Coronavirus: A genus of the family CORONAVIRIDAE which causes respiratory or gastrointestinal disease in a variety of vertebrates.Coronavirus Infections: Virus diseases caused by the CORONAVIRUS genus. Some specifics include transmissible enteritis of turkeys (ENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF TURKEYS); FELINE INFECTIOUS PERITONITIS; and transmissible gastroenteritis of swine (GASTROENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF SWINE).Coronavirus 229E, Human: A species in the genus CORONAVIRUS causing the common cold and possibly nervous system infections in humans. It lacks hemagglutinin-esterase.Coronavirus, Bovine: A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting neonatal calves, presenting as acute diarrhea, and frequently leading to death.Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus: A class I viral fusion protein that forms the characteristic spikes, or peplomers, found on the viral surface that mediate virus attachment, fusion, and entry into the host cell. During virus maturation, it is cleaved into two subunits: S1, which binds to receptors in the host cell, and S2, which mediates membrane fusion.SARS Virus: A species of CORONAVIRUS causing atypical respiratory disease (SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME) in humans. The organism is believed to have first emerged in Guangdong Province, China, in 2002. The natural host is the Chinese horseshoe bat, RHINOLOPHUS sinicus.Coronavirus OC43, Human: A species in the genus CORONAVIRUS causing the common cold and possibly nervous system infections in humans. It contains hemagglutinin-esterase.Coronavirus, Feline: A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting cats of all ages and commonly found in catteries and zoos. Cats are often found carrying the virus but only a small proportion develop disease. Feline coronavirus and Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) are virtually the same virus in genetic and antigenetic terms, and are morphologically indistinguishable. Since they only differ in their disease potential (with FIPV causing a more serious illness), they are considered biotypes of each other.Coronaviridae: Spherical RNA viruses, in the order NIDOVIRALES, infecting a wide range of animals including humans. Transmission is by fecal-oral and respiratory routes. Mechanical transmission is also common. There are two genera: CORONAVIRUS and TOROVIRUS.Coronavirus, Canine: A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting dogs. Onset of symptoms is usually sudden and includes vomiting, diarrhea, and dehydration.Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome: A viral disorder characterized by high FEVER, dry COUGH, shortness of breath (DYSPNEA) or breathing difficulties, and atypical PNEUMONIA. A virus in the genus CORONAVIRUS is the suspected agent.Coronaviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by CORONAVIRIDAE.Murine hepatitis virus: A species of the CORONAVIRUS genus causing hepatitis in mice. Four strains have been identified as MHV 1, MHV 2, MHV 3, and MHV 4 (also known as MHV-JHM, which is neurotropic and causes disseminated encephalomyelitis with demyelination as well as focal liver necrosis).Transmissible gastroenteritis virus: A species of CORONAVIRUS causing a fatal disease to pigs under 3 weeks old.Infectious bronchitis virus: A species of CORONAVIRUS causing infections in chickens and possibly pheasants. Chicks up to four weeks old are the most severely affected.Coronavirus NL63, Human: A species in the genus CORONAVIRUS causing upper and lower RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS. It shares the receptor used by the SARS VIRUS.Nucleocapsid Proteins: Viral proteins found in either the NUCLEOCAPSID or the viral core (VIRAL CORE PROTEINS).Coronavirus, Rat: A species of CORONAVIRUS causing pneumonia in newborn rats but a clinically inapparent infection in adults. It is separate but antigenically related to MURINE HEPATITIS VIRUS.Coronavirus, Turkey: A species of CORONAVIRUS causing enteritis in turkeys and pullets.Porcine Respiratory Coronavirus: A mutant strain of TRANSMISSIBLE GASTROENTERITIS VIRUS causing mild or subclinical respiratory infections in young SWINE. It may also play a role in post-weaning porcine respiratory disease complex, especially when combined with other respiratory agents.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Feline Infectious Peritonitis: Common coronavirus infection of cats caused by the feline infectious peritonitis virus (CORONAVIRUS, FELINE). The disease is characterized by a long incubation period, fever, depression, loss of appetite, wasting, and progressive abdominal enlargement. Infection of cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage appears to be essential in FIP pathogenesis.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Serum Albumin, Bovine: Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Gastroenteritis, Transmissible, of Swine: A condition of chronic gastroenteritis in adult pigs and fatal gastroenteritis in piglets caused by a CORONAVIRUS.Herpesvirus 1, Bovine: A species of VARICELLOVIRUS that causes INFECTIOUS BOVINE RHINOTRACHEITIS and other associated syndromes in CATTLE.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Viverridae: The family of civets which are small and medium-sized Old World carnivores, often striped or spotted.Leukemia Virus, Bovine: The type species of DELTARETROVIRUS that causes a form of bovine lymphosarcoma (ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS) or persistent lymphocytosis.Diarrhea Viruses, Bovine Viral: A group of viruses in the genus PESTIVIRUS, causing diarrhea, fever, oral ulcerations, hemorrhagic syndrome, and various necrotic lesions among cattle and other domestic animals. The two species (genotypes), BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 , exhibit antigenic and pathological differences. The historical designation, BVDV, consisted of both (then unrecognized) genotypes.Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.RNA Replicase: An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)Viral Nonstructural Proteins: Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.Enteritis, Transmissible, of Turkeys: An acute, highly contagious virus disease of turkeys characterized by chilling, anorexia, decreased water intake, diarrhea, dehydration and weight loss. The infectious agent is a CORONAVIRUS.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Viral Matrix Proteins: Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.Nucleocapsid: A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.Antigens, CD13: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.Mastitis, Bovine: INFLAMMATION of the UDDER in cows.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Bovine papillomavirus 1: A species of DELTAPAPILLOMAVIRUS infecting cattle.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Middle East: The region of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)Communicable Diseases, Emerging: Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.Cysteine Endopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.Defective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.Virus Internalization: The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.Chiroptera: Order of mammals whose members are adapted for flight. It includes bats, flying foxes, and fruit bats.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Hepatitis, Viral, Animal: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in animals due to viral infection.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Chronology as Topic: The temporal sequence of events that have occurred.Tuberculosis, Bovine: An infection of cattle caused by MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. It is transmissible to man and other animals.Bovine Virus Diarrhea-Mucosal Disease: Acute disease of cattle caused by the bovine viral diarrhea viruses (DIARRHEA VIRUSES, BOVINE VIRAL). Often mouth ulcerations are the only sign but fever, diarrhea, drop in milk yield, and loss of appetite are also seen. Severity of clinical disease varies and is strain dependent. Outbreaks are characterized by low morbidity and high mortality.Dysentery: Acute inflammation of the intestine associated with infectious DIARRHEA of various etiologies, generally acquired by eating contaminated food containing TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL derived from BACTERIA or other microorganisms. Dysentery is characterized initially by watery FECES then by bloody mucoid stools. It is often associated with ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; and DEHYDRATION.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Enzootic Bovine Leukosis: A lymphoid neoplastic disease in cattle caused by the bovine leukemia virus. Enzootic bovine leukosis may take the form of lymphosarcoma, malignant lymphoma, or leukemia but the presence of malignant cells in the blood is not a consistent finding.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Central Nervous System Viral Diseases: Viral infections of the brain, spinal cord, meninges, or perimeningeal spaces.Polyproteins: Proteins which are synthesized as a single polymer and then cleaved into several distinct proteins.Nidovirales: An order comprising three families of eukaryotic viruses possessing linear, nonsegmented, positive sense RNA genomes. The families are CORONAVIRIDAE; ARTERIVIRIDAE; and RONIVIRIDAE.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A: A peptidyl-dipeptidase that catalyzes the release of a C-terminal dipeptide, -Xaa-*-Xbb-Xcc, when neither Xaa nor Xbb is Pro. It is a Cl(-)-dependent, zinc glycoprotein that is generally membrane-bound and active at neutral pH. It may also have endopeptidase activity on some substrates. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.4.15.1.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral: Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Saudi ArabiaEnzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Bovine: A species of PNEUMOVIRUS causing an important respiratory infection in cattle. Symptoms include fever, conjunctivitis, and respiratory distress.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Virus Attachment: The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.Viral Tropism: The specificity of a virus for infecting a particular type of cell or tissue.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis: A herpesvirus infection of CATTLE characterized by INFLAMMATION and NECROSIS of the mucous membranes of the upper RESPIRATORY TRACT.Cat Diseases: Diseases of the domestic cat (Felis catus or F. domesticus). This term does not include diseases of the so-called big cats such as CHEETAHS; LIONS; tigers, cougars, panthers, leopards, and other Felidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Hemagglutinins, Viral: Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex: A multifactorial disease of CATTLE resulting from complex interactions between environmental factors, host factors, and pathogens. The environmental factors act as stressors adversely affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM and other host defenses and enhancing transmission of infecting agents.Camels: Hoofed mammals with four legs, a big-lipped snout, and a humped back belonging to the family Camelidae.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Encephalopathy, Bovine Spongiform: A transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cattle associated with abnormal prion proteins in the brain. Affected animals develop excitability and salivation followed by ATAXIA. This disorder has been associated with consumption of SCRAPIE infected ruminant derived protein. This condition may be transmitted to humans, where it is referred to as variant or new variant CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB SYNDROME. (Vet Rec 1998 Jul 25;143(41):101-5)DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Papain: A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Carica papaya. It is also the name used for a purified mixture of papain and CHYMOPAPAIN that is used as a topical enzymatic debriding agent. EC 3.4.22.2.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Nandiniidae: A family in the suborder Feliformia, order CARNIVORA, comprising one genus Nandinia binotata.Encephalomyelitis: A general term indicating inflammation of the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD, often used to indicate an infectious process, but also applicable to a variety of autoimmune and toxic-metabolic conditions. There is significant overlap regarding the usage of this term and ENCEPHALITIS in the literature.Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Pneumonia, Viral: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Cell Fusion: Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Herpesvirus 4, Bovine: A species in the genus RHADINOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting cattle.Zoonoses: Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Common Cold: A catarrhal disorder of the upper respiratory tract, which may be viral or a mixed infection. It generally involves a runny nose, nasal congestion, and sneezing.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Arterivirus: A genus of the family ARTERIVIRIDAE, in the order NIDOVIRALES. The type species is ARTERITIS VIRUS, EQUINE.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Helper Viruses: Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.Immunodeficiency Virus, Bovine: The type species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus bovine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, BOVINE), found in cattle and causing lymphadenopathy, LYMPHOCYTOSIS, central nervous system lesions, progressive weakness, and emaciation. It has immunological cross-reactivity with other lentiviruses including HIV.Viral Fusion Proteins: Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Hong Kong: The former British crown colony located off the southeast coast of China, comprised of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and New Territories. The three sites were ceded to the British by the Chinese respectively in 1841, 1860, and 1898. Hong Kong reverted to China in July 1997. The name represents the Cantonese pronunciation of the Chinese xianggang, fragrant port, from xiang, perfume and gang, port or harbor, with reference to its currents sweetened by fresh water from a river west of it.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.Mice, Inbred BALB CDemyelinating Diseases: Diseases characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin in the central or peripheral nervous system.Pasteurellosis, Pneumonic: Bovine respiratory disease found in animals that have been shipped or exposed to CATTLE recently transported. The major agent responsible for the disease is MANNHEIMIA HAEMOLYTICA and less commonly, PASTEURELLA MULTOCIDA or HAEMOPHILUS SOMNUS. All three agents are normal inhabitants of the bovine nasal pharyngeal mucosa but not the LUNG. They are considered opportunistic pathogens following STRESS, PHYSIOLOGICAL and/or a viral infection. The resulting bacterial fibrinous BRONCHOPNEUMONIA is often fatal.Herpesvirus 5, Bovine: A species of VARICELLOVIRUS that causes a fatal MENINGOENCEPHALITIS in calves.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Torovirus: A genus of the family CORONAVIRIDAE characterized by enveloped, peplomer-bearing particles containing an elongated tubular nucleocapsid with helical symmetry. Toroviruses have been found in association with enteric infections in horses (Berne virus), cattle (Breda virus), swine, and humans. Transmission probably takes place via the fecal-oral route.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Swine Diseases: Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Interferon Type I: Interferon secreted by leukocytes, fibroblasts, or lymphoblasts in response to viruses or interferon inducers other than mitogens, antigens, or allo-antigens. They include alpha- and beta-interferons (INTERFERON-ALPHA and INTERFERON-BETA).Carboxypeptidases: Enzymes that act at a free C-terminus of a polypeptide to liberate a single amino acid residue.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Diarrhea Virus 1, Bovine Viral: A species of PESTIVIRUS causing systemic infections (BOVINE VIRUS DIARRHEA-MUCOSAL DISEASE) in cattle and some other cloven-hoofed animals. There are several strains and two biotypes: cytopathic (rare) and non-cytopathic. Infections range from clinically inapparent to severe, but do not correlate with biotypes.Frameshifting, Ribosomal: A directed change in translational READING FRAMES that allows the production of a single protein from two or more OVERLAPPING GENES. The process is programmed by the nucleotide sequence of the MRNA and is sometimes also affected by the secondary or tertiary mRNA structure. It has been described mainly in VIRUSES (especially RETROVIRUSES); RETROTRANSPOSONS; and bacterial insertion elements but also in some cellular genes.Genes, pol: DNA sequences that form the coding region for retroviral enzymes including reverse transcriptase, protease, and endonuclease/integrase. "pol" is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.Enteritis: Inflammation of any segment of the SMALL INTESTINE.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Membrane Fusion: The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.Acetylesterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of acetate esters and water to alcohols and acetate. EC 3.1.1.6.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Endopeptidases: A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.5' Untranslated Regions: The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.Sequence Homology: The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.QatarEncephalitis, Viral: Inflammation of brain parenchymal tissue as a result of viral infection. Encephalitis may occur as primary or secondary manifestation of TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PARAMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; and ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.Animals, ZooCamelids, New World: Ruminant mammals of South America. They are related to camels.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Cinanserin: A serotonin antagonist with limited antihistaminic, anticholinergic, and immunosuppressive activity.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Epitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Beluga Whale: The species Delphinapterus leucas, in the family Monodontidae, found primarily in the Arctic Ocean and adjoining seas. They are small WHALES lacking a dorsal fin.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.

