Virus diseases caused by the CORONAVIRUS genus. Some specifics include transmissible enteritis of turkeys (ENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF TURKEYS); FELINE INFECTIOUS PERITONITIS; and transmissible gastroenteritis of swine (GASTROENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF SWINE).
A genus of the family CORONAVIRIDAE which causes respiratory or gastrointestinal disease in a variety of vertebrates.
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing atypical respiratory disease (SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME) in humans. The organism is believed to have first emerged in Guangdong Province, China, in 2002. The natural host is the Chinese horseshoe bat, RHINOLOPHUS sinicus.
Virus diseases caused by CORONAVIRIDAE.
A viral disorder characterized by high FEVER, dry COUGH, shortness of breath (DYSPNEA) or breathing difficulties, and atypical PNEUMONIA. A virus in the genus CORONAVIRUS is the suspected agent.
A species in the genus CORONAVIRUS causing the common cold and possibly nervous system infections in humans. It lacks hemagglutinin-esterase.
A species in the genus CORONAVIRUS causing the common cold and possibly nervous system infections in humans. It contains hemagglutinin-esterase.
A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting neonatal calves, presenting as acute diarrhea, and frequently leading to death.
A species of the CORONAVIRUS genus causing hepatitis in mice. Four strains have been identified as MHV 1, MHV 2, MHV 3, and MHV 4 (also known as MHV-JHM, which is neurotropic and causes disseminated encephalomyelitis with demyelination as well as focal liver necrosis).
A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting cats of all ages and commonly found in catteries and zoos. Cats are often found carrying the virus but only a small proportion develop disease. Feline coronavirus and Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) are virtually the same virus in genetic and antigenetic terms, and are morphologically indistinguishable. Since they only differ in their disease potential (with FIPV causing a more serious illness), they are considered biotypes of each other.
A class I viral fusion protein that forms the characteristic spikes, or peplomers, found on the viral surface that mediate virus attachment, fusion, and entry into the host cell. During virus maturation, it is cleaved into two subunits: S1, which binds to receptors in the host cell, and S2, which mediates membrane fusion.
Spherical RNA viruses, in the order NIDOVIRALES, infecting a wide range of animals including humans. Transmission is by fecal-oral and respiratory routes. Mechanical transmission is also common. There are two genera: CORONAVIRUS and TOROVIRUS.
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing pneumonia in newborn rats but a clinically inapparent infection in adults. It is separate but antigenically related to MURINE HEPATITIS VIRUS.
A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting dogs. Onset of symptoms is usually sudden and includes vomiting, diarrhea, and dehydration.
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing a fatal disease to pigs under 3 weeks old.
Common coronavirus infection of cats caused by the feline infectious peritonitis virus (CORONAVIRUS, FELINE). The disease is characterized by a long incubation period, fever, depression, loss of appetite, wasting, and progressive abdominal enlargement. Infection of cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage appears to be essential in FIP pathogenesis.
Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing infections in chickens and possibly pheasants. Chicks up to four weeks old are the most severely affected.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
A species in the genus CORONAVIRUS causing upper and lower RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS. It shares the receptor used by the SARS VIRUS.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Viral proteins found in either the NUCLEOCAPSID or the viral core (VIRAL CORE PROTEINS).
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
A peptidyl-dipeptidase that catalyzes the release of a C-terminal dipeptide, -Xaa-*-Xbb-Xcc, when neither Xaa nor Xbb is Pro. It is a Cl(-)-dependent, zinc glycoprotein that is generally membrane-bound and active at neutral pH. It may also have endopeptidase activity on some substrates. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.4.15.1.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing enteritis in turkeys and pullets.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A mutant strain of TRANSMISSIBLE GASTROENTERITIS VIRUS causing mild or subclinical respiratory infections in young SWINE. It may also play a role in post-weaning porcine respiratory disease complex, especially when combined with other respiratory agents.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A condition of chronic gastroenteritis in adult pigs and fatal gastroenteritis in piglets caused by a CORONAVIRUS.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The family of civets which are small and medium-sized Old World carnivores, often striped or spotted.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An acute, highly contagious virus disease of turkeys characterized by chilling, anorexia, decreased water intake, diarrhea, dehydration and weight loss. The infectious agent is a CORONAVIRUS.
Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.
A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.

Immune response to the immunodominant epitope of mouse hepatitis virus is polyclonal, but functionally monospecific in C57Bl/6 mice. (1/657)

Mutations in an immunodominant CD8 CTL epitope (S-510-518) are selected in mice persistently infected with the neurotropic JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus. These mutations abrogate recognition by T cells harvested from the infected CNS in direct ex vivo cytotoxicity assays. Previous reports have suggested that, in general, an oligoclonal, monospecific T cell response contributes to the selection of CTL escape mutants. Herein, we show that, in MHV-JHM-infected mice, the CD8 T cell response after intraperitoneal infection is polyclonal and diverse. This diverse response was shown to include both polyclonal and oligoclonal components. The polyclonal data were shown to fit a logarithmic distribution. With regard to specificity, we used a panel of peptide analogues of epitope S-510-518 and spleen-derived CD8 T cell lines to determine why only a subset of possible mutations was selected in persistently infected mice. At a given position in the epitope, the mutations identified in in vivo isolates were among those that resulted in the greatest loss of recognition. However, not all such mutations were selected, suggesting that additional factors must contribute to selection in vivo. By extrapolation of these results to the persistently infected CNS, they suggest that the selection of CTL escape mutants requires the presence of a monospecific T cell response but also show that this response need not be oligoclonal.  (+info)

Application of nested polymerase chain reaction to detection of mouse hepatitis virus in fecal specimens during a natural outbreak in an immunodeficient mouse colony. (2/657)

The usefulness of RT-PCR for the detection of MHV in tissues and feces of experimentally infected animals has been reported, but it was unclear whether the method was also applicable for the detection of MHV during a natural outbreak. Enterotropic infection is considered to be the most common form of natural infection among various forms of MHV infection. In this paper, RT-nested PCR was performed to detect MHV excreted in the feces during an outbreak in an immunocompromised A/WySnJ mouse colony. The expected bands were amplified after nested PCR from 20 fecal samples out of 37. These results showed that RT-nested PCR could be applicable for the diagnosis for MHV natural infection.  (+info)

Persistent infection of human oligodendrocytic and neuroglial cell lines by human coronavirus 229E. (3/657)

Human coronaviruses (HuCV) cause common colds. Previous reports suggest that these infectious agents may be neurotropic in humans, as they are for some mammals. With the long-term aim of providing experimental evidence for the neurotropism of HuCV and the establishment of persistent infections in the nervous system, we have evaluated the susceptibility of various human neural cell lines to acute and persistent infection by HuCV-229E. Viral antigen, infectious virus progeny and viral RNA were monitored during both acute and persistent infections. The astrocytoma cell lines U-87 MG, U-373 MG, and GL-15, as well as neuroblastoma SK-N-SH, neuroglioma H4, and oligodendrocytic MO3.13 cell lines, were all susceptible to an acute infection by HuCV-229E. The CHME-5 immortalized fetal microglial cell line was not susceptible to infection by this virus. The MO3.13 and H4 cell lines also sustained a persistent viral infection, as monitored by detection of viral antigen and infectious virus progeny. Sequencing of the S1 gene from viral RNA after approximately 130 days of infection showed two point mutations, suggesting amino acid changes during persistent infection of MO3.13 cells but none for H4 cells. Thus, persistent in vitro infection did not generate important changes in the S1 portion of the viral spike protein, which was shown for murine coronaviruses to bear hypervariable domains and to interact with cellular receptor. These results are consistent with the potential persistence of HuCV-229E in cells of the human nervous system, such as oligodendrocytes and possibly neurons, and the virus's apparent genomic stability.  (+info)

Acute and persistent infection of human neural cell lines by human coronavirus OC43. (4/657)

Human coronaviruses (HuCV) are recognized respiratory pathogens. Data accumulated by different laboratories suggest their neurotropic potential. For example, primary cultures of human astrocytes and microglia were shown to be susceptible to an infection by the OC43 strain of HuCV (A. Bonavia, N. Arbour, V. W. Yong, and P. J. Talbot, J. Virol. 71:800-806, 1997). We speculate that the neurotropism of HuCV will lead to persistence within the central nervous system, as was observed for murine coronaviruses. As a first step in the verification of our hypothesis, we have characterized the susceptibility of various human neural cell lines to infection by HuCV-OC43. Viral antigen, infectious virus progeny, and viral RNA were monitored during both acute and persistent infections. The astrocytoma cell lines U-87 MG, U-373 MG, and GL-15, as well as neuroblastoma SK-N-SH, neuroglioma H4, oligodendrocytic MO3.13, and the CHME-5 immortalized fetal microglial cell lines, were all susceptible to an acute infection by HuCV-OC43. Viral antigen and RNA and release of infectious virions were observed during persistent HuCV-OC43 infections ( approximately 130 days of culture) of U-87 MG, U-373 MG, MO3.13, and H4 cell lines. Nucleotide sequences of RNA encoding the putatively hypervariable viral S1 gene fragment obtained after 130 days of culture were compared to that of initial virus input. Point mutations leading to amino acid changes were observed in all persistently infected cell lines. Moreover, an in-frame deletion was also observed in persistently infected H4 cells. Some point mutations were observed in some molecular clones but not all, suggesting evolution of the viral population and the emergence of viral quasispecies during persistent infection of H4, U-87 MG, and MO3.13 cell lines. These results are consistent with the potential persistence of HuCV-OC43 in cells of the human nervous system, accompanied by the production of infectious virions and molecular variation of viral genomic RNA.  (+info)

Selection of CD8+ T cells with highly focused specificity during viral persistence in the central nervous system. (5/657)

The relationships between T cell populations during primary viral infection and persistence are poorly understood. Mice infected with the neurotropic JHMV strain of mouse hepatitis virus mount potent regional CTL responses that effectively reduce infectious virus; nevertheless, viral RNA persists in the central nervous system (CNS). To evaluate whether persistence influences Ag-specific CD8+ T cells, functional TCR diversity was studied in spleen and CNS-derived CTL populations based on differential recognition of variant peptides for the dominant nucleocapsid epitope. Increased specificity of peripheral CTL from persistently infected mice for the index epitope compared with immunized mice suggested T cell selection during persistence. This was confirmed with CD8+ T cell clones derived from the CNS of either acutely (CTLac) or persistently (CTLper) infected mice. Whereas CTLac clones recognized a broad diversity of amino acid substitutions, CTLper clones exhibited exquisite specificity for the wild-type sequence. Highly focused specificity was CD8 independent but correlated with longer complementarity-determining regions 3 characteristic of CTLper clonotypes despite limited TCR alpha/beta-chain heterogeneity. Direct ex vivo analysis of CNS-derived mononuclear cells by IFN-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot assay confirmed the selection of T cells with narrow Ag specificity during persistence at the population level. These data suggest that broadly reactive CTL during primary infection are capable of controlling potentially emerging mutations. By contrast, the predominance of CD8+ T cells with dramatically focused specificity during persistence at the site of infection and in the periphery supports selective pressure driven by persisting Ag.  (+info)

Production, characterization, and uses of monoclonal antibodies against recombinant nucleoprotein of elk coronavirus. (6/657)

This is the first report of the production of monoclonal antibodies against elk coronavirus. The nucleoprotein gene of elk coronavirus was amplified by PCR and was cloned and expressed in a prokaryotic expression vector. Recombinant nucleocapsid protein was used to immunize mice for the production of hybridomas. Twelve hybridomas that produced monoclonal antibodies against the nucleocapsid protein of elk coronavirus were selected by an indirect fluorescent-antibody test, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and a Western blot assay. Ten of the monoclonal antibodies were of the immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) isotype, one was IgG2a, and one was IgM. All had kappa light chains. By immunohistochemistry four monoclonal antibodies detected bovine coronavirus and elk coronavirus in formalin-fixed intestinal tissues. Antinucleoprotein monoclonal antibodies were found to be better at ruminant coronavirus detection than the anti-spike protein monoclonal antibodies. Because nucleoprotein is a more abundant antigen than spike protein in infected cells, this was not an unexpected finding.  (+info)

Interference of natural mouse hepatitis virus infection with cytokine production and susceptibility to Trypanosoma cruzi. (7/657)

Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) infection can have a pronounced impact on several investigation areas. Reports on natural MHV outbreaks are rare and most studies have been conducted by deliberately infecting mice with MHV laboratory strains that cause moderate to severe disturbances to the immune system. We have investigated the effects of a natural acute outbreak of MHV in our otherwise specific-pathogen-free (SPF) inbred mouse colonies, and of enzootic chronic MHV infection on cytokine production and resistance to the intracellular pathogen Trypanosoma cruzi. We found that BALB/c and/or C57BL/6 SPF mice that had been injected with T. cruzi blood trypomastigotes from recently MHV-contaminated (MHV+) mice developed significantly higher parasite blood counts, accelerated death, and showed higher IL-10 production by spleen cells than their counterparts whose T. cruzi inoculum was derived from MHV-negative (MHV-) donors. Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production by MHV+ and MHV- mice was not significantly different. In contrast, T. cruzi infection of chronically MHV-infected mice did not result in major changes in the course of infection when compared with that observed in mice from MHV- colonies, although a trend to higher parasitaemia levels was observed in BALB/c MHV+ mice. Nevertheless, both BALB/c and C57BL/6 T. cruzi-infected MHV+ mice had diminished IFN-gamma production to parasite-antigen stimulation in comparison with similarly infected MHV- mice. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) production levels by spleen cells did not differ between chronic MHV+ and MHV- mice, but IFN-gamma neutralization by monoclonal antibody treatment of anti-CD3-stimulated spleen cell cultures showed higher levels of IL-10 synthesis in MHV+ BALB/c mice.  (+info)

Antibody prevents virus reactivation within the central nervous system. (8/657)

The neurotropic JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus (JHMV) produces an acute CNS infection characterized by encephalomyelitis and demyelination. The immune response cannot completely eliminate virus, resulting in persistence associated with chronic ongoing CNS demyelination. The contribution of humoral immunity to viral clearance and persistent infection was investigated in mice homozygous for disruption of the Ig mu gene (IgM-/-). Acute disease developed with equal kinetics and severity in IgM-/- and syngeneic C57BL/6 (wt) mice. However, clinical disease progressed in IgM-/- mice, while wt mice recovered. Viral clearance during acute infection was similar in both groups, supporting a primary role of cell-mediated immunity in viral clearance. In contrast to wt mice, in which infectious virus was reduced to below detection following acute infection, increasing infectious virus was recovered from the CNS of the IgM-/- mice following initial clearance. No evidence was obtained for selection of variant viruses nor was there an apparent loss of cell-mediated immunity in the absence of Ab. Passive transfer of anti-JHMV Ab following initial clearance prevented reactivation of infectious virus within the CNS of IgM-/- mice. These data demonstrate the clearance of infectious virus during acute disease by cell-mediated immunity. However, immunologic control is not maintained in the absence of anti-viral Ab, resulting in recrudescence of infectious virus. These data suggest that humoral immunity plays no role in controlling virus during acute infection, but plays an important role in establishing and maintaining CNS viral persistence.  (+info)

Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that can cause illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as pneumonia. The name "coronavirus" comes from the Latin word "corona," which means crown or halo, reflecting the distinctive appearance of the virus particles under electron microscopy, which have a crown-like structure due to the presence of spike proteins on their surface.

Coronaviruses are zoonotic, meaning they can be transmitted between animals and humans. Some coronaviruses are endemic in certain animal populations and occasionally jump to humans, causing outbreaks of new diseases. This is what happened with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in 2002-2003, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) in 2012, and the most recent Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by SARS-CoV-2.

Coronavirus infections typically cause respiratory symptoms such as cough, shortness of breath, and fever. In severe cases, they can lead to pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and even death, especially in older adults or people with underlying medical conditions. Other symptoms may include fatigue, muscle aches, headache, sore throat, and gastrointestinal issues such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.

Preventive measures for coronavirus infections include frequent hand washing, wearing face masks, practicing social distancing, avoiding close contact with sick individuals, and covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing. There are currently vaccines available to prevent COVID-19, which have been shown to be highly effective in preventing severe illness, hospitalization, and death from the disease.

A coronavirus is a type of virus that causes respiratory illnesses, such as the common cold, and more severe diseases including Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). These viruses are typically spread through close contact with an infected person when they cough or sneeze. They can also spread by touching a surface or object that has the virus on it and then touching your own mouth, nose, or eyes.

Coronaviruses are named for the crown-like spikes on their surface. They are zoonotic, meaning they can be transmitted between animals and people. Common signs of infection include fever, cough, and shortness of breath. In more severe cases, infection can cause pneumonia, severe acute respiratory syndrome, kidney failure, and even death.

One of the most recently discovered coronaviruses is SARS-CoV-2, which causes the disease COVID-19. This virus was first identified in Wuhan, China in late 2019 and has since spread to become a global pandemic.

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) is a viral respiratory illness caused by the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). This virus is a member of the Coronaviridae family and is thought to be transmitted most readily through close person-to-person contact via respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes.

The SARS outbreak began in southern China in 2002 and spread to several other countries before it was contained. The illness causes symptoms such as fever, chills, and body aches, which progress to a dry cough and sometimes pneumonia. Some people also report diarrhea. In severe cases, the illness can cause respiratory failure or death.

It's important to note that SARS is not currently a global health concern, as there have been no known cases since 2004. However, it remains a significant example of how quickly and widely a new infectious disease can spread in today's interconnected world.

Coronaviridae is a family of enveloped, positive-sense RNA viruses that cause various diseases in animals and humans. Human coronavirus infections most commonly result in mild to moderate upper respiratory tract illnesses, such as the common cold. However, two highly pathogenic coronaviruses have emerged in the past two decades: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV). These viruses can cause severe and potentially fatal respiratory illnesses.

In general, coronaviruses are transmitted through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or talks. In some cases, people may become infected by touching a surface contaminated with the virus and then touching their mouth, nose, or eyes. Preventive measures include frequent handwashing, avoiding close contact with sick individuals, and practicing good respiratory etiquette (e.g., covering coughs and sneezes).

Treatment for coronavirus infections is primarily supportive, focusing on relieving symptoms and managing complications. For severe cases of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV infections, antiviral medications and supportive care in an intensive care unit may be necessary. Vaccines have been developed to protect against SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, and are being distributed globally.

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) is a viral respiratory illness characterized by fever, cough, shortness of breath, and sometimes severe pneumonia. It is caused by the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV).

The syndrome is considered severe due to its potential to cause rapid spread in communities and healthcare settings, and for its high case fatality rate. In the global outbreak of 2002-2003, approximately 8,000 people were infected and nearly 800 died. Since then, no large outbreaks have been reported, although there have been isolated cases linked to laboratory accidents or animal exposures.

SARS is transmitted through close contact with an infected person's respiratory droplets, such as when they cough or sneeze. It can also be spread by touching a surface contaminated with the virus and then touching the mouth, nose, or eyes. Healthcare workers and others in close contact with infected individuals are at higher risk of infection.

Preventive measures include good personal hygiene, such as frequent handwashing, wearing masks and other protective equipment when in close contact with infected individuals, and practicing respiratory etiquette (covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing). Infected individuals should be isolated and receive appropriate medical care to help manage their symptoms and prevent transmission to others.

Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) is a species of coronavirus that causes respiratory infections in humans. It is one of the several coronaviruses known to cause the common cold. HCoV-229E was first identified in the 1960s and is named after the number assigned to it in the laboratory where it was discovered.

HCoV-229E infects the human body through the respiratory tract, and it primarily affects the upper respiratory system, causing symptoms such as runny nose, sore throat, cough, and fever. In some cases, HCoV-229E can also cause lower respiratory infections, such as pneumonia, especially in individuals with weakened immune systems or underlying medical conditions.

HCoV-229E is an enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the family Coronaviridae and the genus Alphacoronavirus. It is transmitted through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or talks. The virus can also survive on surfaces for several hours, making it possible to contract the infection by touching contaminated objects.

There is no specific treatment for HCoV-229E infections, and most people recover within a week or two with rest and symptomatic relief. However, severe cases may require hospitalization and supportive care, such as oxygen therapy and mechanical ventilation. Preventive measures, such as hand hygiene, wearing masks, and avoiding close contact with infected individuals, can help reduce the transmission of HCoV-229E and other respiratory viruses.

Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) is a species of coronavirus that causes respiratory infections in humans. It is one of the several coronaviruses known to cause the common cold. HCoV-OC43 belongs to the genus Betacoronavirus and is an enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus.

The virus was first identified in 1967 and has since been found to be widely distributed throughout the human population. It is estimated that HCoV-OC43 infections occur annually, with a peak incidence during the winter months in temperate climates. The symptoms of HCoV-OC43 infection are typically mild and include nasal congestion, runny nose, sore throat, and cough.

HCoV-OC43 is transmitted through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person talks, coughs, or sneezes. The virus can also be spread by touching contaminated surfaces and then touching the mouth, nose, or eyes. There is no specific treatment for HCoV-OC43 infections, and management is generally supportive, with rest, hydration, and symptomatic relief of fever and cough.

HCoV-OC43 has been identified as one of the coronaviruses that have the potential to cause severe respiratory illness in immunocompromised individuals or those with underlying medical conditions. However, most HCoV-OC43 infections are mild and do not require hospitalization.

Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is a species of coronavirus that infects cattle and other animals such as yaks, deer, and occasionally humans. It is an enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus belonging to the genus Betacoronavirus in the family Coronaviridae.

BCoV primarily causes respiratory and enteric diseases in cattle, resulting in symptoms such as pneumonia, coughing, diarrhea, and decreased appetite. The virus is transmitted through direct contact with infected animals or their feces, contaminated food, water, or fomites.

In humans, BCoV infection is rare but has been associated with respiratory illnesses in people working closely with cattle, such as farmers, abattoir workers, and veterinarians. The symptoms of human BCoV infection are similar to those caused by other coronaviruses, including fever, cough, and shortness of breath.

Prevention measures for BCoV include good hygiene practices, wearing personal protective equipment when working with cattle, and vaccination of animals against the virus. There is currently no specific treatment or vaccine available for human BCoV infection.

Murine hepatitis virus (MHV) is a type of coronavirus that primarily infects laboratory mice. It is not related to the human hepatitis viruses A, B, C, D, or E. MHV causes a range of diseases in mice, including hepatitis (liver inflammation), encephalomyelitis (inflammation of the brain and spinal cord), and enteritis (inflammation of the intestine). The virus is transmitted through fecal-oral route and respiratory droplets. It's widely used in research to understand the pathogenesis, immunity, and molecular biology of coronaviruses.

Feline coronavirus (FCoV) is a type of virus that primarily infects cats. It is part of the Coronaviridae family and has a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome. There are two types of feline coronavirus: feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) and feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV).

FECV is a relatively harmless virus that primarily causes mild to no symptoms in infected cats, and it is spread through fecal-oral transmission. FECV mainly affects the intestines and can cause diarrhea in some cases.

FIPV, on the other hand, is a mutated form of FECV that can cause a severe and often fatal disease called feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). FIP is an immune-mediated disease characterized by inflammation and accumulation of fluid in the abdomen or chest. It can also affect other organs, such as the eyes, brain, and liver.

It's important to note that not all cats infected with FECV will develop FIP. The development of FIP depends on various factors, including the cat's age, immune system, and the specific strain of the virus. There is no cure for FIP, but supportive care can help manage the symptoms and improve the cat's quality of life.

A spike glycoprotein in coronaviruses is a type of protein that extends from the surface of the virus and gives it its characteristic crown-like appearance (hence the name "corona," which is Latin for "crown"). This protein plays a crucial role in the infection process of the virus. It allows the virus to attach to and enter specific cells in the host organism, typically through binding to a receptor on the cell surface. In the case of SARS-CoV-2, the coronavirus responsible for COVID-19, the spike protein binds to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor found on cells in various tissues, including the lungs, heart, and gastrointestinal tract.

The spike protein is composed of two subunits: S1 and S2. The S1 subunit contains the receptor-binding domain (RBD), which recognizes and binds to the host cell receptor. After binding, the S2 subunit mediates the fusion of the viral membrane with the host cell membrane, allowing the viral genome to enter the host cell and initiate infection.

The spike protein is also a primary target for neutralizing antibodies generated by the host immune system during infection or following vaccination. Neutralizing antibodies bind to specific regions of the spike protein, preventing it from interacting with host cell receptors and thus inhibiting viral entry into cells.

In summary, a spike glycoprotein in coronaviruses is a crucial structural and functional component that facilitates viral attachment, fusion, and entry into host cells. Its importance in the infection process makes it an essential target for vaccine development and therapeutic interventions.

Coronaviridae is a family of enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses. They are named for the crown-like (corona) appearance of their surface proteins. Coronaviruses infect a wide range of animals, including mammals and birds, and can cause respiratory, gastrointestinal, and neurological diseases. Some coronaviruses, such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), can cause severe and potentially fatal illness in humans. The most recent example is SARS-CoV-2, which causes COVID-19.

