A genus of the family CORONAVIRIDAE which causes respiratory or gastrointestinal disease in a variety of vertebrates.
Virus diseases caused by the CORONAVIRUS genus. Some specifics include transmissible enteritis of turkeys (ENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF TURKEYS); FELINE INFECTIOUS PERITONITIS; and transmissible gastroenteritis of swine (GASTROENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF SWINE).
A species in the genus CORONAVIRUS causing the common cold and possibly nervous system infections in humans. It lacks hemagglutinin-esterase.
A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting neonatal calves, presenting as acute diarrhea, and frequently leading to death.
A class I viral fusion protein that forms the characteristic spikes, or peplomers, found on the viral surface that mediate virus attachment, fusion, and entry into the host cell. During virus maturation, it is cleaved into two subunits: S1, which binds to receptors in the host cell, and S2, which mediates membrane fusion.
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing atypical respiratory disease (SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME) in humans. The organism is believed to have first emerged in Guangdong Province, China, in 2002. The natural host is the Chinese horseshoe bat, RHINOLOPHUS sinicus.
A species in the genus CORONAVIRUS causing the common cold and possibly nervous system infections in humans. It contains hemagglutinin-esterase.
A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting cats of all ages and commonly found in catteries and zoos. Cats are often found carrying the virus but only a small proportion develop disease. Feline coronavirus and Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) are virtually the same virus in genetic and antigenetic terms, and are morphologically indistinguishable. Since they only differ in their disease potential (with FIPV causing a more serious illness), they are considered biotypes of each other.
Spherical RNA viruses, in the order NIDOVIRALES, infecting a wide range of animals including humans. Transmission is by fecal-oral and respiratory routes. Mechanical transmission is also common. There are two genera: CORONAVIRUS and TOROVIRUS.
A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting dogs. Onset of symptoms is usually sudden and includes vomiting, diarrhea, and dehydration.
A viral disorder characterized by high FEVER, dry COUGH, shortness of breath (DYSPNEA) or breathing difficulties, and atypical PNEUMONIA. A virus in the genus CORONAVIRUS is the suspected agent.
Virus diseases caused by CORONAVIRIDAE.
A species of the CORONAVIRUS genus causing hepatitis in mice. Four strains have been identified as MHV 1, MHV 2, MHV 3, and MHV 4 (also known as MHV-JHM, which is neurotropic and causes disseminated encephalomyelitis with demyelination as well as focal liver necrosis).
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing a fatal disease to pigs under 3 weeks old.
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing infections in chickens and possibly pheasants. Chicks up to four weeks old are the most severely affected.
A species in the genus CORONAVIRUS causing upper and lower RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS. It shares the receptor used by the SARS VIRUS.
Viral proteins found in either the NUCLEOCAPSID or the viral core (VIRAL CORE PROTEINS).
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing pneumonia in newborn rats but a clinically inapparent infection in adults. It is separate but antigenically related to MURINE HEPATITIS VIRUS.
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing enteritis in turkeys and pullets.
A mutant strain of TRANSMISSIBLE GASTROENTERITIS VIRUS causing mild or subclinical respiratory infections in young SWINE. It may also play a role in post-weaning porcine respiratory disease complex, especially when combined with other respiratory agents.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Common coronavirus infection of cats caused by the feline infectious peritonitis virus (CORONAVIRUS, FELINE). The disease is characterized by a long incubation period, fever, depression, loss of appetite, wasting, and progressive abdominal enlargement. Infection of cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage appears to be essential in FIP pathogenesis.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A condition of chronic gastroenteritis in adult pigs and fatal gastroenteritis in piglets caused by a CORONAVIRUS.
A species of VARICELLOVIRUS that causes INFECTIOUS BOVINE RHINOTRACHEITIS and other associated syndromes in CATTLE.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
The family of civets which are small and medium-sized Old World carnivores, often striped or spotted.
The type species of DELTARETROVIRUS that causes a form of bovine lymphosarcoma (ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS) or persistent lymphocytosis.
A group of viruses in the genus PESTIVIRUS, causing diarrhea, fever, oral ulcerations, hemorrhagic syndrome, and various necrotic lesions among cattle and other domestic animals. The two species (genotypes), BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 , exhibit antigenic and pathological differences. The historical designation, BVDV, consisted of both (then unrecognized) genotypes.
Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
An acute, highly contagious virus disease of turkeys characterized by chilling, anorexia, decreased water intake, diarrhea, dehydration and weight loss. The infectious agent is a CORONAVIRUS.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.
A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.
Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.
INFLAMMATION of the UDDER in cows.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
A species of DELTAPAPILLOMAVIRUS infecting cattle.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
The region of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)
Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.
ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.
Order of mammals whose members are adapted for flight. It includes bats, flying foxes, and fruit bats.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in animals due to viral infection.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
The temporal sequence of events that have occurred.
An infection of cattle caused by MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. It is transmissible to man and other animals.
Acute disease of cattle caused by the bovine viral diarrhea viruses (DIARRHEA VIRUSES, BOVINE VIRAL). Often mouth ulcerations are the only sign but fever, diarrhea, drop in milk yield, and loss of appetite are also seen. Severity of clinical disease varies and is strain dependent. Outbreaks are characterized by low morbidity and high mortality.
Acute inflammation of the intestine associated with infectious DIARRHEA of various etiologies, generally acquired by eating contaminated food containing TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL derived from BACTERIA or other microorganisms. Dysentery is characterized initially by watery FECES then by bloody mucoid stools. It is often associated with ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; and DEHYDRATION.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
A lymphoid neoplastic disease in cattle caused by the bovine leukemia virus. Enzootic bovine leukosis may take the form of lymphosarcoma, malignant lymphoma, or leukemia but the presence of malignant cells in the blood is not a consistent finding.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Viral infections of the brain, spinal cord, meninges, or perimeningeal spaces.
Proteins which are synthesized as a single polymer and then cleaved into several distinct proteins.
An order comprising three families of eukaryotic viruses possessing linear, nonsegmented, positive sense RNA genomes. The families are CORONAVIRIDAE; ARTERIVIRIDAE; and RONIVIRIDAE.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A peptidyl-dipeptidase that catalyzes the release of a C-terminal dipeptide, -Xaa-*-Xbb-Xcc, when neither Xaa nor Xbb is Pro. It is a Cl(-)-dependent, zinc glycoprotein that is generally membrane-bound and active at neutral pH. It may also have endopeptidase activity on some substrates. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.4.15.1.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A species of PNEUMOVIRUS causing an important respiratory infection in cattle. Symptoms include fever, conjunctivitis, and respiratory distress.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
The specificity of a virus for infecting a particular type of cell or tissue.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A herpesvirus infection of CATTLE characterized by INFLAMMATION and NECROSIS of the mucous membranes of the upper RESPIRATORY TRACT.
Diseases of the domestic cat (Felis catus or F. domesticus). This term does not include diseases of the so-called big cats such as CHEETAHS; LIONS; tigers, cougars, panthers, leopards, and other Felidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A multifactorial disease of CATTLE resulting from complex interactions between environmental factors, host factors, and pathogens. The environmental factors act as stressors adversely affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM and other host defenses and enhancing transmission of infecting agents.
Hoofed mammals with four legs, a big-lipped snout, and a humped back belonging to the family Camelidae.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cattle associated with abnormal prion proteins in the brain. Affected animals develop excitability and salivation followed by ATAXIA. This disorder has been associated with consumption of SCRAPIE infected ruminant derived protein. This condition may be transmitted to humans, where it is referred to as variant or new variant CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB SYNDROME. (Vet Rec 1998 Jul 25;143(41):101-5)
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Carica papaya. It is also the name used for a purified mixture of papain and CHYMOPAPAIN that is used as a topical enzymatic debriding agent. EC 3.4.22.2.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A family in the suborder Feliformia, order CARNIVORA, comprising one genus Nandinia binotata.
A general term indicating inflammation of the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD, often used to indicate an infectious process, but also applicable to a variety of autoimmune and toxic-metabolic conditions. There is significant overlap regarding the usage of this term and ENCEPHALITIS in the literature.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A species in the genus RHADINOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting cattle.
Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A catarrhal disorder of the upper respiratory tract, which may be viral or a mixed infection. It generally involves a runny nose, nasal congestion, and sneezing.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
A genus of the family ARTERIVIRIDAE, in the order NIDOVIRALES. The type species is ARTERITIS VIRUS, EQUINE.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus bovine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, BOVINE), found in cattle and causing lymphadenopathy, LYMPHOCYTOSIS, central nervous system lesions, progressive weakness, and emaciation. It has immunological cross-reactivity with other lentiviruses including HIV.
Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The former British crown colony located off the southeast coast of China, comprised of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and New Territories. The three sites were ceded to the British by the Chinese respectively in 1841, 1860, and 1898. Hong Kong reverted to China in July 1997. The name represents the Cantonese pronunciation of the Chinese xianggang, fragrant port, from xiang, perfume and gang, port or harbor, with reference to its currents sweetened by fresh water from a river west of it.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.
Diseases characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin in the central or peripheral nervous system.
Bovine respiratory disease found in animals that have been shipped or exposed to CATTLE recently transported. The major agent responsible for the disease is MANNHEIMIA HAEMOLYTICA and less commonly, PASTEURELLA MULTOCIDA or HAEMOPHILUS SOMNUS. All three agents are normal inhabitants of the bovine nasal pharyngeal mucosa but not the LUNG. They are considered opportunistic pathogens following STRESS, PHYSIOLOGICAL and/or a viral infection. The resulting bacterial fibrinous BRONCHOPNEUMONIA is often fatal.
A species of VARICELLOVIRUS that causes a fatal MENINGOENCEPHALITIS in calves.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
A genus of the family CORONAVIRIDAE characterized by enveloped, peplomer-bearing particles containing an elongated tubular nucleocapsid with helical symmetry. Toroviruses have been found in association with enteric infections in horses (Berne virus), cattle (Breda virus), swine, and humans. Transmission probably takes place via the fecal-oral route.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Interferon secreted by leukocytes, fibroblasts, or lymphoblasts in response to viruses or interferon inducers other than mitogens, antigens, or allo-antigens. They include alpha- and beta-interferons (INTERFERON-ALPHA and INTERFERON-BETA).
Enzymes that act at a free C-terminus of a polypeptide to liberate a single amino acid residue.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
A species of PESTIVIRUS causing systemic infections (BOVINE VIRUS DIARRHEA-MUCOSAL DISEASE) in cattle and some other cloven-hoofed animals. There are several strains and two biotypes: cytopathic (rare) and non-cytopathic. Infections range from clinically inapparent to severe, but do not correlate with biotypes.
A directed change in translational READING FRAMES that allows the production of a single protein from two or more OVERLAPPING GENES. The process is programmed by the nucleotide sequence of the MRNA and is sometimes also affected by the secondary or tertiary mRNA structure. It has been described mainly in VIRUSES (especially RETROVIRUSES); RETROTRANSPOSONS; and bacterial insertion elements but also in some cellular genes.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for retroviral enzymes including reverse transcriptase, protease, and endonuclease/integrase. "pol" is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.
Inflammation of any segment of the SMALL INTESTINE.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of acetate esters and water to alcohols and acetate. EC 3.1.1.6.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.
The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Inflammation of brain parenchymal tissue as a result of viral infection. Encephalitis may occur as primary or secondary manifestation of TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PARAMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; and ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.
Ruminant mammals of South America. They are related to camels.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A serotonin antagonist with limited antihistaminic, anticholinergic, and immunosuppressive activity.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The species Delphinapterus leucas, in the family Monodontidae, found primarily in the Arctic Ocean and adjoining seas. They are small WHALES lacking a dorsal fin.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria normally commensal in the flora of CATTLE and SHEEP. But under conditions of physical or PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS, it can cause MASTITIS in sheep and SHIPPING FEVER or ENZOOTIC CALF PNEUMONIA in cattle. Its former name was Pasteurella haemolytica.

Identification of a coronavirus hemagglutinin-esterase with a substrate specificity different from those of influenza C virus and bovine coronavirus. (1/86)

We have characterized the hemagglutinin-esterase (HE) of puffinosis virus (PV), a coronavirus closely related to mouse hepatitis virus (MHV). Analysis of the cloned gene revealed approximately 85% sequence identity to HE proteins of MHV and approximately 60% identity to the corresponding esterase of bovine coronavirus. The HE protein exhibited acetylesterase activity with synthetic substrates p-nitrophenyl acetate, alpha-naphthyl acetate, and 4-methylumbelliferyl acetate. In contrast to other viral esterases, no activity was detectable with natural substrates containing 9-O-acetylated sialic acids. Furthermore, PV esterase was unable to remove influenza C virus receptors from human erythrocytes, indicating a substrate specificity different from HEs of influenza C virus and bovine coronavirus. Solid-phase binding assays revealed that purified PV was unable to bind to sialic acid-containing glycoconjugates like bovine submaxillary mucin, mouse alpha1 macroglobulin or bovine brain extract. Because of the close relationship to MHV, possible implications on the substrate specificity of MHV esterases are suggested.  (+info)

Production, characterization, and uses of monoclonal antibodies against recombinant nucleoprotein of elk coronavirus. (2/86)

This is the first report of the production of monoclonal antibodies against elk coronavirus. The nucleoprotein gene of elk coronavirus was amplified by PCR and was cloned and expressed in a prokaryotic expression vector. Recombinant nucleocapsid protein was used to immunize mice for the production of hybridomas. Twelve hybridomas that produced monoclonal antibodies against the nucleocapsid protein of elk coronavirus were selected by an indirect fluorescent-antibody test, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and a Western blot assay. Ten of the monoclonal antibodies were of the immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) isotype, one was IgG2a, and one was IgM. All had kappa light chains. By immunohistochemistry four monoclonal antibodies detected bovine coronavirus and elk coronavirus in formalin-fixed intestinal tissues. Antinucleoprotein monoclonal antibodies were found to be better at ruminant coronavirus detection than the anti-spike protein monoclonal antibodies. Because nucleoprotein is a more abundant antigen than spike protein in infected cells, this was not an unexpected finding.  (+info)

Identification of a bovine coronavirus packaging signal. (3/86)

A region of the bovine coronavirus (BCV) genome that functions as a packaging signal has been cloned. The 291-nucleotide clone shares 72% homology with the region of mouse hepatitis coronavirus (MHV) gene 1b that contains the packaging signal. RNA transcripts were packaged into both BCV and MHV virions when the cloned region was appended to a noncoronavirus RNA. This is the first identification of a BCV packaging signal. The data demonstrate that the BCV genome contains a sequence that is conserved at both the sequence and functional levels, thus broadening our insight into coronavirus packaging.  (+info)

