Coronavirus: A genus of the family CORONAVIRIDAE which causes respiratory or gastrointestinal disease in a variety of vertebrates.Coronavirus Infections: Virus diseases caused by the CORONAVIRUS genus. Some specifics include transmissible enteritis of turkeys (ENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF TURKEYS); FELINE INFECTIOUS PERITONITIS; and transmissible gastroenteritis of swine (GASTROENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF SWINE).Coronavirus 229E, Human: A species in the genus CORONAVIRUS causing the common cold and possibly nervous system infections in humans. It lacks hemagglutinin-esterase.Coronavirus, Bovine: A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting neonatal calves, presenting as acute diarrhea, and frequently leading to death.Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus: A class I viral fusion protein that forms the characteristic spikes, or peplomers, found on the viral surface that mediate virus attachment, fusion, and entry into the host cell. During virus maturation, it is cleaved into two subunits: S1, which binds to receptors in the host cell, and S2, which mediates membrane fusion.SARS Virus: A species of CORONAVIRUS causing atypical respiratory disease (SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME) in humans. The organism is believed to have first emerged in Guangdong Province, China, in 2002. The natural host is the Chinese horseshoe bat, RHINOLOPHUS sinicus.Coronavirus OC43, Human: A species in the genus CORONAVIRUS causing the common cold and possibly nervous system infections in humans. It contains hemagglutinin-esterase.Coronavirus, Feline: A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting cats of all ages and commonly found in catteries and zoos. Cats are often found carrying the virus but only a small proportion develop disease. Feline coronavirus and Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) are virtually the same virus in genetic and antigenetic terms, and are morphologically indistinguishable. Since they only differ in their disease potential (with FIPV causing a more serious illness), they are considered biotypes of each other.Coronaviridae: Spherical RNA viruses, in the order NIDOVIRALES, infecting a wide range of animals including humans. Transmission is by fecal-oral and respiratory routes. Mechanical transmission is also common. There are two genera: CORONAVIRUS and TOROVIRUS.Coronavirus, Canine: A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting dogs. Onset of symptoms is usually sudden and includes vomiting, diarrhea, and dehydration.Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome: A viral disorder characterized by high FEVER, dry COUGH, shortness of breath (DYSPNEA) or breathing difficulties, and atypical PNEUMONIA. A virus in the genus CORONAVIRUS is the suspected agent.Coronaviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by CORONAVIRIDAE.Murine hepatitis virus: A species of the CORONAVIRUS genus causing hepatitis in mice. Four strains have been identified as MHV 1, MHV 2, MHV 3, and MHV 4 (also known as MHV-JHM, which is neurotropic and causes disseminated encephalomyelitis with demyelination as well as focal liver necrosis).Transmissible gastroenteritis virus: A species of CORONAVIRUS causing a fatal disease to pigs under 3 weeks old.Infectious bronchitis virus: A species of CORONAVIRUS causing infections in chickens and possibly pheasants. Chicks up to four weeks old are the most severely affected.Coronavirus NL63, Human: A species in the genus CORONAVIRUS causing upper and lower RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS. It shares the receptor used by the SARS VIRUS.Nucleocapsid Proteins: Viral proteins found in either the NUCLEOCAPSID or the viral core (VIRAL CORE PROTEINS).Coronavirus, Rat: A species of CORONAVIRUS causing pneumonia in newborn rats but a clinically inapparent infection in adults. It is separate but antigenically related to MURINE HEPATITIS VIRUS.Coronavirus, Turkey: A species of CORONAVIRUS causing enteritis in turkeys and pullets.Porcine Respiratory Coronavirus: A mutant strain of TRANSMISSIBLE GASTROENTERITIS VIRUS causing mild or subclinical respiratory infections in young SWINE. It may also play a role in post-weaning porcine respiratory disease complex, especially when combined with other respiratory agents.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Feline Infectious Peritonitis: Common coronavirus infection of cats caused by the feline infectious peritonitis virus (CORONAVIRUS, FELINE). The disease is characterized by a long incubation period, fever, depression, loss of appetite, wasting, and progressive abdominal enlargement. Infection of cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage appears to be essential in FIP pathogenesis.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Gastroenteritis, Transmissible, of Swine: A condition of chronic gastroenteritis in adult pigs and fatal gastroenteritis in piglets caused by a CORONAVIRUS.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Viverridae: The family of civets which are small and medium-sized Old World carnivores, often striped or spotted.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.RNA Replicase: An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Enteritis, Transmissible, of Turkeys: An acute, highly contagious virus disease of turkeys characterized by chilling, anorexia, decreased water intake, diarrhea, dehydration and weight loss. The infectious agent is a CORONAVIRUS.Viral Matrix Proteins: Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.Viral Nonstructural Proteins: Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.Antigens, CD13: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.Nucleocapsid: A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Middle East: The region of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)Communicable Diseases, Emerging: Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.Defective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.Cysteine Endopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.Virus Internalization: The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.Hepatitis, Viral, Animal: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in animals due to viral infection.Chiroptera: Order of mammals whose members are adapted for flight. It includes bats, flying foxes, and fruit bats.Chronology as Topic: The temporal sequence of events that have occurred.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Dysentery: Acute inflammation of the intestine associated with infectious DIARRHEA of various etiologies, generally acquired by eating contaminated food containing TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL derived from BACTERIA or other microorganisms. Dysentery is characterized initially by watery FECES then by bloody mucoid stools. It is often associated with ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; and DEHYDRATION.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Central Nervous System Viral Diseases: Viral infections of the brain, spinal cord, meninges, or perimeningeal spaces.Polyproteins: Proteins which are synthesized as a single polymer and then cleaved into several distinct proteins.Nidovirales: An order comprising three families of eukaryotic viruses possessing linear, nonsegmented, positive sense RNA genomes. The families are CORONAVIRIDAE; ARTERIVIRIDAE; and RONIVIRIDAE.Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A: A peptidyl-dipeptidase that catalyzes the release of a C-terminal dipeptide, -Xaa-*-Xbb-Xcc, when neither Xaa nor Xbb is Pro. It is a Cl(-)-dependent, zinc glycoprotein that is generally membrane-bound and active at neutral pH. It may also have endopeptidase activity on some substrates. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.4.15.1.Saudi ArabiaSwine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Viral Tropism: The specificity of a virus for infecting a particular type of cell or tissue.Virus Attachment: The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.Cat Diseases: Diseases of the domestic cat (Felis catus or F. domesticus). This term does not include diseases of the so-called big cats such as CHEETAHS; LIONS; tigers, cougars, panthers, leopards, and other Felidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Hemagglutinins, Viral: Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral: Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Camels: Hoofed mammals with four legs, a big-lipped snout, and a humped back belonging to the family Camelidae.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Nandiniidae: A family in the suborder Feliformia, order CARNIVORA, comprising one genus Nandinia binotata.Encephalomyelitis: A general term indicating inflammation of the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD, often used to indicate an infectious process, but also applicable to a variety of autoimmune and toxic-metabolic conditions. There is significant overlap regarding the usage of this term and ENCEPHALITIS in the literature.Pneumonia, Viral: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Common Cold: A catarrhal disorder of the upper respiratory tract, which may be viral or a mixed infection. It generally involves a runny nose, nasal congestion, and sneezing.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Arterivirus: A genus of the family ARTERIVIRIDAE, in the order NIDOVIRALES. The type species is ARTERITIS VIRUS, EQUINE.Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Papain: A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Carica papaya. It is also the name used for a purified mixture of papain and CHYMOPAPAIN that is used as a topical enzymatic debriding agent. EC 3.4.22.2.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Viral Fusion Proteins: Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.Cell Fusion: Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.Helper Viruses: Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.Hong Kong: The former British crown colony located off the southeast coast of China, comprised of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and New Territories. The three sites were ceded to the British by the Chinese respectively in 1841, 1860, and 1898. Hong Kong reverted to China in July 1997. The name represents the Cantonese pronunciation of the Chinese xianggang, fragrant port, from xiang, perfume and gang, port or harbor, with reference to its currents sweetened by fresh water from a river west of it.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Demyelinating Diseases: Diseases characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin in the central or peripheral nervous system.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Zoonoses: Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Frameshifting, Ribosomal: A directed change in translational READING FRAMES that allows the production of a single protein from two or more OVERLAPPING GENES. The process is programmed by the nucleotide sequence of the MRNA and is sometimes also affected by the secondary or tertiary mRNA structure. It has been described mainly in VIRUSES (especially RETROVIRUSES); RETROTRANSPOSONS; and bacterial insertion elements but also in some cellular genes.Mice, Inbred BALB CDisease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.QatarProtein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Membrane Fusion: The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.Enteritis: Inflammation of any segment of the SMALL INTESTINE.Swine Diseases: Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.Genes, pol: DNA sequences that form the coding region for retroviral enzymes including reverse transcriptase, protease, and endonuclease/integrase. "pol" is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Cinanserin: A serotonin antagonist with limited antihistaminic, anticholinergic, and immunosuppressive activity.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Beluga Whale: The species Delphinapterus leucas, in the family Monodontidae, found primarily in the Arctic Ocean and adjoining seas. They are small WHALES lacking a dorsal fin.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Acetylesterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of acetate esters and water to alcohols and acetate. EC 3.1.1.6.Torovirus: A genus of the family CORONAVIRIDAE characterized by enveloped, peplomer-bearing particles containing an elongated tubular nucleocapsid with helical symmetry. Toroviruses have been found in association with enteric infections in horses (Berne virus), cattle (Breda virus), swine, and humans. Transmission probably takes place via the fecal-oral route.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Animals, ZooEncephalitis, Viral: Inflammation of brain parenchymal tissue as a result of viral infection. Encephalitis may occur as primary or secondary manifestation of TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PARAMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; and ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.5' Untranslated Regions: The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.

