A genus of the family CORONAVIRIDAE which causes respiratory or gastrointestinal disease in a variety of vertebrates.
Virus diseases caused by the CORONAVIRUS genus. Some specifics include transmissible enteritis of turkeys (ENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF TURKEYS); FELINE INFECTIOUS PERITONITIS; and transmissible gastroenteritis of swine (GASTROENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF SWINE).
A species in the genus CORONAVIRUS causing the common cold and possibly nervous system infections in humans. It lacks hemagglutinin-esterase.
A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting neonatal calves, presenting as acute diarrhea, and frequently leading to death.
A class I viral fusion protein that forms the characteristic spikes, or peplomers, found on the viral surface that mediate virus attachment, fusion, and entry into the host cell. During virus maturation, it is cleaved into two subunits: S1, which binds to receptors in the host cell, and S2, which mediates membrane fusion.
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing atypical respiratory disease (SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME) in humans. The organism is believed to have first emerged in Guangdong Province, China, in 2002. The natural host is the Chinese horseshoe bat, RHINOLOPHUS sinicus.
A species in the genus CORONAVIRUS causing the common cold and possibly nervous system infections in humans. It contains hemagglutinin-esterase.
A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting cats of all ages and commonly found in catteries and zoos. Cats are often found carrying the virus but only a small proportion develop disease. Feline coronavirus and Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) are virtually the same virus in genetic and antigenetic terms, and are morphologically indistinguishable. Since they only differ in their disease potential (with FIPV causing a more serious illness), they are considered biotypes of each other.
Spherical RNA viruses, in the order NIDOVIRALES, infecting a wide range of animals including humans. Transmission is by fecal-oral and respiratory routes. Mechanical transmission is also common. There are two genera: CORONAVIRUS and TOROVIRUS.
A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting dogs. Onset of symptoms is usually sudden and includes vomiting, diarrhea, and dehydration.
A viral disorder characterized by high FEVER, dry COUGH, shortness of breath (DYSPNEA) or breathing difficulties, and atypical PNEUMONIA. A virus in the genus CORONAVIRUS is the suspected agent.
Virus diseases caused by CORONAVIRIDAE.
A species of the CORONAVIRUS genus causing hepatitis in mice. Four strains have been identified as MHV 1, MHV 2, MHV 3, and MHV 4 (also known as MHV-JHM, which is neurotropic and causes disseminated encephalomyelitis with demyelination as well as focal liver necrosis).
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing a fatal disease to pigs under 3 weeks old.
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing infections in chickens and possibly pheasants. Chicks up to four weeks old are the most severely affected.
A species in the genus CORONAVIRUS causing upper and lower RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS. It shares the receptor used by the SARS VIRUS.
Viral proteins found in either the NUCLEOCAPSID or the viral core (VIRAL CORE PROTEINS).
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing pneumonia in newborn rats but a clinically inapparent infection in adults. It is separate but antigenically related to MURINE HEPATITIS VIRUS.
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing enteritis in turkeys and pullets.
A mutant strain of TRANSMISSIBLE GASTROENTERITIS VIRUS causing mild or subclinical respiratory infections in young SWINE. It may also play a role in post-weaning porcine respiratory disease complex, especially when combined with other respiratory agents.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Common coronavirus infection of cats caused by the feline infectious peritonitis virus (CORONAVIRUS, FELINE). The disease is characterized by a long incubation period, fever, depression, loss of appetite, wasting, and progressive abdominal enlargement. Infection of cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage appears to be essential in FIP pathogenesis.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A condition of chronic gastroenteritis in adult pigs and fatal gastroenteritis in piglets caused by a CORONAVIRUS.
A species of VARICELLOVIRUS that causes INFECTIOUS BOVINE RHINOTRACHEITIS and other associated syndromes in CATTLE.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
The family of civets which are small and medium-sized Old World carnivores, often striped or spotted.
The type species of DELTARETROVIRUS that causes a form of bovine lymphosarcoma (ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS) or persistent lymphocytosis.
A group of viruses in the genus PESTIVIRUS, causing diarrhea, fever, oral ulcerations, hemorrhagic syndrome, and various necrotic lesions among cattle and other domestic animals. The two species (genotypes), BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 , exhibit antigenic and pathological differences. The historical designation, BVDV, consisted of both (then unrecognized) genotypes.
Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
An acute, highly contagious virus disease of turkeys characterized by chilling, anorexia, decreased water intake, diarrhea, dehydration and weight loss. The infectious agent is a CORONAVIRUS.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.
A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.
Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.
INFLAMMATION of the UDDER in cows.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
A species of DELTAPAPILLOMAVIRUS infecting cattle.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
The region of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)
Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.
ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.
Order of mammals whose members are adapted for flight. It includes bats, flying foxes, and fruit bats.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in animals due to viral infection.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
The temporal sequence of events that have occurred.
An infection of cattle caused by MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. It is transmissible to man and other animals.
Acute disease of cattle caused by the bovine viral diarrhea viruses (DIARRHEA VIRUSES, BOVINE VIRAL). Often mouth ulcerations are the only sign but fever, diarrhea, drop in milk yield, and loss of appetite are also seen. Severity of clinical disease varies and is strain dependent. Outbreaks are characterized by low morbidity and high mortality.
Acute inflammation of the intestine associated with infectious DIARRHEA of various etiologies, generally acquired by eating contaminated food containing TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL derived from BACTERIA or other microorganisms. Dysentery is characterized initially by watery FECES then by bloody mucoid stools. It is often associated with ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; and DEHYDRATION.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
A lymphoid neoplastic disease in cattle caused by the bovine leukemia virus. Enzootic bovine leukosis may take the form of lymphosarcoma, malignant lymphoma, or leukemia but the presence of malignant cells in the blood is not a consistent finding.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Viral infections of the brain, spinal cord, meninges, or perimeningeal spaces.
Proteins which are synthesized as a single polymer and then cleaved into several distinct proteins.
An order comprising three families of eukaryotic viruses possessing linear, nonsegmented, positive sense RNA genomes. The families are CORONAVIRIDAE; ARTERIVIRIDAE; and RONIVIRIDAE.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A peptidyl-dipeptidase that catalyzes the release of a C-terminal dipeptide, -Xaa-*-Xbb-Xcc, when neither Xaa nor Xbb is Pro. It is a Cl(-)-dependent, zinc glycoprotein that is generally membrane-bound and active at neutral pH. It may also have endopeptidase activity on some substrates. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.4.15.1.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A species of PNEUMOVIRUS causing an important respiratory infection in cattle. Symptoms include fever, conjunctivitis, and respiratory distress.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
The specificity of a virus for infecting a particular type of cell or tissue.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A herpesvirus infection of CATTLE characterized by INFLAMMATION and NECROSIS of the mucous membranes of the upper RESPIRATORY TRACT.
Diseases of the domestic cat (Felis catus or F. domesticus). This term does not include diseases of the so-called big cats such as CHEETAHS; LIONS; tigers, cougars, panthers, leopards, and other Felidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A multifactorial disease of CATTLE resulting from complex interactions between environmental factors, host factors, and pathogens. The environmental factors act as stressors adversely affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM and other host defenses and enhancing transmission of infecting agents.
Hoofed mammals with four legs, a big-lipped snout, and a humped back belonging to the family Camelidae.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cattle associated with abnormal prion proteins in the brain. Affected animals develop excitability and salivation followed by ATAXIA. This disorder has been associated with consumption of SCRAPIE infected ruminant derived protein. This condition may be transmitted to humans, where it is referred to as variant or new variant CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB SYNDROME. (Vet Rec 1998 Jul 25;143(41):101-5)
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Carica papaya. It is also the name used for a purified mixture of papain and CHYMOPAPAIN that is used as a topical enzymatic debriding agent. EC 3.4.22.2.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A family in the suborder Feliformia, order CARNIVORA, comprising one genus Nandinia binotata.
A general term indicating inflammation of the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD, often used to indicate an infectious process, but also applicable to a variety of autoimmune and toxic-metabolic conditions. There is significant overlap regarding the usage of this term and ENCEPHALITIS in the literature.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A species in the genus RHADINOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting cattle.
Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A catarrhal disorder of the upper respiratory tract, which may be viral or a mixed infection. It generally involves a runny nose, nasal congestion, and sneezing.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
A genus of the family ARTERIVIRIDAE, in the order NIDOVIRALES. The type species is ARTERITIS VIRUS, EQUINE.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus bovine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, BOVINE), found in cattle and causing lymphadenopathy, LYMPHOCYTOSIS, central nervous system lesions, progressive weakness, and emaciation. It has immunological cross-reactivity with other lentiviruses including HIV.
Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The former British crown colony located off the southeast coast of China, comprised of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and New Territories. The three sites were ceded to the British by the Chinese respectively in 1841, 1860, and 1898. Hong Kong reverted to China in July 1997. The name represents the Cantonese pronunciation of the Chinese xianggang, fragrant port, from xiang, perfume and gang, port or harbor, with reference to its currents sweetened by fresh water from a river west of it.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.
Diseases characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin in the central or peripheral nervous system.
Bovine respiratory disease found in animals that have been shipped or exposed to CATTLE recently transported. The major agent responsible for the disease is MANNHEIMIA HAEMOLYTICA and less commonly, PASTEURELLA MULTOCIDA or HAEMOPHILUS SOMNUS. All three agents are normal inhabitants of the bovine nasal pharyngeal mucosa but not the LUNG. They are considered opportunistic pathogens following STRESS, PHYSIOLOGICAL and/or a viral infection. The resulting bacterial fibrinous BRONCHOPNEUMONIA is often fatal.
A species of VARICELLOVIRUS that causes a fatal MENINGOENCEPHALITIS in calves.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
A genus of the family CORONAVIRIDAE characterized by enveloped, peplomer-bearing particles containing an elongated tubular nucleocapsid with helical symmetry. Toroviruses have been found in association with enteric infections in horses (Berne virus), cattle (Breda virus), swine, and humans. Transmission probably takes place via the fecal-oral route.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Interferon secreted by leukocytes, fibroblasts, or lymphoblasts in response to viruses or interferon inducers other than mitogens, antigens, or allo-antigens. They include alpha- and beta-interferons (INTERFERON-ALPHA and INTERFERON-BETA).
Enzymes that act at a free C-terminus of a polypeptide to liberate a single amino acid residue.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
A species of PESTIVIRUS causing systemic infections (BOVINE VIRUS DIARRHEA-MUCOSAL DISEASE) in cattle and some other cloven-hoofed animals. There are several strains and two biotypes: cytopathic (rare) and non-cytopathic. Infections range from clinically inapparent to severe, but do not correlate with biotypes.
A directed change in translational READING FRAMES that allows the production of a single protein from two or more OVERLAPPING GENES. The process is programmed by the nucleotide sequence of the MRNA and is sometimes also affected by the secondary or tertiary mRNA structure. It has been described mainly in VIRUSES (especially RETROVIRUSES); RETROTRANSPOSONS; and bacterial insertion elements but also in some cellular genes.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for retroviral enzymes including reverse transcriptase, protease, and endonuclease/integrase. "pol" is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.
Inflammation of any segment of the SMALL INTESTINE.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of acetate esters and water to alcohols and acetate. EC 3.1.1.6.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.
The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Inflammation of brain parenchymal tissue as a result of viral infection. Encephalitis may occur as primary or secondary manifestation of TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PARAMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; and ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.
Ruminant mammals of South America. They are related to camels.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A serotonin antagonist with limited antihistaminic, anticholinergic, and immunosuppressive activity.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The species Delphinapterus leucas, in the family Monodontidae, found primarily in the Arctic Ocean and adjoining seas. They are small WHALES lacking a dorsal fin.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria normally commensal in the flora of CATTLE and SHEEP. But under conditions of physical or PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS, it can cause MASTITIS in sheep and SHIPPING FEVER or ENZOOTIC CALF PNEUMONIA in cattle. Its former name was Pasteurella haemolytica.