Host protein interactions with the 3' end of bovine coronavirus RNA and the requirement of the poly(A) tail for coronavirus defective genome replication. (4/86)

RNA viruses have 5' and 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) that contain specific signals for RNA synthesis. The coronavirus genome is capped at the 5' end and has a 3' UTR that consists of 300 to 500 nucleotides (nt) plus a poly(A) tail. To further our understanding of coronavirus replication, we have begun to examine the involvement of host factors in this process for two group II viruses, bovine coronavirus (BCV) and mouse hepatitis coronavirus (MHV). Specific host protein interactions with the BCV 3' UTR [287 nt plus poly(A) tail] were identified using gel mobility shift assays. Competition with the MHV 3' UTR [301 nt plus poly(A) tail] suggests that the interactions are conserved for the two viruses. Proteins with molecular masses of 99, 95, and 73 kDa were detected in UV cross-linking experiments. Less heavily labeled proteins were also detected in the ranges of 40 to 50 and 30 kDa. The poly(A) tail was required for binding of the 73-kDa protein. Immunoprecipitation of UV-cross-linked proteins identified the 73-kDa protein as the cytoplasmic poly(A)-binding protein (PABP). Replication of the defective genomes BCV Drep and MHV MIDI-C, along with several mutants, was used to determine the importance of the poly(A) tail. Defective genomes with shortened poly(A) tails consisting of 5 or 10 A residues were replicated after transfection into helper virus-infected cells. BCV Drep RNA that lacked a poly(A) tail did not replicate, whereas replication of MHV MIDI-C RNA with a deleted tail was detected after several virus passages. All mutants exhibited delayed kinetics of replication. Detectable extension or addition of the poly(A) tail to the mutants correlated with the appearance of these RNAs in the replication assay. RNAs with shortened poly(A) tails exhibited less in vitro PABP binding, suggesting that decreased interactions with the protein may affect RNA replication. The data strongly indicate that the poly(A) tail is an important cis-acting signal for coronavirus replication.  (+info)

Protection studies on winter dysentery caused by bovine coronavirus in cattle using antigens prepared from infected cell lysates. (5/86)

Cells infected with bovine coronavirus (BCV) were solubilized with Triton X-100 to yield a cell lysate (CL) antigen having high hemagglutinating (HA) titers. The antigen gave high HA titers using rat erythrocytes, suggesting that it contained large amounts of hemagglutinin esterase (HE) antigen. The CL antigen, combined with an oil adjuvant, was tested for protective and antibody-inducing activities in cattle. Four groups (2 cattle/group) of cattle were inoculated with CL antigen having HA titers of 16 000, 4000, 1000, and 250. Another group served as untreated controls. Two intramuscular inoculations were given at an interval of 3 wk. The animals were challenged with virus 1 wk after the second inoculation. The groups immunized with the CL antigen having an HA titer of 4000 or 16 000 produced hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titers of > 320 and serum neutralizing (SN) antibody titers of > 1280. These groups of animals showed no clinical abnormalities after challenge. In the groups immunized with CL antigen at an HA titer of 1000 or 250, HI antibody titers were 40 to 160 and SN titers were 80 to 640. The cattle with HI antibody titers of > or = 160 and the SN titers of > or = 640 showed no clinical signs, but the cattle with the HI antibody titer < 80 and the SN antibody titer < 160 developed watery diarrhea and fever after challenge. These results indicate that CL antigen with high HA titer induces antibody production in cattle that provides effective protection against winter dysentery.  (+info)

Coronavirus and Pasteurella infections in bovine shipping fever pneumonia and Evans' criteria for causation. (6/86)

Respiratory tract infections with viruses and Pasteurella spp. were determined sequentially among 26 cattle that died during two severe epizootics of shipping fever pneumonia. Nasal swab and serum samples were collected prior to onset of the epizootics, during disease progression, and after death, when necropsies were performed and lung samples were collected. Eighteen normal control cattle also were sampled at the beginning of the epizootics as well as at weekly intervals for 4 weeks. Respiratory bovine coronaviruses (RBCV) were isolated from nasal secretions of 21 and 25 cattle before and after transport. Two and 17 cattle nasally shed Pasteurella spp. before and after transport, respectively. RBCV were isolated at titers of 1 x 10(3) to 1.2 x 10(7) PFU per g of lung tissue from 18 cattle that died within 7 days of the epizootics, but not from the lungs of the remaining cattle that died on days 9 to 36. Twenty-five of the 26 lung samples were positive for Pasteurella spp., and their CFU ranged between 4.0 x 10(5) and 2.3 x 10(9) per g. Acute and subacute exudative, necrotizing lobar pneumonia characterized the lung lesions of these cattle with a majority of pneumonic lung lobes exhibiting fibronecrotic and exudative changes typical of pneumonic pasteurellosis, but other lung lobules had histological changes consisting of bronchiolitis and alveolitis typical of virus-induced changes. These cattle were immunologically naive to both infectious agents at the onset of the epizootics, but those that died after day 7 had rising antibody titers against RBCV and Pasteurella haemolytica. In contrast, the 18 clinically normal and RBCV isolation-negative cattle had high hemagglutinin inhibition antibody titers to RBCV from the beginning, while their antibody responses to P. haemolytica antigens were delayed. Evans' criteria for causation were applied to our findings because of the multifactorial nature of shipping fever pneumonia. This analysis identified RBCV as the primary inciting cause in these two epizootics. These viruses were previously not recognized as a causative agent in this complex respiratory tract disease of cattle.  (+info)

Identification of nucleocapsid binding sites within coronavirus-defective genomes. (7/86)

The coronavirus nucleocapsid (N) protein is a major structural component of virions that associates with the genomic RNA to form a helical nucleocapsid. N appears to be a multifunctional protein since data also suggest that the protein may be involved in viral RNA replication and translation. All of these functions presumably involve interactions between N and viral RNAs. As a step toward understanding how N interacts with viral RNAs, we mapped high-efficiency N-binding sites within BCV- and MHV-defective genomes. Both in vivo and in vitro assays were used to study binding of BCV and MHV N proteins to viral and nonviral RNAs. N-viral RNA complexes were detected in bovine coronavirus (BCV)-infected cells and in cells transiently expressing the N protein. Filter binding was used to map N-binding sites within Drep, a BCV-defective genome that is replicated and packaged in the presence of helper virus. One high-efficiency N-binding site was identified between nucleotides 1441 and 1875 at the 3' end of the N ORF within Drep. For comparative purposes N-binding sites were also mapped for the mouse hepatitis coronavirus (MHV)-defective interfering (DI) RNA MIDI-C. Binding efficiencies similar to those for Drep were measured for RNA transcripts of a region encompassing the MHV packaging signal (nts 3949-4524), as well as a region at the 3' end of the MHV N ORF (nts 4837-5197) within MIDI-C. Binding to the full-length MIDI-C transcript (approximately 5500 nts) and to an approximately 1-kb transcript from the gene 1a region (nts 935-1986) of MIDI-C that excluded the packaging signal were both significantly higher than that measured for the smaller transcripts. This is the first identification of N-binding sequences for BCV. It is also the first report to demonstrate that N interacts in vitro with sequences other than the packaging signal and leader within the MHV genome. The data clearly demonstrate that N binds coronavirus RNAs more efficiently than nonviral RNAs. The results have implications with regard to the multifunctional role of N.  (+info)

Temperature-sensitive acetylesterase activity of haemagglutinin-esterase specified by respiratory bovine coronaviruses. (8/86)

Numerous respiratory bovine coronaviruses (RBCV) were isolated recently from nasal swab samples and lung tissues of feedlot cattle with acute respiratory tract disease. These newly emerging RBCV isolates exhibited distinct phenotypic features that differentiated them from enteropathogenic bovine coronaviruses (EBCV). The RBCV strains had a receptor-destroying enzyme function mediated by acetylesterase (AE) activity of the haemagglutinin-esterase (HE) glycoprotein. The HE genes of wild-type EBCV strain LY138 and RBCV strains OK-0514 (OK) and LSU-94LSS-051 (LSU) were cloned, sequenced and transiently expressed in COS-7 cells. The enzymic properties of HE proteins in COS-7 cellular extracts and in purified virus preparations were assayed at room temperature, 37 degrees C and 39 degrees C by two different assays. One assay used p-nitrophenyl acetate (PNPA) as substrate and detected serine-esterase activity; the second assay monitored AE function with bovine submaxillary mucin (BSM) as substrate. The PNPA tests confirmed that HE proteins of EBCV and RBCV were functionally expressed in transfected COS-7 cells. Time-dependent determination of the AE activity of purified RBCV OK and LSU particles showed lower AE activity at 39 degrees C than at 37 degrees C, whereas the purified EBCV LY particles retained full AE activity at both 37 degrees C and 39 degrees C. Transiently expressed RBCV HE exhibited a marked reduction of AE activity after 40 min of assay time at 37 degrees C. In contrast, the AE activity of the transiently expressed EBCV HE remained stable beyond 40 min. The deduced amino-acid sequences of the HE proteins specified by the RBCV strains OK and LSU contained specific amino-acid changes in comparison with the EBCV LY strain, which may be responsible for the observed enzymic differences. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that RBCV strains have evolved to selectivelyreplicate in respiratory tissues and that HE may play a role in this tissue tropism.  (+info)