Persistent infection of human oligodendrocytic and neuroglial cell lines by human coronavirus 229E. (1/83)

Human coronaviruses (HuCV) cause common colds. Previous reports suggest that these infectious agents may be neurotropic in humans, as they are for some mammals. With the long-term aim of providing experimental evidence for the neurotropism of HuCV and the establishment of persistent infections in the nervous system, we have evaluated the susceptibility of various human neural cell lines to acute and persistent infection by HuCV-229E. Viral antigen, infectious virus progeny and viral RNA were monitored during both acute and persistent infections. The astrocytoma cell lines U-87 MG, U-373 MG, and GL-15, as well as neuroblastoma SK-N-SH, neuroglioma H4, and oligodendrocytic MO3.13 cell lines, were all susceptible to an acute infection by HuCV-229E. The CHME-5 immortalized fetal microglial cell line was not susceptible to infection by this virus. The MO3.13 and H4 cell lines also sustained a persistent viral infection, as monitored by detection of viral antigen and infectious virus progeny. Sequencing of the S1 gene from viral RNA after approximately 130 days of infection showed two point mutations, suggesting amino acid changes during persistent infection of MO3.13 cells but none for H4 cells. Thus, persistent in vitro infection did not generate important changes in the S1 portion of the viral spike protein, which was shown for murine coronaviruses to bear hypervariable domains and to interact with cellular receptor. These results are consistent with the potential persistence of HuCV-229E in cells of the human nervous system, such as oligodendrocytes and possibly neurons, and the virus's apparent genomic stability.  (+info)

A human RNA viral cysteine proteinase that depends upon a unique Zn2+-binding finger connecting the two domains of a papain-like fold . (2/83)

A cysteine proteinase, papain-like proteinase (PL1pro), of the human coronavirus 229E (HCoV) regulates the expression of the replicase polyproteins, pp1a and ppa1ab, by cleavage between Gly111 and Asn112, far upstream of its own catalytic residue Cys1054. In this report, using bioinformatics tools, we predict that, unlike its distant cellular homologues, HCoV PL1pro and its coronaviral relatives have a poorly conserved Zn2+ finger connecting the left and right hand domains of a papain-like fold. Optical emission spectrometry has been used to confirm the presence of Zn2+ in a purified and proteolytically active form of the HCoV PL1pro fused with the Escherichia coli maltose-binding protein. In denaturation/renaturation experiments using the recombinant protein, its activity was shown to be strongly dependent upon Zn2+, which could be partly substituted by Co2+ during renaturation. The reconstituted, Zn2+-containing PL1pro was not sensitive to 1,10-phenanthroline, and the Zn2+-depleted protein was not reactivated by adding Zn2+ after renaturation. Consistent with the proposed essential structural role of Zn2+, PL1pro was selectively inactivated by mutations in the Zn2+ finger, including replacements of any of four conserved Cys residues predicted to co-ordinate Zn2+. The unique domain organization of HCoV PL1pro provides a potential framework for regulatory processes and may be indicative of a nonproteolytic activity of this enzyme.  (+info)

The human coronavirus 229E superfamily 1 helicase has RNA and DNA duplex-unwinding activities with 5'-to-3' polarity. (3/83)

The human coronavirus 229E replicase gene encodes a protein, p66HEL, that contains a putative zinc finger structure linked to a putative superfamily (SF) 1 helicase. A histidine-tagged form of this protein, HEL, was expressed using baculovirus vectors in insect cells. The purified recombinant protein had in vitro ATPase activity that was strongly stimulated by poly(U), poly(dT), poly(C), and poly(dA), but not by poly(G). The recombinant protein also had both RNA and DNA duplex-unwinding activities with 5'-to-3' polarity. The DNA helicase activity of the enzyme preferentially unwound 5'-oligopyrimidine-tailed, partial-duplex substrates and required a tail length of at least 10 nucleotides for effective unwinding. The combined data suggest that the coronaviral SF1 helicase functionally differs from the previously characterized RNA virus SF2 helicases.  (+info)

Neuroinvasion by human respiratory coronaviruses. (4/83)

Human coronaviruses (HCoV) cause common colds but can also infect neural cell cultures. To provide definitive experimental evidence for the neurotropism and neuroinvasion of HCoV and its possible association with multiple sclerosis (MS), we have performed an extensive search and characterization of HCoV RNA in a large panel of human brain autopsy samples. Very stringent reverse transcription-PCR with two primer pairs for both viral strains (229E and OC43), combined with Southern hybridization, was performed on samples from 90 coded donors with various neurological diseases (39 with MS and 26 with other neurological diseases) or normal controls (25 patients). We report that 44% (40 of 90) of donors were positive for 229E and that 23% (21 of 90) were positive for OC43. A statistically significant higher prevalence of OC43 in MS patients (35.9%; 14 of 39) than in controls (13.7%; 7 of 51) was observed. Sequencing of nucleocapsid protein (N) gene amplicons revealed point mutations in OC43, some consistently found in three MS patient brains and one normal control but never observed in laboratory viruses. In situ hybridization confirmed the presence of viral RNA in brain parenchyma, outside blood vessels. The presence of HCoV in human brains is consistent with neuroinvasion by these respiratory pathogens. Further studies are needed to distinguish between opportunistic and disease-associated viral presence in human brains.  (+info)

Human coronavirus 229E infects polarized airway epithelia from the apical surface. (5/83)

Gene transfer to differentiated airway epithelia with existing viral vectors is very inefficient when they are applied to the apical surface. This largely reflects the polarized distribution of receptors on the basolateral surface. To identify new receptor-ligand interactions that might be used to redirect vectors to the apical surface, we investigated the process of infection of airway epithelial cells by human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E), a common cause of respiratory tract infections. Using immunohistochemistry, we found the receptor for HCoV-229E (CD13 or aminopeptidase N) localized mainly to the apical surface of airway epithelia. When HCoV-229E was applied to the apical or basolateral surface of well-differentiated primary cultures of human airway epithelia, infection primarily occurred from the apical side. Similar results were noted when the virus was applied to cultured human tracheal explants. Newly synthesized virions were released mainly to the apical side. Thus, HCoV-229E preferentially infects human airway epithelia from the apical surface. The spike glycoprotein that mediates HCoV-229E binding and fusion to CD13 is a candidate for pseudotyping retroviral envelopes or modifying other viral vectors.  (+info)

Infectious RNA transcribed in vitro from a cDNA copy of the human coronavirus genome cloned in vaccinia virus. (6/83)

The coronavirus genome is a positive-strand RNA of extraordinary size and complexity. It is composed of approximately 30000 nucleotides and it is the largest known autonomously replicating RNA. It is also remarkable in that more than two-thirds of the genome is devoted to encoding proteins involved in the replication and transcription of viral RNA. Here, a reverse-genetic system is described for the generation of recombinant coronaviruses. This system is based upon the in vitro transcription of infectious RNA from a cDNA copy of the human coronavirus 229E genome that has been cloned and propagated in vaccinia virus. This system is expected to provide new insights into the molecular biology and pathogenesis of coronaviruses and to serve as a paradigm for the genetic analysis of large RNA virus genomes. It also provides a starting point for the development of a new class of eukaryotic, multi-gene RNA vectors that are able to express several proteins simultaneously.  (+info)

Viral replicase gene products suffice for coronavirus discontinuous transcription. (7/83)

We have used vaccinia virus as a vector to clone a 22.5-kbp cDNA that represents the 5' and 3' ends of the human coronavirus 229E (HCoV 229E) genome, the HCoV 229E replicase gene, and a single reporter gene (coding for green fluorescent protein [GFP]) located downstream of a regulatory element for coronavirus mRNA transcription. When RNA transcribed from this cDNA was transfected into BHK-21 cells, a small percentage of cells displayed strong fluorescence. A region of the mRNA encoding GFP was amplified by PCR and shown to have the unique mRNA leader-body junction indicative of coronavirus-mediated transcription. These data show that the coronavirus replicase gene products suffice for discontinuous subgenomic mRNA transcription.  (+info)

The autocatalytic release of a putative RNA virus transcription factor from its polyprotein precursor involves two paralogous papain-like proteases that cleave the same peptide bond. (8/83)

The largest replicative protein of coronaviruses is known as p195 in the avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and p210 (p240) in the mouse hepatitis virus. It is autocatalytically released from the precursors pp1a and pp1ab by one zinc finger-containing papain-like protease (PLpro) in IBV and by two paralogous PLpros, PL1pro and PL2pro, in mouse hepatitis virus. The PLpro-containing proteins have been recently implicated in the control of coronavirus subgenomic mRNA synthesis (transcription). By using comparative sequence analysis, we now show that the respective proteins of all sequenced coronaviruses are flanked by two conserved PLpro cleavage sites and share a complex (multi)domain organization with PL1pro being inactivated in IBV. Based upon these predictions, the processing of the human coronavirus 229E p195/p210 N terminus was studied in detail. First, an 87-kDa protein (p87), which is derived from a pp1a/pp1ab region immediately upstream of p195/p210, was identified in human coronavirus 229E-infected cells. Second, in vitro synthesized proteins representing different parts of pp1a were autocatalytically processed at the predicted site. Surprisingly, both PL1pro and PL2pro cleaved between p87 and p195/p210. The PL1pro-mediated cleavage was slow and significantly suppressed by a non-proteolytic activity of PL2pro. In contrast, PL2pro, whose proteolytic activity and specificity were established in this study, cleaved the same site efficiently in the presence of the upstream domains. Third, a correlation was observed between the overlapping substrate specificities and the parallel evolution of PL1pro and PL2pro. Collectively, our results imply that the p195/p210 autoprocessing mechanisms may be conserved among coronaviruses to an extent not appreciated previously, with PL2pro playing a major role. A large subset of coronaviruses may employ two proteases to cleave the same site(s) and thus regulate the expression of the viral genome in a unique way.  (+info)