A coronavirus that primarily infects rats is called "rat coronavirus." It is a type of virus that belongs to the genus Betacoronavirus, which also includes coronaviruses that can infect humans, such as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV.

Rat coronavirus is closely related to coronaviruses that infect mice and can cause respiratory illness in rats. It is typically transmitted through direct contact with infected rats or their feces and urine. Rat coronavirus infection is not known to spread to humans or other animals outside of laboratory settings.

It's worth noting that the current global pandemic is caused by a novel coronavirus called SARS-CoV-2, which is distinct from rat coronavirus and other known coronaviruses that infect animals.

Canine coronavirus (CCoV) is a species of coronavirus that infects dogs. It is related to the coronaviruses that cause respiratory illness in humans, such as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, but it is not known to infect people. CCoV primarily affects the gastrointestinal tract and can cause symptoms such as vomiting and diarrhea. It is usually spread through contact with infected feces. There are two main types of CCoV, called Type I and Type II, which are classified based on their genetic makeup. Both types can cause illness in dogs, but Type II is more likely to cause severe disease. Vaccines are available to help protect dogs against CCoV infection.

Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is a porcine coronavirus that primarily affects the pig's intestinal tract, causing severe diarrhea, vomiting, and dehydration. The infection is highly contagious and can lead to significant mortality in young piglets. TGEV is transmitted through the fecal-oral route and can also be spread by contaminated fomites or aerosols. It primarily infects enterocytes in the small intestine, leading to villous atrophy and malabsorption of nutrients. There are no specific antiviral treatments for TGEV infection, and control measures typically focus on biosecurity, vaccination, and preventing the spread of the virus between herds.

Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP) is a viral disease in cats caused by certain strains of the feline coronavirus. It is not to be confused with the common feline enteric coronavirus, which usually only causes mild diarrhea or is asymptomatic. FIP is a severe and often fatal disease, particularly in young cats.

The virus that causes FIP is spread through fecal-oral contact, often through mutual grooming or sharing of litter boxes. Once ingested, the virus typically infects the intestinal cells, but in some cases, it can mutate into a form that enters the bloodstream and spreads to other organs, such as the liver, lungs, and brain. This is when the disease becomes systemic and causes the severe symptoms associated with FIP.

There are two forms of FIP: wet (effusive) and dry (noneffusive). The wet form is characterized by an accumulation of fluid in the abdominal or chest cavity, while the dry form is characterized by granulomatous lesions in various organs. Both forms can cause a variety of symptoms, including fever, weight loss, lethargy, jaundice, vomiting, diarrhea, and neurological signs.

Currently, there is no reliable cure for FIP, and treatment is generally supportive and aimed at managing the symptoms. However, recent advances in antiviral therapy have shown promise in treating some cases of FIP, particularly those caused by the wet form of the disease.

Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are infections that affect the respiratory system, which includes the nose, throat (pharynx), voice box (larynx), windpipe (trachea), bronchi, and lungs. These infections can be caused by viruses, bacteria, or, less commonly, fungi.

RTIs are classified into two categories based on their location: upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs). URTIs include infections of the nose, sinuses, throat, and larynx, such as the common cold, flu, laryngitis, and sinusitis. LRTIs involve the lower airways, including the bronchi and lungs, and can be more severe. Examples of LRTIs are pneumonia, bronchitis, and bronchiolitis.

Symptoms of RTIs depend on the location and cause of the infection but may include cough, congestion, runny nose, sore throat, difficulty breathing, wheezing, fever, fatigue, and chest pain. Treatment for RTIs varies depending on the severity and underlying cause of the infection. For viral infections, treatment typically involves supportive care to manage symptoms, while antibiotics may be prescribed for bacterial infections.

Antibodies, viral are proteins produced by the immune system in response to an infection with a virus. These antibodies are capable of recognizing and binding to specific antigens on the surface of the virus, which helps to neutralize or destroy the virus and prevent its replication. Once produced, these antibodies can provide immunity against future infections with the same virus.

Viral antibodies are typically composed of four polypeptide chains - two heavy chains and two light chains - that are held together by disulfide bonds. The binding site for the antigen is located at the tip of the Y-shaped structure, formed by the variable regions of the heavy and light chains.

There are five classes of antibodies in humans: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Each class has a different function and is distributed differently throughout the body. For example, IgG is the most common type of antibody found in the bloodstream and provides long-term immunity against viruses, while IgA is found primarily in mucous membranes and helps to protect against respiratory and gastrointestinal infections.

In addition to their role in the immune response, viral antibodies can also be used as diagnostic tools to detect the presence of a specific virus in a patient's blood or other bodily fluids.

Virus replication is the process by which a virus produces copies or reproduces itself inside a host cell. This involves several steps:

1. Attachment: The virus attaches to a specific receptor on the surface of the host cell.
2. Penetration: The viral genetic material enters the host cell, either by invagination of the cell membrane or endocytosis.
3. Uncoating: The viral genetic material is released from its protective coat (capsid) inside the host cell.
4. Replication: The viral genetic material uses the host cell's machinery to produce new viral components, such as proteins and nucleic acids.
5. Assembly: The newly synthesized viral components are assembled into new virus particles.
6. Release: The newly formed viruses are released from the host cell, often through lysis (breaking) of the cell membrane or by budding off the cell membrane.

The specific mechanisms and details of virus replication can vary depending on the type of virus. Some viruses, such as DNA viruses, use the host cell's DNA polymerase to replicate their genetic material, while others, such as RNA viruses, use their own RNA-dependent RNA polymerase or reverse transcriptase enzymes. Understanding the process of virus replication is important for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

Viral envelope proteins are structural proteins found in the envelope that surrounds many types of viruses. These proteins play a crucial role in the virus's life cycle, including attachment to host cells, fusion with the cell membrane, and entry into the host cell. They are typically made up of glycoproteins and are often responsible for eliciting an immune response in the host organism. The exact structure and function of viral envelope proteins vary between different types of viruses.

Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV) is a single-stranded, enveloped RNA virus belonging to the genus Gammacoronavirus and family Coronaviridae. It is the causative agent of infectious bronchitis (IB), a highly contagious respiratory disease in birds, particularly in chickens. The virus primarily affects the upper respiratory tract, causing tracheitis, bronchitis, and sinusitis. In addition to respiratory issues, IBV can also lead to decreased egg production, poor growth rates, and impaired immune response in infected birds. Several serotypes and variants of IBV exist worldwide, making vaccine development and disease control challenging.

Vero cells are a line of cultured kidney epithelial cells that were isolated from an African green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops) in the 1960s. They are named after the location where they were initially developed, the Vervet Research Institute in Japan.

Vero cells have the ability to divide indefinitely under certain laboratory conditions and are often used in scientific research, including virology, as a host cell for viruses to replicate. This allows researchers to study the characteristics of various viruses, such as their growth patterns and interactions with host cells. Vero cells are also used in the production of some vaccines, including those for rabies, polio, and Japanese encephalitis.

It is important to note that while Vero cells have been widely used in research and vaccine production, they can still have variations between different cell lines due to factors like passage number or culture conditions. Therefore, it's essential to specify the exact source and condition of Vero cells when reporting experimental results.

Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) is a single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the family Coronaviridae and the genus Alphacoronavirus. It was first identified in 2004 in a child with bronchiolitis and conjunctivitis in the Netherlands.

HCoV-NL63 is responsible for causing respiratory tract infections, ranging from mild upper respiratory symptoms to severe lower respiratory tract illnesses such as pneumonia and bronchiolitis. The virus is transmitted through respiratory droplets and direct contact with infected individuals.

The incubation period of HCoV-NL63 ranges from 2 to 14 days, and the symptoms typically last for 7 to 10 days. In addition to respiratory symptoms, HCoV-NL63 has been associated with febrile seizures, Kawasaki disease, and croup in children.

There is no specific treatment or vaccine available for HCoV-NL63 infection, and management is primarily supportive. Preventive measures such as hand hygiene, wearing masks, and social distancing can help reduce the transmission of the virus.

Virus receptors are specific molecules (commonly proteins) on the surface of host cells that viruses bind to in order to enter and infect those cells. This interaction between the virus and its receptor is a critical step in the infection process. Different types of viruses have different receptor requirements, and identifying these receptors can provide important insights into the biology of the virus and potential targets for antiviral therapies.

Neutralization tests are a type of laboratory assay used in microbiology and immunology to measure the ability of a substance, such as an antibody or antitoxin, to neutralize the activity of a toxin or infectious agent. In these tests, the substance to be tested is mixed with a known quantity of the toxin or infectious agent, and the mixture is then incubated under controlled conditions. After incubation, the mixture is tested for residual toxicity or infectivity using a variety of methods, such as cell culture assays, animal models, or biochemical assays.

The neutralization titer is then calculated based on the highest dilution of the test substance that completely neutralizes the toxin or infectious agent. Neutralization tests are commonly used in the diagnosis and evaluation of immune responses to vaccines, as well as in the detection and quantification of toxins and other harmful substances.

Examples of neutralization tests include the serum neutralization test for measles antibodies, the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) for dengue virus antibodies, and the cytotoxicity neutralization assay for botulinum neurotoxins.

Nucleocapsid proteins are structural proteins that are associated with the viral genome in many viruses. They play a crucial role in the formation and stability of the viral particle, also known as the virion. In particular, nucleocapsid proteins bind to the viral RNA or DNA genome and help to protect it from degradation by host cell enzymes. They also participate in the assembly and disassembly of the virion during the viral replication cycle.

In some viruses, such as coronaviruses, the nucleocapsid protein is also involved in regulating the transcription and replication of the viral genome. The nucleocapsid protein of SARS-CoV-2, for example, has been shown to interact with host cell proteins that are involved in the regulation of gene expression, which may contribute to the virus's ability to manipulate the host cell environment and evade the immune response.

Overall, nucleocapsid proteins are important components of many viruses and are often targeted by antiviral therapies due to their essential role in the viral replication cycle.

'Cercopithecus aethiops' is the scientific name for the monkey species more commonly known as the green monkey. It belongs to the family Cercopithecidae and is native to western Africa. The green monkey is omnivorous, with a diet that includes fruits, nuts, seeds, insects, and small vertebrates. They are known for their distinctive greenish-brown fur and long tail. Green monkeys are also important animal models in biomedical research due to their susceptibility to certain diseases, such as SIV (simian immunodeficiency virus), which is closely related to HIV.

Membrane glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to their polypeptide backbone. They are integral components of biological membranes, spanning the lipid bilayer and playing crucial roles in various cellular processes.

The glycosylation of these proteins occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus during protein folding and trafficking. The attached glycans can vary in structure, length, and composition, which contributes to the diversity of membrane glycoproteins.

Membrane glycoproteins can be classified into two main types based on their orientation within the lipid bilayer:

1. Type I (N-linked): These glycoproteins have a single transmembrane domain and an extracellular N-terminus, where the oligosaccharides are predominantly attached via asparagine residues (Asn-X-Ser/Thr sequon).
2. Type II (C-linked): These glycoproteins possess two transmembrane domains and an intracellular C-terminus, with the oligosaccharides linked to tryptophan residues via a mannose moiety.

Membrane glycoproteins are involved in various cellular functions, such as:

* Cell adhesion and recognition
* Receptor-mediated signal transduction
* Enzymatic catalysis
* Transport of molecules across membranes
* Cell-cell communication
* Immunological responses

Some examples of membrane glycoproteins include cell surface receptors (e.g., growth factor receptors, cytokine receptors), adhesion molecules (e.g., integrins, cadherins), and transporters (e.g., ion channels, ABC transporters).

A Cytopathic Effect (CPE) is a visible change in the cell or group of cells due to infection by a pathogen, such as a virus. When the cytopathic effect is caused specifically by a viral infection, it is referred to as a "Viral Cytopathic Effect" (VCPE).

The VCPE can include various changes in the cell's morphology, size, and structure, such as rounding, shrinkage, multinucleation, inclusion bodies, and formation of syncytia (multinucleated giant cells). These changes are often used to identify and characterize viruses in laboratory settings.

The VCPE is typically observed under a microscope after the virus has infected cell cultures, and it can help researchers determine the type of virus, the degree of infection, and the effectiveness of antiviral treatments. The severity and timing of the VCPE can vary depending on the specific virus and the type of cells that are infected.

"Cat" is a common name that refers to various species of small carnivorous mammals that belong to the family Felidae. The domestic cat, also known as Felis catus or Felis silvestris catus, is a popular pet and companion animal. It is a subspecies of the wildcat, which is found in Europe, Africa, and Asia.

Domestic cats are often kept as pets because of their companionship, playful behavior, and ability to hunt vermin. They are also valued for their ability to provide emotional support and therapy to people. Cats are obligate carnivores, which means that they require a diet that consists mainly of meat to meet their nutritional needs.

