A genus of the family CORONAVIRIDAE which causes respiratory or gastrointestinal disease in a variety of vertebrates.
Virus diseases caused by the CORONAVIRUS genus. Some specifics include transmissible enteritis of turkeys (ENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF TURKEYS); FELINE INFECTIOUS PERITONITIS; and transmissible gastroenteritis of swine (GASTROENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF SWINE).
A species in the genus CORONAVIRUS causing the common cold and possibly nervous system infections in humans. It lacks hemagglutinin-esterase.
A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting cats of all ages and commonly found in catteries and zoos. Cats are often found carrying the virus but only a small proportion develop disease. Feline coronavirus and Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) are virtually the same virus in genetic and antigenetic terms, and are morphologically indistinguishable. Since they only differ in their disease potential (with FIPV causing a more serious illness), they are considered biotypes of each other.
A class I viral fusion protein that forms the characteristic spikes, or peplomers, found on the viral surface that mediate virus attachment, fusion, and entry into the host cell. During virus maturation, it is cleaved into two subunits: S1, which binds to receptors in the host cell, and S2, which mediates membrane fusion.
A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting neonatal calves, presenting as acute diarrhea, and frequently leading to death.
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing atypical respiratory disease (SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME) in humans. The organism is believed to have first emerged in Guangdong Province, China, in 2002. The natural host is the Chinese horseshoe bat, RHINOLOPHUS sinicus.
A species in the genus CORONAVIRUS causing the common cold and possibly nervous system infections in humans. It contains hemagglutinin-esterase.
Spherical RNA viruses, in the order NIDOVIRALES, infecting a wide range of animals including humans. Transmission is by fecal-oral and respiratory routes. Mechanical transmission is also common. There are two genera: CORONAVIRUS and TOROVIRUS.
A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).
A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus feline lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, FELINE) isolated from cats with a chronic wasting syndrome, presumed to be immune deficiency. There are 3 strains: Petaluma (FIP-P), Oma (FIP-O) and Puma lentivirus (PLV). There is no antigenic relationship between FIV and HIV, nor does FIV grow in human T-cells.
A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting dogs. Onset of symptoms is usually sudden and includes vomiting, diarrhea, and dehydration.
A viral disorder characterized by high FEVER, dry COUGH, shortness of breath (DYSPNEA) or breathing difficulties, and atypical PNEUMONIA. A virus in the genus CORONAVIRUS is the suspected agent.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
Virus diseases caused by CORONAVIRIDAE.
Diseases of the domestic cat (Felis catus or F. domesticus). This term does not include diseases of the so-called big cats such as CHEETAHS; LIONS; tigers, cougars, panthers, leopards, and other Felidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs in cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and in some cats infected with feline leukemia virus (FeLV).
A species of the CORONAVIRUS genus causing hepatitis in mice. Four strains have been identified as MHV 1, MHV 2, MHV 3, and MHV 4 (also known as MHV-JHM, which is neurotropic and causes disseminated encephalomyelitis with demyelination as well as focal liver necrosis).
A species of the genus VESIVIRUS infecting cats. Transmission occurs via air and mechanical contact.
Common coronavirus infection of cats caused by the feline infectious peritonitis virus (CORONAVIRUS, FELINE). The disease is characterized by a long incubation period, fever, depression, loss of appetite, wasting, and progressive abdominal enlargement. Infection of cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage appears to be essential in FIP pathogenesis.
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing a fatal disease to pigs under 3 weeks old.
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing infections in chickens and possibly pheasants. Chicks up to four weeks old are the most severely affected.
A highly contagious DNA virus infection of the cat family, characterized by fever, enteritis and bone marrow changes. It is also called feline ataxia, feline agranulocytosis, feline infectious enteritis, cat fever, cat plague, and show fever. It is caused by FELINE PANLEUKOPENIA VIRUS or the closely related MINK ENTERITIS VIRUS or CANINE PARVOVIRUS.
A species in the genus CORONAVIRUS causing upper and lower RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS. It shares the receptor used by the SARS VIRUS.
Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS isolated from fibrosarcoma in cats. The viruses are actually recombinant feline leukemia viruses (FeLV) where part of the genome has been replaced by cellular oncogenes. It is unique to individuals and not transmitted naturally to other cats. FeSVs are replication defective and require FeLV to reproduce.
Viral proteins found in either the NUCLEOCAPSID or the viral core (VIRAL CORE PROTEINS).
A species of PARVOVIRUS infecting cats with a highly contagious enteric disease. Host range variants include mink enteritis virus, canine parvovirus (PARVOVIRUS, CANINE), and raccoon parvovirus. After infecting their new hosts, many of these viruses have further evolved and are now considered distinct species.
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing pneumonia in newborn rats but a clinically inapparent infection in adults. It is separate but antigenically related to MURINE HEPATITIS VIRUS.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing enteritis in turkeys and pullets.
A mutant strain of TRANSMISSIBLE GASTROENTERITIS VIRUS causing mild or subclinical respiratory infections in young SWINE. It may also play a role in post-weaning porcine respiratory disease complex, especially when combined with other respiratory agents.
A neoplastic disease of cats frequently associated with feline leukemia virus infection.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A condition of chronic gastroenteritis in adult pigs and fatal gastroenteritis in piglets caused by a CORONAVIRUS.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Virus diseases caused by the Lentivirus genus. They are multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection.
The family of civets which are small and medium-sized Old World carnivores, often striped or spotted.
Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
The cat family in the order CARNIVORA comprised of muscular, deep-chested terrestrial carnivores with a highly predatory lifestyle.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.
An acute, highly contagious virus disease of turkeys characterized by chilling, anorexia, decreased water intake, diarrhea, dehydration and weight loss. The infectious agent is a CORONAVIRUS.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.
The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
A subgenus of LENTIVIRUS comprising viruses that produce multi-organ disease with long incubation periods in cats.
The region of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.
Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.
A genus in the family FELIDAE comprising one species, Puma concolor. It is a large, long-tailed, feline of uniform color. The names puma, cougar, and mountain lion are used interchangeably for this species. There are more than 20 subspecies.
Large, chiefly nocturnal mammals of the cat family FELIDAE, species Panthera leo. They are found in Africa and southern Asia.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in animals due to viral infection.
Order of mammals whose members are adapted for flight. It includes bats, flying foxes, and fruit bats.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
The temporal sequence of events that have occurred.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A genus of long-legged, swift-moving felines (FELIDAE) from Africa (and formerly Asia) about the size of a small leopard.
Acute inflammation of the intestine associated with infectious DIARRHEA of various etiologies, generally acquired by eating contaminated food containing TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL derived from BACTERIA or other microorganisms. Dysentery is characterized initially by watery FECES then by bloody mucoid stools. It is often associated with ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; and DEHYDRATION.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The specificity of a virus for infecting a particular type of cell or tissue.
A species of the genus PARVOVIRUS and a host range variant of FELINE PANLEUKOPENIA VIRUS. It causes a highly infectious fulminating ENTERITIS in dogs producing high mortality. It is distinct from CANINE MINUTE VIRUS, a species in the genus BOCAVIRUS. This virus can also infect cats and mink.
An order of MAMMALS, usually flesh eaters with appropriate dentition. Suborders include the terrestrial carnivores Fissipedia, and the aquatic carnivores PINNIPEDIA.
Viral infections of the brain, spinal cord, meninges, or perimeningeal spaces.
Proteins which are synthesized as a single polymer and then cleaved into several distinct proteins.
An order comprising three families of eukaryotic viruses possessing linear, nonsegmented, positive sense RNA genomes. The families are CORONAVIRIDAE; ARTERIVIRIDAE; and RONIVIRIDAE.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A peptidyl-dipeptidase that catalyzes the release of a C-terminal dipeptide, -Xaa-*-Xbb-Xcc, when neither Xaa nor Xbb is Pro. It is a Cl(-)-dependent, zinc glycoprotein that is generally membrane-bound and active at neutral pH. It may also have endopeptidase activity on some substrates. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.4.15.1.
Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Animals or humans raised in the absence of a particular disease-causing virus or other microorganism. Less frequently plants are cultivated pathogen-free.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for retroviral enzymes including reverse transcriptase, protease, and endonuclease/integrase. "pol" is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Hoofed mammals with four legs, a big-lipped snout, and a humped back belonging to the family Camelidae.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
A family of RNA viruses infecting a broad range of animals. Most individual species are restricted to their natural hosts. They possess a characteristic six-pointed starlike shape whose surfaces have cup-shaped (chalice) indentions. Transmission is by contaminated food, water, fomites, and occasionally aerosolization of secretions. Genera include LAGOVIRUS; NORWALK-LIKE VIRUSES; SAPPORO-LIKE VIRUSES; and VESIVIRUS.
A family in the suborder Feliformia, order CARNIVORA, comprising one genus Nandinia binotata.
Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A general term indicating inflammation of the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD, often used to indicate an infectious process, but also applicable to a variety of autoimmune and toxic-metabolic conditions. There is significant overlap regarding the usage of this term and ENCEPHALITIS in the literature.
Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
A genus in the family FELIDAE comprising felines with long legs, ear tufts, and a short tail.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.
Virus diseases caused by the RETROVIRIDAE.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.
A catarrhal disorder of the upper respiratory tract, which may be viral or a mixed infection. It generally involves a runny nose, nasal congestion, and sneezing.
Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A genus of the family ARTERIVIRIDAE, in the order NIDOVIRALES. The type species is ARTERITIS VIRUS, EQUINE.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Carica papaya. It is also the name used for a purified mixture of papain and CHYMOPAPAIN that is used as a topical enzymatic debriding agent. EC 3.4.22.2.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
Multinucleated masses produced by the fusion of many cells; often associated with viral infections. In AIDS, they are induced when the envelope glycoprotein of the HIV virus binds to the CD4 antigen of uninfected neighboring T4 cells. The resulting syncytium leads to cell death and thus may account for the cytopathic effect of the virus.
Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.
The former British crown colony located off the southeast coast of China, comprised of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and New Territories. The three sites were ceded to the British by the Chinese respectively in 1841, 1860, and 1898. Hong Kong reverted to China in July 1997. The name represents the Cantonese pronunciation of the Chinese xianggang, fragrant port, from xiang, perfume and gang, port or harbor, with reference to its currents sweetened by fresh water from a river west of it.
Inflammation of any segment of the SMALL INTESTINE.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Diseases characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin in the central or peripheral nervous system.
Genus of non-oncogenic retroviruses which establish persistent infections in many animal species but are considered non-pathogenic. Its species have been isolated from primates (including humans), cattle, cats, hamsters, horses, and sea lions. Spumaviruses have a foamy or lace-like appearance and are often accompanied by syncytium formation. SIMIAN FOAMY VIRUS is the type species.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Mucopolysaccharidosis with excessive CHONDROITIN SULFATE B in urine, characterized by dwarfism and deafness. It is caused by a deficiency of N-ACETYLGALACTOSAMINE-4-SULFATASE (arylsulfatase B).
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Viruses that produce tumors.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
A family of enveloped, linear, double-stranded DNA viruses infecting a wide variety of animals. Subfamilies, based on biological characteristics, include: ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE; BETAHERPESVIRINAE; and GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE.
A subfamily of HERPESVIRIDAE characterized by a short replication cycle. The genera include: SIMPLEXVIRUS; VARICELLOVIRUS; MAREK'S DISEASE-LIKE VIRUSES; and ILTOVIRUS.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A directed change in translational READING FRAMES that allows the production of a single protein from two or more OVERLAPPING GENES. The process is programmed by the nucleotide sequence of the MRNA and is sometimes also affected by the secondary or tertiary mRNA structure. It has been described mainly in VIRUSES (especially RETROVIRUSES); RETROTRANSPOSONS; and bacterial insertion elements but also in some cellular genes.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
An enzyme from the sulfuric ester hydrolase class that breaks down one of the products of the chondroitin lyase II reaction. EC 3.1.6.9.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A serotonin antagonist with limited antihistaminic, anticholinergic, and immunosuppressive activity.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
The species Delphinapterus leucas, in the family Monodontidae, found primarily in the Arctic Ocean and adjoining seas. They are small WHALES lacking a dorsal fin.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of acetate esters and water to alcohols and acetate. EC 3.1.1.6.
Carnivores of genus Mustela of the family MUSTELIDAE. The European mink, which has white upper and lower lips, was widely trapped for commercial purposes and is classified as endangered. The American mink, lacking a white upper lip, is farmed commercially.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Interferon secreted by leukocytes, fibroblasts, or lymphoblasts in response to viruses or interferon inducers other than mitogens, antigens, or allo-antigens. They include alpha- and beta-interferons (INTERFERON-ALPHA and INTERFERON-BETA).
Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.
A genus of the family CORONAVIRIDAE characterized by enveloped, peplomer-bearing particles containing an elongated tubular nucleocapsid with helical symmetry. Toroviruses have been found in association with enteric infections in horses (Berne virus), cattle (Breda virus), swine, and humans. Transmission probably takes place via the fecal-oral route.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A family of small RNA viruses comprising some important pathogens of humans and animals. Transmission usually occurs mechanically. There are nine genera: APHTHOVIRUS; CARDIOVIRUS; ENTEROVIRUS; ERBOVIRUS; HEPATOVIRUS; KOBUVIRUS; PARECHOVIRUS; RHINOVIRUS; and TESCHOVIRUS.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for the viral envelope (env) proteins in retroviruses. The env genes contain a cis-acting RNA target sequence for the rev protein (= GENE PRODUCTS, REV), termed the rev-responsive element (RRE).
Inflammation of brain parenchymal tissue as a result of viral infection. Encephalitis may occur as primary or secondary manifestation of TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PARAMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; and ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.

Selection of antigenic variants of the S glycoprotein of feline infectious peritonitis virus and analysis of antigenic sites involved in neutralization. (1/92)

The type II feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) epitopes for neutralizing and enhancing antibodies are present on large spike glycoprotein (S) protein. In this study, we established monoclonal antibody-resistant mutant viruses resistant to three different monoclonal antibodies with neutralizing activity in Felis catus whole fetus cells and enhancing activity in feline macrophages, recognizing distinct epitopes on type II FIPV S protein. By comparing the nucleotide sequences of these mutant viruses with that of wild-type virus, we attempted to identify the neutralizing epitopes. The mutations were localized in the region of amino acid residues from 480 to 649 from the N terminal of the S protein.  (+info)

Retargeting of coronavirus by substitution of the spike glycoprotein ectodomain: crossing the host cell species barrier. (2/92)

Coronaviruses generally have a narrow host range, infecting one or just a few species. Using targeted RNA recombination, we constructed a mutant of the coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) in which the ectodomain of the spike glycoprotein (S) was replaced with the highly divergent ectodomain of the S protein of feline infectious peritonitis virus. The resulting chimeric virus, designated fMHV, acquired the ability to infect feline cells and simultaneously lost the ability to infect murine cells in tissue culture. This reciprocal switch of species specificity strongly supports the notion that coronavirus host cell range is determined primarily at the level of interactions between the S protein and the virus receptor. The isolation of fMHV allowed the localization of the region responsible for S protein incorporation into virions to the carboxy-terminal 64 of the 1,324 residues of this protein. This establishes a basis for further definition of elements involved in virion assembly. In addition, fMHV is potentially the ideal recipient virus for carrying out reverse genetics of MHV by targeted RNA recombination, since it presents the possibility of selecting recombinants, no matter how defective, that have regained the ability to replicate in murine cells.  (+info)

Assembly of spikes into coronavirus particles is mediated by the carboxy-terminal domain of the spike protein. (3/92)

The type I glycoprotein S of coronavirus, trimers of which constitute the typical viral spikes, is assembled into virions through noncovalent interactions with the M protein. Here we demonstrate that incorporation is mediated by the short carboxy-terminal segment comprising the transmembrane and endodomain. To this aim, we used the virus-like particle (VLP) system that we developed earlier for the mouse hepatitis virus strain A59 (MHV-A59) and which we describe now also for the unrelated coronavirus feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV; strain 79-1146). Two chimeric MHV-FIPV S proteins were constructed, consisting of the ectodomain of the one virus and the transmembrane and endodomain of the other. These proteins were tested for their incorporation into VLPs of either species. They were found to assemble only into viral particles of the species from which their carboxy-terminal domain originated. Thus, the 64-terminal-residue sequence suffices to draw the 1308 (MHV)- or 1433 (FIPV)-amino-acid-long mature S protein into VLPs. Both chimeric S proteins appeared to cause cell fusion when expressed individually, suggesting that they were biologically fully active. This was indeed confirmed by incorporating one of the proteins into virions which thereby acquired a new host cell tropism, as will be reported elsewhere.  (+info)