Identification of a coronavirus hemagglutinin-esterase with a substrate specificity different from those of influenza C virus and bovine coronavirus. (1/86)

We have characterized the hemagglutinin-esterase (HE) of puffinosis virus (PV), a coronavirus closely related to mouse hepatitis virus (MHV). Analysis of the cloned gene revealed approximately 85% sequence identity to HE proteins of MHV and approximately 60% identity to the corresponding esterase of bovine coronavirus. The HE protein exhibited acetylesterase activity with synthetic substrates p-nitrophenyl acetate, alpha-naphthyl acetate, and 4-methylumbelliferyl acetate. In contrast to other viral esterases, no activity was detectable with natural substrates containing 9-O-acetylated sialic acids. Furthermore, PV esterase was unable to remove influenza C virus receptors from human erythrocytes, indicating a substrate specificity different from HEs of influenza C virus and bovine coronavirus. Solid-phase binding assays revealed that purified PV was unable to bind to sialic acid-containing glycoconjugates like bovine submaxillary mucin, mouse alpha1 macroglobulin or bovine brain extract. Because of the close relationship to MHV, possible implications on the substrate specificity of MHV esterases are suggested.  (+info)

Production, characterization, and uses of monoclonal antibodies against recombinant nucleoprotein of elk coronavirus. (2/86)

This is the first report of the production of monoclonal antibodies against elk coronavirus. The nucleoprotein gene of elk coronavirus was amplified by PCR and was cloned and expressed in a prokaryotic expression vector. Recombinant nucleocapsid protein was used to immunize mice for the production of hybridomas. Twelve hybridomas that produced monoclonal antibodies against the nucleocapsid protein of elk coronavirus were selected by an indirect fluorescent-antibody test, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and a Western blot assay. Ten of the monoclonal antibodies were of the immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) isotype, one was IgG2a, and one was IgM. All had kappa light chains. By immunohistochemistry four monoclonal antibodies detected bovine coronavirus and elk coronavirus in formalin-fixed intestinal tissues. Antinucleoprotein monoclonal antibodies were found to be better at ruminant coronavirus detection than the anti-spike protein monoclonal antibodies. Because nucleoprotein is a more abundant antigen than spike protein in infected cells, this was not an unexpected finding.  (+info)

Identification of a bovine coronavirus packaging signal. (3/86)

A region of the bovine coronavirus (BCV) genome that functions as a packaging signal has been cloned. The 291-nucleotide clone shares 72% homology with the region of mouse hepatitis coronavirus (MHV) gene 1b that contains the packaging signal. RNA transcripts were packaged into both BCV and MHV virions when the cloned region was appended to a noncoronavirus RNA. This is the first identification of a BCV packaging signal. The data demonstrate that the BCV genome contains a sequence that is conserved at both the sequence and functional levels, thus broadening our insight into coronavirus packaging.  (+info)

Host protein interactions with the 3' end of bovine coronavirus RNA and the requirement of the poly(A) tail for coronavirus defective genome replication. (4/86)

RNA viruses have 5' and 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) that contain specific signals for RNA synthesis. The coronavirus genome is capped at the 5' end and has a 3' UTR that consists of 300 to 500 nucleotides (nt) plus a poly(A) tail. To further our understanding of coronavirus replication, we have begun to examine the involvement of host factors in this process for two group II viruses, bovine coronavirus (BCV) and mouse hepatitis coronavirus (MHV). Specific host protein interactions with the BCV 3' UTR [287 nt plus poly(A) tail] were identified using gel mobility shift assays. Competition with the MHV 3' UTR [301 nt plus poly(A) tail] suggests that the interactions are conserved for the two viruses. Proteins with molecular masses of 99, 95, and 73 kDa were detected in UV cross-linking experiments. Less heavily labeled proteins were also detected in the ranges of 40 to 50 and 30 kDa. The poly(A) tail was required for binding of the 73-kDa protein. Immunoprecipitation of UV-cross-linked proteins identified the 73-kDa protein as the cytoplasmic poly(A)-binding protein (PABP). Replication of the defective genomes BCV Drep and MHV MIDI-C, along with several mutants, was used to determine the importance of the poly(A) tail. Defective genomes with shortened poly(A) tails consisting of 5 or 10 A residues were replicated after transfection into helper virus-infected cells. BCV Drep RNA that lacked a poly(A) tail did not replicate, whereas replication of MHV MIDI-C RNA with a deleted tail was detected after several virus passages. All mutants exhibited delayed kinetics of replication. Detectable extension or addition of the poly(A) tail to the mutants correlated with the appearance of these RNAs in the replication assay. RNAs with shortened poly(A) tails exhibited less in vitro PABP binding, suggesting that decreased interactions with the protein may affect RNA replication. The data strongly indicate that the poly(A) tail is an important cis-acting signal for coronavirus replication.  (+info)

Protection studies on winter dysentery caused by bovine coronavirus in cattle using antigens prepared from infected cell lysates. (5/86)

Cells infected with bovine coronavirus (BCV) were solubilized with Triton X-100 to yield a cell lysate (CL) antigen having high hemagglutinating (HA) titers. The antigen gave high HA titers using rat erythrocytes, suggesting that it contained large amounts of hemagglutinin esterase (HE) antigen. The CL antigen, combined with an oil adjuvant, was tested for protective and antibody-inducing activities in cattle. Four groups (2 cattle/group) of cattle were inoculated with CL antigen having HA titers of 16 000, 4000, 1000, and 250. Another group served as untreated controls. Two intramuscular inoculations were given at an interval of 3 wk. The animals were challenged with virus 1 wk after the second inoculation. The groups immunized with the CL antigen having an HA titer of 4000 or 16 000 produced hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titers of > 320 and serum neutralizing (SN) antibody titers of > 1280. These groups of animals showed no clinical abnormalities after challenge. In the groups immunized with CL antigen at an HA titer of 1000 or 250, HI antibody titers were 40 to 160 and SN titers were 80 to 640. The cattle with HI antibody titers of > or = 160 and the SN titers of > or = 640 showed no clinical signs, but the cattle with the HI antibody titer < 80 and the SN antibody titer < 160 developed watery diarrhea and fever after challenge. These results indicate that CL antigen with high HA titer induces antibody production in cattle that provides effective protection against winter dysentery.  (+info)

Coronavirus and Pasteurella infections in bovine shipping fever pneumonia and Evans' criteria for causation. (6/86)

Respiratory tract infections with viruses and Pasteurella spp. were determined sequentially among 26 cattle that died during two severe epizootics of shipping fever pneumonia. Nasal swab and serum samples were collected prior to onset of the epizootics, during disease progression, and after death, when necropsies were performed and lung samples were collected. Eighteen normal control cattle also were sampled at the beginning of the epizootics as well as at weekly intervals for 4 weeks. Respiratory bovine coronaviruses (RBCV) were isolated from nasal secretions of 21 and 25 cattle before and after transport. Two and 17 cattle nasally shed Pasteurella spp. before and after transport, respectively. RBCV were isolated at titers of 1 x 10(3) to 1.2 x 10(7) PFU per g of lung tissue from 18 cattle that died within 7 days of the epizootics, but not from the lungs of the remaining cattle that died on days 9 to 36. Twenty-five of the 26 lung samples were positive for Pasteurella spp., and their CFU ranged between 4.0 x 10(5) and 2.3 x 10(9) per g. Acute and subacute exudative, necrotizing lobar pneumonia characterized the lung lesions of these cattle with a majority of pneumonic lung lobes exhibiting fibronecrotic and exudative changes typical of pneumonic pasteurellosis, but other lung lobules had histological changes consisting of bronchiolitis and alveolitis typical of virus-induced changes. These cattle were immunologically naive to both infectious agents at the onset of the epizootics, but those that died after day 7 had rising antibody titers against RBCV and Pasteurella haemolytica. In contrast, the 18 clinically normal and RBCV isolation-negative cattle had high hemagglutinin inhibition antibody titers to RBCV from the beginning, while their antibody responses to P. haemolytica antigens were delayed. Evans' criteria for causation were applied to our findings because of the multifactorial nature of shipping fever pneumonia. This analysis identified RBCV as the primary inciting cause in these two epizootics. These viruses were previously not recognized as a causative agent in this complex respiratory tract disease of cattle.  (+info)

Identification of nucleocapsid binding sites within coronavirus-defective genomes. (7/86)

The coronavirus nucleocapsid (N) protein is a major structural component of virions that associates with the genomic RNA to form a helical nucleocapsid. N appears to be a multifunctional protein since data also suggest that the protein may be involved in viral RNA replication and translation. All of these functions presumably involve interactions between N and viral RNAs. As a step toward understanding how N interacts with viral RNAs, we mapped high-efficiency N-binding sites within BCV- and MHV-defective genomes. Both in vivo and in vitro assays were used to study binding of BCV and MHV N proteins to viral and nonviral RNAs. N-viral RNA complexes were detected in bovine coronavirus (BCV)-infected cells and in cells transiently expressing the N protein. Filter binding was used to map N-binding sites within Drep, a BCV-defective genome that is replicated and packaged in the presence of helper virus. One high-efficiency N-binding site was identified between nucleotides 1441 and 1875 at the 3' end of the N ORF within Drep. For comparative purposes N-binding sites were also mapped for the mouse hepatitis coronavirus (MHV)-defective interfering (DI) RNA MIDI-C. Binding efficiencies similar to those for Drep were measured for RNA transcripts of a region encompassing the MHV packaging signal (nts 3949-4524), as well as a region at the 3' end of the MHV N ORF (nts 4837-5197) within MIDI-C. Binding to the full-length MIDI-C transcript (approximately 5500 nts) and to an approximately 1-kb transcript from the gene 1a region (nts 935-1986) of MIDI-C that excluded the packaging signal were both significantly higher than that measured for the smaller transcripts. This is the first identification of N-binding sequences for BCV. It is also the first report to demonstrate that N interacts in vitro with sequences other than the packaging signal and leader within the MHV genome. The data clearly demonstrate that N binds coronavirus RNAs more efficiently than nonviral RNAs. The results have implications with regard to the multifunctional role of N.  (+info)

Temperature-sensitive acetylesterase activity of haemagglutinin-esterase specified by respiratory bovine coronaviruses. (8/86)