Cats are known for their agility, sharp senses, and predatory instincts. They have retractable claws, which they use for hunting and self-defense. Cats also have a keen sense of smell, hearing, and vision, which allow them to detect prey and navigate their environment.

In medical terms, cats can be hosts to various parasites and diseases that can affect humans and other animals. Some common feline diseases include rabies, feline leukemia virus (FeLV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and toxoplasmosis. It is important for cat owners to keep their pets healthy and up-to-date on vaccinations and preventative treatments to protect both the cats and their human companions.

Peptidyl-dipeptidase A is more commonly known as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). It is a key enzyme in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which regulates blood pressure and fluid balance.

ACE is a membrane-bound enzyme found primarily in the lungs, but also in other tissues such as the heart, kidneys, and blood vessels. It plays a crucial role in converting the inactive decapeptide angiotensin I into the potent vasoconstrictor octapeptide angiotensin II, which constricts blood vessels and increases blood pressure.

ACE also degrades the peptide bradykinin, which is involved in the regulation of blood flow and vascular permeability. By breaking down bradykinin, ACE helps to counteract its vasodilatory effects, thereby maintaining blood pressure homeostasis.

Inhibitors of ACE are widely used as medications for the treatment of hypertension, heart failure, and diabetic kidney disease, among other conditions. These drugs work by blocking the action of ACE, leading to decreased levels of angiotensin II and increased levels of bradykinin, which results in vasodilation, reduced blood pressure, and improved cardiovascular function.

A viral vaccine is a biological preparation that introduces your body to a specific virus in a way that helps your immune system build up protection against the virus without causing the illness. Viral vaccines can be made from weakened or inactivated forms of the virus, or parts of the virus such as proteins or sugars. Once introduced to the body, the immune system recognizes the virus as foreign and produces an immune response, including the production of antibodies. These antibodies remain in the body and provide immunity against future infection with that specific virus.

Viral vaccines are important tools for preventing infectious diseases caused by viruses, such as influenza, measles, mumps, rubella, polio, hepatitis A and B, rabies, rotavirus, chickenpox, shingles, and some types of cancer. Vaccination programs have led to the control or elimination of many infectious diseases that were once common.

It's important to note that viral vaccines are not effective against bacterial infections, and separate vaccines must be developed for each type of virus. Additionally, because viruses can mutate over time, it is necessary to update some viral vaccines periodically to ensure continued protection.

A viral RNA (ribonucleic acid) is the genetic material found in certain types of viruses, as opposed to viruses that contain DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). These viruses are known as RNA viruses. The RNA can be single-stranded or double-stranded and can exist as several different forms, such as positive-sense, negative-sense, or ambisense RNA. Upon infecting a host cell, the viral RNA uses the host's cellular machinery to translate the genetic information into proteins, leading to the production of new virus particles and the continuation of the viral life cycle. Examples of human diseases caused by RNA viruses include influenza, COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2), hepatitis C, and polio.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

I am not aware of any medical definition for "Coronavirus, Turkey." Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that cause illness ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV).

Turkey is a country located in Southeastern Europe and Southwestern Asia. It does not refer to any specific type of coronavirus or medical condition. However, Turkey has been affected by the COVID-19 pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, like many other countries around the world.

If you are looking for information about COVID-19 in Turkey, I can provide some general statistics and updates as of March 2023:

* As of March 2023, Turkey has reported over 16 million confirmed cases of COVID-19 and more than 95,000 deaths.
* The country has implemented various measures to control the spread of the virus, including travel restrictions, quarantines, social distancing guidelines, and mandatory mask-wearing in public places.
* Vaccination efforts are ongoing in Turkey, with over 130 million doses administered as of March 2023. The country has approved several vaccines for emergency use, including Pfizer-BioNTech, Sinovac, and Sputnik V.

It is important to note that the situation regarding COVID-19 is constantly evolving, and I would recommend checking the latest updates from reliable sources such as the World Health Organization (WHO) or the Turkish Ministry of Health for the most accurate information.

A lung is a pair of spongy, elastic organs in the chest that work together to enable breathing. They are responsible for taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide through the process of respiration. The left lung has two lobes, while the right lung has three lobes. The lungs are protected by the ribcage and are covered by a double-layered membrane called the pleura. The trachea divides into two bronchi, which further divide into smaller bronchioles, leading to millions of tiny air sacs called alveoli, where the exchange of gases occurs.

Porcine Respiratory Coronavirus (PRCV) is a strain of the coronavirus that primarily affects the respiratory system of pigs. It's a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus and is closely related to Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus (TGEV). However, unlike TGEV, PRCV does not cause severe enteric disease and is primarily associated with mild to moderate respiratory signs in pigs.

PRCV infects the epithelial cells of the pig's respiratory tract, leading to symptoms such as coughing, sneezing, and difficulty breathing. It is highly contagious and can spread rapidly in swine populations, often causing epidemic outbreaks in farms. The virus is primarily transmitted through aerosols and direct contact with infected pigs or their feces.

While PRCV does not typically cause severe disease on its own, it can predispose pigs to other respiratory infections, such as Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) and Swine Influenza Virus (SIV). As a result, PRCV can contribute to the complex of respiratory diseases that affect pigs, known as porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC).

Prevention and control measures for PRCV include good biosecurity practices, such as limiting traffic in and out of farms, using personal protective equipment, and vaccinating against other respiratory pathogens. There is no specific treatment for PRCV, but supportive care can help alleviate symptoms and reduce the risk of secondary infections.

An antigen is any substance that can stimulate an immune response, particularly the production of antibodies. Viral antigens are antigens that are found on or produced by viruses. They can be proteins, glycoproteins, or carbohydrates present on the surface or inside the viral particle.

Viral antigens play a crucial role in the immune system's recognition and response to viral infections. When a virus infects a host cell, it may display its antigens on the surface of the infected cell. This allows the immune system to recognize and target the infected cells for destruction, thereby limiting the spread of the virus.

Viral antigens are also important targets for vaccines. Vaccines typically work by introducing a harmless form of a viral antigen to the body, which then stimulates the production of antibodies and memory T-cells that can recognize and respond quickly and effectively to future infections with the actual virus.

It's worth noting that different types of viruses have different antigens, and these antigens can vary between strains of the same virus. This is why there are often different vaccines available for different viral diseases, and why flu vaccines need to be updated every year to account for changes in the circulating influenza virus strains.

Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to amplify and detect specific DNA sequences. This technique is particularly useful for the detection and quantification of RNA viruses, as well as for the analysis of gene expression.

The process involves two main steps: reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In the first step, reverse transcriptase enzyme is used to convert RNA into complementary DNA (cDNA) by reading the template provided by the RNA molecule. This cDNA then serves as a template for the PCR amplification step.

In the second step, the PCR reaction uses two primers that flank the target DNA sequence and a thermostable polymerase enzyme to repeatedly copy the targeted cDNA sequence. The reaction mixture is heated and cooled in cycles, allowing the primers to anneal to the template, and the polymerase to extend the new strand. This results in exponential amplification of the target DNA sequence, making it possible to detect even small amounts of RNA or cDNA.

RT-PCR is a sensitive and specific technique that has many applications in medical research and diagnostics, including the detection of viruses such as HIV, hepatitis C virus, and SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19). It can also be used to study gene expression, identify genetic mutations, and diagnose genetic disorders.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) of swine is a viral infection that primarily affects the gastrointestinal tract of pigs. It is caused by the Transmissible Gastroenteritis Coronavirus (TGEV), which is an enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the family Coronaviridae.

The disease is highly contagious and can spread rapidly in swine populations through direct contact with infected animals or their feces, as well as via aerosolized particles. Ingestion of contaminated feed or water can also lead to infection.

Clinical signs of TGE in pigs include vomiting, diarrhea, dehydration, and weight loss. The disease is most severe in young piglets, with mortality rates reaching up to 100% in animals younger than two weeks old. In older pigs, the infection may be milder or even asymptomatic, although they can still serve as carriers of the virus and contribute to its spread.

Transmissible gastroenteritis is a significant concern for the swine industry due to its high mortality rate in young animals and the potential economic losses associated with reduced growth rates and decreased feed conversion efficiency in infected herds. Prevention strategies include strict biosecurity measures, vaccination of sows, and proper disposal of infected pig manure.

A viral genome is the genetic material (DNA or RNA) that is present in a virus. It contains all the genetic information that a virus needs to replicate itself and infect its host. The size and complexity of viral genomes can vary greatly, ranging from a few thousand bases to hundreds of thousands of bases. Some viruses have linear genomes, while others have circular genomes. The genome of a virus also contains the information necessary for the virus to hijack the host cell's machinery and use it to produce new copies of the virus. Understanding the genetic makeup of viruses is important for developing vaccines and antiviral treatments.

Viral proteins are the proteins that are encoded by the viral genome and are essential for the viral life cycle. These proteins can be structural or non-structural and play various roles in the virus's replication, infection, and assembly process. Structural proteins make up the physical structure of the virus, including the capsid (the protein shell that surrounds the viral genome) and any envelope proteins (that may be present on enveloped viruses). Non-structural proteins are involved in the replication of the viral genome and modulation of the host cell environment to favor viral replication. Overall, a thorough understanding of viral proteins is crucial for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

Viverridae is not a medical term, but a taxonomic family in the order Carnivora, which includes mammals that are primarily carnivores. This family includes various species of civets, genets, and linsangs, among others. These animals are mostly found in Africa and Asia, and they have diverse habits and diets, with some being more arboreal and insectivorous while others are terrestrial and carnivorous.

While Viverridae is not a medical term, understanding the classification of animals can be important in medicine, particularly in veterinary medicine and public health, as it helps to identify potential risks associated with different species and their interactions with humans and other animals.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, also known as RNA replicase, is an enzyme that catalyzes the production of RNA from an RNA template. It plays a crucial role in the replication of certain viruses, such as positive-strand RNA viruses and retroviruses, which use RNA as their genetic material. The enzyme uses the existing RNA strand as a template to create a new complementary RNA strand, effectively replicating the viral genome. This process is essential for the propagation of these viruses within host cells and is a target for antiviral therapies.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Transmissible enteritis of turkeys is a contagious viral disease that primarily affects young turkeys. The medical definition of this condition is as follows:

Transmissible Enteritis of Turkeys (Turkey Enteritis Virus Infection)

* A highly contagious viral infection caused by the Turkey Enteritis Virus (TEV), a coronavirus.
* Primarily affects young turkeys between 2-6 weeks of age, although birds of all ages can be infected.
* Characterized by enteritis (inflammation of the intestines) and enterocyte degeneration and necrosis, resulting in malabsorption, diarrhea, dehydration, weight loss, and decreased growth rates.
* May also cause secondary bacterial infections due to immunosuppression.
* Transmitted through the fecal-oral route, contaminated water, or vertical transmission from infected hens.
* No specific treatment available; supportive care includes fluid and electrolyte replacement, nutritional support, and management of secondary infections.
* Prevention strategies include biosecurity measures, vaccination of breeder flocks, and strict sanitation practices.

Viral matrix proteins are structural proteins that play a crucial role in the morphogenesis and life cycle of many viruses. They are often located between the viral envelope and the viral genome, serving as a scaffold for virus assembly and budding. These proteins also interact with other viral components, such as the viral genome, capsid proteins, and envelope proteins, to form an infectious virion. Additionally, matrix proteins can have regulatory functions, influencing viral transcription, replication, and host cell responses. The specific functions of viral matrix proteins vary among different virus families.

Viral nonstructural proteins (NS) are viral proteins that are not part of the virion structure. They play various roles in the viral life cycle, such as replication of the viral genome, transcription, translation regulation, and modulation of the host cell environment to favor virus replication. These proteins are often produced in large quantities during infection and can manipulate or disrupt various cellular pathways to benefit the virus. They may also be involved in evasion of the host's immune response. The specific functions of viral nonstructural proteins vary depending on the type of virus.

CD13, also known as aminopeptidase N, is a type of protein found on the surface of some cells in the human body. It is a type of antigen, which is a molecule that can trigger an immune response when recognized by the immune system. CD13 is found on the surface of various cell types, including certain white blood cells and cells that line the blood vessels. It plays a role in several biological processes, such as breaking down proteins and regulating inflammation.

CD13 is also a target for some cancer therapies because it is overexpressed in certain types of cancer cells. For example, CD13-targeted therapies have been developed to treat acute myeloid leukemia (AML), a type of blood cancer that affects the bone marrow. These therapies work by binding to CD13 on the surface of AML cells and triggering an immune response that helps to destroy the cancer cells.

It's important to note that while CD13 is an antigen, it is not typically associated with infectious diseases or foreign invaders, as other antigens might be. Instead, it is a normal component of human cells that can play a role in various physiological processes and disease states.