Molecular determinants of species specificity in the coronavirus receptor aminopeptidase N (CD13): influence of N-linked glycosylation. (4/92)

Aminopeptidase N (APN), a 150-kDa metalloprotease also called CD13, serves as a receptor for serologically related coronaviruses of humans (human coronavirus 229E [HCoV-229E]), pigs, and cats. These virus-receptor interactions can be highly species specific; for example, the human coronavirus can use human APN (hAPN) but not porcine APN (pAPN) as its cellular receptor, and porcine coronaviruses can use pAPN but not hAPN. Substitution of pAPN amino acids 283 to 290 into hAPN for the corresponding amino acids 288 to 295 introduced an N-glycosylation sequon at amino acids 291 to 293 that blocked HCoV-229E receptor activity of hAPN. Substitution of two amino acids that inserted an N-glycosylation site at amino acid 291 also resulted in a mutant hAPN that lacked receptor activity because it failed to bind HCoV-229E. Single amino acid revertants that removed this sequon at amino acids 291 to 293 but had one or five pAPN amino acid substitution(s) in this region all regained HCoV-229E binding and receptor activities. To determine if other N-linked glycosylation differences between hAPN, feline APN (fAPN), and pAPN account for receptor specificity of pig and cat coronaviruses, a mutant hAPN protein that, like fAPN and pAPN, lacked a glycosylation sequon at 818 to 820 was studied. This sequon is within the region that determines receptor activity for porcine and feline coronaviruses. Mutant hAPN lacking the sequon at amino acids 818 to 820 maintained HCoV-229E receptor activity but did not gain receptor activity for porcine or feline coronaviruses. Thus, certain differences in glycosylation between coronavirus receptors from different species are critical determinants in the species specificity of infection.  (+info)

Adverse effects of feline IL-12 during DNA vaccination against feline infectious peritonitis virus. (5/92)

Cell-mediated immunity is thought to play a decisive role in protecting cats against feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), a progressive and lethal coronavirus disease. In view of the potential of DNA vaccines to induce cell-mediated responses, their efficacy to induce protective immunity in cats was evaluated. The membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N) proteins were chosen as antigens, because antibodies to the spike (S) protein of FIP virus (FIPV) are known to precipitate pathogenesis. However, vaccination by repeated injections of plasmids encoding these proteins did not protect kittens against challenge infection with FIPV. Also, a prime-boost protocol failed to afford protection, with priming using plasmid DNA and boosting using recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing the same coronavirus proteins. Because of the role of IL-12 in initiating cell-mediated immunity, the effects of co-delivery of plasmids encoding the feline cytokine were studied. Again, IL-12 did not meet expectations - on the contrary, it enhanced susceptibility to FIPV challenge. This study shows that DNA vaccination failed to protect cats against FIP and that IL-12 may yield adverse effects when used as a cytokine adjuvant.  (+info)

Mutational analysis of the active centre of coronavirus 3C-like proteases. (6/92)

Formation of the coronavirus replication-transcription complex involves the synthesis of large polyprotein precursors that are extensively processed by virus-encoded cysteine proteases. In this study, the coding sequence of the feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) main protease, 3CL(pro), was determined. Comparative sequence analyses revealed that FIPV 3CL(pro) and other coronavirus main proteases are related most closely to the 3C-like proteases of potyviruses. The predicted active centre of the coronavirus enzymes has accepted unique replacements that were probed by extensive mutational analysis. The wild-type FIPV 3CL(pro) domain and 25 mutants were expressed in Escherichia coli and tested for proteolytic activity in a peptide-based assay. The data strongly suggest that, first, the FIPV 3CL(pro) catalytic system employs His(41) and Cys(144) as the principal catalytic residues. Second, the amino acids Tyr(160) and His(162), which are part of the conserved sequence signature Tyr(160)-Met(161)-His(162) and are believed to be involved in substrate recognition, were found to be indispensable for proteolytic activity. Third, replacements of Gly(83) and Asn(64), which were candidates to occupy the position spatially equivalent to that of the catalytic Asp residue of chymotrypsin-like proteases, resulted in proteolytically active proteins. Surprisingly, some of the Asn(64) mutants even exhibited strongly increased activities. Similar results were obtained for human coronavirus (HCoV) 3CL(pro) mutants in which the equivalent Asn residue (HCoV 3CL(pro) Asn(64)) was substituted. These data lead us to conclude that both the catalytic systems and substrate-binding pockets of coronavirus main proteases differ from those of other RNA virus 3C and 3C-like proteases.  (+info)

Detection of feline coronavirus in captive Felidae in the USA. (7/92)

Feline coronavirus (FCoV) is an important pathogen of domestic and nondomestic Felidae. Investigation into the prevalence of FCoV in exotic Felidae has relied primarily on serology. The usefulness of genetic detection of FCoV using reverse transcription and nested polymerase chain reaction (RT/nPCR) for viral screening was investigated. Seventy-five biologic samples, primarily feces, from captive felids from 11 institutions were tested using PCR. Serum samples collected from all but 12 of these animals were tested for antibodies to type I and type II FCoV by indirect immunofluorescence. Twenty-four animals were positive using RT/nPCR for virus. Twenty-nine animals were seropositive to type I and/or type II FCoV. From serologic data, infection with a virus antigenically related to FCoV type I occurred most commonly. Serology did not correlate with virus shedding because 13 animals were seronegative to FCoV type I and II but positive using RT/nPCR for virus. Conversely, 20 animals were seropositive but negative using RT/nPCR for FCoV. Some of the populations in which virus was detected had experienced health problems, including feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), necrotizing colitis, and mild enteritis. In addition to its role in FIP, this virus may play a role in gastrointestinal diseases of infected animals. This study demonstrates that FCoV is a significant infectious agent of captive felids because over half of the animals tested were positive by viral genetic detection, serology, or both. Dependence upon one method for detection of infection is unreliable.  (+info)

Switching species tropism: an effective way to manipulate the feline coronavirus genome. (8/92)

Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV), a coronavirus, is the causative agent of an invariably lethal infection in cats. Like other coronaviruses, FIPV contains an extremely large positive-strand RNA genome of ca. 30 kb. We describe here the development and use of a reverse genetics strategy for FIPV based on targeted RNA recombination that is analogous to what has been described for the mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) (L. Kuo et al., J. Virol. 74:1393-1406, 2000). In this two-step process, we first constructed by targeted recombination a mutant of FIPV, designated mFIPV, in which the ectodomain of the spike glycoprotein was replaced by that of MHV. This switch allowed for the selection of the recombinant virus in murine cells: mFIPV grows to high titers in these cells but has lost the ability to grow in feline cells. In a second, reverse process, mFIPV was used as the recipient, and the reintroduction of the FIPV spike now allowed for selection of candidate recombinants by their regained ability to grow in feline cells. In this fashion, we reconstructed a wild-type recombinant virus (r-wtFIPV) and generated a directed mutant FIPV in which the initiation codon of the nonstructural gene 7b had been disrupted (FIPV Delta 7b). The r-wtFIPV was indistinguishable from its parental virus FIPV 79-1146 not only for its growth characteristics in tissue culture but also in cats, exhibiting a highly lethal phenotype. FIPV Delta 7b had lost the expression of its 7b gene but grew unimpaired in cell culture, confirming that the 7b glycoprotein is not required in vitro. We establish the second targeted RNA recombination system for coronaviruses and provide a powerful tool for the genetic engineering of the FIPV genome.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Feline infectious peritonitis viruses arise by mutation from endemic feline enteric coronaviruses. AU - Vennema, Harry. AU - Poland, Amy. AU - Foley, Janet E. AU - Pedersen, Niels C. PY - 1998/3/30. Y1 - 1998/3/30. N2 - Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) strains from six cats and three different geographic areas were compared genetically with feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) isolates obtained from cats inhabiting the same environments. Sequence comparisons were made from 1.2- to 8.9-kb segments on the 3 end of the genome. FECV/FIPV pairs from the same catteries or shelters were 97.3-99.5% related but were genetically distinct from FIPV and FECV strains obtained from cats living in geographically distinct environments. The high genetic similarity between FECVs and FIPVs from the same environment strongly suggested a common ancestry. Based on the presence of deletion mutations in the FIPVs and not in the FECVs, it was concluded that FIPVs evolved as mutants of FECVs. The ...
Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a highly fatal systemic disease in cats, caused by feline coronavirus (FCoV) infection. FCoV usually has little clinical significance; however, a mutation of...
Feline coronaviruses (FCoV) exist as 2 biotypes: feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) and feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV). FECV causes subclinical infections; FIPV causes feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), a systemic and fatal disease. It is thought that mutations in FECV enable infection of macrophages, causing FIP. However, the molecular basis for this biotype switch is unknown. We examined a furin cleavage site in the region between receptor-binding (S1) and fusion (S2) domains of the spike of serotype 1 FCoV. FECV sequences were compared with FIPV sequences. All FECVs had a conserved furin cleavage motif. For FIPV, there was a correlation with the disease and >1 substitution in the S1/S2 motif. Fluorogenic peptide assays confirmed that the substitutions modulate furin cleavage. We document a functionally relevant S1/S2 mutation that arises when FIP develops in a cat. These insights into FIP pathogenesis may be useful in development of diagnostic, prevention, and treatment measures
Coronaviruses are well known for their potential to change their host or tissue tropism, resulting in unpredictable new diseases and changes in pathogenicity; severe acute respiratory syndrome and feline coronaviruses, respectively, are the most recognized examples. Feline coronaviruses occur as 2 pathotypes: nonvirulent feline enteric coronaviruses (FECVs), which replicate in intestinal epithelium cells, and lethal feline infectious peritonitis viruses (FIPVs), which replicate in macrophages. Evidence indicates that FIPV originates from FECV by mutation, but consistent distinguishing differences have not been established. We sequenced the full genome of 11 viruses of each pathotype and then focused on the single most distinctive site by additionally sequencing hundreds of viruses in that region. As a result, we identified 2 alternative amino acid differences in the putative fusion peptide of the spike protein that together distinguish FIPV from FECV in >95% of cases. By these and perhaps other
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Provided is a method for determining whether a feline is infected with pathogenic Feline Infectious Peritonitis Virus (FIPV) or Feline Enteric Infection Virus (FECV). The method involves determining t
What causes FIP?. FIP develops as a result of an adverse reaction to the feline enteric coronavirus. The feline enteric coronavirus is shed by infected animals in feces. An infected cat may shed some of the virus in feces, and when another cat comes along to investigate, the virus infects the new cat through the mouth and nose. When the cat is infected, the virus may be destroyed by the immune system or it may mutate, allowing it to take advantage of the hosts body and live undetected. This leads to the hosts body becoming infiltrated with the virus, causing pyogranulomas. Some cats infected by feline enteric coronavirus present with non-threatening flu like symptoms, and some develop FIP.. ...
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What Is Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP)?. Feline coronavirus (FCoV) infection is very common in cats; around 40% of the domestic cat population has been FCoV infected, and this figure increases to 90% in multi-cat households.1-2 A study of owned cats in Sydney reported a seroprevalence of 34%.3 Natural infections with FCoV are often transient and asymptomatic or result in mild gastrointestinal disease. However, occasionally, FCoV infection results in the multisystemic disease of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP),4 the single most important infectious cause of death in young cats4. No cure for FIP exists and it is an extremely distressing disease to deal with, for both cat owners and veterinary surgeons.. What Causes FIP?. Viral factors are thought to be important, and a recent Dutch study5 has identified mutations in the FCoV spike protein that distinguish FIP-associated FCoVs from those not associated with FIP. By these and perhaps other mutations, the virus could acquire its macrophage ...
This could end up being important for the COVID-19 vaccine. Hypothetically speaking, if SARS-CoV-2 works like Dengue, which is also caused by an RNA virus, then anyone who has not tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 might actually be at increased risk for severe COVID-19 after vaccination, and only those who have already recovered from a bout of COVID-19 would be protected against severe illness by the vaccine.. To be clear, we do not know whether that is the case or not, but these are important areas of inquiry and the current vaccine trials will simply not be able to answer this important question.. The Swiss Medical Weekly paper9 also reviews the evidence of ADE in coronavirus infections, citing research showing inoculating cats against the feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) - a feline coronavirus - increases the severity of the disease when challenged with the same FIPV serotype as that in the vaccine.Experiments have shown immunization with a variety of SARS vaccines resulted in ...
This could end up being important for the COVID-19 vaccine. Hypothetically speaking, if SARS-CoV-2 works like Dengue, which is also caused by an RNA virus, then anyone who has not tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 might actually be at increased risk for severe COVID-19 after vaccination, and only those who have already recovered from a bout of COVID-19 would be protected against severe illness by the vaccine.. To be clear, we do not know whether that is the case or not, but these are important areas of inquiry and the current vaccine trials will simply not be able to answer this important question.. The Swiss Medical Weekly paper9 also reviews the evidence of ADE in coronavirus infections, citing research showing inoculating cats against the feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) - a feline coronavirus - increases the severity of the disease when challenged with the same FIPV serotype as that in the vaccine.Experiments have shown immunization with a variety of SARS vaccines resulted in ...
Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is one of the leading causes of death among young cats [1]. Since FIP is an immune-mediated viral disease, studies using immunological approaches are crucial for a better understanding of the illness, particularly by using clinical samples of FIP cases before further studies utilizing experimental infection in cats could be justified. Detection of FCoV antigen in affected tissues by immunohistochemistry remains the gold standard in the confirmation of FIP [2].. One of the limitations of this study is that definitive confirmation of FIP was not made due to the unavailability of post-mortem samples. Therefore, the cats were selected based on their FCoV antibody and antigen status. In addition, the selected FCoV-positive cats were grouped according to the presence of peritoneal effusions at the time of clinical evaluation. Although we could not confirm the status of FIP in these cats, this study provides a preliminary examination on the array of immune mediators ...
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Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is caused by the FIP virus (FIPV), a highly virulent mutant form of feline coronavirus (FCoV). This disease is one of the most important infectious diseases in cats, and it is associated with high mortality, particularly among younger cats. In this study, we isolated a wild-type FIPV HRB-17 epidemic strain from the blood sample of household pet cat exhibiting th ...
Introduction. Feline coronavirus (FCoV) is an important feline pathogen world-wide. The enteric form of infection is limited to the gastrointestinal tract, leading to asymptomatic infections, mild enteritis, or fatal infectious peritonitis in cats (Pedersen et. al., 1981). FCoV, an enveloped positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus (Lai et. al., 2007), is highly contagious among cats by the fecal-oral route. The virus is typically shed in feces by healthy recovered cats and can survive in the environment for up to 7 weeks (Hartmann, 2005). ...
The Cornell University Animal Health Diagnostic Center (AHDC) has seen a rise in the diagnosis of equine enteric coronavirus cases since initial outbreaks were investigated starting in 2010. The AHDC Veterinary Support Services veterinarians are attributing this increase in equine enteric coronavirus in our area of the Northeast to improved awareness of the disease and
The spike protein (S protein) is a large type I transmembrane protein ranging from 1,160 amino acids to 1,400 amino acids for feline coronavirus (FCoV)
Felin Infektiøs Peritonitis (FIP) er en dødelig og uhelbredelig bughindebetændelse, som rammer katte. Årsagen til sygdommen formodes at være en virus, som er en muteret version af Feline Enteric Coronavirus (FeCV), der ligesom aids er en muteret version af hiv. Der findes to typer af FIP: ...
Feline Infectious Peritonitis Virus Model of a feline coronavirus. Coronaviridae (such as FIPV) are enveloped RNA viruses that are common in the intestinal tract of cats.…
Monocytes infected with feline infectious peritonitis virus, a coronavirus, express viral proteins in their plasma membranes. barrier. One minute after internalisation started, vesicles had passed the cortical actin, co-localised with microtubules and association with myosin 6 was lost. The vesicles were further transported over the microtubules and accumulated at the microtubule organising centre after 10 to 30?min. Intracellular trafficking over microtubules was mediated by MLCK, myosin 1 and a small actin tail. Since inhibiting MLCK with ML-7 was so efficient in blocking the internalisation pathway, this target can be used for the development of a new treatment for FIPV. Introduction Two genetically highly similar biotypes of coronaviruses are described in cats: feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) and feline enteric coronavirus (FECV). These coronaviruses can infect both cats and other members of the Felidae family. An infection with FECV is usually sub-clinical, except in young ...
FELINE INFECTIOUS PERITONITIS Navies 2011 Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP) is a progressive, almost always fatal, viral disease of domestic cats. It affects some exotic cats, with the cheetah being particularly susceptible. It does not affect non-feline species, such as dogs. Etiology or Cause      Field strains of feline coronavirus vary in their ability to induce FIP. Some isolates cause FIP (feline infectious peritonitis virus [FIPV]others cause more localized GI disease) Mutations from feline enteric coronavirus to FIPV occur. FIP is thought to result from a mutation of the virus within the body, combined with the response of the immune system, leading to inflammation in various organ systems. FIPV and canine coronavirus are very closely related antigenically and may have crossed between hosts. Feline coronaviruses are fairly stable in the environment and, once dry, can survive for 4-6 wk. They are enveloped viruses and are destroyed by most household disinfectants, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Serologic studies of naturally occurring feline infectious peritonitis.. AU - Pedersen, N. C.. PY - 1976/12. Y1 - 1976/12. N2 - Serum antibodies to the feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) virus were measured in cats, using an indirect fluorescent antibody procedure. Antibody titers of 1:400 to 1:25,600 were seen in cats with both effusive and noneffusive forms of FIP. About 87% of the normal cats in FIP problem catteries and 20% of the cats in the Davis, Ca, area also had antibody titers to the FIP virus, ranging from 1:25 to 1:400. Although the infection rate is high among cats, relatively few of the cats infected with the FIP virus ever develop clinically apparent FIP.. AB - Serum antibodies to the feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) virus were measured in cats, using an indirect fluorescent antibody procedure. Antibody titers of 1:400 to 1:25,600 were seen in cats with both effusive and noneffusive forms of FIP. About 87% of the normal cats in FIP problem catteries and 20% of ...
Cell-mediated immunity is thought to play a decisive role in protecting cats against feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), a progressive and lethal coronavirus disease. In view of the potential of DNA vaccines to induce cell-mediated responses, their efficacy to induce protective immunity in cats was evaluated. The membrane (M) and nucleocapsid ... read more (N) proteins were chosen as antigens, because antibodies to the spike (S) protein of FIP virus (FIPV) are known to precipitate pathogenesis. However, vaccination by repeated injections of plasmids encoding these proteins did not protect kittens against challenge infection with FIPV. Also, a prime boost protocol failed to afford protection, with priming using plasmid DNA and boosting using recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing the same coronavirus proteins. Because of the role of IL-12 in initiating cell-mediated immunity, the effects of co-delivery of plasmids encoding the feline cytokine were studied. Again, IL-12 did not meet expectations ...
Feline coronavirus infection is required for FIP, which is a mutated form. Coronavirus is a common infectious agent, especially in multi-cat households and catteries. It is shed from infected cats in the feces, can persist in the environment for several days, and infects other cats via inhalation or ingestion. In the majority of infected cats, it causes little or no problem. This becomes part of the challenge in diagnosing FIP: detecting the virus in samples (blood, feces, tissue) from a cat, or finding even high levels of antibodies to the virus in the cats blood (i.e. serology) doesnt offer much information. In fact, it is quite common for cats to be virus positive, even in blood, and to have high levels of antibody to the virus. It doesnt mean the cat has FIP, will develop FIP, or is protected against FIP.Feline infectious peritonitis is a diagnosis cat owners know and fear. It is both heartbreaking and frustrating - it strikes the young, it is not treatable and is inevitably fatal, it is ...
Feline infectious peritonitis is a fatal viral disease which is currently incurable by drugs. Also, there are no effective vaccines. Cyclosporin A (CsA) was recently shown in vitro to exert potent antiviral activities on several virus-host systems, including various coronaviruses. However, whether CsA has clinically relevant activity in vivo resistant to various coronaviruses, including the severe acute respiratory syndrome and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, remains unknown. Herein, the authors report that treatment with CsA caused a sustained reduction in pleural fluid volume and viral copy number in a cat diagnosed with effusive feline infectious peritonitis. ...
Feline infectious peritonitis is a fatal viral disease which is currently incurable by drugs. Also, there are no effective vaccines. Cyclosporin A (CsA) was recently shown in vitro to exert potent antiviral activities on several virus-host systems, including various coronaviruses. However, whether CsA has clinically relevant activity in vivo resistant to various coronaviruses, including the severe acute respiratory syndrome and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, remains unknown. Herein, the authors report that treatment with CsA caused a sustained reduction in pleural fluid volume and viral copy number in a cat diagnosed with effusive feline infectious peritonitis. ...
FIP is a disease caused by a mutated (changed) strain of feline coronavirus. Unfortunately, routine blood testing for feline coronavirus is not clinically useful. Exposure to any strain of feline coronavirus will result in an immune response and the production of antibodies. A working diagnosis of FIP is typically made on the basis of the cats clinical history, as well as supportive laboratory data. Histopathology remains the best way to diagnose FIP in the living cat.
Common coronavirus infection of cats caused by the feline infectious peritonitis virus (CORONAVIRUS, FELINE). The disease is characterized by a long incubation period, fever, depression, loss of appetite, wasting, and progressive abdominal enlargement. Infection of cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage appears to be essential in FIP pathogenesis ...
Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a rare and progressive disease caused by feline coronavirus (FCoV). Here is what you need to know about FIP.
Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP) is a fatal disease in cats caused by a Coronavirus. During FIPv infection the T-cell population is depleted. This is seen in many other diseases, such as measles and AIDS. In these two diseases, the Dendritic Cell (DC) has been shown to play a role ... read more in T-cell depletion. This study endeavours to prove if such a mechanism exists in FIP. In order to investigate permissiveness of DCs for FIPv, a growth curve was produced. This growth curve showed prolonged viral reproduction to intermediate titres. As T-cell depletion during FIPv infection occurs at least partly through apoptosis, a TUNEL assay was used to evaluate this. FACS analysis of infected and non-infected co-cultures of DCs with Thymocytes revealed no difference in apoptosis levels. These data suggest that T-cell depletion during FIPv infection does not occur through apoptosis initiated by FIPv-infected DCs. show less ...
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ABSTRACT - Title: Association between clinical presentation, viral load and antibody titre in Feline Infectious Peritonitis - Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP) is a systemic disease, more common in young animals and cats from multi-cat households. The implicated agent is the Feline Coronavirus (FCoV), a positive sense single strand RNA enveloped virus. The S protein allows for the differentiation between the two virus serotypes. The FCoV is transmitted by faecal-oral route. Then the virus reaches the enterocytes where it replicates. The FCoV peculiar way to replicate facilitates the mutation which turns FCoV into its virulent form, the Virus of Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIPV). The only way to defeat the virus effectively is through the cellular immune response. The humoral response can even contribute to the disease pathogenesis. The leakage of plasma leads to abdominal, thoracic and/or pericardial effusion, which are typical features of the FIPs wet form. The effusions may result in ...
Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a fatal inflammatory disease caused by FIP virus an infection. mouse mAb 2C4-treated felines. of polybrene. in the dilution Fostamatinib disodium moderate filled with 1 of Actinomycin D (Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, U.S.A.) and pre-incubated at 37C for 3 hr. Diluted mouse mAb 2C4 Serially, chimeric mAb 2C4 or anti feline APN mAb (mAb R-G-4, being a control for mAb 2C4) was blended with 40 recombinant fTNF-alpha (R&D systems, Minneapolis, MN, U.S.A., 75% cytotoxic activity against WEHI-164 cells) or ascites of felines with FIP which were utilized as organic feline TNF-alpha examples (last focus of just one 1:8, 80% cytotoxic activity against WEHI-164 cells). The mix was incubated at 37C for 1 hr. Pre-incubated cells had been seeded within a level of 50 in the wells of the 96-well dish. Fifty microliters from the mixture was added into each well. After incubation at 37C for 24 hr, Fostamatinib disodium 10 of WST-8 alternative (WST-8 cell proliferation assay ...
The Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP Antigen Rapid Test Device is a lateral flow immunochromatographic assay for the qualitative detection of FIP viral antigens in feline feces or ascites.. The FIP test device has a testing window containing a T (test) region and C (control) region. FIP antigens, if present in the sample will react with the pre-coated anti-FIP antibodies in the test strip. The mixture then migrates upward on the membrane chromatographically by capillary action and reacts with anti-FIP antibodies on the membrane in the test line region. A coloured line will appear in the test line region, indicating a positive result. If the sample does not contain FIP antigens, a coloured line will not appear in the test line region, indicating a negative result. To serve as a procedural control, a coloured line will always appear in the control line region indicating that the test has been performed correctly. ...
FIP is the most misdiagnosed cat disease. Theres no FIP test. A series of tests must be done to confirm an FIP/Feline Infectious Peritonitis diagnosis.
Feline Infectious Peritonitis or FIP is a fatal viral disease that creates a lot of fear and confusion in shelters. Find out information on the causes, transmissions, symptoms, and treatments.
Learn about the veterinary topic of Overview of Feline Infectious Peritonitis. Find specific details on this topic and related topics from the MSD Vet Manual.
Feline infectious peritonitis, or FIP, a viral disease that is nearly 100 percent fatal, has been successfully treated in a research project at Kansas State University. Collaborators in diverse fields developed an antiviral compound for the feline coronavirus associated with FIP. Manuel Martin-Flores, MV, , ACVAA, of the Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine will present preliminary results of his research on safer anesthesia for cats at the annual meeting of the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia in September. Dr. Martin-Flores is one of only 220 anesthesiologists board-certified worldwide by the college.
In the past, expression of a viral protein, the 7b protein, was postulated to occur only with virulent FCoV, and thus some authors have held that cats with antibodies to this protein were likely to have FIP. A presentation by Kennedy (Kennedy MA. Diagnostic methods for feline viral pathogens. Proc. 21st ACVIM Forum, Charlotte, NC, 2003, 733-735) stated that while cats with FIP are consistently antibody positive for this protein, it may also be present in healthy cats ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Feline coronavirus quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction on effusion samples in cats with and without feline infectious peritonitis. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Accurate and up to date information on FCoV, the cause of FIP, from Dr Diane Addie, lecturer and researcher in this field based at Glasgow University, UK. ...
The most commonly available antiviral drugs for treating FIP are either feline recombinant interferon omega (Virbagen Omega, Virbac) or human interferon. Since the action of interferon is species-specific, feline interferon is more efficacious than human interferon. An experimental drug called GS-441524 was used in a field trial of 31 cats. After 25 days, five cats had died, eight had been cured and subsequently relapsed, and 18 had been cured without any subsequent relapses. The eight who relapsed were treated again, some with higher doses. Of these eight, one died and seven were cured, meaning that 25 of the 31 cats were ultimately cured of FIP. Although the drug is not yet (as of 2019) commercially available in the United States, this study is considered very promising and may lead to commercially available medication for the treatment of FIP.[15] An experimental antiviral drug called GC 376 was used in a field trial of 20 cats: 7 cats went into remission, 13 cats responded initially but ...
The disease is caused by a virus which is often found in healthy cats and usually causes no major health problems. However, in some cats it causes serious disease.. The disease has two different forms. The more common form is called wet FIP because the blood vessels leak, fluid oozes out of the blood and the cats belly swells. This may also occur in the chest stopping the cat from breathing properly. The less common form of the disease is dry FIP in which there is no build up of fluid but thick scar tissue develops on the cats internal organs. Except in rare cases, wet FIP is fatal within about five weeks of diagnosis. The dry form is equally deadly but affected cats may survive for a few months. The accompanying picture shows a cat with wet FIP.. ...
I want to point out first and foremost that I am not a veterinarian, nor even a person who has training in animal science such as a veterinary technician. I am a graduate student of physical anthropology, and an ailurophile. My goal with these FAQs is to take information from the medical literature and convey the parts that are most useful to the average cat owner and translate them into general terms that are easy to understand. I attempted to keep the FAQ as untechnical as possible, but unfortunately with such a complex disease that becomes very difficult. I hope this prooves to be of some usefulness. Also keep in mind that this disease is one of the most controversial subjects in feline health care. This is not a definitive guide to FIP, but only an attempt to compile the most current information. Ideally the reader of this FAQ should use this as a starting point when discussing FIP with their veterinarian. Vets and breeders will hold a wide variety of opinions on this disease, some of which ...
There are many infectious organisms that cause illness in our feline friends. One of the most noteworthy diseases in feline infectious peritonitis. This weeks post is dedicated to sharing important information about the debilitating and deadly condition to raise awareness. I hope you find the information helpful. Happy reading! What is feline infectious peritonitis? Feline … [Read more…]. ...
Marcy Very Much is a lifestyle brand about felines and fashion, with cat-themed merch and conversations between founder Cynthia Mance and her moody cat Marcy.
OLIVEIRA, Fabiano Nunes de; RAFFI, Margarida Buss; SOUZA, Tatiana Mello de and BARROS, Claudio Severo Lombardo de. Feline infectious peritonitis: 13 cases. Cienc. Rural [online]. 2003, vol.33, n.5, pp.905-911. ISSN 1678-4596. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-84782003000500018.. In a survey carried out in tissue specimens from 638 necropsied cats, 13 cases (2.03%) of feline infectious peritonitis were found. Eight of those (61.53%) were of the effusive or wet form and five had the dry non-effusive form of the disease. Ages of affected cats varied from 2-months to 3 yeas. Twelve affected cats (92.30%) were purebreds, five of these cats (38.47%) came from households with more than one cat and three of them came from the same comercial cat raising facility. The duration of clinical courses were 7-45 days and clinical signs included loss of weight, anorexia, diarrhea, jaundice, vomiting, swollen lymph nodes, and neurological disturbances. Necropsy findings, in the wet form included excess of yellowish ...
Neurological and Ocular FIP cats require 7mg/kg MINIMUM, and can go as high as 10mg/kg for extreme ocular or neurological cases.. A dosing calculator can be found here.. It is important to note that the dosage should not be reduced during the course of treatment, regardless of how well the cat is responding. Conversely, if the cat is not responding to the starting dosage, it is safe to increase. It is also crucial to check the cats weight often, and adjust the daily dose accordingly.. The only known side effect of GS441 is skin lesions or burns, due to the acidity of the solution (injectable form). For this reason, it is recommended to always clean the cats skin after giving an injection. Many owners also opt to give oral CBD oil or Hemp oil 30-60 minutes before injecting, to help minimize the stress. Topical lidocaine (without aloe) can also be used to help numb the injection site, but should be cleaned off immediately after the injection.. Supplemental Care When Using GS441 to Cure ...
There are 2 forms of FIP, wet and dry. In the dry form, Granulomas, tumor-like massses of tissue, usually occurring in a chronic inflammatory condition, form slowly. Signs to look for are loss of appetite, weight loss, lethargy, tremors, convulsions, incontinence, disorientation, to name a few. Cats with this form can live up to a year after diagnosis. The wet form signs are similar, weight loss, fever, loss of appetite, anemia, constipation or diarrhea. The cat develops a pot belly due to accumulations of abdominal fluids or can have respiratory problems due to accumulaion of chest fluids. Most cats do not survive this form and live only about 2 months after signs appear. There is a blood test called a titer to measure antibodies against the disease, but it is not completely accurate. Trials are ongoing to find drugs to kill or slow down the virus. At present Pfizer Pharmaceuticals makes a vaccine in nasal spray form, but it shows minimal effectiveness in preventing FIP. ...
Sensitivity, specificity, and PPV of the Rivalta test for the diagnosis of FIP were lower than previously reported except when used in young cats. The components in effusions that lead to a positive Rivalta test remain unknown, but the positivity is not simply related to high total protein concentra …
This weeks case is a 5-month-old female Siamese cat that was obtained from a shelter and has always been small and thin. It has been exhibiting decreased activity over the last month with sudden onset of tetraparesis. Feel free to post your interpretations in the comments. … [Read more...] ...
Dr. Elizabeth Berliner currently serves as the Director of Clinical Programs for Maddies® Shelter Medicine Program at Cornell University. She received her Bachelors in English Literature from Union College (Schenectady, NY), a Masters in English from Binghamton University and her DVM from Cornell University. She worked as a veterinarian both in private practice and in animal shelters in Baltimore, MD before returning to Cornell in January of 2010. Her recent projects include the launching of an official clinical rotation in shelter medicine for veterinary students, as well as creating other opportunities bridging veterinary student training with collaborative shelter and community programs. She also serves as a consultant and lead field veterinarian for the Humane Society Veterinary Medical Associations Rural Area Veterinary Services Program, which facilitates mobile spay/neuter and preventive medicine clinics in rural areas of the U.S. that are without access to routine veterinary ...
Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA is a global healthcare leader working to help the world be well. From developing new therapies that treat and prevent disease to helping people in need, we are committed to improving health and well-being around the world. The Merck Veterinary Manual was first published in 1955 as a service to the community. The legacy of this great resource continues as the Merck Veterinary Manual in the US and Canada and the MSD Manual outside of North America.. ...
Serologically coronavirus free kittens were placed in 2 catteries with a history of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), each cattery representing 1 of the 2 different predominant clinical characteristics of FIP--effusive and granulomatous. The kitte
The information on this blog is primarily about using HA! for animals. However the same scientific data that is used here for animals can be applied to people.This is the essence of One Health (OH) as described in the prior blog.. For example, did you know that theres nothing special about this virus? As with the coronavirus that causes Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP), the virus does not cause serious illness. OH information translated from other sciences describes it thoroughly.. The major difference in the current pandemic is that MDs are not used to treating such a widespread and potentially fatal virus. However, veterinarians deal with serious viruses like parvo, distemper and rabies almost every day.. For example, there is currently a rabbit virus, which is not a coronavirus, that can kill up to 80% of exposed bunnies. This is a scary situation for people who raise rabbits and fortunately, the mortality of SARS-CoV-2 is less than 3%.. ...
Clinical data from 488 cats (1979-2000) with histopathologically confirmed feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) and 620 comparable controls were evaluated retrospectively to assess the value of several diagnostic tests frequently used in the evaluation of cats with suspected FIP. Diagnostic utility of serum albumin to globulin ratio for the diagnosis of FIP was greater than of the utility of serum total protein and -/-globulin concentrations. Diagnostic utility of these variables was higher when performed on effusion. On effusion, positive and negative predictive values of Rivaltas test, a test that distinguishes between exudates and transudates (0.86 and 0.97), anti-coronavirus antibody detection (0.90 and 0.79), and immunofluorescence staining of coronavirus antigen in macrophages (1.00 and 0.57) were investigated. The positive and negative predictive values of presence of anti-coronavirus antibodies were 0.44 and 0.90, respectively, antibody concentrations (1:1,600) were 0.94 and 0.88, ...
Haijema et al., 2004: Haijema BJ, Volders H, Rottier PJ. Live, attenuated coronavirus vaccines through the directed deletion of group-specific genes provide protection against feline infectious peritonitis. Journal of virology. 2004; 78(8); 3863-3871. [PubMed: 15047802 ...
Furin cleavage assays of fluorogenic peptides. A) Synthetic fluorogenic peptides were generated with sequences matching consensus feline enteric coronavirus and
DENVER/November 30, 2017 - A new clinical trial funded in part by Morris Animal Foundation has resulted in a critical veterinary breakthrough - cats with feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) in remission following treatment with a novel antiviral drug. This fatal viral disease previously had no effective treatment or cure.
My friend's cat was recently diagnosed with FIP (feline infectious peritonitis). The Chinese (veterinarians) maintain this is a fatal disease. Can you help?
Yesterday we lost our 6-month-old kitten, Ozzie. We had lived with him for about 4 months.. He had developed ascites, fluid in his belly, about 3 weeks ago. After reading about the causes of this condition online, none of which are treatable, and not being absolutely certain it was not just fat (he was still eating like a horse), I decided to live in denial until he showed other signs of illness.. Those came about this week. Wednesday evening he had trouble jumping up on the sofa, and I vowed to take him into the vet the next day. Unfortunately, he was minimally responsive the next morning. I rushed him to the Animal ER where feline infectious peritonitis , an incurable condition, was diagnosed.. Within an hour he died via euthanasia while I stroked his head and whispered about what a good cat he was.. Between this event, a visiting professor, and my people patients, my time online to blog has been a bit limited.. Goodbye, Ozzie. We didnt have you long, but we loved you bunches.. ...
Summary by Carol Johnson DVM, Ph. D and Heather Lorimer Ph. D. Additional information from literature articles written by Dr. Pedersen has been added for clarification. Feline infectious peritonitis
So, OK, Kitten is now back from the vet. I said yesterday that he didnt look to be in terribly bad shape to me, but by this morning I was a lot less convinced about that... His eyes have gotten quite goopy, and I heard him sneeze a few times, which did not seem like a good sign. And, sure enough, the poor little guy is sick. Just how sick is another question. Apparently he has distemper, which fortunately is not as bad as the disease of the same name in dogs. I now have antibiotics and eye ointment to give him, and, also fortunately, the antibiotic course he needs to take will finish up a couple of days before I leave town, so at least he should be healthy by then. Or... maybe hell be healthy by then. There is also a possibility that he has FIP (feline infectious peritonitis). The vet took an x-ray, but the results were very ambiguous. I have another appointment to take him back in in a week, by which point she thinks it should be obvious whether he has it or not just by feeling his abdomen. ...
Pig was euthanized at around 2 oclock this afternoon. Hed been sick for a couple of weeks and over the past couple of days deteriorated really quickly and really badly. While it broke my fucking heart into a million sharp little pieces it was also the only real choice that we had. It was very likely that he had Feline Infectious Peritonitis and would never really get better. He sat on our laps being touched and loved while the euthanasia kicked in. I miss him already and it feels now like that will never stop ...
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After subsequent discovery of Canine coronavirus in dogs and Feline coronavirus in cats, the three viruses were merged into a ... It includes species earlier described as Feline coronavirus, Canine coronavirus and Transmissible gastroenteritis virus. It is ... It was again renamed Feline coronavirus in 1999. In 1974 there was an outbreak of viral infection among US military dogs. The ... There was another case of coronavirus infection in cats in 1966. The virus caused inflammation of the abdomen (peritonitis) and ...
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Oriental cats show low seroprevalence of Feline Coronavirus Antibodies. Oriental Shorthair cats have a lower incidence of ... I iz Cat (February 2017). "Cats have replaced the Star Trek cast in new epic adventure series". I iz Cat. iizcat.com. Retrieved ... In The International Cat Association (TICA) and many other cat fancier and breeder associations, these cats are considered to ... "Prevalence of Feline Coronavirus Antibodies in Japanese Domestic Cats during the Past Decade". Journal of Veterinary Medical ...
... coronavirus T14 Sunacovirus Suncus murinus coronavirus X74 Tegacovirus Alphacoronavirus 1 Canine coronavirus Feline coronavirus ... Both types of Alphacoronavirus 1, feline coronavirus (FCoV) and canine coronavirus (CCoV), are known to exist in two serotypes ... Duvinacovirus Human coronavirus 229E Luchacovirus Lucheng Rn rat coronavirus Minacovirus Mink coronavirus 1 Ferret coronavirus ... coronavirus 512 Rhinacovirus Rhinolophus bat coronavirus HKU2 Setracovirus Human coronavirus NL63 NL63-related bat coronavirus ...
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She complained about the coronavirus and, once again, feline AIDS. Every sketch opened with a prologue, then the theme song ( ... She is especially concerned about the rate of feline AIDS, a subject that she would bring up on more than one occasion, saying ... While the family makes small talk, Debbie makes negative comments on worrying current events such as feline AIDS, followed by a ... SNL': Rachel Dratch's 'Debbie Downer' ruins a wedding reception with coronavirus talk". USA Today. Retrieved 2020-03-08. ...
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"China's Shenzhen bans the eating of cats and dogs after coronavirus". Reuters. 2020-04-02. Archived from the original on 2020- ... For another scene at Fa's Cat Restaurant in Kaiping, Guo used a hidden camera to film cooks beating cats with a wooden stick, ... Experts think the coronavirus jumped from live animals to people at a market". Business Insider. Archived from the original on ... Don't eat cat and dog meat' - activists to Chinese diners". NDTV Food. Archived from the original on 2015-12-07. Retrieved 2020 ...
