Coronavirus: A genus of the family CORONAVIRIDAE which causes respiratory or gastrointestinal disease in a variety of vertebrates.Coronavirus Infections: Virus diseases caused by the CORONAVIRUS genus. Some specifics include transmissible enteritis of turkeys (ENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF TURKEYS); FELINE INFECTIOUS PERITONITIS; and transmissible gastroenteritis of swine (GASTROENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF SWINE).Coronavirus 229E, Human: A species in the genus CORONAVIRUS causing the common cold and possibly nervous system infections in humans. It lacks hemagglutinin-esterase.Coronavirus, Feline: A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting cats of all ages and commonly found in catteries and zoos. Cats are often found carrying the virus but only a small proportion develop disease. Feline coronavirus and Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) are virtually the same virus in genetic and antigenetic terms, and are morphologically indistinguishable. Since they only differ in their disease potential (with FIPV causing a more serious illness), they are considered biotypes of each other.Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus: A class I viral fusion protein that forms the characteristic spikes, or peplomers, found on the viral surface that mediate virus attachment, fusion, and entry into the host cell. During virus maturation, it is cleaved into two subunits: S1, which binds to receptors in the host cell, and S2, which mediates membrane fusion.Coronavirus, Bovine: A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting neonatal calves, presenting as acute diarrhea, and frequently leading to death.SARS Virus: A species of CORONAVIRUS causing atypical respiratory disease (SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME) in humans. The organism is believed to have first emerged in Guangdong Province, China, in 2002. The natural host is the Chinese horseshoe bat, RHINOLOPHUS sinicus.Coronavirus OC43, Human: A species in the genus CORONAVIRUS causing the common cold and possibly nervous system infections in humans. It contains hemagglutinin-esterase.Coronaviridae: Spherical RNA viruses, in the order NIDOVIRALES, infecting a wide range of animals including humans. Transmission is by fecal-oral and respiratory routes. Mechanical transmission is also common. There are two genera: CORONAVIRUS and TOROVIRUS.Leukemia Virus, Feline: A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).Immunodeficiency Virus, Feline: A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus feline lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, FELINE) isolated from cats with a chronic wasting syndrome, presumed to be immune deficiency. There are 3 strains: Petaluma (FIP-P), Oma (FIP-O) and Puma lentivirus (PLV). There is no antigenic relationship between FIV and HIV, nor does FIV grow in human T-cells.Coronavirus, Canine: A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting dogs. Onset of symptoms is usually sudden and includes vomiting, diarrhea, and dehydration.Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome: A viral disorder characterized by high FEVER, dry COUGH, shortness of breath (DYSPNEA) or breathing difficulties, and atypical PNEUMONIA. A virus in the genus CORONAVIRUS is the suspected agent.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Coronaviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by CORONAVIRIDAE.Cat Diseases: Diseases of the domestic cat (Felis catus or F. domesticus). This term does not include diseases of the so-called big cats such as CHEETAHS; LIONS; tigers, cougars, panthers, leopards, and other Felidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Feline Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs in cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and in some cats infected with feline leukemia virus (FeLV).Murine hepatitis virus: A species of the CORONAVIRUS genus causing hepatitis in mice. Four strains have been identified as MHV 1, MHV 2, MHV 3, and MHV 4 (also known as MHV-JHM, which is neurotropic and causes disseminated encephalomyelitis with demyelination as well as focal liver necrosis).Calicivirus, Feline: A species of the genus VESIVIRUS infecting cats. Transmission occurs via air and mechanical contact.Feline Infectious Peritonitis: Common coronavirus infection of cats caused by the feline infectious peritonitis virus (CORONAVIRUS, FELINE). The disease is characterized by a long incubation period, fever, depression, loss of appetite, wasting, and progressive abdominal enlargement. Infection of cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage appears to be essential in FIP pathogenesis.Transmissible gastroenteritis virus: A species of CORONAVIRUS causing a fatal disease to pigs under 3 weeks old.Infectious bronchitis virus: A species of CORONAVIRUS causing infections in chickens and possibly pheasants. Chicks up to four weeks old are the most severely affected.Feline Panleukopenia: A highly contagious DNA virus infection of the cat family, characterized by fever, enteritis and bone marrow changes. It is also called feline ataxia, feline agranulocytosis, feline infectious enteritis, cat fever, cat plague, and show fever. It is caused by FELINE PANLEUKOPENIA VIRUS or the closely related MINK ENTERITIS VIRUS or CANINE PARVOVIRUS.Coronavirus NL63, Human: A species in the genus CORONAVIRUS causing upper and lower RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS. It shares the receptor used by the SARS VIRUS.Sarcoma Viruses, Feline: Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS isolated from fibrosarcoma in cats. The viruses are actually recombinant feline leukemia viruses (FeLV) where part of the genome has been replaced by cellular oncogenes. It is unique to individuals and not transmitted naturally to other cats. FeSVs are replication defective and require FeLV to reproduce.Nucleocapsid Proteins: Viral proteins found in either the NUCLEOCAPSID or the viral core (VIRAL CORE PROTEINS).Feline panleukopenia virus: A species of PARVOVIRUS infecting cats with a highly contagious enteric disease. Host range variants include mink enteritis virus, canine parvovirus (PARVOVIRUS, CANINE), and raccoon parvovirus. After infecting their new hosts, many of these viruses have further evolved and are now considered distinct species.Coronavirus, Rat: A species of CORONAVIRUS causing pneumonia in newborn rats but a clinically inapparent infection in adults. It is separate but antigenically related to MURINE HEPATITIS VIRUS.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Coronavirus, Turkey: A species of CORONAVIRUS causing enteritis in turkeys and pullets.Porcine Respiratory Coronavirus: A mutant strain of TRANSMISSIBLE GASTROENTERITIS VIRUS causing mild or subclinical respiratory infections in young SWINE. It may also play a role in post-weaning porcine respiratory disease complex, especially when combined with other respiratory agents.Leukemia, Feline: A neoplastic disease of cats frequently associated with feline leukemia virus infection.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Gastroenteritis, Transmissible, of Swine: A condition of chronic gastroenteritis in adult pigs and fatal gastroenteritis in piglets caused by a CORONAVIRUS.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Lentivirus Infections: Virus diseases caused by the Lentivirus genus. They are multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection.Viverridae: The family of civets which are small and medium-sized Old World carnivores, often striped or spotted.Antigens, CD13: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Felidae: The cat family in the order CARNIVORA comprised of muscular, deep-chested terrestrial carnivores with a highly predatory lifestyle.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.RNA Replicase: An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)Viral Nonstructural Proteins: Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.Viral Matrix Proteins: Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.Enteritis, Transmissible, of Turkeys: An acute, highly contagious virus disease of turkeys characterized by chilling, anorexia, decreased water intake, diarrhea, dehydration and weight loss. The infectious agent is a CORONAVIRUS.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Nucleocapsid: A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.Virus Internalization: The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Defective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Lentiviruses, Feline: A subgenus of LENTIVIRUS comprising viruses that produce multi-organ disease with long incubation periods in cats.Middle East: The region of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Cysteine Endopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.Communicable Diseases, Emerging: Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.Puma: A genus in the family FELIDAE comprising one species, Puma concolor. It is a large, long-tailed, feline of uniform color. The names puma, cougar, and mountain lion are used interchangeably for this species. There are more than 20 subspecies.Lions: Large, chiefly nocturnal mammals of the cat family FELIDAE, species Panthera leo. They are found in Africa and southern Asia.Hepatitis, Viral, Animal: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in animals due to viral infection.Chiroptera: Order of mammals whose members are adapted for flight. It includes bats, flying foxes, and fruit bats.Virus Attachment: The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral: Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Chronology as Topic: The temporal sequence of events that have occurred.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Acinonyx: A genus of long-legged, swift-moving felines (FELIDAE) from Africa (and formerly Asia) about the size of a small leopard.Dysentery: Acute inflammation of the intestine associated with infectious DIARRHEA of various etiologies, generally acquired by eating contaminated food containing TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL derived from BACTERIA or other microorganisms. Dysentery is characterized initially by watery FECES then by bloody mucoid stools. It is often associated with ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; and DEHYDRATION.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Viral Tropism: The specificity of a virus for infecting a particular type of cell or tissue.Parvovirus, Canine: A species of the genus PARVOVIRUS and a host range variant of FELINE PANLEUKOPENIA VIRUS. It causes a highly infectious fulminating ENTERITIS in dogs producing high mortality. It is distinct from CANINE MINUTE VIRUS, a species in the genus BOCAVIRUS. This virus can also infect cats and mink.Carnivora: An order of MAMMALS, usually flesh eaters with appropriate dentition. Suborders include the terrestrial carnivores Fissipedia, and the aquatic carnivores PINNIPEDIA.Central Nervous System Viral Diseases: Viral infections of the brain, spinal cord, meninges, or perimeningeal spaces.Polyproteins: Proteins which are synthesized as a single polymer and then cleaved into several distinct proteins.Nidovirales: An order comprising three families of eukaryotic viruses possessing linear, nonsegmented, positive sense RNA genomes. The families are CORONAVIRIDAE; ARTERIVIRIDAE; and RONIVIRIDAE.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Animals, ZooCattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A: A peptidyl-dipeptidase that catalyzes the release of a C-terminal dipeptide, -Xaa-*-Xbb-Xcc, when neither Xaa nor Xbb is Pro. It is a Cl(-)-dependent, zinc glycoprotein that is generally membrane-bound and active at neutral pH. It may also have endopeptidase activity on some substrates. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.4.15.1.Saudi ArabiaHelper Viruses: Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms: Animals or humans raised in the absence of a particular disease-causing virus or other microorganism. Less frequently plants are cultivated pathogen-free.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Genes, pol: DNA sequences that form the coding region for retroviral enzymes including reverse transcriptase, protease, and endonuclease/integrase. "pol" is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Hemagglutinins, Viral: Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Camels: Hoofed mammals with four legs, a big-lipped snout, and a humped back belonging to the family Camelidae.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Caliciviridae: A family of RNA viruses infecting a broad range of animals. Most individual species are restricted to their natural hosts. They possess a characteristic six-pointed starlike shape whose surfaces have cup-shaped (chalice) indentions. Transmission is by contaminated food, water, fomites, and occasionally aerosolization of secretions. Genera include LAGOVIRUS; NORWALK-LIKE VIRUSES; SAPPORO-LIKE VIRUSES; and VESIVIRUS.Nandiniidae: A family in the suborder Feliformia, order CARNIVORA, comprising one genus Nandinia binotata.Zoonoses: Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Encephalomyelitis: A general term indicating inflammation of the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD, often used to indicate an infectious process, but also applicable to a variety of autoimmune and toxic-metabolic conditions. There is significant overlap regarding the usage of this term and ENCEPHALITIS in the literature.Viral Fusion Proteins: Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Lynx: A genus in the family FELIDAE comprising felines with long legs, ear tufts, and a short tail.Pneumonia, Viral: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.Retroviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the RETROVIRIDAE.Retroviridae: Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.Common Cold: A catarrhal disorder of the upper respiratory tract, which may be viral or a mixed infection. It generally involves a runny nose, nasal congestion, and sneezing.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Arterivirus: A genus of the family ARTERIVIRIDAE, in the order NIDOVIRALES. The type species is ARTERITIS VIRUS, EQUINE.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Papain: A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Carica papaya. It is also the name used for a purified mixture of papain and CHYMOPAPAIN that is used as a topical enzymatic debriding agent. EC 3.4.22.2.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Giant Cells: Multinucleated masses produced by the fusion of many cells; often associated with viral infections. In AIDS, they are induced when the envelope glycoprotein of the HIV virus binds to the CD4 antigen of uninfected neighboring T4 cells. The resulting syncytium leads to cell death and thus may account for the cytopathic effect of the virus.Cell Fusion: Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.Hong Kong: The former British crown colony located off the southeast coast of China, comprised of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and New Territories. The three sites were ceded to the British by the Chinese respectively in 1841, 1860, and 1898. Hong Kong reverted to China in July 1997. The name represents the Cantonese pronunciation of the Chinese xianggang, fragrant port, from xiang, perfume and gang, port or harbor, with reference to its currents sweetened by fresh water from a river west of it.Enteritis: Inflammation of any segment of the SMALL INTESTINE.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Demyelinating Diseases: Diseases characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin in the central or peripheral nervous system.Spumavirus: Genus of non-oncogenic retroviruses which establish persistent infections in many animal species but are considered non-pathogenic. Its species have been isolated from primates (including humans), cattle, cats, hamsters, horses, and sea lions. Spumaviruses have a foamy or lace-like appearance and are often accompanied by syncytium formation. SIMIAN FOAMY VIRUS is the type species.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Membrane Fusion: The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Mice, Inbred BALB CDNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Mucopolysaccharidosis VI: Mucopolysaccharidosis with excessive CHONDROITIN SULFATE B in urine, characterized by dwarfism and deafness. It is caused by a deficiency of N-ACETYLGALACTOSAMINE-4-SULFATASE (arylsulfatase B).Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Oncogenic Viruses: Viruses that produce tumors.RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Herpesviridae: A family of enveloped, linear, double-stranded DNA viruses infecting a wide variety of animals. Subfamilies, based on biological characteristics, include: ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE; BETAHERPESVIRINAE; and GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE.Alphaherpesvirinae: A subfamily of HERPESVIRIDAE characterized by a short replication cycle. The genera include: SIMPLEXVIRUS; VARICELLOVIRUS; MAREK'S DISEASE-LIKE VIRUSES; and ILTOVIRUS.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Sequence Homology: The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Frameshifting, Ribosomal: A directed change in translational READING FRAMES that allows the production of a single protein from two or more OVERLAPPING GENES. The process is programmed by the nucleotide sequence of the MRNA and is sometimes also affected by the secondary or tertiary mRNA structure. It has been described mainly in VIRUSES (especially RETROVIRUSES); RETROTRANSPOSONS; and bacterial insertion elements but also in some cellular genes.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Epitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.QatarVirus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.5' Untranslated Regions: The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.Swine Diseases: Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.Chondro-4-Sulfatase: An enzyme from the sulfuric ester hydrolase class that breaks down one of the products of the chondroitin lyase II reaction. EC 3.1.6.9.Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Cinanserin: A serotonin antagonist with limited antihistaminic, anticholinergic, and immunosuppressive activity.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Viruses: Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Beluga Whale: The species Delphinapterus leucas, in the family Monodontidae, found primarily in the Arctic Ocean and adjoining seas. They are small WHALES lacking a dorsal fin.Viral Core Proteins: Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.Acetylesterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of acetate esters and water to alcohols and acetate. EC 3.1.1.6.Mink: Carnivores of genus Mustela of the family MUSTELIDAE. The European mink, which has white upper and lower lips, was widely trapped for commercial purposes and is classified as endangered. The American mink, lacking a white upper lip, is farmed commercially.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Interferon Type I: Interferon secreted by leukocytes, fibroblasts, or lymphoblasts in response to viruses or interferon inducers other than mitogens, antigens, or allo-antigens. They include alpha- and beta-interferons (INTERFERON-ALPHA and INTERFERON-BETA).Hemagglutination, Viral: Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.Torovirus: A genus of the family CORONAVIRIDAE characterized by enveloped, peplomer-bearing particles containing an elongated tubular nucleocapsid with helical symmetry. Toroviruses have been found in association with enteric infections in horses (Berne virus), cattle (Breda virus), swine, and humans. Transmission probably takes place via the fecal-oral route.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Picornaviridae: A family of small RNA viruses comprising some important pathogens of humans and animals. Transmission usually occurs mechanically. There are nine genera: APHTHOVIRUS; CARDIOVIRUS; ENTEROVIRUS; ERBOVIRUS; HEPATOVIRUS; KOBUVIRUS; PARECHOVIRUS; RHINOVIRUS; and TESCHOVIRUS.Genes, env: DNA sequences that form the coding region for the viral envelope (env) proteins in retroviruses. The env genes contain a cis-acting RNA target sequence for the rev protein (= GENE PRODUCTS, REV), termed the rev-responsive element (RRE).Encephalitis, Viral: Inflammation of brain parenchymal tissue as a result of viral infection. Encephalitis may occur as primary or secondary manifestation of TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PARAMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; and ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.