A nucleocapsid is a protein structure that encloses the genetic material (nucleic acid) of certain viruses. It is composed of proteins encoded by the virus itself, which are synthesized inside the host cell and then assemble around the viral genome to form a stable complex.

The nucleocapsid plays an important role in the viral life cycle. It protects the viral genome from degradation by host enzymes and helps to facilitate the packaging of the genome into new virus particles during assembly. Additionally, the nucleocapsid can also play a role in the regulation of viral gene expression and replication.

In some viruses, such as coronaviruses, the nucleocapsid is encased within an envelope derived from the host cell membrane, while in others, it exists as a naked capsid. The structure and composition of the nucleocapsid can vary significantly between different virus families.

The earliest reports of a coronavirus infection in animals occurred in the late 1920s, when an acute respiratory infection of ... Canine coronavirus), Human coronavirus 229E, Human coronavirus NL63, Miniopterus bat coronavirus 1, Miniopterus bat coronavirus ... Bovine Coronavirus, Human coronavirus OC43), Hedgehog coronavirus 1, Human coronavirus HKU1, Middle East respiratory syndrome- ... related coronavirus, Murine coronavirus, Pipistrellus bat coronavirus HKU5, Rousettus bat coronavirus HKU9, Severe acute ...
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Laber-Warren E (2020-08-24). "Why Do Some People Weather Coronavirus Infection Unscathed?". Undark Magazine. Retrieved 2021-01- ... Tolerance to infection, or disease tolerance, is a mechanism that host organisms can use to fight parasites or pathogens that ... Tolerance to infection can be illustrated via comparing host performance versus increasing load. This is a reaction norm in ... Tolerance to infections concept illustrated as the host performance response to an increasing pathogen load. In livestock ...
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Over 3,300 new coronavirus infections]. Tion (in Romanian). 23 February 2021. Retrieved 23 February 2021. "UPDATE Doi muncitori ... "Noua tulpină de coronavirus din Marea Britanie, confirmată și în România. O femeie din Giurgiu este infectată cu mutația ... The people coming from the UK who have a confirmed infection no less than two weeks and no longer than 3 months prior to ... The strain is thought to be contributing to a surge of COVID-19 infections in India that led to pressure on its healthcare ...
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"India reports 362,727 new coronavirus infections". Reuters. 13 May 2021. Retrieved 13 May 2021. "More than 2 billion doses of ... Schemm, Paul; Hassan, Jennifer (4 May 2021). "India cracks 20 million coronavirus cases as infections spread". The Washington ... "India suffers highest daily coronavirus infections in five months". Reuters. Bengaluru. Archived from the original on 5 ... "Coronavirus Updates April 1, 2021: Alia Bhatt tests positive for Covid-19". India Today. 1 April 2021. Retrieved 3 May 2021. ...
"New coronavirus infection in Thailand takes tally to 42". Reuters. 2020-02-29. Retrieved 2020-02-29. "ไวรัสโคโรนา : ผู้ป่วยโควิ ... "Thailand confirms 67 new coronavirus infections". Reuters. 24 December 2020. Retrieved 24 December 2020. "After months of calm ... "ผลออกแล้ว!หญิงชาวจีนที่หัวหิน ติดเชื้อ'ไวรัสโคโรน่า'" [Results are out! Chinese woman
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Coronavirus infection of the intestinal villi makes the cells more susceptible to parvovirus infection. This causes a much more ... taken between 2017 and 2018 and found a novel coronavirus. This coronavirus is a species of Canine coronavirus (CCoV) which was ... Yachi A, Mochizuki M (2006). "Survey of dogs in Japan for group 2 canine coronavirus infection". J Clin Microbiol. 44 (7): 2615 ... Pratelli, A. (2005). "Canine Coronavirus Infection". Recent Advances in Canine Infectious Diseases. Archived from the original ...
"Coronavirus infections continue to fall in UK". BBC News. 25 July 2021. Retrieved 25 July 2021. "Sajid Javid criticised for ' ... "Covid-19: Infections in children rise and trial success for coronavirus pill". BBC News. BBC. 1 October 2021. Retrieved 3 ... "Latitude festival-goers test positive for coronavirus". BBC News. 30 July 2021. Retrieved 4 August 2021. "COVID-19: Infection ... The Coronavirus Job Retention Scheme begins to wind down, with plans for it to cease at the end of September. Figures from HM ...
Coronavirus infections are defined as neurotropic viral infections (i.e., they tend to target the nervous system) which ... Neurological complications in COVID-19 are a result of SARS-CoV-2 infection or a complication of post infection which can be ... Barthorpe, Amber; Rogers, Jonathan P. (2021-12-08). "Coronavirus infections from 2002-2021: Neuropsychiatric Manifestations". ... most long-haulers had a mild infection and were able to recover from the acute infection at home. An April 2022 meta-analysis ...
Dogan, Sinan (19 March 2022). "Coronavirus infections, fatalities mount in Latin America". Anadolu Agency. Archived from the ... "Global coronavirus death toll exceeds 6 million". News.az. 4 March 2022. Retrieved 4 March 2022. "Tracking every case of COVID- ... "Coronavirus Morning News Brief - March 6: What 'Endemic' Really Means (and Doesn't Mean), Boise Mayor Faces Threats". Frequent ... Woon, Wallace (18 March 2022). "S'pore's Covid-19 weekly infection growth rate dips to 0.70; below one for 17th day in a row". ...
"Greece imposes lockdown after coronavirus infections jump". Greece. 22 March 2020. Retrieved 23 March 2020. Kathimerini (23 ... Coronavirus: NI's hotels and bars can reopen from 3 July 15 June 2020 www.bbc.co.uk, accessed 1 November 2020 "Coronavirus: NI ... "Coronavirus en Perú: Gobierno anuncia cuarentena obligatoria por 15 días por coronavirus". Gestión (in Spanish). 15 March 2020 ... "Hungary PM imposes lockdown, sees coronavirus peak by July". Reuters. 27 March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020. "Coronavirus in ...
"India's total coronavirus infections cross 9 million". Reuters. Bengaluru. 20 November 2020. Retrieved 28 November 2020. ... According to Johns Hopkins University, the global coronavirus infections have surpassed 60 million. Canada has reported 5,966 ... Ahluwalia, Shaina (26 November 2020). "Global coronavirus cases surpass 60 million infections - Reuters tally". Reuters. ... "Covid 19 coronavirus: Samoan officials on alert after three sailors test positive". The New Zealand Herald. 10 November 2020. ...
After seeing Korea successfully lower cases of infection, President Moon Jae-in has engaged in "coronavirus diplomacy" with ... How coronavirus took just weeks to overwhelm Spain in The Guardian How did Spain get its coronavirus response so wrong? in The ... "South Korea reports first coronavirus death as infections linked to church rise". NBC News. 20 February 2020. Retrieved 21 ... Coronavirus: NI's hotels and bars can reopen from 3 July 15 June 2020 www.bbc.co.uk, accessed 1 November 2020 "Coronavirus: NI ...
"India's coronavirus infections top five million mark". BBC News. India. 16 September 2020. Archived from the original on 10 ... "Coronavirus in Russia: The Latest News Sept. 2". The Moscow Times. 2 September 2020. Archived from the original on 3 September ... The global coronavirus death toll has topped 1 million. World Health Organization weekly report: Canada has reported 1,739 new ... By the end of September, only the following countries and territories have not reported any cases of SARS-CoV-2 infections: ...
Landen, Xander; Jickling, Katie (March 19, 2020). "Two die from coronavirus infections in Vermont". VTDigger. Retrieved March ... The COVID-19 pandemic in the U.S. state of Vermont is part of an ongoing worldwide viral pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 ( ... Publisher Greg Popa indicated that the coronavirus crisis made this no longer possible. The Burlington Free Press announced on ... Flanders, Colin (November 11, 2020). "Vermont Reports Record-High 72 New Coronavirus Cases". Seven Days VT. Retrieved November ...
Rajapakse, Nipunie; Dixit, Devika (25 June 2020). "Human and novel coronavirus infections in children: a review". Paediatrics ... Zimmermann, Petra; Curtis, Nigel (May 2020). "Coronavirus Infections in Children Including COVID-19". The Pediatric Infectious ... "Is the U.S. coronavirus lockdown hiding a surge in child abuse?". NBC News. 27 July 2020. Archived from the original on 29 July ... It has been informally referred to as "COVID toes". This was presumed related to COVID-19 infection, however confirming that a ...
"Coronavirus Update: Infection totals". Detroit Free Press. June 16, 2020. p. 1A - via Newspapers.com. "Whitmer: Back to ... "Michigan state lawmaker dies of suspected coronavirus infection". The Hill. March 29, 2020. John Lowe (April 6, 2020). "Al ... March 19 - Michigan reports total of 334 cases of coronavirus and three deaths March 22 - As Michigan's confirmed coronavirus ... as it added 100 new coronavirus patients per day March 26 - Detroit and Wayne County declared a coronavirus hotspot with 1,389 ...
... infections are therefore sialic acid dependent. The Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) S protein is 45% ... Dr ADDIE website focused research about FIP Coronavirus Site général Coronavirus site général Coronavirus Pictures (CS1 French- ... Feline enteric coronavirus is responsible for an infection of the mature gastrointestinal epithelial cells (see also ... Feline coronavirus (FCoV) is a positive-stranded RNA virus that infects cats worldwide. It is a coronavirus of the species ...
... treatment of acute respiratory infections caused by new strain of Corona virus (2019-nCoV). Ho Chi Minh City Office of Health ( ... Statistics on the coronavirus cases in Vietnam Coronavirus COVID-19 Global Cases and historical data by Johns Hopkins ... "Coronavirus Pandemic (COVID-19)". Our World in Data. Retrieved 15 October 2023. "COVID - Coronavirus Statistics - Worldometer ... "From SARS coronavirus to novel animal and human coronaviruses". Journal of Thoracic Disease. 5 (Suppl 2): S103-S108. doi: ...
"Coronavirus: Germans fear infections again as cases rise". Deutsche Welle. 15 July 2022. Retrieved 6 August 2022. "Corona- ... On 15 January 2022, the RKI shortened the duration of validity of certificates of recovery from a coronavirus infection, giving ... "Germany enacts new health security measures against coronavirus infections". Reuters. 28 February 2020. Retrieved 29 February ... "Coronavirus: Germany to impose border controls over coronavirus". BBC. 15 March 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020. "Bahn fährt ...
"Health Ministry: 6 new coronavirus infections detected in Syria to raise the total number of 16 cases". Syrian Arab News Agency ... m.eyon (28 May 2020). "Health Ministry: One new coronavirus case registered in Syria to raise the total infections to 122". ... shaza (6 May 2020). "Health Ministry: The number of coronavirus infections in Syria reached 45 until today, 27 of them have ... hybah (24 July 2020). "Health Ministry: 24 new coronavirus cases registered in Syria to raise the total infections to 608, with ...
Paules, Catherine I.; Marston, Hillary D.; Fauci, Anthony S. (23 January 2020). "Coronavirus Infections - More than Just the ... Chan, P.K.; Chan, M.C. (5 August 2013). "Tracing the SARS-coronavirus". J Thorac Dis. 5 (Suppl 2): S118-5121. doi:10.3978/j. ... Some Chinese researchers had published a preprint analysis of these samples in February 2022, concluding that the coronavirus ... April 2020 Der Marderhund als Coronavirus-Schleuder? Archived 2020-05-05 at the Wayback Machine. Deutsche Welle Cherry, James D ...
"Herbal Threatments for Coronavirus Infections Used in Asia". Anima Mundi. 27 March 2020. "Beware the coronavirus scams: ... Herbal Antivirals: Natural Remedies for Emerging & Resistant Viral Infections. Storey Publishing. 2013. ISBN 978-1612121604. ...
"Oklahoma schools closed as state coronavirus infections rise". KSWO. March 25, 2020. Retrieved March 26, 2020. "Gov. Stitt ... for coronavirus infections because of more than 100 COVID-19 cases per 100,000 people." Regional metro areas in the red zone ... "from 213 daily infections in mid-July to 136 daily infections by mid-August." According to Dr. David Kendrick, studies showed " ... "data showed huge spikes in infections following many gatherings, including a large bump in infection rates for 18-35 year-olds ...
"As it happened: Coronavirus infections near 100,000 globally". BBC. Retrieved 7 March 2020. "Newly elected Iranian MP dies of ' ... "Iran officials deny MP died of coronavirus amid spike in cases". Independent. 29 February 2020. Retrieved 7 March 2020. " ... flu' amid coronavirus outbreak". Al Arabiya English. 1 March 2020. Retrieved 7 March 2020. v t e (CS1 Persian-language sources ... have reported that he died from novel coronavirus. "A brief biography". Official website of Mohammad-Ali Ramezani (in Persian ...
Paules, Catharine I.; Marston, Hilary D.; Fauci, Anthony S. (February 2020). "Coronavirus Infections-More Than Just the Common ... McManus, Rich (2020-05-15). "NIAID's Marston Outlines Scientific Response to Coronavirus". NIH Record. Retrieved 2021-01-28. ...
COVID-19 is caused by infection with a coronavirus named SARS-CoV-2, and flu is caused by infection with influenza viruses. You ...
See infection prevention and control (IPC) guidance and practices for healthcare personnel when caring for patients, with or ... Interim Infection Prevention and Control Recommendations for Healthcare Personnel During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19 ... Interim Infection Prevention and Control Recommendations for Healthcare Personnel During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19 ... Have suspected or confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection or other respiratory infection (e.g., those with runny nose, cough, sneeze); ...
Widespread infection in white-tailed deer has created concern about the possibility of mutated versions of the virus spreading ... A study of coronavirus infections among white-tailed deer in Iowa found that about 80% of deer sampled across the state between ... This is a summary of the article "Widespread Coronavirus Infection Found in Iowa Deer, New Study Says" published by The New ... Cite this: Study Suggests Coronavirus Infections Rampant in Iowa Deer - Medscape - Nov 03, 2021. ...
Jakarta, March 22, 2020, SPA -- Indonesia has reported 64 novel coronavirus infections, bringing the total to 514 cases. ... He also announced 9 more recoveries from the novel coronavirus (COVID-19), bringing the total number of recovered cases in the ... Spokesman of Indonesian Health Ministry Achmad Yurianto said that the total number of confirmed deaths from coronavirus rose by ...