It is a receptor for human coronavirus 229E, feline coronavirus serotype II (FCoV-II), TGEV, PEDV and canine coronavirus ... 2020). "A tale of two viruses: the distinct spike glycoproteins of feline coronaviruses". Viruses. 12 (1): 83. doi:10.3390/ ... "Characterization of determinants involved in the feline infectious peritonitis virus receptor function of feline aminopeptidase ... Kolb AF, Maile J, Heister A, Siddell SG (October 1996). "Characterization of functional domains in the human coronavirus HCV ...
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A prominent instance was the deadly feline coronavirus outbreak in a cheetah breeding facility of Oregon in 1983 which had a ... the final report of the Cat Classification Task Force of the IUCN Cat Specialist Group" (PDF). Cat News (Special Issue 11): 30- ... In 2017, the Cat Classification Task Force of the IUCN Cat Specialist Group revised felid taxonomy and recognised these four ... Common diseases of cheetahs include feline herpesvirus, feline infectious peritonitis, gastroenteritis, glomerulosclerosis, ...
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The Cats kept fans on the edge of their seats with a nation-leading seven overtime games. They entered as the No. 1 seed in the ... "American Athletic Conference cancels men's basketball tournament amid coronavirus concerns". The Cincinnati Enquirer. Retrieved ... AAC Tournament, which was ultimately cancelled due to the coronavirus pandemic. The Bearcats were awarded the automatic bid to ...
For the 18th-century English club in London with strong political and literary associations see the Kit-Cat Club. The ... The club started offering coronavirus Covid-19 tests in December 2020. The name KitKatClub is inspired by the frivolous ... The name originated from the Kit-Cat Club, an 18th-century English liberal political society. List of electronic dance music ...
Transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV) occurs in pigs resulting in vomiting, diarrhea, and dehydration.[88] It is ... Many of the same agents cause gastroenteritis in cats and dogs as in humans. The most common organisms are Campylobacter, ... Weese, JS (March 2011). "Bacterial enteritis in dogs and cats: diagnosis, therapy, and zoonotic potential". Veterinary Clinics ...
... coronavirus, notavirus, etc.) supergroup of RNA viruses. The mechanism has been best studied for the enteroviruses (which ... "Structures of the Compact Helical Core Domains of Feline Calicivirus and Murine Norovirus VPg Proteins". J. Virol. 87 (10): ...
Walker was later released from jail due to coronavirus concerns, which drew criticism from Louisville Metro Police Department ...
CAT) are simple questionnaires that may be used to determine the severity of symptoms.[22] Scores on CAT range from 0-40 with ... "COPD Assessment Test (CAT)". American Thoracic Society. Archived from the original on December 3, 2013. Retrieved November 29, ... Miller MS, Tilley LP, Smith FW (January 1989). "Cardiopulmonary disease in the geriatric dog and cat". The Veterinary Clinics ...
severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) bats, pangolins, felines, minks respiratory transmission 2019 ... Cat-scratch disease Bartonella henselae cats bites or scratches from infected cats ... Cat-scratch disease is caused by Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana from fleas which are endemic in cats. Toxocariasis ... Further information: Feline zoonosis. Pets can transmit a number of diseases. Dogs and cats are routinely vaccinated against ...
Heather Chasen, 92, British actress (EastEnders, Cat Run, Les Misérables).[238]. *Ashley Cooper, 83, Australian tennis player, ... Former Real Madrid vice-president Amador Suarez dies of coronavirus *↑ Morre Ciro Pessoa, um dos fundadores dos Titãs (in ... JUI-F MPA dies after contracting coronavirus in Karachi *↑ The Rev. Denis Farkasfalvy, who for decades challenged others to ... Ty, Mercury prize-nominated UK rapper, dies aged 47 of coronavirus *↑ Oud-parlementsvoorzitter Emile Wijntuin overleden (in ...
"Discovery of a rich gene pool of bat SARS-related coronaviruses provides new insights into the origin of SARS coronavirus". ... such as cats.[159] Twenty species of tropical New World snakes are known to capture bats, often waiting at the entrances of ... Li, W.; Shi, Z.; Yu, M.; Ren, W. (28 October 2005). "Bats are natural reservoirs of SARS-like coronaviruses". Science. 310 ( ... since they serve as natural hosts for coronaviruses, several from a single cave in Yunnan, one of which developed into the SARS ...
B97.2) Coronavirus as the cause of diseases classified to other chapters ... A28.1) Cat-scratch disease. (A30-A49) Other bacterial diseases[संपादित करें]. *(A30.) Leprosy (Hansen's disease) ...
"Coronavirus: Belgian cat infected by owner". Brusselstimes.com. 27 Mart 2020. 27 Mart 2020 tarihinde kaynağından arşivlendi. ... "Coronavirus: Primi due casi in Italia" [Coronavirus: First two cases in Italy]. Corriere della sera (İtalyanca). 31 Ocak 2020. ... "Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 11 Şubat 2020. 26 Ocak 2020 ... "Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) - Prevention & Treatment". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 10 Mart ...
Årsagen til sygdommen formodes at være en virus, som er en muteret version af Feline Enteric Coronavirus (FeCV), der ligesom ...
Weese, JS (2011 Mar). "Bacterial enteritis in dogs and cats: diagnosis, therapy, and zoonotic potential". The Veterinary ... Ang transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus o naihahawang gastroenteraytis sanhi ng koronabirus(TGEV) ay nangyayari sa mga ...
"Susceptibility of ferrets, cats, dogs, and other domesticated animals to SARS-coronavirus 2". Science. Consultado o 9 de abril ... SERGAS Enfermidade polo novo coronavirus (COVID-19) *↑ 220,0 220,1 "Naming the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and the virus ... A COVID-19[2] (do inglés coronavirus disease 2019 ou enfermidade por coronavirus 2019) é unha enfermidade infecciosa ... Coronavirus. Bibliografía[editar , editar a fonte]. *. Guo YR, Cao QD, Hong ZS, et al. (marzo de 2020). "The origin, ...
"Coronavirus delays hearings for Auburn man accused of Alaska cold-case slaying". Bangor Daily News. Retrieved May 7, 2020.. ... https://www.kob.com/national-news/man-sentenced-to-life-in-1980-killing-of-colorado-intern/5778731/?cat=600 ... www.news-gazette.com/coronavirus/jim-dey-pritzkers-coronavirus-rules-get-under-county-sheriffs-skin/article_cda643d2-138c-5133- ... news-herald.com/news/ongoing-coronavirus-concerns-move-back-geaugas-child-murder-trial/article_b59f689e-e7c0-11ea-a6cb- ...
Eregouverneur Nationale Bank Fons Verplaetse overleden aan coronavirus *^ Former Tamil Nadu MLA, AMMK treasurer P Vetrivel dies ... David Braley, 79, Canadian politician and sports team owner (BC Lions, Toronto Argonauts, Hamilton Tiger-Cats), Senator (2010- ... Jujuy: murió por coronavirus el referente radical Miguel Ángel Giubergia (in Spanish) ... Coronavirus, è morto il vescovo di Caserta, monsignor Giovanni D'Alise (in Italian) ...
"Coronavirus Update: Social Distancing Will Shape Reopening Of San Francisco Bay Area Schools". 2020-04-15. Retrieved 2021-02-23 ... NII Article ID 40018924726.NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID) :AA11332212. 25 April 2011. Volume 57. p. 601-613. *English abstract ( ...
The Asian palm civet (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus, common palm civet, toddy cat, musang, more...) is a viverrid native to South ... "Global Epidemiology of Bat Coronaviruses". Viruses. 11 (2): 174. doi:10.3390/v11020174. PMC 6409556. PMID 30791586. Most ... Common Palm Civet/Toddy Cat/Palm Cat (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus)".. ... it is called the toddy cat.[citation needed] ... Punugu Poonai புனுகுப்பூனை in Tamil, also meaning 'musk cat';. ...
Cats[edit]. Avian influenza in cats can show a variety of symptoms and usually lead to death. Cats are able to get infected by ... Coronavirus. Hepatitis. DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... Several domestic species have been infected with and shown symptoms of H5N1 viral infection, including cats, dogs, ferrets, ... either consuming an infected bird or by contracting the virus from another infected cat. ...
"COVID-19 (coronavirus)". COVID-19 (Coronavirus). April 6, 2020.. *^ "College of Letters & Science". University of Wisconsin ... In 2012, UW-Madison experiments on cats came under fire from People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals who claimed the ... 2020 In response to an ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 and amidst a statewide public health emergency declaration ... "UW-Madison has ended controversial cat experiments targeted by PETA". The Capital Times. Archived from the original on July 9 ...
Global Report Investigating Novel Coronavirus Haplotypes». Pango team. *↑ 8,0 8,1 8,2 «Living Evidence - SARS-CoV-2 variants». ... 34,0 34,1 Roberts, Michelle «Another new coronavirus variant seen in the UK». BBC NEWS, 16-02-2021. ... El coronavirus 2 de la síndrome respiratòria aguda greu (SARS-CoV-2), el virus que causa la malaltia respiratòria causada per ... Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)» (en anglès americà). CDC. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 15-01-2021. ...
"Puppies & burnout: The economic impact of the coronavirus on vets". The Conversation. Retrieved 10 August 2020.. ... Small animal practice - Usually dogs, cats, and other companion animals/household pets such as hamsters and gerbils. Some ... felines, canines, rodents, and even exotic animals). Their responsibility is not only for the health and well being of the ... such as declawing of cats, docking of tails, cropping of ears and debarking on dogs.[2] ...
Coronavirus felin. *▪ Virusul leucozei feline. *▪ Filovirus. *▪ Flavivirus. G *▪ Virusuri GB. *▪ Virusul Febrei Galbene ...
Feline vaccination. *H5N1 clinical trials. *Immunization during pregnancy. *List of vaccine topics ... Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. *Nipah virus infection. *Rift Valley fever. *Severe acute respiratory syndrome ...
Felids (cats) are the primary hosts for Toxoplasma gondii a parasitic protozoan which causes Toxoplasmosis.[18] Approximately ... Li W, Shi Z, Yu M, Ren W, et al. Bats are natural reservoirs of SARS-like coronaviruses. Science. 2005 Oct 28;310(5748):676-9. ... and the SARS like coronaviruses[14][15] and in many cases as a vector for various viruses such as the lyssaviruses including ...
IV: SARS coronavirus *Severe acute respiratory syndrome. *V: Orthomyxoviridae: Influenzavirus A/B/C/D *Influenza/Avian ... Cat-scratch disease Bartonella henselae Cellulitis usually Group A Streptococcus and Staphylococcus ...
"Scientists Consider Indoor Ultraviolet Light to Zap Coronavirus in the Air". The New York Times. Retrieved 9 May 2020.. ... cats, and human beings, are much easier to spot with ultraviolet. Urine trails of rodents can be detected by pest control ...
Socks the Whitehouse Cat (February 19, 2005). "Re: ACM ethics complaint against Cerf - first draft". Newsgroup: comp.org.acm. ... "Vint Cerf, who helped create the internet, has the coronavirus". Business Insider. Retrieved March 31, 2020.. ... Socks the Whitehouse Cat (February 25, 2005). "ACM ethics complaint against Cerf - first draft". Newsgroup: comp.org.acm. ...
ingestion of material contaminated with infected dog or cat feces (humans: dead-end host) ... IV: SARS coronavirus *Severe acute respiratory syndrome. *V: Orthomyxoviridae: Influenza virus A/B/C/D *Influenza/Avian ... ingestion of contaminated water food or soil with oocysts in cat feces that is more than one day old ...
... s are among the animals that can be infected with the coronavirus.[19] Transmission of the virus from minks to humans was ... Sunda leopard cat (P. javanensis). *Flat-headed cat (P. planiceps). *Rusty-spotted cat (P. rubiginosus) ...
"Peter Rabbit 2' Pushed to August Over Coronavirus Fears (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. 10 March 2020. Retrieved 2020-03- ... The Sly Old Cat. *The Tale of Kitty-in-Boots. Adaptations. *The Tales of Beatrix Potter ... "Sony Delays Release of 'Morbius,' 'Ghostbusters,' More Films Due to Coronavirus". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the ...
The Manx rat is tailless due to a genetic mutation, and was named for the Manx cat, which shares this feature,[22] though not ... Several diseases, like Rat Coronavirus Infection (RCI), Sendai virus, and Murine Respiratory Mycoplasmosis (MRM, Mycoplasma ... While these movies generally emphasize the popular perception of malevolence[49]-they kill people and cats and ransack grocery ... darkest at the base of the tail and nose as in Siamese cats), and downunder or downunders (an Australian variety which has a ...
An example of this would be a fire department responding to help retrieve a cat from a tree, where no life, health or property ... mudslides and outbreaks of diseases such as coronavirus, cholera, Ebola, and malaria. ...
Feline coronavirus (FCoV) is a positive-stranded RNA virus that infects cats worldwide. It is a coronavirus of the species ... Feline coronavirus is typically shed in feces by healthy cats and transmitted by the fecal-oral route to other cats. In ... "Feline Coronavirus Type II Strains 79-1683 and 79-1146 Originate from a Double Recombination between Feline Coronavirus Type I ... cats from feline coronavirus infection". Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery. 14 (2): 171-176. doi:10.1177/1098612X11429644 ...
... or Feline Enteric Infection Virus (FECV). The method involves determining t ... Provided is a method for determining whether a feline is infected with pathogenic Feline Infectious Peritonitis Virus (FIPV) ... 1. A method for determining whether a feline is infected with pathogenic Feline Infectious Peritonitis Virus (FIPV) or Feline ... A kit for determining whether a feline is infected with pathogenic Feline Infectious Peritonitis Virus (FIPV) or Feline Enteric ...
Learn the transmission, symptoms and treatment of feline coronavirus and FIP in cats. ... is a big cause of infectious death in young cats. ... Feline Coronavirus and FIP in Cats. Note: If you are looking ... Most cats in catteries and rescues are infected with feline Coronavirus.. *Separate new litters of kittens and any cats that ... Remember older cats are more resistant to a Coronavirus infection than a new kitten. Bringing in an older cat has less risk and ...
Pet cats and dogs cannot pass the new coronavirus to humans, but they can test positive for low levels of the pathogen if they ... Dogs, cats cant pass on coronavirus, but can test positive. Pet cats and dogs cannot pass the new coronavirus to humans, but ... HONG KONG -- Pet cats and dogs cannot pass the new coronavirus on to humans, but they can test positive for low levels of the ... Pet cats and dogs cannot pass the new coronavirus on to humans, but they can test positive for low levels of the pathogen if ...
The Chinese city of Shenzhen has banned the eating of dogs and cats as part of a wider clampdown on the wildlife trade since ... Scientists suspect the coronavirus passed to humans from animals. Some of the earliest infections were found in people who had ... "Dogs and cats as pets have established a much closer relationship with humans than all other animals, and banning the ... the eating of dogs and cats as part of a wider clampdown on the wildlife trade since the emergence of the new coronavirus. ...
This disease is comparatively high in multi-cat households as compared to those with a single cat. Learn more about the causes ... is a viral disease in cats which carries a high mortality due to its characteristic aggressiveness and nonresponsiveness to ... Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP) in Cats. Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a viral disease in cats which carries a ... it cannot distinguish the type of coronavirus, or even whether it is the cause of your cats condition, only that your cat has ...
... with pet cats being infected and passing on the infection to contacts. It also offers the chance to see how the disease ... Ten cats were placed into three groups. Group 1 (principal infected animals) consisted of six cats (three cats/cage) and was ... Cats susceptible to and potential reservoirs for novel coronavirus. *Download PDF Copy ... 2020, August 06). Cats susceptible to and potential reservoirs for novel coronavirus. News-Medical. Retrieved on May 05, 2021 ...
... The role of antibody in the pathogenesis of FIP is complex. Local antibody in the gut ...
... she said she contracted the novel coronavirus. Her sharing that she tested positive for coronavirus comes after comments in ... Doja Cat has spent the last few months in hot water over her comments on COVID-19. In a recent interview on the United ... Doja Cat, Who Made Fun of People Worried About Coronavirus, Has COVID-19. ... she said she contracted the novel coronavirus. Her sharing that she tested positive for coronavirus comes after comments in ...
... feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) and feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV). FECV causes subclinical infections; FIPV ... causes feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), a systemic and fatal disease. It is thought that mutations in FECV enable infection ... feline coronavirus; feline enteric coronavirus; feline infectious peritonitis; feline infectious peritonitis virus; pathology; ... Feline coronaviruses (FCoV) exist as 2 biotypes: feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) and feline infectious peritonitis virus ( ...
... scientists investigated the susceptibility of ferrets and other species that have close contact with humans to the coronavirus ... But in my opinion, people who are asymptomatic could infect their cats, so I urge all cat owners to keep their cats indoors ... Jianzhong Shi et al, "Susceptibility of ferrets, cats, dogs and other domesticated animals to SARS-coronavirus-2," Science, ... Cats are susceptible to airborne infection and can infect each other, with extensive lung damage evident in young cats. Ferrets ...
Cat Chat Feline Forum. Cat Chat, the Cat Rescue Resource. Charity no. 1100649 ... Im really sorry to hear you lost a cat to FIP.. I will be keeping my boy as an only cat - I wouldnt want to risk another cat ... VIP Cat Chatter!. Posts: 2256. Joined: Thu Mar 13, 2014 1:36 pm. Re: FIV+ and coronavirus. * Quote ... VIP Cat Chatter!. Posts: 2256. Joined: Thu Mar 13, 2014 1:36 pm. Re: FIV+ and coronavirus. * Quote ...
The Chinese city of Shenzhen has banned the eating of dogs and cats as part of a wider clampdown on the wildlife trade since ... China coronavirus: Authorities in the southern Chinese technology hub said the ban on eating dogs and cats would come into ... Track Coronavirus pandemic in India and get the latest COVID-19 news from around the world on ndtv.com/coronavirus ... Chinese city of ShenzhenDogs and catseating of dogs and cats ... "Dogs and cats as pets have established a much closer ...
A pet cat has fallen ill with coronavirus in the UK after apparently catching Covid-19 from its owners. The infection was ... A pet cat has fallen ill with coronavirus in the UK after apparently catching Covid-19 from its owners. ... A private vet initially diagnosed the pet with feline herpes virus, a common cat respiratory infection, but the sample was also ... coronavirus) and were presumed to be infected from their owners, but this is the first report of an infected cat in the UK. ...
Last week, another feline turned out to have the virus in Belgium. ... A pet cat has tested positive for the dreaded Covid-19 coronavirus in Hong Kong, after apparently contracting the disease from ... Cat-astrophe in the making? ANOTHER feline tests positive for coronavirus, this time in Hong Kong 31 Mar, 2020 21:10 ... Cat contracts coronavirus FROM sick owner in new case of human-to-animal transition As of Tuesday, 27 dogs and 15 cats had been ...
Dogs, cats cant pass on coronavirus, but can test positive Health Posted: Mar 5, 2020 / 02:43 AM EST. / Updated: Mar 5, 2020 ... Pet cats and dogs cannot pass the new coronavirus on to humans, but they can test positive for low levels of the pathogen if ... HONG KONG (AP) - Pet cats and dogs cannot pass the new coronavirus on to humans, but they can test positive for low levels of ... Deputies searching for man who stole cat blood from clinic Slipping Under the Radar: New rib surgery fights chronic pain, ...
"Glial response in the central nervous system of cats with feline infectious peritonitis," Journal of Feline Medicine and ... A. S. Hora, P. O. Tonietti, S. A. Taniwaki, K. M. Asano, P. Maiorka, L. J. Richtzenhain, and P. E. Brandão, "Feline Coronavirus ... Intrahost Diversity of Feline Coronavirus: A Consensus between the Circulating Virulent/Avirulent Strains and the Internal ... 2Coronavirus Research Group, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of São Paulo, Avenida Professor Dr. Orlando Marques de ...
Idexx tested thousands of cats and dogs for coronavirus. None had it.. The Westbrook-based veterinary diagnostics firm says the ... "For dogs or cats presenting with respiratory signs, the recommendation is to contact a veterinarian to test for more common ... has evaluated thousands of canine and feline specimens during its validation of a new veterinary test system for the COVID-19 ... The Westbrook-based veterinary diagnostics company said it has seen no positive results in either cats or dogs, confirming ...