Identification of a coronavirus hemagglutinin-esterase with a substrate specificity different from those of influenza C virus and bovine coronavirus. (1/86)

We have characterized the hemagglutinin-esterase (HE) of puffinosis virus (PV), a coronavirus closely related to mouse hepatitis virus (MHV). Analysis of the cloned gene revealed approximately 85% sequence identity to HE proteins of MHV and approximately 60% identity to the corresponding esterase of bovine coronavirus. The HE protein exhibited acetylesterase activity with synthetic substrates p-nitrophenyl acetate, alpha-naphthyl acetate, and 4-methylumbelliferyl acetate. In contrast to other viral esterases, no activity was detectable with natural substrates containing 9-O-acetylated sialic acids. Furthermore, PV esterase was unable to remove influenza C virus receptors from human erythrocytes, indicating a substrate specificity different from HEs of influenza C virus and bovine coronavirus. Solid-phase binding assays revealed that purified PV was unable to bind to sialic acid-containing glycoconjugates like bovine submaxillary mucin, mouse alpha1 macroglobulin or bovine brain extract. Because of the close relationship to MHV, possible implications on the substrate specificity of MHV esterases are suggested.  (+info)

Production, characterization, and uses of monoclonal antibodies against recombinant nucleoprotein of elk coronavirus. (2/86)

This is the first report of the production of monoclonal antibodies against elk coronavirus. The nucleoprotein gene of elk coronavirus was amplified by PCR and was cloned and expressed in a prokaryotic expression vector. Recombinant nucleocapsid protein was used to immunize mice for the production of hybridomas. Twelve hybridomas that produced monoclonal antibodies against the nucleocapsid protein of elk coronavirus were selected by an indirect fluorescent-antibody test, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and a Western blot assay. Ten of the monoclonal antibodies were of the immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) isotype, one was IgG2a, and one was IgM. All had kappa light chains. By immunohistochemistry four monoclonal antibodies detected bovine coronavirus and elk coronavirus in formalin-fixed intestinal tissues. Antinucleoprotein monoclonal antibodies were found to be better at ruminant coronavirus detection than the anti-spike protein monoclonal antibodies. Because nucleoprotein is a more abundant antigen than spike protein in infected cells, this was not an unexpected finding.  (+info)

Identification of a bovine coronavirus packaging signal. (3/86)

A region of the bovine coronavirus (BCV) genome that functions as a packaging signal has been cloned. The 291-nucleotide clone shares 72% homology with the region of mouse hepatitis coronavirus (MHV) gene 1b that contains the packaging signal. RNA transcripts were packaged into both BCV and MHV virions when the cloned region was appended to a noncoronavirus RNA. This is the first identification of a BCV packaging signal. The data demonstrate that the BCV genome contains a sequence that is conserved at both the sequence and functional levels, thus broadening our insight into coronavirus packaging.  (+info)

Host protein interactions with the 3' end of bovine coronavirus RNA and the requirement of the poly(A) tail for coronavirus defective genome replication. (4/86)

RNA viruses have 5' and 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) that contain specific signals for RNA synthesis. The coronavirus genome is capped at the 5' end and has a 3' UTR that consists of 300 to 500 nucleotides (nt) plus a poly(A) tail. To further our understanding of coronavirus replication, we have begun to examine the involvement of host factors in this process for two group II viruses, bovine coronavirus (BCV) and mouse hepatitis coronavirus (MHV). Specific host protein interactions with the BCV 3' UTR [287 nt plus poly(A) tail] were identified using gel mobility shift assays. Competition with the MHV 3' UTR [301 nt plus poly(A) tail] suggests that the interactions are conserved for the two viruses. Proteins with molecular masses of 99, 95, and 73 kDa were detected in UV cross-linking experiments. Less heavily labeled proteins were also detected in the ranges of 40 to 50 and 30 kDa. The poly(A) tail was required for binding of the 73-kDa protein. Immunoprecipitation of UV-cross-linked proteins identified the 73-kDa protein as the cytoplasmic poly(A)-binding protein (PABP). Replication of the defective genomes BCV Drep and MHV MIDI-C, along with several mutants, was used to determine the importance of the poly(A) tail. Defective genomes with shortened poly(A) tails consisting of 5 or 10 A residues were replicated after transfection into helper virus-infected cells. BCV Drep RNA that lacked a poly(A) tail did not replicate, whereas replication of MHV MIDI-C RNA with a deleted tail was detected after several virus passages. All mutants exhibited delayed kinetics of replication. Detectable extension or addition of the poly(A) tail to the mutants correlated with the appearance of these RNAs in the replication assay. RNAs with shortened poly(A) tails exhibited less in vitro PABP binding, suggesting that decreased interactions with the protein may affect RNA replication. The data strongly indicate that the poly(A) tail is an important cis-acting signal for coronavirus replication.  (+info)

Protection studies on winter dysentery caused by bovine coronavirus in cattle using antigens prepared from infected cell lysates. (5/86)