Human coronavirus. Coloured transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of Human coronavirus particles (purple circles). Coronaviruses primarily infect the upper respiratory and gastrointestinal tract and can cause the common cold, gastrointestinal infections and SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome). Coronaviruses are named after the corona (crown) of surface proteins (dark dots) that are used to penetrate a host cell. Once inside the cell, the virus particles (virions) use the cells machinery to make more copies of themselves. Magnification: x67,000 when printed 10 centimetres tall. - Stock Image C001/0467
Recombinant Human coronavirus SARS Nucleoprotein is an Escherichia coli Protein fragment 1 to 49 aa range, | 95% purity and validated in WB, ELISA, SDS-PAGE.
Poppe, M.; Wittig, S.; Jurida, L.; Bartkuhn, M.; Wilhelm, J.; Müller, H.; Beuerlein, K.; Karl, N.; Bhuju, S.; Ziebuhr, J.; Schmitz, M.Lienhard.; Kracht, M., 2017: The NF-κB-dependent and -independent transcriptome and chromatin landscapes of human coronavirus 229E-infected cells
Human coronaviruses can sometimes cause lower-respiratory tract illnesses, such as pneumonia or bronchitis. This is more common in people with cardiopulmonary disease, people with weakened immune systems, infants, and older adults.. Other human coronaviruses. Two other human coronaviruses, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV have been known to frequently cause severe symptoms. MERS symptoms usually include fever, cough, and shortness of breath which often progress to pneumonia. About 3 or 4 out of every 10 patients reported with MERS have died. MERS cases continue to occur, primarily in the Arabian Peninsula. SARS symptoms often included fever, chills, and body aches which usually progressed to pneumonia. No human cases of SARS have been reported anywhere in the world since 2004.. Transmission. Human coronaviruses most commonly spread from an infected person to others through the air by coughing and sneezing close personal contact, such as touching or shaking hands touching an object or surface with the virus ...
Human coronaviruses (HCV) cause various respiratory, gastrointestinal and possibly neurological disorders. Very little is known of the molecular biology of these ubiquitous pathogens. We have...
Coronaviruses were classified as a distinct group of viruses in 19681 and are now recognized as the etiologic agents of an increasing number of diseases of man and animals2-7. At least four members...
In deze video, tonen we een alternatieve methode voor de detectie en titering van virussen met behulp van een enzymatische antigeen...
The SARS epidemic of 2002-2003 was short-lived, but a novel type of human coronavirus that is alarming public health authorities can infect cells from humans and bats alike, a fact that could make the animals a continuing ...
The SARS epidemic of 2002-2003 was short-lived, but a novel type of human coronavirus that is alarming public health authorities can infect cells from humans and bats alike, a fact that could make the animals a continuing source of infection, according to a study to be published in in mBio®, the online open-access journal of the American Society for Microbiology, on December 11. The new cor
Patterns of point mutations associated with antiretroviral drug treatment failure in CRF01_AE (subtype E) infection differ from subtype B infection ...
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HUMAN coronaviruses (HCV) in two serogroups represented by HCV-229E and HCV-OC43 are an important cause of upper respiratory tract infections1. Here we report that human aminopeptidase N, a cell-surface metalloprotease on intestinal, lung and kidney epithelial cells2-5, is a receptor for human coronavirus strain HCV-229E, but not for HCV-OC43. A monoclonal antibody, RBS, blocked HCV-229E virus infection of human lung fibroblasts, immunoprecipitated aminopeptidase N and inhibited its enzymatic activity. HCV-229E-resistant murine fibroblasts became susceptible after transfection with complementary DNA encoding human aminopeptidase N. By contrast, infection of human cells with HCV-OC43 was not inhibited by antibody RBS and expression of aminopeptidase N did not enhance HCV-OC43 replication in mouse cells. A mutant aminopeptidase lacking the catalytic site of the enzyme did not bind HCV-229E or RBS and did not render murine cells susceptible to HCV-229E infection, suggesting that the virus-binding site may
The Environmental Protection Agencys List N: Disinfectants for use against SARS-CoV-2, can be found by following this link https://www.epa.gov/pesticide-registration/list-n-disinfectants-use-against-sars-cov-2. No pouring and measuring needed. Each ½ oz. bottle makes one quart of surface disinfectant solution. Available in packs of 6 or 12 ½ oz. bottles. Our economically-priced Cetylcide-II Concentrate is an EPA-registered, broad-spectrum hospital disinfectant effective against 140+ disease-causing organisms including; HIV, MRSA, VRE, HBV, Influenza A / Brazil Virus (H1N1), and Human Coronavirus. Easily diluted in tap water, Cetylcide-II concentrate is now available in FOUR convenient packages to meet the needs of facilities of every size.. Cetylcide-II instructions for Human Coronavirus: Dilute 2 ounces per gallon in water, or ½ oz per quart in water . Pre-clean heavily soiled surfaces. Spray or wipe surface with solution. Demonstrated efficacy within 10 minutes. See product insert for ...
OBJECTIVES:Identification of HLA-associated HIV-1 polymorphisms (HLA-APs) in different global populations furthers our understanding of HIV-1 pathogenesis and may help identify candidate immunogens for HIV vaccines targeted to these populations. Although numerous population-based studies identifying HLA-APs have been conducted in HIV-1 subtype B- and subtype C-infected cohorts, few have focused on subtype A/E.DESIGN:We investigated HLA-APs in a cohort of chronically HIV-1 subtype A/E-infected Vietnamese individuals.
Wu, C.Y., Jan, J.T., Ma, S.H., Kuo, C.J., Juan, H.F., Cheng, Y.S.E. , Hsu, H.H., Huang, H.C., Wu, D., Brik, A., Liang, F.S., Liu, R.S., Fang, J.M. , Chen, S.T., Liang, P.H. , and Wong, C.H. . Small molecules targeting severe acute respiratory syndrome human coronavirus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2004, 101, 10012-10017 ...
Before the SARS outbreak only two human coronaviruses (HCoV) were known: HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-229E. With the discovery of SARS-CoV in 2003, a third family member ...
Coronaviruses are zoonotic, which means they?re known to be transmitted between animals and people. Coronaviruses are part of a large family of viruses; the illnesses these viruses cause (like COVID-19) range from mild to serious. Here are the signs and symptoms of COVID-19 you need to look out for.
Acute respiratory tract infections in humans are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality especially in children, elderly, and the immunocompromised. Virus infection is the primary cause of acute respiratory tract infections. Infection with coronaviruses can cause disease ranging from common colds to severe acute respiratory syndrome. Currently no coronavirus-specific antivirals are available. Patients are given symptomatic treatment, or are prescribed inappropriately antibiotics which do not target the underlying virus infection. The identification of specific inhibitors of coronaviruses or knowledge about how coronaviruses interact with the innate immune system could provide new avenues for developing therapeutics. I investigated the replication of human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) in primary human airway epithelial cultures and characterized the activity of the viral papain-like protease 2 (PLP2) domain. Using quantitative real time PCR and imaging techniques I showed that HCoV-NL63
Human coronavirus NL63 or HCoV-NL63 is a species of coronavirus that was identified in late 2004 in a seven-month-old child with bronchiolitis in the Netherlands. Infection with the virus has been confirmed worldwide, and has an association with many common symptoms and diseases. Associated diseases include mild to moderate upper respiratory tract infections, severe lower respiratory tract infection, croup and bronchiolitis. The virus is found primarily in young children, the elderly, and immunocompromised patients with acute respiratory illness. It also has a seasonal association in temperate climates. A study performed in Amsterdam estimated the presence of HCoV-NL63 in approximately 4.7% of common respiratory illnesses. Further studies confirmed that the virus is not an emerging virus, but rather one that continually circulates the human population. The first cases of the infection with HCoV-NL63 were found in young children with severe lower respiratory tract infections admitted to ...
Aminopeptidase N is located in the small-intestinal and renal microvillar membrane, and also in other plasma membranes. In the small intestine aminopeptidase N plays a role in the final digestion of peptides generated from hydrolysis of proteins by gastric and pancreatic proteases. Its function in proximal tubular epithelial cells and other cell types is less clear. The large extracellular carboxyterminal domain contains a pentapeptide consensus sequence characteristic of members of the zinc-binding metalloproteinase superfamily. Sequence comparisons with known enzymes of this class showed that CD13 and aminopeptidase N are identical. The latter enzyme was thought to be involved in the metabolism of regulatory peptides by diverse cell types, including small intestinal and renal tubular epithelial cells, macrophages, granulocytes, and synaptic membranes from the CNS. Human aminopeptidase N is a receptor for one strain of human coronavirus that is an important cause of upper respiratory tract ...
Broad specificity aminopeptidase. Plays a role in the final digestion of peptides generated from hydrolysis of proteins by gastric and pancreatic proteases. May play a critical role in the pathogenesis of cholesterol gallstone disease. May be involved in the metabolism of regulatory peptides of diverse cell types, responsible for the processing of peptide hormones, such as angiotensin III and IV, neuropeptides, and chemokines. Found to cleave antigen peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex class II molecules of presenting cells and to degrade neurotransmitters at synaptic junctions. Is also implicated as a regulator of IL-8 bioavailability in the endometrium, and therefore may contribute to the regulation of angiogenesis. Is used as a marker for acute myeloid leukemia and plays a role in tumor invasion. In case of human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) infection, serves as receptor for HCoV-229E spike glycoprotein. Mediates as well human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection ...