|strong|Mouse anti Bovine Coronavirus Surface Antigen antibody, clone 5A4|/strong| recognizes the surface antigen of bovine coronavirus. Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) causes severe diarrhoea in newborn ca…
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Targeted RNA recombination of the membrane and nucleocapsid protein genes between mouse hepatitis virus and bovine coronavirus.. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
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BACKGROUND: Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is a primary cause of neonatal calf diarrhea worldwide, and is also associated with acute diarrhea in adult cattle during the winter season, resulting heavy economic losses to both dairy and beef industry throughout the world. OBJECTIVE: The Objective of the present study was to screen the fecal samples for BCoV collected from diarrhea from six geographic region of Iran, with the aim to deepen the knowledge of BCoV prevalence and epidemiology in Iran. MEETHODS: 194 fecal samples from diarrheic calves up to one-month age, based on the geographic area were collected. Samples from all the cases were screened for the presence of BCoV by commercially available ELISA kit. Furthermore, all positive samples were subjected to RT-PCR for confirmation. RESULTS: ELISA examination revealed that 7.2 % of taken samples, were positive. All positive samples in ELISA were also positive in RT-PCR. All samples from northwest, northeast, and west, were negative. The average ages of
Human rectal tumor-18 (HRT-18) cell clones 3F3, 3E3, D2, and 4B3 exhibited differences in cellular morphology in Giemsa-stained cultures and developing monolayers. Differences were evident in growth kinetics and plating efficiency of each clone. The clones produced colonies in soft agar, demonstrating anchorage independence. Cytopathic expression (CPE) including cytoplasmic vacuolization and cell fusion occurred in BCV-L9-infected clones 3F3, D2, and 3E3. Cell fusion was inapparent in clone 4B3. Bovine coronavirus strain L9 (BCV-L9) and 5 wild-type isolates replicated in HRT-18 cells, inducing cell fusion. Strain L9, exclusively, replicated in D2BFS cells, requiring trypsin to induce cell fusion. Strain L9 produced plaques in the HRT-18 clones, but the ease of plaque formation and plaque morphology was host cell dependent. Host cell-dependent plaque formation was demonstrated by wild-type BCV strains, and plaque morphology was strain dependent. The intensity of trypsin enhancement of CPE and plaque
21.2A: Steps of Virus Infections-Biology LibreTexts. (s. f.). En Boundless General Biology. LibreTexts. Recuperado el 26 de octubre de 2020 en https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/Introductory_and_General_Biology/Book%3A_General_Biology_(Boundless)/21%3A_Viruses/21.2%3A_Virus_Infections_and_Hosts/21.2A%3A_Steps_of_Virus_Infections. 3M. (s. f.). Reusable Respirators. Recuperado el 13 de abril de 2020 en https://www.3m.com/3M/en_US/company-us/all-3m-products/~/All-3M-Products/Safety/Personal-Safety/Personal-Protective-Equipment/Reusable-Respirators/?N=5002385+8709322+8711017+8711405+8720539+8720550+3294857497&rt=r3. Abbott RealTime SARS-CoV-2 Assay. (s. f.). Abbott. Recuperado el 7 de junio de 2020 en https://www.molecular.abbott/us/en/products/infectious-disease/RealTime-SARS-CoV-2-Assay. Abraham, S., Kienzle, T. E., Lapps, W. y Brian, D. A. (1990). Deduced sequence of the bovine coronavirus spike protein and identification of the internal proteolytic cleavage site. Virology, 176(1), 296-301. ...
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All subjects had their liver enzymes tested before, at 10-day intervals and at the end of the eight-week study. They all used the same training program and ate the same diet. At baseline all groups showed normal liver enzymes, with one exception. The
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The importance of N-acetyl-9-O-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5,9Ac2) as a receptor determinant for bovine coronavirus (BCV) on cultured cells was analysed. Pretreatment of MDCK I (Madin Darby canine kidney) cells with neuraminidase or acetylesterase rendered the cells resistant to infection by BCV. The receptors on a human (CaCo-2) and a porcine (LLC-PK1) epithelial cell line were also found to be sensitive to neuraminidase treatment. The susceptibility to infection by BCV was restored after resialylation of asialo-MDCK I cells with Neu5,9Ac2. Transfer of sialic acid lacking a 9-O-acetyl group was ineffective in this respect. These results demonstrate that 9-O-acetylated sialic acid is used as a receptor determinant by BCV to infect cultured cells. The possibility is discussed that the initiation of a BCV infection involves the recognition of different types of receptors, a first receptor for primary attachment and a second receptor to mediate the fusion between the viral envelope and the cellular membrane.
Respiratory bovine coronaviruses (RBCV) emerged as an infectious agent most frequently isolated from respiratory system examples of cattle with severe respiratory system diseases. serum IN and HAI antibodies, which increased through the following fourteen days dramatically. Security against SFP was evidently associated with considerably higher degrees of serum IN antibodies at the start from the epizootic. The RBCV-neutralizing activity is certainly connected with serum immunoglobulin G (IgG), the IgG2 subclass particularly, while RBCV-specific HAI antibody relates to both serum IgM and IgG fractions. Many wild-type coronavirus strains had been lately isolated from sinus swab examples and lung tissue of cattle with signals of acute respiratory system problems including a serious form of shipping and delivery fever pneumonia (SFP) (25C28). These BMS-387032 trojan isolates multiplied just in the G clone of individual rectal tumor-18 cells, however, not in Georgia bovine bovine and kidney turbinate ...
Your localized Sun & Sand weather forecast, from AccuWeather, provides you with the tailored weather forecast that you need to plan your days activities The earliest reports of a coronavirus infection in animals occurred in the late 1920s, when an acute respiratory infection of domesticated chickens emerged in North America. Hotels in Reuthe Flights to Reuthe Reuthe Car Hire Reuthe Holiday Packages. Coronavirus (COVID-19) support Check for travel restrictions. EurothermenResort Bad Hall: There is a particularly wide range of spa and health offerings at this spa, also near Linz. In humans and fowl, coronaviruses primarily cause upper respiratory tract infections, while porcine and bovine coronaviruses establish enteric infections, often resulting in … Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by a newly discovered coronavirus. 13 hytter i Reuthe. Coronavirus infections are mainly associated with respiratory, enteric, hepatic, and central nervous system diseases. It ...
Research in the area of immunology in the department focuses on the response of the immune system to bacterial, parasitic and viral pathogens. Topics of research interest in this area include evasion of the immune response and persistence, molecular mechanisms underlying inflammatory responses and vaccine development for a variety of microbial pathogens. Specific research programs include: vaccine design for Brucella Abortus, West Nile Virus, Dengue Virus, Herpes viruses and Bovine Coronavirus and Herpesvirus Type-1. The lymphocyte-mediated response to Bartonella and nematode infection, the analysis of the innate and adaptive immune response to respiratory syncytial virus and human metapneumovirus infections, as well as the study of the innate immune/inflammatory response in the lung to bacterial infection are also investigated. Supporting facilities for immunology research in the Department include Flow Cytometry facility, the histology laboratory, the microscope center, the laboratory of ...
Mitropoulos reads these slippages on herd and stock through Marxs suggestion that, just as agriculture had provided the tropes of aristocratic right through primogeniture in late feudalism, it had contributed, within capitalism, logics for both the management of populations and the philosophy of virology. Much of the established knowledge of COVID-19 still draws on the devastating outbreaks of bovine coronavirus in the late 19th​ century, and the vast culls undertaken to control them. It must be remembered that the law of the household is as much about the transfer of properties as about holding property - logics of breeding, inherited superiority, and patrilineal purity are essential to the preservation of the oikos. Ideas of natural selection, or even eugenics, are an easy partner to a concern for the inheritance of properties. This juxtaposition sets up Mitropouloss evisceration of the British governments plan for herd immunity, which, if allowed to run its course, would have had more ...
1993) Economic, clinical and functional consequences of a treatment using metrenperone during an outbreak of shipping fever in ...
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has announced that it is ready to ship its coronavirus testing kit, which will enable health officials to
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A retrospective analysis was conducted to investigate the prevalence and seasonality of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), bovine coronavirus (BoCV), bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1), bovine respiratory syncytical virus (BRSV) and parainfluenza virus-3 (PI3V) in calves (aged three months and below) in Ireland. Results from real-time PCR testing, including cycle threshold values, conducted on nasal swabs (single or pooled) submitted from 1364 respiratory disease outbreaks between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2012 were included in this study. One or more viruses were detected in 34.6 per cent of submissions, with BoCV detected most frequently (22.9 per cent), followed by BRSV (11.6 per cent), PI3 V (7.0 per cent), BoHV-1 (6.1 per cent) and BVDV (5.0 per cent). The detection rate of all viruses was higher when pooled multiple swabs were submitted from outbreaks rather than single swabs, with these differences being significant for all except BVDV. Two or more viruses were detected in 39.4 per ...
Kandasamy, S., A.N. Vlasova, D. Fischer, A. Kumar, K.S. Chattha, A. Rauf, L. Shao, S. Neal, G. Rajashekara, and L.J. Saif.. Differential effects of Escherichia coli Nissle and Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG on human rotavirus binding, infection, and B cell immunity. Journal of Immunology. (January 0.): -.. Bok, M., S. Miñoa, D. Rodrigueza, A. Badaraccoa, I. Nuñesc, S.P. Souzac, G. Bilbaod,. Molecular and antigenic characterization of bovine Coronavirus circulating in Argentinean cattle during 1994â€2010. Veterinary Microbiology. (January 0.): -.. SAIF LJ; BOHL EH; THEIL KW; CROSS RF; HOUSE JA. Rotavirus-like Calicivirus-like And 23 Nanometer Virus-like Particles Associated With Diarrhea In Young Pigs. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. Vol. 12, no. 1. (January 1980.): 105-111.. WYATT R, G; JAMES W, D; BOHL E, H; THEIL K, W; SAIF L, J; KALICA A, R; GREENBERG H, B; KAPIKIAN A, Z; CHANOCK R M. Human Rotavirus Type 2 Cultivation In-vitro. Science (Washington D C). Vol. 207, no. ...
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The incidence of coronavirus infection in India is increasing steadily. The number of people infected with coronavirus has increased to 10363 after 1211 cases reported in the last 24 hours in the country. At the same time, 31 people have died from Coronavirus in the last 24 hours, taking the death toll from the COVID-19 epidemic to 339. According to the latest data released by the Ministry of Health, out of a total of 10363 cases of coronavirus, 8988 are active cases. In addition, 1035 people have fully recovered or have been discharged from the hospital. According to the Health Ministry data as of 8 am Tuesday, the highest number of 160 people died due to coronavirus was in Maharashtra. The number of victims from this epidemic has now reached 2711. ...
La toxine stable à la chaleur de type b (STb) est une des toxines produites par les souches Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) impliquée dans le développement de la diarrhée. Une étude antérieure par Goncalves et al. (2009) a démontré que les cellules ayant internalisé la toxine STb démontraient une morphologie qui rappelle lapoptose. Le changement du potentiel membranaire observé par Goncalves et al. (2009) nous a incité à vérifier la capacité de la toxine STb à induire lapoptose des cellules HRT-18 et IEC-18 par la voie intrinsèque. Les cellules HRT-18 et IEC-18 ont été traitées avec de la toxine purifiée pour une durée de 24 heures puis ells ont été récoltées et examinées pour des caratéristiques de lapoptose. Lactivation des caspases-9 et -3, mais pas de la caspase-8, a été observée dans les deux lignées cellulaires à laide des substrats fluorescents spécifiques pour chaque caspase. LADN extrait des cellules HRT-18 et IEC-18 a révélé une ...
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A new CDC report reveals that many individuals who previously recovered from the coronavirus can still experience a range of symptoms weeks and sometimes months after the fact. The report specifically focused on individuals who, while infected with the coronavirus, did not experience severe enough symptoms to warrant hospitalization.. According to the report, about a third of people who test positive for COVID-19 do not return to their baseline level of health in the two to three weeks following their initial diagnosis. Among a subset of coronavirus patients in the 18-34 age range, the study found that one in five were unable to return to their usual state of health, assuming that they had no previous chronic medical conditions.. The symptoms most likely to linger in the weeks following a positive coronavirus diagnosis include fatigue, cough, congestion, dyspnea, loss of taste and smell, chest pain and confusion. The symptoms least likely to linger include vomiting, nausea, fever and ...
When someone who has COVID-19 coughs or exhales they release droplets of infected fluid. Most of these droplets fall on nearby surfaces and objects, such as desks, tables or telephones. It is possible to catch Coronavirus (COVID-19) by touching contaminated surfaces or objects and then touching the eyes, nose and/or mouth. If you are standing within one metre of a person with Coronavirus (COVID-19) it is possible to catch it by breathing in droplets coughed out or exhaled by them. In other words, Coronavirus (COVID-19) spreads in a similar way to flu. Most people infected with Coronavirus (COVID-19) experience mild symptoms and recover in several days. However, some go on to experience more serious illness and may require hospital care. Risk of serious illness appears to rise with age - so far, people over 40 seem to be more vulnerable than those under 40. People with weakened immune systems and people with conditions such as diabetes, heart and lung disease are also more vulnerable to serious ...
Carers UK is in constant contact with Government about the response to coronavirus. We want to make sure that carers needs are fully considered and that carers have the information they need to continue to care safely and well. There are gaps that we are asking Government to fill.. The Government has passed the Coronavirus Act 2020. Carers UK fully recognised that emergency measures are only to be used in a time of emergency, but we want to ensure that carers needs are recognised and delivered as far as possible. Local authorities in England can make a decision about moving to these measures. If they do, and can reduce the duties under the Care Act 2014, they must still carry out some form of assessment with carers, and their prevention duties still exist.. Government has published statutory guidance on the Care Act 2014 easements (from the Coronavirus Act 2020). We set these out in detail below. We will also be tracking what is happening.. You can read the briefings on the Coronavirus Act ...
This is a special post from DonaldPierce.Com (DPC) designed to serve as a workbook/guide/clearing house of current and valid information on CV (also known as Covid-19). We will add new material to the sources, articles, and links listed here on a regular basis. Our last post was on 18 May 2020. Articles listed in the order in which they were published. Please note that this site spotlighted the positive results of Remdesivir on Coronavirus patients a week before national media noticed the drug. It is now the lead drug in treatment testing. All the more reason to stay in touch with our research databank. We also added the very complete Coronavirus Dashboard from Axios, which has been running on The Nightshift international news sites (as well as Axios, of course). Reliable Sources on the Coronavirus Pandemic Protein May Predict Severe Covid-19 (Medical News Today). Lancet Medical Journal Blasts US Response to Coronavirus (Lancet). Immunoregulation with mTor Inhibitors for CV-19 (Journal of ...
What are the symptoms of coronavirus? How can I stay safe? How does the infection spread? Avaana answers Coronavirus FAQs here. Read more about what is Coronavirus.