What is feline enteric coronavirus (FECV)? Meaning of feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) as a legal term. What does feline ... Definition of feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... feline. (redirected from feline enteric coronavirus (FECV)). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia. See: ... Feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) legal definition of feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) https://legal-dictionary. ...
With at least 11 different pharmaceutical and vaccine companies now working on new vaccines for the Wuhan coronavirus (COVID-19 ... More news about the Big Pharma fat cats who are making out like bandits from the plandemic is available at Pandemic.news. ... badhealth, badmedicine, badscience, Big Pharma, billions, biotech, coronavirus, covid-19, Dangerous Medicine, deception, ... With at least 11 different pharmaceutical and vaccine companies now working on new vaccines for the Wuhan coronavirus (COVID-19 ...
Cats can catch coronavirus, study finds, prompting WHO investigation. *. U.S. approves Google request to use segment of U.S.- ... Cats can catch coronavirus, study finds, prompting WHO investigation. Posted on April 9, 2020. By Saumya Joseph ... Reuters) - Cats can become infected with the new coronavirus but dogs appear not to be vulnerable, according to a study ... They also found cats can infect each other via respiratory droplets. Infected cats had virus in the mouth, nose and small ...
Pet cats and dogs cannot pass the new coronavirus on to humans, but they can test positive for low levels of the pathogen if ... HONG KONG (AP) - Pet cats and dogs cannot pass the new coronavirus on to humans, but they can test positive for low levels of ... Global Coronavirus Tracker: See map here Data from The Center for Systems Science and Engineering at Johns Hopkins University. ... The department suggested any pets, including dogs and cats, from households where someone has tested positive for the virus ...
Feline coronavirus (FCoV) is an etiological agent causing either a sub-clinical disease (feline enteric coronavirus - FECV) or ... Feline infectious peritonitis; Molecular biology; Animal diseases; Virology; Entry mechanisms; Feline coronavirus; Coronavirus ... a fatal systemic disease (feline infectious peritonitis virus -FIPV). Two FCoV serotypes have been described, the serotype I ...
Feline coronaviruses occur as 2 pathotypes: nonvirulent feline enteric coronaviruses (FECVs), which replicate in intestinal ... severe acute respiratory syndrome and feline coronaviruses, respectively, are the most recognized examples. ... Coronaviruses are well known for their potential to change their host or tissue tropism, resulting in unpredictable new ... epithelium cells, and lethal feline infectious peritonitis viruses (FIPVs), which replicate in macrophages. Evidence indicates ...
A Siberian cat named Mir that Russian President Vladimir Putin gifted to the Governor of Japans Akita prefecture has been ... Not kitten around: Cat that Putin gifted to Japanese governor placed in isolation over coronavirus 29 Apr, 2020 08:48 ... "We were very alarmed by the news that cases of infection of domestic cats with the new coronavirus were noted in the USA," ... Also on rt.com Cat gifted by Putin understands Japanese, Akita prefecture governor says Like this story? Share it with a friend ...
Shenzhen has banned consumption of dogs and cats as part of a clampdown on the wildlife trade since the emergence of the novel ... Cats can spread coronavirus to other cats: Study. A team of Chinese researchers has revealed that cats can pass coronavirus to ... VIDEO: Even dogs and cats are wearing face masks in China over coronavirus fears. Fearing that their pets could contract the ... Scientists suspect the coronavirus passed to humans from animals.. Some of the earliest infections were found in people who had ...
... with coronavirus from humans and other cats.In the study, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, researchers ... from the University of Tokyo and the University of Wisconsin School of Veterinary Medicine found that our feline friends can ... A study published Wednesday finds that cats can get infected by coronavirus and transmit it to other cats - but theres no ... Cats without any symptoms can spread coronavirus to other cats, study finds. Joshua Bote USA TODAY Thursday. May 14, 2020 at 1: ...
The causative agent was found to belong to the coronaviruses [1]. Between 5 and 12 % of all cats seropositive for feline ... feline coronaviruses. In contrast, type 2 viruses are known to be the product of recombination between canine and feline ... while few cats hardly every shed, the majority of cats shed low to intermediate amounts and few individual cats have very large ... Feline infectious peritonitis viruses arise by mutation from endemic feline enteric coronaviruses. Virology 1998, 243(1), 150- ...
Dont abandon us, we dont transmit coronavirus, say Cairo dogs and cats. Posted on May 27, 2020. By Nancy Lapid ... We dont spread the coronavirus.. "We started this campaign after noticing that there were many people leaving dogs and cats ... Dont abandon us, we dont transmit coronavirus, say Cairo dogs and cats ... Poosey, a 3-year-old long-haired cat, and Snowy, a white Griffon dog, took turns posing with a sign saying: "I love you. Please ...
  • Feline coronavirus (FCoV) is a positive-stranded RNA virus that infects cats worldwide. (wikipedia.org)
  • The only known exceptions are on the Falkland Islands and the Galapagos, where studies found no occurrences of FCoV antibodies in cats tested. (wikipedia.org)
  • FCoV type II is a recombinant virus type I with spike genes (S protein) replacement from FCoV by the canine coronavirus (CCoV) spikes. (wikipedia.org)
  • 9 ), we determined and analyzed M genes from 43 FCoV genomes, 20 of which came from cats in single-cat households, and 23 from cattery animals. (cdc.gov)
  • Exceptions in this picture were FIPV 9 in cattery F and FECVs 406 and 407 in cattery D, presumably caused by multiple FCoV lineages in these open catteries (an open cattery is one in which cats routinely move in and out, usually for breeding purposes). (cdc.gov)
  • Feline coronavirus (FCoV) is an etiological agent causing either a sub-clinical disease (feline enteric coronavirus - FECV) or a fatal systemic disease (feline infectious peritonitis virus -FIPV). (cornell.edu)
  • Between 5 and 12 % of all cats seropositive for feline coronavirus (FCoV) succumb to FIP during the first 12 months of their lives [2,3]. (vin.com)
  • FIP occurs sporadically in FCoV seropositive cats and preferentially in animals originating from multiple cat households. (vin.com)
  • RT-PCR tests for the detection of FCoV-specific RNA are of no diagnostic use as many healthy cats are positive for FCoV, too. (vin.com)
  • The shedding pattern of FCoV in cattery cats is a continuum: while few cats hardly every shed, the majority of cats shed low to intermediate amounts and few individual cats have very large amounts of FCoV in their feces. (vin.com)
  • Generally, young kittens shed the highest amounts while older cats shed significantly lower concentrations of FCoV. (vin.com)
  • If one or more "high shedders" are living in a group of cats, the air, food containers and especially litter boxes will be heavily contaminated with FCoV. (vin.com)
  • Feline coronavirus (FCoV) antigen was immunohistochemically detected using indirect immunofluorescence and was present in all kittens and in 93% of the 5 investigated organs (lung, liver, spleen, kidney, and mesenteric lymph node). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a highly fatal systemic disease in cats, caused by feline coronavirus (FCoV) infection. (springer.com)
  • Of note, associated RNA is frequently detected in blood from FCoV-endemic multi-cat households. (springer.com)
  • Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a disease process initiated in some cats by the effects of a corona virus (FCoV). (vetcontact.com)
  • Although not mentioned specifically by Hartman and coworkers, detection of anti FCoV antibodies in CSF associated with a pyogranulomatous cytologic response should be considered for support of FIP as a cause of neurologic signs in a feline. (vetcontact.com)
  • The authors note that PCR evidence of FCoV in the serum may occur in viremic cats who do not develop clinical FIP, and that technical issues may also yield negative PCR results in some patients who have histopathologically confirmed FIP. (vetcontact.com)
  • Feline coronavirus (FCoV) is transmitted via the faecal-oral route and primarily infects enterocytes, but subsequently spreads by monocyte-associated viraemia. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to examine virus distribution and viral load in organs and gut compartments of specified-pathogen-free cats, orally infected with non-virulent type I FCoV, over different time periods and with or without detectable viraemia. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Feline coronavirus (FCoV) causes feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). (uzh.ch)
  • Since 2002, when 20 cats on the Falkland Islands were found to be FCoV seronegative, only seronegative cats could be imported. (uzh.ch)
  • Between 2005-2007, 95 pet and 10 feral cats tested negative by indirect immunofluorescence antibody (IFA) analysis using two strains of type II FCoV, two transmissible gastroenteritis virus assays, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and rapid immunomigration test. (uzh.ch)
  • The FCoV/ FIP-free status of the Falkland Islands cats should be maintained by FCoV testing incoming cats. (uzh.ch)
  • Recent evidence suggests that the type II feline coronavirus (FCoV) strains 79-1146 and 79-1683 have arisen from a homologous RNA recombination event between FCoV type I and canine coronavirus (CCV). (asm.org)
  • Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of a real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR) detecting feline coronavirus (FCoV) RNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of cats with and without neurological and/or ocular signs for the diagnosis of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Feline coronavirus (FCoV) exists as two pathotypes, and FCoV spike gene mutations are considered responsible for the pathotypic switch in feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) pathogenesis. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Measurement of feline coronavirus (FCoV) antibody titres is utilised mainly for diagnosing feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) and for quarantine purposes. (uzh.ch)
  • Thirteen effusions, one plasma and three undefined samples from cats with FIP, which gave unexpectedly low FCoV antibody titres, were examined by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). (uzh.ch)
  • A closed household of 26 cats in which feline coronavirus (FCoV), feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) were endemic was observed for 10 years. (eurekamag.com)
  • Each cat was seropositive for FCoV on at least one occasion and the infection was maintained by reinfection. (eurekamag.com)
  • The pattern of shedding of feline coronavirus (FCoV) was established in 155 naturally infected pet cats from 29 households over periods of up to five years. (bmj.com)
  • The cats rarely shed FCoV in their saliva. (bmj.com)
  • Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), caused by feline coronavirus (FCoV) infection, is a highly lethal disease without effective therapy and prevention. (biomedcentral.com)
  • C-type lectin DC-SIGN ( CD209 ), and the five FIP-associated SNPs identified from Birman cats of USA and Denmark origins and their associations with the outcome of FCoV infection in 71 FIP cats and 93 FCoV infected non-FIP cats in a genetically more diverse cat populations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Feline dendritic cell (DC)-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-grabbing non-integrin (fDC-SIGN, encoded by fCD209 ), a key coreceptor during the infection of both type I and II FCoV [ 18 ], was found to affect binding and infection of type I FCoV. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Despite the close relationship to FCoV infection, polymorphisms in the fCD209 and feline TNF-α ( fTNFA ) genes and their association with FIP occurrence have never been investigated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It has two different forms: feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) that infects the intestines and feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) that causes the disease feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). (wikipedia.org)
  • The virus becomes feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) when random errors occur in the virus infecting an enterocyte, causing the virus to mutate from FECV to FIPV. (wikipedia.org)
  • Provided is a method for determining whether a feline is infected with pathogenic Feline Infectious Peritonitis Virus (FIPV) or Feline Enteric Infection Virus (FECV). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Feline coronaviruses (FCoVs) occur as 2 pathotypes, feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) and feline enteric coronavirus (FECV). (cdc.gov)
  • These viruses occur as 2 pathotypes with an enigmatic, even controversial, relationship: the low-virulence or nonvirulent feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) and the highly lethal feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV). (cdc.gov)
  • Two related strains of feline infectious peritonitis virus isolated from immunocompromised cats infected with a feline enteric coronavirus. (semanticscholar.org)
  • It was hypothesized that this test would correctly discriminate feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) and feline enteric coronavirus (FECV). (physiciansweekly.com)
  • The virus is then referred to as feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV). (snapcats.org)
  • FIPV infection causes a progressive systemic disease called feline infectious peritonitis. (cdc.gov)
  • Some cats are resistant to the virus and can avoid infection or even becoming carriers, while others may become FECV carriers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overcrowding increases the risk of mutation and conversion from FECV to FIPV, which constitutes a major risk factor for the development of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two forms of feline coronavirus are found in nature: enteric (FECV) and FIP (FIPV). (wikipedia.org)
  • 9. The method of claim 1, further comprising identifying the feline as not infected with FIPV or the FECV based on the determining of an absence of the SEQ ID NO:8 and an absence of the mutation of the SEQ ID NO:8. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • FECV is common in cats, causing mild transient enteritis in kittens, but is asymptomatic in adult cats. (cdc.gov)
  • The genomes from individual live cats were from 15 FIPV- and 5 FECV-infected animals. (cdc.gov)
  • However, accumulating evidence supports the mutation hypothesis, which proposes that FIPV evolves from FECV by mutation in individually infected cats ( 7 - 12 ). (cdc.gov)
  • However, FIPV and FECV are not necessarily distinguished with certainty, and the reliability of RT-PCR for FIP diagnosis depends largely on the test specimens as well as rearing environment of the affected cat. (springer.com)
  • The study published on the preprint server bioRxiv * in August 2020 shows that this is indeed taking place, with pet cats being infected and passing on the infection to contacts. (news-medical.net)
  • WEDNESDAY, May 13, 2020 (HealthDay News) -- With sporadic reports of tigers and housecats picking up the new coronavirus from nearby humans, a new trial gives more details on whether cats can pass the virus to each other. (ahealthyme.com)
  • Founded in March 2020 by Jimmy Wu and Lambert Wang, Cat Person is the company behind the subscription shaving company Harry's . (dezeen.com)
  • Wet cat food current value sales are predicted to continue seeing a recovery in 2020, following the trend seen in 2019. (euromonitor.com)
  • Cat food in Israel continued to experience increasing current value and volume growth in 2020, a trend that is predicted to strengthen over the forecast period. (euromonitor.com)
  • This behaviour is benefitting cat treats and premium wet cat food which both recorded impressive performances in 2020, with the latter generally perceived to be an indulgent treat in itself. (euromonitor.com)
  • Tropism switching has been implicated in the zoonotic emergence of human coronavirus OC43 from a bovine coronavirus and in turning transmissible gastroenteritis virus, an enteric porcine coronavirus, into porcine respiratory coronavirus, a respiratory pathogen ( 3 , 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Together with porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), canine coronavirus (CCV), and human coronavirus (HCV) 229E, FCoVs form a separate cluster within the genus Coronavirus . (asm.org)
  • Detection of a novel human coronavirus by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. (semanticscholar.org)
  • With quite a few factories, we will provide a wide variety of Feline Coronavirus Test, Coronavirus Fast Test Kit , Human Coronavirus 2019 Test Kit , Syphilis Test , The principle of our company is to provide high-quality products, professional service, and honest communication. (testsealabs.com)
  • Note: If you are looking for information regarding COVID-19 in pets, please check out our blog post Coronavirus in Humans vs. Dogs and Cats written by Dr. Greer, DVM. (revivalanimal.com)
  • Coronavirus is spread through litter pans, grooming, toys and humans moving from area to area. (revivalanimal.com)
  • Scientists suspect the coronavirus passed to humans from animals. (reuters.com)
  • Dogs and cats as pets have established a much closer relationship with humans than all other animals, and banning the consumption of dogs and cats and other pets is a common practice in developed countries and in Hong Kong and Taiwan," the city government said in an order posted on Wednesday. (reuters.com)
  • Chinese scientists investigated the susceptibility of ferrets and other species that have close contact with humans to the coronavirus that causes COVID-19. (tulsaworld.com)
  • It has not yet been determined if cats can transmit COVID-19 to humans, but fearing that possibility, some people may start killing free-roaming cats - like some people in Peru, who have been reported to be slaughtering bats. (tulsaworld.com)
  • Their policy states that "keeping owned cats confined, such as housing them in an enriched indoor environment or in an outdoor enclosure, or exercising leash-acclimated cats, can minimize the risks to the cats, wildlife, humans and the environment. (tulsaworld.com)
  • Reuters) - Cats can become infected with the new coronavirus but dogs appear not to be vulnerable, according to a study published on Wednesday, prompting the WHO to say it will take a closer look at transmission of the virus between humans and pets. (metro.us)
  • Surveillance for SARS-CoV-2 in cats should be considered as an adjunct to elimination of COVID-19 in humans," the authors wrote. (metro.us)
  • It's both interesting and not terribly surprising in the sense that with the original SARS epidemic, civet cats were implicated as one of the vectors that may have transmitted virus to humans," said Daniel Kuritzkes, head of infectious diseases at Boston's Brigham and Women's Hospital. (metro.us)
  • Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), which emerged suddenly in 2002 and caused severe acute respiratory disease in humans, is the most notorious coronavirus. (cdc.gov)
  • There is currently no evidence that cats can pass Covid-19 on to humans. (rt.com)
  • A study published Wednesday finds that cats can get infected by coronavirus and transmit it to other cats - but there's no evidence they can spread the infection to humans. (tuscaloosanews.com)
  • Researchers from the University of Tokyo and the University of Wisconsin School of Veterinary Medicine found that our feline friends "can readily become infected" with coronavirus from humans and other cats. (tuscaloosanews.com)
  • There is no evidence that cats can infect humans with the coronavirus. (tuscaloosanews.com)
  • One of the cats and the dog both lived with humans who were confirmed carriers of coronavirus. (tuscaloosanews.com)
  • Eight lions and tigers at the Bronx Zoo also tested positive.Related video: Two New York cats are first in U.S. with COVID-19 diagnosisThe team behind the new study, led by international virus expert Yoshihiro Kawaoka of the University of Tokyo and scientists from the University of Wisconsin, said more research is needed to better understand whether cats could transmit the virus to humans as well. (wmtw.com)
  • a better understanding of the role cats may play in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 to humans is needed," they wrote in a letter to the New England Journal of Medicine.The American Veterinary Medical Association noted that the new research was conducted in a lab -- and it's unclear whether cats can be as easily infected in the real world. (wmtw.com)
  • The team behind the new study, led by international virus expert Yoshihiro Kawaoka of the University of Tokyo and scientists from the University of Wisconsin, said more research is needed to better understand whether cats could transmit the virus to humans as well. (wmtw.com)