Numerous respiratory bovine coronaviruses (RBCV) were isolated recently from nasal swab samples and lung tissues of feedlot cattle with acute respiratory tract disease. These newly emerging RBCV isolates exhibited distinct phenotypic features that differentiated them from enteropathogenic bovine coronaviruses (EBCV). The RBCV strains had a receptor-destroying enzyme function mediated by acetylesterase (AE) activity of the haemagglutinin-esterase (HE) glycoprotein. The HE genes of wild-type EBCV strain LY138 and RBCV strains OK-0514 (OK) and LSU-94LSS-051 (LSU) were cloned, sequenced and transiently expressed in COS-7 cells. The enzymic properties of HE proteins in COS-7 cellular extracts and in purified virus preparations were assayed at room temperature, 37 degrees C and 39 degrees C by two different assays. One assay used p-nitrophenyl acetate (PNPA) as substrate and detected serine-esterase activity; the second assay monitored AE function with bovine submaxillary mucin (BSM) as substrate. The PNPA tests confirmed that HE proteins of EBCV and RBCV were functionally expressed in transfected COS-7 cells. Time-dependent determination of the AE activity of purified RBCV OK and LSU particles showed lower AE activity at 39 degrees C than at 37 degrees C, whereas the purified EBCV LY particles retained full AE activity at both 37 degrees C and 39 degrees C. Transiently expressed RBCV HE exhibited a marked reduction of AE activity after 40 min of assay time at 37 degrees C. In contrast, the AE activity of the transiently expressed EBCV HE remained stable beyond 40 min. The deduced amino-acid sequences of the HE proteins specified by the RBCV strains OK and LSU contained specific amino-acid changes in comparison with the EBCV LY strain, which may be responsible for the observed enzymic differences. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that RBCV strains have evolved to selectivelyreplicate in respiratory tissues and that HE may play a role in this tissue tropism.  (+info)