Matthew Garrett PharmD Candidate 2015 It is estimated that around 20 million hepatitis E infections occur every year. The hepatitis E virus causes liver disease and is usually transmitted through contaminated drinking water. The highest prevalence of hepatitis E is seen in eastern Asia. Hepatitis E infection usually resolves in 4-6 weeks and is…
Alzheimers disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease, clinically characterized by progressive memory loss. To date, an estimated 5.2 million people have the disease in the US, and the total number of people with AD-related dementia is projected to rise to 13.8 million by 2050.1,2 At present, there is no cure for the disease, and early clinical diagnosis is not yet available for the majority of patients.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a virus (more specifically, a coronavirus) identified as the cause of an outbreak of respiratory illness first detected in Wuhan, China.
CORONAVIRUS has now infected more than 5,000 people in the UK, killed thousands around the world and infected a total of more than 200,000 patients. But how many people have recovered from coronavirus?
By Lawrence S. Sturman (auth.), V. ter Meulen, S. Siddell, H. Wege (eds.). This e-book is the results of a global symposium held on the Institute of Virology and Immunobiology of the-University of WUrzburg, Germany, in October 1980. The purpose of this symposium was once to supply a chance to check the information on coronavirus constitution and duplicate- tion in addition to to debate mechanisms of pathogenesis. For over a decade coronaviruses were famous as a big staff of viruses that are chargeable for quite a few ailments of medical significance in animals and guy. lately new and fascinating information at the molecular biology and pathogenesis of coronaviruses became to be had and this led us to arrange this assembly. The uniformity and variety during this virus staff used to be evaluated from a molecular standpoint and the replication of coronaviruses seems to be to contain features that could be particular for this virus staff. also, not like different confident strand RNA viruses it grew ...
To prevent coronavirus infection, experts recommend doing the same things you would do to avoid getting the flu. Unless you have recently travelled to China or been in contact with someone infected with the coronavirus, then treat any cough or cold symptoms as normal. Call 111 instead of visiting the GPs surgery to prevent the risk of infecting others.
A virus is a microscopic parasite that cannot live or reproduce outside of a host body. A "host" refers to the organism or species (like humans, dogs or cats) that a virus is able to infect. Viruses, which are much smaller than the cells that make up our bodies, move between cells and infect them individually, and use cells to create copies of themselves.. Coronavirus is one type of virus much like a banana is one type of fruit. There are many types of viruses that infect different parts of the body. An intestinal virus, for example can cause vomiting, diarrhea and inappetence (not wanting to eat). Coronavirus is a respiratory virus (in humans) because it infects the cells of the respiratory tract (nasal passages, bronchi, bronchioles, and lung tissue) and causes respiratory symptoms such as coughing, runny nose, sneezing and sore throat.. ...
As the coronavirus pandemic continues to shut down daily life across the globe, thousands of our readers across the nation have asked us questions about COVID-19.And were answering them.For basic facts about the virus - what it is, how it spreads and where its located - you can get caught up by reading our in-depth explainer here. Weve also debunked some viral coronavirus myths. But youre curious and continue to ask important
Read more on what we know about COVID-19 coronavirus, including how contagious and dangerous it is, and how to prevent from becoming infected with coronavirus.
The latest general information on the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is available on Coronavirus.gov. For GPO specific COVID-19 resources, please visit our page.. ...
The coronaviruses are a family of viruses that includes a series of very different pathogens. These viruses usually infect mammals, rodents, and birds, but only few coronaviruses adapted to humans. They did this with great success: About one third of all typical common colds and some cases of diarrhoea as well are caused by these RNA Viruses, which are the largest of their kind. We have compiled more information about the coronaviruses for you. ...
many people will get infected or sick during this outbreak. most coronavirus infections will either have no symptoms or mild symptoms consistent with the flu.
Gidday, J. M., Gasche, Y. G., Copin, J. C., Shah, A. R., Perez, R. S., Shapiro, S. D., Chan, P. H., and Park, T. S., 2005, Leukocytes-derived matrix metalloproteinase-9 mediates blood-brain-barrier breakdown and is proinflammatory after transient focal cerabral ischemia, Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 289:H558-568CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ...
The CDC reported its tally of cases of the respiratory illness known as COVID-19, caused by the new coronavirus, as of 4 p.m. ET on May 23, compared with its count a day earlier. The CDC figures do not necessarily reflect cases reported by individual states.
ProMach Coronavirus (COVID-19) Update - we remain committed to helping our customers keep their packaging lines operating as efficiently as possible while focusing on the safety and protection of everyone.
The new coronavirus and the seasonal flu are both contagious respiratory diseases with similar symptoms, but so far the new malady appears to be deadlier.
The rapid spread of the virus that causes COVID-19 has sparked alarm worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared this rapidly spreading coronavirus…
The rapid spread of the virus that causes COVID-19 has sparked alarm worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared this rapidly spreading coronavirus…
Often marked by fever, vomiting and loss of appetite, coronavirus in dogs is caused by a virus. Heres need-to-know information on helping your pet heal.
Im very concerned about my elderly mother catching the coronavirus (COVID-19). Is she at more of a risk for the illness and if so, what can we do to protect her?
Were starting to get a clearer picture of how the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus works when it infects the body, and there are some surprises emerging. This new paper
Tips from Helen Cooke a nutritionist based in Bristol about how to support and boost your immune system during the Coronavirus outbreak
As the coronavirus situation intensifies, you might be wondering: how can I keep myself healthy? There are ways to keep your immune system functioning optimally, which can help to keep you healthy and give you a sense of control in an uncertain time.
Scientists are calling for urgent studies to determine the proportion of people with coronavirus who show no, or delayed, symptoms amid concern that the number of silent carriers may be greater than previously thought.
We know there is a growing concern regarding the impact of the coronavirus, and wed like to inform you that we have taken all the right measures and precautions for our team
As spread of the novel COVID-19 coronavirus continues, the American College of Cardiology has released a clinical update that looks at early cardiac implications and clinical guidance.
Coronavirus. Image produced using high-dynamic-range imaging (HDRI) from an image taken with transmission electron microscopy. Viral diameter ranges from around 80 to 160 nm. - Stock Image C024/4681
Stay tuned as Patient Power provides the latest news on the coronavirus outbreak with updates from renowned doctors, researchers and experts to help keep cancer patients and their loved ones informed and safe.
Hey everyone, This is a megathread for anything related to coronavirus that is **nonpolitical** and **not about asktrumpsupporters itself**....
February 13, 2020People sick, people dying. How many people? Unknown. Massive lockdowns of Chinese cities. Citizens trying to escape. For the global audience, this equals coronavirus, not because they...read more
By Jocelyn Kaiser Courtesy Science Sciences COVID-19 reporting is supported by the Pulitzer Center. COVID-19, caused by the new pandemic coronavirus, is strangely-and tragically-selective. Only some infected people get sick, and although most of the critically ill are elderly or have complicating problems such as heart disease, some killed by the disease are previously healthy and […]
The coronavirus epidemic started one month earlier than is commonly reported and has yet to be brought under control, a new disease-transmission model created by University of Toronto researchers suggests.
Preliminary research conducted by Chinese scientists suggests that the new coronavirus, presumably, can not be transmitted from an infected mother to her unborn baby, a study published in The Lancet journal said
BANGKOK (AP) - As Brazil and India struggle with surging coronavirus cases, a top health expert is warning that the world is still in the very middle of the…
The day-by-day number of new coronavirus cases in China, the United States, and the world. NBC News updates the charts and data every morning at 11:00 a.m EDT.
Streets are empty in various cities across the globe as countries close schools, shops, public places, and put cities on lockdown to fight the new coronavirus pandemic.
A top medic who contracted Coronavirus says the deadly respiratory disease is so contagious it can be transmitted through the eyes. Wang Guangfa, who was a...
Hospitals are bracing for the potential spread of coronavirus in the United States, trying to plan for a potential onslaught of sick patients combined with potential supply shortages.
Globally, many developers and contractors are scrambling to identify available contractual relief as the Coronavirus (COVID-19) disrupts cross-border…
United States Coronavirus update with statistics and graphs: total and new cases, deaths per day, mortality and recovery rates, current active cases, recoveries, trends and timeline.
Here is the collection of information you may need for your coronavirus essay. All the basic information is at one place for you to comfortably use.