  • Evidence suggests that COVID-19, the disease caused by the new coronavirus, may have first infected humans via transmission at an animal market in Wuhan, China. (telegram.com)
  • Leyi Wang, a veterinary virologist at the University of Illinois who studies coronaviruses in animals and received the test sample, said genetic tests showed the virus in the cat matched more than 99% to the virus in humans. (telegram.com)
  • ACE-2 receptors are similar in felines and humans, Terio said, but there are differences. (telegram.com)
  • So far, however, there's been no evidence that cats can pass the virus to humans -- only evidence that humans might pass the virus to a pet cat. (ahealthyme.com)
  • While there's as yet no evidence that an infected cat can pass the new coronavirus to humans, Kawaoka's group said it's not out of the realm of possibility. (ahealthyme.com)
  • Given the need to stop the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic through various mechanisms, including breaking transmission chains, a better understanding of the role cats may play in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 to humans is needed," the researchers concluded. (ahealthyme.com)
  • Can Humans Become Infected with the Coronavirus from an Animal Source? (thedoctorstv.com)
  • Dear Vet, If a cat is a corona virus carrier but not affected with FIP, can the carrier cat transmit the corona virus to humans? (petmd.com)
  • A. Cat corona virus cannot be transmitted to humans. (petmd.com)
  • TORONTO -- A drug used to treat a deadly disease caused by a coronavirus in cats may be effective in treating humans diagnosed with COVID-19 as well, according to a new study . (ctvnews.ca)
  • Although animal testing does not affect the availability of coronavirus tests for humans, widespread testing in animals isn't recommended by the USDA, The Associated Press reports. (granitefallsnews.com)
  • Cats are able to adapt to a variety of environments including forests, deserts, urban and the homes of humans. (reference.com)
  • Due to their adaption abilities, cats can easily adjust from an outside living environment to an indoor home environment surrounded by humans. (reference.com)
  • Dear B.C.: Some cats carry a bacterium that does not make cats sick but does make humans sick when it enters the skin through a scratch or bite. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • Welcome humans to the world of the cat. (blogarama.com)
  • Miaow humans: People are getting some idea of cat time, where each and every day seems like the previous one. (blogarama.com)
  • Miaow Humans The cat-like behaviour is increasing here. (blogarama.com)
  • Biochemist Joanne Lemieux is working with U of A colleagues to find out whether a compound known to cure a deadly coronavirus-caused disease in cats might also work against COVID-19 in humans. (folio.ca)
  • It is very exciting that the drug was effective and tolerated in cats," said Lemieux, while cautioning that it still must be proven and tested in humans. (folio.ca)
  • Cock van Oosterhout, professor of evolutionary genetics at UEA, said dogs and cats can contract coronavirus - but that there are no known cases of them carrying it on to humans. (thesun.co.uk)
  • Kevin Tyler, editor-in-chief of Virulence, said: 'Cats are asymptomatic but they are infected by it and they can infect humans with it. (thesun.co.uk)
  • Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, 14(2):171-176. (uzh.ch)
  • Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, 15(4):295-299. (uzh.ch)
  • A pet cat has become the first animal to test positive for coronavirus in the UK, the Government has revealed. (londragazete.com)
  • Two cats have become the first pets in the United States to test positive for coronavirus, federal agencies announced Wednesday in a release recommending a number of precautions pet owners should take. (granitefallsnews.com)
  • FIPV causes feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), a systemic and fatal disease. (nih.gov)
  • A targeted sequencing approach was undertaken to identify mutations in a key viral activation site that correlate with the development of systemic disease after feline coronavirus infection. (cornell.edu)
  • In some infected cats, virulent virus mutants induce feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), a fatal systemic disease that can develop in association with viraemia. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Clinicopathologic features of a systemic coronavirus-associated disease resembling feline infectious peritonitis in the domestic ferret (Mustela putorius). (oregonstate.edu)
  • FIPV causes feline infectious peritonitis, for which treatment is generally symptomatic and palliative only. (wikipedia.org)
  • FIPV causes a lethal, incurable disease: feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). (wikipedia.org)
  • 6. The method of claim 1, wherein the feline is identified as infected with FIPV based on the determining of the mutation of the SEQ ID NO:8. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • FIPV was detected in the effusion of 25/59 cats, one of them being a control cat with chronic kidney disease. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • With the current COVID-19 pandemic caused by the similar severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), researchers from Kansas State University, Louisiana State University, and the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai have been looking into the possibility that the virus is also transmitted by domestic pets, especially cats. (news-medical.net)
  • But in my opinion, people who are asymptomatic could infect their cats, so I urge all cat owners to keep their cats indoors during this global pandemic. (tulsaworld.com)
  • The installation, unveiled today, has seen its debut delayed from March due to the coronavirus pandemic. (aol.co.uk)
  • More news about the Big Pharma fat cats who are making out like bandits from the plandemic is available at Pandemic.news . (newstarget.com)
  • Now Vederas, Lemieux and virologist Lorne Tyrrell are combining their labs' efforts to test the inhibitor against the new coronavirus that is causing the worldwide COVID-19 pandemic. (folio.ca)
  • Zoonotic species such as Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the aetiological agent of the COVID-19 pandemic. (wikipedia.org)
  • While an ELISA or IFA test will show the presence of coronavirus antibodies, it cannot distinguish the type of coronavirus, or even whether it is the cause of your cats' condition, only that your cat has been in contact with the virus and has developed antibodies to it. (petmd.com)
  • Cats infected with a feline coronavirus generally do not show any symptoms during the initial viral infection, and an immune response occurs with the development of antiviral antibodies. (snapcats.org)
  • With the assistance of the antibodies that are supposed to protect the cat, white blood cells are infected with virus, and these cells then transport the virus throughout the cat's body. (snapcats.org)
  • The ELISA, IFA, and virusneutralization tests detect the presence of coronavirus antibodies in a cat, but these tests cannot differentiate between the various strains of feline coronavirus. (snapcats.org)
  • The HEK293 derived recombinant protein contains the Novel Coronavirus 2019-nCoV Spike Glycoprotein S1, Wuhan-Hu-1 strain, amino acids 1-674 fused to Fc tag at C-terminal. (prosci-inc.com)
  • A human infecting coronavirus (viral pneumonia) called 2019 novel coronavirus, 2019-nCoV was found in the fish market at the city of Wuhan, Hubei province of China on December 2019. (prosci-inc.com)
  • RSCU analysis proposes that the 2019-nCoV is a recombinant within the viral spike glycoprotein between the bat coronavirus and an unknown coronavirus. (prosci-inc.com)
  • Masterfoods' position as the largest player in cat food remained undisputed in 2019, with its share seeing only slight erosion despite intense competition from premium private label ranges. (euromonitor.com)
  • While Masterfoods remains strong in cat treats with Whiskas and Dreamies, the company however lost the lead in this area to Vitakraft in 2019, indicating the impact of growing competition. (euromonitor.com)
  • The third largest branded cat food player in 2019, Vitakraft, strongly benefited from cat treats' growth, as the leading player in the category. (euromonitor.com)
  • BioPet Ltd retained is leadership of cat food in 2019, as it offers a wide product portfolio which caters to all price segments. (euromonitor.com)
  • Whilst premium cat food Royal Canin, which offers both wet and dry products, retained its leadership of the category in brand terms in 2019, it continued to suffer from strong loss of share as global owner Mars decided to shift distribution from local player Beit Erez Havat Milatin. (euromonitor.com)
  • such as younger kittens, old cats, immunosuppression due to viral-FIV (feline immunodeficiency virus) and/or FeLV (feline leukemia virus) and stress, including the stress of separation and adoption. (wikipedia.org)
  • Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a viral disease in cats which carries a high mortality due to its characteristic aggressiveness and nonresponsiveness to fever, along with other complications. (petmd.com)
  • When the animals were tested via nasal swabs for the presence of viral RNA, all the infected cats tested positive from days 1 to 10, but the maximum at days 1 through 5 following contact. (news-medical.net)
  • The study, based on research conducted in China in January and February, found cats and ferrets highly susceptible to the virus when researchers attempted to infect the animals by introducing viral particles via the nose. (metro.us)
  • In contrast, antibody titers rather seem to reflect the viral load found in an infected cat [7]. (vin.com)
  • As transmission is via the fecal-oral route, it becomes clear that the viral load in an individual cat may be affected by the infectious pressure that exists in a group of cats living under crowded conditions. (vin.com)
  • Feline infectious peritonitis: insights into feline coronavirus pathobiogenesis and epidemiology based on genetic analysis of the viral 3c gene. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Lemieux said the drug was initially developed to prevent coronavirus infection in cats, which can result in the viral disease feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). (ctvnews.ca)
  • Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a viral disease of cats caused by certain strains of a virus called the feline coronavirus. (snapcats.org)
  • Feline coronaviruses occur as 2 pathotypes: nonvirulent feline enteric coronaviruses (FECVs), which replicate in intestinal epithelium cells, and lethal feline infectious peritonitis viruses (FIPVs), which replicate in macrophages. (cdc.gov)
  • "We were very alarmed by the news that cases of infection of domestic cats with the new coronavirus were noted in the USA," Satake told the Tass news agency. (rt.com)
  • In the study, a team led by Yoshihiro Kawaoka, of the University of Tokyo, first deliberately infected (via inoculation) three domestic cats with the new coronavirus. (ahealthyme.com)
  • Sensitivity and specificity of a real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction detecting feline coronavirus mutations in effusion and serum/plasma of cats to diagnose feline infectious peritonitis. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Domestic cats living in a group therefore have a much higher epidemiological risk of mutation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a large group of cats, n, the epidemiological risk of mutation (E) is higher and expressed theoretically as: E = n2 −n. (wikipedia.org)
  • A house hosting 2 cats therefore has risk of mutation E = 2. (wikipedia.org)
  • We document a functionally relevant S1/S2 mutation that arises when FIP develops in a cat. (nih.gov)
  • Intrahost Diversity of Feline Coronavirus: A Consensus between the Circulating Virulent/Avirulent Strains and the Internal Mutation Hypotheses? (hindawi.com)
  • however, a mutation of this avirulent virus (feline enteric coronavirus) to a virulent type (FIP virus) can lead to FIP incidence. (springer.com)
  • In a small percent of infected cats (5 to 10 percent), either by a mutation of the virus or by an aberration of the immune response, the infection progresses into clinical FIP. (snapcats.org)
  • However, cats with weak immune systems are most likely to develop the disease, including kittens, cats already infected with feline leukemia virus (FeLV), and geriatric cats. (snapcats.org)
  • During the 2002-2004 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-1) outbreak, cats living with patients were found to be infected and to transmit the virus. (news-medical.net)
  • The researchers pointed to cases in 2016, when "an H7N2 influenza outbreak in New York City cat shelters highlighted the public health implications of cat-to-human transmission to workers in animal shelters. (ahealthyme.com)
  • In that outbreak, "virus isolated from the infected human [worker] was closely related to virus isolated from a cat," researchers reported in the journal Emerging Infectious Diseases in 2017. (ahealthyme.com)
  • When the current SARS-CoV-2 outbreak was occurring, we decided to test this feline drug to see if it would work with the current virus that was circulating," Lemieux said. (ctvnews.ca)
  • A tiger at the Bronx Zoo in New York City who developed a dry cough and loss of appetite after contact with an infected zookeeper tested positive for the coronavirus on Sunday. (metro.us)
  • Two pet cats in New York state have tested positive for the coronavirus, marking the first confirmed cases in companion animals in the United States, federal officials said. (freepressjournal.in)
  • Group 1 (principal infected animals) consisted of six cats (three cats/cage) and was inoculated via intranasal (IN) and oral (PO) routes simultaneously with a total dose of 1 x 106 TCID50 of SARS-CoV-2 in 2 ml DMEM. (news-medical.net)
  • They found in laboratory exposure tests that SARS-CoV-2 replicates poorly in dogs, pigs, chickens and ducks, but ferrets and cats are susceptible to infection. (tulsaworld.com)
  • But there was good news, too: Even though cats can transmit the new SARS-CoV-2 virus to other felines, none of the kitties infected in the new study appeared to get sick. (ahealthyme.com)
  • Still, the team of American and Japanese researchers said that domestic cats "may be a silent intermediate host of SARS-CoV-2, because infected cats may not show any appreciable symptoms that might be recognized by their owners. (ahealthyme.com)
  • As coronavirus (also referred to as COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2) continues to spread around the world and affect more and more people, you might be wondering how it can -- or cannot -- affect your pet. (thedoctorstv.com)
  • For example, SARS-CoV was associated with civet cats and MERS-CoV is transmitted by dromedary camels. (thedoctorstv.com)
  • SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike Glycoprotein-S1, Recombinant protein Cat. (prosci-inc.com)
  • SARS-CoV-2 can infect a wide range of host species, including cats, dogs, mink and other wild and domesticated species and, hence, the vaccination of domesticated animals might be required to halt further virus evolution and spillback events. (thesun.co.uk)
  • What causes Feline Enteric Corona, a common intestinal bug, to mutate to FIP, a deadly killer? (revivalanimal.com)
  • Feline coronavirus in the intestinal contents of cats with feline infectious peritonitis. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Other cats may experience a mild intestinal disease and show symptoms such as diarrhea. (snapcats.org)
  • High antibody titers are frequently found in asymptomatic cats, and most of those cats will never develop clinical FIP. (vetcontact.com)
  • In addition, antibody titers may decrease terminally in cats with fulminant FIP, or be non-detectable because they are bound in antigen-antibody complexes. (vetcontact.com)
  • There was a correlation between shedding and antibody titre but the cats could remain seropositive for some time after they had ceased shedding virus. (bmj.com)
  • The method involves determining the presence or absence of intact or mutated S1/S2 and S2′ cleavage sites in the spike protein of serotype 1 feline coronaviruses (FCoV1). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • A. S. Hora, P. O. Tonietti, S. A. Taniwaki, K. M. Asano, P. Maiorka, L. J. Richtzenhain, and P. E. Brandão, "Feline Coronavirus 3c Protein: A Candidate for a Virulence Marker? (hindawi.com)
  • The coronavirus spike protein is a critical determinant of cell tropism and pathogenicity. (cornell.edu)
  • If the only source of protein for a person is a cat and they are available, I really don't care if they decide to eat them or not. (abovetopsecret.com)
  • The most consistent clinicopathologic finding in cats with FIP was an increase in total serum protein concentration (mainly, globulins) with a decrease in the albumin to globulin ratio, a finding in about 50 percent of the cats with effusion and 70 percent of cats without effusion. (vetcontact.com)
  • they can be distinguished by an in vitro virus neutralization assay using either type-specific feline sera ( 39 ) or monoclonal antisera directed against the S protein ( 18-20 ). (asm.org)
  • Vitakraft also continued to boost its share of cat treats thanks to successful new product launches, notably the Premium Filet range containing a high protein content and the Triggles range. (euromonitor.com)
  • Feline coronavirus is typically shed in feces by healthy cats and transmitted by the fecal-oral route to other cats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Feline coronavirus can be found in large quantities in the saliva and feces of cats during the acute infection, and to a lesser extent in recovered or carrier cats, so it can be transmitted through cat-to-cat contact and exposure to feces. (snapcats.org)
  • When 4 kittens (6 cats in total) are born into this house, the risk increases from 2 to 30 (62−6). (wikipedia.org)
  • The highest incidence is found in kittens three months to three years of age, with incidence decreasing sharply after cats reach three years of age, when the immune system is stronger. (petmd.com)
  • Morbidity, mortality and coronavirus antigen in previously coronavirus free kittens placed in two catteries with feline infectious peritonitis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Serologically coronavirus free kittens were placed in 2 catteries with a history of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), each cattery representing 1 of the 2 different predominant clinical characteristics of FIP--effusive and granulomatous. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The bowl can be used directly on the tray by kittens or on the stand for adult cats, to avoid them having to crouch or hunch when feeding. (dezeen.com)
  • Most cats will sleep up to 17 hours each day, with kittens and older cats napping for even longer. (dezeen.com)
  • Caracal kittens are young animals of the species Caracal, a kind of wild cat that lives in Africa and southwest Asia. (reference.com)
  • Kittens are more likely to be carriers than older cats. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • A study of British cat owners, for example, found that 84 percent of the 715 people surveyed thought cats couldn't get pregnant before the age of 6 months, which isn't true - kittens can actually get pregnant as early as 3 to 4 months of age. (livescience.com)
  • To help prevent unplanned litters, cat owners should get their kittens spayed or neutered at 4 months of age, Levy said. (livescience.com)
  • When Poopsie's tenure ended, other cats began to arrive, including a pregnant mother whose kittens soon has kittens of their own. (sacurrent.com)
  • The most common transmission of feline coronavirus occurs when infected female cats pass along the virus to their kittens, usually when the kittens are between five and eight weeks of age. (snapcats.org)
  • GODFREY, Ill. - A woman in Illinois faces animal cruelty charges after admitting to killing a cat and four kittens because her grandchildren would not clean their rooms, the Madison County Sheriff's Office told KTVI . (wgntv.com)
  • The deputy asked the child what happened to the cat, at which point the child's grandmother, 71-year-old Josephine Bell, said she killed the cat and four kittens. (wgntv.com)
  • She told the deputy she didn't feel like she should have to take care of the cat and kittens, so she killed them all with a hammer. (wgntv.com)
  • Cats living in groups can infect each other with different strains of the virus during visits to a communal litter tray. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because feline Coronavirus survives in the environment for several weeks after recovery, the potential to transmit the virus directly is high. (revivalanimal.com)
  • Most feline practitioners do not test, except to confirm virus outside the GI in face of FIP clinical signs. (revivalanimal.com)
  • The department suggested any pets , including dogs and cats, from households where someone has tested positive for the virus should be put into quarantine. (go.com)
  • Prior research has shown that under both natural and experimental conditions, the virus infects several species, including natural spread to dogs, cats, lions, and tigers, and farmed mink. (news-medical.net)