|strong|Mouse anti Bovine Coronavirus Surface Antigen antibody, clone 5A4|/strong| recognizes the surface antigen of bovine coronavirus. Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) causes severe diarrhoea in newborn ca…
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Targeted RNA recombination of the membrane and nucleocapsid protein genes between mouse hepatitis virus and bovine coronavirus.. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
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BACKGROUND: Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is a primary cause of neonatal calf diarrhea worldwide, and is also associated with acute diarrhea in adult cattle during the winter season, resulting heavy economic losses to both dairy and beef industry throughout the world. OBJECTIVE: The Objective of the present study was to screen the fecal samples for BCoV collected from diarrhea from six geographic region of Iran, with the aim to deepen the knowledge of BCoV prevalence and epidemiology in Iran. MEETHODS: 194 fecal samples from diarrheic calves up to one-month age, based on the geographic area were collected. Samples from all the cases were screened for the presence of BCoV by commercially available ELISA kit. Furthermore, all positive samples were subjected to RT-PCR for confirmation. RESULTS: ELISA examination revealed that 7.2 % of taken samples, were positive. All positive samples in ELISA were also positive in RT-PCR. All samples from northwest, northeast, and west, were negative. The average ages of
Human rectal tumor-18 (HRT-18) cell clones 3F3, 3E3, D2, and 4B3 exhibited differences in cellular morphology in Giemsa-stained cultures and developing monolayers. Differences were evident in growth kinetics and plating efficiency of each clone. The clones produced colonies in soft agar, demonstrating anchorage independence. Cytopathic expression (CPE) including cytoplasmic vacuolization and cell fusion occurred in BCV-L9-infected clones 3F3, D2, and 3E3. Cell fusion was inapparent in clone 4B3. Bovine coronavirus strain L9 (BCV-L9) and 5 wild-type isolates replicated in HRT-18 cells, inducing cell fusion. Strain L9, exclusively, replicated in D2BFS cells, requiring trypsin to induce cell fusion. Strain L9 produced plaques in the HRT-18 clones, but the ease of plaque formation and plaque morphology was host cell dependent. Host cell-dependent plaque formation was demonstrated by wild-type BCV strains, and plaque morphology was strain dependent. The intensity of trypsin enhancement of CPE and plaque
IMMUNOLOGICAL REAGENT | DEVELOPMENT OF METHODS FOR PRODUCTION OF A WHOLE VIRUS VACCINE CANDIDATE STOCK AND NOVEL ADAPTIVE MUTATIONS IN... | Vaccines for HSV-2 | ATTENUATED BOVINE CORONAVIRUS AND RELATED VACCINES | MODIFIED BAT INFLUENZA VIRUSES AND THEIR USES |
All subjects had their liver enzymes tested before, at 10-day intervals and at the end of the eight-week study. They all used the same training program and ate the same diet. At baseline all groups showed normal liver enzymes, with one exception. The
RIO DE JANEIRO, Brazil, Sept. 16, 2011- HRT Announces Hydrocarbon Discovery at the 1-HRT-3-AM Well in the Solimões Sedimentary Basin.
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Respiratory bovine coronaviruses (RBCV) emerged as an infectious agent most frequently isolated from respiratory system examples of cattle with severe respiratory system diseases. serum IN and HAI antibodies, which increased through the following fourteen days dramatically. Security against SFP was evidently associated with considerably higher degrees of serum IN antibodies at the start from the epizootic. The RBCV-neutralizing activity is certainly connected with serum immunoglobulin G (IgG), the IgG2 subclass particularly, while RBCV-specific HAI antibody relates to both serum IgM and IgG fractions. Many wild-type coronavirus strains had been lately isolated from sinus swab examples and lung tissue of cattle with signals of acute respiratory system problems including a serious form of shipping and delivery fever pneumonia (SFP) (25C28). These BMS-387032 trojan isolates multiplied just in the G clone of individual rectal tumor-18 cells, however, not in Georgia bovine bovine and kidney turbinate ...
Your localized Sun & Sand weather forecast, from AccuWeather, provides you with the tailored weather forecast that you need to plan your days activities The earliest reports of a coronavirus infection in animals occurred in the late 1920s, when an acute respiratory infection of domesticated chickens emerged in North America. Hotels in Reuthe Flights to Reuthe Reuthe Car Hire Reuthe Holiday Packages. Coronavirus (COVID-19) support Check for travel restrictions. EurothermenResort Bad Hall: There is a particularly wide range of spa and health offerings at this spa, also near Linz. In humans and fowl, coronaviruses primarily cause upper respiratory tract infections, while porcine and bovine coronaviruses establish enteric infections, often resulting in … Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by a newly discovered coronavirus. 13 hytter i Reuthe. Coronavirus infections are mainly associated with respiratory, enteric, hepatic, and central nervous system diseases. It ...
Research in the area of immunology in the department focuses on the response of the immune system to bacterial, parasitic and viral pathogens. Topics of research interest in this area include evasion of the immune response and persistence, molecular mechanisms underlying inflammatory responses and vaccine development for a variety of microbial pathogens. Specific research programs include: vaccine design for Brucella Abortus, West Nile Virus, Dengue Virus, Herpes viruses and Bovine Coronavirus and Herpesvirus Type-1. The lymphocyte-mediated response to Bartonella and nematode infection, the analysis of the innate and adaptive immune response to respiratory syncytial virus and human metapneumovirus infections, as well as the study of the innate immune/inflammatory response in the lung to bacterial infection are also investigated. Supporting facilities for immunology research in the Department include Flow Cytometry facility, the histology laboratory, the microscope center, the laboratory of ...
Mitropoulos reads these slippages on herd and stock through Marxs suggestion that, just as agriculture had provided the tropes of aristocratic right through primogeniture in late feudalism, it had contributed, within capitalism, logics for both the management of populations and the philosophy of virology. Much of the established knowledge of COVID-19 still draws on the devastating outbreaks of bovine coronavirus in the late 19th​ century, and the vast culls undertaken to control them. It must be remembered that the law of the household is as much about the transfer of properties as about holding property - logics of breeding, inherited superiority, and patrilineal purity are essential to the preservation of the oikos. Ideas of natural selection, or even eugenics, are an easy partner to a concern for the inheritance of properties. This juxtaposition sets up Mitropouloss evisceration of the British governments plan for herd immunity, which, if allowed to run its course, would have had more ...
1993) Economic, clinical and functional consequences of a treatment using metrenperone during an outbreak of shipping fever in ...
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has announced that it is ready to ship its coronavirus testing kit, which will enable health officials to
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A retrospective analysis was conducted to investigate the prevalence and seasonality of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), bovine coronavirus (BoCV), bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1), bovine respiratory syncytical virus (BRSV) and parainfluenza virus-3 (PI3V) in calves (aged three months and below) in Ireland. Results from real-time PCR testing, including cycle threshold values, conducted on nasal swabs (single or pooled) submitted from 1364 respiratory disease outbreaks between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2012 were included in this study. One or more viruses were detected in 34.6 per cent of submissions, with BoCV detected most frequently (22.9 per cent), followed by BRSV (11.6 per cent), PI3 V (7.0 per cent), BoHV-1 (6.1 per cent) and BVDV (5.0 per cent). The detection rate of all viruses was higher when pooled multiple swabs were submitted from outbreaks rather than single swabs, with these differences being significant for all except BVDV. Two or more viruses were detected in 39.4 per ...
Kandasamy, S., A.N. Vlasova, D. Fischer, A. Kumar, K.S. Chattha, A. Rauf, L. Shao, S. Neal, G. Rajashekara, and L.J. Saif.. Differential effects of Escherichia coli Nissle and Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG on human rotavirus binding, infection, and B cell immunity. Journal of Immunology. (January 0.): -.. Bok, M., S. Miñoa, D. Rodrigueza, A. Badaraccoa, I. Nuñesc, S.P. Souzac, G. Bilbaod,. Molecular and antigenic characterization of bovine Coronavirus circulating in Argentinean cattle during 1994â€2010. Veterinary Microbiology. (January 0.): -.. SAIF LJ; BOHL EH; THEIL KW; CROSS RF; HOUSE JA. Rotavirus-like Calicivirus-like And 23 Nanometer Virus-like Particles Associated With Diarrhea In Young Pigs. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. Vol. 12, no. 1. (January 1980.): 105-111.. WYATT R, G; JAMES W, D; BOHL E, H; THEIL K, W; SAIF L, J; KALICA A, R; GREENBERG H, B; KAPIKIAN A, Z; CHANOCK R M. Human Rotavirus Type 2 Cultivation In-vitro. Science (Washington D C). Vol. 207, no. ...
A new CDC report reveals that many individuals who previously recovered from the coronavirus can still experience a range of symptoms weeks and sometimes months after the fact. The report specifically focused on individuals who, while infected with the coronavirus, did not experience severe enough symptoms to warrant hospitalization.. According to the report, about a third of people who test positive for COVID-19 do not return to their baseline level of health in the two to three weeks following their initial diagnosis. Among a subset of coronavirus patients in the 18-34 age range, the study found that one in five were unable to return to their usual state of health, assuming that they had no previous chronic medical conditions.. The symptoms most likely to linger in the weeks following a positive coronavirus diagnosis include fatigue, cough, congestion, dyspnea, loss of taste and smell, chest pain and confusion. The symptoms least likely to linger include vomiting, nausea, fever and ...
This is a special post from DonaldPierce.Com (DPC) designed to serve as a workbook/guide/clearing house of current and valid information on CV (also known as Covid-19). We will add new material to the sources, articles, and links listed here on a regular basis. Our last post was on 18 May 2020. Articles listed in the order in which they were published. Please note that this site spotlighted the positive results of Remdesivir on Coronavirus patients a week before national media noticed the drug. It is now the lead drug in treatment testing. All the more reason to stay in touch with our research databank. We also added the very complete Coronavirus Dashboard from Axios, which has been running on The Nightshift international news sites (as well as Axios, of course). Reliable Sources on the Coronavirus Pandemic Protein May Predict Severe Covid-19 (Medical News Today). Lancet Medical Journal Blasts US Response to Coronavirus (Lancet). Immunoregulation with mTor Inhibitors for CV-19 (Journal of ...
According to the World Health Organization and AFCD, there is no evidence that pets, such as cats and dogs, can become infected with the coronavirus. This is because while dogs can test positive for the virus, it does not mean they have been infected.. Coronaviruses can live on surfaces and objects, but researchers are still unsure of how long they survive. Similarly, the coronavirus may be present in the bodies of cats or dogs, even if they have not actually contracted the virus. The AFCD is testing the dog more to see if the dog has been infected with the virus or if it has just become contaminated with the virus. According to the available evidence, dogs are not more at risk than inanimate objects such as door knobs and the desk. Can your dog give you coronavirus ...
China coronavirus: All you need to know - A new virus has killed 81 people in China and infected almost 3,000 people, with cases confirmed in several countries. Coronavirus: Everything you need to know Health authorities around the world are grappling with an outbreak of a new coronavirus, which originated i ...
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a virus (more specifically, a coronavirus) identified as the cause of an outbreak of respiratory illness first detected in Wuhan, China.
What is coronavirus and how you can protect yourself, your family & your community? Coronavirus is a respiratory virus that can be contracted through respiratory droplets. You can only catch coronavirus if this fluid enters your body. The key places for this to happen is your mouth, nose or eyes. You can take step
The coronavirus now called COVID-19 quickly spread throughout mainland China and around the world in early 2020. The outbreak was declared a global health emergency by the World Health Organization, with nations scrambling to contain the spread and airlines canceling flights to and from China. Several nations have begun work on a coronavirus vaccine, but it will likely take months before one can be distributed widely. Heres the latest news about the coronavirus. 9
CORONAVIRUS has now infected more than 5,000 people in the UK, killed thousands around the world and infected a total of more than 200,000 patients. But how many people have recovered from coronavirus?
Coronavirus news - get all the breaking coronavirus news updates globally 24/7/365. See whats happening now with COVID-19 in the UK and globally. The #1 COVID-19 coronavirus news resource.
HRT or hormone replacement therapy comes in the form of pills in a tablet. They are to be taken daily for as long as the menopause lasts. But due to the link of cancer and estrogen levels, women are advised visit their doctors every five to six months. To help your body adjust to medication, take the medication in the same time of the day. And dont skip a day. The biggest shock to a womans body in this time is a sudden stop. And remember to be consistent. Dont take one pill one day, and two or three the next day. If you are taking one pill each day, continue to do so. Eventually, if the symptoms become too much of a problem, increase the medication. But remember to do this day at a time. ...
A virus is a microscopic parasite that cannot live or reproduce outside of a host body. A host refers to the organism or species (like humans, dogs or cats) that a virus is able to infect. Viruses, which are much smaller than the cells that make up our bodies, move between cells and infect them individually, and use cells to create copies of themselves.. Coronavirus is one type of virus much like a banana is one type of fruit. There are many types of viruses that infect different parts of the body. An intestinal virus, for example can cause vomiting, diarrhea and inappetence (not wanting to eat). Coronavirus is a respiratory virus (in humans) because it infects the cells of the respiratory tract (nasal passages, bronchi, bronchioles, and lung tissue) and causes respiratory symptoms such as coughing, runny nose, sneezing and sore throat.. ...
Coronavirus diarrhea can be the first warning sign in patients who dont have respiratory issues, cough or fever. What are upset stomach coronavirus systems?
