosis and detection complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is now recognized that both these viruses have a worldwide circulation and are associated with human respiratory tract infections. (hindawi.com)
  • Human Coronaviruses and Other Respiratory Viruses: Underestimated Opportunistic Pathogens of the Central Nervous System? (mdpi.com)
  • Respiratory viruses infect the human upper respiratory tract, mostly causing mild diseases. (mdpi.com)
  • Coronaviruses are positive-strand, enveloped RNA viruses that are important pathogens of mammals and birds. (nhbs.com)
  • This group of viruses cause enteric or respiratory tract infections in a variety of animals including humans, livestock and pets. (nhbs.com)
  • This section includes reviews of the three prototype viruses, namely avian infectious bronchitis virus, feline coronavirus and mouse hepatitis virus. (nhbs.com)
  • This undated file image released by the British Health Protection Agency shows an electron microscope image of a coronavirus, part of a family of viruses that cause ailments including the common cold and SARS, which was first identified in the Middle East. (blacklistednews.com)
  • Coronavirus is a family of viruses that share similar characteristics. (24hrcares.com)
  • All three are infectious respiratory diseases that began as animal viruses and evolved to infect humans. (24hrcares.com)
  • ARB displays antiviral activity against respiratory viruses, including coronaviruses ( 4 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The more cutting edge stuff that I recall reading about was the incorporation of gene sequences of viruses into the human genome in people who have contracted a virus. (bodybuilding.com)
  • Coronaviruses are enveloped RNA viruses that cause respiratory illnesses of varying severity from the common cold to fatal pneumonia. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Coronaviruses (CoV) make up a large family of viruses, known since the mid-1960s, which received this name due to the spikes on its surface, which resemble a crown (from the Latin corona). (bvsalud.org)
  • Coronavirus is a family of viruses that cause respiratory infections, being SARS-CoV2 the seventh coronavirus in this family. (bvsalud.org)
  • The N-terminal domain of the nucleocapsid protein from Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV NP-NTD) contains many positively charged residues and has been identified to be responsible for RNA binding during ribonucleocapsid formation by the virus. (iucr.org)
  • ABSTRACT A literature review of publically available information was undertaken to summarize current understanding and gaps in knowledge about Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), including its origin, transmission, effective control measures and management. (who.int)
  • RÉSUMÉ Une analyse documentaire des informations publiques disponibles a été entreprise afin de passer en revue les connaissances et les lacunes actuelles sur le coronavirus du syndrome respiratoire du Moyen-Orient (MERS-CoV), notamment sur son origine, la transmission, les mesures de lutte efficaces et la prise en charge. (who.int)
  • Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is a severe, acute respiratory illness caused by the MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV). (msdmanuals.com)
  • There are other types of human coronaviruses, including the Middle East respiratory syndrome (or MERS) and the severe acute respiratory syndrome (or SARS), and of course COVID-19. (cdc.gov)
  • CoV infections can cause everything from a common cold to severe respiratory syndromes, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV) and Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV).COVID-19 (SARS-CoV2) is a new variant of the coronavirus, and its isolation occurred in China on January 7th, 2020. (bvsalud.org)
  • Orient (MERS-CoV), notamment sur son origine, la transmission, les mesures de lutte efficaces et la prise en charge. (who.int)
  • Consequently, stitute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) estimated at 15%, and is strongly age- a myriad of literature has been pro- databases on 19 April 2015 for "Middle and sex-dependent ( 3 ).To date, 26 duced, much of it providing evidence East respiratory syndrome coronavirus" countries on four continents ( 2,4 ) have to answer questions about the origin, [MESH] OR "MERS-CoV" [keyword] been affected. (who.int)
  • After 21 days of booster vaccinations, mice were intranasally transduced with non-replicating adenovirus-expressing hACE2 (human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) followed by SARS-CoV-2 wild-type (wt) Washington-1 strain challenge after five days. (news-medical.net)
  • The first cases of the infection with HCoV-NL63 were found in young children with severe lower respiratory tract infections admitted to hospitals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The comorbidity of HCoV-NL63 with other respiratory infections, has made the specific symptoms of the virus difficult to pinpoint. (wikipedia.org)
  • We studied HCoV-NL63 infection in hospitalized children diagnosed with respiratory tract infections. (cdc.gov)
  • These coronaviruses cause frequent mild childhood infections and antibody seroconversion occurs typically before the age of 5 years. (nature.com)
  • In the United States, annual community outbreaks of coronavirus infections typically occur during late fall and winter. (cdc.gov)
  • Viral infections continue to appear in human and wildlife populations, causing frequent epidemics and occasional pandemics. (nih.gov)