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention posted new guidance on its website that estimates that about a third of coronavirus ... CDC estimates that 35% of coronavirus infections are asymptomatic. From CNN Healths Michael Nedelman and Arman Azad ... May 22 coronavirus news. By Jessie Yeung, Adam Renton, Melissa Macaya and Fernando Alfonso III, CNN ... US President Donald Trump announced that flags will be lowered to half-staff "over the next three days" to honor coronavirus ...
... the number of infections has continued to rise in many places with no end in sight. ... U.S. Surpasses 6 Million Coronavirus Infections : Coronavirus Updates Although daily COVID-19 deaths have fallen somewhat in ... 6 Million Coronavirus Infections Now Confirmed In U.S., A Country In Limbo. ... The daily number of new coronavirus cases reported in the U.S. has remained stubbornly high. Bryan R. Smith/AFP via Getty ...
Health experts are worried that a second wave of COVID-19 infections could be sparked by the ongoing George Floyd protests. ... Mass protests could lead to another wave of coronavirus infections. Did you protest this weekend? Get a COVID-19 test. ... What to know about the coronavirus:. *How it started and how to protect yourself: Coronavirus explained ... Tracking the spread in the U.S. and worldwide: Coronavirus map. Tune into ABC at 1 p.m. ET and ABC News Live at 4 p.m. ET every ...
... The proportion of people in Scotland with Covid-19 has increased ... Cases have decreased across most English regions and age groups, however infections continue to rise in the over-70s." ...
... after the country reported several days of no locally transmitted infections in a major turnaround in its fight against the ... Chinese Premier Li Keqiang has warned local officials not to hide new coronavirus cases, ... At Mondays meeting, Li said that while the public had long looked forward to the good news of zero local infections, the ... Chinas Premier Li Keqiang visited a construction site of a new hospital being built to treat coronavirus patients in Wuhan on ...
Indonesia reported 1,519 new coronavirus infections on Sunday, bringing the total to 111,455, data from the countrys COVID-19 ... Indonesia reports 1,519 new coronavirus infections, 43 deaths /node/1713501/world Indonesia reports 1,519 new coronavirus ... JAKARTA: Indonesia reported 1,519 new coronavirus infections on Sunday, bringing the total to 111,455, data from the countrys ... Temperature readings are taken for people attending Eid al-Adha prayers in Jakarta during the outbreak of the coronavirus ...
... taking the nationwide tally of infections to 667,883, Reuters reports.The country&... ... Russia on Friday reported 6,718 new cases of the novel coronavirus, ... Russia on Friday reported 6,718 new cases of the novel coronavirus, taking the nationwide tally of infections to 667,883, ... The countrys coronavirus crisis response centre said 176 people had died in the last 24 hours, bringing the official death ...
Health authorities in Spain said Saturday that coronavirus infections have reached 5,753 people, half of them in the capital, ... the nation of 46 million people while declaring a two-week state of emergency to fight the sharp rise in coronavirus infections ... the nation of 46 million people while declaring a two-week state of emergency to fight the sharp rise in coronavirus infections ... Sánchez acknowledged on Friday that the number of infections could reach 10,000 in the coming days. ...
... several issues related to Coronavirus are on the agenda. Among other things, the status of recovery and quarantine rules will ... Coronavirus Infection Protection Ordinance to be updated. A man holds up his smartphone with a digital certificate of recovery ... Coronavirus measures. Directive, general rules of conduct and more: Measures against the corona virus. more ... However, the Berlin Infection Protection Ordinance, which regulates areas such as the restaurant sector, still speaks of a ...
... introduced amid a record surge in coronavirus cases, could help the country avoid stricter measures. ... The presidents comments came as Ukraine registered a new daily infection record, with 12,524 coronavirus cases reported, amid ... Zelenskiy and the head of his presidential office, Andriy Yermak, tested positive for the coronavirus earlier this week. ... introduced amid a record surge in coronavirus cases, could help the country avoid stricter measures. ...
... infections in the United States appear to be spiking, according to documents obtained by Yahoo News. ... Coronavirus infections appear to spike in U.S. even as they decline elsewhere. ... As Texas continues to reopen, the state has set the record for coronavirus-related hospitalizations for the third straight day ... While many countries are seeing a decline in COVID-19 cases, infections in the United States appear to be spiking, according to ...
Coronavirus cases have skyrocketed in Italy as some northern towns have been quarantined ... "The infection came from other people, and we dont know -- maybe a person coming from China. I think the more reliable ... Italy became the European nation worst hit by the spread of coronavirus as confirmed cases in the country surged to at least ... Authorities have quarantined at least 10 towns in northern Italy in an attempt to contain the spread of the coronavirus. ...
Serious Cases Remain Rare, But Coronavirus Infections In Children Are On The Rise Almost 72,000 children tested positive in ... And while hospitalizations and deaths remain low, the number of child coronavirus infections increased by 3% over the last two ... Serious Cases Remain Rare, But Coronavirus Infections In Children Are On The Rise. ... A recent study found the number of children contracting the coronavirus is on the rise. Mary Altaffer/AP hide caption ...
The coronavirus begins to show up in feces soon after infection, and 10 Bay Area counties are giving samples of their sewage ... The virus begins to show up in feces soon after infection, and according to some studies, well before the development of ... "We can monitor trends in real time, evaluate community-based presence and infection rates," said White, "and then prioritize to ... By now weve heard plenty about the difficulty of accessing widespread testing for the coronavirus. However, there is another ...
Nosocomial infections System letter. Nosocomial infections System letter. Contents. *Minimising nosocomial infections in the ... Minimising nosocomial infections in the NHS. Dear colleague. Thank you to you and your teams for all the incredible work you ... Where a member of NHS staff tests positive for coronavirus, the starting point is that the Test and Trace self-isolation rules ... SIREN is aiming to determine whether a detectable antibody response protects against future infection in the short and medium ...
A series of charts showing the estimated percentage of the population testing positive for the coronavirus anibodies by ...
... contact-tracing smartphone app to allow authorities to identify those who have been exposed to people infected with coronavirus ... Singapore launches contact tracing mobile app to track coronavirus infections /node/1644346/media Singapore launches contact ... developed by GovTech in collaboration with the Ministry of Health informs user who had close contacts to confirmed coronavirus ... developed by GovTech in collaboration with the Ministry of Health informs user who had close contacts to confirmed coronavirus ...
Covid 19 coronavirus Delta Omicron variant: Vaccination rates continue to dampen community infections. ... Infections detected at the border far outpaced community infections on Friday - with 43 border cases compared to 18 in the ... which has led to infections skyrocketing overseas, including Australia where the rolling seven-day average of new infections is ...
... turned to computer simulation to model the airflow regulated by ventilation systems in a bid to minimise cross-infection. ... Chinas tech sector will bear the brunt of the ongoing Covid-19 coronavirus outbreak on the back of an expected hit on the ... and the procedures they have to follow to guard against cross-infection. ... turned to computer simulation to model the airflow regulated by ventilation systems in a bid to minimise cross-infection. * ...
... President Donald Trump appeared to place blame on Gold ... weeks and months before his infection, many of which were indoors. And hundreds of officials who were not in daily contact with ... all tested negative for coronavirus. The rapid antigen tests administered by the White House are known to deliver a high rate ... and just because someone tested positive sooner than someone else does not mean they were responsible for the infection. ...
These activities led us to test whether T,i,β,/i,4 serves to treat coronavirus infections of humans. To test this ... we established a BALB/c mouse model of coronavirus infection using mouse CoV MHV-A59 to evaluate the potential protective ... The coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) infects mice and serves as an ideal model of viral pathogenesis, mainly because ... Highly pathogenic coronaviruses cause severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) (SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2) and Middle East ...
The UAE recorded 2,018 Covid-19 infections on Tuesday bringing the number of cases since the pandemic was declared to 430,313. ... Cases have reduced significantly since late January, when close to 4,000 infections were recorded every day. ...
... the first state to be affected by the Wuhan coronavirus (COVID-19), is grappling with a fresh wave of outbreaks - most of which ... agriculture badhealth China coronavirus covid-19 farmhands Flu infections migrant workers outbreak pandemic superbugs virus ... Tags: agriculture, badhealth, China, coronavirus, covid-19, farmhands, Flu, infections, migrant workers, outbreak, pandemic, ... Pandemic.news has more on the ongoing coronavirus crisis. Sources include: OPB.org GrowingProduce.com TheHill.com Coronavirus. ...
Coronavirus variant leads to rising infections. Story by John Larson, El Defensor Chieftain , Aug 12, 2021 ... Although infections have been increasing nationwide, data from New Mexico DOH shows the rise among school-age children has been ... The announcement comes on the heels of a wave of new infections connected to the Delta variant, which is 2-4 times more ... Socorro County has seen a smattering of new infections over the past two weeks, prompting the City of Socorro to follow New ...
  • Chinese Premier Li Keqiang has warned local officials not to hide new coronavirus cases, after the country reported several days of no locally transmitted infections in a major turnaround in its fight against the deadly pandemic . (cnn.com)
  • Since the pandemic began a year and a half ago, approximately 4.2 million children have tested positive for the coronavirus. (npr.org)
  • The novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) outbreak and subsequent global pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 commenced around the end of 2019. (hindawi.com)
  • The UAE recorded 2,018 Covid-19 infections on Tuesday bringing the number of cases since the pandemic was declared to 430,313. (thenationalnews.com)
  • Pandemic.news has more on the ongoing coronavirus crisis. (naturalnews.com)
  • India, with a population of about 1.4 billion, is consistently reporting the world's highest daily tally of infections, as it grapples with overstretched health services in the effort to control the pandemic. (trend.az)
  • US doctors and nurses, in a letter published on Tuesday, urged the Trump administration to share critical COVID-19 data with President-elect Joe Biden's transition team to avoid unnecessary delays in tackling the pandemic as infections and hospitalisations skyrocket. (smh.com.au)
  • More than 6,500 Veterans Affairs patients died from coronavirus complications this year and more than 151,000 were infected as part of the global pandemic, according to data released by the department. (militarytimes.com)
  • Most of those cases came in the fall of 2020, as coronavirus numbers spiked throughout much of the U.S. Although the pandemic began in March, half of the VA deaths and nearly two-thirds of the total VA infections were reported in the last 100 days of the year. (militarytimes.com)
  • The 6,560 total deaths equate to roughly 22 a day since the start of the pandemic, making coronavirus more deadly than the roughly 17 veterans a day lost to suicide. (militarytimes.com)
  • Coronavirus infections in Russia hit a new record on Sunday, as the country's authorities registered 29,039 new confirmed cases, the highest daily spike in the pandemic. (alarabiya.net)
  • The total number of cases in Victoria since the pandemic began now stands at 2,099 as the state marks its 13th consecutive day of double-digit coronavirus case increases. (abc.net.au)
  • This literature review was therefore conducted to describe the burden of epidemic- and pandemic-prone acute respiratory infections (ARI) in the Region which may help in the development of evidence-based disease prevention and control policies. (who.int)
  • subtype (i.e. avian influenza viruses to infections such as avian influenza and For this review we included pub- including H5N1, H7N9, H7N2 and Middle East respiratory syndrome cor- lished and unpublished reports of the H9N2, swine flu/pandemic influenza onavirus (MERS-CoV). (who.int)
  • A study of coronavirus infections among white-tailed deer in Iowa found that about 80% of deer sampled across the state between April 2020 and January 2021 were infected with the virus. (medscape.com)
  • Jakarta, March 22, 2020, SPA -- Indonesia has reported 64 novel coronavirus infections, bringing the total to 514 cases. (globalsecurity.org)
  • Temperature readings are taken for people attending Eid al-Adha prayers in Jakarta during the outbreak of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Indonesia, July 31, 2020. (arabnews.com)
  • Citizens stand in a queue to buy anti-aerosol masks and disposable medical masks at a sales booth in front of the Beuel town hall during the novel coronavirus crisis on April 29 2020 in Bonn, Germany. (cnbc.com)
  • People wearing face masks to help curb the spread of the coronavirus wait before crossing an intersection in the Ginza shopping district in Tokyo, Tuesday, Dec.22, 2020. (mainichi.jp)
  • People wearing face masks and gloves to protect against coronavirus, observe social distancing guidelines as they pass through the turnstiles of the subway in Moscow, Russia on May 12, 2020. (alarabiya.net)
  • Bottles with Russia's Sputnik-V vaccine against the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) are seen before inoculation at a clinic in Tver, Russia October 12, 2020. (alarabiya.net)
  • Backer JA, Klinkenberg D, Wallinga J. Incubation period of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infections among travellers from Wuhan, China, 20-28 January 2020. (who.int)