Learn what author Bill Thompson (Candida, Killing So Sweetly) recommends to prevent the Coronavirus and the top antiviral supplements and herbs to help in
Yen.com.gh News ☛ Efforts to eradicate coronavirus outbreak have suffered a major setback after doctors in China and Japan confirmed that patients who had recovered from the epidermic tested positive weeks later.
Rinat Akhmetov allocates 300 million UAH to fight against the coronavirus - news and press releases of the company | DTEK is Ukraines largest energy group
One of the most effective measures for containing the transmission of a virus is to identify who an infected person has been in contact and/or crossed paths with, mainly during incubation periods.
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Overdraft interest rates will be frozen at their current level for three months, with. customers charged up to a maximum of 19.89%.
Social distancing can lead to adverse psychological and physiological effects. But there are things you can do to maintain your overall health.
Telehealth with AI can help healthcare providers scale to meet disease spread to save lives and reduce the impact of the COVID-19 epidemic.
The total number of tests alone does not tell the real story. Here are some of the measures that you should be looking at to better understand how the U.S. doing.
President claims the WHO is "wrong about a lot of things." The number of confirmed U.S. cases is approaching 400,000, according to Johns Hopkins University.
Rallies and town halls are held exclusively online. Field organizers are working from home. And "I wash my hands" is a CDC-friendly campaign slogan.
Drew University continues to monitor the impact of the coronavirus (COVID-19) and has adopted the practice of social distancing. The University is operating in Drew Virtual Time for both learning and business and will not resume regular business operations at least through the first part of June (instead of April 3 as we had previously anticipated). Additionally, we are moving into a different phase with residential life. Read President Baenningers message about this shift, and for the latest information, visit the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) resource site. ...
NHS advice about coronavirus (COVID-19), including what the symptoms are, what to do if you think you have it and how to reduce your chances of getting it.
Dieser Bericht behandelt auch die Auswirkungen von COVID-19 auf den Weltmarkt. Die durch Coronavirus (COVID-19) verursachte Pandemie hat alle Aspekte…. Read More » ...
Coronavirus Global Surgical Collaborative (CVGSC)* An initiative sponsored by SAGES in collaboration with EAES, AEC, KSELS, and ELSA A group of surgical leaders from affected countries have joined to discuss what they are learning during this Covid-19 Global crisis. The following is a brief summary of what they feel may be useful information to disseminate to the surgical […] ...
Coronavirus Global Surgical Collaborative (CVGSC)* An initiative sponsored by SAGES in collaboration with EAES, AEC, KSELS, and ELSA A group of surgical leaders from affected countries have joined to discuss what they are learning during this Covid-19 Global crisis. The following is a brief summary of what they feel may be useful information to disseminate to the surgical […] ...
Studies have shown that some people touch their faces as often as 23 times an hour. Some studies have also shown that face-touching spreads germs, such as the coronavirus. Here are some ways to stop ...
The University is liaising closely with local agencies to provide help where we can as an organisation in the fight against coronavirus (COVID-19).
In a bid to stop the spread of coronavirus, health experts and the government advise on self isolation - but that doesnt mean you cant send a little pick me up to friends and family.
Coronaviruses are common viruses that can affect humans and animals. Coronaviruses are medium-sized enveloped positive-stranded RNA viruses whose name comes from their characteristic crown-like appearance in electron micrographs. Coronaviruses are widespread among birds and mammals, with bats being the largest host of various genotypes1. Human coronaviruses were first identified in the mid-1960s2. There are two genera of human coronaviruses: alpha coronaviruses and beta coronaviruses. The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus/MERS-CoV, and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus/SARS-CoV are examples of beta coronaviruses. Human coronaviruses probably account for 5 to 10 percent of all acute upper respiratory tract infections in adults1.. Seasonally, coronaviruses are ubiquitous. In temperate climates, coronavirus respiratory infections occur primarily in the winter although sometimes these infections can peak in the fall or spring1.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - History and recent advances in coronavirus discovery. AU - Kahn, Jeffrey. AU - McIntosh, Kenneth. PY - 2005/11. Y1 - 2005/11. N2 - Human coronaviruses, first characterized in the 1960s, are responsible for a substantial proportion of upper respiratory tract infections in children. Since 2003, at least 5 new human coronaviruses have been identified, including the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, which caused significant morbidity and mortality. NL63, representing a group of newly identified group I coronaviruses that includes NL and the New Haven coronavirus, has been identified worldwide. These viruses are associated with both upper and lower respiratory tract disease and are likely common human pathogens. The global distribution of a newly identified group II coronavirus, HKU1, has not yet been established. Coronavirology has advanced significantly in the past few years. The SARS epidemic put the animal coronaviruses in the spotlight. The background and history ...
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Anti-coronaravirus antibodies are present in most people but reinfection is common. This indicates that there are many circulating serotypes of of the virus in the human population. So far, animal reservoirs have not been found for those viruses that infect humans. Cornavirus causes cold more often in the winter, as is typical with most respiratory infections, because of closer contact. Major outbreaks occur every few years with a cycle that depends on the type of virus that is involved. The human coronaviruses are responsible for 10-20% of all common colds and have been implicated in gastroenteritis, high and low respiratory tract infections and rare cases of encephalitis. The symptoms of coronavirus colds are similar to those of rhinovirus colds which include runny nose, sore throat, cough, headache, fever and chills. The incubation period is about 3 days. The immune response of most patients limits the viral spread but this immunity is short-lived. Although it varies considerably between ...
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Coronaviruses: Genome Structure, Replication, And .... Those with the active IC resulted in death of mice; and those with mutant E gene lacking IC activity, generally resulted in recovery and survival of the mice [10]. Airborne infections are those that are transmitted with flying pathogens that are in the wind.represents the expected peak of antibody titers and implies that there will be diminished protection against SARS-CoV over time." Coronaviruses are a family of viruses that have spikes on their surface that make them look like little crowns as you can see in this photo:.. Coronavirus - An Overview , ScienceDirect Topics. Data represent one experiment for both Vero and HAE cells.M glycoprotein helps in the attachment of the nucleocapsid to the membranes of internal structures such as the Golgi Body.8 was able to achieve 50% neutralization of SHC014-MA15, but only at high concentrations (10 μg/ml) (Fig.If you have this blood disorder, you can also expect to feel things like fatigue, ...
The virus has been identified as 2019-nCoV, which stands for a novel coronavirus discovered in 2019. According to the World Health Organization, it is from the same family of viruses as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV), but it is not the same virus. In February, the WHO gave the disease caused by this virus a new name: COVID-19. Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses, most of which are harmless for humans. Four types are known to cause colds while two other types can cause severe lung infections-SARS and Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), both of which are similar to COVID-19 ...
Shimizu, C., Shike, H., Baker, S. C., Garcia, F., van der Hoek, L., Kuijpers, T. W., Reed, S. L., Rowley, A. H., Shulman, S. T., Talbot, H. K. B., Williams, J. V., and Burns, J. C., 2005, Human coronavirus NL63 is not detected in the respiratory tract of children with acute Kawasaki disease, J. Infect. Dis. 192: 1767-1771CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ...
Looking for online definition of Coronavirus infections in the Medical Dictionary? Coronavirus infections explanation free. What is Coronavirus infections? Meaning of Coronavirus infections medical term. What does Coronavirus infections mean?
UNLABELLED: The receptor binding domain (RBD) of the spike (S) glycoprotein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is a major target of protective immunity in vivo. Although a large number of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) have been developed, it remains unclear if a single RBD-targeting nAb or two in combination can prevent neutralization escape and, if not, attenuate viral virulence in vivo. In this study, we used a large panel of human nAbs against an epitope that overlaps the interface between the RBD and its receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), to assess their cross-neutralization activities against a panel of human and zoonotic SARS-CoVs and neutralization escape mutants. We also investigated the neutralization escape profiles of these nAbs and evaluated their effects on receptor binding and virus fitness in vitro and in mice. We found that some nAbs had great potency and breadth in neutralizing multiple viral strains, including neutralization escape ...
SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) encodes several unique group-specific open reading frames (ORFs) relative to other known coronaviruses. To determine the significance of the SARS-CoV group-specific ORFs in virus replication in vitro and in mice, we systematically deleted five of the eight group-specific ORFs, ORF3a, OF3b, ORF6, ORF7a, and ORF7b, and characterized recombinant virus replication and gene expression in vitro. Deletion of the group-specific ORFs of SARS-CoV, either alone or in various combinations, did not dramatically influence replication efficiency in cell culture or in the levels of viral RNA synthesis. The greatest reduction in virus growth was noted following ORF3a deletion. SARS-CoV spike (S) glycoprotein does not encode a rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER)/Golgi retention signal, and it has been suggested that ORF3a interacts with and targets S glycoprotein retention in the rER/Golgi apparatus. Deletion of ORF3a did not alter subcellular localization of the S glycoprotein from ...
Dr Shikha Sharma. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an unforgettable word in 2020. World health organization has declared COVID-19 as pandemic and according to the Worldometer site, it has affected 212 countries and territories and has caused approximately 2.8 lakhs deaths so far. According to the various published scientific evidences COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by new coronavirus that can lead to lung dysfunction. There are 7 coronaviruses that are known to cause disease in humans and among these 3 can cause the severe respiratory infection. These are severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) identified in 2002 in China, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) identified in 2012 in Saudi Arabia and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus2 (SARS-CoV2) commonly called COVID-19 identified in late 2019 in Wuhan, China. SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and COVID-19 are closely related but COVID-19 spread more quickly than the other two. Over 8000 people from 29 ...
These viruses include human coronavirus 229E and OC43. Susceptible cells are inoculated with serial logarithmic dilutions of ... "Titration of Human Coronaviruses, HCoV-229E and HCoV-OC43, by an Indirect Immunoperoxidase Assay". SARS- and Other ... This technique is a reliable method for the titration of human coronaviruses (HCoV) in biological samples (cells, tissues, or ... Lambert, Francine; Jacomy, Helene; Marceau, Gabriel; Talbot, Pierre J. (28 April 2008). "Titration of Human Coronaviruses Using ...
"Human aminopeptidase N is a receptor for human coronavirus 229E". Nature. 357 (6377): 420-2. doi:10.1038/357420a0. PMID 1350662 ... "Identification of residues critical for the human coronavirus 229E receptor function of human aminopeptidase N". The Journal of ... Human aminopeptidase N is a receptor for one strain of human coronavirus that is an important cause of upper respiratory tract ... "Characterization of functional domains in the human coronavirus HCV 229E receptor". The Journal of General Virology. 77. 77 ( ...
... suggesting that it is a common cold virus similar to HCoV-229E and HCoV-OC43, which generally cause less severe symptoms. ... Human coronavirus NL63 or HCoV-NL63 is a species of coronavirus that was identified in late 2004 in a seven-month-old child ... Public Health Agency of Canada "Human Coronavirus" Retrieved on July 22, 2015. Center for Disease Control "About Coronavirus" ... Human coronavirus NL63 employs the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus receptor for cellular entry. Proc Natl Acad ...
Human coronavirus 229E, Human Coronavirus NL63, Miniopterus Bat coronavirus 1, Miniopterus Bat coronavirus HKU8, Porcine ... Avian coronavirus Species: Avian coronavirus, Beluga whale coronavirus SW1 Coronavirus RNA virus Human coronavirus OC43 Human ... Human coronavirus HKU1, Murine coronavirus, Pipistrellus Bat coronavirus HKU5, Rousettus Bat coronavirus HKU9, Severe acute ... which are prototyped by human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) and HCoV-NL63, as well as the newly established species ...
... coronavirus 229e, human MeSH B04.820.504.540.150.220 --- coronavirus oc43, human MeSH B04.820.504.540.150.260 --- coronavirus, ... coronavirus 229e, human MeSH B04.909.777.500.540.150.220 --- coronavirus oc43, human MeSH B04.909.777.500.540.150.260 --- ... human MeSH B04.820.565.284.182 --- enterovirus b, human MeSH B04.820.565.284.182.225 --- echovirus 6, human MeSH B04.820. ... human MeSH B04.909.777.618.284.182 --- enterovirus b, human MeSH B04.909.777.618.284.182.225 --- echovirus 6, human MeSH ...
Alphacoronavirus 1 Human coronavirus 229E Human coronavirus NL63 Miniopterus bat coronavirus 1 Miniopterus bat coronavirus HKU8 ... Betacoronavirus 1 Human coronavirus HKU1 Murine coronavirus Pipistrellus bat coronavirus HKU5 Rousettus bat coronavirus HKU9 ... Bulbul coronavirus HKU11 Munia coronavirus HKU13 Thrush coronavirus HKU12 Genus: Gammacoronavirus Avian coronavirus Beluga ... Human infection by SARS coronavirus appears to be limited to the respiratory tract where infection of susceptible cells leads ...
Family 1.A.89 The Human Coronavirus 229E Viroporin (229E Viroporin) Family 1.A.90 The Human Metapneumovirus (HMPV) Viroporin ( ... ICln family 1.A.48 Anion channel Tweety family 1.A.49 Human coronavirus ns12.9 viroporin family 1.A.50 Phospholamban (Ca2+- ... Human Herpes Virus 4) Gp42 (Gp42) Family 1.G.22 The Cytomegalovirus (Human Herpesvirus 5) Glycoprotein gO (gO) Family 1.H.1 The ... Family 1.A.97 The Human Papillomavirus type 16 E5 Viroporin (HPV-E5) Family 1.A.98 Human T-Lymphotropic Virus 1 P13 protein ( ...
Canine coronavirus , Human coronavirus 229E, Human coronavirus NL63, Miniopterus bat coronavirus 1, Miniopterus bat coronavirus ... Rhinolophus bat coronavirus HKU2 and Scotophilus bat coronavirus 512. Transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus Coronavirus ... Coronaviruses are enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses that include both human and zoonotic species. Within ... This genus contains what were previously considered phylogroup 1 coronaviruses. Both the alpha- and beta-coronavirus lineages ...
Human coronavirus 229E Human coronavirus OC43 SARS-CoV Human Coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63, New Haven coronavirus) Human ... Human coronavirus 229E, Human Coronavirus NL63, Miniopterus Bat coronavirus 1, Miniopterus Bat coronavirus HKU8, Porcine ... Alpaca coronavirus and human coronavirus 229E diverged before 1960. The human coronavirus NL63 and a bat coronovirus shared an ... These viruses were subsequently named human coronavirus 229E and human coronavirus OC43. Coronaviruses primarily infect the ...
Along with HCoV-229E, a species in the Alphacoronavirus genus, HCoV-OC43 are among the known viruses that cause the common cold ... Human coronavirus OC43 is an enveloped, positive-stranded RNA virus in the species Betacoronavirus-1 (genus Betacoronavirus, ... Van Der Hoek, L (2007). "Human coronaviruses: What do they cause?". Antiviral Therapyapy. 12 (4 Pt B): 651-8. PMID 17944272. ... ISBN 978-1-55581-371-0. Pyrc, K.; Berkhout, B.; Van Der Hoek, L. (2007). "Antiviral Strategies Against Human Coronaviruses". ...
... particularly with Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV). HCoV-229E is one of the four human coronaviruses which include HC0V ... Human coronavirus 229E is a single-stranded, positive-sense, RNA virus species in the Alphacoronavirus genus of the subfamily ... Along with Human coronavirus OC43, it is responsible for the common cold. HCoV-229E transmits via droplet-respiration and ... Epidemiology and Clinical Presentations of the Four Human Coronaviruses 229E, HKU1, NL63, and OC43 Detected over 3 Years Using ...
In the article, they noted four respiratory human coronaviruses (HCoV) known to be endemic: 229E, OC43, NL63, and HKU1. In May ... Most infections with human coronaviruses are mild and associated with common colds. The six coronaviruses known to infect ... Lu, Guangwen; Liu, Di (2012). "SARS-like virus in the Middle East: A truly bat-related coronavirus causing human diseases" (PDF ... Zaki and co-authors from the Erasmus Medical Center published more details, including a scientific name, Human Coronavirus- ...
Alphacoronavirus 1 Human coronavirus 229E Human coronavirus NL63 Miniopterus bat coronavirus 1 Miniopterus bat coronavirus HKU8 ... B Human mastadenovirus A Human mastadenovirus B Human mastadenovirus C Human mastadenovirus D Human mastadenovirus E Human ... Betacoronavirus 1 Human coronavirus HKU1 Murine coronavirus Pipistrellus bat coronavirus HKU5 Rousettus bat coronavirus HKU9 ... Bulbul coronavirus HKU11 Munia coronavirus HKU13 Thrush coronavirus HKU12 Genus: Gammacoronavirus Avian coronavirus Beluga ...
6A Human betaherpesvirus 6B Human betaherpesvirus 7 Human coronavirus 229E Human coronavirus HKU1 Human coronavirus NL63 Human ... A Human mastadenovirus B Human mastadenovirus C Human mastadenovirus D Human mastadenovirus E Human mastadenovirus F Human ... 2 Human parainfluenza virus 3 Human parainfluenza virus 4 Human picobirnavirus Human polyomavirus 1 Human polyomavirus 2 Human ... polyomavirus 3 Human polyomavirus 4 Human polyomavirus 5 Human polyomavirus 6 Human polyomavirus 7 Human polyomavirus 8 Human ...
1,0 1,1 Gulfaraz Khan, A novel coronavirus capable of lethal human infections: an emerging picture, Virology Journal 2013, doi: ... nakatumine teistesse koroonaviirsutesse, sh HC0V-OC43 ja HCoV-229E. *inimese metapneumoviiruse nakkus ... NOVEL CORONAVIRUS - SAUDI ARABIA (15): NEW CASE, (vaadatud 24.06.2015) *↑ NOVEL CORONAVIRUS - SAUDI ARABIA (17): 4TH CASE, ... American Society for Microbiology, New Coronavirus Has Many Potential Hosts, Could Pass from Animals to Humans Repeatedly, 11. ...
... is a receptor for human coronavirus strain HCV-229E, but not for HCV-OC43. A monoclonal antibody, RBS, blocked HCV-229E virus ... HCV-229E-resistant murine fibroblasts became susceptible after transfection with complementary DNA encoding human ... A mutant aminopeptidase lacking the catalytic site of the enzyme did not bind HCV-229E or RBS and did not render murine cells ... susceptible to HCV-229E infection, suggesting that the virus-binding site may lie at or near the active site of the human ...
... particularly with Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV). HCoV-229E is one of the four human coronaviruses which include HC0V ... Human coronavirus 229E is a single-stranded, positive-sense, RNA virus species in the Alphacoronavirus genus of the subfamily ... Along with Human coronavirus OC43, it is responsible for the common cold. HCoV-229E transmits via droplet-respiration and ... Epidemiology and Clinical Presentations of the Four Human Coronaviruses 229E, HKU1, NL63, and OC43 Detected over 3 Years Using ...