  • False-positive results may occur due to cross reaction with circulating human coronaviruses that can account for up to 10-20% of viral respiratory infections (e.g. (snohd.org)
  • These coronaviruses that cause severe respiratory infections are zoonotic pathogens, which begin in infected animals and are transmitted from animals to people. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Melisa Shah] Generally, the common human coronaviruses can cause upper respiratory tract infections. (cdc.gov)
  • Melisa Shah] Human coronaviruses occur primarily in the winter in temperate climates, although infections can occur at any time of year. (cdc.gov)
  • For example, there's a study from Michigan that spanned eight seasons indicating that only 2.5% of infections with common human coronaviruses being identified between June and September. (cdc.gov)
  • Before the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by the SARS coronavirus in 2003, human coronaviruses (HCoVs) had not been considered harmful respiratory pathogens. (hindawi.com)
  • In this timely book, internationally renowned experts review literally every aspect of cutting edge coronavirus research providing the first coherent picture of the molecular and cellular biology since the outbreak of SARS in 2003. (nhbs.com)
  • The outbreak of new Cov-2 epidemic was detected in December 2019 in the city of Wuhan, China, caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus −2 and started its rapid spread througth the world. (intechopen.com)
  • Subsequent investigation by GreatGameIndia linked the agents to Chinese Biological Warfare Program from where the virus is suspected to have leaked causing the Wuhan Coronavirus outbreak. (blacklistednews.com)
  • One potential determinant of differential immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 across the life course may be the timing of exposure to the four additional endemic human coronaviruses (hCoVs). (nature.com)
  • It isolated and provided the first genome sequence of the SARS coronavirus and identified another coronavirus NL63 in 2004. (blacklistednews.com)
  • However, the high frequency of croup is specific to HCoV-NL63 infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • We tested for HCoV-NL63 in children with acute respiratory tract infection hospitalized in Caen from November 2002 to April 2003, described symptoms associated with this infection, and examined local strains for the genetic variability. (cdc.gov)
  • Data for 18 patients with recorded HCoV-NL63 infection were available and were examined retrospectively for specific respiratory symptoms. (cdc.gov)
  • Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are a highly prevalent cause of acute respiratory infection in children. (plos.org)
  • Microbial infection) Acts as a receptor for SARS coronavirus/SARS-CoV and human coronavirus NL63/HCoV-NL63. (avivasysbio.com)
  • The spike (S) glycoprotein of coronaviruses is known to be essential in the binding of the virus to the host cell at the advent of the infection process. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Over 130 years ago, an infection from one of these coronaviruses would have looked very different. (iflscience.com)
  • Additionally, in collaboration with investigators from La Jolla Institute for Immunology, Dr. Scheuermann and his team provided machine learning methods to help complete the first analysis that identified potential targets for human immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection. (jcvi.org)
  • The genomic sequences from nine patients who were among the first cases of this serious infection (COVID-19) are almost genetically identical, which suggests the very recent appearance of this Coronavirus in humans 3 . (bvsalud.org)
  • There are four other endemic human coronaviruses that came from the animal kingdom into humans and they're causing the common cold. (iflscience.com)
  • Fouchier used a broad-spectrum "pan-coronavirus" real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method to test for distinguishing features of a number of known coronaviruses known to infect humans. (blacklistednews.com)
  • Currently, seven coronaviruses are known to infect people and the remaining identified coronaviruses are only seen in animals. (24hrcares.com)
  • Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) is a species of coronavirus, specifically a Setracovirus from among the Alphacoronavirus genus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Section of Genomic Epidemiology and Evolution of Pathogens (GEEP) at DIEPS, FIC, NIH aims to answer critical questions about pathogen emergence and establishment in animal and human populations using evolutionary and epidemiological information extracted from viral genomes. (nih.gov)
  • The FTD™ Respiratory pathogens 21 assay 1 is a qualitative in vitro nucleic acid amplification test for the detection and differentiation of specific viral and bacterial nucleic acids in nasopharyngeal swab specimens of human origin. (siemens-healthineers.com)
  • By taking advantage of high-containment labs in UF's Emerging Pathogens Institute-specially designed for studying highly contagious and virulent pathogens-the team is using CRISPR genome editing techniques to screen human cell lines. (ufl.edu)
  • For more information on these common coronavirus types, visit the Human Coronavirus Types webpage. (cdc.gov)
  • Patients with COVID-19 will be evaluated and cared for differently than patients with common coronavirus diagnosis. (yakimacounty.us)