Selection of antigenic variants of the S glycoprotein of feline infectious peritonitis virus and analysis of antigenic sites involved in neutralization. (1/92)

The type II feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) epitopes for neutralizing and enhancing antibodies are present on large spike glycoprotein (S) protein. In this study, we established monoclonal antibody-resistant mutant viruses resistant to three different monoclonal antibodies with neutralizing activity in Felis catus whole fetus cells and enhancing activity in feline macrophages, recognizing distinct epitopes on type II FIPV S protein. By comparing the nucleotide sequences of these mutant viruses with that of wild-type virus, we attempted to identify the neutralizing epitopes. The mutations were localized in the region of amino acid residues from 480 to 649 from the N terminal of the S protein.  (+info)

Retargeting of coronavirus by substitution of the spike glycoprotein ectodomain: crossing the host cell species barrier. (2/92)

Coronaviruses generally have a narrow host range, infecting one or just a few species. Using targeted RNA recombination, we constructed a mutant of the coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) in which the ectodomain of the spike glycoprotein (S) was replaced with the highly divergent ectodomain of the S protein of feline infectious peritonitis virus. The resulting chimeric virus, designated fMHV, acquired the ability to infect feline cells and simultaneously lost the ability to infect murine cells in tissue culture. This reciprocal switch of species specificity strongly supports the notion that coronavirus host cell range is determined primarily at the level of interactions between the S protein and the virus receptor. The isolation of fMHV allowed the localization of the region responsible for S protein incorporation into virions to the carboxy-terminal 64 of the 1,324 residues of this protein. This establishes a basis for further definition of elements involved in virion assembly. In addition, fMHV is potentially the ideal recipient virus for carrying out reverse genetics of MHV by targeted RNA recombination, since it presents the possibility of selecting recombinants, no matter how defective, that have regained the ability to replicate in murine cells.  (+info)

Assembly of spikes into coronavirus particles is mediated by the carboxy-terminal domain of the spike protein. (3/92)

The type I glycoprotein S of coronavirus, trimers of which constitute the typical viral spikes, is assembled into virions through noncovalent interactions with the M protein. Here we demonstrate that incorporation is mediated by the short carboxy-terminal segment comprising the transmembrane and endodomain. To this aim, we used the virus-like particle (VLP) system that we developed earlier for the mouse hepatitis virus strain A59 (MHV-A59) and which we describe now also for the unrelated coronavirus feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV; strain 79-1146). Two chimeric MHV-FIPV S proteins were constructed, consisting of the ectodomain of the one virus and the transmembrane and endodomain of the other. These proteins were tested for their incorporation into VLPs of either species. They were found to assemble only into viral particles of the species from which their carboxy-terminal domain originated. Thus, the 64-terminal-residue sequence suffices to draw the 1308 (MHV)- or 1433 (FIPV)-amino-acid-long mature S protein into VLPs. Both chimeric S proteins appeared to cause cell fusion when expressed individually, suggesting that they were biologically fully active. This was indeed confirmed by incorporating one of the proteins into virions which thereby acquired a new host cell tropism, as will be reported elsewhere.  (+info)

Molecular determinants of species specificity in the coronavirus receptor aminopeptidase N (CD13): influence of N-linked glycosylation. (4/92)

Aminopeptidase N (APN), a 150-kDa metalloprotease also called CD13, serves as a receptor for serologically related coronaviruses of humans (human coronavirus 229E [HCoV-229E]), pigs, and cats. These virus-receptor interactions can be highly species specific; for example, the human coronavirus can use human APN (hAPN) but not porcine APN (pAPN) as its cellular receptor, and porcine coronaviruses can use pAPN but not hAPN. Substitution of pAPN amino acids 283 to 290 into hAPN for the corresponding amino acids 288 to 295 introduced an N-glycosylation sequon at amino acids 291 to 293 that blocked HCoV-229E receptor activity of hAPN. Substitution of two amino acids that inserted an N-glycosylation site at amino acid 291 also resulted in a mutant hAPN that lacked receptor activity because it failed to bind HCoV-229E. Single amino acid revertants that removed this sequon at amino acids 291 to 293 but had one or five pAPN amino acid substitution(s) in this region all regained HCoV-229E binding and receptor activities. To determine if other N-linked glycosylation differences between hAPN, feline APN (fAPN), and pAPN account for receptor specificity of pig and cat coronaviruses, a mutant hAPN protein that, like fAPN and pAPN, lacked a glycosylation sequon at 818 to 820 was studied. This sequon is within the region that determines receptor activity for porcine and feline coronaviruses. Mutant hAPN lacking the sequon at amino acids 818 to 820 maintained HCoV-229E receptor activity but did not gain receptor activity for porcine or feline coronaviruses. Thus, certain differences in glycosylation between coronavirus receptors from different species are critical determinants in the species specificity of infection.  (+info)

Adverse effects of feline IL-12 during DNA vaccination against feline infectious peritonitis virus. (5/92)

Cell-mediated immunity is thought to play a decisive role in protecting cats against feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), a progressive and lethal coronavirus disease. In view of the potential of DNA vaccines to induce cell-mediated responses, their efficacy to induce protective immunity in cats was evaluated. The membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N) proteins were chosen as antigens, because antibodies to the spike (S) protein of FIP virus (FIPV) are known to precipitate pathogenesis. However, vaccination by repeated injections of plasmids encoding these proteins did not protect kittens against challenge infection with FIPV. Also, a prime-boost protocol failed to afford protection, with priming using plasmid DNA and boosting using recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing the same coronavirus proteins. Because of the role of IL-12 in initiating cell-mediated immunity, the effects of co-delivery of plasmids encoding the feline cytokine were studied. Again, IL-12 did not meet expectations - on the contrary, it enhanced susceptibility to FIPV challenge. This study shows that DNA vaccination failed to protect cats against FIP and that IL-12 may yield adverse effects when used as a cytokine adjuvant.  (+info)

Mutational analysis of the active centre of coronavirus 3C-like proteases. (6/92)

Formation of the coronavirus replication-transcription complex involves the synthesis of large polyprotein precursors that are extensively processed by virus-encoded cysteine proteases. In this study, the coding sequence of the feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) main protease, 3CL(pro), was determined. Comparative sequence analyses revealed that FIPV 3CL(pro) and other coronavirus main proteases are related most closely to the 3C-like proteases of potyviruses. The predicted active centre of the coronavirus enzymes has accepted unique replacements that were probed by extensive mutational analysis. The wild-type FIPV 3CL(pro) domain and 25 mutants were expressed in Escherichia coli and tested for proteolytic activity in a peptide-based assay. The data strongly suggest that, first, the FIPV 3CL(pro) catalytic system employs His(41) and Cys(144) as the principal catalytic residues. Second, the amino acids Tyr(160) and His(162), which are part of the conserved sequence signature Tyr(160)-Met(161)-His(162) and are believed to be involved in substrate recognition, were found to be indispensable for proteolytic activity. Third, replacements of Gly(83) and Asn(64), which were candidates to occupy the position spatially equivalent to that of the catalytic Asp residue of chymotrypsin-like proteases, resulted in proteolytically active proteins. Surprisingly, some of the Asn(64) mutants even exhibited strongly increased activities. Similar results were obtained for human coronavirus (HCoV) 3CL(pro) mutants in which the equivalent Asn residue (HCoV 3CL(pro) Asn(64)) was substituted. These data lead us to conclude that both the catalytic systems and substrate-binding pockets of coronavirus main proteases differ from those of other RNA virus 3C and 3C-like proteases.  (+info)

Detection of feline coronavirus in captive Felidae in the USA. (7/92)

Feline coronavirus (FCoV) is an important pathogen of domestic and nondomestic Felidae. Investigation into the prevalence of FCoV in exotic Felidae has relied primarily on serology. The usefulness of genetic detection of FCoV using reverse transcription and nested polymerase chain reaction (RT/nPCR) for viral screening was investigated. Seventy-five biologic samples, primarily feces, from captive felids from 11 institutions were tested using PCR. Serum samples collected from all but 12 of these animals were tested for antibodies to type I and type II FCoV by indirect immunofluorescence. Twenty-four animals were positive using RT/nPCR for virus. Twenty-nine animals were seropositive to type I and/or type II FCoV. From serologic data, infection with a virus antigenically related to FCoV type I occurred most commonly. Serology did not correlate with virus shedding because 13 animals were seronegative to FCoV type I and II but positive using RT/nPCR for virus. Conversely, 20 animals were seropositive but negative using RT/nPCR for FCoV. Some of the populations in which virus was detected had experienced health problems, including feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), necrotizing colitis, and mild enteritis. In addition to its role in FIP, this virus may play a role in gastrointestinal diseases of infected animals. This study demonstrates that FCoV is a significant infectious agent of captive felids because over half of the animals tested were positive by viral genetic detection, serology, or both. Dependence upon one method for detection of infection is unreliable.  (+info)

Switching species tropism: an effective way to manipulate the feline coronavirus genome. (8/92)

Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV), a coronavirus, is the causative agent of an invariably lethal infection in cats. Like other coronaviruses, FIPV contains an extremely large positive-strand RNA genome of ca. 30 kb. We describe here the development and use of a reverse genetics strategy for FIPV based on targeted RNA recombination that is analogous to what has been described for the mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) (L. Kuo et al., J. Virol. 74:1393-1406, 2000). In this two-step process, we first constructed by targeted recombination a mutant of FIPV, designated mFIPV, in which the ectodomain of the spike glycoprotein was replaced by that of MHV. This switch allowed for the selection of the recombinant virus in murine cells: mFIPV grows to high titers in these cells but has lost the ability to grow in feline cells. In a second, reverse process, mFIPV was used as the recipient, and the reintroduction of the FIPV spike now allowed for selection of candidate recombinants by their regained ability to grow in feline cells. In this fashion, we reconstructed a wild-type recombinant virus (r-wtFIPV) and generated a directed mutant FIPV in which the initiation codon of the nonstructural gene 7b had been disrupted (FIPV Delta 7b). The r-wtFIPV was indistinguishable from its parental virus FIPV 79-1146 not only for its growth characteristics in tissue culture but also in cats, exhibiting a highly lethal phenotype. FIPV Delta 7b had lost the expression of its 7b gene but grew unimpaired in cell culture, confirming that the 7b glycoprotein is not required in vitro. We establish the second targeted RNA recombination system for coronaviruses and provide a powerful tool for the genetic engineering of the FIPV genome.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Feline infectious peritonitis viruses arise by mutation from endemic feline enteric coronaviruses. AU - Vennema, Harry. AU - Poland, Amy. AU - Foley, Janet E. AU - Pedersen, Niels C. PY - 1998/3/30. Y1 - 1998/3/30. N2 - Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) strains from six cats and three different geographic areas were compared genetically with feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) isolates obtained from cats inhabiting the same environments. Sequence comparisons were made from 1.2- to 8.9-kb segments on the 3 end of the genome. FECV/FIPV pairs from the same catteries or shelters were 97.3-99.5% related but were genetically distinct from FIPV and FECV strains obtained from cats living in geographically distinct environments. The high genetic similarity between FECVs and FIPVs from the same environment strongly suggested a common ancestry. Based on the presence of deletion mutations in the FIPVs and not in the FECVs, it was concluded that FIPVs evolved as mutants of FECVs. The ...
Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a highly fatal systemic disease in cats, caused by feline coronavirus (FCoV) infection. FCoV usually has little clinical significance; however, a mutation of...
Feline coronaviruses (FCoV) exist as 2 biotypes: feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) and feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV). FECV causes subclinical infections; FIPV causes feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), a systemic and fatal disease. It is thought that mutations in FECV enable infection of macrophages, causing FIP. However, the molecular basis for this biotype switch is unknown. We examined a furin cleavage site in the region between receptor-binding (S1) and fusion (S2) domains of the spike of serotype 1 FCoV. FECV sequences were compared with FIPV sequences. All FECVs had a conserved furin cleavage motif. For FIPV, there was a correlation with the disease and >1 substitution in the S1/S2 motif. Fluorogenic peptide assays confirmed that the substitutions modulate furin cleavage. We document a functionally relevant S1/S2 mutation that arises when FIP develops in a cat. These insights into FIP pathogenesis may be useful in development of diagnostic, prevention, and treatment measures
What Antibiotics Kill Covid 19 Coronavirus Drugs,Where to buy Cheap Custom N95 Face Masks Masks, Wholesale Custom N95 Face Masks Online 2020, We offer Custom N95 Face Masks Wholesale Masks Online for Sale CoronavirusIf Hongkongers Insist On Wearing A Mask At Least f Natural Type I Feline Coronavirus Infection Free. Feline Infectious Peritonitis. Abcd Guidelines On Prevention Feline Coronavirus Infection Is
Provided is a method for determining whether a feline is infected with pathogenic Feline Infectious Peritonitis Virus (FIPV) or Feline Enteric Infection Virus (FECV). The method involves determining t
What causes FIP?. FIP develops as a result of an adverse reaction to the feline enteric coronavirus. The feline enteric coronavirus is shed by infected animals in feces. An infected cat may shed some of the virus in feces, and when another cat comes along to investigate, the virus infects the new cat through the mouth and nose. When the cat is infected, the virus may be destroyed by the immune system or it may mutate, allowing it to take advantage of the hosts body and live undetected. This leads to the hosts body becoming infiltrated with the virus, causing pyogranulomas. Some cats infected by feline enteric coronavirus present with non-threatening flu like symptoms, and some develop FIP.. ...
What Is Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP)?. Feline coronavirus (FCoV) infection is very common in cats; around 40% of the domestic cat population has been FCoV infected, and this figure increases to 90% in multi-cat households.1-2 A study of owned cats in Sydney reported a seroprevalence of 34%.3 Natural infections with FCoV are often transient and asymptomatic or result in mild gastrointestinal disease. However, occasionally, FCoV infection results in the multisystemic disease of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP),4 the single most important infectious cause of death in young cats4. No cure for FIP exists and it is an extremely distressing disease to deal with, for both cat owners and veterinary surgeons.. What Causes FIP?. Viral factors are thought to be important, and a recent Dutch study5 has identified mutations in the FCoV spike protein that distinguish FIP-associated FCoVs from those not associated with FIP. By these and perhaps other mutations, the virus could acquire its macrophage ...
Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is one of the leading causes of death among young cats [1]. Since FIP is an immune-mediated viral disease, studies using immunological approaches are crucial for a better understanding of the illness, particularly by using clinical samples of FIP cases before further studies utilizing experimental infection in cats could be justified. Detection of FCoV antigen in affected tissues by immunohistochemistry remains the gold standard in the confirmation of FIP [2].. One of the limitations of this study is that definitive confirmation of FIP was not made due to the unavailability of post-mortem samples. Therefore, the cats were selected based on their FCoV antibody and antigen status. In addition, the selected FCoV-positive cats were grouped according to the presence of peritoneal effusions at the time of clinical evaluation. Although we could not confirm the status of FIP in these cats, this study provides a preliminary examination on the array of immune mediators ...
Introduction. Feline coronavirus (FCoV) is an important feline pathogen world-wide. The enteric form of infection is limited to the gastrointestinal tract, leading to asymptomatic infections, mild enteritis, or fatal infectious peritonitis in cats (Pedersen et. al., 1981). FCoV, an enveloped positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus (Lai et. al., 2007), is highly contagious among cats by the fecal-oral route. The virus is typically shed in feces by healthy recovered cats and can survive in the environment for up to 7 weeks (Hartmann, 2005). ...
The Cornell University Animal Health Diagnostic Center (AHDC) has seen a rise in the diagnosis of equine enteric coronavirus cases since initial outbreaks were investigated starting in 2010. The AHDC Veterinary Support Services veterinarians are attributing this increase in equine enteric coronavirus in our area of the Northeast to improved awareness of the disease and
Felin Infektiøs Peritonitis (FIP) er en dødelig og uhelbredelig bughindebetændelse, som rammer katte. Årsagen til sygdommen formodes at være en virus, som er en muteret version af Feline Enteric Coronavirus (FeCV), der ligesom aids er en muteret version af hiv. Der findes to typer af FIP: ...
FELINE INFECTIOUS PERITONITIS Navies 2011 Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP) is a progressive, almost always fatal, viral disease of domestic cats. It affects some exotic cats, with the cheetah being particularly susceptible. It does not affect non-feline species, such as dogs. Etiology or Cause      Field strains of feline coronavirus vary in their ability to induce FIP. Some isolates cause FIP (feline infectious peritonitis virus [FIPV]others cause more localized GI disease) Mutations from feline enteric coronavirus to FIPV occur. FIP is thought to result from a mutation of the virus within the body, combined with the response of the immune system, leading to inflammation in various organ systems. FIPV and canine coronavirus are very closely related antigenically and may have crossed between hosts. Feline coronaviruses are fairly stable in the environment and, once dry, can survive for 4-6 wk. They are enveloped viruses and are destroyed by most household disinfectants, ...
Feline coronavirus (FCoV) is endemic in feral cat populations and cat colonies, frequently preceding outbreaks of fatal feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). FCoV exhibits 2 biotypes: the pathogenic disease and a benign infection with feline enteric coronavirus (FECV). Uncertainty remains regarding whether genetically distinctive avirulent and virulent forms coexist or whether an avirulent form mutates in vivo, causing FIP. To resolve these alternative hypotheses, we isolated viral sequences from FCoV-infected clinically healthy and sick cats (8 FIP cases and 48 FECV-asymptomatic animals); 735 sequences from 4 gene segments were generated and subjected to phylogenetic analyses. Viral sequences from healthy cats were distinct from sick cats on the basis of genetic distances observed in the membrane and nonstructural protein 7b genes. These data demonstrate distinctive circulating virulent and avirulent strains in natural populations. In addition, 5 membrane protein amino acid residues with functional
Cell-mediated immunity is thought to play a decisive role in protecting cats against feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), a progressive and lethal coronavirus disease. In view of the potential of DNA vaccines to induce cell-mediated responses, their efficacy to induce protective immunity in cats was evaluated. The membrane (M) and nucleocapsid ... read more (N) proteins were chosen as antigens, because antibodies to the spike (S) protein of FIP virus (FIPV) are known to precipitate pathogenesis. However, vaccination by repeated injections of plasmids encoding these proteins did not protect kittens against challenge infection with FIPV. Also, a prime boost protocol failed to afford protection, with priming using plasmid DNA and boosting using recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing the same coronavirus proteins. Because of the role of IL-12 in initiating cell-mediated immunity, the effects of co-delivery of plasmids encoding the feline cytokine were studied. Again, IL-12 did not meet expectations ...
Feline infectious peritonitis is a fatal viral disease which is currently incurable by drugs. Also, there are no effective vaccines. Cyclosporin A (CsA) was recently shown in vitro to exert potent antiviral activities on several virus-host systems, including various coronaviruses. However, whether CsA has clinically relevant activity in vivo resistant to various coronaviruses, including the severe acute respiratory syndrome and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, remains unknown. Herein, the authors report that treatment with CsA caused a sustained reduction in pleural fluid volume and viral copy number in a cat diagnosed with effusive feline infectious peritonitis. ...
Feline infectious peritonitis is a fatal viral disease which is currently incurable by drugs. Also, there are no effective vaccines. Cyclosporin A (CsA) was recently shown in vitro to exert potent antiviral activities on several virus-host systems, including various coronaviruses. However, whether CsA has clinically relevant activity in vivo resistant to various coronaviruses, including the severe acute respiratory syndrome and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, remains unknown. Herein, the authors report that treatment with CsA caused a sustained reduction in pleural fluid volume and viral copy number in a cat diagnosed with effusive feline infectious peritonitis. ...
Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP) is a fatal disease in cats caused by a Coronavirus. During FIPv infection the T-cell population is depleted. This is seen in many other diseases, such as measles and AIDS. In these two diseases, the Dendritic Cell (DC) has been shown to play a role ... read more in T-cell depletion. This study endeavours to prove if such a mechanism exists in FIP. In order to investigate permissiveness of DCs for FIPv, a growth curve was produced. This growth curve showed prolonged viral reproduction to intermediate titres. As T-cell depletion during FIPv infection occurs at least partly through apoptosis, a TUNEL assay was used to evaluate this. FACS analysis of infected and non-infected co-cultures of DCs with Thymocytes revealed no difference in apoptosis levels. These data suggest that T-cell depletion during FIPv infection does not occur through apoptosis initiated by FIPv-infected DCs. show less ...
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ABSTRACT - Title: Association between clinical presentation, viral load and antibody titre in Feline Infectious Peritonitis - Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP) is a systemic disease, more common in young animals and cats from multi-cat households. The implicated agent is the Feline Coronavirus (FCoV), a positive sense single strand RNA enveloped virus. The S protein allows for the differentiation between the two virus serotypes. The FCoV is transmitted by faecal-oral route. Then the virus reaches the enterocytes where it replicates. The FCoV peculiar way to replicate facilitates the mutation which turns FCoV into its virulent form, the Virus of Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIPV). The only way to defeat the virus effectively is through the cellular immune response. The humoral response can even contribute to the disease pathogenesis. The leakage of plasma leads to abdominal, thoracic and/or pericardial effusion, which are typical features of the FIPs wet form. The effusions may result in ...
Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a fatal inflammatory disease caused by FIP virus an infection. mouse mAb 2C4-treated felines. of polybrene. in the dilution Fostamatinib disodium moderate filled with 1 of Actinomycin D (Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, U.S.A.) and pre-incubated at 37C for 3 hr. Diluted mouse mAb 2C4 Serially, chimeric mAb 2C4 or anti feline APN mAb (mAb R-G-4, being a control for mAb 2C4) was blended with 40 recombinant fTNF-alpha (R&D systems, Minneapolis, MN, U.S.A., 75% cytotoxic activity against WEHI-164 cells) or ascites of felines with FIP which were utilized as organic feline TNF-alpha examples (last focus of just one 1:8, 80% cytotoxic activity against WEHI-164 cells). The mix was incubated at 37C for 1 hr. Pre-incubated cells had been seeded within a level of 50 in the wells of the 96-well dish. Fifty microliters from the mixture was added into each well. After incubation at 37C for 24 hr, Fostamatinib disodium 10 of WST-8 alternative (WST-8 cell proliferation assay ...
FIP is the most misdiagnosed cat disease. Theres no FIP test. A series of tests must be done to confirm an FIP/Feline Infectious Peritonitis diagnosis.