According to the World Health Organization and AFCD, there is no evidence that pets, such as cats and dogs, can become infected with the coronavirus. This is because while dogs can test positive for the virus, it does not mean they have been infected.. Coronaviruses can live on surfaces and objects, but researchers are still unsure of how long they survive. Similarly, the coronavirus may be present in the bodies of cats or dogs, even if they have not actually contracted the virus. The AFCD is testing the dog more to see if the dog has been infected with the virus or if it has just become contaminated with the virus. According to the available evidence, dogs are not more at risk than inanimate objects such as door knobs and the desk. Can your dog give you coronavirus ...
Resources and information on the COVID-19 pandemic from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and other government agencies
China coronavirus: All you need to know - A new virus has killed 81 people in China and infected almost 3,000 people, with cases confirmed in several countries. Coronavirus: Everything you need to know Health authorities around the world are grappling with an outbreak of a new coronavirus, which originated i ...
What is coronavirus and how you can protect yourself, your family & your community? Coronavirus is a respiratory virus that can be contracted through respiratory droplets. You can only catch coronavirus if this fluid enters your body. The key places for this to happen is your mouth, nose or eyes. You can take step
The coronavirus now called COVID-19 quickly spread throughout mainland China and around the world in early 2020. The outbreak was declared a global health emergency by the World Health Organization, with nations scrambling to contain the spread and airlines canceling flights to and from China. Several nations have begun work on a coronavirus vaccine, but it will likely take months before one can be distributed widely. Heres the latest news about the coronavirus. 9
Its allergy season and we havent exactly cleared flu season yet, but that hasnt stopped the new coronavirus from spreading throughout the nation and creating a new normal for Americans who are now stuck at home. Symptoms of the coronavirus include a fever, dry cough and shortness of breath, but those symptoms closely resemble other illnesses, as well. So, how do you know if you have coronavirus or something else?Dr. Maria Granzotti, chief medical officer at Ascension Texas,
Coronavirus news - get all the breaking coronavirus news updates globally 24/7/365. See whats happening now with COVID-19 in the UK and globally. The #1 COVID-19 coronavirus news resource.
Heres our up to date information for you: Im pregnant. What should I do if I think I have coronavirus? Coronavirus in babies and children Is it safe to use hand sanitiser on babies? Pregnant and worried about coronavirus. How can I keep myself and baby safe? ACTIVE GROUP:…
CORONAVIRUS has now infected more than 5,000 people in the UK, killed thousands around the world and infected a total of more than 200,000 patients. But how many people have recovered from coronavirus?
HRT or hormone replacement therapy comes in the form of pills in a tablet. They are to be taken daily for as long as the menopause lasts. But due to the link of cancer and estrogen levels, women are advised visit their doctors every five to six months. To help your body adjust to medication, take the medication in the same time of the day. And dont skip a day. The biggest shock to a womans body in this time is a sudden stop. And remember to be consistent. Dont take one pill one day, and two or three the next day. If you are taking one pill each day, continue to do so. Eventually, if the symptoms become too much of a problem, increase the medication. But remember to do this day at a time. ...
The refinement could take as prolonged as a 7 days equally the approach and the potency of the last antibodies can vary. Some folks make powerful neutralizing antibodies to an an infection, whilst many others mount a milder response.. The antibodies generated in response to an infection with some viruses - polio or measles, for instance - bestow a lifetime of immunity. But antibodies to the coronaviruses that bring about the widespread chilly persist for just 1 to 3 several years - and that may possibly be legitimate of their new cousin as well.. A analyze in macaques contaminated with the new coronavirus proposed that when infected, the monkeys create neutralizing antibodies and resist further infection. But it is unclear how lengthy the monkeys, or persons contaminated with the virus, will remain immune.. Still, even if antibody safety were being brief-long lasting and folks became reinfected, the second bout with the coronavirus would very likely be a great deal milder than the to start with, ...
A virus is a microscopic parasite that cannot live or reproduce outside of a host body. A host refers to the organism or species (like humans, dogs or cats) that a virus is able to infect. Viruses, which are much smaller than the cells that make up our bodies, move between cells and infect them individually, and use cells to create copies of themselves.. Coronavirus is one type of virus much like a banana is one type of fruit. There are many types of viruses that infect different parts of the body. An intestinal virus, for example can cause vomiting, diarrhea and inappetence (not wanting to eat). Coronavirus is a respiratory virus (in humans) because it infects the cells of the respiratory tract (nasal passages, bronchi, bronchioles, and lung tissue) and causes respiratory symptoms such as coughing, runny nose, sneezing and sore throat.. ...
Coronavirus diarrhea can be the first warning sign in patients who dont have respiratory issues, cough or fever. What are upset stomach coronavirus systems?
As the coronavirus pandemic continues to shut down daily life across the globe, thousands of our readers across the nation have asked us questions about COVID-19.And were answering them.For basic facts about the virus - what it is, how it spreads and where its located - you can get caught up by reading our in-depth explainer here. Weve also debunked some viral coronavirus myths. But youre curious and continue to ask important
As the coronavirus pandemic continues to shut down daily life across the globe, thousands of our readers across the nation have asked us questions about COVID-19.And were answering them.For basic facts about the virus - what it is, how it spreads and where its located - you can get caught up by reading our in-depth explainer here. Weve also debunked some viral coronavirus myths. But youre curious and continue to ask important
As the coronavirus pandemic continues to shut down daily life across the globe, thousands of our readers across the nation have asked us questions about COVID-19.And were answering them.For basic facts about the virus - what it is, how it spreads and where its located - you can get caught up by reading our in-depth explainer here. Weve also debunked some viral coronavirus myths. But youre curious and continue to ask important
As the coronavirus pandemic continues to shut down daily life across the globe, thousands of our readers across the nation have asked us questions about COVID-19.And were answering them.For basic facts about the virus - what it is, how it spreads and where its located - you can get caught up by reading our in-depth explainer here. Weve also debunked some viral coronavirus myths. But youre curious and continue to ask important
In the previous article, we discussed taking back our health, with greater responsibility for our daily wellness. In this brief and last discussion, well be looking at the top ways we can support our overall immune health and immune response.. Before we dig deeper into this topic, we need to get clear on some distinctions. And as a 14-year biohacker, I am getting the same question, What am I doing differently more than the normal routine to prepare for the coronavirus?. And the answer is really a simple one. I am doing nothing differently. Nothing changes. Every single day our immune system is under attack by an endless number of pathogens. In fact, there are five key types of pathogenic organisms, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and worms.. Now, not that I dont have a plan for when symptoms arrive. But, every day has and always will be a Coronavirus Threat Day. As explained in Part 1, throughout time, microbes are very much a part of our world. So much like investing for ...
The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has created a global health crisis. The name coronavirus comes from crown-like morphology of this virus.
All the available evidence indicates coronavirus originated in animals in China late last year and was not manipulated or produced in a laboratory as has been alleged, the World Health Organization said Tuesday in a news briefing in Geneva. It is probable, likely, that the virus is of animal origin, said WHO spokeswoman Fadela Chaib.The global health bodys remarks follow confirmation from President Donald Trump last week that his administration is probing whether coronavirus
Get all the latest news on coronavirus and more delivered daily to your inbox. Sign up here. Though there is currently no known scientific cure for the disease…
Coronavirus is among the big family of viruses and they mainly affect the respiratory system. The name coronavirus is derived from corona Latin called...
A CORONAVIRUS expert has warned the UK could be set for a hard winter as the rates of immunity to respiratory viruses other than coronavirus could have dropped.
Read more on what we know about COVID-19 coronavirus, including how contagious and dangerous it is, and how to prevent from becoming infected with coronavirus.
The key member of White House coronavirus taskforce Anthony Fauci has warned Congress over a premature end to the lockdown in the country. Fauci during his testimony to the Senate panel on Tuesday said that if that the early lifting of lockdown could additional outbreaks for the coronavirus. Also read: As President Trump blasts media, report shows COVID-19 spiking in US heartland
View news about the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and what the outbreak means for you, your family, and your patients. See regularly updated resources and answers to some frequently asked questions about COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2, the coronavirus that causes this disease.
From Critical Care Explorations. In this study, the authors investigated explored whether awake self-proning improved outcomes in coronavirus disease 2019-infected patients treated in a rural medical center with limited resources during a significant local coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak.
View news about the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and what the outbreak means for you, your family, and your patients. See regularly updated resources and answers to some frequently asked questions about COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2, the coronavirus that causes this disease.
CMA Coronavirus / COVID-19 Real time update. This article covers issues such as returning to work safely, PPE, sanitation procedures, keeping yourself and your clients safe and much more. The article also describes the symptoms of those who have contracted Coronavirus 2019-nCoV and examines complementary medical and lifestyle medicine ways of treating it, given that there is an absence of any viable vaccine or medicine at the current time
How does Coronavirus affect your lungs? We break down the reason why Coronavirus can be fatal especially for those with preexisting respiratory conditions.
|b|Editors note:|/b| |i|The Salt Lake Tribune is providing readers free access to critical local stories about the coronavirus during this time of heightened concern. See more coverage |/i||a href=https://www.sltrib.com/tag/coronavirus/||i|here|/i||/a||i|.|/i|
The latest coronavirus news from Canada and around the world Thursday. ... 5:55 a.m.: Its unlikely most Canadians will enjoy a holly jolly Christmas ... blood vessels or cause inflammation within them, leading to blood clots that can ... CoronaVirus News Review In ...
The coronavirus pandemic has changed life for everyone. Its effects are felt in every home by everyone without exception, but people with disabilities are among the hardest hit, often with higher risk of life-threatening complications. Livability is on the frontline, providing care, nursing, education and support for those who need it most during this crisis - but we cant do it without your help.. Coronavirus presents a huge risk to the lives of the people we support, who have complex health needs due to a range of medical conditions, mental health needs and frailty. Were working hard to ensure everyone we support stays healthy and well - both physically, mentally and spiritually - during these unprecedented times.. Ultimately, were working to keep people alive and well. We need your help to do this. Please help us be there.. ...
Infórmate sobre la enfermedad del coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) y sobre el coronavirus que la causa (SARS-CoV-2). Aprende cuáles son los síntomas, riesgos, y las maneras de protegerte.
The federal government continues to respond to the coronavirus national emergency. Congress has passed, and President Trump has signed, legislation to provide funding and other resources to help fight the spread of the coronavirus ...
Our Coronavirus Task Force has been meeting regularly to review and implement state and national best practices to help prevent the spread of COVID-19 (Coronavirus).
Coronavirus and Mass Incarceration Timeline. The effect of the Coronavirus pandemic on individuals incarcerated in the U.S. has shed light on the vulnerability of this population.. The following timeline documents an 11-day period.. View Timeline or Download PDF. ...
அரசுகளால், உலக சுகாதார சபை போன்ற அங்கீகரிக்கப்பட்ட நிறுவனங்களால் , நம்பகத்தன்மை வாய்ந்த ஊடகங்களால் மற்றும் உறுதி செய்யப்பட்ட COVID-19: Coronavirus - பாதுகாப்பு வழிமுறைகள் மற்றும் ஆலோசனைகளை மட்டும் இங்கு பதிந்து கொள்ளுங்கள். COVID-19: Coronavirus செய்திகள் இப்பகுதியில் இணைக்கப்படலாகாது. செய்திகள் அதற்குரிய பகுதிகளில் இணைத்துக்கொள்ளுங்கள்.
Check out RT for the latest updates and news on coronavirus in France, as the country battles an increasing level of Covid-19 infections. Dont miss the latest on coronavirus in France.
Human coronavirus OC43; Bovine coronavirus; Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus; Equine coronavirus) and a newly ... Betacoronavirus 1 is a species of coronavirus which infects humans and cattle. The infecting virus is an enveloped, positive- ... Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Huang, Yi; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Yuen, Kwok-Yung (2010-08-24). "Coronavirus Genomics and Bioinformatics ... "Human Coronaviruses: A Review of Virus-Host Interactions". Diseases. 4 (3): 26. doi:10.3390/diseases4030026. ISSN 2079-9721. ...
Although bovine tuberculosis is not considered a major threat to wolves, it has been recorded to have killed two wolf pups in ... The canine coronavirus has been recorded in Alaskan wolves, infections being most prevalent in winter months. Bacterial ... Some wolves carry Neospora caninum, which can be spread to cattle and is correlated with bovine miscarriages. Among flukes, the ... and canine coronavirus. Wolves are a major host for rabies in Russia, Iran, Afghanistan, Iraq and India. In wolves, the ...
... bovine spongiform encephalopathy and coronavirus. She has worked with the World Health Organization on their technical strategy ... Cite uses generic title (help) "Sobering coronavirus study prompted Britain to toughen its approach". Reuters. 2020-03-17. ... Her research considers the epidemiology of infectious disease, including malaria, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, HIV, SARS ... home quarantine and social distancing could limit the number of UK deaths caused by the coronavirus to 20,000. She worked with ...
"A new approach for diagnosis of bovine coronavirus using a reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification assay". ... An exception is a recent study comparing RT-qPCR, RT-LAMP, and RPA for detection of Schmallenberg virus and bovine viral ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Aebischer, Andrea (2014). "Rapid Genome Detection of Schmallenberg Virus and Bovine ...
"HSE news". Coronavirus: latest information and advice. 21 May 2020. Retrieved 22 May 2020. "Australian Health Management Plan ... Bovine Practitioner; 1998; 32:61-70. 8. Thomson, J. Biosecurity: preventing and controlling diseases in the beef herd. ... "Coronavirus (COVID-19) health alert". Australian Government Department of Health. 6 February 2020. Retrieved 22 May 2020. " ...
... bovine coronavirus and human coronavirus OC43, indicated that they had a most recent common ancestor in the late 19th century, ... Bovine Coronavirus, and Human Coronavirus OC43". Journal of Virology. 80 (14): 7270-7274. doi:10.1128/JVI.02675-05. PMC 1489060 ... The calculation was based on genetic comparisons between bovine coronavirus and different strains of OC43. Their research had ... Lone Simonsen and Anders Gorm Pedersen similarly calculated that the human coronavirus OC43 had split from bovine coronavirus ...