  • Thus, we aim to describe key topics of COVID-19: The new Coronavirus(SARS-CoV2) and its advances in the world population. (bvsalud.org)
  • dyspnea (63% vs 11%) and wheezing (75% vs 22%) were more common in children with human bocavirus. (bvsalud.org)
  • There are many types of human coronaviruses including some that commonly cause mild upper-respiratory tract il nesses. (cdc.gov)
  • In general, coronaviruses are named for their crown-like spikes on their surface, and the common human coronaviruses cause mild to moderate upper respiratory tract illness (like the common cold). (cdc.gov)
  • Coronaviruses: Molecular and Cellular Biology is divided into two sections: Part I focuses on the molecular biology of the virus itself and includes topics such as coronavirus binding and entry, replicase gene function, cis-acting RNA elements, coronavirus discontinuous transcription, reverse genetics, genome packaging and molecular evolution. (nhbs.com)
  • Chinese researchers isolated the virus and three days later shared data from the viral genome internationally, calling it a new Coronavirus 2 . (bvsalud.org)
  • As HCoV-NL63 infects the respiratory tract it must be inhaled to get there, and is therefore transmitted by the airborne route. (wikipedia.org)
  • smallpox, for example, is a virus that only infects humans. (24hrcares.com)
  • Partial HCoV-NL63 sequences from Australia, Japan, and Canada have been submitted to the GenBank database, which indicates that this virus is distributed worldwide. (cdc.gov)
  • isolated HCoV-NL63 from a nasopharyngeal aspirate taken from a 7-month-old child hospitalized with bronchiolitis, conjunctivitis, and fever ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Elabscience Target Species: Human Type: Competitive Assay Time: 1.5h Detection Type: Colormetric Sensitivity: N/A Detection Range: N/A. (proteomecommons.org)
  • Through an IARPA-funded collaboration with investigators at Harvard Wyss Institute, John Glass, PhD is using in vitro cell culture systems to assess the capacity of SARS-CoV-2 proteins to inhibit antiviral mechanisms of the human innate immune system that would otherwise prevent viral replication in those cells. (jcvi.org)
  • A fragment of the spike protein gene was sequenced to determine the variety of circulating HCoV-NL63. (cdc.gov)
  • Antibody responses against spike protein were high in children and seroconversion boosted responses against seasonal Beta-coronaviruses through cross-recognition of the S2 domain. (nature.com)
  • Spike-specific T cell responses were more than twice as high in children and were also detected in many seronegative children, indicating pre-existing cross-reactive responses to seasonal coronaviruses. (nature.com)
  • The spike (S) glycoprotein of coronaviruses contains protrusions that will only bind to certain receptors on the host cell. (creativebiomart.net)
  • As we receive news and information through the Southern Nevada Health District (SNHD) regarding COVID-19, or coronavirus, we want residents to remain educated and updated. (bcnv.org)
  • Expression of ACE2 in Human Neurons Supports the Neuro-Invasive Potential of COVID-19 Virus. (avivasysbio.com)
  • Looking for more information about coronaviruses and COVID-19? (24hrcares.com)
  • During this current health crisis, arm yourself with the facts about coronavirus and COVID-19. (24hrcares.com)
  • In December 2019, SARS CoV-2-COVID-19-was first identified in humans in Wuhan, China. (24hrcares.com)
  • It's been reported that SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19 coronavirus, 2019-nCoV) can infect the human respiratory epithelial cells through interaction with the human ACE2 receptor. (creativebiomart.net)
  • A University of Florida research team is harnessing the power of genomic editing to illuminate druggable targets in human cells for the fight against COVID-19. (ufl.edu)
  • On January 7th with COVID-19 being the seventh coronavirus in this family. (bvsalud.org)
  • From November 2002 to April 2003, we evaluated 300 respiratory specimens for HCoV-NL63. (cdc.gov)
  • Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus fails to activate cytokine-mediated innate immune responses in cultured human monocyte-derived dendritic cells. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • The important discovery in 2003 that the causative agent of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was a new, potentially lethal coronavirus named SARS-CoV provided major impetus to coronavirus research. (nhbs.com)
  • It is caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus −2 (SARS-CoV-2) and started its rapid spread through the world [ 1 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • In December 2019, severe acute respiratory syndrome confined spaces - and the change in attitudes of patients coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was first identified in a towards receiving medical care and the responses of cluster of pneumonia cases in Wuhan, China, 1 with medical institutions. (who.int)
  • Acute respiratory illnesses (ARIs) are the most common respiratory infectious diseases among humans globally. (frontiersin.org)
  • for naming of new human infectious diseases. (cdc.gov)
  • Antibody responses against four other coronaviruses and three non-coronavirus control antigens were also measured. (news-medical.net)
  • The transmission of the coronavirus occurs between humans, and it can occur from person to person through the air, through coughing or sneezing, by touching or shaking hands or by contact with contaminated objects or surfaces, followed by contact with the mouth, nose or eyes. (bvsalud.org)