Human coronaviruses (HCV) cause various respiratory, gastrointestinal and possibly neurological disorders. Very little is known ... Molecular Characterization of the 229E Strain of Human Coronavirus. In: Cavanagh D., Brown T.D.K. (eds) Coronaviruses and their ... J.C. Hierholzer, Purification and biophysical properties of human Coronavirus 229E, Virology 75: 155 (1976).PubMedCrossRef ... O.W. Schmidt, and G.E. Kenny, Polypeptides and functions of antigens from human coronaviruses 229E and OC43, Infect. Immun. 35 ...
The diversified group 1 CoV shared a common ancestor with the human common cold virus hCoV-229E but not with hCoV-NL63, ... disputing hypotheses of common human descent. The most recent common ancestor of hCoV-229E and GhanaBt-CoVGrp1 existed in ≈1686 ... We tested 12 bat species in Ghana for coronavirus (CoV) RNA. The virus prevalence in insectivorous bats (n = 123) was 9.76%. ... Distant Relatives of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus and Close Relatives of Human Coronavirus 229E in Bats, Ghana ...
Human coronaviruses are only seldom detected in clinical laboratories. Although human coronavirus OC43 and 229E infections are ... Direct diagnosis of human respiratory coronaviruses 229E and OC43 by the polymerase chain reaction. J. Virol. Methods 97:59-66. ... Viral propagation.Human coronaviruses OC43 and 229E were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (VR-759 and VR-740 ... Evaluation of nested polymerase chain methods for the detection of human coronaviruses 229E and OC43. Mol. Cell. Probes 8:357- ...
Polypeptides and functions of antigens from human coronaviruses 229E and OC43 ... Infection of primary cultures of human neural cells by human coronaviruses 229E and OC43. Journal of Virology 71(1): 800-806, ... Antigenic cross-reactivity between severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus and human coronaviruses 229E and ... Survival of human coronaviruses 229E and OC43 in suspension and after drying onsurfaces: a possible source ofhospital-acquired ...
... independent transcriptome and chromatin landscapes of human coronavirus 229E-infected cells ... Characteristics of Australian human enteric coronavirus-like particles: comparison with human respiratory coronavirus 229E and ... Cells of human aminopeptidase N (CD13) transgenic mice are infected by human coronavirus-229E in vitro, but not in vivo. ... The distribution of human coronavirus strain 229E on the surface of human diploid cells. Journal of General Virology 53(Pt 2): ...
Strains OC43 and 229E of human coronaviruses (HCoV) cause one-third of common colds and hospital-acquired upper respiratory ... Strains OC43 and 229E of human coronaviruses (HCoV) cause one-third of common colds and hospital-acquired upper respiratory ... Survival of Human Coronaviruses 229E and OC43 in Suspension and After Drying Onsurfaces: A Possible Source Ofhospital-Acquired ... After drying, HCoV-229E infectivity was still detectable after 3h on various surfaces (aluminum, sterile latex surgical gloves ...
... suggesting its loss after acquisition of a 229E-related CoV by humans. These data suggested an evolutionary origin of 229E- ... A recently described 229E-related alpaca virus occupied an intermediate phylogenetic position between bat and human viruses. ... IMPORTANCE The ancestral origins of major human coronaviruses (HCoVs) likely involve bat hosts. Here, we provide conclusive ... ORF8 also existed in the 229E-related alpaca virus. Reanalysis of HCoV-229E sequences showed a conserved transcription ...
Coronavirus Coronavirus 229E, Human Feces Female Ghana Human Coronavirus Humans Male Molecular Clock Molecular Sequence Data ... Distant Relatives of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus and Close Relatives of Human Coronavirus 229E in Bats, Ghana ... and shedding in persons infected with the 4 most common human coronaviruses (HCoV)‐229E, HKU1, NL63, and OC43 are poorly ... The diversified group 1 CoV shared a common ancestor with the human common cold virus hCoV-229E but not with hCoV-NL63, ...
Be the first to review "Performacide ~ Disinfectant Kills Parvovirus Human Coronavirus 229E" Cancel reply. Your email address ... Performacide ~ Disinfectant Kills Parvovirus Human Coronavirus 229E. Category: Disinfectant Tags: disinfectant wipes, does ...
... the human coronavirus (HCV) 229E and the porcine coronavirus porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus. By using chimeric APN ... HCV 229E and thus define a small number of residues that are critically important for the HCV 229E receptor function of human ... is essential for its HCV 229E receptor function. Furthermore, by comparing the relevant feline, human and porcine APN sequences ... In this study, we have isolated and characterized a feline APN cDNA and shown that the transfection of human embryonic kidney ...
The human coronavirus HCoV-229E S-protein structure and receptor binding.. Li, Z., Tomlinson, A.C.A., Wong, A.H.M., Zhou, D., ... The coronavirus S-protein mediates receptor binding and fusion of the viral and host cell membranes. In HCoV-229E, its receptor ... The coronavirus S-protein mediates receptor binding and fusion of the viral and host cell membranes. In HCoV-229E, its receptor ... HCoV-229E RBD Class III in complex with human APN. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb6U7E/pdb ...
Information about the six types of coronaviruses including MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV. ... People around the world commonly get infected with human coronaviruses 229E, NL63, OC43, and HKU1. ... Human coronaviruses were first identified in the mid-1960s. The seven coronaviruses that can infect people are:. Common human ... HKU1 (beta coronavirus). Other human coronaviruses. *MERS-CoV (the beta coronavirus that causes Middle East Respiratory ...
... coronaviruses 229E and OC43; parainfluenza viruses 1-3; influenza viruses AH1, AH3, and B; human metapneumoviruses; ... coronavirus, parainfluenzavirus, influenza virus, human metapneumoviruses, adenovirus, or bocavirus) (odds ratio 2.8, 95% ...
... human coronaviruses 229E, NL63, OC43, HKU1; enterovirus; Bordetella pertussis; Chlamydophila pneumoniae; Haemophilus influenzae ... TABLE 2. Results for specimens tested for human metapneumovirus (hMPV) at CDC from patients in skilled nursing facilities, by ... Number of respiratory samples tested and number and percentage of tests positive for human metapneumovirus, by week of report ... Epidemiology of human metapneumovirus. Clin Microbiol Rev 2006;19:546-57.. * Widmer K, Zhu Y, Williams JV, Griffin MR, Edwards ...
... coronaviruses 229E, NL63, and OC43; enterovirus; human metapneumovirus (MPV); influenza A and B; parainfluenza viruses 1 and 3 ... Polymorphism of the human TNF-α promoter-random variation or functional diversity? Mol Immunol. 1999;36(15-16):1017-1027pmid: ... US Department of Health and Human Services. . The Health Consequences of Smoking-50 Years of Progress: A Report of the Surgeon ... Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for ...
Coronavirus 229E, Human / Coronavirus OC43, Human Clinical aspect: Diagnosis Language: Chinese Journal: Journal of Southern ... Coronavirus 229E, Human , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Coronavirus OC43, Human , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , ... Antigenicity analysis of nucleocapsid proteins of 3 human coronaviruses SARS-CoV, 229E and OC43 with their monoclonal ... Antigenicity analysis of nucleocapsid proteins of 3 human coronaviruses SARS-CoV, 229E and ...
... coronavirus 229E; coronavirus HKU1; coronavirus NL63; coronavirus OC43; human metapneumovirus; human rhinovirus/enterovirus; ... Combatting Modern Slavery and Human Trafficking Statement. © 2018 Laboratory Corporation of America® Holdings. All Rights ...
HCoV-229E, human coronavirus 229E (NC_002645); HCoV-HKU1, human coronavirus HKU1 (NC_006577); HCoV-NL63, human coronavirus NL63 ... human coronavirus OC43 (NC_005147); Hi-BatCoV HKU10, Hipposideros bat coronavirus HKU10 (JQ989269); IBV-partridge, avian ... munia coronavirus HKU13 (FJ376622); My-BatCoV HKU6, Myotis bat coronavirus HKU6 (DQ249224); NeoCoV, coronavirus Neoromicia/PML- ... Scotophilus bat coronavirus 512 (NC_009657); SpCoV HKU17, sparrow coronavirus HKU17 (NC_016992); TCoV, turkey coronavirus (NC_ ...
HCoV-229E, human coronavirus 229E; BCoV, bovine coronavirus. Adapted with permission from ref. 24. ... Coronaviruses of man. Prog. Med. Virol. 1971. 13:373-403. *Chilvers, MA, et al. The effects of coronavirus on human nasal ... CoV jump to humans by mutation of an animal coronavirus or by recombination between several known human or animal coronaviruses ... Processing of the human coronavirus 229E replicase polyproteins by the virus-encoded 3C-like proteinase: identification of ...
Autologous Serum Human Monocytic Cell Human Coronavirus Human Neural Cell Human Coronaviruses These keywords were added by ... Infection of primary cultures of human neural cells by human coronaviruses 229E and OC43, J. Virol. 71:800-806PubMedGoogle ... Persistent infection of human oligodendrocytic and neuroglial cell lines by human coronavirus 229E, J. Virol. 73:3326-3337 ... Acute and persistent infection of human neural cell lines by human coronavirus OC43, J. Virol. 73:3338-3350PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
As of January 2020, the following seven coronavirus strains are known to infect humans: *Human Coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) ... Coronavirus • COVID-19 • Contagious coronavirusCoronavirus civil rights • coronavirus incubation period • coronavirus ... Coronavirus Real-Time Statistics. *A SARS-Like Cluster Of Circulating Bat Coronaviruses Shows Potential For Human Emergence, ... Middle Eastern Coronavirus Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV), also known as Novel Coronavirus 2012 (2012-nCoV) and Human ...
They often cause the common cold in humans. SARS CoV was a type of coronavirus. ... Coronaviruses belong to the subfamily Coronavirinae in the family Coronaviridae. ... Two human coronaviruses are responsible for a large proportion of common colds OC43 and 229E. ... Coronaviruses can cause flu-like symptoms and respiratory symptoms. Human coronaviruses (HCoV) were first identified in the ...
Evidence for an Ancestral Association of Human Coronavirus 229E with Bats.. Corman VM, Baldwin HJ, Tateno AF, Zerbinati RM, ... Specific serology for emerging human coronaviruses by protein microarray.. Reusken C, Mou H, Godeke GJ, van der Hoek L, Meyer B ... Human Coronavirus NL63 Molecular Epidemiology and Evolutionary Patterns in Rural Coastal Kenya. ... Human Rhinovirus B and C Genomes from Rural Coastal Kenya.. Agoti CN, Kiyuka PK, Kamau E, Munywoki PK, Bett A, van der Hoek L, ...