Cells infected with bovine coronavirus (BCV) were solubilized with Triton X-100 to yield a cell lysate (CL) antigen having high hemagglutinating (HA) titers. The antigen gave high HA titers using rat erythrocytes, suggesting that it contained large amounts of hemagglutinin esterase (HE) antigen. The CL antigen, combined with an oil adjuvant, was tested for protective and antibody-inducing activities in cattle. Four groups (2 cattle/group) of cattle were inoculated with CL antigen having HA titers of 16 000, 4000, 1000, and 250. Another group served as untreated controls. Two intramuscular inoculations were given at an interval of 3 wk. The animals were challenged with virus 1 wk after the second inoculation. The groups immunized with the CL antigen having an HA titer of 4000 or 16 000 produced hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titers of > 320 and serum neutralizing (SN) antibody titers of > 1280. These groups of animals showed no clinical abnormalities after challenge. In the groups immunized with CL antigen at an HA titer of 1000 or 250, HI antibody titers were 40 to 160 and SN titers were 80 to 640. The cattle with HI antibody titers of > or = 160 and the SN titers of > or = 640 showed no clinical signs, but the cattle with the HI antibody titer < 80 and the SN antibody titer < 160 developed watery diarrhea and fever after challenge. These results indicate that CL antigen with high HA titer induces antibody production in cattle that provides effective protection against winter dysentery.  (+info)

Coronavirus and Pasteurella infections in bovine shipping fever pneumonia and Evans' criteria for causation. (6/86)

Respiratory tract infections with viruses and Pasteurella spp. were determined sequentially among 26 cattle that died during two severe epizootics of shipping fever pneumonia. Nasal swab and serum samples were collected prior to onset of the epizootics, during disease progression, and after death, when necropsies were performed and lung samples were collected. Eighteen normal control cattle also were sampled at the beginning of the epizootics as well as at weekly intervals for 4 weeks. Respiratory bovine coronaviruses (RBCV) were isolated from nasal secretions of 21 and 25 cattle before and after transport. Two and 17 cattle nasally shed Pasteurella spp. before and after transport, respectively. RBCV were isolated at titers of 1 x 10(3) to 1.2 x 10(7) PFU per g of lung tissue from 18 cattle that died within 7 days of the epizootics, but not from the lungs of the remaining cattle that died on days 9 to 36. Twenty-five of the 26 lung samples were positive for Pasteurella spp., and their CFU ranged between 4.0 x 10(5) and 2.3 x 10(9) per g. Acute and subacute exudative, necrotizing lobar pneumonia characterized the lung lesions of these cattle with a majority of pneumonic lung lobes exhibiting fibronecrotic and exudative changes typical of pneumonic pasteurellosis, but other lung lobules had histological changes consisting of bronchiolitis and alveolitis typical of virus-induced changes. These cattle were immunologically naive to both infectious agents at the onset of the epizootics, but those that died after day 7 had rising antibody titers against RBCV and Pasteurella haemolytica. In contrast, the 18 clinically normal and RBCV isolation-negative cattle had high hemagglutinin inhibition antibody titers to RBCV from the beginning, while their antibody responses to P. haemolytica antigens were delayed. Evans' criteria for causation were applied to our findings because of the multifactorial nature of shipping fever pneumonia. This analysis identified RBCV as the primary inciting cause in these two epizootics. These viruses were previously not recognized as a causative agent in this complex respiratory tract disease of cattle.  (+info)

Identification of nucleocapsid binding sites within coronavirus-defective genomes. (7/86)

The coronavirus nucleocapsid (N) protein is a major structural component of virions that associates with the genomic RNA to form a helical nucleocapsid. N appears to be a multifunctional protein since data also suggest that the protein may be involved in viral RNA replication and translation. All of these functions presumably involve interactions between N and viral RNAs. As a step toward understanding how N interacts with viral RNAs, we mapped high-efficiency N-binding sites within BCV- and MHV-defective genomes. Both in vivo and in vitro assays were used to study binding of BCV and MHV N proteins to viral and nonviral RNAs. N-viral RNA complexes were detected in bovine coronavirus (BCV)-infected cells and in cells transiently expressing the N protein. Filter binding was used to map N-binding sites within Drep, a BCV-defective genome that is replicated and packaged in the presence of helper virus. One high-efficiency N-binding site was identified between nucleotides 1441 and 1875 at the 3' end of the N ORF within Drep. For comparative purposes N-binding sites were also mapped for the mouse hepatitis coronavirus (MHV)-defective interfering (DI) RNA MIDI-C. Binding efficiencies similar to those for Drep were measured for RNA transcripts of a region encompassing the MHV packaging signal (nts 3949-4524), as well as a region at the 3' end of the MHV N ORF (nts 4837-5197) within MIDI-C. Binding to the full-length MIDI-C transcript (approximately 5500 nts) and to an approximately 1-kb transcript from the gene 1a region (nts 935-1986) of MIDI-C that excluded the packaging signal were both significantly higher than that measured for the smaller transcripts. This is the first identification of N-binding sequences for BCV. It is also the first report to demonstrate that N interacts in vitro with sequences other than the packaging signal and leader within the MHV genome. The data clearly demonstrate that N binds coronavirus RNAs more efficiently than nonviral RNAs. The results have implications with regard to the multifunctional role of N.  (+info)

Temperature-sensitive acetylesterase activity of haemagglutinin-esterase specified by respiratory bovine coronaviruses. (8/86)

Numerous respiratory bovine coronaviruses (RBCV) were isolated recently from nasal swab samples and lung tissues of feedlot cattle with acute respiratory tract disease. These newly emerging RBCV isolates exhibited distinct phenotypic features that differentiated them from enteropathogenic bovine coronaviruses (EBCV). The RBCV strains had a receptor-destroying enzyme function mediated by acetylesterase (AE) activity of the haemagglutinin-esterase (HE) glycoprotein. The HE genes of wild-type EBCV strain LY138 and RBCV strains OK-0514 (OK) and LSU-94LSS-051 (LSU) were cloned, sequenced and transiently expressed in COS-7 cells. The enzymic properties of HE proteins in COS-7 cellular extracts and in purified virus preparations were assayed at room temperature, 37 degrees C and 39 degrees C by two different assays. One assay used p-nitrophenyl acetate (PNPA) as substrate and detected serine-esterase activity; the second assay monitored AE function with bovine submaxillary mucin (BSM) as substrate. The PNPA tests confirmed that HE proteins of EBCV and RBCV were functionally expressed in transfected COS-7 cells. Time-dependent determination of the AE activity of purified RBCV OK and LSU particles showed lower AE activity at 39 degrees C than at 37 degrees C, whereas the purified EBCV LY particles retained full AE activity at both 37 degrees C and 39 degrees C. Transiently expressed RBCV HE exhibited a marked reduction of AE activity after 40 min of assay time at 37 degrees C. In contrast, the AE activity of the transiently expressed EBCV HE remained stable beyond 40 min. The deduced amino-acid sequences of the HE proteins specified by the RBCV strains OK and LSU contained specific amino-acid changes in comparison with the EBCV LY strain, which may be responsible for the observed enzymic differences. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that RBCV strains have evolved to selectivelyreplicate in respiratory tissues and that HE may play a role in this tissue tropism.  (+info)

*Bovine coronavirus

... (BCV) is as a member of the Coronaviridae family which are enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA ... "Bovine Coronavirus", reviewed and published by WikiVet, accessed 20/08/2011.. ... Definitive diagnosis of an enteric coronavirus infection is achieved by performing electron microscopy or an ELISA on a faecal ... The haemagglutination inhibition test can be used to establish the strain of coronavirus. Animals should be treated ...

*Coronavirus

Bovine coronavirus and human coronavirus OC43 diverged in 1899. Bovine coronavirus diverged from the equine coronavirus species ... Porcine coronavirus (transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus of pigs, TGEV). Bovine coronavirus (BCV), responsible for severe ... Another estimate suggests that human coronavirus OC43 diverged from bovine coronavirus in 1890. The MRCA of human coronavirus ... Human coronavirus 229E Human coronavirus OC43 SARS-CoV Human Coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63, New Haven coronavirus) Human ...

*Recombinase Polymerase Amplification

"A new approach for diagnosis of bovine coronavirus using a reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification assay". ... An exception is a recent study comparing RT-qPCR, RT-LAMP, and RPA for detection of Schmallenberg virus and bovine viral ... Aebischer, Andrea (2014). "Rapid Genome Detection of Schmallenberg Virus and Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus by Use of Isothermal ...

*Coronavirus SL-III cis-acting replication element

... untranslated region is a cis-acting element in bovine coronavirus defective interfering RNA replication". J Virol. 77 (12): ... Other RNA families identified in the coronavirus include the coronavirus 3' stem-loop II-like motif (s2m), the coronavirus ... the coronavirus packaging signal and the coronavirus 3' UTR pseudoknot. Cardiovirus cis-acting replication element (CRE) Citrus ... The coronavirus SL-III cis-acting replication element (CRE) is an RNA element that regulates defective interfering (DI) RNA ...

*Defective interfering particle

... is a higher-order genomic structure implicated in the mediation of DIP production in bovine coronavirus, with apparent homologs ... untranslated region is a cis-acting element in bovine coronavirus defective interfering RNA replication". J. Virol. 77 (12): ... DIP generation is regulated within viruses: the Coronavirus SL-III cis-acting replication element (shown in the image) ... "Primary structure and translation of a defective interfering RNA of murine coronavirus". Virology. 166 (2): 550-60. doi:10.1016 ...