As the coronavirus pandemic continues to shut down daily life across the globe, thousands of our readers across the nation have asked us questions about COVID-19.And were answering them.For basic facts about the virus - what it is, how it spreads and where its located - you can get caught up by reading our in-depth explainer here. Weve also debunked some viral coronavirus myths. But youre curious and continue to ask important
As the coronavirus pandemic continues to shut down daily life across the globe, thousands of our readers across the nation have asked us questions about COVID-19.And were answering them.For basic facts about the virus - what it is, how it spreads and where its located - you can get caught up by reading our in-depth explainer here. Weve also debunked some viral coronavirus myths. But youre curious and continue to ask important
As the coronavirus pandemic continues to shut down daily life across the globe, thousands of our readers across the nation have asked us questions about COVID-19.And were answering them.For basic facts about the virus - what it is, how it spreads and where its located - you can get caught up by reading our in-depth explainer here. Weve also debunked some viral coronavirus myths. But youre curious and continue to ask important
All the available evidence indicates coronavirus originated in animals in China late last year and was not manipulated or produced in a laboratory as has been alleged, the World Health Organization said Tuesday in a news briefing in Geneva. It is probable, likely, that the virus is of animal origin, said WHO spokeswoman Fadela Chaib.The global health bodys remarks follow confirmation from President Donald Trump last week that his administration is probing whether coronavirus
Get all the latest news on coronavirus and more delivered daily to your inbox. Sign up here. Though there is currently no known scientific cure for the disease…
Coronavirus is among the big family of viruses and they mainly affect the respiratory system. The name coronavirus is derived from corona Latin called...
Read more on what we know about COVID-19 coronavirus, including how contagious and dangerous it is, and how to prevent from becoming infected with coronavirus.
From Critical Care Explorations. In this study, the authors investigated explored whether awake self-proning improved outcomes in coronavirus disease 2019-infected patients treated in a rural medical center with limited resources during a significant local coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak.
View news about the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and what the outbreak means for you, your family, and your patients. See regularly updated resources and answers to some frequently asked questions about COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2, the coronavirus that causes this disease.
View news about the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and what the outbreak means for you, your family, and your patients. See regularly updated resources and answers to some frequently asked questions about COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2, the coronavirus that causes this disease.
CMA Coronavirus / COVID-19 Real time update. This article covers issues such as returning to work safely, PPE, sanitation procedures, keeping yourself and your clients safe and much more. The article also describes the symptoms of those who have contracted Coronavirus 2019-nCoV and examines complementary medical and lifestyle medicine ways of treating it, given that there is an absence of any viable vaccine or medicine at the current time
The latest general information on the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is available on Coronavirus.gov. For GPO specific COVID-19 resources, please visit our page.. ...
Our Coronavirus Task Force has been meeting regularly to review and implement state and national best practices to help prevent the spread of COVID-19 (Coronavirus).
¿Te preocupa viajar ante la pandemia del coronavirus? Lee más sobre cómo estamos respondiendo a la propagación del coronavirus.
The claim: People who suffered from a round of illness in November and December likely had the coronavirus A handful of widely circulated Facebook posts have asserted that people in the United States likely contracted the coronavirus as early as last fall.
The latest coronavirus news from Canada and around the world Thursday. ... 5:55 a.m.: Its unlikely most Canadians will enjoy a holly jolly Christmas ... blood vessels or cause inflammation within them, leading to blood clots that can ... CoronaVirus News Review In ...
Check out RT for the latest updates and news on coronavirus in France, as the country battles an increasing level of Covid-19 infections. Dont miss the latest on coronavirus in France.
Infórmate sobre la enfermedad del coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) y sobre el coronavirus que la causa (SARS-CoV-2). Aprende cuáles son los síntomas, riesgos, y las maneras de protegerte.
Everything you need to know this week about type 1 diabetes and coronavirus updates, in one easy-to-read place!. Researchers, advocates, clinicians, and organizations around the country and across the web have been hard at work, creating resources for people living with T1D to better handle the ongoing COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic.. Were taking the opportunity each week to share some of those resources that may help people get through this challenging time with the help of partners and experts.. We will be sharing the most recent, most relevant content from Beyond Type 1, JDRF, and more!. ...
அரசுகளால், உலக சுகாதார சபை போன்ற அங்கீகரிக்கப்பட்ட நிறுவனங்களால் , நம்பகத்தன்மை வாய்ந்த ஊடகங்களால் மற்றும் உறுதி செய்யப்பட்ட COVID-19: Coronavirus - பாதுகாப்பு வழிமுறைகள் மற்றும் ஆலோசனைகளை மட்டும் இங்கு பதிந்து கொள்ளுங்கள். COVID-19: Coronavirus செய்திகள் இப்பகுதியில் இணைக்கப்படலாகாது. செய்திகள் அதற்குரிய பகுதிகளில் இணைத்துக்கொள்ளுங்கள்.
Coronavirus - May 31, 2020 : WASHINGTON - President Donald Trump established a team of officials on January 29 dedicated to monitoring, preventing, containing and mitigating
SCIENTISTS have issued a shock coronavirus warning, after revealing the single biggest risk factor to being hospitalised with coronavirus in the UK - and 6 out of 10 Brits have it.
Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Situation Summary On Feb. 26th, Trump held a press conference with his Coronavirus Task Force... https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iXOjBB_Yyig ...and then again on Feb. 29th...President Trump Delivers Remarks
Coronavirus may be just the beginning of mass pandemics. Destruction of Habitat Creates the Perfect Conditions for Coronavirus to Emerge.
Give a nurse 15 minutes and a nasal swab, and they might be able to tell you if you have coronavirus with this low-cost, rapid antigen test.
The new coronavirus and the seasonal flu are both contagious respiratory diseases with similar symptoms, but so far the new malady appears to be deadlier.
A top medic who contracted Coronavirus says the deadly respiratory disease is so contagious it can be transmitted through the eyes. Wang Guangfa, who was a...
ProMach Coronavirus (COVID-19) Update - we remain committed to helping our customers keep their packaging lines operating as efficiently as possible while focusing on the safety and protection of everyone.
The coronavirus, or COVID-19, is inciting panic for a number of reasons. Its a new virus, meaning no one has immunity, and there is no vaccine. Its novelty means that scientists arent sure yet how it behaves they have little history to go on.. ...
As the world knows, we face an emerging virus threat in the Wuhan coronavirus (2019-nCoV) outbreak. The problem is, right now there are several important things
As the world knows, we face an emerging virus threat in the Wuhan coronavirus (2019-nCoV) outbreak. The problem is, right now there are several important things
Coronavirus. Image produced using high-dynamic-range imaging (HDRI) from an image taken with transmission electron microscopy. Viral diameter ranges from around 80 to 160 nm. - Stock Image C024/4681
Often marked by fever, vomiting and loss of appetite, coronavirus in dogs is caused by a virus. Heres need-to-know information on helping your pet heal.
A global study has found clear evidence that a new form of the coronavirus has spread from Europe to the US. The new mutation makes the virus more infectious but does not seem to make people any sicker, an international team of researchers reported Thursday.
The president is increasingly referring to the coronavirus as the Chinese virus. The White House has scheduled a briefing on its response to the pandemic for 11:30 a.m. ET.
As the coronavirus situation intensifies, you might be wondering: how can I keep myself healthy? There are ways to keep your immune system functioning optimally, which can help to keep you healthy and give you a sense of control in an uncertain time.
"A new approach for diagnosis of bovine coronavirus using a reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification assay". ... An exception is a recent study comparing RT-qPCR, RT-LAMP, and RPA for detection of Schmallenberg virus and bovine viral ... Aebischer, Andrea (2014). "Rapid Genome Detection of Schmallenberg Virus and Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus by Use of Isothermal ...
... is a higher-order genomic structure implicated in the mediation of DIP production in bovine coronavirus, with apparent homologs ... untranslated region is a cis-acting element in bovine coronavirus defective interfering RNA replication". J. Virol. 77 (12): ... DIP generation is regulated within viruses: the Coronavirus SL-III cis-acting replication element (shown in the image) ... "Primary structure and translation of a defective interfering RNA of murine coronavirus". Virology. 166 (2): 550-60. doi:10.1016 ...
... which was similarly observed in bovine coronavirus. In addition, it was found that the TAS of the IBV D-RNA contained a ... Coronavirus D-RNA like that of IBV, are produced during high multiplicity of infection and contain cis-acting sequences which ... "In vitro and in ovo expression of chicken gamma interferon by a defective RNA of avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus ... "Expression of reporter genes from the defective RNA CD-61 of the coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus". The Journal of ...
They cause Classical swine fever (CSF) and Bovine viral diarrhea(BVD). Mucosal disease is a distinct, chronic persistent ... Coronaviruses are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense RNA genome and with a nucleocapsid of helical symmetry. They infect ...
... coronavirus HKU1 [6], bat coronavirus HKU2 to 13 [7,8,9], bovine and porcine hokovirus [10] and Laribacter hongkongensis in ... Comparative analysis of complete genome sequences of three avian coronaviruses reveals a novel group 3c coronavirus. J Virol. ... Characterization and complete genome sequence of a novel coronavirus, coronavirus HKU1, from patients with pneumonia. Journal ... he led his team in the discovery of the SARS coronavirus, being honoured as "Asian heroes of the year" in April by Time Asia ...
Alphacoronavirus 1 Human coronavirus 229E Human coronavirus NL63 Miniopterus bat coronavirus 1 Miniopterus bat coronavirus HKU8 ... Bovine torovirus Equine torovirus Human torovirus Porcine torovirus There are currently a total of 25 species assigned to this ... Betacoronavirus 1 Human coronavirus HKU1 Murine coronavirus Pipistrellus bat coronavirus HKU5 Rousettus bat coronavirus HKU9 ... Bulbul coronavirus HKU11 Munia coronavirus HKU13 Thrush coronavirus HKU12 Genus: Gammacoronavirus Avian coronavirus Beluga ...
Bovine coronavirus and human coronavirus OC43 diverged in 1899. Bovine coronavirus diverged from the equine coronavirus species ... Porcine coronavirus (transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus of pigs, TGEV). Bovine coronavirus (BCV), responsible for severe ... Another estimate suggests that human coronavirus OC43 diverged from bovine coronavirus in 1890. The MRCA of human coronavirus ... Human coronavirus 229E Human coronavirus OC43 SARS-CoV Human Coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63, New Haven coronavirus) Human ...
Martín, M.-J.; Martín-Sosa, S.; García-Pardo, L.-A.; Hueso, P. (2001). "Distribution of Bovine Milk Sialoglycoconjugates During ... Dr ADDIE website focused research about FIP Coronavirus Site général Coronavirus site général Coronavirus Pictures. ... Alphacoronavirus 1 also includes the canine coronavirus (CCoV) and the porcine transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV ... "Feline Coronavirus Type II Strains 79-1683 and 79-1146 Originate from a Double Recombination between Feline Coronavirus Type I ...
Known as canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV) and found to be similar to strain OC43 of bovine and human coronaviruses, it ... A more serious complication of canine coronavirus occurs when the dog is also infected with canine parvovirus. Coronavirus ... Canine coronavirus is a virus of the family Coronaviridae that causes a highly contagious intestinal disease worldwide in dogs ... Canine coronavirus was originally thought to cause serious gastrointestinal disease, but now most cases are considered to be ...
... (BCV) is as a member of the Coronaviridae family which are enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA ... "Bovine Coronavirus", reviewed and published by WikiVet, accessed 20/08/2011.. ... Definitive diagnosis of an enteric coronavirus infection is achieved by performing electron microscopy or an ELISA on a faecal ... The haemagglutination inhibition test can be used to establish the strain of coronavirus. Animals should be treated ...
... coronavirus MeSH B04.820.504.540.150.150 --- coronavirus, bovine MeSH B04.820.504.540.150.160 --- coronavirus, canine MeSH ... coronavirus MeSH B04.909.777.500.540.150.150 --- coronavirus, bovine MeSH B04.909.777.500.540.150.160 --- coronavirus, canine ... coronavirus 229e, human MeSH B04.820.504.540.150.220 --- coronavirus oc43, human MeSH B04.820.504.540.150.260 --- coronavirus, ... coronavirus oc43, human MeSH B04.909.777.500.540.150.260 --- coronavirus, rat MeSH B04.909.777.500.540.150.300 --- coronavirus ...
... untranslated region is a cis-acting element in bovine coronavirus defective interfering RNA replication". J Virol. 77 (12): ... Other RNA families identified in the coronavirus include the coronavirus 3' stem-loop II-like motif (s2m), the coronavirus ... the coronavirus packaging signal and the coronavirus 3' UTR pseudoknot. Cardiovirus cis-acting replication element (CRE) Citrus ... The coronavirus SL-III cis-acting replication element (CRE) is an RNA element that regulates defective interfering (DI) RNA ...
Alphacoronavirus 1 Human coronavirus 229E Human coronavirus NL63 Miniopterus bat coronavirus 1 Miniopterus bat coronavirus HKU8 ... Bat mastadenovirus A Bat mastadenovirus B Bovine mastadenovirus A Bovine mastadenovirus B Bovine mastadenovirus C Canine ... Betacoronavirus 1 Human coronavirus HKU1 Murine coronavirus Pipistrellus bat coronavirus HKU5 Rousettus bat coronavirus HKU9 ... Bulbul coronavirus HKU11 Munia coronavirus HKU13 Thrush coronavirus HKU12 Genus: Gammacoronavirus Avian coronavirus Beluga ...
... bovine parainfluenza virus QI02AD08 Bovine rotavirus + bovine coronavirus QI02AD09 Bovine rotavirus QI02AD10 Bovine coronavirus ... bovine coronavirus + escherichia QI02AL02 Bovine rotavirus + bovine coronavirus + parvovirus + escherichia QI02AL03 Bovine ... bovine adenovirus + bovine reovirus QI02AA06 Bovine parainfluenza virus + bovine adenovirus + bovine reovirus + bovine ... bovine respiratory syncytial virus + pasteurella QI02AL05 Bovine rotavirus + bovine coronavirus + clostridium + escherichia ...