... is a higher-order genomic structure implicated in the mediation of DIP production in bovine coronavirus, with apparent homologs ... untranslated region is a cis-acting element in bovine coronavirus defective interfering RNA replication". J. Virol. 77 (12): ... DIP generation is regulated within viruses: the Coronavirus SL-III cis-acting replication element (shown in the image) ... SARS coronavirus, measles, alphaviruses, respiratory syncytial virus and influenza virus. DIPs are a naturally occurring ...
They cause Classical swine fever (CSF) and Bovine viral diarrhea(BVD). Mucosal disease is a distinct, chronic persistent ... Coronaviruses are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense RNA genome and with a nucleocapsid of helical symmetry. They infect ... bovine malignant catarrhal fever), dogs, goats, horses, cats (feline viral rhinotracheitis), and pigs (pseudorabies). ...
"Coronavirus: Can cow dung and urine help cure the novel coronavirus?". The Times of India. Archived from the original on ... For example, giardiasis, E. coli, salmonellosis and tuberculosis can all be transmitted via bovine fecal matter. Drinking camel ... on coronavirus misinformation". UNICEF. Archived from the original on April 6, 2020. "'No Meat, No Coronavirus' Makes No Sense ... "Coronavirus: Don't use vodka to sanitise hands". BBC News. March 6, 2020. Pinheiro C (March 4, 2020). "Álcool em gel não evita ...
Bovine Toroviruses are proposed to have mainly two different serotypes: bovine torovirus serotype 1 (BoTV-1) and bovine ... Toroviruses, Coronaviruses and arteriviruses are in the order Nidovirales, a group of non segmented, positive sense single ... The 'Breda' bovine torovirus was later found in 1979 while investigation in a dairy farm in Breda. They had several calves ... The 'Breda' bovine torovirus was later found in 1979 while investigation in a dairy farm in Breda. They had several calves ...
... which was similarly observed in bovine coronavirus. In addition, it was found that the TAS of the IBV D-RNA contained a ... Coronavirus D-RNA like that of IBV, are produced during high multiplicity of infection and contain cis-acting sequences which ... "In vitro and in ovo expression of chicken gamma interferon by a defective RNA of avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus ... "Expression of reporter genes from the defective RNA CD-61 of the coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus". The Journal of ...
Australia, the UK, Spain and New Zealand have all conducted successful vaccination programs to prevent Bovine Tuberculosis, by ... "Helping wild animals through vaccination: could this happen for coronaviruses like SARS-CoV-2?". Animal Ethics. 2020-05-12. ... wild animals could be vaccinated against coronaviruses to relieve the suffering of the affected animals, prevent disease ...
... may refer to: Betacoronavirus (β-CoV), a virus Bovine coronavirus (BCoV), a virus Brightcove, an American company, stock ...
... an antiviral drug for the treatment of hepatitis C virus Bovine coronavirus, an RNA virus BCV: Battle Construction Vehicles, a ...
1 Bovine coronavirus Human coronavirus OC43 China Rattus coronavirus HKU24 Human coronavirus HKU1 Murine coronavirus Mouse ... Pipistrellus bat coronavirus HKU5 Tylonycteris bat coronavirus HKU4 Eidolon bat coronavirus C704 Rousettus bat coronavirus ... Bat SARS-like coronavirus WIV1 (Bat SL-CoV-WIV1) Bat coronavirus RaTG13 Hedgehog coronavirus 1 Middle East respiratory syndrome ... Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV or SARS-CoV-1) Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS- ...
Martín, M.-J.; Martín-Sosa, S.; García-Pardo, L.-A.; Hueso, P. (2001). "Distribution of Bovine Milk Sialoglycoconjugates During ... Dr ADDIE website focused research about FIP Coronavirus Site général Coronavirus site général Coronavirus Pictures. ... Feline coronavirus (FCoV) is a positive-stranded RNA virus that infects cats worldwide. It is a coronavirus of the species ... "Feline Coronavirus Type II Strains 79-1683 and 79-1146 Originate from a Double Recombination between Feline Coronavirus Type I ...
Known as canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV) and found to be similar to strain OC43 of bovine and human coronaviruses, it ... A more serious complication of canine coronavirus occurs when the dog is also infected with canine parvovirus. Coronavirus ... Canine coronavirus (CCoV) is an enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus which is a member of the species ... Canine coronavirus was originally thought to cause serious gastrointestinal disease, but now most cases are considered to be ...
... of a coronavirus hemagglutinin-esterase with a substrate specificity different from those of influenza C virus and bovine ... Murine coronavirus (M-CoV) is a species of coronavirus which infects mice. It is an enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded ... The Murine coronavirus is a coronavirus that causes an epidemic murine illness with high mortality, especially among colonies ... Species Murine hepatitis virus; Puffinosis coronavirus; Rat coronavirus (these are to be united in a new species Murine ...
... bovine coronavirus (BCoV), and human coronaviruses like HCoV-HKU1 and HCoV-OC43. Notably, this element is absent from the other ... Coronavirus 5′ UTR Coronavirus 3′ UTR Coronavirus 3′ UTR pseudoknot Coronavirus 3′ stem-loop II-like motif (s2m) Coronavirus ... The Coronavirus packaging signal is a conserved cis-regulatory element found in Betacoronavirus (part of the Coronavirus ... Other RNA families identified in the coronavirus include the SL-III cis-acting replication element (CRE), the coronavirus ...
Comparison of HCoV-OC43 with the most closely related strain of Betacoronavirus 1 species, bovine coronavirus BCoV, indicated ... RNA virus Human coronavirus HKU1 1889-1890 pandemic Lee, Paul. Molecular epidemiology of human coronavirus OC43 in Hong Kong ( ... "Complete Genomic Sequence of Human Coronavirus OC43: Molecular Clock Analysis Suggests a Relatively Recent Zoonotic Coronavirus ... The infecting coronavirus is an enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus which enters its host cell by binding to ...
Bovine coronavirus (discovered in 1973), Human enteric coronavirus (discovered in 1975), Equine coronavirus (discovered in 2000 ... The history of coronaviruses is a reflection of the discovery of the diseases caused by coronaviruses and identification of the ... Coronaviruses that are transmitted from animals (zoonoses) are clinically the most important human coronaviruses as they are ... In 1974 a new coronavirus was discovered from US military dogs, and was named by ICTV in 1991 as Canine coronavirus. As the ...
"How we know disinfectants should kill the COVID-19 coronavirus". Chemical & Engineering News. Retrieved 2020-03-31. Taylor, M. ... "Preventing Bovine Mastitis by a Postmilking Teat Disinfectant Containing Acidified Sodium Chlorite". Journal of Dairy Science. ... posted a list of many disinfectants that meet its criteria for use in environmental measures against the causative coronavirus ...
She has interests in ecology, conservation, and animal welfare having worked on bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and Foot ... statistical and biomathematical methods to analyse epidemiological patterns of infectious diseases such as coronavirus disease ... Donnelly, Christl A.; Woodroffe, Rosie (2015). "Bovine tuberculosis: Badger-cull targets unlikely to reduce TB". Nature. 526 ( ... mouth disease in cattle, bovine tuberculosis and policies regarding badger culling in the United Kingdom. Donnelly was elected ...
"Safety, Tolerability and Immunogenicity of a Coronavirus-Like Particle COVID-19 Vaccine in Adults Aged 18-55 Years". ... a Plant-Based Alternative to Bovine-Derived Trypsin (Peer-Reviewed)". BioPharm International. 24 (10): 44-8. Sigma Catalog FAQ ...
... coronavirus MeSH B04.820.504.540.150.150 - coronavirus, bovine MeSH B04.820.504.540.150.160 - coronavirus, canine MeSH B04.820. ... coronavirus MeSH B04.909.777.500.540.150.150 - coronavirus, bovine MeSH B04.909.777.500.540.150.160 - coronavirus, canine MeSH ... coronavirus 229e, human MeSH B04.820.504.540.150.220 - coronavirus oc43, human MeSH B04.820.504.540.150.260 - coronavirus, rat ... coronavirus oc43, human MeSH B04.909.777.500.540.150.260 - coronavirus, rat MeSH B04.909.777.500.540.150.300 - coronavirus, ...
Stokel-Walker, Chris (10 April 2020). "When Will There Be A Coronavirus Vaccine?". esquire.com. Esquire. Retrieved 21 July 2020 ... she studied the successfulness of TB vaccines in cattle and managed the roll-out of interferon-gamma-based diagnosis for bovine ...
... bovine parainfluenza virus QI02AD08 Bovine rotavirus + bovine coronavirus QI02AD09 Bovine rotavirus QI02AD10 Bovine coronavirus ... bovine coronavirus + escherichia QI02AL02 Bovine rotavirus + bovine coronavirus + parvovirus + escherichia QI02AL03 Bovine ... bovine adenovirus + bovine reovirus QI02AA06 Bovine parainfluenza virus + bovine adenovirus + bovine reovirus + bovine ... bovine respiratory syncytial virus + pasteurella QI02AL05 Bovine rotavirus + bovine coronavirus + clostridium + escherichia ...
... bovine MeSH C02.782.417.214 - dengue fever MeSH C02.782.417.214.200 - dengue hemorrhagic fever MeSH C02.782.417.400 - cgi?mode ... coronavirus infections MeSH C02.782.600.550.200.325 - enteritis, transmissible, of turkeys MeSH C02.782.600.550.200.360 - ... enzootic bovine leukosis MeSH C02.782.815.200.470 - htlv-i infections MeSH C02.782.815.200.470.300 - leukemia-lymphoma, t-cell ... bovine virus diarrhea-mucosal disease MeSH C02.782.350.675.200 - classical swine fever MeSH C02.782.350.675.400 - hemorrhagic ...
Coronavirus: SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) Encephalitis viruses: Eastern equine encephalitis virus (excluding South ... contagious bovine pleuropneumonia) African horse sickness virus African swine fever virus Avian influenza virus (highly ... In the same revision Chapare virus, Lujo virus, and SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) were added to the list of select ... enzootic subtypes ID and IE Akabane virus Bluetongue virus Bovine spongiform encephalitis Camel Pox virus Erlichia ruminantium ...
... virus Bovine leukemia virus Bovine mastadenovirus A Bovine mastadenovirus B Bovine mastadenovirus C Bovine nidovirus 1 Bovine ... 6A Human betaherpesvirus 6B Human betaherpesvirus 7 Human coronavirus 229E Human coronavirus HKU1 Human coronavirus NL63 Human ... Bovine atadenovirus D Bovine fever ephemerovirus Bovine foamy virus Bovine gammaherpesvirus 4 Bovine gammaherpesvirus 6 Bovine ... orthopneumovirus Bovine papular stomatitis virus Bovine respirovirus 3 Bovine rhinitis A virus Bovine rhinitis B virus Bovine ...
Group: ssRNA(+) Order: Picornavirales Family: Picornaviridae Genus: Aphthovirus Bovine rhinitis A virus Bovine rhinitis B virus ... coronavirus, notavirus, etc.) supergroup of RNA viruses. The mechanism has been best studied for the enteroviruses (which ...
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy Prions cattle eating infected meat Brucellosis Brucella spp. cattle, goats infected milk or ... MERS coronavirus bats, camels close contact Monkeypox Monkeypox virus rodents, primates contact with infected rodents, primates ... SARS coronavirus bats, civets close contact, respiratory droplets Swine influenza any strain of the influenza virus endemic in ... severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) bats, pangolins, felines, minks respiratory transmission 2019 ...
An arbitrarily chosen DNA fragment derived from the mRNA transcript of bovine serum albumin was evolved through random point ... DNAzymes have also been shown to inhibit the replication of SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV),[32] Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), ...
"Puppies & burnout: The economic impact of the coronavirus on vets". The Conversation. Retrieved 10 August 2020.. ... bovine (cattle) and porcine (swine) species; such veterinarians deal with management of herds, nutrition, reproduction, and ... often involving bovines, porcine species, felines, canines, rodents, and even exotic animals). Their responsibility is not only ...
Virusul imuno-deficienței bovine. *▪ Virusul leucemiei bovine. *▪ Virusul respiratoric syncytial bovin. *▪ Bunyavirus ...
IV: SARS coronavirus *Severe acute respiratory syndrome. *V: Orthomyxoviridae: Influenzavirus A/B/C/D *Influenza/Avian ... Bovine spongiform encephalopathy. *Camel spongiform encephalopathy. *Scrapie. *Chronic wasting disease. *Transmissible mink ...
ingestion of oocyst (sporulated), some species are zoonotic (e.g. bovine fecal contamination) ... IV: SARS coronavirus *Severe acute respiratory syndrome. *V: Orthomyxoviridae: Influenza virus A/B/C/D *Influenza/Avian ...
A study found bovine calf rennet could be used to coagulate dromedary milk.[117] A special factory has been set up in ... "MERS coronavirus in dromedary camel herd, Saudi Arabia". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 20 (7): 1-4. doi:10.3201/eid2007.140571. ... Ramet, J.P. (1987). "Saudi Arabia: use of bovine calf rennet to coagulate raw camel milk". World Animal Review (FAO). 61: 11-16 ... coronavirus seroprevalence in domestic livestock in Saudi Arabia, 2010 to 2013". Eurosurveillance. 18 (50): 20659. doi:10.2807/ ...
Peiris JS, Poon LL (2011). Detection of SARS Coronavirus. Methods in Molecular Biology. 665. pp. 369-82. doi:10.1007/978-1- ... bovine virus diarrhea was discovered,[60] which is still possibly the most common pathogen of cattle throughout the world[61] ... "Cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV): emerging pestiviruses doomed to extinction". Veterinary Research. 41 (6): 44 ...
IV: SARS coronavirus *Severe acute respiratory syndrome. *V: Orthomyxoviridae: Influenzavirus A/B/C *Influenza/Avian influenza ...
MERS coronavirus *Middle East respiratory syndrome. *SARS coronavirus 2 *Coronavirus disease 2019 ...
Covid Economics 35: 7 July 2020 McDonnell, Adam (November 16, 2020). "How many Britons are willing to take a coronavirus ... as well as hypotheses that vaccinations can transmit bovine spongiform encephalopathy, hepatitis C virus, and HIV. These ...
"Coronavirus: Fear over rise in animal-to-human diseases". BBC. 6 July 2020. Retrieved 7 July 2020. "Preventing the next ... The first vaccine against smallpox by Edward Jenner in 1800 was by infection of a zoonotic bovine virus which caused a disease ... "Mink found to have coronavirus on two Dutch farms - ministry". Reuters. 26 April 2020. Archived from the original on 27 April ... Carrington, Damian (6 July 2020). "Coronavirus: world treating symptoms, not cause of pandemics, says UN". The Guardian. ...
"Coronavirus: il viaggio dei test". Istituto Superiore di Sanità. Shiao YH (December 2003). "A new reverse transcription- ... "Direct RT-PCR from serum enables fast and cost-effective phylogenetic analysis of bovine viral diarrhoea virus". Journal of ...
He visited Michigan, Maryland and Washington to discuss bovine TB policy, writing extensively on the issue facing the UK. He ... 133m coronavirus testing contract unopposed". The Guardian. Retrieved 24 June 2020. "UK 2020 LIMITED - Overview (free company ... Paterson, Owen (6 December 2005). "Owen Paterson MP visits the USA to discuss Bovine TB Policy". Farmers Weekly. Retrieved 16 ... has given Randox the contract to produce testing kits to help respond to the coronavirus pandemic. It was awarded "without ...
"Complete genomic sequence of human coronavirus OC43: molecular clock analysis suggests a relatively recent zoonotic coronavirus ... It may cause respiratory disease resembling human influenza on its own, or it may be part of a bovine respiratory disease (BRD ... Two antigenic lineages are in circulation: D/swine/Oklahoma/1334/2011 (D/OK) and D/bovine/Oklahoma/660/2013 (D/660). The two ...
A study found bovine calf rennet could be used to coagulate dromedary milk. A special factory has been set up in Nouakchott to ... in Egypt was the first to show the dromedary might be a host for the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). A ... Ramet, J.P. (1987). "Saudi Arabia: use of bovine calf rennet to coagulate raw camel milk". World Animal Review (FAO). 61: 11-16 ... "MERS coronavirus in dromedary camel herd, Saudi Arabia". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 20 (7): 1231-4. doi:10.3201/ ...
The ombudsman added that people over the age of 65 and people who lived in Britain during the bovine spongiform encephalopathy ... "FDA Loosens Restrictions On Gay Blood Donors Amid 'Urgent Need' Caused By Coronavirus". NPR.org. Retrieved 28 July 2020. " ... Commissioner, Office of the (2 April 2020). "Coronavirus (COVID-19) Update: FDA Provides Updated Guidance to Address the Urgent ...
Also in 2013, the bovine herd in Colombia reached 20.1 million head of cattle, of which 2.5 million (12.5%) were milking cows. ... Some of these reforms had been desired for years, and others had come into starker view during the coronavirus pandemic. ...
Walker, Peter (21 May 2020). "UK coronavirus test with 20-minute wait being trialled". The Guardian. Park, Gun-Soo; Ku, Keunbon ... method for the simultaneous detection of bovine Babesia parasites". Journal of Microbiological Methods. 71 (3): 281-7. doi: ... of Reverse Transcription Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assays Targeting Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus ...