*Infectious bronchitis virus D-RNA

... which was similarly observed in bovine coronavirus. In addition, it was found that the TAS of the IBV D-RNA contained a ... Coronavirus D-RNA like that of IBV, are produced during high multiplicity of infection and contain cis-acting sequences which ... "In vitro and in ovo expression of chicken gamma interferon by a defective RNA of avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus ... "Expression of reporter genes from the defective RNA CD-61 of the coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus". The Journal of ...

*List of MeSH codes (B04)

... coronavirus MeSH B04.820.504.540.150.150 --- coronavirus, bovine MeSH B04.820.504.540.150.160 --- coronavirus, canine MeSH ... coronavirus MeSH B04.909.777.500.540.150.150 --- coronavirus, bovine MeSH B04.909.777.500.540.150.160 --- coronavirus, canine ... coronavirus 229e, human MeSH B04.820.504.540.150.220 --- coronavirus oc43, human MeSH B04.820.504.540.150.260 --- coronavirus, ... coronavirus oc43, human MeSH B04.909.777.500.540.150.260 --- coronavirus, rat MeSH B04.909.777.500.540.150.300 --- coronavirus ...

*Canine coronavirus

Known as canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV) and found to be similar to strain OC43 of bovine and human coronaviruses, it ... A more serious complication of canine coronavirus occurs when the dog is also infected with canine parvovirus. Coronavirus ... Canine coronavirus is a virus of the family Coronaviridae that causes a highly contagious intestinal disease worldwide in dogs ... Canine coronavirus was originally thought to cause serious gastrointestinal disease, but now most cases are considered to be ...

*Yuen Kwok-yung

... coronavirus HKU1 [6], bat coronavirus HKU2 to 13 [7,8,9], bovine and porcine hokovirus [10] and Laribacter hongkongensis in ... Comparative analysis of complete genome sequences of three avian coronaviruses reveals a novel group 3c coronavirus. J Virol. ... Characterization and complete genome sequence of a novel coronavirus, coronavirus HKU1, from patients with pneumonia. Journal ... he led his team in the discovery of the SARS coronavirus, being honoured as "Asian heroes of the year" in April by Time Asia ...

*ATCvet code QI02

... bovine parainfluenza virus QI02AD08 Bovine rotavirus + bovine coronavirus QI02AD09 Bovine rotavirus QI02AD10 Bovine coronavirus ... bovine coronavirus + escherichia QI02AL02 Bovine rotavirus + bovine coronavirus + parvovirus + escherichia QI02AL03 Bovine ... bovine adenovirus + bovine reovirus QI02AA06 Bovine parainfluenza virus + bovine adenovirus + bovine reovirus + bovine ... bovine respiratory syncytial virus + pasteurella QI02AL05 Bovine rotavirus + bovine coronavirus + clostridium + escherichia ...

*Coronaviridae

Alphacoronavirus 1 Human coronavirus 229E Human coronavirus NL63 Miniopterus bat coronavirus 1 Miniopterus bat coronavirus HKU8 ... Bovine torovirus Equine torovirus Human torovirus Porcine torovirus There are currently a total of 25 species assigned to this ... Betacoronavirus 1 Human coronavirus HKU1 Murine coronavirus Pipistrellus bat coronavirus HKU5 Rousettus bat coronavirus HKU9 ... Bulbul coronavirus HKU11 Munia coronavirus HKU13 Thrush coronavirus HKU12 Genus: Gammacoronavirus Avian coronavirus Beluga ...

*Feline coronavirus

Martín, M.-J.; Martín-Sosa, S.; García-Pardo, L.-A.; Hueso, P. (2001). "Distribution of Bovine Milk Sialoglycoconjugates During ... Dr ADDIE website focused research about FIP Coronavirus Site général Coronavirus site général Coronavirus Pictures. ... Alphacoronavirus 1 also includes the canine coronavirus (CCoV) and the porcine transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV ... "Feline Coronavirus Type II Strains 79-1683 and 79-1146 Originate from a Double Recombination between Feline Coronavirus Type I ...

*Veterinary virology

They cause Classical swine fever (CSF) and Bovine viral diarrhea(BVD). Mucosal disease is a distinct, chronic persistent ... Coronaviruses are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense RNA genome and with a nucleocapsid of helical symmetry. They infect ...

*Taxonomic list of viruses

Alphacoronavirus 1 Human coronavirus 229E Human coronavirus NL63 Miniopterus bat coronavirus 1 Miniopterus bat coronavirus HKU8 ... Bat mastadenovirus A Bat mastadenovirus B Bovine mastadenovirus A Bovine mastadenovirus B Bovine mastadenovirus C Canine ... Betacoronavirus 1 Human coronavirus HKU1 Murine coronavirus Pipistrellus bat coronavirus HKU5 Rousettus bat coronavirus HKU9 ... Bulbul coronavirus HKU11 Munia coronavirus HKU13 Thrush coronavirus HKU12 Genus: Gammacoronavirus Avian coronavirus Beluga ...

*List of virus species

2 Bovine alphaherpesvirus 5 Bovine atadenovirus D Bovine cyclovirus Bovine fever ephemerovirus Bovine foamy virus Bovine ... 6A Human betaherpesvirus 6B Human betaherpesvirus 7 Human coronavirus 229E Human coronavirus HKU1 Human coronavirus NL63 Human ... gammaherpesvirus 4 Bovine gammaherpesvirus 6 Bovine immunodeficiency virus Bovine leukemia virus Bovine mastadenovirus A Bovine ... syncytial virus Bovine rhinitis A virus Bovine rhinitis B virus Bovine torovirus Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 Bovine viral ...

*List of MeSH codes (C02)

... enzootic bovine leukosis MeSH C02.782.815.200.470 --- htlv-i infections MeSH C02.782.815.200.470.300 --- leukemia-lymphoma, t- ... coronavirus infections MeSH C02.782.600.550.200.325 --- enteritis, transmissible, of turkeys MeSH C02.782.600.550.200.360 --- ... bovine MeSH C02.782.417.214 --- dengue fever MeSH C02.782.417.214.200 --- dengue hemorrhagic fever MeSH C02.782.417.400 --- cgi ... bovine virus diarrhea-mucosal disease MeSH C02.782.350.675.200 --- classical swine fever MeSH C02.782.350.675.400 --- ...

*Select agent

Coronavirus: SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) Encephalitis viruses: Eastern equine encephalitis virus (excluding South ... contagious bovine pleuropneumonia) African horse sickness virus African swine fever virus Avian influenza virus (highly ... In the same revision Chapare virus, Lujo virus, and SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) were added to the list of select ... Enzootic subtypes ID and IE Akabane virus Bluetongue virus Bovine Spongiform Encephalitis Camel Pox virus Erlichia ruminantium ...

*Picornain 3C

Ramajayam, R (2011). "Recent development of 3C and 3CL protease inhibitors for anti-coronavirus and anti-picornavirus drug ... but not bovine enterovirus, targets the host cell cytoskeleton via the nonstructural protein 3Cpro". Journal of Virology. 82: ... Ramajayam, R (2011). "Recent development of 3C and 3CL protease inhibitors for anti-coronavirus and anti-picornavirus drug ... Ramajayam, R (2011). "Recent development of 3C and 3CL protease inhibitors for anti-coronavirus and anti-picornavirus drug ...

*History of virology

In 1946, Bovine virus diarrhea was discovered, which is still possibly the most common pathogen of cattle throughout the world ... Peiris JS, Poon LL (2011). "Detection of SARS Coronavirus". Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.). Methods in Molecular ... Peterhans E, Bachofen C, Stalder H, Schweizer M (2010). "Cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV): emerging pestiviruses ...

*Northwestern blot

Stohlman, S A; R S Baric; G N Nelson; L H Soe; L M Welter; R J Deans (1988). "Specific interaction between coronavirus leader ... The newly transferred blots are then soaked in a blocking solution; non-fat milk and bovine serum albumin are common blocking ...

*Torovirus

Group: ssRNA(+) Order: Nidovirales Family: Coronaviridae Sub-Family: Torovirinae Genus: Torovirus Bovine torovirus Equine ... evolution and comparison with other members of the coronavirus-like superfamily". J. Gen. Virol. 74 (11): 2305-16. doi:10.1099/ ...

*Transporter Classification Database

Family 1.G.17 The Bovine Leukemia Virus Envelop Glycoprotein (BLV-Env) Family 1.G.18 The SARS-CoV Fusion Peptide in the Spike ... Family 1.A.65 The Coronavirus Viroporin E Protein (Viroporin E) Family 1.A.66 The Pardaxin (Pardaxin) Family 1.A.67 The ... ICln family 1.A.48 Anion channel Tweety family 1.A.49 Human coronavirus ns12.9 viroporin family 1.A.50 Phospholamban (Ca2+- ... Family 1.A.89 The Human Coronavirus 229E Viroporin (229E Viroporin) Family 1.A.90 The Human Metapneumovirus (HMPV) Viroporin ( ...

*Picornavirus

Group: ssRNA(+) Order: Picornavirales Family: Picornaviridae Genus: Aphthovirus Bovine rhinitis A virus Bovine rhinitis B virus ... coronavirus, notavirus, etc.) supergroup of RNA viruses. The mechanism has been best studied for the enteroviruses (which ...

*Thomas Henry Flewett

Clinical efficacy of the RIT 4237 live attenuated bovine rotavirus vaccine in infants vaccinated before a rotavirus epidemic" J ... and faecal coronaviruses. He, along with H.G. Pereira also discovered picobirnaviruses, and with other colleagues first ...