2 Bovine alphaherpesvirus 5 Bovine atadenovirus D Bovine cyclovirus Bovine fever ephemerovirus Bovine foamy virus Bovine ... 6A Human betaherpesvirus 6B Human betaherpesvirus 7 Human coronavirus 229E Human coronavirus HKU1 Human coronavirus NL63 Human ... gammaherpesvirus 4 Bovine gammaherpesvirus 6 Bovine immunodeficiency virus Bovine leukemia virus Bovine mastadenovirus A Bovine ... syncytial virus Bovine rhinitis A virus Bovine rhinitis B virus Bovine torovirus Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 Bovine viral ...
... enzootic bovine leukosis MeSH C02.782.815.200.470 --- htlv-i infections MeSH C02.782.815.200.470.300 --- leukemia-lymphoma, t- ... coronavirus infections MeSH C02.782.600.550.200.325 --- enteritis, transmissible, of turkeys MeSH C02.782.600.550.200.360 --- ... bovine MeSH C02.782.417.214 --- dengue fever MeSH C02.782.417.214.200 --- dengue hemorrhagic fever MeSH C02.782.417.400 --- cgi ... bovine virus diarrhea-mucosal disease MeSH C02.782.350.675.200 --- classical swine fever MeSH C02.782.350.675.400 --- ...
Coronavirus: SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) Encephalitis viruses: Eastern equine encephalitis virus (excluding South ... contagious bovine pleuropneumonia) African horse sickness virus African swine fever virus Avian influenza virus (highly ... In the same revision Chapare virus, Lujo virus, and SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) were added to the list of select ... Enzootic subtypes ID and IE Akabane virus Bluetongue virus Bovine Spongiform Encephalitis Camel Pox virus Erlichia ruminantium ...
Ramajayam, R (2011). "Recent development of 3C and 3CL protease inhibitors for anti-coronavirus and anti-picornavirus drug ... but not bovine enterovirus, targets the host cell cytoskeleton via the nonstructural protein 3Cpro". Journal of Virology. 82: ... Ramajayam, R (2011). "Recent development of 3C and 3CL protease inhibitors for anti-coronavirus and anti-picornavirus drug ... Ramajayam, R (2011). "Recent development of 3C and 3CL protease inhibitors for anti-coronavirus and anti-picornavirus drug ...
Peiris JS, Poon LL (2011). Detection of SARS Coronavirus. Methods in Molecular Biology. 665. pp. 369-82. doi:10.1007/978-1- ... bovine virus diarrhea was discovered,[60] which is still possibly the most common pathogen of cattle throughout the world[61] ... "Cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV): emerging pestiviruses doomed to extinction". Veterinary Research. 41 (6): 44 ...
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy Prions cattle eating infected meat Brucellosis Brucella spp. cattle, goats infected milk or ... MERS coronavirus bats, camels close contact Monkeypox Monkeypox virus rodents, primates contact with infected rodents, primates ... SARS coronavirus bats, civets close contact, respiratory droplets Swine influenza any strain of the influenza virus endemic in ... severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) bats, pangolins, felines, minks respiratory transmission 2019 ...
Stohlman, S A; R S Baric; G N Nelson; L H Soe; L M Welter; R J Deans (1988). "Specific interaction between coronavirus leader ... The newly transferred blots are then soaked in a blocking solution; non-fat milk and bovine serum albumin are common blocking ...
Group: ssRNA(+) Order: Nidovirales Family: Coronaviridae Sub-Family: Torovirinae Genus: Torovirus Bovine torovirus Equine ... evolution and comparison with other members of the coronavirus-like superfamily". J. Gen. Virol. 74 (11): 2305-16. doi:10.1099/ ...
Virusul imuno-deficienței bovine. *▪ Virusul leucemiei bovine. *▪ Virusul respiratoric syncytial bovin. *▪ Bunyavirus ...
Group: ssRNA(+) Order: Picornavirales Family: Picornaviridae Genus: Aphthovirus Bovine rhinitis A virus Bovine rhinitis B virus ... coronavirus, notavirus, etc.) supergroup of RNA viruses. The mechanism has been best studied for the enteroviruses (which ...
A study found bovine calf rennet could be used to coagulate dromedary milk.[117] A special factory has been set up in ... "MERS coronavirus in dromedary camel herd, Saudi Arabia". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 20 (7): 1-4. doi:10.3201/eid2007.140571. ... Ramet, J.P. (1987). "Saudi Arabia: use of bovine calf rennet to coagulate raw camel milk". World Animal Review (FAO). 61: 11-16 ... coronavirus seroprevalence in domestic livestock in Saudi Arabia, 2010 to 2013". Eurosurveillance. 18 (50): 20659. doi:10.2807/ ...
An arbitrarily chosen DNA fragment derived from the mRNA transcript of bovine serum albumin was evolved through random point ... DNAzymes have also been shown to inhibit the replication of SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV),[32] Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), ...
Family 1.G.17 The Bovine Leukemia Virus Envelop Glycoprotein (BLV-Env) Family 1.G.18 The SARS-CoV Fusion Peptide in the Spike ... Family 1.A.65 The Coronavirus Viroporin E Protein (Viroporin E) Family 1.A.66 The Pardaxin (Pardaxin) Family 1.A.67 The ... ICln family 1.A.48 Anion channel Tweety family 1.A.49 Human coronavirus ns12.9 viroporin family 1.A.50 Phospholamban (Ca2+- ... Family 1.A.89 The Human Coronavirus 229E Viroporin (229E Viroporin) Family 1.A.90 The Human Metapneumovirus (HMPV) Viroporin ( ...
Clinical efficacy of the RIT 4237 live attenuated bovine rotavirus vaccine in infants vaccinated before a rotavirus epidemic" J ... and faecal coronaviruses. He, along with H.G. Pereira also discovered picobirnaviruses, and with other colleagues first ...
IV: SARS coronavirus *Severe acute respiratory syndrome. *V: Orthomyxoviridae: Influenzavirus A/B/C/D *Influenza/Avian ... Bovine spongiform encephalopathy. *Camel spongiform encephalopathy. *Scrapie. *Chronic wasting disease. *Transmissible mink ...
"Puppies & burnout: The economic impact of the coronavirus on vets". The Conversation. Retrieved 10 August 2020.. ... bovine (cattle) and porcine (swine) species; such veterinarians deal with management of herds, nutrition, reproduction, and ... often involving bovines, porcine species, felines, canines, rodents, and even exotic animals). Their responsibility is not only ...
ingestion of oocyst (sporulated), some species are zoonotic (e.g. bovine fecal contamination) ... IV: SARS coronavirus *Severe acute respiratory syndrome. *V: Orthomyxoviridae: Influenza virus A/B/C/D *Influenza/Avian ...
IV: SARS coronavirus *Severe acute respiratory syndrome. *V: Orthomyxoviridae: Influenzavirus A/B/C *Influenza/Avian influenza ...
MERS coronavirus *Middle East respiratory syndrome. *SARS coronavirus 2 *Coronavirus disease 2019 ...
The major concerns include: The possible presence of animal reservoirs of the coronavirus that causes SARS lack of a reliable ... linked to the bovine spongiform encephalopathy or "mad cow disease" outbreak in the United Kingdom in 1995 that has since ebbed ...
... recognizes the surface antigen of bovine coronavirus. Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) causes severe diarrhoea in newborn ca… ... strong,Mouse anti Bovine Coronavirus Surface Antigen antibody, clone 5A4,/strong, ... Mouse anti Bovine Coronavirus Surface Antigen antibody, clone 5A4 recognizes the surface antigen of bovine coronavirus. Bovine ... Bovine coronavirus.. Approx. Protein Concentrations. IgG concentration 1.0mg/ml. Fusion Partners. Spleen cells from immunised ...
MAb to Bovine Coronavirus \ C86540M for more molecular products just contact us ... Index / Meridian Life Science / MAb to Bovine Coronavirus / Product Detail : C86540M MAb to Bovine Coronavirus. Related ... We have also other products like : MAb to Bovine Coronavirus. Related products : MAb to Bovine Coronavirus ...
Targeted RNA recombination of the membrane and nucleocapsid protein genes between mouse hepatitis virus and bovine coronavirus. ... Targeted RNA recombination of the membrane and nucleocapsid protein genes between mouse hepatitis virus and bovine coronavirus ...
Bovine coronavirus strain L9 (BCV-L9) and 5 wild-type isolates replicated in HRT-18 cells, inducing cell fusion. Strain L9, ... Bovine coronavirus strain L9 (BCV-L9) and 5 wild-type isolates replicated in HRT-18 cells, inducing cell fusion. Strain L9, ... Bovine Enteropathogenic Coronavirus: The Effect of the Host Cell and Trypsin Modification on the Virus Structure, Cytopathic ... cyr-coats, Karen P., "Bovine Enteropathogenic Coronavirus: The Effect of the Host Cell and Trypsin Modification on the Virus ...
ATTENUATED BOVINE CORONAVIRUS AND RELATED VACCINES , MODIFIED BAT INFLUENZA VIRUSES AND THEIR USES , ... ATTENUATED BOVINE CORONAVIRUS AND RELATED VACCINES. The present invention discloses novel attenuated bovine coronavirus ...
Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is a primary cause of neonatal calf diarrhea worldwide, and is also associated with acute diarrhea in ... Experimental inoculation of adult dairy cows with bovine coronavirus and detection of coronavirus in feces by RT-PCR. Arch ... BACKGROUND: Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is a primary cause of neonatal calf diarrhea worldwide, and is also associated with acute ... Hansa, A., Rai, R.B., Yaqoob Wani, M., Dhama, K. (2012) ELISA and RT-PPCR based detection of Bovine Coronavirus in north India ...
Bovine coronavirus (BCV) is as a member of the Coronaviridae family which are enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA ... "Bovine Coronavirus", reviewed and published by WikiVet, accessed 20/08/2011.. ... Definitive diagnosis of an enteric coronavirus infection is achieved by performing electron microscopy or an ELISA on a faecal ... The haemagglutination inhibition test can be used to establish the strain of coronavirus. Animals should be treated ...
Lactogenic immunity following vaccination of cattle with bovine coronavirus.. Crouch CF1, Oliver S, Hearle DC, Buckley A, ... In order to investigate the ability of an oil adjuvanted vaccine containing bovine coronavirus antigen to enhance lactogenic ... will lead to the production of a superior commercial vaccine for the protection of neonatal calves against enteric coronavirus ...
sp,P59709,HEMA_CVBQ Hemagglutinin-esterase OS=Bovine coronavirus (strain Quebec) OX=11133 GN=HE PE=3 SV=1 ... Bovine coronavirus (strain Quebec) (BCoV) (BCV). ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_ ... Belongs to the influenza type C/coronaviruses hemagglutinin-esterase family.UniRule annotation. Manual assertion according to ... Bos taurus (Bovine) [TaxID: 9913]. ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section"> ...
The replicase polyprotein of coronaviruses is a multifunctional protein: it contains the activities necessary for the ... sp,P0C6W9,R1AB_CVBM Replicase polyprotein 1ab OS=Bovine coronavirus (strain Mebus) OX=11132 GN=rep PE=3 SV=1 ... Bovine coronavirus (strain Mebus) (BCoV) (BCV). ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand% ... Belongs to the coronaviruses polyprotein 1ab family.Curated. Zinc finger. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. ...
Bovine coronavirus Synonym(s): coronaviridae, BCV, bovine respiratory disease complex. Contributor(s): Veronica Fowler , Tammy ... Saif L J (2010) Bovine Respiratory Coronavirus. The Veterinary clinics of North America Food animal practice 26 (2), 349-364 ... Saif L J (1990) A review of evidence implicating bovine coronavirus in the etiology of winter dysentery in cows: an enigma ... Kapil S & Basaraba R J (1997) Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza-3, and respiratory coronavirus. Vet Clin North ...
Aids in the reduction of morbidity and mortality from neonatal calf scours.First Defense Bovine Coronavirus-Escherichia Coli ... Coronavirus and K99 E. coli antibodies to provide scour protection for newborn calves. For maximum protection, give 1 capsule ... First Defense Bovine Coronavirus-Escherichia Coli Antibody is rated 4.80 out of 5 by 21. ... bovine coronaviruseschericia coli antibody Rated 5 out of 5 stars by barry 1 on 2015-03-07 used this product last year and it ...
Coronavirus and K99 E. coli antibodies to provide scour protection for newborn calves. For maximum protection, give 1 capsule ... Do not use with modified-live oral coronavirus or rotavirus vaccines at birth, as the antibodies in First Defense may ... First Defense Bovine Coronavirus-Escherichia Coli Antibody is rated 4.80 out of 5 by 9. ... bovine coronaviruseschericia coli antibody Rated 5 out of 5 stars by barry 1 on 2015-03-07 used this product last year and it ...
Bovine coronavirus) (OPCA46222) , Recombinant Protein , Application: WB, ELISA , Species Reactivity: Bovine coronavirus , Alias ... Youre reviewing:4B Recombinant Protein (Bovine coronavirus) (OPCA46222). Your Rating. Overall Experience. 1 star 2 stars 3 ...
Bovine, Peplomer from bovine and bovine coronavirus. Validated for ELISA. ... Bovine, Peplomer antibody LS-C525167 is a biotin-conjugated mouse monoclonal antibody to Coronavirus, ... Coronavirus, Bovine, Peplomer antibody LS-C525167 is a biotin-conjugated mouse monoclonal antibody to Coronavirus, Bovine, ... Coronavirus, Bovine, Peplomer antibody LS-C525167 is a biotin-conjugated mouse monoclonal antibody to Coronavirus, Bovine, ...
Evaluation of shell vial cell culture technique for the detection of bovine coronavirus ... Evaluation of shell vial cell culture technique for the detection of bovine coronavirus. Tahir, R.A.; Pomeroy, K.A.; Goyal, S.M ... The effect of blind passage and centrifugation on the isolation of bovine coronavirus (BCV) in human rectal tumour cells was ... Evaluation of shell vial cell culture technique for the detection of bovine coronavirus. ...
Keywords: Bovine coronavirus; Antigenic; Genetic; Vaccination; Respiratory disease; Enteric disease. Graduation Month: August. ... Serological characterization of genotypically distinct enteric and respiratory bovine coronaviruses. K-REx Repository. Search K ... Bovine Coronavirus (BCoV) is known to cause enteric and respiratory diseases, such as calf diarrhea, winter dysentery, calf ... Serological characterization of genotypically distinct enteric and respiratory bovine coronaviruses. Ukena, Alexa ...
Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza-3 and bovine respiratory coronavirus. Vet. Clin. N. Am. Food Anim. Pract. 13 ... Detection of bovine coronavirus by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using monoclonal antibodies. J. Vet. Med. Sci. 55 1993 771 ... Chronic shedding of bovine enteric coronavirus antigen-antibody complexes by clinically normal cows. J. Gen. Virol. 66 1985 ... Bovine coronavirus (BCV) is an economically significant cause of calf scours and winter dysentery of adult cattle (9) and may ...
Monoclonal antibodies to bovine enteric coronavirus (BEC) were produced. Additionally, polyclonal antibodies were made in ... Monoclonal antibodies to bovine enteric coronavirus (BEC) were produced. Additionally, polyclonal antibodies were made in ... Characterization of Monoclonal and Polyclonal Antibodies to Bovine Enteric Coronavirus: Establishment of an Efficient ELISA for ...
Development of an Antigen Spot Test for Detection of Coronavirus in Bovine Fecal Samples. Fathy Gaber, Sanjay Kapil ... Development of an Antigen Spot Test for Detection of Coronavirus in Bovine Fecal Samples ... Development of an Antigen Spot Test for Detection of Coronavirus in Bovine Fecal Samples ... Development of an Antigen Spot Test for Detection of Coronavirus in Bovine Fecal Samples ...
Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and bovine coronavirus (BCV) are responsible for respiratory disease and diarrhea in ... Evaluation of a multiplex immunoassay for bovine respiratory syncytial virus and bovine coronavirus antibodies in bulk tank ...