Ramajayam R, Tan KP, Liang PH (October 2011). "Recent development of 3C and 3CL protease inhibitors for anti-coronavirus and ... but not bovine enterovirus, targets the host cell cytoskeleton via the nonstructural protein 3Cpro". Journal of Virology. 82 ( ... Ramajayam R, Tan KP, Liang PH (October 2011). "Recent development of 3C and 3CL protease inhibitors for anti-coronavirus and ... Ramajayam R, Tan KP, Liang PH (October 2011). "Recent development of 3C and 3CL protease inhibitors for anti-coronavirus and ...
The bovine protein is homologous with other mammalian species and is a homogeneous 50 kDa glycoprotein with an isoelectric ... coronavirus, and immunodeficiency virus and of feline leukemia virus antigen and the interrelationship of these viral ... Purification of protein from bovine-derived stromal cell supernatants produces a substantially homogeneous factor, free of ...
A game changer': FDA authorizes Abbott Labs' portable, 5-minute coronavirus test the size of a toaster". USA TODAY. Retrieved ... "Comparison of two commercially available immunoassays for the measurement of bovine cardiac troponin I in cattle with induced ... "FDA Approves Abbott Laboratories Coronavirus Test, Company To Ship 150,000 Kits". IBTimes.com. 19 March 2020. Archived from the ... "The scramble for the rapid coronavirus tests everybody wants". Washington Post. Retrieved 2 April 2020. Burns, Matt. "Detroit ...
Lactogenic immunity following vaccination of cattle with bovine coronavirus.. Crouch CF1, Oliver S, Hearle DC, Buckley A, ... In order to investigate the ability of an oil adjuvanted vaccine containing bovine coronavirus antigen to enhance lactogenic ... will lead to the production of a superior commercial vaccine for the protection of neonatal calves against enteric coronavirus ...
Coronaviruses are known to infect a wide range of mammalian and avian species causing remarkably diverse disease syndromes. ... Coronaviruses are known to infect a wide range of mammalian and avian species causing remarkably diverse disease syndromes. ... Bovine CoVs (BCoVs) are betacoronaviruses associated with neonatal calf diarrhea, and with winter dysentery and shipping fever ... Bovine CoVs (BCoVs) are betacoronaviruses associated with neonatal calf diarrhea, and with winter dysentery and shipping fever ...
sp,P59709,HEMA_CVBQ Hemagglutinin-esterase OS=Bovine coronavirus (strain Quebec) OX=11133 GN=HE PE=3 SV=1 ... Bovine coronavirus (strain Quebec) (BCoV) (BCV). ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_ ... Belongs to the influenza type C/coronaviruses hemagglutinin-esterase family.UniRule annotation. Manual assertion according to ... Bos taurus (Bovine) [TaxID: 9913]. ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section"> ...
The replicase polyprotein of coronaviruses is a multifunctional protein: it contains the activities necessary for the ... sp,P0C6W9,R1AB_CVBM Replicase polyprotein 1ab OS=Bovine coronavirus (strain Mebus) OX=11132 GN=rep PE=3 SV=1 ... Bovine coronavirus (strain Mebus) (BCoV) (BCV). ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand% ... Belongs to the coronaviruses polyprotein 1ab family.Curated. Zinc finger. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. ...
Bovine coronavirus Synonym(s): coronaviridae, BCV, bovine respiratory disease complex. Contributor(s): Veronica Fowler , Tammy ... Saif L J (2010) Bovine Respiratory Coronavirus. The Veterinary clinics of North America Food animal practice 26 (2), 349-364 ... Saif L J (1990) A review of evidence implicating bovine coronavirus in the etiology of winter dysentery in cows: an enigma ... Kapil S & Basaraba R J (1997) Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza-3, and respiratory coronavirus. Vet Clin North ...
Aids in the reduction of morbidity and mortality from neonatal calf scours.First Defense Bovine Coronavirus-Escherichia Coli ... Coronavirus and K99 E. coli antibodies to provide scour protection for newborn calves. For maximum protection, give 1 capsule ... First Defense Bovine Coronavirus-Escherichia Coli Antibody is rated 4.80 out of 5 by 21. ... bovine coronaviruseschericia coli antibody Rated 5 out of 5 stars by barry 1 on 2015-03-07 used this product last year and it ...
Coronavirus and K99 E. coli antibodies to provide scour protection for newborn calves. For maximum protection, give 1 capsule ... Do not use with modified-live oral coronavirus or rotavirus vaccines at birth, as the antibodies in First Defense may ... First Defense Bovine Coronavirus-Escherichia Coli Antibody is rated 4.80 out of 5 by 9. ... bovine coronaviruseschericia coli antibody Rated 5 out of 5 stars by barry 1 on 2015-03-07 used this product last year and it ...
Bovine coronavirus) (OPCA46222) , Recombinant Protein , Application: WB, ELISA , Species Reactivity: Bovine coronavirus , Alias ... Youre reviewing:4B Recombinant Protein (Bovine coronavirus) (OPCA46222). Your Rating. Overall Experience. 1 star 2 stars 3 ...
Bovine, Peplomer from bovine and bovine coronavirus. Validated for ELISA. ... Bovine, Peplomer antibody LS-C525167 is a biotin-conjugated mouse monoclonal antibody to Coronavirus, ... Coronavirus, Bovine, Peplomer antibody LS-C525167 is a biotin-conjugated mouse monoclonal antibody to Coronavirus, Bovine, ... Coronavirus, Bovine, Peplomer antibody LS-C525167 is a biotin-conjugated mouse monoclonal antibody to Coronavirus, Bovine, ...
Evaluation of shell vial cell culture technique for the detection of bovine coronavirus ... Evaluation of shell vial cell culture technique for the detection of bovine coronavirus. Tahir, R.A.; Pomeroy, K.A.; Goyal, S.M ... The effect of blind passage and centrifugation on the isolation of bovine coronavirus (BCV) in human rectal tumour cells was ... Evaluation of shell vial cell culture technique for the detection of bovine coronavirus. ...
Keywords: Bovine coronavirus; Antigenic; Genetic; Vaccination; Respiratory disease; Enteric disease. Graduation Month: August. ... Serological characterization of genotypically distinct enteric and respiratory bovine coronaviruses. K-REx Repository. Search K ... Bovine Coronavirus (BCoV) is known to cause enteric and respiratory diseases, such as calf diarrhea, winter dysentery, calf ... Serological characterization of genotypically distinct enteric and respiratory bovine coronaviruses. Ukena, Alexa ...
Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza-3 and bovine respiratory coronavirus. Vet. Clin. N. Am. Food Anim. Pract. 13 ... Detection of bovine coronavirus by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using monoclonal antibodies. J. Vet. Med. Sci. 55 1993 771 ... Chronic shedding of bovine enteric coronavirus antigen-antibody complexes by clinically normal cows. J. Gen. Virol. 66 1985 ... Bovine coronavirus (BCV) is an economically significant cause of calf scours and winter dysentery of adult cattle (9) and may ...
Monoclonal antibodies to bovine enteric coronavirus (BEC) were produced. Additionally, polyclonal antibodies were made in ... Monoclonal antibodies to bovine enteric coronavirus (BEC) were produced. Additionally, polyclonal antibodies were made in ... Characterization of Monoclonal and Polyclonal Antibodies to Bovine Enteric Coronavirus: Establishment of an Efficient ELISA for ...
Development of an Antigen Spot Test for Detection of Coronavirus in Bovine Fecal Samples. Fathy Gaber, Sanjay Kapil ... Development of an Antigen Spot Test for Detection of Coronavirus in Bovine Fecal Samples ... Development of an Antigen Spot Test for Detection of Coronavirus in Bovine Fecal Samples ... Development of an Antigen Spot Test for Detection of Coronavirus in Bovine Fecal Samples ...
Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and bovine coronavirus (BCV) are responsible for respiratory disease and diarrhea in ... Evaluation of a multiplex immunoassay for bovine respiratory syncytial virus and bovine coronavirus antibodies in bulk tank ...
Home » Monoclonal antibodiesVeterinaryBovine » Monoclonal mouse anti-bovine corona virus peplomer ... Monoclonal antibodies » Veterinary » Bovine. Disease Category:. Veterinary » Monoclonal antibodies » Bovine. MAbs:. 5A4. ... clone has been derived from hybridization of Sp2/0 myeloma cells with spleen cells of Balb/c mice immunized with bovine corona virus ...
Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is a widely distributed pathogen, causing disease and economic losses in the cattle industry ... From: Bovine coronavirus in naturally and experimentally exposed calves; viral shedding and the potential for transmission ...
Michigan Department of Community Health officials today announced that an individual was diagnosed with bovine Tuberculosis. ... Coronavirus * Communicable Disease Information and Resources * Healthcare-Associated Infections * Michigan Disease Surveillance ... "The possibility of humans contracting bovine TB from animals continues to be extremely remote," said Michigan bovine TB ... Bovine TB can be effectively treated in humans, so it is crucial to contact a physician if an individual thinks they have been ...
title = "Bovine coronavirus nucleocapsid protein processing and assembly",. abstract = "The coronavirus nucleocapsid protein (N ... Bovine coronavirus nucleocapsid protein processing and assembly. Together they form a unique fingerprint. * Coronavirus ... Bovine coronavirus nucleocapsid protein processing and assembly. / Hogue, B. G.. In: Advances in experimental medicine and ... The requirements for coronavirus nucleocapsid assembly are being studied. Two forms (~50 kDa and 55 kDa) of the bovine ...
Bovine coronavirus. Clark, M A. Afiliação *Clark MA; Department of Physiological Sciences, Medical School, University of ... This review aims to summarize current data describing the characteristics of bovine coronavirus (BCV) and the three clinical ... This is followed by an outline of the unique replication strategy adopted by coronaviruses. The second half of this review ...
... as a receptor determinant for bovine coronavirus (BCV) on cultured cells was analysed. Pretreatment of MDCK I (Madin Darby ... Bovine coronavirus uses N-acetyl-9-O-acetylneuraminic acid as a receptor determinant to initiate the infection of cultured ... The importance of N-acetyl-9-O-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5,9Ac2) as a receptor determinant for bovine coronavirus (BCV) on ...
Bovine respiratory coronavirus vaccine. Bovine Coronavirus Vaccines - Creative Biolabs. Coronavirus myths, debunked: A cattle ... Request PDF , Bovine Respiratory Coronavirus , Bovine coronaviruses At present, there are no BCoV vaccines to prevent ... Bovine coronavirus - Wikipedia WO1998040097A3 - Bovine respiratory and enteric coronavirus as a vaccine - Google Patents Viral ... Canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV) is a group 2 coronavirus. It is genetically related to the bovine coronavirus (which can ...
Bovine/Human Coronaviruses https://viroimmunelab.osu.edu/publications/bovine-coronaviruses Hasoksuz, M., A.E. Hoet, S.C. Loerch ... Bovine Toroviruses https://viroimmunelab.osu.edu/publications/bovine-toroviruses Hoet, A.E., K.O. Cho, K.O. Chang, S.C. Loerch ...
Spotlight on Bovine Coronavirus. by Bill Baker , Apr 22, 2020 , Chris Galen, Dairy Radio Now, Policy Thursday , 0 comments ... More than four decades of dairy-industry experience with bovine coronavirus shouldnt translate to complacency on farms about ... National Milks Chris Galen updated Dairy Radio listeners on the latest news regarding the Coronavirus Food Assistance Program: ... the National Milk Producers Federation updated Dairy Radio Now listeners on the next round of payments from the Coronavirus ...
VetPCR BCV Detection Kit is the direct detection of Bovine coronavirus on the basis of a genetic database, so it can diagnose ... that causes three distinct clinical syndromes in bovine; calf diarrhea, winter dysentery in adult cattle, and as cause of ... Bovine coronavirus (BCV) is recognized as the one important pathogen in cattle worldwide, ... Bovine coronavirus (BCV) is recognized as the one important pathogen in cattle worldwide, that causes three distinct clinical ...
... recognizes the surface antigen of bovine coronavirus. Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) causes severe diarrhoea in newborn ca… ... strong,Mouse anti Bovine Coronavirus Surface Antigen antibody, clone 5A4,/strong, ... Mouse anti Bovine Coronavirus Surface Antigen antibody, clone 5A4 recognizes the surface antigen of bovine coronavirus. Bovine ... Bovine coronavirus.. Approx. Protein Concentrations. IgG concentration 1.0mg/ml. Fusion Partners. Spleen cells from immunised ...
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Latest on coronavirus. *Bovine TB news and resources. *#FeedTheNation. *Farmlife Framed photo gallery ... BOVINE TB. Steps farmers are taking to reduce bovine TB risk. Simple, inexpensive steps can cut TB risks by limiting cow and ... Coronavirus: 18 staff test positive at Bernard Matthews plant. Eighteen workers at Bernard Matthews turkey processing plant in ... Suffolk have tested positive for coronavirus. The infections came to light after 100 staff were tested at Bernard Matthews ...
Latest on coronavirus. *Bovine TB news and resources. *#FeedTheNation. *Farmlife Framed photo gallery ... BOVINE TB. Steps farmers are taking to reduce bovine TB risk. Simple, inexpensive steps can cut TB risks by limiting cow and ... Coronavirus: 18 staff test positive at Bernard Matthews plant. Eighteen workers at Bernard Matthews turkey processing plant in ... Suffolk have tested positive for coronavirus. The infections came to light after 100 staff were tested at Bernard Matthews ...
This is bigger than coronavirus, and Australia is well out of its weight division. ... Cattle researchers fight extraordinary patent of bovine genome. ABC Rural. /. By. Sarina Locke. Posted ThuThursday 17. Nov ... In a move which has shocked cattle researchers and breeders, two American companies are trying to patent the bovine genome in ... Move to patent bovine genome described as utterly indefensible.. (. Supplied: Rob Banks. ). ...
  • Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is a pneumoenteric virus that belongs to the species Betacoronavirus 1 (subgenus Embecovirus ) of the Betacoronavirus genus along with wild ruminant CoVs, porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus, equine coronavirus, HCoV-OC43, HECoV-44, and canine respiratory coronavirus ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Bovine Coronavirus (BCoV) is known to cause enteric and respiratory diseases, such as calf diarrhea, winter dysentery, calf respiratory disease, and bovine respiratory disease complex (BRD). (k-state.edu)
  • Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) causes severe diarrhoea in newborn calves, possibly resulting in death. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is a widely distributed pathogen, causing disease and economic losses in the cattle industry worldwide. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this minireview, we focus on two endemic respiratory CoV infections of livestock bovine coronavirus (BCoV) and porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV). (bvsalud.org)
  • Both viruses cause diarrhea in newborn calves, but bovine coronavirus (BCoV), lead to more economic damage because they also cause a type of diarrhea in adult cattle called winter dysentery (WD) and respiratory disease. (fujipress.jp)
  • This paper will outline bovine coronavirus infection and describe BCoV characteristics that have been reported so far. (fujipress.jp)
  • Gastroenteritis is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality amongst young and newborn animals, often caused by multiple intestinal infections, being rotavirus and Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) the main viral causes in cattle. (usp.br)
  • BCoV has a worldwide distribution and caused diarrhea in calves, winter dysentery in adult cattle and respiratory disease, while in horses coronaviruses lead to neonatal enterocolitis in foals. (usp.br)
  • Taking into account that BCoV is more largely studied than equine coronaviruses and the possibility of interspecies transmission of these viruses, this research aimed to assess a multigenic comparison of coronaviruses from adult cattle with winter dysentery and calves with neonatal diarrhea as well as from equines, all from Brazil, based on partial sequences of the hemagglutinin-esterase ( HE ), spike ( S ) and nucleoprotein ( N ) genes. (usp.br)
  • Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is a viral enteric pathogen associated with calf diarrhea worldwide being, in Argentina, mostly detected in dairy husbandry systems. (knowledgeofhealth.com)
  • El coronavirus bovino (Bovine coronavirus, BCoV) es un enteropatógeno viral asociado a la diarrea neonatal del ternero. (scielo.org.ar)
  • El objetivo del presente trabajo fue estudiar si los anticuerpos IgG1 anti-BCoV adquiridos pasivamente mediante el calostro modulan la infección por BCoV en terneros de un rodeo lechero de Argentina. (scielo.org.ar)
  • Estos animales fueron clasificados en dos grupos según sus niveles de IgG1 anti-BCoV maternales: grupo con transferencia de inmunidad pasiva aceptable (APT) y grupo con fallas en la transferencia pasiva (FPT). (scielo.org.ar)