*National Intelligence Assessments on Infectious Diseases

The major concerns include: The possible presence of animal reservoirs of the coronavirus that causes SARS lack of a reliable ... linked to the bovine spongiform encephalopathy or "mad cow disease" outbreak in the United Kingdom in 1995 that has since ebbed ...
|strong|Mouse anti Bovine Coronavirus Surface Antigen antibody, clone 5A4|/strong| recognizes the surface antigen of bovine coronavirus. Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) causes severe diarrhoea in newborn ca…
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BACKGROUND: Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is a primary cause of neonatal calf diarrhea worldwide, and is also associated with acute diarrhea in adult cattle during the winter season, resulting heavy economic losses to both dairy and beef industry throughout the world. OBJECTIVE: The Objective of the present study was to screen the fecal samples for BCoV collected from diarrhea from six geographic region of Iran, with the aim to deepen the knowledge of BCoV prevalence and epidemiology in Iran. MEETHODS: 194 fecal samples from diarrheic calves up to one-month age, based on the geographic area were collected. Samples from all the cases were screened for the presence of BCoV by commercially available ELISA kit. Furthermore, all positive samples were subjected to RT-PCR for confirmation. RESULTS: ELISA examination revealed that 7.2 % of taken samples, were positive. All positive samples in ELISA were also positive in RT-PCR. All samples from northwest, northeast, and west, were negative. The average ages of
Human rectal tumor-18 (HRT-18) cell clones 3F3, 3E3, D2, and 4B3 exhibited differences in cellular morphology in Giemsa-stained cultures and developing monolayers. Differences were evident in growth kinetics and plating efficiency of each clone. The clones produced colonies in soft agar, demonstrating anchorage independence. Cytopathic expression (CPE) including cytoplasmic vacuolization and cell fusion occurred in BCV-L9-infected clones 3F3, D2, and 3E3. Cell fusion was inapparent in clone 4B3. Bovine coronavirus strain L9 (BCV-L9) and 5 wild-type isolates replicated in HRT-18 cells, inducing cell fusion. Strain L9, exclusively, replicated in D2BFS cells, requiring trypsin to induce cell fusion. Strain L9 produced plaques in the HRT-18 clones, but the ease of plaque formation and plaque morphology was host cell dependent. Host cell-dependent plaque formation was demonstrated by wild-type BCV strains, and plaque morphology was strain dependent. The intensity of trypsin enhancement of CPE and plaque
IMMUNOLOGICAL REAGENT | DEVELOPMENT OF METHODS FOR PRODUCTION OF A WHOLE VIRUS VACCINE CANDIDATE STOCK AND NOVEL ADAPTIVE MUTATIONS IN... | Vaccines for HSV-2 | ATTENUATED BOVINE CORONAVIRUS AND RELATED VACCINES | MODIFIED BAT INFLUENZA VIRUSES AND THEIR USES |
All subjects had their liver enzymes tested before, at 10-day intervals and at the end of the eight-week study. They all used the same training program and ate the same diet. At baseline all groups showed normal liver enzymes, with one exception. The
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Research in the area of immunology in the department focuses on the response of the immune system to bacterial, parasitic and viral pathogens. Topics of research interest in this area include evasion of the immune response and persistence, molecular mechanisms underlying inflammatory responses and vaccine development for a variety of microbial pathogens. Specific research programs include: vaccine design for Brucella Abortus, West Nile Virus, Dengue Virus, Herpes viruses and Bovine Coronavirus and Herpesvirus Type-1. The lymphocyte-mediated response to Bartonella and nematode infection, the analysis of the innate and adaptive immune response to respiratory syncytial virus and human metapneumovirus infections, as well as the study of the innate immune/inflammatory response in the lung to bacterial infection are also investigated. Supporting facilities for immunology research in the Department include Flow Cytometry facility, the histology laboratory, the microscope center, the laboratory of ...
A retrospective analysis was conducted to investigate the prevalence and seasonality of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), bovine coronavirus (BoCV), bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1), bovine respiratory syncytical virus (BRSV) and parainfluenza virus-3 (PI3V) in calves (aged three months and below) in Ireland. Results from real-time PCR testing, including cycle threshold values, conducted on nasal swabs (single or pooled) submitted from 1364 respiratory disease outbreaks between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2012 were included in this study. One or more viruses were detected in 34.6 per cent of submissions, with BoCV detected most frequently (22.9 per cent), followed by BRSV (11.6 per cent), PI3 V (7.0 per cent), BoHV-1 (6.1 per cent) and BVDV (5.0 per cent). The detection rate of all viruses was higher when pooled multiple swabs were submitted from outbreaks rather than single swabs, with these differences being significant for all except BVDV. Two or more viruses were detected in 39.4 per ...
Kandasamy, S., A.N. Vlasova, D. Fischer, A. Kumar, K.S. Chattha, A. Rauf, L. Shao, S. Neal, G. Rajashekara, and L.J. Saif.. "Differential effects of Escherichia coli Nissle and Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG on human rotavirus binding, infection, and B cell immunity." Journal of Immunology. (January 0.): -.. Bok, M., S. Miñoa, D. Rodrigueza, A. Badaraccoa, I. Nuñesc, S.P. Souzac, G. Bilbaod,. "Molecular and antigenic characterization of bovine Coronavirus circulating in Argentinean cattle during 1994â€"2010." Veterinary Microbiology. (January 0.): -.. SAIF LJ; BOHL EH; THEIL KW; CROSS RF; HOUSE JA. "Rotavirus-like Calicivirus-like And 23 Nanometer Virus-like Particles Associated With Diarrhea In Young Pigs." Journal of Clinical Microbiology. Vol. 12, no. 1. (January 1980.): 105-111.. WYATT R, G; JAMES W, D; BOHL E, H; THEIL K, W; SAIF L, J; KALICA A, R; GREENBERG H, B; KAPIKIAN A, Z; CHANOCK R M. "Human Rotavirus Type 2 Cultivation In-vitro." Science (Washington D C). Vol. 207, no. ...
CORONAVIRUS has now infected more than 5,000 people in the UK, killed thousands around the world and infected a total of more than 200,000 patients. But how many people have recovered from coronavirus?
HRT or hormone replacement therapy comes in the form of pills in a tablet. They are to be taken daily for as long as the menopause lasts. But due to the link of cancer and estrogen levels, women are advised visit their doctors every five to six months. To help your body adjust to medication, take the medication in the same time of the day. And dont skip a day. The biggest shock to a womans body in this time is a sudden stop. And remember to be consistent. Dont take one pill one day, and two or three the next day. If you are taking one pill each day, continue to do so. Eventually, if the symptoms become too much of a problem, increase the medication. But remember to do this day at a time. ...
A virus is a microscopic parasite that cannot live or reproduce outside of a host body. A "host" refers to the organism or species (like humans, dogs or cats) that a virus is able to infect. Viruses, which are much smaller than the cells that make up our bodies, move between cells and infect them individually, and use cells to create copies of themselves.. Coronavirus is one type of virus much like a banana is one type of fruit. There are many types of viruses that infect different parts of the body. An intestinal virus, for example can cause vomiting, diarrhea and inappetence (not wanting to eat). Coronavirus is a respiratory virus (in humans) because it infects the cells of the respiratory tract (nasal passages, bronchi, bronchioles, and lung tissue) and causes respiratory symptoms such as coughing, runny nose, sneezing and sore throat.. ...
As the coronavirus pandemic continues to shut down daily life across the globe, thousands of our readers across the nation have asked us questions about COVID-19.And were answering them.For basic facts about the virus - what it is, how it spreads and where its located - you can get caught up by reading our in-depth explainer here. Weve also debunked some viral coronavirus myths. But youre curious and continue to ask important
Read more on what we know about COVID-19 coronavirus, including how contagious and dangerous it is, and how to prevent from becoming infected with coronavirus.
A top medic who contracted Coronavirus says the deadly respiratory disease is so contagious it can be transmitted through the eyes. Wang Guangfa, who was a...
ProMach Coronavirus (COVID-19) Update - we remain committed to helping our customers keep their packaging lines operating as efficiently as possible while focusing on the safety and protection of everyone.
Coronavirus. Image produced using high-dynamic-range imaging (HDRI) from an image taken with transmission electron microscopy. Viral diameter ranges from around 80 to 160 nm. - Stock Image C024/4681
Often marked by fever, vomiting and loss of appetite, coronavirus in dogs is caused by a virus. Heres need-to-know information on helping your pet heal.
As the coronavirus situation intensifies, you might be wondering: how can I keep myself healthy? There are ways to keep your immune system functioning optimally, which can help to keep you healthy and give you a sense of control in an uncertain time.
The day-by-day number of new coronavirus cases in China, the United States, and the world. NBC News updates the charts and data every morning at 11:00 a.m EDT.
Globally, many developers and contractors are scrambling to identify available contractual relief as the Coronavirus (COVID-19) disrupts cross-border…
Tips from Helen Cooke a nutritionist based in Bristol about how to support and boost your immune system during the Coronavirus outbreak
Stay tuned as Patient Power provides the latest news on the coronavirus outbreak with updates from renowned doctors, researchers and experts to help keep cancer patients and their loved ones informed and safe.
Streets are empty in various cities across the globe as countries close schools, shops, public places, and put cities on lockdown to fight the new coronavirus pandemic.
Here is the collection of information you may need for your coronavirus essay. All the basic information is at one place for you to comfortably use.
Hospitals are bracing for the potential spread of coronavirus in the United States, trying to plan for a potential onslaught of sick patients combined with potential supply shortages.
Rinat Akhmetov allocates 300 million UAH to fight against the coronavirus - news and press releases of the company | DTEK is Ukraines largest energy group
As spread of the novel COVID-19 coronavirus continues, the American College of Cardiology has released a clinical update that looks at early cardiac implications and clinical guidance.
Preliminary research conducted by Chinese scientists suggests that the new coronavirus, presumably, can not be transmitted from an infected mother to her unborn baby, a study published in The Lancet journal said
Im very concerned about my elderly mother catching the coronavirus (COVID-19). Is she at more of a risk for the illness and if so, what can we do to protect her?
We know there is a growing concern regarding the impact of the coronavirus, and wed like to inform you that we have taken all the right measures and precautions for our team
Hey everyone, This is a megathread for anything related to coronavirus that is **nonpolitical** and **not about asktrumpsupporters itself**....
Sirocko, Frank ; Claussen, Martin ; Litt, Thomas ; Sanchez-Goni, Maria Fernanda ; Berger, Andre ; Boettger, Tatjana ; Diehl, Markus ; Desprat, Stéphanie ; Delmonte, Barbara ; Degering, Detlev ; Frechen, Manfred ; Geyh, Mebus A. ; Groeger, Matthias ; Kageyama, Masa ; Kaspar, Frank ; Kühl, Norbert ; Kubatzki, Claudia ; Lohmann, G. ; Loutre, Marie-France ; Müller, Ulrich ; Rein, Bert ; Rosendahl, Wilfried ; Roucoux, Katy ; Rousseau, Denis-Didier ; Seelos, Klemens ; Siddall, Mark ; Scholz, Denis ; Spötl, Christoph ; Urban, Brigitte ; Vautravers, Maryline ; Velichko, Andrei ; Wenzel, Stefan ; Widmann, Martin ; Wünnemann, Bernd ...
Social distancing can lead to adverse psychological and physiological effects. But there are things you can do to maintain your overall health.
Drew University continues to monitor the impact of the coronavirus (COVID-19) and has adopted the practice of social distancing. The University is operating in Drew Virtual Time for both learning and business and will not resume regular business operations at least through the first part of June (instead of April 3 as we had previously anticipated). Additionally, we are moving into a different phase with residential life. Read President Baenningers message about this shift, and for the latest information, visit the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) resource site. ...
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The total number of tests alone does not tell the real story. Here are some of the measures that you should be looking at to better understand how the U.S. doing.
See the number of people under investigation (PUIs) in the United States and states with confirmed cases of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19).
bcv:Bcav_0491 no KO assigned , (GenBank) DNA primase small subunit (A) MARAQTPPVELDVAGRTVKVSSPDKVLFAGVGDGVTKLDVVRYFISVGEGILAALKERPT TLERWPQGYADGMKLTTRQGAKGDGFYSKRVPQYAPDWVEPVEITFPSGRTAEEVCPSEL AVVAWAAQQGTLTFHPWPVRRPEVDSPDQLRIDLDPQPGTDYVDSARLAPLVREVAAEAG LTAVPKTSGGRGVHVFAPIEPRWSFVEARRAVIALGREVERRAPEQVTTNWWKEERGERV FIDFNQMARDRTIASAYSIRANVRATVSAPLRWDEVDQVQPDDFTVLTMPDRFAEVGDLF AGANGDADHPAGSLDVLLEWAARDERDHGLGDLPYPPEYPKMPGEPKRVQPSRDRDRPRD D ...
Coronaviruslike viruses previously have been identified in feces of diarrheic foals and adult horses (1, 7, 8, 13, 17). In the present study, a coronavirus associated with diarrhea in a young foal was serially propagated in cell culture and partially characterized. The virus was identified as a coronavirus based on (i) virion size and morphology, (ii) antigenic relatedness to BCV and HEV as determined by serological procedures, and (iii) genetic relatedness to BCV, HCV strain OC43, and MHV as determined by N gene sequence analysis. The virus tentatively is identified as equine coronavirus (ECV) based on the origin of the virus.. The coronavirus N protein has been shown to be highly variable in amino acid composition between the viruses that comprise the three coronavirus antigenic groups but highly conserved within these groups (27, 30). In the present study, a high degree of identity (66.7 to 90.1%) was observed between the N protein sequences of ECV strain NC99 and N protein sequences of group ...