Home » Monoclonal antibodiesVeterinaryBovine » Monoclonal mouse anti-bovine corona virus peplomer ... Monoclonal antibodies » Veterinary » Bovine. Disease Category:. Veterinary » Monoclonal antibodies » Bovine. MAbs:. 5A4. ... clone has been derived from hybridization of Sp2/0 myeloma cells with spleen cells of Balb/c mice immunized with bovine corona virus ...
Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is a widely distributed pathogen, causing disease and economic losses in the cattle industry ... From: Bovine coronavirus in naturally and experimentally exposed calves; viral shedding and the potential for transmission ...
title = "Bovine coronavirus nucleocapsid protein processing and assembly",. abstract = "The coronavirus nucleocapsid protein (N ... Bovine coronavirus nucleocapsid protein processing and assembly. Together they form a unique fingerprint. * Coronavirus ... Bovine coronavirus nucleocapsid protein processing and assembly. / Hogue, B. G.. In: Advances in experimental medicine and ... The requirements for coronavirus nucleocapsid assembly are being studied. Two forms (~50 kDa and 55 kDa) of the bovine ...
Bovine respiratory coronavirus vaccine. Bovine Coronavirus Vaccines - Creative Biolabs. Coronavirus myths, debunked: A cattle ... Request PDF , Bovine Respiratory Coronavirus , Bovine coronaviruses At present, there are no BCoV vaccines to prevent ... Bovine coronavirus - Wikipedia WO1998040097A3 - Bovine respiratory and enteric coronavirus as a vaccine - Google Patents Viral ... Canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV) is a group 2 coronavirus. It is genetically related to the bovine coronavirus (which can ...
Spotlight on Bovine Coronavirus. by Bill Baker , Apr 22, 2020 , Chris Galen, Dairy Radio Now, Policy Thursday , 0 comments ... More than four decades of dairy-industry experience with bovine coronavirus shouldnt translate to complacency on farms about ... National Milks Chris Galen updated Dairy Radio listeners on the latest news regarding the Coronavirus Food Assistance Program: ... the National Milk Producers Federation updated Dairy Radio Now listeners on the next round of payments from the Coronavirus ...
VetPCR BCV Detection Kit is the direct detection of Bovine coronavirus on the basis of a genetic database, so it can diagnose ... that causes three distinct clinical syndromes in bovine; calf diarrhea, winter dysentery in adult cattle, and as cause of ... Bovine coronavirus (BCV) is recognized as the one important pathogen in cattle worldwide, ... Bovine coronavirus (BCV) is recognized as the one important pathogen in cattle worldwide, that causes three distinct clinical ...
Latest on coronavirus. *Bovine TB news and resources. *#FeedTheNation. *Farmlife Framed photo gallery ... BOVINE TB. Steps farmers are taking to reduce bovine TB risk. Simple, inexpensive steps can cut TB risks by limiting cow and ... Coronavirus: 18 staff test positive at Bernard Matthews plant. Eighteen workers at Bernard Matthews turkey processing plant in ... Suffolk have tested positive for coronavirus. The infections came to light after 100 staff were tested at Bernard Matthews ...
Latest on coronavirus. *Bovine TB news and resources. *#FeedTheNation. *Farmlife Framed photo gallery ... BOVINE TB. Steps farmers are taking to reduce bovine TB risk. Simple, inexpensive steps can cut TB risks by limiting cow and ... Coronavirus: 18 staff test positive at Bernard Matthews plant. Eighteen workers at Bernard Matthews turkey processing plant in ... Suffolk have tested positive for coronavirus. The infections came to light after 100 staff were tested at Bernard Matthews ...
This is bigger than coronavirus, and Australia is well out of its weight division. ... Cattle researchers fight extraordinary patent of bovine genome. ABC Rural. /. By. Sarina Locke. Posted ThuThursday 17. Nov ... In a move which has shocked cattle researchers and breeders, two American companies are trying to patent the bovine genome in ... Move to patent bovine genome described as utterly indefensible.. (. Supplied: Rob Banks. ). ...
Bovine coronavirus in naturally and experimentally exposed calves; viral shedding and the potential for transmission Bovine ... Coronaviruses and the human airway: a universal system for virus-host interaction studies Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are large ... Coronaviruses: emerging and re-emerging pathogens in humans and animals The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS ... Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a novel coronavirus discovered in 2012 and is responsible for acute ...
The tests you must arrange for bovine TB, what happens if your cattle test positive, when cattle must be slaughtered, and ... Coronavirus (COVID-19). * Coronavirus (COVID-19): guidance and support The UK has left the EU. * Transition period: get ready ... APHA may carry out culture tests to try to identify any bovine TB in the sample, especially if the result of that test will ... TB situation in herds surrounding you - this includes non-bovine animals. Contact APHA if you have questions about how many ...
Bovine Coronavirus PCR XBCVPCR * Nasal or pharyngeal swabs in viral transport media or a red top tube with 0.5ml sterile saline ... Bovine Coronavirus (BCV) FA BCVFA * Tied off loop of bowel with contents (fresh) ... Bovine Coronavirus PCR XBCVPCR * Fresh feces in leak-proof container (20 g) ... Bovine Herpesvirus-1 (Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis) FA IBRFA * Fresh tissue: lung, placenta including cotyledons, abomasal ...
  • Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) causes severe diarrhoea in newborn calves, possibly resulting in death. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • BACKGROUND: Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is a primary cause of neonatal calf diarrhea worldwide, and is also associated with acute diarrhea in adult cattle during the winter season, resulting heavy economic losses to both dairy and beef industry throughout the world. (ac.ir)
  • A survey on detection of coronavirus in neonatal calf diarrhea in dairy farms of Iran', Iranian Journal of Veterinary Medicine , 11(3), pp. 201-208. (ac.ir)
  • Do not use with modified-live oral coronavirus or rotavirus vaccines at birth, as the antibodies in First Defense may neutralize the vaccine. (valleyvet.com)
  • For use in healthy pregnant cattle as an aid in the prevention of disease in calves caused by bovine rotavirus, bovine coronavirus, Clostridium perfringens Type C, and K99 piliated Escherichia coli . (drugs.com)
  • Immunohistochemical and molecular detection of natural cases of bovine rotavirus and coronavirus infection causing enteritis in dairy calves. (bvsalud.org)
  • Isolation and characterization of temperature-sensitive mutants of bovine rotavirus. (asm.org)
  • Bovine rotavirus A (RVA) is the main viral agent that leads to enteric infection and diarrhea outbreaks in calves throughout the world. (scielo.br)
  • Prevents diseases caused by bovine rotavirus, bovine coronavirus, Clostridium perfringens Type C, and K99 pilated E-coli. (jefferspet.com)
  • Wuhan became the center of an outbreak of severe pneumonia of unknown etiology, raising the attention of the scientific community internationally and, on 7 January 2020, researchers isolated a novel coronavirus from patients, responsible for the disease. (mdpi.com)
  • It is hoped that this approach will lead to the production of a superior commercial vaccine for the protection of neonatal calves against enteric coronavirus infection. (nih.gov)
  • Coronavirus and K99 E. coli antibodies to provide scour protection for newborn calves. (valleyvet.com)
  • Bovine coronavirus (BCV) is an economically significant cause of calf scours and winter dysentery of adult cattle ( 9 ) and may cause respiratory disease in calves ( 6 , 7 ). (asm.org)
  • BOVILIS ® Coronavirus is recommended for use in healthy calves as an aid in the reduction of enteric disease caused by bovine coronavirus. (drugs.com)
  • A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting neonatal calves, presenting as acute diarrhea, and frequently leading to death. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The Bovine coronavirus attacks the respiratory system and the lower gastrointestinal tract of cattle and generally causes diarrhea in calves and respiratory distress in adult cattle (Saif, 2010). (umd.edu)
  • The vaccine pictured, ScourGuard 4K, is a vaccine for "pregnant cows and heifers" to help prevent diarrhea in their calves caused by bovine coronavirus and other microbes. (courier-tribune.com)
  • Christina Lood, a spokeswoman for Zoetis, the manufacturer for the vaccine in question, told us in an email that "ScourGuard 4KC is licensed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for the vaccination of healthy, pregnant cows and heifers as an aid in preventing diarrhea in their calves caused in part by bovine coronavirus. (courier-tribune.com)
  • Use of rapid human respiratory syncytial virus strip tests for detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in experimentally vaccinated calves. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Bovine coronavirus (BCV) is as a member of the Coronaviridae family which are enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses with a club-shaped surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • 147 bovine serums submitted to KSVDL were used to determine if there are any serological differences between the immune response to respiratory versus enteric viruses based on the antibodies produced by the animal. (k-state.edu)
  • Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that affect many different animal species and, in some cases, also humans. (anses.fr)
  • This family of viruses is presented below, along with the work of the Agency on animal coronaviruses. (anses.fr)
  • Coronaviruses are positive-stranded RNA viruses featuring the largest viral RNA genomes known to date (27 to 31 kb). (sciencemag.org)
  • Coronaviruses possess the largest genomes of all RNA viruses, consisting of about 30 kb. (asm.org)
  • Such a commonality has a further connection with the known behavior of some viruses of the coronavirus family, such as the murine hepatitis virus, whose spike glycoprotein (S) can be triggered to a membrane-binding conformation at pH 8.0. (mdpi.com)
  • Specific research programs include: vaccine design for Brucella Abortus, West Nile Virus, Dengue Virus, Herpes viruses and Bovine Coronavirus and Herpesvirus Type-1. (lsu.edu)
  • The coronaviruses (order Nidovirales , family Coronaviridae , genus Coronavirus ) are a diverse group of large, enveloped, positive-stranded RNA viruses that cause respiratory and enteric diseases in humans and other animals. (sciencemag.org)
  • Coronaviruses are the largest positive strand RNA viruses. (kenyon.edu)
  • The replication of coronavirus is slow compared to other enveloped viruses. (kenyon.edu)
  • Real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been used to develop a new generation of highly sensitive, quantitative tests to detect and identify ruminant pestiviruses, louping-ill virus, bovine respiratory viruses, ruminant herpesviruses and marine mammal viruses such as phocine herpesvirus 1 and dolphin/seal morbillivirus. (moredun.org.uk)
  • Coronaviruses are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome and with a nucleocapsid of helical symmetry. (wikipedia.org)
  • These viruses were subsequently named human coronavirus 229E and human coronavirus OC43. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene for the human coronavirus 229E replicase, encompassing more than 20,000 nucleotides, encodes two overlapping polyproteins [pp1a (replicase 1a, ∼450 kD) and pp1ab (replicase 1ab, ∼750 kD) ( 5 )] that mediate all the functions required for viral replication and transcription ( 6 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Based on genotypic and serological characterization, coronaviruses were divided into three distinct groups, with human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) being a group 1 coronavirus and human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) being a group 2 coronavirus ( 16 ). (asm.org)
  • Relatively very little is known of human coronaviruses because they do not grow in cultured cells but two strains, 229E and OC43, grow in some cell lines and have been used as a model. (kenyon.edu)
  • Virucidal activity of original and modified World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended hand rub formulations I and II for inactivating severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). (cdc.gov)
  • On the basis of genome analysis, SARS-CoV belonged to a fourth coronavirus group or alternatively was a distant relative of group 2 coronaviruses ( 4 , 20 , 28 , 31 , 48 ). (asm.org)
  • The genome of SARS-CoV is 29,727 nucleotides in length and has 11 open reading frames, and its genome organization is similar to that of other coronaviruses. (sciencemag.org)
  • Phylogenetic analyses and sequence comparisons showed that SARS-CoV is not closelyrelated to anyof the previouslycharacterized coronaviruses. (sciencemag.org)
  • Unlike other human coronaviruses, it was possible to isolate SARS-CoV in Vero cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • The much publicized human coronavirus, SARS-CoV which causes SARS, has a unique pathogenesis because it causes both upper and lower respiratory tract infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prior to the discovery of SARS-CoV, MHV had been the best-studied coronavirus both in vivo and in vitro as well as at the molecular level. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to investigate the ability of an oil adjuvanted vaccine containing bovine coronavirus antigen to enhance lactogenic immunity in the calf, pregnant cows and heifers were vaccinated and specific virus neutralising antibody levels determined in serum, colostrum and milk. (nih.gov)
  • Unlike the virus that causes COVID-19, there is a vaccine that producers can administer to their cattle to prevent Bovine coronavirus. (umd.edu)
  • Users on Facebook are spreading a photo of a vaccine used on cattle to falsely imply that the new coronavirus infecting humans globally has been known about "for years. (cantonrep.com)
  • The vaccine pictured is used to combat bovine coronavirus, which is a virus that infects cattle. (cantonrep.com)
  • Regarding how coronavirus is handled within society, Streeck continued: 'We cannot wait for a panacea, a vaccine or a medication. (airliners.net)
  • Scour Bos 9 vaccine for cattle helps protect against disease caused by Bovine Rota-Coronavirus Vaccine, (KV), Clostridium Perfringens Type C, and Escherichia Coli Bacterin-Toxid. (jefferspet.com)
  • Definitive diagnosis of an enteric coronavirus infection is achieved by performing electron microscopy or an ELISA on a faecal or tissue sample. (wikipedia.org)
  • Low-certainty evidence from one study suggests that in exclusively breast milk-fed preterm infants human milk-derived fortifiers in comparison with bovine milk-derived fortifier may not change the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis, mortality, feeding intolerance, infection, or improve growth. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • A history of smoking may lead to a more severe coronavirus infection. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is caused by growth of single or multiple species of pathogenic bacteria in lung tissue following stress and/or viral infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • There's quite a bit of confusion around the ACE proteins and coronavirus infection, and I can see why. (sciencemag.org)
  • It builds on reports from China to suggest that a mechanism of lung injury during the viral infection may be through inappropriate effects of excess free angiotensin-II protein, which is floating around out there because the ACE-2 that would normally be soaking it up is occupied by coronavirus particles. (sciencemag.org)