Feline Infectious Peritonitis or FIP is a fatal viral disease that creates a lot of fear and confusion in shelters. Find out information on the causes, transmissions, symptoms, and treatments.
In the past, expression of a viral protein, the 7b protein, was postulated to occur only with virulent FCoV, and thus some authors have held that cats with antibodies to this protein were likely to have FIP. A presentation by Kennedy (Kennedy MA. Diagnostic methods for feline viral pathogens. Proc. 21st ACVIM Forum, Charlotte, NC, 2003, 733-735) stated that while cats with FIP are consistently antibody positive for this protein, it may also be present in healthy cats ...
Accurate and up to date information on FCoV, the cause of FIP, from Dr Diane Addie, lecturer and researcher in this field based at Glasgow University, UK. ...
The most commonly available antiviral drugs for treating FIP are either feline recombinant interferon omega (Virbagen Omega, Virbac) or human interferon. Since the action of interferon is species-specific, feline interferon is more efficacious than human interferon. An experimental drug called GS-441524 was used in a field trial of 31 cats. After 25 days, five cats had died, eight had been cured and subsequently relapsed, and 18 had been cured without any subsequent relapses. The eight who relapsed were treated again, some with higher doses. Of these eight, one died and seven were cured, meaning that 25 of the 31 cats were ultimately cured of FIP. Although the drug is not yet (as of 2019) commercially available in the United States, this study is considered very promising and may lead to commercially available medication for the treatment of FIP.[15] An experimental antiviral drug called GC 376 was used in a field trial of 20 cats: 7 cats went into remission, 13 cats responded initially but ...
I want to point out first and foremost that I am not a veterinarian, nor even a person who has training in animal science such as a veterinary technician. I am a graduate student of physical anthropology, and an ailurophile. My goal with these FAQs is to take information from the medical literature and convey the parts that are most useful to the average cat owner and translate them into general terms that are easy to understand. I attempted to keep the FAQ as untechnical as possible, but unfortunately with such a complex disease that becomes very difficult. I hope this prooves to be of some usefulness. Also keep in mind that this disease is one of the most controversial subjects in feline health care. This is not a definitive guide to FIP, but only an attempt to compile the most current information. Ideally the reader of this FAQ should use this as a starting point when discussing FIP with their veterinarian. Vets and breeders will hold a wide variety of opinions on this disease, some of which ...
OLIVEIRA, Fabiano Nunes de; RAFFI, Margarida Buss; SOUZA, Tatiana Mello de and BARROS, Claudio Severo Lombardo de. Feline infectious peritonitis: 13 cases. Cienc. Rural [online]. 2003, vol.33, n.5, pp.905-911. ISSN 1678-4596. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-84782003000500018.. In a survey carried out in tissue specimens from 638 necropsied cats, 13 cases (2.03%) of feline infectious peritonitis were found. Eight of those (61.53%) were of the effusive or wet form and five had the dry non-effusive form of the disease. Ages of affected cats varied from 2-months to 3 yeas. Twelve affected cats (92.30%) were purebreds, five of these cats (38.47%) came from households with more than one cat and three of them came from the same comercial cat raising facility. The duration of clinical courses were 7-45 days and clinical signs included loss of weight, anorexia, diarrhea, jaundice, vomiting, swollen lymph nodes, and neurological disturbances. Necropsy findings, in the wet form included excess of yellowish ...
Neurological and Ocular FIP cats require 7mg/kg MINIMUM, and can go as high as 10mg/kg for extreme ocular or neurological cases.. A dosing calculator can be found here.. It is important to note that the dosage should not be reduced during the course of treatment, regardless of how well the cat is responding. Conversely, if the cat is not responding to the starting dosage, it is safe to increase. It is also crucial to check the cats weight often, and adjust the daily dose accordingly.. The only known side effect of GS441 is skin lesions or burns, due to the acidity of the solution (injectable form). For this reason, it is recommended to always clean the cats skin after giving an injection. Many owners also opt to give oral CBD oil or Hemp oil 30-60 minutes before injecting, to help minimize the stress. Topical lidocaine (without aloe) can also be used to help numb the injection site, but should be cleaned off immediately after the injection.. Supplemental Care When Using GS441 to Cure ...
Dr. Elizabeth Berliner currently serves as the Director of Clinical Programs for Maddies® Shelter Medicine Program at Cornell University. She received her Bachelors in English Literature from Union College (Schenectady, NY), a Masters in English from Binghamton University and her DVM from Cornell University. She worked as a veterinarian both in private practice and in animal shelters in Baltimore, MD before returning to Cornell in January of 2010. Her recent projects include the launching of an official clinical rotation in shelter medicine for veterinary students, as well as creating other opportunities bridging veterinary student training with collaborative shelter and community programs. She also serves as a consultant and lead field veterinarian for the Humane Society Veterinary Medical Associations Rural Area Veterinary Services Program, which facilitates mobile spay/neuter and preventive medicine clinics in rural areas of the U.S. that are without access to routine veterinary ...
Serologically coronavirus free kittens were placed in 2 catteries with a history of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), each cattery representing 1 of the 2 different predominant clinical characteristics of FIP--effusive and granulomatous. The kitte
Clinical data from 488 cats (1979-2000) with histopathologically confirmed feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) and 620 comparable controls were evaluated retrospectively to assess the value of several diagnostic tests frequently used in the evaluation of cats with suspected FIP. Diagnostic utility of serum albumin to globulin ratio for the diagnosis of FIP was greater than of the utility of serum total protein and -/-globulin concentrations. Diagnostic utility of these variables was higher when performed on effusion. On effusion, positive and negative predictive values of Rivaltas test, a test that distinguishes between exudates and transudates (0.86 and 0.97), anti-coronavirus antibody detection (0.90 and 0.79), and immunofluorescence staining of coronavirus antigen in macrophages (1.00 and 0.57) were investigated. The positive and negative predictive values of presence of anti-coronavirus antibodies were 0.44 and 0.90, respectively, antibody concentrations (1:1,600) were 0.94 and 0.88, ...
Haijema et al., 2004: Haijema BJ, Volders H, Rottier PJ. Live, attenuated coronavirus vaccines through the directed deletion of group-specific genes provide protection against feline infectious peritonitis. Journal of virology. 2004; 78(8); 3863-3871. [PubMed: 15047802 ...
Furin cleavage assays of fluorogenic peptides. A) Synthetic fluorogenic peptides were generated with sequences matching consensus feline enteric coronavirus and
My friend's cat was recently diagnosed with FIP (feline infectious peritonitis). The Chinese (veterinarians) maintain this is a fatal disease. Can you help?
Yesterday we lost our 6-month-old kitten, Ozzie. We had lived with him for about 4 months.. He had developed ascites, fluid in his belly, about 3 weeks ago. After reading about the causes of this condition online, none of which are treatable, and not being absolutely certain it was not just fat (he was still eating like a horse), I decided to live in denial until he showed other signs of illness.. Those came about this week. Wednesday evening he had trouble jumping up on the sofa, and I vowed to take him into the vet the next day. Unfortunately, he was minimally responsive the next morning. I rushed him to the Animal ER where feline infectious peritonitis , an incurable condition, was diagnosed.. Within an hour he died via euthanasia while I stroked his head and whispered about what a good cat he was.. Between this event, a visiting professor, and my people patients, my time online to blog has been a bit limited.. Goodbye, Ozzie. We didnt have you long, but we loved you bunches.. ...
So, OK, Kitten is now back from the vet. I said yesterday that he didnt look to be in terribly bad shape to me, but by this morning I was a lot less convinced about that... His eyes have gotten quite goopy, and I heard him sneeze a few times, which did not seem like a good sign. And, sure enough, the poor little guy is sick. Just how sick is another question. Apparently he has distemper, which fortunately is not as bad as the disease of the same name in dogs. I now have antibiotics and eye ointment to give him, and, also fortunately, the antibiotic course he needs to take will finish up a couple of days before I leave town, so at least he should be healthy by then. Or... maybe hell be healthy by then. There is also a possibility that he has FIP (feline infectious peritonitis). The vet took an x-ray, but the results were very ambiguous. I have another appointment to take him back in in a week, by which point she thinks it should be obvious whether he has it or not just by feeling his abdomen. ...
We lost our dear little friend, Earl Grey yesterday after a brief, but fatal illness. He suddenly came down with FIP (Feline Infectious Peritonitis). We decided not to let him suffer, as the Doctor said that he could not last over two months, and there was no hope for a recovery. We are shocked and saddened by his passing, and are reminded of how fragile life is. Rest in Peace, pretty kitty ...
So, OK, Kitten is now back from the vet. I said yesterday that he didnt look to be in terribly bad shape to me, but by this morning I was a lot less convinced about that... His eyes have gotten quite goopy, and I heard him sneeze a few times, which did not seem like a good sign. And, sure enough, the poor little guy is sick. Just how sick is another question. Apparently he has distemper, which fortunately is not as bad as the disease of the same name in dogs. I now have antibiotics and eye ointment to give him, and, also fortunately, the antibiotic course he needs to take will finish up a couple of days before I leave town, so at least he should be healthy by then. Or... maybe hell be healthy by then. There is also a possibility that he has FIP (feline infectious peritonitis). The vet took an x-ray, but the results were very ambiguous. I have another appointment to take him back in in a week, by which point she thinks it should be obvious whether he has it or not just by feeling his abdomen. ...
Pig was euthanized at around 2 oclock this afternoon. Hed been sick for a couple of weeks and over the past couple of days deteriorated really quickly and really badly. While it broke my fucking heart into a million sharp little pieces it was also the only real choice that we had. It was very likely that he had Feline Infectious Peritonitis and would never really get better. He sat on our laps being touched and loved while the euthanasia kicked in. I miss him already and it feels now like that will never stop ...
US - The number of pig farm samples that are confirmed positive for porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) in the last week was 16, while no premises were confirmed with porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) or the dual infection (PEDV and PDCoV).
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Tse, L.V., Marcano, V.C., Huang. W., Pocwierz, M.S. and Whittaker, G.R. (2013). Plasmin-mediated activation of pandemic H1N1 influenza virus hemagglutinin independent of the viral neuraminidase. J. Virol. 87: 5161-5169 Licitra, B.N., Sams, K.L. Lee, D.W. and Whittaker G.R. (2014). Feline coronaviruses associated with feline infectious peritonitis have modifications to spike protein activation sites at two discrete positions. ArXiV.http://arxiv.org/abs/1412.4034. Costello, D.A., Whittaker, G.R. and Daniel, S. (2015).Variation of pH sensitivity, acid stability, and fusogenicity of three influenza H3 subtypes. J. Virol. 89(1):350-360.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25320308. Millet, J.K. and Whittaker, G.R. Host cell entry of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus following two-step, furin-mediated activation of spike protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci.:http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2014/10/02/1407087111.abstract Hamilton, B.S., Chung, C., Cyphers, S., Rinaldi, V.D., Marcano, V., and ...
The most common causes of liver failure in cats are hepatic lipidosis, lymphoma, feline infectious peritonitis and Cholangiohepatitis.
Ini ialah gambar operasi pemandulan 697 kucing yang dilakukan di fakulti vaterinar Universiti Florida minggu lalu. Kucing-kucing ini dirampas dari Haven Acres Cat Sanctuary setelah pihak jabatan haiwan menerima laporan terdapat kucing yang mati dan dan berpenyakit di santuari ini. Haven Acres Cat Sanctuary tidak mampu menjaga kucing yang diambil oleh mereka. Pemilik Haven Acres Cat Sanctuary juga tidak percaya dengan konsep pemandulan kucing dan akibatnya jumlah kucing di santuari menjadi terlalu banyak sehingga menggangu jiran tetangga. Kesemua kucing yang dirampas dimandulkan before they are allowed to be adopted. I dunno about you tapi gambar kucing-kucing ini dimandulkan secara pukal agak funny but also sad at the same time. Jangan bersedih ok cat lovers. Pemandulan ini dilakukkan kerana kebanyakkan kucing disini mengidap penyakit lukemia, jangkitan mulut dan feline infectious peritonitis. Lebih baik mereka dimandulkan dari pass the desease to their offsprings kan? Klik link berita penuh ...
US - The number of pig farm samples that were confirmed positive for porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) in the last week was 78. There has been one premises confirmed with having porcine delta coronavirus (PDCoV) and five with the dual infection (PEDV and PDCoV), in the 8 October 2015 weekly report.
ETA: The only problem I see with this advice is that while it would be nice to know if kitties have coronavirus/FCoV, it isnt treatable. If they have it, they have it and theres not much you can really do besides hope their immune system kicks it and it doesnt mutate into FIP before that. Not to mention the fact that testing for FCoV antibodies is much more invasive as it requires a blood sample. At least with the full PCR panel you can rule out all of those other ailments which are treatable and curable, and it only requires a fecal test, the sample for which is very easy to collect. You want this test especially if it is TF, as its the only test that will confirm it, and if it is TF you want to get a leg up on it NOW. Debbie (Eggman) can confirm this as her poor Dexter had Giardia, TF, AND Coronavirus, the vet treated the TF second which they struggled with for a long time, and in hindsight she suspects the hit to his immune system all that time from the TF was what ultimately caused him ...
Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP) is a progressive, systemic and frequently fatal disease of domestic and exotic cats caused by coronaviral infection.FIP is characterized by an insidious onset of persistent fever that is unresponsive to antibiotic treatment, inappetance, gradual weight loss and possibly abdominal enlargement. It is most common in young cats, up to 3 years of age, of either gender and of any breed ..... Read More Preventing Respiratory Infections in Cats: The number one way to prevent respiratory infections in cats is to properly vaccinate kittens and cats against these diseases. Keeping cats away from other cats whose vaccination history is unknown, and using quarantine measures when new cats enter a household, will also help to prevent feline respiratory illnesses.If a kitten has recently been adopted, and its vaccination history is unknown, the vaccination series for respiratory infections should begin as soon as possible. Vaccinations should ..... Read More Allergies in ...