  • Con respecto a la circulación viral, se detectó BCoV en el 10% (3/30) de los terneros así como también seroconversión de IgG1 en el 42% del total de los animales, lo que evidencia que aproximadamente la mitad de los terneros se infectaron con BCoV. (scielo.org.ar)
  • Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is a major viral pathogen associated with neonatal calf diarrhea (NCD) 30 , winter dysentery in adult cattle 35 , and respiratory tract disorders in cattle of all ages 9,15 . (scielo.org.ar)
  • This paper extends the line of research on protein intrinsic disorder in viral proteins to coronaviruses (CoV), which have caught the attention of the scientific community because of the sudden appearance of the lethal virus causing severe acute respiratory syndrome, the SARS-CoV [ 4 , 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Comparative Pathogenesis of Bovine and Porcine Respiratory Coronaviruses in the Animal Host Species and SARS-CoV-2 in Humans. (bvsalud.org)
  • Discovery of bats with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-related coronaviruses (CoVs) raised the specter of potential future outbreaks of zoonotic SARS-CoV -like disease in humans , which largely went unheeded. (bvsalud.org)
  • We determined crystal structures for human coronavirus (strain 229E) M pro and for an inhibitor complex of porcine coronavirus [transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV)] M pro , and we constructed a homology model for SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) M pro . (sciencemag.org)
  • The most publicized human coronavirus, SARS-CoV which causes SARS , has a unique pathogenesis because it causes both upper and lower respiratory tract infections and can also cause gastroenteritis . (bionity.com)
  • Prior to the discovery of SARS-CoV, MHV had been the best-studied coronavirus both in vivo and in vitro as well as at the molecular level. (bionity.com)
  • Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a respiratory disease caused by a novel coronavirus (official name: SARS-CoV-2) that was identified in 2019. (umd.edu)
  • Although there is a coronavirus strain that does affect cattle (Bovine coronavirus), there is no indication that the SARS-CoV-2 virus affects cattle. (umd.edu)
  • In the past 3 years, several novel respiratory viruses, including human metapneumovirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and human coronavirus NL63, were discovered. (asm.org)
  • Of the three novel agents identified in recent 3 years, including human metapneumovirus ( 36 ), severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (SARS-CoV) ( 25 ), and human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) ( 6 , 37 ), two were coronaviruses. (asm.org)
  • On the basis of genome analysis, SARS-CoV belonged to a fourth coronavirus group or alternatively was a distant relative of group 2 coronaviruses ( 4 , 20 , 28 , 31 , 48 ). (asm.org)
  • Coronavirus consensus PCR and unbiased high-throughput pyrosequencing revealed the presence of coronavirus sequences related to those of SARS-CoV in a Commerson's leaf-nosed bat ( Hipposideros commersoni ). (asm.org)
  • IMPORTANCE Bats (order Chiroptera, suborders Megachiroptera and Microchiroptera) are reservoirs for a wide range of viruses that cause diseases in humans and livestock, including the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), responsible for the global SARS outbreak in 2003. (asm.org)
  • Lactogenic immunity following vaccination of cattle with bovine coronavirus. (nih.gov)
  • Bovine CoVs (BCoVs) are betacoronaviruses associated with neonatal calf diarrhea, and with winter dysentery and shipping fever in older cattle. (frontiersin.org)
  • Bovine coronavirus (BCV) is an economically significant cause of calf scours and winter dysentery of adult cattle ( 9 ) and may cause respiratory disease in calves ( 6 , 7 ). (asm.org)
  • Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and bovine coronavirus (BCV) are responsible for respiratory disease and diarrhea in cattle worldwide. (dtu.dk)
  • Coronavirus myths, debunked: A cattle vaccine, bioweapons and a $3,000 test - Viral Characteristics Antibody responses of cattle with respiratory coronavirus infections during pathogenesis of shipping fever pneumonia are lower with antigens of enteric strains than with those of a respiratory strain. (qarantino.com)
  • More than four decades of dairy-industry experience with bovine coronavirus shouldn't translate to complacency on farms about the human version, says Mike Lormore, the Director of U.S. Dairy Cattle Technical Services for Zoetis, in a recent NMPF podcast here . (dairyradio.com)
  • In a move which has shocked cattle researchers and breeders, two American companies are trying to patent the bovine genome in Australia. (abc.net.au)
  • The tests you must arrange for bovine TB, what happens if your cattle test positive, when cattle must be slaughtered, and compensation. (www.gov.uk)
  • If you keep cattle they must be routinely tested for bovine TB. (www.gov.uk)
  • Genome organization and phylogenic tree of bovine kobuvirus IL35164 isolated from cattle, United States. (cdc.gov)
  • For use in healthy pregnant cattle as an aid in the prevention of disease in calves caused by bovine rotavirus, bovine coronavirus, Clostridium perfringens Type C, and K99 piliated Escherichia coli . (drugs.com)
  • Objective-To isolate bovine coronaviruses from the respiratory tracts of feedlot cattle and compare antigenic and biological properties of these strains with bovine enteric coronaviruses. (istanbul.edu.tr)
  • Among them, bovine coronavirus infection and bovine rotavirus infection are known as diseases that frequently occur throughout the world, and whose incidence and numbers of infected cattle are particularly large. (fujipress.jp)
  • 14] M. Hasoksuz, S. L. Lathrop, K. L. Gadfield, and L. J. Saif, "Isolation of bovine respiratory coronaviruses from feedlot cattle and comparison of their biological and antigenic properties with bovine enteric coronaviruses," Am. J. Vet. (fujipress.jp)
  • US cattle futures tumbled as concerns mount over skyrocketing unemployment and a possible recession as the coronavirus pandemic continues. (thedairysite.com)
  • Betacoronavirus 1 is a species of coronavirus which infects humans and cattle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Users on Facebook are spreading a photo of a vaccine used on cattle to falsely imply that the novel coronavirus infecting humans globally has been known about "for years. (dispatch.com)
  • As its name suggests, bovine coronavirus is a virus that infects cattle. (dispatch.com)
  • In other words, there's little evidence to suggest the vaccine used to protect cattle from the bovine coronavirus would be effective in vaccinating against the novel coronavirus. (dispatch.com)
  • The Bovine coronavirus attacks the respiratory system and the lower gastrointestinal tract of cattle and generally causes diarrhea in calves and respiratory distress in adult cattle (Saif, 2010). (umd.edu)
  • Unlike the virus that causes COVID-19, there is a vaccine that producers can administer to their cattle to prevent Bovine coronavirus. (umd.edu)
  • The latest data relating to bovine TB in Wales has revealed an alarming and unsustainable rise in the number of cattle slaughtered due to this disease. (fuw.org.uk)
  • Bovine TB is one of the most serious issues facing Welsh cattle farmers and a more holistic approach, which seriously tackles the wildlife reservoir, is required urgently," said Glyn Roberts. (fuw.org.uk)
  • The vaccine pictured is used to combat bovine coronavirus, which is a virus that infects cattle. (cantonrep.com)
  • It is hoped that this approach will lead to the production of a superior commercial vaccine for the protection of neonatal calves against enteric coronavirus infection. (nih.gov)
  • Coronavirus and K99 E. coli antibodies to provide scour protection for newborn calves. (valleyvet.com)
  • We detected bovine kobuvirus (BKV) in calves with diarrhea in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • To further screen BKV in bovine samples, we designed primers and probes (sequences available upon request) targeting 3D to test 9 additional intestinal samples from necropsied calves. (cdc.gov)
  • And that is the one that is treated with a vaccine, ScourGard 4K, for "healthy, pregnant cows and heifers as an aid in preventing diarrhea in their calves caused by bovine rotavirus, bovine coronavirus, and enterotoxigenic strains of Escherichia coil," according to manufacturer Zoetisus. (motherjones.com)
  • BOVILIS ® Coronavirus is recommended for use in healthy calves as an aid in the reduction of enteric disease caused by bovine coronavirus. (drugs.com)
  • A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting neonatal calves, presenting as acute diarrhea, and frequently leading to death. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The vaccine pictured, ScourGuard 4K, is a vaccine for "pregnant cows and heifers" to help prevent diarrhea in their calves caused by bovine coronavirus and other microbes. (dispatch.com)
  • Christina Lood, a spokeswoman for Zoetis, the manufacturer for the vaccine in question, told us in an email that "ScourGuard 4KC is licensed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for the vaccination of healthy, pregnant cows and heifers as an aid in preventing diarrhea in their calves caused in part by bovine coronavirus. (dispatch.com)
  • Wuhan became the center of an outbreak of severe pneumonia of unknown etiology, raising the attention of the scientific community internationally and, on 7 January 2020, researchers isolated a novel coronavirus from patients, responsible for the disease. (mdpi.com)
  • Bovine coronavirus strain L9 (BCV-L9) and 5 wild-type isolates replicated in HRT-18 cells, inducing cell fusion. (lsu.edu)
  • Human coronavirus (HCV) strain 229E, porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), canine coronavirus, and feline infectious peritonitis virus are members of group 1. (asm.org)
  • HCV strain OC43, murine hepatitis virus (MHV), porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (HEV), and bovine coronavirus (BCV) are members of group 2. (asm.org)
  • Coronavirus is a generic term for a large family of viruses, not any unique strain, in humans and animals. (dispatch.com)
  • A coronavirus variant that probably emerged in May and surged to become the dominant strain in California not only spreads more readily than its predecessors but also evades antibodies generated by COVID-19 vaccines or prior infection and is associated with severe illness and death, researchers said. (yahoo.com)
  • Over five months starting on Sept. 1, the California strain, which is sometimes referred to as 20C/L452R, rose from complete obscurity to account for more than 50% of all coronavirus samples that were subjected to genetic analysis in the state. (yahoo.com)
  • When we say "the coronavirus," we're referring to a new strain of virus that emerged from a family of coronaviruses. (cantonrep.com)
  • In order to investigate the ability of an oil adjuvanted vaccine containing bovine coronavirus antigen to enhance lactogenic immunity in the calf, pregnant cows and heifers were vaccinated and specific virus neutralising antibody levels determined in serum, colostrum and milk. (nih.gov)
  • Do not use with modified-live oral coronavirus or rotavirus vaccines at birth, as the antibodies in First Defense may neutralize the vaccine. (valleyvet.com)
  • An effective vaccine against enteric bovine coronavirus (BCV) must be able to induce mucosal immunity. (illinois.edu)
  • Specific research programs include: vaccine design for Brucella Abortus, West Nile Virus, Dengue Virus, Herpes viruses and Bovine Coronavirus and Herpesvirus Type-1. (lsu.edu)
  • Coronaviruses (CoVs) possess the largest and most complex RNA genome (up to 32 kb) that encodes for 16 non-structural proteins regulating RNA synthesis and modification. (frontiersin.org)
  • Coronaviruses (CoVs) are enveloped viruses with the largest RNA genome (26.4-31.7 kb) that belong to the subfamily of Coronavirinae within the family Coronaviridae , order Nidovirales ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Our approach to answering this question is to sequence and analyze the complete genome of 11 respiratory and enteric coronavirus isolates using next generation sequencing (NGS). (k-state.edu)
  • Coronaviruses (CoVs) (order Nidovirales, family Coronaviridae , subfamily Coronavirinae ) are enveloped viruses with a large positive-strand RNA genome that infect a broad range of vertebrates, including mammals ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • 2] D. A. Brian and R. S. Baric, "Coronavirus genome structure and replication," Curr. (fujipress.jp)
  • The family is comprised of two genera, Coronavirus and Torovirus , which share similarities in morphology, genome organization, and genome expression ( 26 ). (asm.org)
  • The coronavirus genome consists of a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA molecule that is 20 to 30 kb in size ( 19 , 26 ). (asm.org)
  • [1] Coronaviruses are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome and a helical symmetry. (bionity.com)
  • [2] Members of the group 2 coronaviruses also have a shorter spike-like protein called hemagglutinin esterase (HE) encoded in their genome, but for some reason this protein is not always brought to expression (produced) in the cell. (bionity.com)
  • Replication of Coronavirus begins with entry to the cell takes place in the cytoplasm in a membrane-protected microenvironment, upon entry to the cell the virus particle is uncoated and the RNA genome is deposited into the cytoplasm. (bionity.com)
  • The Coronavirus genome has a 5' methylated cap and a 3'polyadenylated-A tail to make it look as much like the host RNA as possible. (bionity.com)
  • Coronaviruses also have a protein known as a replicase encoded in its genome which allows the RNA viral genome to be translated into RNA through using the host cells machinery. (bionity.com)
  • The complete genome sequence of CoV-HKU1 is a 29,926-nucleotide, polyadenylated RNA, with G+C content of 32%, the lowest among all known coronaviruses with available genome sequence. (asm.org)
  • The complete genome of the coronavirus was sequenced and analyzed. (asm.org)
  • Coronaviruses are known to infect a wide range of mammalian and avian species causing remarkably diverse disease syndromes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Coronaviruses infect a wide diversity of mammalian and avian species causing respiratory, enteric, neurologic and hepatic disorders ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The CDC mentions that: "Sometimes coronaviruses that infect animals can evolve and make people sick and become a new human coronavirus. (motherjones.com)
  • Most coronaviruses of animals infect epithelial cells in the respiratory and/or enteric tracts, causing epizootics of respiratory diseases and/or gastroenteritis with short incubation periods (2-7 days), such as those found in SARS. (jci.org)
  • Coronaviruses primarily infect the upper respiratory and gastrointestinal tract of mammals and birds. (bionity.com)
  • Four to five different currently known strains of coronaviruses infect humans. (bionity.com)
  • Coronaviruses can infect animals and people, and we've known about other coronaviruses for years. (cantonrep.com)
  • Coronaviruses (order Nidovirales , family Coronaviridae , subfamily Coronavirinae ) infect a wide range of vertebrates and cause respiratory, enteric, or less frequently, neurological diseases ( 1 , 2 ). (asm.org)
  • Seven known coronaviruses infect people. (vin.com)
  • In different species, coronaviruses can produce "a wide spectrum of disease syndromes. (motherjones.com)
  • In general, each coronavirus causes disease in only one animal species. (jci.org)
  • Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that affect many different animal species and, in some cases, also humans. (anses.fr)
  • Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is caused by growth of single or multiple species of pathogenic bacteria in lung tissue following stress and/or viral infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Indirect fluorescent-antibody assay procedures and virus neutralization assays demonstrated a close antigenic relationship with bovine coronavirus (BCV) and porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (mammalian group 2 coronaviruses). (asm.org)
  • 147 bovine serums submitted to KSVDL were used to determine if there are any serological differences between the immune response to respiratory versus enteric viruses based on the antibodies produced by the animal. (k-state.edu)
  • This family of viruses is presented below, along with the work of the Agency on animal coronaviruses. (anses.fr)
  • However, since it is generally difficult to isolate coronaviruses from cultured cells, and these viruses have huge RNAs of about 30kb, research on coronaviruses, including genomic analysis, have not advanced sufficiently to cope with this problem. (fujipress.jp)
  • Coronaviruses are positive-stranded RNA viruses featuring the largest viral RNA genomes known to date (27 to 31 kb). (sciencemag.org)
  • Coronaviruses are grouped in the order Nidovirales, named for the Latin nidus , meaning nest, as all viruses in this order produce a 3' co-terminal nested set of subgenomic mRNA's during infection. (bionity.com)