  • In general, each coronavirus causes disease in only one animal species. (jci.org)
  • Within each group, coronaviruses are classified into distinct species by host range, antigenic relationships, and genomic organization. (sciencemag.org)
  • Lactogenic immunity following vaccination of cattle with bovine coronavirus. (nih.gov)
  • Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and bovine coronavirus (BCV) are responsible for respiratory disease and diarrhea in cattle worldwide. (dtu.dk)
  • More than four decades of dairy-industry experience with bovine coronavirus shouldn't translate to complacency on farms about the human version, says Mike Lormore, the Director of U.S. Dairy Cattle Technical Services for Zoetis, in a recent NMPF podcast here . (dairyradio.com)
  • In a move which has shocked cattle researchers and breeders, two American companies are trying to patent the bovine genome in Australia. (abc.net.au)
  • The tests you must arrange for bovine TB, what happens if your cattle test positive, when cattle must be slaughtered, and compensation. (www.gov.uk)
  • If you keep cattle they must be routinely tested for bovine TB. (www.gov.uk)
  • The latest data relating to bovine TB in Wales has revealed an alarming and unsustainable rise in the number of cattle slaughtered due to this disease. (fuw.org.uk)
  • Bovine TB is one of the most serious issues facing Welsh cattle farmers and a more holistic approach, which seriously tackles the wildlife reservoir, is required urgently," said Glyn Roberts. (fuw.org.uk)
  • It is also recommending the Peaceful Palace Bovine Pill, a traditional Chinese medicine made with the gallstone of cattle, buffalo horn, jasmine and pearl. (nytimes.com)
  • As its name suggests, bovine coronavirus is a virus that infects cattle. (courier-tribune.com)
  • Blood dendritic cells in cattle infected with bovine leukemia virus (BLV): isolation and phenotyping. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Some of the coronavirus infections raise very serious problems in the past 2 decades, such as the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak in 2003, and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) which has caused millions of deaths in piglets worldwide. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Coronavirus outbreak response. (cdc.gov)
  • It is the responsibility of personnel preparing viral transport medium in response to the CDC Coronavirus outbreak to follow this procedure accurately. (cdc.gov)
  • The bovine coronavirus did not cause the current outbreak in humans. (cantonrep.com)
  • In view of the recent outbreak of the Coronavirus (COVID-19), we've taken the decision to help protect members, customers and colleagues by closing all FUW offices. (fuw.org.uk)
  • Doctors are conducting clinical trials to test the efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine in Wuhan, the epicenter of the coronavirus outbreak, said Dr. Cheng, the expert at Yale, who is also chairman of the Consortium for the Globalization of Chinese Medicine, a group of academics in the field. (nytimes.com)
  • Most coronaviruses of animals infect epithelial cells in the respiratory and/or enteric tracts, causing epizootics of respiratory diseases and/or gastroenteritis with short incubation periods (2-7 days), such as those found in SARS. (jci.org)
  • The human coronaviruses are responsible for 10-20% of all common colds and have been implicated in gastroenteritis, high and low respiratory tract infections and rare cases of encephalitis. (kenyon.edu)
  • Economically significant coronaviruses of farm animals include porcine coronavirus (transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus, TGE) and bovine coronavirus, which both result in diarrhea in young animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite the worldwide circulation of human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) and HKU1 (HCoV-HKU1), data on their molecular epidemiology and evolutionary dynamics in the tropical Southeast Asia region is lacking. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Monoclonal antibodies to bovine enteric coronavirus (BEC) were produced. (nih.gov)
  • Antigenic and polypeptide structure of turkeyenteric coronaviruses as defined by monoclonal antibodies. (springer.com)
  • Monoclonal antibodies to bovine Coronavirus: characteristics and topographical mapping of neutralizing epitopes on the E2 and E3 glycoproteins. (springer.com)
  • The replicase polyprotein of coronaviruses is a multifunctional protein: it contains the activities necessary for the transcription of negative stranded RNA, leader RNA, subgenomic mRNAs and progeny virion RNA as well as proteinases responsible for the cleavage of the polyprotein into functional products. (uniprot.org)
  • The coronavirus nucleocapsid protein (N) encapsidates the genomic RNA to form a helical nucleocapsid. (elsevier.com)
  • Two forms (~50 kDa and 55 kDa) of the bovine coronavirus (BCV) N protein were detected in infected cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Hogue, BG 1995, ' Bovine coronavirus nucleocapsid protein processing and assembly ', Advances in experimental medicine and biology , vol. 380, pp. 259-263. (elsevier.com)
  • Targeted RNA recombination of the membrane and nucleocapsid protein genes between mouse hepatitis virus and bovine coronavirus. (illinois.edu)
  • Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Targeted RNA recombination of the membrane and nucleocapsid protein genes between mouse hepatitis virus and bovine coronavirus. (illinois.edu)
  • Antigenic and genomic characterizations of the virus (isolate NC99) were based on serological comparison with other avian and mammalian coronaviruses and sequence analysis of the nucleocapsid (N) protein gene. (asm.org)
  • the complete N protein of NC99 (446 amino acids) was then compared with published N protein sequences of other avian and mammalian coronaviruses. (asm.org)
  • Additionally, some coronaviruses also contain a fourth major structural protein, the hemagglutinin-esterase protein (120 to 140 kDa) ( 12 , 26 ). (asm.org)
  • In 1987, Ireland was using two sets of bovine tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD): 20,000 international units (IU) per ml with one mg of protein per ml, and 40,000 IU with two mg of protein per ml. (thedairysite.com)
  • So it has its cardiovascular roles to play, but it's become known for being a protein recognized by various coronaviruses to gain cell entry. (sciencemag.org)
  • Some coronaviruses (specifically the members of Betacoronavirus subgroup A) also have a shorter spike-like protein called hemagglutinin esterase (HE). (wikipedia.org)
  • Coronaviruses also have a protein known as a replicase encoded in its genome which allows the RNA viral genome to be transcribed into new RNA copies using the host cell's machinery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus: another zoonotic betacoronavirus causing SARS-like disease. (nih.gov)
  • Coronaviruses can infect animals and people, and we've known about other coronaviruses for years. (cantonrep.com)
  • Seven known coronaviruses infect people. (vin.com)
  • Coronaviruses mainly target epithelial cells but they also infect macrophages and other widely distributed cells. (kenyon.edu)
  • The coronavirus can infect both animals and people, and can cause a range of respiratory illnesses from the common cold to more dangerous conditions like Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, or SARS. (nytimes.com)
  • Coronaviruses primarily infect the upper respiratory and gastrointestinal tract of mammals and birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Six different currently known strains of coronaviruses infect humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similarly, there are two types of coronavirus that infect ferrets: Ferret enteric coronavirus causes a gastrointestinal syndrome known as epizootic catarrhal enteritis (ECE), and a more lethal systemic version of the virus (like FIP in cats) known in ferrets as ferret systemic coronavirus (FSC). (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two types of canine coronavirus (CCoV), one that causes mild gastrointestinal disease and one that has been found to cause respiratory disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Identification of the structural proteins of turkey enteric Coronavirus. (springer.com)
  • Coronavirus proteins: structure and functions of the oligosaccharides of the avian infectious bronchitis virus glycoproteins. (springer.com)
  • Proteins that contribute to the overall structure of all coronaviruses are the spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N). In the specific case of the SARS coronavirus (see below), a defined receptor-binding domain on S mediates the attachment of the virus to its cellular receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). (wikipedia.org)
  • Bovine tuberculosis is an animal disease caused by a bacterium which is transmissible to humans. (anses.fr)
  • Two nested PCR assays were developed for the detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV). (semanticscholar.org)
  • Coronavirus, Bovine, Peplomer antibody LS-C525167 is a biotin-conjugated mouse monoclonal antibody to Coronavirus, Bovine, Peplomer from bovine and bovine coronavirus. (lsbio.com)
  • Indirect fluorescent-antibody assay procedures and virus neutralization assays demonstrated a close antigenic relationship with bovine coronavirus (BCV) and porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (mammalian group 2 coronaviruses). (asm.org)
  • Bovine corona virus. (lsbio.com)
  • Recognizes bovine corona virus surface antigen (peplomer). (lsbio.com)
  • Hybridoma clone has been derived from hybridization of Sp2/0 myeloma cells with spleen cells of Balb/c mice immunized with bovine corona virus. (advimmuno.com)
  • MAb 5A4 recognizes bovine corona virus surface antigen (peplomer). (advimmuno.com)
  • Bovine Enteropathogenic Coronavirus: The Effect of the Host Cell and Trypsin Modification on the Virus Structure, Cytopathic Expression, and Infectivity. (lsu.edu)
  • Based on these findings, the virus has been tentatively identified as equine coronavirus (ECV). (asm.org)
  • A coronavirus antigenically related to BCV was identified in feces and intestinal tissues of a diarrheic foal, based on immunohistochemistry and an antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, but virus isolation attempts were unsuccessful ( 7 ). (asm.org)
  • Based on the findings of this study, we propose that this new virus be designated coronavirus HKU1 (CoV-HKU1). (asm.org)
  • Subunit and viral-vectored vaccines for West Nile Virus, Bovine Coronavirus, Dengue virus. (lsu.edu)
  • Coronaviruses are rather unstable and transmission of the virus is by transfer of nasal secretions caused by sneezes, such as in aerosols. (kenyon.edu)
  • Development of nested PCR assays for detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in clinical samples. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Comparison of four RT-PCR assays for detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The genomic size of coronaviruses ranges from approximately 26 to 32 kilobases, the largest for an RNA virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The significance and economic impact of coronaviruses as causative agents of the common cold are hard to assess because, unlike rhinoviruses (another common cold virus), human coronaviruses are difficult to grow in the laboratory. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) is a coronavirus that causes an epidemic murine illness with high mortality, especially among colonies of laboratory mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • The complete genome of the coronavirus was sequenced and analyzed. (asm.org)
  • The genome of the coronavirus is not segmented and contains a single molecule of linear positive-sense, single-stranded RNA. (kenyon.edu)
  • She has also served on the EU's task force on the eradication of animal diseases and as a member of the bovine tuberculosis subgroup giving technical assistance to EU countries for eradication of the disease, and she was until recently a European Food Safety Authority Animal Health and Welfare Panel member. (thedairysite.com)
  • The coronaviruses that cause the potent respiratory diseases SARS, MERS and COVID-19 have an important feature in common: They are zoonotic, meaning they first came from animals. (vin.com)
  • Coronaviruses also cause a range of diseases in farm animals and domesticated pets, some of which can be serious and are a threat to the farming industry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Significant research efforts have been focused on elucidating the viral pathogenesis of these animal coronaviruses, especially by virologists interested in veterinary and zoonotic diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Electron microscopy of coronavirus-like particles characteristic of turkey bluecomb disease. (springer.com)
  • Coronavirus and K99 E. Aids in the reduction of morbidity and mortality from neonatal calf scours. (agriseek.com)
  • ECV NC99 was determined to have close antigenic and/or genetic relationships with mammalian group 2 coronaviruses, thus identifying it as a member of this coronavirus antigenic group. (asm.org)
  • B) Phylogenetic tree of 50 coronaviruses with partial nucleotide sequences of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. (nih.gov)
  • Phylogenetic analysis reveals that CoV-HKU1 is a new group 2 coronavirus. (asm.org)
  • A report of family case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) confirmed in Wuhan and treated using the combination of western medicine and Chinese traditional patent medicine Shuanghuanglian oral liquid. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Bovine respiratory disease (BRD, pneumonia, shipping fever) due to Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida and Haemophilus somnus. (cattletoday.com)
  • There is no clinical proof that the roots of various plants, licorice, and the Peaceful Palace Bovine Pill can help combat the deadly disease. (nytimes.com)
  • In the 1950s, Ireland set out to eradicate bovine tuberculosis (bTB). (thedairysite.com)
  • From 1999 to 2016, Dr Margaret Good was the head of Ireland's Bovine Tuberculosis Eradication Programme at the Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine. (thedairysite.com)
  • She is currently retired and works as a private bovine tuberculosis consultant. (thedairysite.com)
  • For almost 25 years, we have been working to eradicate bovine tuberculosis (TB) from Michigan's northeastern Lower Peninsula. (bovinevetonline.com)
  • We have welcomed Defra's response to the recommendations set out by the 2018 Godfray Review as a significant step in the right direction in the fight against bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in England. (bva.co.uk)
  • The effect of blind passage and centrifugation on the isolation of bovine coronavirus (BCV) in human rectal tumour cells was investigated using 68 faecal samples found positive for BCV by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). (eurekamag.com)
  • The name "coronavirus" is derived from the Latin corona, meaning crown or halo, and refers to the characteristic appearance of virions under electron microscopy (E.M.) with a fringe of large, bulbous surface projections creating an image reminiscent of a royal crown or of the solar corona. (wikipedia.org)
  • The alpha-coronavirus and beta-coronavirus PCR assays offered by the Animal Health Diagnostic Center are crossreacting. (cornell.edu)