Dea, S.; Roy, R.S.; Begin, M.E., 1979: Counterimmunoelectroosmophoresis for detection of neonatal calf diarrhea coronavirus: methodology and comparison with electron microscopy
CORONAVIRUS continues to spread around the world, leading hygiene experts to advise tried and tested methods for prevent further spread of COVID-19. But too many of us forget coronavirus can live on your phone. Here is how to keep your phone coronavirus free.
Fidelity Communications today announced additional relief measures to support families in need during the coronavirus (COVID-19) crisis. Beginning today, a 15 Mbps internet plan for $10 per month is available for the next 60 days to help low income families and those most impacted from coronavirus challenges
...  The coronavirus (Covid-19) is spreading around the world and killing people. Governments know that It is reaching epidemic proportions that will cause all of us concern, but for some individuals, it will be worse than a concern; it will be Post-traumatic Stress Disorder. PTSD is a serious
Georgia coronavirus news: Both Emory Healthcare and Cartersville Medical Center confirmed they are treating patients with the coronavirus.
many people will get infected or sick during this outbreak. most coronavirus infections will either have no symptoms or mild symptoms consistent with the flu.
/PRNewswire/ -- The Coronavirus outbreak in China becomes a major global concern, which has pushed the food processing market to adopt to the new environment....
The World Health Organization has issued a blunt assessment of the coronavirus outbreak in Saudi Arabia, acknowledging for the first time that there are concerns the virus may be spreading from person to person, at least in a limited way.
The White House budget office said the funds are for vaccines, treatment and protective equipment. The request was immediately slammed by Democrats as insufficient and came as coronavirus fears were credited with Mondays 1,000-plus point drop in the Dow Jones Industrial Average and are increasingly seen as a potential political threat to President Donald Trump.
President Donald Trump said on Monday he is considering how to reopen the U.S. economy when a 15-day shutdown ends next week, even as the highly contagious coronavirus is spreading rapidly and hospitals are bracing for a wave of virus-related deaths.
A newly identified coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is spreading across the globe. Heres what you need to know about the virus and the disease it causes, COVID-19.
The rapid spread of the virus that causes COVID-19 has sparked alarm worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared this rapidly spreading coronavirus…
In declaring a national emergency over coronavirus, federal officials are able to direct billions of dollars in disaster money to responders fighting virus.
The rapid spread of the virus that causes COVID-19 has sparked alarm worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared this rapidly spreading coronavirus…
Coronavirus has backed the UK government into a corner, forcing it to enact its toughest measure in peacetime yet to contain the threat to the general public.The latest social distancing measure is a UK-wide lockdown, which aims to suppress the virus by instructing people to stay indoors barring exceptional circumstances. If anyone feels this policy is draconian, then they should look at the harrowing statistics coming out of Spain right now. ...
Information for Canadians on COVID-19 (coronavirus) including current cases, who is most at risk, advice for returning travellers, how the situation is being monitored, how to contact the Government of Canada and updates from various federal departments.
Information for Canadians on COVID-19 (coronavirus) including current cases, who is most at risk, advice for returning travellers, how the situation is being monitored, how to contact the Government of Canada and updates from various federal departments.
Due to the current Coronavirus outbreak, ports are imposing various restrictions on vessels and crew. With your safety as our priority, we have created an overview of port restrictions worldwide. Click on each port or country in the map below for more details. Map will be updated on a daily basis, thrice per day. Last updated: 23 Feb 2020, 1000hrs (GMT+8). For more detailed info, please contact our local agents.
Due to growing concerns about the coronavirus outbreak, the organization running the Mobile World Congress trade show in Barcelona has officially canceled it.
The entire country of Italy is shut down as it attempts to slow the coronavirus outbreak and stem a rising death toll. Heres what it looks like.
Canadas first case of a new strain of coronavirus has been officially confirmed, Ontario health officials said Monday, as they announced the patients wife has also contracted the illness.
Can insects be coronavirus carriers that transmit the pathogen to humans? The jury is still out so people are advised to keep their homes clean and free of pests.
U.S. Food and Drug Administration Commissioner Stephen Hahn addressed the ongoing work of the agency in terms of its work on potential treatments and vaccines for the COVID-19 coronavirus currently spreading globally. Despite a claim early in Thursdays White House briefing on the pandemic by President
The latest regulations, which came into effect at 11.59pm on Thursday, seek to give legal force to safe distancing measures announced by the multi-ministry task force tackling the coronavirus pandemic in Singapore.. Read more at straitstimes.com.
Children who visited an affected region in Italy on a family trip have presented no symptoms of the coronavirus, the council has said.
The head of Nigerias National Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) says the country is more than capable of dealing with coronavirus as Africas most populous nation records its first case.
The person who has been confirmed to have New Zealands first case of the Covid-19 coronavirus followed all of the steps you would hope would be followed, says the Health Minister.
Unified by unique and unprecedented circumstances, the Western Force will join a new domestic Australian Super Rugby competition proposed to kick off next month amid the global coronavirus pandemic.
The coronavirus numbers out of Italy yesterday are sobering for those of us preparing for the hospital crunch in Seattle and New York.
Nigeria on Monday reported its first death from coronavirus as confirmed cases of infections in Africas most populous nation climbed further.
February 13, 2020People sick, people dying. How many people? Unknown. Massive lockdowns of Chinese cities. Citizens trying to escape. For the global audience, this equals coronavirus, not because they...read more
President Trump says Congress should swiftly approve a $2 trillion coronavirus stimulus bill, brushing off last-minute GOP concerns about a boost in unemployment insurance.
Italy Coronavirus update with statistics and graphs: total and new cases, deaths per day, mortality and recovery rates, current active cases, recoveries, trends and timeline.
HealthDay Reporters. TUESDAY, March 10, 2020 (HealthDay Information) - Millions of much-required testing kits for COVID-19 are on the way to clinics and labs nationwide, Vice President Mike Pence informed reporters in the course of a White Household briefing Monday night.. Pence heads the Trump Administrations coronavirus task power. He explained the team attained out to governors from forty seven states on Monday, and was "ready to verify with them that testing is now offered in all state labs in just about every state in the country.". "About a million checks have been distributed," Pence explained, and "just before the conclusion of this week, an additional four million checks will be distributed.".. On top of that, big medical testing firms these kinds of as LabCorp and Quest have also "brought a check ahead and are taking that to sector helpful nowadays," Pence explained. He extra that, "with the deployment of the professional labs we basically are likely to see a spectacular improve in ...
Cleaning companies and online colleges are among businesses cashing in even if theres no guarantee their products will stop the coronavirus.
Amid coronavirus scare, the traders association of Sarojini Nagar Market is planning to procure masks and distribute them to customers when they come to shop.
A team of German researchers from the Greifswald University Hospital and Ruhr-Universität Bochum (RUB), have compiled data from all known research on coronaviruses
Coronaviruses usually infect epithelial cells of the gastro-enteric or respiratory tracts. They frequently cause local infections which may be fatal in young animals, but which are usually mild or...
Please note that as things change rapidly, Q&As and guidelines will be updated. Review this website often to ensure you have the most up to date information or consult your leader if you have concerns or identify discrepencies. Acute care admitted patients: Guidelines for caring for COVID-19 patients​ ...
2016 Express Biotech International. All of our products are intended to be used for RESEARCH purposes only. They are not intended to be used for drug or diagnostic purposes nor are they intended for human use.. ...
Rallies and town halls are held exclusively online. Field organizers are working from home. And "I wash my hands" is a CDC-friendly campaign slogan.
Linking to a non-federal website does not constitute an endorsement by CDC or any of its employees of the sponsors or the information and products presented on the website ...
Information on the Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2): As of Saturday, 14 March 2020 all buildings of the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin will be closed to the public until further notice. This measure is intended to minimise the spread of the coronavirus. We appreciate your understanding. Read more ...
Information on the Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2): As of Saturday, 14 March 2020 all buildings of the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin will be closed to the public until further notice. This measure is intended to minimise the spread of the coronavirus. We appreciate your understanding. Read more ...
వాషింగ్టన్‌: ఆమెరికాకు చెందిన ఓ యువతి కరోనా వైరస్‌ బారిన పడ్డానని.. ప్రస్తుతం కోలుకుంటున్నానని శనివారం సోషల్‌ మీడియాలో ప్రకటించింది. ఈ వైరస్‌పై ఒత్తిడి, ఆందోళన వద్దని.. అవగాహనతో వైరస్‌ బారి నుంచి బయటపడొచ్చని తెలిపింది.
Telehealth with AI can help healthcare providers scale to meet disease spread to save lives and reduce the impact of the COVID-19 epidemic.
Dr. Bridget Wild, MD, a pediatrician with NorthShore University HealthSystem NorthShore University HealthSystem http://www.northshore.org HOW TO TALK TO CHILDREN ABOUT THE CORONAVIRUS Be honest but don
Studies have shown that some people touch their faces as often as 23 times an hour. Some studies have also shown that face-touching spreads germs, such as the coronavirus. Here are some ways to stop ...
Two weeks into a lockdown and Northern Italy is struggling to keep to the strict rules designed to stop the coronavirus spreading.
Abstract BACKGROUND: SP-A and SP-D are hydrophilic proteins which regulate the inflammatory response of the lung. Pasteurella multocida is one of the most common bacteria isolated from calves suffering from shipping fever pneumonia, one of the most problems in dairy herds. OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of surfactant content may provide a valuable diagnostic tool for detection of calf pneumonia due to Pasteurella multocida and also state of treatment. METHODS: Ten Holstein-Frisian bull calves aged 4 months with body weight of 120 ± 5 kg were selected for study in two groups. The Pasteurella multocida (PMC66 Razi) was used in the present study for inducing pneumonia. The Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) process was done in selected calves. BAL fluid was collected and centrifuged and finally the sediment (crude surfactant) was reserved at -20˚C.The cytological evaluation and surfactant content was assayed by ELISA, TPL kit assay and HPLC. RESULTS: The serum levels of SP-A and SP-D in pneumonic group were
The federal government has now passed the Families First Coronavirus Response Act to help employees and businesses facing challenges related to the coronavirus. The Act guarantees free coronavirus testing, secures paid emergency leave, enhances Unemployment Insurance, strengthens food security initiatives, and increases federal Medicaid funding to states. Read more as we discuss these provisions and several remaining unanswered questions ...
The use of gloves isnt the only method that can be used to put a stop to airborne infections such as the flu or the Coronavirus; the use of surgical masks have also shown promise when it comes to taking care of airborne infections - and the sales of surgical masks all over the world have gone up drastically as a result of the Coronavirus.. If you are going out in public, especially if you have a condition that affects your immune system, it can be a good idea to invest in a stack of surgical masks: These can help to stop droplets potentially containing infectious diseases (such as the Coronavirus) from reaching and infecting you. It might not be 100% effective against stopping the spread but combined with other methods it can help to drastically reduce your risk - both against common diseases like colds or the flu and against more serious ones such as the Coronavirus outbreak of 2020.. ...
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Looking for online definition of Coronavirus infections in the Medical Dictionary? Coronavirus infections explanation free. What is Coronavirus infections? Meaning of Coronavirus infections medical term. What does Coronavirus infections mean?
The data presented in this thesis is incorporated into the model of early events of coronavirus infection and focuses on the innate responses by glia and their potential interactions with the mounting adaptive immune response. By utilizing transgenic mice to purify distinct populations of glia at different times during coronavirus infection of the central nervous system, the unique cell-specific responses can be evaluated in vivo to provide a fuller picture of the events leading to persistent viral infection. These new findings emphasize the protective role of microglia in providing early IFNalphabeta expression and the indirect modulation of this response by T cell activity. Microglia express a broad repertoire of pathogen associated pattern receptors (i.e. TLRs and RIG-I family helicases) and thereby trigger IFNalphabeta expression in direct response to viral infection. IFNalphabeta expression declines in correlation with effective clearance of virus from microglia by T cell activity. ...