  • The study showed that though domestic cats became infected after exposure to intranasal and oral inocula of the virus, and spread the infection to their contacts, they showed no clinical signs of infection other than a temperature over 38.7 o C on day 2. (news-medical.net)
  • Respiratory tract tissues showed the presence of the virus at day 4 and 7 post-inoculation with 10 7 to 10 11 copies/mL in all the autopsied cats, but at lower levels in the lungs relative to the nose and mouth, or upper airway, on day 7. (news-medical.net)
  • Her sharing that she tested positive for coronavirus comes after comments in March poking fun at those concerned about the virus. (yahoo.com)
  • This will help reduce the chances of this highly infectious virus from spreading in local, free-roaming domestic cat populations. (tulsaworld.com)
  • According to the BVA, it is possible that outdoor cats may carry the virus on their fur, just as the virus can live on other surfaces. (tulsaworld.com)
  • I'm dreading the thought of watching our cat succumb to the virus(es) in the same way as his companion. (catchat.org)
  • A private vet initially diagnosed the pet with feline herpes virus, a common cat respiratory infection, but the sample was also tested for Covid-19 part of a research programme. (aol.co.uk)
  • The UK's chief veterinary officer, Christine Middlemiss, said: "Tests conducted by the Animal and Plant Health Agency have confirmed that the virus responsible for Covid-19 has been detected in a pet cat in England. (aol.co.uk)
  • Last week, another feline turned out to have the virus in Belgium. (rt.com)
  • Idexx Laboratories Inc. has evaluated thousands of canine and feline specimens during its validation of a new veterinary test system for the COVID-19 virus, more commonly known as the coronavirus, and it has some good news for pet owners. (pressherald.com)
  • Infected cats had virus in the mouth, nose and small intestine. (metro.us)
  • What these data do provide is support for the recommendation that people who are with COVID-19 should be distancing themselves, not only from other household members but also from their household pets, so as not to transmit the virus to their pets, particularly to cats or other felines," he said. (metro.us)
  • And even big cats aren't immune from the disease, with a tiger in New York's Bronx Zoo becoming a confirmed carrier of the virus. (rt.com)
  • In the study, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, researchers administered the virus - which they had isolated from a human patient - to three cats, all in separate cages. (tuscaloosanews.com)
  • In three days, all three cats initially inoculated with the virus tested positive. (tuscaloosanews.com)
  • In six days, all six cats - whether or not they were given the virus - were shedding coronavirus. (tuscaloosanews.com)
  • But experts say there is no evidence felines are contributing to the spread of COVID-19.In the study, researchers infected three cats and found that all of them were shedding the virus after three days. (wmtw.com)
  • When the infected cats were paired with healthy ones -- housed together for a few days -- the healthy cats developed the virus, too.None of the animals in the study showed any symptoms such as abnormal temperatures or substantial weight loss.The first two cats in the United States to test positive -- both New Yorkers -- showed mild respiratory symptoms, although both were expected to make a full recovery. (wmtw.com)
  • The findings add to a growing body of research showing how cats, big and small, can contract the virus. (wmtw.com)
  • In the study, researchers infected three cats and found that all of them were shedding the virus after three days. (wmtw.com)
  • When the infected cats were paired with healthy ones -- housed together for a few days -- the healthy cats developed the virus, too. (wmtw.com)
  • A tiger at the Bronx Zoo tested positive for the new coronavirus, a first that experts said underscores how much remains unknown about the virus and how it affects animals. (telegram.com)
  • The UK's Chief Veterinary Officer confirmed that the virus responsible for Covid-19 was detected in the domestic cat. (londragazete.com)
  • By three days after the inoculation, the virus was detected in nasal swab tests in all three cats. (ahealthyme.com)
  • Within five days, "virus was detected [via nasal swab] in all three cats that were co-housed with the inoculated cats," the team reported May 13 in the New England Journal of Medicine . (ahealthyme.com)
  • seven were feline immunodeficiency virus positive, but 15 were negative. (uzh.ch)
  • According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization , at this time, there are no reports of pets or animals becoming sick with coronavirus or spreading the virus . (thedoctorstv.com)
  • The WHO adds, "There is no evidence that companion animals or pets such as cats and dogs have been infected or could spread the virus that causes COVID-19. (thedoctorstv.com)
  • Indeed, this drug that was used for cats was effective in preventing virus replication in cells," Lemieux said. (ctvnews.ca)
  • Fifty-six cats ceased shedding virus, although they were susceptible to reinfection, and 44 shed intermittently or were being continuously reinfected. (bmj.com)
  • A cat should be shown to be negative over five months, or to have become seronegative, to ensure that it has ceased shedding virus. (bmj.com)
  • The cats, which had mild respiratory illnesses and are expected to recover, are thought to have contracted the virus from people in their households or neighbourhoods, the US Department of Agriculture and the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said. (freepressjournal.in)
  • Hong Kong agriculture authorities concluded that pet dogs and cats couldn't pass the virus to human beings but could test positive if exposed by their owners. (freepressjournal.in)
  • FIP is not a highly contagious disease, since by the time the cat develops clinical disease only a small amount of virus is being shed. (snapcats.org)
  • The compounds, known as protease inhibitors, have since been further developed in the United States, tested and shown to also stop a fatal virus in cats. (folio.ca)
  • CATS and dogs may need to get the Covid vaccine to curb the spread of the virus, a group of scientists has said. (thesun.co.uk)
  • Coronavirus can infect a wide range of domesticated animals - and experts have said that giving pets the jab is a 'precaution' to reduce the risks of the virus spreading further. (thesun.co.uk)
  • They said that more transmissible virus strains, such as the UK variant, require more people to be vaccinated to keep coronavirus under control. (thesun.co.uk)
  • The rabies virus, which is closely related to Australian bat lyssavirus, is particularly prevalent in bats, but also occurs in dogs, cats and monkeys overseas, according to Australia's Department of Health. (abc.net.au)
  • Once the virus is introduced on a farm, spread can occur between mink, as well as from mink to other animals on the farm (dogs, cats). (cdc.gov)
  • The became known as infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), but later officially renamed as Avian coronavirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a coronavirus of the species Alphacoronavirus 1 which includes canine coronavirus (CCoV) and porcine transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV). (wikipedia.org)
  • Feline aminopeptidase N serves as a receptor for feline, canine, porcine, and human coronaviruses in serogroup I. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The feline coronaviruses (FCoVs) present an example of pathogenetic change apparently associated with tropism switching. (cdc.gov)
  • Persistently infected, healthy cats play the most important epidemiologic role in FIP, because by harbouring FcoVs in their intestines and blood, they act as a constant source of infection. (vin.com)
  • Recent findings suggest that homologous RNA recombination may also be an important factor in the evolution of feline coronaviruses (FCoVs) ( 16 , 37 , 46 ). (asm.org)
  • The prevalence of these serotypes has not been studied extensively but according to a recent sero-survey, type II FCoVs may account for 20 to 30% of the feline infectious peritonitis cases in Japan ( 18 ). (asm.org)
  • Cats are susceptible to airborne infection and can infect each other, with extensive lung damage evident in young cats. (tulsaworld.com)
  • They also found cats can infect each other via respiratory droplets. (metro.us)
  • Coronaviruses (subfamily Coronavirinae , order Nidovirales ) are enveloped, plus-strand RNA viruses that infect mammals and birds. (cdc.gov)
  • Some coronaviruses, such as canine and feline coronaviruses, infect only animals and do not infect people. (cdc.gov)
  • Some coronaviruses that infect animals can be spread to people and then spread between people, but this is rare. (cdc.gov)
  • A similar strategy was used to characterize the spike proteins of canine coronaviruses associated with fatal enteritis in dogs and a thorough histopathologic characterization was performed in an attempt to independently confirm reports pantropic canine coronavirus variants. (cornell.edu)
  • They are commonly associated with mild enteric infections but are also associated with feline infectious peritonitis, a fatal immune-mediated disease of both domestic and wild felidae (for a review, see reference 8 ). (asm.org)
  • Once a cat develops clinical FIP involving one or many systems of the cat's body, the disease is progressive and is almost always fatal. (snapcats.org)
  • Another good sign is that a derivative of the same protease inhibitor was recently shown by American veterinary investigators to cure cats of feline infectious peritonitis, a coronavirus-caused condition that is almost always fatal to the animals. (folio.ca)
  • I don't transmit the coronavirus. (metro.us)
  • Please don't worry, dogs don't transmit the coronavirus," said Snowy's owner, a young girl named Julia Joseph. (metro.us)
  • Most strains of feline coronavirus are avirulent, which means that they do not cause disease, and are referred to as feline enteric coronavirus. (snapcats.org)
  • In contrast, type 2 viruses are known to be the product of recombination between canine and feline coronaviruses [8]. (vin.com)
  • These insights into FIP pathogenesis may be useful in development of diagnostic, prevention, and treatment measures against coronaviruses. (nih.gov)
  • The work presented herein is an investigation into the genetic and biochemical properties of spike that influence the in vivo pathogenesis of feline and canine coronaviruses. (cornell.edu)
  • Recombination of coronavirus genomes has been observed in tissue culture ( 30 , 33 ), in experimentally infected animals ( 23 ), and in embryonated eggs ( 26 ). (asm.org)
  • And a tiger is a different species than a domestic cat and in a completely different family than dogs, so there's a lot of potential differences and reasons for why you might see something in one species versus another. (telegram.com)
  • A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting cats of all ages and commonly found in catteries and zoos. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Bats are found to be the richest source of different species of coronaviruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the disease rate is much higher in multiple-cat populations, such as some shelters and catteries. (snapcats.org)
  • FIP has also been shown to be more common in certain breeds, but the research is still unclear as to whether these breeds are more susceptible because of their genetics or whether they are exposed to feline coronavirus more often because many of them come from catteries. (snapcats.org)
  • This disease is comparatively high in multi-cat households as compared to those with a single cat. (petmd.com)
  • A pet cat has tested positive for the dreaded Covid-19 coronavirus in Hong Kong, after apparently contracting the disease from its owner. (rt.com)
  • The Hong Kong cat patient was sent to a special animal quarantine facility on Monday, after its owner, a 25-year-old woman, was confirmed to have contracted the disease. (rt.com)
  • Earlier this month, two dogs tested positive for coronavirus in Hong Kong - a Pomeranian and a German Shepard. (rt.com)
  • Unlike in Hong Kong, the feline did exhibit symptoms of the disease, namely vomiting, diarrhea, and having troubles breathing. (rt.com)
  • The American Veterinary Medical Foundation says several pets have tested positive for coronavirus in Hong Kong: two dogs and a cat. (granitefallsnews.com)
  • There have been a handful of reports outside the US of pet dogs or cats becoming infected after close contact with contagious people, including a Hong Kong dog that tested positive for a low level of the pathogen in February and early March. (freepressjournal.in)
  • Hi there, I adopted two lovely cats (former strays) from a local shelter In January - both were health checked and vaccinated (but not tested for viruses) by the shelter before we took them home. (catchat.org)
  • Type 1 viruses probably represent "prototype" feline coronaviruses. (vin.com)
  • It is believed that type 2 viruses can originate de novo when dogs and cats with their coronavirus infections are living in close contact. (vin.com)
  • Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that are common in animals. (thedoctorstv.com)
  • Coronaviruses, pathogens of mammals and birds, are enveloped RNA viruses with a nonsegmented, positive-stranded genome that is 27 to 32 kb in length (for a review, see reference 41 ). (asm.org)
  • The history of coronaviruses is a reflection of the discovery of the diseases caused by coronaviruses and identification of the viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Making a crucial comparison in 1967, June Almeida and David Tyrrell invented the collective name coronavirus, as all those viruses were characterised by solar corona-like projections (called spikes) on their surfaces. (wikipedia.org)
  • It appears purebred cats are predisposed to FIP, but one must be cautious with that statement as purebreds may be more likely to follow FIP disease. (revivalanimal.com)
  • Likewise, older cats with weakened immune systems are also more likely to acquire this disease. (petmd.com)
  • "The cat has not shown any signs of disease," a spokesman for the Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department (AFCD) said Tuesday. (rt.com)
  • Last Thursday, a cat tested positive for coronavirus in Belgium, after contracting the disease from its owner. (rt.com)
  • The Westbrook-based veterinary diagnostics company said it has seen no positive results in either cats or dogs, confirming earlier assessments that the most popular household pets cannot contract the disease. (pressherald.com)
  • Thankfully, Mir, whose name means 'Peace', is said to be feline fine and there's no indication that he has caught the disease. (rt.com)
  • Today, it is probably the most important infectious disease of the cat. (vin.com)
  • Almost no cat recovers from FIP once the disease has been diagnosed. (vin.com)
  • Pets looked after at home are highly unlikely to spread any disease, but dogs or cats abandoned on the street can be dangerous, he said. (metro.us)
  • Some early studies in China suggested it's possible that cats were infected but their immune systems fought off disease. (telegram.com)
  • The animal is thought to have caught coronavirus from its owners who had previously tested positive for the disease. (londragazete.com)
  • Here's the full guidance on coronavirus and animals from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . (ahealthyme.com)
  • It was not possible to determine retrospectively whether the cats had autoimmune disease, hyperthyroidism treatment, or recent vaccination which may also cause ANA. (uzh.ch)
  • Twenty-five control cats were definitively diagnosed with a disease other than FIP. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Coronavirus testing for pets isn't recommended unless an animal has been exposed to a person with COVID-19 and the animal has symptoms of the disease - and tests have ruled out more common possible causes, said Jane Rooney of the USDA. (freepressjournal.in)
  • Professor Matteo Bassetti, an infectious disease expert at the Policlinico San Martino hospital in Italy, says Covid-19 is becoming less deadly as it spreads and could die out before a vaccine is ready A doctor has claimed that coronavirus has weakened from being like a "tiger" to a "wild cat" and may even peter out without a vaccine. (chitralnews.com)
  • The cat, which has since died, has been taken to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention for further testing. (yahoo.com)
  • Dear Dr. Donohue: The doctor thinks my daughter has cat scratch disease. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • Most cats that develop FIP are under two years of age, but cats of any age may develop the disease. (snapcats.org)
  • In cats that develop FIP, the symptoms can appear to be sudden since cats have an amazing ability to mask disease until they are in a crisis state. (snapcats.org)
  • Early in the disease, the cat may exhibit similar symptoms to the dry form, including weight loss, fever, loss of appetite, and lethargy. (snapcats.org)
  • The wet form of the disease often progresses rapidly, and the cat may quickly appear pot-bellied due to fluid accumulation in the abdomen. (snapcats.org)
  • As disease resistance is multifactorial and several other host genes could involve in the development of FIP, the five genetic traits identified in this study should facilitate in the future breeding of the disease-resistant animal to reduce the occurrence of cats succumbing to FIP. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, it is unclear whether these disease-associated SNPs are Birman cat specific or can also be applied to other purebred or mixed breed cat populations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Arthur Frederick Schalk and Merle C. Fawn at the North Dakota Agricultural College were the first to report what was later identified as coronavirus disease in chickens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Feline coronavirus is found in cat populations around the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such populations could become a reservoir of infection, and cats could then bring the infection back into people's homes. (tulsaworld.com)
  • hence, seropositivity among cat populations can reach 90%, depending on the field conditions ( 13 ). (cdc.gov)
  • SHENZHEN, China (Reuters) - The Chinese city of Shenzhen has banned the eating of dogs and cats as part of a wider clampdown on the wildlife trade since the emergence of the new coronavirus. (reuters.com)
  • Authorities in the southern Chinese technology hub said the ban on eating dogs and cats would come into force on May 1. (reuters.com)
  • Provincial and city governments across the country have been moving to enforce the ruling but Shenzhen has been the most explicit about extending that ban to dogs and cats. (reuters.com)
  • We started this campaign after noticing that there were many people leaving dogs and cats outside our clinic," explained veterinarian Corolos Majdi at the Animalia clinic in the Egyptian capital. (metro.us)
  • They began photographing dogs and cats wearing signs explaining that keeping them is safe. (metro.us)
  • Only a small percentage of cats that are exposed to the feline coronavirus develop FIP-and this can occur weeks, months, or even years after initial exposure. (snapcats.org)
  • We don't spread the coronavirus. (metro.us)
  • But experts say there is no evidence felines are contributing to the spread of COVID-19. (wmtw.com)
  • Chinese City Iintroduced a Draft to Ban Eating Cats and Dogs to stop Spread of Coronavirus! (abovetopsecret.com)
  • Most cats with the effusive form die within two months of showing symptoms. (revivalanimal.com)
  • FIP generally follows infection of a feline coronavirus, which typically does not cause any outward symptoms. (petmd.com)
  • On April 8, the British Veterinary Association urged people who are self-isolating or have COVID-19 symptoms to keep their cats indoors. (tulsaworld.com)
  • That was a major finding for us: The cats did not have symptoms," said Yoshihiro Kawaoka, the University of Wisconsin School of Veterinary Medicine professor who led the study, in a statement. (tuscaloosanews.com)
  • The first two cats in the United States to test positive -- both New Yorkers -- showed mild respiratory symptoms, although both were expected to make a full recovery. (wmtw.com)
  • Other tigers and big cats at the zoo have not shown any symptoms, the zoo said. (telegram.com)
  • Downing Street said the cat had symptoms including shortness of breath. (londragazete.com)
  • However, none of the six cats in the study "showed any symptoms" of illness, including fever, eye infections or weight loss, the team said. (ahealthyme.com)
  • For most people, the coronavirus causes mild or moderate symptoms, such as a fever and cough that clear up in two to three weeks. (freepressjournal.in)
  • Cats that have been initially exposed to the feline coronavirus usually show no obvious symptoms. (snapcats.org)
  • Some cats may show mild upper respiratory symptoms such as sneezing, watery eyes, and nasal discharge. (snapcats.org)
  • FIP can be difficult to diagnose because each cat can display different symptoms that are similar to those of many other diseases. (snapcats.org)