Feline infectious peritonitis was diagnosed in this bilateral condition based on compatible protein electrophoresis and aqueous cytology. Severe iritis and keratic precipitates (arrows) are present. A large precipitate is present in the inferior anterior chamber. ...
On the model of E.coli - induced acute infectious peritonitis in rats previously depleted on mast cells of peritoneal cavity the replacing effects of various doses of exogenous histamine, serotonin and heparin and their complex on leukocytic reaction of inflammatory focus and blood were studied. In was shown that all of the used substances had a meaning in the mecha- nisms of modulating effect of mast cells on leukocytes. The analogous on direction to mast cells` ones effects on leukocytes were produced mostly by histamine and especially by the complex of substances ...
Buonavoglia, C.; Decaro, N.; Martella, V.; Elia, G.; Campolo, M.; Desario, C.; Castagnaro, M.; Tempesta, M., 2006: Canine coronavirus highly pathogenic for dogs
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Yes I feel the same concerning the blood testing it really stresses me out its not nice to see him having to go through that hes only 10months old. Me and my husband have been talking about the neutering a lot and feel he needs to be neutered thankfully hes very clean but we all know once they spray its hard if not impossible to stop it and we live in an area where there are lots of stray toms and females he is already starting to sense them so the neutering is the main problem if he was neutered I would not blood test him for fcov anymore unless he became unwell, the vets say they want to keep putting off the neutering due to the virus I feel they should have neutered him when his titre count was 160 which is very low and all his other blood results have been perfect I feel Im in a catch 22 situation because if I neuter him and he gets fip we will blame ourselves but I know its not good for him or us to leave him not neutered ...
The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) is the most endangered felid species in the world. Lynx populations have decreased dramatically in size and distribution in the last four decades, thus becoming increasingly vulnerable to catastrophic events such as epizooties. From 1989 to 2000, serum samples were obtained from 48 free-ranging lynx captured in the Doñana National Park (DNP, n = 31) and mountains of Sierra Morena (SM, n = 17) in southern Spain. Samples were tested for antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii, feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1), feline calicivirus (FCV), feline/canine parvovirus (FPV/CPV), feline coronavirus, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), feline leukaemia virus and canine distemper virus (CDV) and for FeLV p27 antigen, to document baseline exposure levels. Antibodies against T. gondii were detected in 44% of lynx, with a significantly greater prevalence in DNP (61%) than in SM (12%). In DNP, prevalence was significantly higher in adult (81%) than in juvenile and sub-adult (41%) ...
Ned F. Kuehn, DVM, Diplomate, ACVIM. Feline respiratory disease complex includes those illnesses typified by rhinitis, conjunctivitis, lacrimation, salivation, and oral ulcerations. The principal diseases, Feline Viral Rhinotracheitis (FVR) and Feline Calicivirus (FCV) infections, affect exotic as well as ~domestic species. Feline Pneurnonitis (Chlamydia psittaci) and Mycoplasmal infections ,appear to be of lesser importance. Feline infectious peritonitis and pleuritis typically causes a more generalized condition but may cause signs of mild upper respiratory tract infection. I FVR and calliciviruses are host-specific and pose no known human risk. Human conjunctivitis caused by the feline chlamydial agent has been reported.. Etiology: Probably 40-45% of feline upper respiratory infections are caused by FVR s , which is a herpesvirus; incidence of FCV is similar. Dual infections with these viruses are common. Other organisms such as Chlamydia psittaci, Mycoplasma spp, and reoviruses are believed ...
On the other hand, the health of outdoor cats is threatened by contagious diseases such as feline leukemia, feline immunodeficiency virus, feline infectious peritonitis and rabies.. Feline immunodeficiency virus, or feline AIDS, for example, is a fatal disease that is carried by up to 14 percent of the cat population. It is transmitted from cat to cat by blood and saliva. This happens primarily through biting so outdoor and male cats that fight with other cats are at greatest risk. Parasites such as fleas, ticks and worms most commonly attack outdoor cats. If you allow your cat to go in and out at will, he will carry these parasites back into your home. Outdoor cats are more likely to contract diseases such as toxoplasmosis, ringworm and roundworms, all of which are zoonotic meaning they can be transmitted to people.. Outdoor cats may be attacked by wildlife or free-roaming domestic animals. As unpleasant as it is to think about, they may succumb to traffic accidents, pet-theft, poison, ...
Please DO NOT vaccinate for FIV (Feline Immunodeficiency Virus - aka "feline AIDS"), FIP (Feline Infectious Peritonitis), bordatella, giardia, or chlamydia.. Keep in mind that if you do decide to vaccinate for FIV (a very ineffective and adjuvanted vaccine), your cat will now test positive since the FIV test cannot tell the difference between an infected cat and a vaccinated cat. FVRCP:. Most people are familiar with the abbreviation FVRCP which stands for Feline Viral Rhinotracheitis (herpes), Calici, Panleukopenia. FVRCP is a combination vaccine that includes 3 out of the 5 vaccines that will be discussed on this webpage.. This vaccine can either be modified live (NON-adjuvanted) or killed (adjuvanted). The route of delivery can be either injectable or intranasal.. Only use a modified live (NON-adjuvanted) - never a killed (adjuvanted) - FVRCP vaccine, with injectable (not intranasal) being the preferred route of administration in most, but not all, instances.. To clarify - all modified ...
Read "Determination of antibody concentration as the main parameter in a dengue virus antibody-dependent enhancement assay using FcγR-expressing BHK cells, Archives of Virology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Feline pneumonitis is caused by the organism Chlamydia psittaci. Signs of pneumonitis are similar to those of FVR and FCV.. Feline leukemia Virus ( FeLV ) - Feline Leukemia causes immunosuppression, major organ system degeneration and/or cancer. Signs of this disease are usually vague and include weight loss, decreased appetite, depression, vomiting and diarrhea. Cats can also get secondary infections because of the decreased immune system function. This virus is spread by casual contact between cats. This vaccination is recommended for cats that are outside unsupervised, cats that are in contact with outdoor cats and cats that live with FeLV positive cats.. Feline Infectious Peritonitis ( FIP ) - FIP can cause fluid congestion or aggressive organ destruction. The virus is spread in the feces and oronasal secretions. Unfortunately, this vaccination is not commonly recommended because it is not very effective.. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus ( FIV ) - Signs of FIV can be from direct viral effects ...
Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) occurs when non-neutralising antiviral proteins facilitate virus entry into host cells, leading to increased infectivity in the cells. Some cells do not have the usual receptors on their surfaces that viruses use to gain entry. The antiviral proteins (i.e., the antibodies) bind to antibody Fc receptors that some of these cells have in the plasma membrane. The viruses bind to the antigen binding site at the other end of the antibody. ADE is common in cells cultured in the laboratory, but rarely occurs in vivo except for dengue virus. This virus can use this mechanism to infect human macrophages, causing a normally mild viral infection to become life-threatening. The most widely known example of ADE occurs in the setting of infection with the dengue virus (DENV). DENV is a single-stranded positive-polarity RNA virus of the Flaviviridae family. It causes a disease of varying severity in humans, from dengue fever (DF), which is usually self-limited, to dengue ...
According the the CDC, between November 1, 2010, through February 9, 2011, 140 individuals infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella serotype I 4,,12
When it comes to choosing healthy cat food for your kitty, whats fact and whats fiction? We spoke with three experts to set the record straight.
When it comes to choosing healthy cat food for your kitty, whats fact and whats fiction? We spoke with three experts to set the record straight.
There are some very helpful habits that youll want to find yourself doing when you have a senior cat. Learn what they are to better enjoy your healthy cats senior years.
How informed are you about the furry felines odd nature? Read to discover or confirm your cat knowledge. Picture-heavy article for cat lovers!
Defend animals, staff and visitors from airborne bacteria, viruses and mold throughout your facility with the patented UV24 system. Overhead, out of sight, the patented UV24 system provides continuous ultraviolet protection against airborne pathogens, all safely hidden behind standard-sized fluorescent or LED ceiling lights. The fast, continuous UV24 air purification system works around the clock to provide fresh, clean air to breathe. UV24 combines an ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) chamber and air circulating fans with an overhead ceiling light to allow for 24/7 operation in occupied spaces. UV24 can treat a volume of air equivalent to a 10 x 10 x 8 room, four times per hour.. Studies demonstrate that UV-C can be a meaningful defense against healthcare acquired infections (HAIs) such as MRSA, C.diff, Staph, Ebola, Tuberculosis, along with veterinary-specific pathogens such as Microsporum canis, Canine Distemper virus, Canine Influenza (H2N7), Feline Infectious peritonitis, Feline ...
Two serotypes have been identified in infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), a member of the family Birnaviridae. A reverse genetics system was used for generation of chimeras in genome segment A of the two serotypes, in which the complete viral VP5 gene and 3′ noncoding region (NCR), or parts thereof, were exchanged. The engineered viruses were characterized in vitro and in vivo in comparison to serotype I and II IBDV. Our results show that IBDV chimeras exhibit a different phenotype in cell culture compared to the wild-type viruses. In in vitro-cultivated bursal-derived cells, chimeric viruses infected B lymphocytes, as does serotype I IBDV. Surprisingly, serotype II virus was also able to infect in vitro-cultivated bursal cells, but these were neither B lymphocytes nor macrophages. After infection of susceptible chickens all chimeras replicated in the bursa of Fabricius (BF), and three chimeric viruses caused mild depletion of bursal cells. In contrast, after infection of chickens with a chimeric
Redavid, L. A., Sharp, C. R., Mitchell, M. A. and Beckel, N. F. (2012), Plasma lactate measurements in healthy cats. Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care, 22: 580-587. doi: 10.1111/j.1476-4431.2012.00801.x ...
By Lawrence S. Sturman (auth.), V. ter Meulen, S. Siddell, H. Wege (eds.). This e-book is the results of a global symposium held on the Institute of Virology and Immunobiology of the-University of WUrzburg, Germany, in October 1980. The purpose of this symposium was once to supply a chance to check the information on coronavirus constitution and duplicate- tion in addition to to debate mechanisms of pathogenesis. For over a decade coronaviruses were famous as a big staff of viruses that are chargeable for quite a few ailments of medical significance in animals and guy. lately new and fascinating information at the molecular biology and pathogenesis of coronaviruses became to be had and this led us to arrange this assembly. The uniformity and variety during this virus staff used to be evaluated from a molecular standpoint and the replication of coronaviruses seems to be to contain features that could be particular for this virus staff. also, not like different confident strand RNA viruses it grew ...
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Equitech \ Non_sterile feline plasma with heparin, 500ml \ FPH-0500 for more molecular products just contact us
Zinc is among the most important minerals required for maintaining a healthy cat. It is also be lethal and cause toxicity in cats when absorbed in large quantities. More commonly referred to as zinc toxicity, it occurs when a cat ingests an exorbitant amount of zinc-containing materials
Royal Canin Senior Consult Stage 2 is a complete feed foradult cats over 7 years old.Key Benefits: Age support - A selection of nutrients which meets the...
DISCONTINUED BY MANUFACTURER OR DISCONTINUED PRODUCT. FOR YOUR INFORMATION PURPOSES, WE HAVE KEPT THIS ITEM PLACEMENT AS COURTESY TO OUR CUSTOMERSYou may...
Тест-набор Feline VacciCheck предназначен для определения титра антител в сыворотке крови кошек к панлейкопении, вирусный ринотрахеиту (герпес-вирус), кальцивирозу кошек. Основной целью данного набора является предоставление полезного инструмента для оценки иммунного статуса кошек касательного этих трех патогенов. Он поможет определить титр IgG как до, так и после вакцинации, а так же продолжительность иммунитета. Рассчитана от 1 до 12/120 определений (в зависимости от набора).. ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a virus (more specifically, a coronavirus) identified as the cause of an outbreak of respiratory illness first detected in Wuhan, China.
Coronavirus news - get all the breaking coronavirus news updates globally 24/7/365. See whats happening now with COVID-19 in the UK and globally. The #1 COVID-19 coronavirus news resource.
CORONAVIRUS has now infected more than 5,000 people in the UK, killed thousands around the world and infected a total of more than 200,000 patients. But how many people have recovered from coronavirus?
Detecting FIP could be challenging because many of the signs are common in numerous other illness. Furthermore, theres no easy diagnostic test for the condition.. A number of examinations could spot feline corona antibodies, however they cant inform what strains are included. A positive outcome on an ELISA, IFA, or a virus neutralization examination merely indicates the feline has had direct exposure to the coronavirus, yet not always a strain of the infection that causes FIP.. There is an immunoperoxidase examination that can locate the visibility of viral contaminated cells in the cells. But it should be complied with by a biopsy to review the damaged tissue.. Regular blood examinations, including a full blood count and also serum biochemistry account, could show elevated liver enzymes, anemia, and also abnormal blood healthy protein degrees, which are typical of cats with FIP.. Chest and stomach X-rays could show an irregular buildup of liquid.. Blood samples from pet cats with very high ...
Diagnosis and Treatment. Depending on the form of illness ("wet" or "dry"), FIP may be difficult to diagnose. Diagnosing the "wet" form can be fairly straightforward. Your veterinarian can remove a small sample of fluid from your cats abdomen or chest cavity and analyze the fluid for characteristics associated with FIP. Diagnosing the "dry" form can be more complicated. Blood testing can raise your veterinarians level of suspicion but cannot be used to reliably diagnose the disease in many cases. This is because specific blood tests that detect the FIP virus cannot reliably tell the difference between FIP and other similar viruses. Your veterinarian may recommend additional blood testing, such as a chemistry panel and complete blood cell count (CBC), to check for changes consistent with FIP. Diagnosis is sometimes based on an accumulation of supportive evidence rather than a single test.. No drug can eliminate the FIP virus, and no reliable treatment for FIP is available. Medications may ...
If your cat lives with feline kidney disease, there are many things you can do each day that will help your furry friend have a better quality of life.