  • Coronaviruses possess the largest genomes of all RNA viruses, consisting of about 30 kb. (asm.org)
  • Such a commonality has a further connection with the known behavior of some viruses of the coronavirus family, such as the murine hepatitis virus, whose spike glycoprotein (S) can be triggered to a membrane-binding conformation at pH 8.0. (mdpi.com)
  • Bats are reservoirs for emerging zoonotic viruses that can have a profound impact on human and animal health, including lyssaviruses, filoviruses, paramyxoviruses, and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses (SARS-CoVs). (asm.org)
  • 4] M. L. Ballesteros, C. M. Sanchez, and L. Enjuanes, "Two amino acid changes at the N-terminus of transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus spike protein result in the loss of enteric tropism," Virology, Vol.227, No.2, pp. 378-388, 1997. (fujipress.jp)
  • Economically significant coronaviruses of farm animals include porcine coronavirus (transmissible gastroenteritis, TGE) and bovine coronavirus, which both result in diarrhea in young animals. (bionity.com)
  • 12] D. A. Benfield and L. J. Saif, "Cell culture propagation of a coronavirus isolated from cows with winter dysentery," J. Clin. (fujipress.jp)
  • 13] L. J. Saif, K. V. Brock, D. R. Redman, and E. M. Kohler, "Winter dysentery in dairy herds: electron microscopic and serological evidence for an association with coronavirus infection," Vet. (fujipress.jp)
  • Coronavirus is a genus of animal virus belonging to the family Coronaviridae . (bionity.com)
  • Bovine TB can be effectively treated in humans, so it is crucial to contact a physician if an individual thinks they have been exposed or have symptoms of tuberculosis including persistent cough, night sweats and unexplained weight loss. (michigan.gov)
  • Our results raise a scenario for the natural history of a ubiquitous respiratory coronavirus (CoV) that has established itself in humans after it was likely acquired from camels. (pnas.org)
  • Bovine tuberculosis is an animal disease caused by a bacterium which is transmissible to humans. (anses.fr)
  • Coronaviruses cause colds in humans primarily in the winter and early spring seasons. (bionity.com)
  • The bovine coronavirus did not cause the current outbreak in humans. (cantonrep.com)
  • Three of the seven coronaviruses that afflict humans have evolved within the past two decades and can make some people severely ill. (vin.com)
  • The coronavirus that caused severe acute respiratory syndrome in 2002 may have passed directly from bats, but is thought to have been transmitted to humans largely through intermediate animals - likely masked palm civets and raccoon dogs, both common in Chinese live-animal markets. (vin.com)
  • ECV NC99 was determined to have close antigenic and/or genetic relationships with mammalian group 2 coronaviruses, thus identifying it as a member of this coronavirus antigenic group. (asm.org)
  • VetPCR BCV Detection Kit is the direct detection of Bovine coronavirus on the basis of a genetic database, so it can diagnose very fast and accurately. (kitpcr.com)
  • Coronavirus" is a term for a group of diseases. (motherjones.com)
  • Bovine diarrhea is one of the major diseases that cause major economic damage to farmers. (fujipress.jp)
  • Coronaviruses also cause a range of diseases in farm animals and domesticated pets, some of which can be serious and are a threat to the farming industry. (bionity.com)
  • Significant research efforts have been focused on elucidating the viral pathogenesis of these animal coronaviruses, especially by virologists interested in veterinary and zoonotic diseases. (bionity.com)
  • The coronaviruses that cause the potent respiratory diseases SARS, MERS and COVID-19 have an important feature in common: They are zoonotic, meaning they first came from animals. (vin.com)
  • The replicase polyprotein of coronaviruses is a multifunctional protein: it contains the activities necessary for the transcription of negative stranded RNA, leader RNA, subgenomic mRNAs and progeny virion RNA as well as proteinases responsible for the cleavage of the polyprotein into functional products. (uniprot.org)
  • The coronavirus nucleocapsid protein (N) encapsidates the genomic RNA to form a helical nucleocapsid. (elsevier.com)
  • Two forms (~50 kDa and 55 kDa) of the bovine coronavirus (BCV) N protein were detected in infected cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Hogue, BG 1995, ' Bovine coronavirus nucleocapsid protein processing and assembly ', Advances in experimental medicine and biology , vol. 380, pp. 259-263. (elsevier.com)
  • Targeted RNA recombination of the membrane and nucleocapsid protein genes between mouse hepatitis virus and bovine coronavirus. (illinois.edu)
  • Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Targeted RNA recombination of the membrane and nucleocapsid protein genes between mouse hepatitis virus and bovine coronavirus. (illinois.edu)
  • One goal of this research is to use of the concept of protein intrinsic disorder to shed light on behaviors of coronaviruses by creating a predictive model, which could provide insight into the differences between the transmission behavior of animal and human coronaviruses and also classify the various animal coronaviruses by their spread behavior. (hindawi.com)
  • 7] B. Schultze, H. J. Gross, R. Brossmer, and G. Herrler, "The S protein of bovine coronavirus is a hemagglutinin recognizing 9-Oacetylated sialic acid as a receptor determinant," J. Virol. (fujipress.jp)
  • 9] D. Yoo and D. Deregt, "A single amino acid change within antigenic domain II of the spike protein of bovine coronavirus confers resistance to virus neutralization," Clin. (fujipress.jp)
  • Antigenic and genomic characterizations of the virus (isolate NC99) were based on serological comparison with other avian and mammalian coronaviruses and sequence analysis of the nucleocapsid (N) protein gene. (asm.org)
  • the complete N protein of NC99 (446 amino acids) was then compared with published N protein sequences of other avian and mammalian coronaviruses. (asm.org)
  • Additionally, some coronaviruses also contain a fourth major structural protein, the hemagglutinin-esterase protein (120 to 140 kDa) ( 12 , 26 ). (asm.org)
  • Neurodevelopment and growth until 6.5 years of infants who consumed a low-energy, low-protein formula supplemented with bovine milk fat globule membranes: a randomized controlled trial. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Among children who as infants consumed a low-energy, low-protein formula supplemented with bovine MFGMs, there were no effects on neurodevelopment, growth, or plasma cholesterol status 6-6.5 y later. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Bovine Coronavirus Vaccines - Creative Biolabs. (qarantino.com)
  • Subunit and viral-vectored vaccines for West Nile Virus, Bovine Coronavirus, Dengue virus. (lsu.edu)
  • Identification of the structural proteins of turkey enteric Coronavirus. (springer.com)
  • Coronavirus proteins: structure and functions of the oligosaccharides of the avian infectious bronchitis virus glycoproteins. (springer.com)
  • Proteins that contribute to the overall structure of all coronaviruses are the spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N). In the specific case of SARS ( see below ), a defined receptor-binding domain on S mediates the attachment of the virus to its cellular receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). (bionity.com)
  • Physicochemical characterization of a bluecomb Coronavirus of turkeys. (springer.com)
  • 11] R. L. Sharpee, C. A. Mebus, and E. P. Bass, "Characterization of a calf diarrheal coronavirus," Am. J. Vet. (fujipress.jp)
  • The purpose of the present report is to describe the isolation and characterization of a coronavirus from feces of a diarrheic foal. (asm.org)
  • Based on genotypic and serological characterization, coronaviruses were divided into three distinct groups, with human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) being a group 1 coronavirus and human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) being a group 2 coronavirus ( 16 ). (asm.org)
  • Isolation and characterization of temperature-sensitive mutants of bovine rotavirus. (asm.org)
  • The gene for the human coronavirus 229E replicase, encompassing more than 20,000 nucleotides, encodes two overlapping polyproteins [pp1a (replicase 1a, ∼450 kD) and pp1ab (replicase 1ab, ∼750 kD) ( 5 )] that mediate all the functions required for viral replication and transcription ( 6 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Monoclonal antibodies to bovine enteric coronavirus (BEC) were produced. (nih.gov)
  • Antigenic and polypeptide structure of turkeyenteric coronaviruses as defined by monoclonal antibodies. (springer.com)
  • Monoclonal antibodies to bovine Coronavirus: characteristics and topographical mapping of neutralizing epitopes on the E2 and E3 glycoproteins. (springer.com)
  • Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus: another zoonotic betacoronavirus causing SARS-like disease. (nih.gov)
  • Feline enteric coronavirus is a pathogen of minor clinical significance, but spontaneous mutation of this virus can result in feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), a disease associated with high mortality. (bionity.com)
  • Based on these findings, the virus has been tentatively identified as equine coronavirus (ECV). (asm.org)
  • Some of the coronavirus infections raise very serious problems in the past 2 decades, such as the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak in 2003, and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) which has caused millions of deaths in piglets worldwide. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Besides being a common threat to farm animals and poultry, coronavirus (CoV) was responsible for the human severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic in 2002-4. (hindawi.com)
  • In terms of public health, the most well-known coronavirus is the virus that caused the SARS epidemic (severe acute respiratory syndrome). (anses.fr)
  • A history of smoking may lead to a more severe coronavirus infection. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Interest in coronaviruses was largely focused on their impact on domestic porcine and avian husbandry and their utility in animal models of virus-induced demyelination ( 5 ) until the emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003 ( 6 ). (asm.org)
  • We developed a monoclonal antibody-based, antigen capture sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for bovine coronavirus. (asm.org)
  • The sensitivity of the ELISA was 10 4 bovine coronavirus particles per ml of 10% fecal suspension. (asm.org)
  • Compared with electron microscopy, bovine coronavirus ELISA had 96% specificity. (asm.org)
  • According to Reuters , this closure adds another facility to the list of idled and closed processing plants as the coronavirus pandemic continues. (thebeefsite.com)
  • Coronavirus, Bovine, Peplomer antibody LS-C525167 is a biotin-conjugated mouse monoclonal antibody to Coronavirus, Bovine, Peplomer from bovine and bovine coronavirus. (lsbio.com)
  • Phage Display Technique as a Tool for Diagnosis and Antibody Selection for Coronaviruses. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Surprisingly, bovine-like CoVs also cannot be reliably distinguished from BCoVs using comparative genomics. (frontiersin.org)
  • Bovine corona virus. (lsbio.com)
  • Recognizes bovine corona virus surface antigen (peplomer). (lsbio.com)
  • Hybridoma clone has been derived from hybridization of Sp2/0 myeloma cells with spleen cells of Balb/c mice immunized with bovine corona virus. (advimmuno.com)
  • MAb 5A4 recognizes bovine corona virus surface antigen (peplomer). (advimmuno.com)
  • This review aims to summarize current data describing the characteristics of bovine coronavirus (BCV) and the three clinical syndromes with which this virus is associated. (bvsalud.org)
  • Bovine Enteropathogenic Coronavirus: The Effect of the Host Cell and Trypsin Modification on the Virus Structure, Cytopathic Expression, and Infectivity. (lsu.edu)
  • Real-time reverse transcription PCR showed 4/9 samples were positive for BKV by cycle thresholds of 23.0 (case IL35146), 29.97 (case IL37122), 32.84 (case IL50179), and 33.61 (case IL34890) but were negative for coronavirus, rotavirus, and bovine viral diarrhea virus ( Appendix Table 2). (cdc.gov)
  • 8] S. Takase-Yoden, T. Kikuchi, S. G. Siddell, and F. Taguchi, "Localization of major neutralizing epitopes on the S1 polypeptide of the murine coronavirus peplomer glycoprotein," Virus Res. (fujipress.jp)
  • Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and turkey coronavirus (TCV) comprise group 3 ( 4 ). (asm.org)
  • A coronavirus antigenically related to BCV was identified in feces and intestinal tissues of a diarrheic foal, based on immunohistochemistry and an antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, but virus isolation attempts were unsuccessful ( 7 ). (asm.org)
  • The genomic size of coronaviruses ranges from approximately 16 to 31 kilobases, extraordinarily large for an RNA virus. (bionity.com)
  • The name "coronavirus" is derived from the Latin corona , meaning crown, as the virus envelope appears under electron microscopy (E.M.) to be crowned by a characteristic ring of small bulbous structures. (bionity.com)
  • The significance and economic impact of coronaviruses as causative agents of the common cold are hard to assess because, unlike rhinoviruses (another common cold virus), human coronaviruses are difficult to grow in the laboratory. (bionity.com)
  • Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) is a coronavirus that causes an epidemic murine illness with high mortality, especially among colonies of laboratory mice. (bionity.com)
  • Based on the findings of this study, we propose that this new virus be designated coronavirus HKU1 (CoV-HKU1). (asm.org)
  • The Chinese city of Jinan says that it has found coronavirus on beef and tripe and their packaging from Brazil, Bolivia and New Zealand, while two other provincial capitals detected traces of the virus on pork packaging from Argentina. (thecattlesite.com)
  • Detection of turkey enteric Coronavirus by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and differenhtiation from other coronaviruses. (springer.com)
  • Coronaviruses have been subdivided into three major antigenic groups based on antigenic differences identified by serological analyses, and these findings have been substantiated by nucleotide sequence analyses ( 21 , 22 , 29 ). (asm.org)
  • Coronaviruses were originally divided into three groups based on their antigenic cross-reactivities and nucleotide sequences ( 3 ). (asm.org)
  • Low-certainty evidence from one study suggests that in exclusively breast milk-fed preterm infants human milk-derived fortifiers in comparison with bovine milk-derived fortifier may not change the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis, mortality, feeding intolerance, infection, or improve growth. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Coronavirus IBV: partial amino terminal sequencing of spike polypeptide S2 identifies the sequence Arg-Arg-Phe-Arg-Arg at the cleavage site of the spike precursor polypeptide of IBV strains Beaudette and M41. (springer.com)
  • The HEs of toro- and coronaviruses are ≈65-kDa class I glycoproteins that are dispensable for propagation in cultured cells but strictly maintained in field strains (for a review, see ref. 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • This is followed by an outline of the unique replication strategy adopted by coronaviruses . (bvsalud.org)
  • The viral main proteinase (M pro , also called 3CL pro ), which controls the activities of the coronavirus replication complex, is an attractive target for therapy. (sciencemag.org)
  • As a result of their unique mechanism of viral replication, coronaviruses have a high frequency of recombination. (asm.org)
  • More than 7,500 people who may have been exposed tested negative for coronavirus, it said. (thecattlesite.com)
  • Despite the worldwide circulation of human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) and HKU1 (HCoV-HKU1), data on their molecular epidemiology and evolutionary dynamics in the tropical Southeast Asia region is lacking. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Coronavirus outbreak response. (cdc.gov)
  • It is the responsibility of personnel preparing viral transport medium in response to the CDC Coronavirus outbreak to follow this procedure accurately. (cdc.gov)
  • In view of the recent outbreak of the Coronavirus (COVID-19), we've taken the decision to help protect members, customers and colleagues by closing all FUW offices. (fuw.org.uk)
  • There are two types of canine coronavirus (CCoV), one that causes mild gastrointestinal disease and one that has been found to cause respiratory disease. (bionity.com)
  • This paper describes a new coronavirus, one with a distinctive genomic organization that may provide insights into coronavirus evolution and biology. (asm.org)
  • The four human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are globally endemic respiratory pathogens. (pnas.org)