Lactogenic immunity following vaccination of cattle with bovine coronavirus.  - PubMed - NCBILactogenic immunity following vaccination of cattle with bovine coronavirus. - PubMed - NCBI

Lactogenic immunity following vaccination of cattle with bovine coronavirus.. Crouch CF1, Oliver S, Hearle DC, Buckley A, ... In order to investigate the ability of an oil adjuvanted vaccine containing bovine coronavirus antigen to enhance lactogenic ... will lead to the production of a superior commercial vaccine for the protection of neonatal calves against enteric coronavirus ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10930672?dopt=Abstract

Bovine coronavirus from Vetstream | Definitive Veterinary IntelligenceBovine coronavirus from Vetstream | Definitive Veterinary Intelligence

Bovine coronavirus Synonym(s): coronaviridae, BCV, bovine respiratory disease complex. Contributor(s): Veronica Fowler , Tammy ... Saif L J (2010) Bovine Respiratory Coronavirus. The Veterinary clinics of North America Food animal practice 26 (2), 349-364 ... Saif L J (1990) A review of evidence implicating bovine coronavirus in the etiology of winter dysentery in cows: an enigma ... Kapil S & Basaraba R J (1997) Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza-3, and respiratory coronavirus. Vet Clin North ...
more infohttps://www.vetstream.com/treat/bovis/bug/bovine-coronavirus

HE - Hemagglutinin-esterase precursor - Bovine coronavirus (strain Quebec) (BCoV) - HE gene & proteinHE - Hemagglutinin-esterase precursor - Bovine coronavirus (strain Quebec) (BCoV) - HE gene & protein

sp,P59709,HEMA_CVBQ Hemagglutinin-esterase OS=Bovine coronavirus (strain Quebec) OX=11133 GN=HE PE=3 SV=1 ... Bovine coronavirus (strain Quebec) (BCoV) (BCV). ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_ ... Belongs to the influenza type C/coronaviruses hemagglutinin-esterase family.UniRule annotation. Manual assertion according to ... Bos taurus (Bovine) [TaxID: 9913]. ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section"> ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P59709

Bovine coronavirus - WikipediaBovine coronavirus - Wikipedia

Bovine coronavirus (BCV) is as a member of the Coronaviridae family which are enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA ... "Bovine Coronavirus", reviewed and published by WikiVet, accessed 20/08/2011.. ... Definitive diagnosis of an enteric coronavirus infection is achieved by performing electron microscopy or an ELISA on a faecal ... The haemagglutination inhibition test can be used to establish the strain of coronavirus. Animals should be treated ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bovine_coronavirus

E - Envelope small membrane protein - Bovine coronavirus (strain OK-0514) (BCoV) - E gene & proteinE - Envelope small membrane protein - Bovine coronavirus (strain OK-0514) (BCoV) - E gene & protein

sp,P0C2Q5,VEMP_CVBOK Envelope small membrane protein OS=Bovine coronavirus (strain OK-0514) OX=231432 GN=E PE=3 SV=1 ... Bovine coronavirus (strain OK-0514) (BCoV) (BCV). ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_ ... Bovine coronavirusBovine coronavirus strain OK ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P0C2Q5

Anti-Coronavirus, Bovine, Peplomer Antibody | Mouse Monoclonal  | LSBioAnti-Coronavirus, Bovine, Peplomer Antibody | Mouse Monoclonal | LSBio

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Get PDF - Evaluation of shell vial cell culture technique for the detection of bovine coronavirusGet PDF - Evaluation of shell vial cell culture technique for the detection of bovine coronavirus

Evaluation of shell vial cell culture technique for the detection of bovine coronavirus ... Evaluation of shell vial cell culture technique for the detection of bovine coronavirus. Tahir, R.A.; Pomeroy, K.A.; Goyal, S.M ... The effect of blind passage and centrifugation on the isolation of bovine coronavirus (BCV) in human rectal tumour cells was ... Evaluation of shell vial cell culture technique for the detection of bovine coronavirus. ...
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Anti Bovine Coronavirus Surface Antigen Antibody, clone 5A4 | Bio-RadAnti Bovine Coronavirus Surface Antigen Antibody, clone 5A4 | Bio-Rad

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Monoclonal mouse anti-bovine corona virus peplomer - Advanced ImmunoChemical Inc.Advanced ImmunoChemical Inc.Monoclonal mouse anti-bovine corona virus peplomer - Advanced ImmunoChemical Inc.Advanced ImmunoChemical Inc.