As the coronavirus pandemic continues to shut down daily life across the globe, thousands of our readers across the nation have asked us questions about COVID-19.And were answering them.For basic facts about the virus - what it is, how it spreads and where its located - you can get caught up by reading our in-depth explainer here. Weve also debunked some viral coronavirus myths. But youre curious and continue to ask important
As the coronavirus pandemic continues to shut down daily life across the globe, thousands of our readers across the nation have asked us questions about COVID-19.And were answering them.For basic facts about the virus - what it is, how it spreads and where its located - you can get caught up by reading our in-depth explainer here. Weve also debunked some viral coronavirus myths. But youre curious and continue to ask important
Coronavirus is among the big family of viruses and they mainly affect the respiratory system. The name coronavirus is derived from corona Latin called...
Read more on what we know about COVID-19 coronavirus, including how contagious and dangerous it is, and how to prevent from becoming infected with coronavirus.
The latest general information on the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is available on Coronavirus.gov. For GPO specific COVID-19 resources, please visit our page.. ...
Bet your cat knows how to tell you when shes hungry. Most cats have very dramatic and prolonged meows that let their humans know when its time for dinner-and translation assistance is definitely not needed! Those demanding meows tell us exactly what our cats are thinking.. And it turns out that is precisely their point.. Here is the funny thing about those meows…theyre only meant for us. If you have more than one cat, pay attention to the way they interact. Communication is fairly complicated in the feline family, and your cats will talk to one another by using growls, trills, hisses, prrrrps, chirps and even yowls. But what you wont hear is one meowing to another.. Cats also communicate through scent-they head butt, rub against each other, and mark their homes with invisible scent: a feline "X marks the spot" so all other cats will know who lives there. All these unique signposts and signals make up feline language and are how cats talk with one another.. But sometime during those ...
A global study has found clear evidence that a new form of the coronavirus has spread from Europe to the US. The new mutation makes the virus more infectious but does not seem to make people any sicker, an international team of researchers reported Thursday.
Yen.com.gh News ☛ Efforts to eradicate coronavirus outbreak have suffered a major setback after doctors in China and Japan confirmed that patients who had recovered from the epidermic tested positive weeks later.
Stay tuned as Patient Power provides the latest news on the coronavirus outbreak with updates from renowned doctors, researchers and experts to help keep cancer patients and their loved ones informed and safe.
ProMach Coronavirus (COVID-19) Update - we remain committed to helping our customers keep their packaging lines operating as efficiently as possible while focusing on the safety and protection of everyone.
One of the big (and so far unanswered) questions about the coronavirus epidemic is what kind of immunity people have after becoming infected. This is important
Were starting to get a clearer picture of how the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus works when it infects the body, and there are some surprises emerging. This new paper
Learn about Coronavirus disease COVID19, the pandemic causing havoc around the world, its signs, causes, transmission, diagnosis, and treatment options.
With ExpertFile, get access to Top Experts in COVID-10 (Coronavirus) for media, event, professional, business inquiries and more - Free to Connect.
If you want to play your part in helping scientists find a coronavirus cure, you can now donate some of your unused Mac processing power ...
... If youre asking the question, youll need to know there are several components to developing a company security plan, which will ensure your organization is prepared.
Long term coronavirus symptoms: Heres everything we know about the long term impacts of COVID-19 on recovered patients, including on the heart.
This article looks at the presentation, investigation and management of COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) in the paediatric population.
This guide on coronavirus symptoms, underpinned with advice from leading health experts, is designed to protect you and your family
Transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV) occurs in pigs resulting in vomiting, diarrhea, and dehydration.[88] It is ... Many of the same agents cause gastroenteritis in cats and dogs as in humans. The most common organisms are Campylobacter, ... Weese, JS (March 2011). "Bacterial enteritis in dogs and cats: diagnosis, therapy, and zoonotic potential". Veterinary Clinics ...
All the cases of SARS associated with the outbreak appeared to be part of the bat branch of the coronavirus phylogeny. Asian ... Qiu Quanlin (2006). Scientists prove SARS-civet cat link. China Daily, 2006-11-23 Caldwell, E. (2008). Evolutionary History of ... Isolation and characterization of viruses related to the SARS coronavirus from animals in southern China. Science 302 (5643): ... Kong and the Guangzhou Centre for Disease Control and Prevention established a direct genetic link between the SARS coronavirus ...
This systemic syndrome has been compared to Feline infectious peritonitis in cats. Aleutian disease virus (ADV) is a parvovirus ... The coronavirus which causes ECE has a counterpart strain that has more systemic effects with a higher mortality rate. ... Similar to domestic cats, ferrets may also be affected by hairballs, or dental problems. Adrenal disease, a growth of the ... Hairballs can occur in ferrets, but are not readily expelled by vomiting like the way cats deal with them. One or more ...
They are the cause of a wide range of diseases in cats, dog, pigs, rodents, cattle and humans. Transmission is by the faecal- ... Coronaviruses are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense RNA genome and with a nucleocapsid of helical symmetry. They infect ... diarrhea and immunosuppression but cerebellar hypoplasia is only seen in cats that were infected in the womb or at less than ...
"The molecular genetics of feline coronaviruses: comparative sequence analysis of the ORF7a/7b transcription unit of different ... Alphacoronavirus 1 Human coronavirus 229E Human coronavirus NL63 Miniopterus bat coronavirus 1 Miniopterus bat coronavirus HKU8 ... Betacoronavirus 1 Human coronavirus HKU1 Murine coronavirus Pipistrellus bat coronavirus HKU5 Rousettus bat coronavirus HKU9 ... Bulbul coronavirus HKU11 Munia coronavirus HKU13 Thrush coronavirus HKU12 Genus: Gammacoronavirus Avian coronavirus Beluga ...
... coronavirus, feline MeSH B04.820.504.540.150.210 --- coronavirus 229e, human MeSH B04.820.504.540.150.220 --- coronavirus oc43 ... coronavirus, canine MeSH B04.909.777.500.540.150.190 --- coronavirus, feline MeSH B04.909.777.500.540.150.210 --- coronavirus ... coronavirus MeSH B04.820.504.540.150.150 --- coronavirus, bovine MeSH B04.820.504.540.150.160 --- coronavirus, canine MeSH ... feline MeSH B04.820.650.589.530.400 --- immunodeficiency virus, feline MeSH B04.820.650.589.600 --- lentiviruses, ovine-caprine ...
... inactivated feline coronavirus QI07AH06 Live canine parainfluenza virus + inactivated feline coronavirus QI07AI01 Live canine ... canine parainfluenza virus QI07AD11 Canine coronavirus QI07AD12 Canine coronavirus + canine parvovirus QI07AD13 Canine parapox ... inactivated canine coronavirus QI07AH05 Live canine distemper virus + live canine adenovirus + live canine parvovirus + live ... inactivated canine coronavirus Empty group QI07AL01 Rabies virus + leptospira QI07AL02 Rabies virus + canine parvovirus + ...
Feline coronavirus , Canine coronavirus , Human coronavirus 229E, Human coronavirus NL63, Miniopterus bat coronavirus 1, ... Rhinolophus bat coronavirus HKU2 and Scotophilus bat coronavirus 512. Transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus Coronavirus ... This genus contains what were previously considered phylogroup 1 coronaviruses. Both the alpha- and beta-coronavirus lineages ... "Isolation and characterization of a novel Betacoronavirus subgroup A coronavirus, rabbit coronavirus HKU14, from domestic ...
... coronavirus infections MeSH C02.782.600.550.200.325 --- enteritis, transmissible, of turkeys MeSH C02.782.600.550.200.360 --- ... feline infectious peritonitis MeSH C02.782.600.550.200.400 --- gastroenteritis, transmissible, of swine MeSH C02.782.600.550. ... feline acquired immunodeficiency syndrome MeSH C02.782.815.616.400 --- hiv infections MeSH C02.782.815.616.400.040 --- acquired ... feline panleukopenia MeSH C02.256.721.500 --- leukoencephalopathy, progressive multifocal MeSH C02.256.743.175 --- cowpox MeSH ...
"Coronaviruses". pathmicro.med.sc.edu. Archived from the original on 24 May 2005. Retrieved 8 March 2018.. ... "WHO: More evidence of civet cat-SARs link". CNN. January 17, 2004. Archived from the original on December 1, 2004. Retrieved ... Coronaviruses similar to SARS have been found in bats in China, suggesting they may be their natural reservoir.[19] However ... The SARS coronavirus is novel, they say, but this only implies it has mutated or was previously undiscovered, not that it is ...
Feline coronavirus (FCoV) causes mild enteritis in cats as well as severe Feline infectious peritonitis (other variants of the ... Feline Coronavirus: two forms, Feline enteric coronavirus is a pathogen of minor clinical significance, but spontaneous ... Human coronavirus 229E Human coronavirus OC43 SARS-CoV Human Coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63, New Haven coronavirus) Human ... Bovine coronavirus and human coronavirus OC43 diverged in 1899. Bovine coronavirus diverged from the equine coronavirus species ...
... incurable disease caused by Feline Infectious Peritonitis Virus (FIPV), which is a mutation of Feline Enteric Coronavirus (FECV ... Feline viral rhinotracheitis (FVR) is an upper respiratory infection of cats, also known as feline influenza, caused by feline ... Feline calicivirus (FCV), in addition to FHV-1, is the other common viral cause of respiratory infection in cats. Feline ... Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP) ASPCA: Pet Care: Cat Care: Feline Infectious Peritonitis "What should the revaccination ( ...
... is typically shed in feces by healthy cats and transmitted by the fecal-oral route to other cats. In ... "Feline Coronavirus Type II Strains 79-1683 and 79-1146 Originate from a Double Recombination between Feline Coronavirus Type I ... concentration in non-symptomatic cats with feline coronavirus (FCoV) infection". Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery. 9 (4): ... Feline coronavirus (FCoV) is a positive-stranded RNA virus that is infectious to cats worldwide. This virus is part of the ...
Virus was also later found in raccoon dogs (Nyctereuteus sp.), ferret badgers (Melogale spp.), and domestic cats. In 2005, two ... SARS-Coronavirus follows the replication strategy typical of the Coronavirus genus. The morphology of the SARS coronavirus is ... The SARS coronavirus is a positive and single stranded RNA virus belonging to a family of enveloped coronaviruses. Its genome ... The sequence of the SARS coronavirus has since been confirmed by other independent groups. The SARS coronavirus is one of ...
... and Coronavirus Website Feline Infectious Peritonitis from vetinfo.com Research on Feline ... Addie: FIP and Coronavirus. 2013. ISBN 978-1480208971 Addie DD, le Poder S, Burr P, et al. Utility of feline coronavirus ... J Feline Med Surg 2017; 19: 344-350. Longstaff L, Porter E, Crossley VJ, et al. Feline coronavirus quantitative reverse ... Feline vaccination Feline leukemia virus Addie D, Belák S, Boucraut-Baralon C, et al. Feline infectious peritonitis. ABCD ...
Other coronaviruses belonging to Alphacoronavirus 1 species include Feline coronavirus, Canine coronavirus and Feline ... Coronaviruses also infect the respiratory tract, and they can be used to target antigens to that area and generate some immune ... Coronaviruses enter the host by first attaching to the host cell using the spike glycoprotein. The S protein interacts with the ... The same cell receptor is also a point of contact for Human Coronaviruses. A domain in the S spike protein is recognized by ...
Feline acne Feline asthma Feline cognitive dysfunction Feline coronavirus Feline cystitis Feline cutaneous asthenia Feline ... Aspergilloisis Avian influenza in cats Bone cancer in cats and dogs Bladder cancer in cats and dogs Cancer in cats Cat flu, an ... distemper Feline foamy virus Feline hepatic lipidosis Feline hyperaldosteronism Feline hyperesthesia syndrome Feline ... Mycobacterium lepraemurium Feline leptosprosis Feline leukemia virus Feline lower urinary tract disease Feline lymphoma Feline ...
"Characterization of determinants involved in the feline infectious peritonitis virus receptor function of feline aminopeptidase ... Human aminopeptidase N is a receptor for one strain of human coronavirus that is an important cause of upper respiratory tract ... Kolb AF, Maile J, Heister A, Siddell SG (October 1996). "Characterization of functional domains in the human coronavirus HCV ... Kolb AF, Hegyi A, Siddell SG (November 1997). "Identification of residues critical for the human coronavirus 229E receptor ...
... which is a mutation of Feline Enteric Coronavirus (FECV/FeCoV). H5N1. See: Global spread of H5N1#Felidae (cats) Ringworm ... Feline viral rhinotracheitis (FVR) is an upper respiratory infection of cats caused by feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1). Feline ... Epilepsy in cats is rare likely because there is no hereditary component to epilepsy in cats. Feline asthma Flat-chested kitten ... Zoonotic Disease: What Can I Catch From My Cat? Vegetarian dogs and cats: Kibble doesn't cut it anymore Nutrition for Cats ...
... of the cats testing positive. Feline coronavirus was the next most common infection, found in 18.3% of the cats, although they ... A feral cat advocacy organization's explanation of feral cats Stray Cat Alliance Feral cat control in the UK Study of the feral ... and unowned cats who rely on humans as semi-feral or stray. Farm cats (also called barn cats) are cats that live on ... "History of domestic cats and cat breeds". In Pedersen, Niels C. Feline Husbandry: Diseases and Management in the Multiple Cat ...
SARS is caused by a type of coronavirus, which can cause mild to moderate upper respiratory illness, such as the common cold. ... Toxoplasmosis - A zoonotic disease spread from cat feces, undercooked meat and fresh unwashed vegetables. Lists of diseases - A ...
... parainfluenza viruses Human rhinovirus Measles MERS coronavirus Human respiratory syncytial virus Rubella SARS coronavirus ... Anthrax Brucellosis Cat scratch fever Legionellosis Leptospirosis Listeriosis Lyme disease Lymphogranuloma venereum Mastitis ...
"Coronavirus: Belgian cat infected by owner". Brusselstimes.com. 27 March 2020. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 12 April 2020.. ... "Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19): The epidemic and the ... "Q&A on coronaviruses". World Health Organization (WHO). മൂലതാളിൽ നിന്നും 20 January 2020-ന് ആർക്കൈവ് ചെയ്തത്. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 27 ... "Q&A on coronaviruses". World Health Organization (WHO). 11 February 2020. മൂലതാളിൽ നിന്നും 20 January 2020-ന് ആർക്കൈവ് ചെയ്തത് ...
severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) bats, pangolins, felines, minks respiratory transmission 2019 ... Cat-scratch disease Bartonella henselae cats bites or scratches from infected cats ... Cat-scratch disease is caused by Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana from fleas which are endemic in cats. Toxocariasis ... Further information: Feline zoonosis. Pets can transmit a number of diseases. Dogs and cats are routinely vaccinated against ...
Osterhaus played an important role in the identification of the SARS coronavirus. In February 2004, his team found that ... He received his PhD degree in 1978 at the same university for a dissertation entitled "Feline infectious peritonitis: ...