  • In 2019, WHO Mission for evaluation of the implementation of the International Health Regulations (IHR) in Montenegro, rated the health system with the best marks, - In January 2020, the improvement of laboratory capacities for self- diagnosis of the new strain of coronavirus was initiated. (who.int)
  • Data analytics and robots are being deployed in China and other Asian countries that have been hardest hit by the ongoing coronavirus outbreak. (computerweekly.com)
  • China's tech sector will bear the brunt of the ongoing Covid-19 coronavirus outbreak on the back of an expected hit on the world's second-largest economy. (computerweekly.com)
  • The outbreak has led to the AFL match on Thursday between Richmond and West Coast on the Gold Coast being postponed after Queensland introduced new restrictions on sports teams from Victorian coronavirus hotspots. (abc.net.au)
  • Russia has broken its daily coronavirus record, confirming more than 21,000 new infections Monday as the second wave of the outbreak shows no signs of slowing down. (themoscowtimes.com)
  • Before the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by the SARS coronavirus in 2003, human coronaviruses (HCoVs) had not been considered harmful respiratory pathogens. (hindawi.com)
  • The adviser to Iran's supreme leader is now one of the confirmed dead from the coronavirus' outbreak. (shtfplan.com)
  • Objective: An outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was first reported in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, with subsequent spread around the world. (who.int)
  • World map of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) distribution from the 2002-2003 outbreak infection. (medscape.com)
  • Zelenskiy and the head of his presidential office, Andriy Yermak, tested positive for the coronavirus earlier this week. (rferl.org)
  • The number of people testing positive for the coronavirus in England is continuing to rise rapidly, recently doubling every six days. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • As countries across Europe start to lift their lockdowns, close attention is being paid to the so-called 'R' rate as an indication of whether a second wave of coronavirus infections could be on the horizon. (cnbc.com)
  • Tokyo is battling a third wave of coronavirus infections following earlier surges in April and August. (mainichi.jp)
  • The coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) infects mice and serves as an ideal model of viral pathogenesis, mainly because experiments can be conducted using animal-biosafety level-2 (A-BSL2) containment. (hindawi.com)
  • "Vitamin D is important to the function of the immune system and vitamin D supplements have previously been shown to lower the risk of viral respiratory tract infections," ​said Dr Meltzer. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Common Cold The common cold is a viral infection of the lining of the nose, sinuses, and throat. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Overview of Viral Infections A virus is composed of nucleic acid, either DNA or RNA, surrounded by a protein coat. (msdmanuals.com)
  • A viral infection can lead to a spectrum of symptoms from. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Interestingly, combination of antiviral and anti-inflammatory drugs simultaneously inhibit seasonal coronavirus -triggered inflammatory response and viral replication . (bvsalud.org)
  • Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a serious, potentially life-threatening viral infection caused by a previously unrecognized virus from the Coronaviridae family, the SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV). (medscape.com)
  • The nation's top infectious disease expert said it's "conceivable" the US could have a coronavirus vaccine by December. (cnn.com)
  • The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention posted new guidance on its website that estimates that about a third of coronavirus infections are asymptomatic. (cnn.com)
  • In June, the head of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Dr. Robert Redfield, estimated that for every case reported, there were 10 other infections. (npr.org)
  • Since most people who are infected with coronavirus develop symptoms within 14 days of being infected and can spread the disease days before they feel sick, the window to get tested and avoid infecting others is small. (go.com)
  • More than a month has passed since the White House's coronavirus task force held a briefing, despite hundreds of Americans dying daily from the disease. (yahoo.com)
  • SINGAPORE: Singapore launched a contact-tracing smartphone app to allow authorities to identify those who have been exposed to people infected with coronavirus as part of efforts to curb the spread of the disease. (arabnews.com)
  • The additional COVID-19 cases, including 188 local infections, raised the country's total caseload to 15,515, according to the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC). (koreatimes.co.kr)
  • Professor Steven Riley, Professor of Infectious Disease Dynamics at Imperial, said: "Although the vaccines offer good protection against infection and severe disease, vaccinated people still have a risk of becoming ill from the virus and infecting others. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) is an illness caused by a virus. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has created an emergency of epic proportions. (cdc.gov)
  • In the late 1940s, two more animal coronaviruses, JHM that causes brain disease (murine encephalitis) and mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) that causes hepatitis in mice were discovered. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that cause respiratory illness ranging in severity from the common cold to fatal pneumonia. (msdmanuals.com)
  • There's no question there's a danger [that] this could intensify the spread of the coronavirus just at a point when we were starting to beat it back profoundly,' he said. (go.com)
  • Authorities have quarantined at least 10 towns in northern Italy in an attempt to contain the spread of the coronavirus. (ibtimes.com)
  • While Germany has seen a similar number of confirmed coronavirus cases to its European peers (161,539 cases Thursday, according to data compiled by Johns Hopkins University) , it has seen far fewer deaths, with 6,467 fatalities recorded. (cnbc.com)
  • The mobile app using Bluetooth technology developed by GovTech in collaboration with the Ministry of Health informs user who had close contacts to confirmed coronavirus cases was launched in Singapore on 20. (arabnews.com)
  • The human coronaviruses (HCoVs) HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-HKU1 are two recently discovered coronaviruses that circulate widely and are associated with acute respiratory infections (ARI). (hindawi.com)
  • The name was coined by June Almeida and David Tyrrell who first observed and studied human coronaviruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human coronaviruses were discovered in the 1960s using two different methods in the United Kingdom and the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spokesman of Indonesian Health Ministry Achmad Yurianto said that the total number of confirmed deaths from coronavirus rose by ten to 48. (globalsecurity.org)
  • According to tracking from Johns Hopkins University, the United States has had more than 1.9 million positive cases of the coronavirus and 112,000 deaths, the highest reported in either category of any country in the world. (yahoo.com)
  • And while hospitalizations and deaths remain low, the number of child coronavirus infections increased by 3% over the last two weeks of the month after declining earlier in the summer. (npr.org)
  • Seven states reported no child deaths, while other states reported 0-0.03% of all child coronavirus cases resulting in death. (npr.org)
  • VA leaders have downplayed spikes in coronavirus deaths and cases in recent months, saying that percentages of veterans who need hospitalization because of coronavirus complications has remained consistent or decreased as total cases have risen. (militarytimes.com)
  • A wave of scientific publications has suggested that vitamin D3 supplementation could be a potentially promising and safe approach to reduce risk of COVID-19 infections and deaths. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Russia has been swept by a resurgence of the virus this fall, with daily confirmed infections and deaths significantly exceeding those reported in the spring. (alarabiya.net)
  • The severe illnesses and hospitalizations and deaths tend to occur 3 to 4 weeks after the infections," said Reingold. (cbsnews.com)
  • In our country, nine deaths of the COVID-19 infection have been reported, with over 7000 people tested, and the number of recovered patients that amounts to 309, with 6 infected at the moment. (who.int)
  • China's Premier Li Keqiang visited a construction site of a new hospital being built to treat coronavirus patients in Wuhan on January 27. (cnn.com)
  • These activities led us to test whether T β 4 serves to treat coronavirus infections of humans. (hindawi.com)
  • The Wuhan Municipal Health Commission said in a statement that the possibility of cross-infection within that hospital could not be ruled out. (cnn.com)
  • Washington, the first state to be affected by the Wuhan coronavirus (COVID-19), is grappling with a fresh wave of outbreaks - most of which from seasonal farm workers who work the state's many fruit orchards. (naturalnews.com)
  • Highly pathogenic coronaviruses cause severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) (SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) (MERS-CoV) in humans. (hindawi.com)
  • Coronaviruses (CoVs) that cause severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), such as SARS-CoV/SARS-CoV-2, and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), such as MERS-CoV, are members of a large family of enveloped, single-stranded, positive-strand RNA viruses. (hindawi.com)
  • Whether severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infection can be asymptomatic is unclear. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Middle East respiratory syndrome is a coronavirus infection that causes severe flu-like symptoms. (msdmanuals.com)
  • that causes Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is a coronavirus. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus: the species and its viruses-a statement of the Coronavirus Study Group. (who.int)
  • The infections identified included: ARI, avian influenza A(H5N1), influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection. (who.int)
  • In the meantime, Senior and local New Mexico elected officials sent an open letter to state business leaders and commercial associations last Friday encouraging vaccination policies for employees and patrons that can help stem the rising tide of increased COVID-19 infections and hospitalizations. (dchieftain.com)
  • JAKARTA: Indonesia reported 1,519 new coronavirus infections on Sunday, bringing the total to 111,455, data from the country's COVID-19 task force showed. (arabnews.com)
  • The country's coronavirus crisis response centre said 176 people had died in the last 24 hours, bringing the official death toll to 9,859. (news.az)
  • Cite this: Study Suggests Coronavirus Infections Rampant in Iowa Deer - Medscape - Nov 03, 2021. (medscape.com)
  • Rothe C, Schunk M, Sothmann P. Transmission of 2019-nCoV Infection from an Asymptomatic Contact in Germany. (who.int)
  • Serologic tests for common re- drome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infections had been spiratory viruses were negative. (cdc.gov)
  • and MERS-CoV infection ( 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Les infections identifiées comprenaient les infections respiratoires aiguës (IRA), la grippe aviaire A(H5N1), la grippe A(H1N1)pdm09 et l'infection par le coronavirus du syndrome respiratoire du Moyen-Orient (MERS-CoV). (who.int)
  • Updates were made to reflect the high levels of vaccine-and infection-induced immunity and the availability of effective treatments and prevention tools . (cdc.gov)
  • It is encouraging to see lower infection prevalence in people who have had both doses of a vaccine. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • But today's findings show that infection rates are three times lower for those who have had two vaccine doses. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • Over the weekend, India reported its highest-ever single-day spike in infections with nearly 25,000 new cases in a 24-hour period. (kenw.org)
  • The latest spike has been powered in part by rising numbers of infections in a handful of southern Indian states , including Karnataka, Telangana and Tamil Nadu. (kenw.org)
  • COVID-19 is caused by infection with a coronavirus named SARS-CoV-2, and flu is caused by infection with influenza viruses. (cdc.gov)
  • Mouse coronaviruses, also known as mouse hepatitis viruses (MHVs), are histologically classified as respiratory strains such as MHV-1, MHV-2, MHV-3, MHV-A59, and MHV-JHM as well as enterophilic strains such as MHV-y and MHV-R1. (hindawi.com)
  • It is now recognized that both these viruses have a worldwide circulation and are associated with human respiratory tract infections. (hindawi.com)
  • In this study, we screened for the presence of HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-HKU1 in children with acute respiratory infection admitted to the Beijing Children's Hospital in an effort to gain a better understanding of the seasonality, epidemiology and genetic diversity of these viruses in a city with a population of more than 22 million. (hindawi.com)
  • Coronaviruses are a group of related RNA viruses that cause diseases in mammals and birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genome size of coronaviruses ranges from approximately 26 to 32 kilobases, one of the largest among RNA viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The scientific name Coronavirus was accepted as a genus name by the International Committee for the Nomenclature of Viruses (later renamed International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses) in 1971. (wikipedia.org)
  • The agency also says its "best estimate" is that 0.4% of people who show symptoms and have Covid-19 will die, and it estimates that 40% of coronavirus transmission is occurring before people feel sick. (cnn.com)
  • Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskiy attends a video conference with governmental officials from a hospital where he has been hospitalized with coronavirus symptoms, in Kyiv on November 12. (rferl.org)
  • The virus begins to show up in feces soon after infection, and according to some studies, well before the development of symptoms. (kqed.org)
  • We use current COVID-19 infections to mean testing positive for SARS-CoV-2, with or without having symptoms, on a swab taken from the nose and throat. (ons.gov.uk)