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Evaluation of a multiplex immunoassay for bovine respiratory syncytial virus and bovine coronavirus antibodies in bulk tank...Evaluation of a multiplex immunoassay for bovine respiratory syncytial virus and bovine coronavirus antibodies in bulk tank...

Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and bovine coronavirus (BCV) are responsible for respiratory disease and diarrhea in ... Evaluation of a multiplex immunoassay for bovine respiratory syncytial virus and bovine coronavirus antibodies in bulk tank ...
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Development of an Antigen Spot Test for Detection of Coronavirus in Bovine Fecal Samples | Clinical and Vaccine ImmunologyDevelopment of an Antigen Spot Test for Detection of Coronavirus in Bovine Fecal Samples | Clinical and Vaccine Immunology

Development of an Antigen Spot Test for Detection of Coronavirus in Bovine Fecal Samples. Fathy Gaber, Sanjay Kapil ... Development of an Antigen Spot Test for Detection of Coronavirus in Bovine Fecal Samples ... Development of an Antigen Spot Test for Detection of Coronavirus in Bovine Fecal Samples ... Development of an Antigen Spot Test for Detection of Coronavirus in Bovine Fecal Samples ...
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Veterinary PCR Kits - BCV - Bovine coronavirus RT-PCR Detection  KitVeterinary PCR Kits - BCV - Bovine coronavirus RT-PCR Detection Kit

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Bovine Enteropathogenic Coronavirus: The Effect of the Host Cell and T by Karen P. St. cyr-coats"Bovine Enteropathogenic Coronavirus: The Effect of the Host Cell and T" by Karen P. St. cyr-coats

Bovine coronavirus strain L9 (BCV-L9) and 5 wild-type isolates replicated in HRT-18 cells, inducing cell fusion. Strain L9, ... Bovine coronavirus strain L9 (BCV-L9) and 5 wild-type isolates replicated in HRT-18 cells, inducing cell fusion. Strain L9, ... Bovine Enteropathogenic Coronavirus: The Effect of the Host Cell and Trypsin Modification on the Virus Structure, Cytopathic ... cyr-coats, Karen P., "Bovine Enteropathogenic Coronavirus: The Effect of the Host Cell and Trypsin Modification on the Virus ...
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Coronaviruses: emerging and re-emerging pathogens in humans and animalsCoronaviruses: emerging and re-emerging pathogens in humans and animals

Bovine coronavirus in naturally and experimentally exposed calves; viral shedding and the potential for transmission Bovine ... Coronaviruses and the human airway: a universal system for virus-host interaction studies Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are large ... Coronaviruses: emerging and re-emerging pathogens in humans and animals The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS ... Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a novel coronavirus discovered in 2012 and is responsible for acute ...
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Table 3 - Antibodies against MERS Coronavirus in Dromedary Camels, United Arab Emirates, 2003 and 2013 - Volume 20, Number 4...Table 3 - Antibodies against MERS Coronavirus in Dromedary Camels, United Arab Emirates, 2003 and 2013 - Volume 20, Number 4...

... protein-specific immunofluorescence and virus neutralization tests enabled clear discrimination between MERS-CoV and bovine CoV ... Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has caused an ongoing outbreak of severe acute respiratory tract ... Antibodies against MERS Coronavirus in Dromedary Camels, United Arab Emirates, 2003 and 2013 Benjamin Meyer, Marcel A. Müller, ... Antibodies against MERS Coronavirus in Dromedary Camels, United Arab Emirates, 2003 and 2013. ...
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Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus: another zoonotic betacoronavirus causing SARS-like disease.  - PubMed - NCBIMiddle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus: another zoonotic betacoronavirus causing SARS-like disease. - PubMed - NCBI

... bovine coronavirus (NC_003045); BdCoV HKU22, bottlenose dolphin coronavirus HKU22 (KF793826); BuCoV HKU11, bulbul coronavirus ... human coronavirus 229E (NC_002645); HCoV-HKU1, human coronavirus HKU1 (NC_006577); HCoV-NL63, human coronavirus NL63 (NC_005831 ... munia coronavirus HKU13 (FJ376622); My-BatCoV HKU6, Myotis bat coronavirus HKU6 (DQ249224); NeoCoV, coronavirus Neoromicia/PML- ... Scotophilus bat coronavirus 512 (NC_009657); SpCoV HKU17, sparrow coronavirus HKU17 (NC_016992); TCoV, turkey coronavirus (NC_ ...
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Characterization and Location of the Structural Polypeptides of Turkey Enteric Coronavirus Using Monoclonal Antibodies and...Characterization and Location of the Structural Polypeptides of Turkey Enteric Coronavirus Using Monoclonal Antibodies and...

Turkey enteric Coronavirus (TCV) is one of the major causes of epidemic diarrhoea in turkey poults (1, 2). The morphological ... Antigenic relationships among proteins of bovine Coronavirus, human respiratory Coronavirus OC 43, and mouse hepatitis ... Bovine Coronavirus hemagglutinin protein. Virus Res. 2:53 (1985).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Sequence analysis of the bovine Coronavirus nucleocapsid and matrix protein genes. Virology 157:47 (1987).PubMedCrossRefGoogle ...
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Coronavirus, Bovine. A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting neonatal calves, presenting as acute diarrhea, and frequently leading ...
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Virology Journal 1/2017 | springermedizin.deVirology Journal 1/2017 | springermedizin.de

Genome-wide analysis of codon usage bias in Bovine Coronavirus. Matías Castells, Matías Victoria, Rodney Colina, Héctor Musto, ... The effect of bovine BST2A1 on the release and cell-to-cell transmission of retroviruses. Zhibin Liang, Yang Zhang, Jie Song, ... Proof-of-concept study: profile of circulating microRNAs in Bovine serum harvested during acute and persistent FMDV infection. ... A reverse genetics system for avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus based on targeted RNA recombination. Steven J. van ...
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Characterization and Complete Genome Sequence of a Novel Coronavirus, Coronavirus HKU1, from Patients with Pneumonia | Journal...Characterization and Complete Genome Sequence of a Novel Coronavirus, Coronavirus HKU1, from Patients with Pneumonia | Journal...

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Coronaviruses | SpringerLinkCoronaviruses | SpringerLink

Coronaviruses have emerged during the past ten years from being a group of viruses causing a variety of minor veterinary and ... Deduced Amino Acid Sequence and Potential O-Glycosylation Sites for the Bovine Coronavirus Matrix Protein ... RNA Recombination of Coronavirus James G. Keck, Shinji Makino, Lisa H. Soe, John O. Fleming, Stephen A. Stohlman, Michael M. C ... Coronaviruses have emerged during the past ten years from being a group of viruses causing a variety of minor veterinary and ...
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  • Additionally, some coronaviruses also contain a fourth major structural protein, the hemagglutinin-esterase protein (120 to 140 kDa) ( 12 , 26 ). (asm.org)
  • Significant research efforts have been focused on elucidating the viral pathogenesis of these animal coronaviruses, especially by virologists interested in veterinary and zoonotic diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antigenic and genomic characterizations of the virus (isolate NC99) were based on serological comparison with other avian and mammalian coronaviruses and sequence analysis of the nucleocapsid (N) protein gene. (asm.org)
  • Coronavirus IBV: partial amino terminal sequencing of spike polypeptide S2 identifies the sequence Arg-Arg-Phe-Arg-Arg at the cleavage site of the spike precursor polypeptide of IBV strains Beaudette and M41. (springer.com)
  • Six different currently known strains of coronaviruses infect humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coronaviruses have been subdivided into three major antigenic groups based on antigenic differences identified by serological analyses, and these findings have been substantiated by nucleotide sequence analyses ( 21 , 22 , 29 ). (asm.org)
  • Prior to the discovery of SARS-CoV, MHV had been the best-studied coronavirus both in vivo and in vitro as well as at the molecular level. (wikipedia.org)
  • Identification of the structural proteins of turkey enteric Coronavirus. (springer.com)
  • Proteins that contribute to the overall structure of all coronaviruses are the spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N). In the specific case of the SARS coronavirus (see below), a defined receptor-binding domain on S mediates the attachment of the virus to its cellular receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). (wikipedia.org)