... coronavirus, notavirus, etc.) supergroup of RNA viruses. The mechanism has been best studied for the enteroviruses (which ... "Structures of the Compact Helical Core Domains of Feline Calicivirus and Murine Norovirus VPg Proteins". J. Virol. 87 (10): ...
... or Feline Enteric Infection Virus (FECV). The method involves determining t ... Provided is a method for determining whether a feline is infected with pathogenic Feline Infectious Peritonitis Virus (FIPV) ... 1. A method for determining whether a feline is infected with pathogenic Feline Infectious Peritonitis Virus (FIPV) or Feline ... A kit for determining whether a feline is infected with pathogenic Feline Infectious Peritonitis Virus (FIPV) or Feline Enteric ...
Learn the transmission, symptoms and treatment of feline coronavirus and FIP in cats. ... is a big cause of infectious death in young cats. ... Feline Coronavirus and FIP in Cats. Note: If you are looking ... Most cats in catteries and rescues are infected with feline Coronavirus.. *Separate new litters of kittens and any cats that ... Remember older cats are more resistant to a Coronavirus infection than a new kitten. Bringing in an older cat has less risk and ...
The Chinese city of Shenzhen has banned the eating of dogs and cats as part of a wider clampdown on the wildlife trade since ... Scientists suspect the coronavirus passed to humans from animals. Some of the earliest infections were found in people who had ... "Dogs and cats as pets have established a much closer relationship with humans than all other animals, and banning the ... the eating of dogs and cats as part of a wider clampdown on the wildlife trade since the emergence of the new coronavirus. ...
This disease is comparatively high in multi-cat households as compared to those with a single cat. Learn more about the causes ... is a viral disease in cats which carries a high mortality due to its characteristic aggressiveness and nonresponsiveness to ... Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP) in Cats. Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a viral disease in cats which carries a ... it cannot distinguish the type of coronavirus, or even whether it is the cause of your cats condition, only that your cat has ...
Feline coronavirus is typically shed in feces by healthy cats and transmitted by the fecal-oral route to other cats. In ... "Feline Coronavirus Type II Strains 79-1683 and 79-1146 Originate from a Double Recombination between Feline Coronavirus Type I ... concentration in non-symptomatic cats with feline coronavirus (FCoV) infection". Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery. 9 (4): ... Feline coronavirus (FCoV) is a positive-stranded RNA virus that is infectious to cats worldwide. This virus is part of the ...
... The role of antibody in the pathogenesis of FIP is complex. Local antibody in the gut ...
The Chinese city of Shenzhen has banned the eating of dogs and cats as part of a wider clampdown on the wildlife trade since ... China coronavirus: Authorities in the southern Chinese technology hub said the ban on eating dogs and cats would come into ... Track Coronavirus pandemic in India and get the latest COVID-19 news from around the world on ndtv.com/coronavirus ... Chinese city of ShenzhenDogs and catseating of dogs and cats ... "Dogs and cats as pets have established a much closer ...
Last week, another feline turned out to have the virus in Belgium. ... A pet cat has tested positive for the dreaded Covid-19 coronavirus in Hong Kong, after apparently contracting the disease from ... Cat-astrophe in the making? ANOTHER feline tests positive for coronavirus, this time in Hong Kong 31 Mar, 2020 21:10 ... Cat contracts coronavirus FROM sick owner in new case of human-to-animal transition As of Tuesday, 27 dogs and 15 cats had been ...
"Glial response in the central nervous system of cats with feline infectious peritonitis," Journal of Feline Medicine and ... A. S. Hora, P. O. Tonietti, S. A. Taniwaki, K. M. Asano, P. Maiorka, L. J. Richtzenhain, and P. E. Brandão, "Feline Coronavirus ... Intrahost Diversity of Feline Coronavirus: A Consensus between the Circulating Virulent/Avirulent Strains and the Internal ... 2Coronavirus Research Group, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of São Paulo, Avenida Professor Dr. Orlando Marques de ...
What is feline enteric coronavirus (FECV)? Meaning of feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) as a legal term. What does feline ... Definition of feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... feline. (redirected from feline enteric coronavirus (FECV)). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia. See: ... Feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) legal definition of feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) https://legal-dictionary. ...
With at least 11 different pharmaceutical and vaccine companies now working on new vaccines for the Wuhan coronavirus (COVID-19 ... More news about the Big Pharma fat cats who are making out like bandits from the plandemic is available at Pandemic.news. ... badhealth, badmedicine, badscience, Big Pharma, billions, biotech, coronavirus, covid-19, Dangerous Medicine, deception, ... With at least 11 different pharmaceutical and vaccine companies now working on new vaccines for the Wuhan coronavirus (COVID-19 ...
Cats can catch coronavirus, study finds, prompting WHO investigation. *. U.S. approves Google request to use segment of U.S.- ... Cats can catch coronavirus, study finds, prompting WHO investigation. Posted on April 9, 2020. By Saumya Joseph ... Reuters) - Cats can become infected with the new coronavirus but dogs appear not to be vulnerable, according to a study ... They also found cats can infect each other via respiratory droplets. Infected cats had virus in the mouth, nose and small ...
Feline coronaviruses occur as 2 pathotypes: nonvirulent feline enteric coronaviruses (FECVs), which replicate in intestinal ... severe acute respiratory syndrome and feline coronaviruses, respectively, are the most recognized examples. ... Coronaviruses are well known for their potential to change their host or tissue tropism, resulting in unpredictable new ... epithelium cells, and lethal feline infectious peritonitis viruses (FIPVs), which replicate in macrophages. Evidence indicates ...
Shenzhen has banned consumption of dogs and cats as part of a clampdown on the wildlife trade since the emergence of the novel ... Cats can spread coronavirus to other cats: Study. A team of Chinese researchers has revealed that cats can pass coronavirus to ... VIDEO: Even dogs and cats are wearing face masks in China over coronavirus fears. Fearing that their pets could contract the ... Scientists suspect the coronavirus passed to humans from animals.. Some of the earliest infections were found in people who had ...
... feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) and feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV). FECV causes subclinical infections; FIPV ... We document a functionally relevant S1/S2 mutation that arises when FIP develops in a cat. These insights into FIP pathogenesis ... causes feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), a systemic and fatal disease. It is thought that mutations in FECV enable infection ... may be useful in development of diagnostic, prevention, and treatment measures against coronaviruses. ...
The causative agent was found to belong to the coronaviruses [1]. Between 5 and 12 % of all cats seropositive for feline ... feline coronaviruses. In contrast, type 2 viruses are known to be the product of recombination between canine and feline ... while few cats hardly every shed, the majority of cats shed low to intermediate amounts and few individual cats have very large ... Feline infectious peritonitis viruses arise by mutation from endemic feline enteric coronaviruses. Virology 1998, 243(1), 150- ...
Dont abandon us, we dont transmit coronavirus, say Cairo dogs and cats. Posted on May 27, 2020. By Nancy Lapid ... We dont spread the coronavirus.. "We started this campaign after noticing that there were many people leaving dogs and cats ... Dont abandon us, we dont transmit coronavirus, say Cairo dogs and cats ... Poosey, a 3-year-old long-haired cat, and Snowy, a white Griffon dog, took turns posing with a sign saying: "I love you. Please ...
... ... The coronavirus spike protein is a critical determinant of cell tropism and pathogenicity. It is expressed on the viral surface ... into the genetic and biochemical properties of spike that influence the in vivo pathogenesis of feline and canine coronaviruses ... mutations in a key viral activation site that correlate with the development of systemic disease after feline coronavirus ...
Serologically coronavirus free kittens were placed in 2 catteries with a history of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), each ... Cats. Coronavirus, Feline / immunology*. Feline Infectious Peritonitis / immunology, mortality*. Female. Male. Morbidity. ... Morbidity, mortality and coronavirus antigen in previously coronavirus free kittens placed in two catteries with feline ... Serologically coronavirus free kittens were placed in 2 catteries with a history of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), each ...
Feline coronaviruses (FCoVs) occur as 2 pathotypes, feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) and feline enteric coronavirus ( ... A) Phylogenetic relationships of feline coronaviruses (FCoVs) detected in feces of healthy cats and in organs/ascites of cats ... A) Phylogenetic relationships of feline coronaviruses (FCoVs) detected in feces of healthy cats and in organs/ascites of cats ... Feline infectious peritonitis viruses arise by mutation from endemic feline enteric coronaviruses. Virology. 1998;243:150-7. ...
... the disease caused by the new coronavirus, may have first infected humans via transmission at an animal market in Wuhan, China ... A tiger at the Bronx Zoo tested positive for the new coronavirus, a first that experts said underscores how much remains ... Coronavirus sickened a tiger at the Bronx Zoo. Does that mean cats are at risk?. Ryan W. MillerUSA TODAY Tuesday. Apr 7, 2020 ... ACE-2 receptors are similar in felines and humans, Terio said, but there are differences. And its not the same among all cats. ...
Chinese city of Shenzhen to ban eating cats and dogs as part of moves to stop spread of coronavirus Well if the above passes ... Chinese City Iintroduced a Draft to Ban Eating Cats and Dogs to stop Spread of Coronavirus! page: 1 ... I love dogs and cats, but logically there is no difference between eating dogs and cats and eating pigs and cows. I dont see ... Eating Cats and Dogs This is where the PETA people need to make an inroad and march into China. Shenzhen has introduced a draft ...
... is a highly fatal systemic disease in cats, caused by feline coronavirus (FCoV) infection. FCoV usually has little clinical ... Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a highly fatal systemic disease in cats, caused by feline coronavirus (FCoV) infection. ... The detection of feline coronaviruses in blood samples from cats by mRNA RT-PCR. J Feline Med Surg 9:369-372CrossRefPubMed ... Evaluation of feline coronavirus viraemia in clinically healthy and ill cats with feline infectious peritonitis. J Anim Vet Adv ...
Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a disease process initiated in some cats by the effects of a corona virus (FCoV). Still ... Prognostic factors in cats with HCM. *Ureteral Papilla Implantation in Cats Undergoing Renal Transplantation. *Storage lesion ... Diagnostic methods for feline viral pathogens. Proc. 21st ACVIM Forum, Charlotte, NC, 2003, 733-735) stated that while cats ... High antibody titers are frequently found in asymptomatic cats, and most of those cats will never develop clinical FIP. In ...
  • 9. The method of claim 1, further comprising identifying the feline as not infected with FIPV or the FECV based on the determining of an absence of the SEQ ID NO:8 and an absence of the mutation of the SEQ ID NO:8. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Some cats are resistant to the virus and can avoid infection or even becoming carriers, while others may become FECV carriers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overcrowding increases the risk of mutation and conversion from FECV to FIPV, which constitutes a major risk factor for the development of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • FECV is common in cats, causing mild transient enteritis in kittens, but is asymptomatic in adult cats. (cdc.gov)
  • The genomes from individual live cats were from 15 FIPV- and 5 FECV-infected animals. (cdc.gov)
  • However, accumulating evidence supports the mutation hypothesis, which proposes that FIPV evolves from FECV by mutation in individually infected cats ( 7 - 12 ). (cdc.gov)
  • However, FIPV and FECV are not necessarily distinguished with certainty, and the reliability of RT-PCR for FIP diagnosis depends largely on the test specimens as well as rearing environment of the affected cat. (springer.com)
  • Normally cats have a resistant system to avoid this virus, but those who have a low immune system or newborn kittens are at high risk of getting an FECV. (petsnurturing.com)
  • The highest incidence is found in kittens three months to three years of age, with incidence decreasing sharply after cats reach three years of age, when the immune system is stronger. (petmd.com)
  • When 4 kittens (6 cats in total) are born into this house, the risk increases exponentially from 2 to 30 (62−6). (wikipedia.org)
  • such as younger kittens, old cats, immunosuppression due to viral-FIV (Feline immunodeficiency virus) and/or FeLV Feline leukemia virus and stress, including the stress of separation and adoption. (wikipedia.org)
  • Morbidity, mortality and coronavirus antigen in previously coronavirus free kittens placed in two catteries with feline infectious peritonitis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Serologically coronavirus free kittens were placed in 2 catteries with a history of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), each cattery representing 1 of the 2 different predominant clinical characteristics of FIP--effusive and granulomatous. (biomedsearch.com)
  • However, cats with weak immune systems are most likely to develop the disease, including kittens, cats already infected with feline leukemia virus (FeLV), and geriatric cats. (snapcats.org)
  • The most common transmission of feline coronavirus occurs when infected female cats pass along the virus to their kittens, usually when the kittens are between five and eight weeks of age. (snapcats.org)
  • Caracal kittens are young animals of the species Caracal, a kind of wild cat that lives in Africa and southwest Asia. (reference.com)
  • Kittens are more likely to be carriers than older cats. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • A study of British cat owners, for example, found that 84 percent of the 715 people surveyed thought cats couldn't get pregnant before the age of 6 months, which isn't true - kittens can actually get pregnant as early as 3 to 4 months of age. (livescience.com)
  • To help prevent unplanned litters, cat owners should get their kittens spayed or neutered at 4 months of age, Levy said. (livescience.com)
  • GODFREY, Ill. - A woman in Illinois faces animal cruelty charges after admitting to killing a cat and four kittens because her grandchildren would not clean their rooms, the Madison County Sheriff's Office told KTVI . (wgntv.com)
  • The deputy asked the child what happened to the cat, at which point the child's grandmother, 71-year-old Josephine Bell, said she killed the cat and four kittens. (wgntv.com)
  • She told the deputy she didn't feel like she should have to take care of the cat and kittens, so she killed them all with a hammer. (wgntv.com)
  • The virus is shed in feces and cats become infected by ingesting or inhaling the virus, usually by sharing cat litter trays, or by the use of contaminated litter scoops or brushes transmitting infected microscopic cat litter particles to uninfected kittens and cats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Non-effusive FIP diagnosis should be considered when the following criteria are met: History: the cat is young (under 2 years old) and purebred: over 70% of cases of FIP are in pedigree kittens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some animal rescue groups provide care for feral cats by implementing trap-neuter-return programs, feeding the cats, socializing and adopting out young kittens, and providing healthcare. (wikipedia.org)