  • We saw an epidemic cross over the Sun Belt, and we saw infections actually increase," he told CBS' Face the Nation on Sunday. (npr.org)
  • At Monday's meeting, Li said that while the public had long looked forward to the good news of zero local infections, the statistics on the epidemic must be "truthful and accurate," urging local governments not to "hide or underreport cases in pursuit of zero cases. (cnn.com)
  • The epidemic has grown in all parts of the country but most notably in London, where infections rose by eight-fold. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • Border restrictions originally due to begin relaxing from tomorrow instead remain in place until at least late next month in a bid to delay the arrival of the highly infectious Omicron variant, which has led to infections skyrocketing overseas, including Australia where the rolling seven-day average of new infections is now almost 90,000 per day. (nzherald.co.nz)
  • Such a system can be employed under A-BSL2 containment instead of A-BSL3 that is required to study coronaviruses infectious for humans. (hindawi.com)
  • BERKELEY (KPIX) -- When it comes to coronavirus infection rates versus hospitalization numbers, health officials must determine which data paints the most accurate picture. (cbsnews.com)
  • People stand in line for free coronavirus testing this month at Bellevue Hospital in New York City. (npr.org)
  • But Gottlieb warned that the months ahead will be challenging: "As we head into September and October, kids back to school, people start to return to work, we're likely to see infections start to go up again. (npr.org)
  • China announced on March 24 that a lockdown would be lifted on more than 50 million people in central Hubei province where the COVID-19 coronavirus first emerged late last year. (cnn.com)
  • To date, the virus has now spread to 170 countries and regions , according to figures compiled by Johns Hopkins University, and put nearly a third of the world's population - or 2.5 billion people - under coronavirus-related movement restrictions. (cnn.com)
  • MADRID (AP) - Spanish media reported Saturday that Spain's government will announce that it is placing tight restrictions on movement for the nation of 46 million people while declaring a two-week state of emergency to fight the sharp rise in coronavirus infections. (newsmax.com)
  • Health authorities in Spain said Saturday that coronavirus infections have reached 5,753 people, half of them in the capital, Madrid. (newsmax.com)
  • The infection came from other people, and we don't know -- maybe a person coming from China. (ibtimes.com)
  • To date, the coronavirus has claimed the lives of more than 612,000 people. (npr.org)
  • Scrase pointed out that coronavirus variants now circulating in New Mexico are more transmissible than earlier ones, making it all the more important for people who aren't vaccinated to wear a mask. (dchieftain.com)
  • Its 5.6 million infections rank second only to the United States, and more than 90,000 people have died. (trend.az)
  • Over the past fortnight, the North East has seen infections per 100,000 people double. (sky.com)
  • Although rates of infection were three times lower in fully vaccinated people under the age of 65 compared to unvaccinated people, both of these groups saw a similar proportionate rise in infections. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • Professor Paul Elliott, director of the REACT programme from Imperial's School of Public Health, said: "In spite of the successful rollout of the vaccination programme, we are still seeing rapid growth in infections, especially among younger people. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • Infections were lowest in people aged 75+ at 0.13%, however this is nearly double the previous round when 0.07% were infected. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • During the most recent week of the study 1 , we estimate that 112,600 people in England had the coronavirus (COVID-19) (95% credible interval: 96,700 to 130,100). (ons.gov.uk)
  • In several countries in the Middle East, dromedary camels are suspected of being the primary source of infection for people, but how the virus spreads from camels to people is unknown. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The infection is more common among men and is more severe in older people and in people with an underlying chronic disorder such as diabetes or a heart or kidney disorder. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The infection has been fatal in about one third of infected people. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Doctors suspect MERS in people who have a lower respiratory tract infection and have traveled to or reside in an area where they could have been exposed to the virus or who have had recent close contact with someone who may have had MERS. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The new coronavirus has so far been confirmed in 324 people in Montenegro. (who.int)
  • The soaring rate of new infections this fall, even in states that had managed to keep the virus at bay over the summer, has prompted health and government officials to sound the alarm. (smh.com.au)
  • An adviser to Iran's Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei has died from the new coronavirus, as other top officials in the country are confirmed to be infected, according to multiple reports on Monday. (shtfplan.com)
  • The number of coronavirus patients hospitalised in the United States hit a record of 73,140 on Monday and hospitalisations have increased over 46 per cent in past 14 days, according to a Reuters tally. (smh.com.au)
  • These trends suggest that coronavirus hospitalisations will rise in coming weeks. (sky.com)
  • Dans la présente revue, nous proposons un aperçu de la littérature sur les infections respiratoires lors de rassemblements de masse, puis nous décrivons l'impact du nouveau coronavirus 2012, un virus respiratoire émergent, sur les préparatifs des rassemblements de masse. (who.int)
  • Seasonal coronaviruses widely circulate in the global population , and severe complications can occur in specific vulnerable populations . (bvsalud.org)
  • As Texas continues to reopen, the state has set the record for coronavirus-related hospitalizations for the third straight day. (yahoo.com)
  • Last week the state reported that around 16 percent of the infections over the previous seven-day period were pediatric cases and that no hospitalizations had been reported for that group. (dchieftain.com)
  • Coronavirus: Between Infection Rates Or Hospitalizations, Which Data Paints Most Accurate Picture? (cbsnews.com)
  • Editor's note: Find the latest COVID-19 news and guidance in Medscape's Coronavirus Resource Center . (medscape.com)
  • While many countries are seeing a decline in COVID-19 cases, infections in the United States appear to be spiking, according to documents obtained by Yahoo News. (yahoo.com)
  • Coronaviruses (CoVs) are enveloped and harbor an unusually large (30-32 kb) positive-strand linear RNA genome. (hindawi.com)
  • KYIV -- Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskiy has said that a short-term quarantine, introduced amid a record surge in coronavirus cases, could help the country avoid stricter measures. (rferl.org)
  • COVID-19: What does a surge in coronavirus infections mean for the NHS? (sky.com)
  • Among other things, PCR tests will no longer be generally required if, for example, a rapid test has shown an indication of infection or if infected persons or close contacts want to clear themselves from isolation or quarantine. (berlin.de)
  • At today's meeting of the Berlin Senate (Feb. 1, 2022), several issues related to Coronavirus are on the agenda. (berlin.de)
  • None of these healthcare workers had antibody to SARS CoV, indicating that subclinical or mild infection attributable to SARS-CoV in adults is rare. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • In humans and birds, they cause respiratory tract infections that can range from mild to lethal. (wikipedia.org)
  • The department has administered about 1.15 million coronavirus tests in the past nine months as part of its screening for the illness. (militarytimes.com)
  • US President Donald Trump announced that flags will be lowered to half-staff "over the next three days" to honor coronavirus victims. (cnn.com)
  • There's no way to say conclusively how Trump and others contracted the virus, and just because someone tested positive sooner than someone else does not mean they were responsible for the infection. (wral.com)
  • Trump held numerous events actively shirking social distancing and mask wearing in the days, weeks and months before his infection, many of which were indoors. (wral.com)
  • In order to enable vital research into the long-term health impacts of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus ('long COVID'), we are inviting some UK Biobank participants who took part in our recent self-test COVID antibody study to provide additional help. (ukbiobank.ac.uk)
  • If you agree to help, we will send you a finger-prick blood sampling kit (the Thriva coronavirus antibody test kit) so that you can take a small blood sample so that we can complete a laboratory-based test which will provide this information. (ukbiobank.ac.uk)
  • Sporadic cluster infections have shown no signs of a let-up, with most cases traced to small and medium-sized churches in the greater Seoul area. (koreatimes.co.kr)
  • Widespread infection in white-tailed deer has created concern about the possibility of mutated versions of the virus spreading back to humans. (medscape.com)
  • By now we've heard plenty about the difficulty of accessing widespread testing for the coronavirus. (kqed.org)
  • India has overtaken Russia to become the third-worst coronavirus affected nation. (kenw.org)
  • India has now surpassed Russia to become the third-worst country affected by the coronavirus , in terms of total infections. (kenw.org)
  • Coronaviruses constitute the subfamily Orthocoronavirinae, in the family Coronaviridae, order Nidovirales and realm Riboviria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Between November and January, the prevalence of infection in the deer was about 50 times greater than that among Iowa's human residents, according to Suresh Kuchipudi, PhD, a veterinary microbiologist and one of the lead researchers on the study. (medscape.com)
  • These interim findings from Imperial College London show that the prevalence of infection has risen substantially in all age groups under 75. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • We must take further action to tackle infections acquired in the NHS itself, whether staff, visitors or patients. (england.nhs.uk)
  • Iowa alone has registered more than new 52,000 infections over the past two weeks, about the same number reported from March to mid-August, with COVID-19 accounting for one in every four patients now hospitalised in the state. (smh.com.au)
  • Led by David Meltzer, MD, PhD, Chief of Hospital Medicine at UChicago Medicine, the research team found that patients who had vitamin D deficiency (less than 20ng/ml) that was not treated were almost twice as likely to test positive for the COVID-19 coronavirus compared to patients who had sufficient levels of the vitamin. (nutraingredients.com)
  • The East of England has the lowest proportion of beds occupied by coronavirus patients and is running closest to full capacity. (sky.com)
  • Nearly half (48.5%) of all NHS Trusts in England saw a drop in patients suffering with other illnesses while also admitting more coronavirus patients. (sky.com)
  • Q&A on infection prevention and control for health care workers caring for patients with suspected or confirmed 2019-nCoV. (who.int)
  • Here, we present anecdotal evidence that the level of IL-1 ß, a hallmark of inflammasome activation, appears elevated in a subset of seasonal coronavirus infected patients . (bvsalud.org)
  • The United States crossed 11 million total infections on Sunday, just eight days after reaching the 10 million mark. (smh.com.au)
  • With the number of global infections surging past 423,000, a growing number of cases have been imported back to China from overseas - many of them Chinese students and workers eager to return home as outbreaks flare up globally. (cnn.com)
  • It is therefore vital to ensure that NHS organisations have robust processes in place to support the timely reporting and management of COVID-19 outbreaks, hospital acquired infection and associated staff absence. (england.nhs.uk)
  • South Korea reported 197 more cases of the new coronavirus on Monday as it battles sporadic outbreaks in Seoul and its neighboring area amid growing fears of resurgence in the greater Seoul area. (koreatimes.co.kr)
  • This guidance provides a framework for facilities to implement select infection prevention and control practices (e.g., universal source control) based on their individual circumstances (e.g., levels of respiratory virus transmission in the community). (cdc.gov)
  • Close contact excludes circumstances where PPE is being worn in accordance with current guidance on infection, prevention and control . (england.nhs.uk)
  • Between the previous testing round and these recent swabs, infections were doubling every 16 days. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • The VA is now reporting more than 50 veterans dying every day from complications linked to the coronavirus. (militarytimes.com)
  • In addition to patient totals, at least 91 VA employees have died from coronavirus complications. (militarytimes.com)
  • And it's important to reiterate to the community that you are not immune from catching coronavirus by virtue of the postcode that you live in. (abc.net.au)
  • Coronaviruses infect vertebrates and may cause acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with high morbidity and mortality rates, depending on species [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • India's coronavirus infections surged again on Wednesday, a day after falling to their lowest figure in almost a month, Trend reports with reference to Reuters . (trend.az)
  • The president's comments came as Ukraine registered a new daily infection record, with 12,524 coronavirus cases reported, amid opposition to the new restrictions by demonstrators and city mayors. (rferl.org)
  • As restrictions are eased in Europe, experts are keeping a keen eye on the data, watching for a rise in new infections. (cnbc.com)
  • Epidemiologists and governments are not just watching the daily number of cases recorded as restrictions are lifted, they are also keeping a close eye on this key metric in gauging the coronavirus' ability to spread. (cnbc.com)
  • The earliest reports of a coronavirus infection in animals occurred in the late 1920s, when an acute respiratory infection of domesticated chickens emerged in North America. (wikipedia.org)