  • Vaccine vectors based on heavily attenuated murine coronavirus genomes were generated to express epitopes from the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus glycoprotein, or human Melan-A, in combination with the immunostimulatory cytokine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). (asm.org)
  • To date, however, any possible connection between murine Coronavirus (MCV) and MS is tenuous. (springer.com)
  • Figure Legend: Graphical abstract illustrating how the S protein of the SARS-CoV-2 virus binds to the SARS-CoV receptor ACE2 in order to enter human host cells, which is followed by priming by TMPRSS2. (taconic.com)
  • A coronavirus was first isolated in 1937 from an infectious bronchitis virus in birds that has the ability to seriously devastate poultry stocks. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and turkey coronavirus (TCV) comprise group 3 ( 4 ). (asm.org)
  • I can imagine a scenario where this becomes a fifth endemic human coronavirus," said Stephen Morse of Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health, an epidemiologist and expert on emerging infectious diseases. (statnews.com)
  • Professor Edward Holmes is known for his work on the evolution and emergence of infectious diseases, particularly the mechanisms by which pathogens jump species boundaries to emerge in humans. (edu.au)
  • This project has been funded in whole or part with federal funds from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services under contract number HHSN272200900007C and grant numbers U19AI110819, with the sub-project directed by HAL, and grants U01AI070428 and U01AI077988 awarded to KJH. (plos.org)
  • Over the course of their lifetime, humans encounter and accumulate different pathogens and thus develop a unique infectious history. (mpkb.org)
  • The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. (cdc.gov)
  • Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus: another zoonotic betacoronavirus causing SARS-like disease. (nih.gov)
  • If SARS becomes established in humans, will it also have a seasonal incidence of clinical disease? (jci.org)
  • In general, each coronavirus causes disease in only one animal species. (jci.org)
  • OC43 caused more severe disease than 229E, requiring intensive care for 15% of those infected. (statnews.com)
  • According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), most people will get infected with one of these common types of coronavirus in their lifetime. (mdanderson.org)
  • Rest assured, it is not the same type of coronavirus disease, COVID-19, that is spreading around the world. (mdanderson.org)
  • Modifiable with information on whether upper or lower disease control activities, and to work with reference respiratory material is better for coronavirus detection. (who.int)
  • Monkeypox virus (MPXV), a member of the family Poxviridae and genus Orthopoxvirus, causes a smallpox-like disease in humans. (jove.com)
  • COVID-19 is a new disease, caused be a novel (or new) coronavirus that has not previously been seen in humans. (eparent.com)
  • The name of this disease was selected following the World Health Organization (WHO) best practice external icon for naming of new human nfectious diseases. (eparent.com)
  • Cysteine is an important source of sulfur in human metabolism, and although it is classified as a non-essential amino acid, cysteine may be essential for infants, the elderly, and individuals with certain metabolic disease or who suffer from malabsorption syndromes. (hmdb.ca)
  • Learn about the cellular, molecular, and biochemical pathways of CRISPR-associated proteins, DNA repair pathways, and applications in diverse organisms, including for human health and disease biology. (nyas.org)
  • Coronavirus replication takes place in the host cell cytoplasm and triggers inflammatory gene expression by poorly characterized mechanisms. (eurekamag.com)
  • Furthermore, both HCoV-229E replication and IL-1 were shown to upregulate a small set of genes encoding immunomodulatory factors that bind p65 at promoters and require IKKβ activity and p65 for expression. (eurekamag.com)
  • By using chimeric APN genes, assembled from porcine and feline sequences, we have shown that, analogously to the human APN protein, a region within the amino-terminal part of the feline APN protein (encompassing amino acids 132-295) is essential for its HCV 229E receptor function. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • In HCoV-229E, its receptor binding domain (RBD) shows extensive sequence variation but how S-protein function is maintained is not understood. (rcsb.org)
  • Reported are the X-ray crystal structures of Class III-V RBDs in complex with human aminopeptidase N (hAPN), as well as the electron cryomicroscopy structure of the 229E S-protein. (rcsb.org)
  • We also find that the 229E S-protein can expose a portion of its helical core to solvent. (rcsb.org)
  • To prepare and characterize monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against the recombinant nucleocapsid (N) protein of 3 human coronaviruses SARS-CoV, 229E and OC43 and study the antigenic relationship between the 3 N proteins. (bvsalud.org)
  • The translation involves the production of an RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase (L protein) which transcribes a single negative-stranded RNA from which it is then possible to obtain new positive-stranded RNAs of the coronavirus as well as the seven proteins that it encodes. (conservapedia.com)
  • Antigenic and genomic characterizations of the virus (isolate NC99) were based on serological comparison with other avian and mammalian coronaviruses and sequence analysis of the nucleocapsid (N) protein gene. (asm.org)
  • the complete N protein of NC99 (446 amino acids) was then compared with published N protein sequences of other avian and mammalian coronaviruses. (asm.org)
  • Additionally, some coronaviruses also contain a fourth major structural protein, the hemagglutinin-esterase protein (120 to 140 kDa) ( 12 , 26 ). (asm.org)
  • Oligomerization of the carboxyl terminal domain of the human coronavirus 229E nucleocapsid protein. (nchu.edu.tw)
  • Here we demonstrate the interaction between the N protein of HCoV-229E and cyclophilin A, not cyclophilin B. Cyclophilin inhibitor. (medworm.com)
  • Coronavirus protein synthesis not only involves cap-dependent translation mechanisms but also employs regulatory mechanisms, such as ribosomal frameshifting. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The SARS S protein binds to the ACE2 receptor, which is further primed by TMPRSS2 within human cells 10,11 . (taconic.com)
  • The protein was detected within the endoplasmatic reticulum/Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) where coronavirus assembly and budding takes place. (biomedcentral.com)
  • B.G. Hogue, and D.A. Brian, Structural proteins of human respiratory Coronavirus OC43. (springer.com)
  • Furthermore, by comparing the relevant feline, human and porcine APN sequences, we were able to identify a hypervariable stretch of eight amino acids that are more closely related in the feline and human APN proteins than in the porcine APN molecule. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • BALB/c mice were immunized with the recombinant N proteins of SARS-CoV, 229E and OC43 to obtain the mAbs by means of hybridoma. (bvsalud.org)
  • Cross-reactivity between the N proteins of the 3 coronaviruses was analyzed with the prepared mAbs. (bvsalud.org)
  • The prepared mAbs against the recombinant N proteins may provide valuable assistance in studying antigenic relationships of N proteins between the 3 human coronaviruses. (bvsalud.org)
  • In addition to known non-structural and structural proteins all coronaviruses have one or more accessory proteins whose functions are mostly unknown. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Indirect fluorescent-antibody assay procedures and virus neutralization assays demonstrated a close antigenic relationship with bovine coronavirus (BCV) and porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (mammalian group 2 coronaviruses). (asm.org)
  • ECV NC99 was determined to have close antigenic and/or genetic relationships with mammalian group 2 coronaviruses, thus identifying it as a member of this coronavirus antigenic group. (asm.org)
  • 12 13 14 17 18 These studies are weakened by low rates of detection, 11 14 particularly of rhinoviruses and coronaviruses, which together cause about two thirds of common colds, 19 20 and by a lack of objective measures to define the exacerbations being studied. (bmj.com)
  • Recent findings suggest that homologous RNA recombination may also be an important factor in the evolution of feline coronaviruses (FCoVs) ( 16 , 37 , 46 ). (asm.org)
  • 2. Serum for serological testing, acute sample and (https://www.gisaid.org/) and can inform the development of convalescent sample (this is additional to specific diagnostic tests for this emergent coronavirus. (who.int)
  • This will allow for more acute patients to receive in-hospital care at any of our area's three hospitals, while providing care to local residents as needed and reducing the risk of coronavirus exposure. (indio.org)
  • The role of ACE2 in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury such as ARDS was demonstrated by utilizing Ace2 KO and wild type (WT) mice in experimental models (namely acid-aspiration-induced ARDS, endotoxin-induced ARDS, and peritoneal sepsis-induced ARDS) that mimic the common lung pathology observed in several human diseases. (taconic.com)
  • Furthermore, human DCs transduced with Melan-A-recombinant human coronavirus 229E efficiently activated tumor-specific CD8 + T cells. (asm.org)
  • Moreover, highly efficient antigen delivery to human DCs with recombinant human coronavirus 229E and specific stimulation of human CD8 + T cells revealed that this approach is exceptionally well suited for translation into human vaccine studies. (asm.org)
  • Survival of sublethally damaged pathogens in water and human and animal wastes recycled to agricultural land, e.g. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • Single immunization with only low doses of coronavirus-based vaccine vectors was sufficient to elicit (i) vigorous expansion and optimal differentiation of CD8 + T cells, (ii) protective and long-lasting antiviral immunity, and (iii) prophylactic and therapeutic tumor immunity. (asm.org)