  • Note: If you are looking for information regarding COVID-19 in pets, please check out our blog post Coronavirus in Humans vs. Dogs and Cats written by Dr. Greer, DVM. (revivalanimal.com)
  • Coronavirus is spread through litter pans, grooming, toys and humans moving from area to area. (revivalanimal.com)
  • Scientists suspect the coronavirus passed to humans from animals. (reuters.com)
  • Dogs and cats as pets have established a much closer relationship with humans than all other animals, and banning the consumption of dogs and cats and other pets is a common practice in developed countries and in Hong Kong and Taiwan," the city government said in an order posted on Wednesday. (reuters.com)
  • Reuters) - Cats can become infected with the new coronavirus but dogs appear not to be vulnerable, according to a study published on Wednesday, prompting the WHO to say it will take a closer look at transmission of the virus between humans and pets. (metro.us)
  • Surveillance for SARS-CoV-2 in cats should be considered as an adjunct to elimination of COVID-19 in humans," the authors wrote. (metro.us)
  • It's both interesting and not terribly surprising in the sense that with the original SARS epidemic, civet cats were implicated as one of the vectors that may have transmitted virus to humans," said Daniel Kuritzkes, head of infectious diseases at Boston's Brigham and Women's Hospital. (metro.us)
  • Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), which emerged suddenly in 2002 and caused severe acute respiratory disease in humans, is the most notorious coronavirus. (cdc.gov)
  • Evidence suggests that COVID-19, the disease caused by the new coronavirus, may have first infected humans via transmission at an animal market in Wuhan, China. (telegram.com)
  • Leyi Wang, a veterinary virologist at the University of Illinois who studies coronaviruses in animals and received the test sample, said genetic tests showed the virus in the cat matched more than 99% to the virus in humans. (telegram.com)
  • ACE-2 receptors are similar in felines and humans, Terio said, but there are differences. (telegram.com)
  • Dear Vet, If a cat is a corona virus carrier but not affected with FIP, can the carrier cat transmit the corona virus to humans? (petmd.com)
  • A. Cat corona virus cannot be transmitted to humans. (petmd.com)
  • Biochemist Joanne Lemieux is working with U of A colleagues to find out whether a compound known to cure a deadly coronavirus-caused disease in cats might also work against COVID-19 in humans. (folio.ca)
  • It is very exciting that the drug was effective and tolerated in cats," said Lemieux, while cautioning that it still must be proven and tested in humans. (folio.ca)
  • The coronaviruses are what we as humans have in the common cold. (stylisticat.com)
  • Cats are able to adapt to a variety of environments including forests, deserts, urban and the homes of humans. (reference.com)
  • Due to their adaption abilities, cats can easily adjust from an outside living environment to an indoor home environment surrounded by humans. (reference.com)
  • But the COVID-19 pandemic has been fuelling fears for the health of humans and animals alike since it is unclear how - and even if - the virus that causes it affects pets such as cats and dogs. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In short, the new coronavirus has been feeding intense emotions and responses of many kinds, upturning the lives of humans and animals alike. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • So, this Special Feature will present what we know, so far, about the impact of the new coronavirus on animals, such as cats and dogs, and consider what humans can do to continue to keep these faithful friends healthy and happy. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Dear B.C.: Some cats carry a bacterium that does not make cats sick but does make humans sick when it enters the skin through a scratch or bite. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • With regard to this new coronavirus and cats, there is no evidence our feline companions can infect humans. (barncatlady.com)
  • Can Cats Spread Coronavirus to Humans? (petsnurturing.com)
  • No, cats don't spread this virus to humans. (petsnurturing.com)
  • Phylogenetic analysis of these viruses indicated a high probability that SARS coronavirus originated in bats and spread to humans either directly or through animals held in Chinese markets. (wikipedia.org)
  • In late 2006, scientists from the Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention of Hong Kong University and the Guangzhou Centre for Disease Control and Prevention established a genetic link between the SARS coronavirus appearing in civets and humans, bearing out claims that the disease had jumped across species. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are the cause of a wide range of diseases in cats, dog, pigs, rodents, cattle and humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Six different currently known strains of coronaviruses infect humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coronaviruses cause colds in humans primarily in the winter and early spring seasons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heartworm Roundworm Toxoplasmosis Cytauxzoonosis Domestic cats are affected by over 250 naturally occurring hereditary disorders, many of which are similar to those in humans, such as diabetes, hemophilia and Tay-Sachs disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • They typically remain hidden from humans, although some feral cats become more comfortable with people who regularly feed them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even with long term attempts at socialization, feral cats usually remain fearful and avoidant of humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 2013 article in the Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery found that rescuers and veterinarians in the United Kingdom tended to distinguish feral cats from domesticated cats based on traits such as their levels of socialization, ownership, and confinement, and on the amount of fear of, interaction with, and dependence upon humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • They found that rescuers and veterinarians tended to agree that feral cats were cats that had not had much human contact (particularly before eight weeks of age), would try to avoid humans, and would prefer to escape rather than attack a human. (wikipedia.org)
  • The article provided a composite definition of a feral cat as a cat that would choose not to interact with humans, could survive with or without human assistance, and would hide or defend itself when trapped rather than allowing itself to be handled. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Australian government categorizes cats who have no interaction with or assistance from humans as feral, and unowned cats who rely on humans as semi-feral or stray. (wikipedia.org)
  • Circumstantial evidence suggests that the SARS virus crossed over to humans from Asian palm civets ("civet cats"), a type of animal that is often killed and eaten in Guangdong, where SARS was first discovered. (wikipedia.org)
  • One Saturday in mid-April, a group of Orthodox Jewish leaders held a conference call with a Minnesota doctor as they grappled with spiking coronavirus cases in their New York area communities. (yahoo.com)
  • More news about the Big Pharma fat cats who are making out like bandits from the plandemic is available at Pandemic.news . (newstarget.com)
  • Now Vederas, Lemieux and virologist Lorne Tyrrell are combining their labs' efforts to test the inhibitor against the new coronavirus that is causing the worldwide COVID-19 pandemic. (folio.ca)
  • Since killing the cats wasn't stopping the pandemic, the frightened population felt that co-conspirators must be involved, and hence dogs were also soon singled out and many were exterminated. (psychologytoday.com)
  • It needs to balance the unprecedented pressures of the coronavirus pandemic with the safety of Australians. (abc.net.au)
  • As of April 28, 2020, there were two cats and a bunch of tigers and lions who have tested positive for COVID-19 in the United States . (barncatlady.com)
  • While an ELISA or IFA test will show the presence of coronavirus antibodies, it cannot distinguish the type of coronavirus, or even whether it is the cause of your cats' condition, only that your cat has been in contact with the virus and has developed antibodies to it. (petmd.com)
  • A tiger at the Bronx Zoo in New York City who developed a dry cough and loss of appetite after contact with an infected zookeeper tested positive for the coronavirus on Sunday. (metro.us)
  • Among the top coronavirus news out today are: U.S. is the new epicenter of the virus, a cat tests positive for the coronavirus and global COVID-19 cases have reached around 680,000. (livescience.com)
  • A cat in Belgium tested positive for the coronavirus, the first cat to test positive, according to The Guardian . (livescience.com)
  • And a tiger is a different species than a domestic cat and in a completely different family than dogs, so there's a lot of potential differences and reasons for why you might see something in one species versus another. (telegram.com)
  • It is not known how this disease will develop in big cats since different species can react differently to novel infections, but we will continue to monitor them closely and anticipate full recoveries," the zoo said in a statement. (telegram.com)
  • In the 1970s, Abysinnian cat breeders began testing for FeLV and eliminated it from their breed, other cat clubs followed suite. (catvirus.com)
  • Now, at least in the UK, it is extremely rare for a pedigree kitten to be sold with FeLV, thanks to the dedicated testing of cat breeders. (catvirus.com)
  • In contrast, antibody titers rather seem to reflect the viral load found in an infected cat . (vin.com)
  • In addition, antibody titers may decrease terminally in cats with fulminant FIP, or be non-detectable because they are bound in antigen-antibody complexes. (vetcontact.com)
  • Non-effusive FIP can be ruled out as a diagnosis if the cat is seronegative, provided the antibody test has excellent sensitivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • SHENZHEN, China (Reuters) - The Chinese city of Shenzhen has banned the eating of dogs and cats as part of a wider clampdown on the wildlife trade since the emergence of the new coronavirus. (reuters.com)
  • Authorities in the southern Chinese technology hub said the ban on eating dogs and cats would come into force on May 1. (reuters.com)
  • Provincial and city governments across the country have been moving to enforce the ruling but Shenzhen has been the most explicit about extending that ban to dogs and cats. (reuters.com)
  • As of Tuesday, 27 dogs and 15 cats had been held in the quarantine facility. (rt.com)
  • Earlier this month, two dogs tested positive for coronavirus in Hong Kong - a Pomeranian and a German Shepard. (rt.com)
  • Except for a few reported infections in cats and dogs, there has not been strong evidence that pets can be carriers. (metro.us)
  • We started this campaign after noticing that there were many people leaving dogs and cats outside our clinic," explained veterinarian Corolos Majdi at the Animalia clinic in the Egyptian capital. (metro.us)
  • They began photographing dogs and cats wearing signs explaining that keeping them is safe. (metro.us)
  • Please don't worry, dogs don't transmit the coronavirus," said Snowy's owner, a young girl named Julia Joseph. (metro.us)
  • Chinese City Iintroduced a Draft to Ban Eating Cats and Dogs to stop Spread of Coronavirus! (abovetopsecret.com)
  • Eating Cats and Dogs This is where the PETA people need to make an inroad and march into China. (abovetopsecret.com)
  • Not only should cats and dogs be banned so should wild animals and much stiffer regulations on all meat, poultry, and fish that is legit. (abovetopsecret.com)
  • Nonetheless, reports of this single case went viral and the panic associating dogs with the spread of this coronavirus , went global. (psychologytoday.com)
  • This means keeping your cats indoors and only take your dogs for walks on leashes, avoiding other animals and people. (barncatlady.com)
  • Unlike how dogs regulate their temperature by panting - maybe after a rigorous romp in the yard or running in circles - cats don't do that. (yahoo.com)
  • Dr. Deborah S. Greco, DVM, PhD, DACVIM, and senior research scientist at Purina, agrees that panting is never a good sign and pointed out that while dogs regulate body temperature by panting, cats do not, so don't write it off as just that. (yahoo.com)
  • Retailers are banned from selling live dogs, cats or rabbits unless the animal was obtained from a public animal control agency or shelter, humane society group, society for the prevention of cruelty to animals shelter or a rescue group that's in a cooperative agreement with at least one private or public shelter. (nbcconnecticut.com)
  • It takes the emphasis off the profit of animals and puts the emphasis back on caring for and getting these cats and dogs a good home," Mitch Kentdotson said. (nbcconnecticut.com)
  • The organization sent letters to all local stores reminding them of the new law, which does not impact the sale of dogs, cats, or rabbits direct from breeders. (nbcconnecticut.com)
  • Dogs comprise the largest percentage at 58.6% (*3) , or approximately 12 million dogs, followed by cats at 30.9% (*3) , or approximately 10 million cats (*4) . (panasonic.com)
  • 4: Japan Pet Food Association, 2010 Survey of dogs and cats kept as pets http://www.petfood.or.jp/data/chart2010/01.html , (Jul. (panasonic.com)
  • It is very common in dogs and is sometimes seen in cats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recombination of coronavirus genomes has been observed in tissue culture ( 30 , 33 ), in experimentally infected animals ( 23 ), and in embryonated eggs ( 26 ). (asm.org)
  • The method involves determining the presence or absence of intact or mutated S1/S2 and S2′ cleavage sites in the spike protein of serotype 1 feline coronaviruses (FCoV1). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • A. S. Hora, P. O. Tonietti, S. A. Taniwaki, K. M. Asano, P. Maiorka, L. J. Richtzenhain, and P. E. Brandão, "Feline Coronavirus 3c Protein: A Candidate for a Virulence Marker? (hindawi.com)
  • The coronavirus spike protein is a critical determinant of cell tropism and pathogenicity. (cornell.edu)
  • If the only source of protein for a person is a cat and they are available, I really don't care if they decide to eat them or not. (abovetopsecret.com)
  • The most consistent clinicopathologic finding in cats with FIP was an increase in total serum protein concentration (mainly, globulins) with a decrease in the albumin to globulin ratio, a finding in about 50 percent of the cats with effusion and 70 percent of cats without effusion. (vetcontact.com)
  • Recombinant protein corresponding to aa1-419 from human Novel Coronavirus Nucleoprotein (N), fused with a human IgG1 Fc tag on C-terminal, expressed in E. coli. (lucerna-chem.ch)
  • Some coronaviruses (specifically the members of Betacoronavirus subgroup A) also have a shorter spike-like protein called hemagglutinin esterase (HE). (wikipedia.org)
  • Toroviruses and a select subset of coronaviruses (in particular the members of subgroup A in the genus Betacoronavirus) possess, in addition to the peplomers composed of S, a second type of surface projections composed of the hemagglutinin-esterase protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anti- Novel Coronavirus Nucleoprotein (N) (Biotin) by USBiological, Cat. (lucerna-chem.ch)
  • A Ventura County Superior Court judge Friday granted a temporary restraining order against Godspeak Calvary Chapel and pastor Rob McCoy, forbidding the church's indoor services and demanding adherence to statewide and local health orders aimed at slowing the spread of the novel coronavirus. (latimes.com)
  • In many locations, the rabies vaccine is accompanied by a single combined FVRCP vaccine shot which protects against Feline viral rhinotracheitis, calicivirus, and panleukopenia. (wikipedia.org)