Coronaviridae: Spherical RNA viruses, in the order NIDOVIRALES, infecting a wide range of animals including humans. Transmission is by fecal-oral and respiratory routes. Mechanical transmission is also common. There are two genera: CORONAVIRUS and TOROVIRUS.Nidovirales: An order comprising three families of eukaryotic viruses possessing linear, nonsegmented, positive sense RNA genomes. The families are CORONAVIRIDAE; ARTERIVIRIDAE; and RONIVIRIDAE.Coronaviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by CORONAVIRIDAE.SARS Virus: A species of CORONAVIRUS causing atypical respiratory disease (SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME) in humans. The organism is believed to have first emerged in Guangdong Province, China, in 2002. The natural host is the Chinese horseshoe bat, RHINOLOPHUS sinicus.Fatigue: The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.Zinc: A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Torovirus: A genus of the family CORONAVIRIDAE characterized by enveloped, peplomer-bearing particles containing an elongated tubular nucleocapsid with helical symmetry. Toroviruses have been found in association with enteric infections in horses (Berne virus), cattle (Breda virus), swine, and humans. Transmission probably takes place via the fecal-oral route.Torovirus Infections: Infections with viruses of the genus TOROVIRUS, family CORONAVIRIDAE.Togaviridae: A family of RNA viruses, mainly arboviruses, consisting of two genera: ALPHAVIRUS (group A arboviruses), and RUBIVIRUS. Virions are spherical, 60-70 nm in diameter, with a lipoprotein envelope tightly applied to the icosahedral nucleocapsid.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Dictionaries, ChemicalEncyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.GermanyRed Cross: International collective of humanitarian organizations led by volunteers and guided by its Congressional Charter and the Fundamental Principles of the International Red Cross Movement, to provide relief to victims of disaster and help people prevent, prepare for, and respond to emergencies.Classification: The systematic arrangement of entities in any field into categories classes based on common characteristics such as properties, morphology, subject matter, etc.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Nucleic Acids: High molecular weight polymers containing a mixture of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides chained together by ribose or deoxyribose linkages.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Illusions: The misinterpretation of a real external, sensory experience.DNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Oligonucleotide Probes: Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.Lentivirus: A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of non-oncogenic retroviruses that produce multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection. Lentiviruses are unique in that they contain open reading frames (ORFs) between the pol and env genes and in the 3' env region. Five serogroups are recognized, reflecting the mammalian hosts with which they are associated. HIV-1 is the type species.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Transgenes: Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Gene Transfer Techniques: The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.Indigo Carmine: Indolesulfonic acid used as a dye in renal function testing for the detection of nitrates and chlorates, and in the testing of milk.BooksVanilla: A plant genus of the family ORCHIDACEAE that is the source of the familiar flavoring used in foods and medicines (FLAVORING AGENTS).Paeonia: A plant genus of the family Paeoniaceae, order Dilleniales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. These perennial herbs are up to 2 m (6') tall. Leaves are alternate and are divided into three lobes, each lobe being further divided into three smaller lobes. The large flowers are symmetrical, bisexual, have 5 sepals, 5 petals (sometimes 10), and many stamens.Gabon: A republic in west equatorial Africa, south of CAMEROON and west of the CONGO. Its capital is Libreville.Filoviridae: A family of RNA viruses, of the order MONONEGAVIRALES, containing filamentous virions. Although they resemble RHABDOVIRIDAE in possessing helical nucleocapsids, Filoviridae differ in the length and degree of branching in their virions. There are two genera: EBOLAVIRUS and MARBURGVIRUS.Africa, Central: The geographical area of Africa comprising CAMEROON; CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC; CHAD; CONGO; EQUATORIAL GUINEA; GABON; and DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO.Filoviridae Infections: Infections with viruses of the family FILOVIRIDAE. The infections in humans consist of a variety of clinically similar viral hemorrhagic fevers but the natural reservoir host is unknown.BangladeshHemorrhagic Fever, Ebola: A highly fatal, acute hemorrhagic fever, clinically very similar to MARBURG VIRUS DISEASE, caused by EBOLAVIRUS, first occurring in the Sudan and adjacent northwestern (what was then) Zaire.AfricaMedical Futility: The absence of a useful purpose or useful result in a diagnostic procedure or therapeutic intervention. The situation of a patient whose condition will not be improved by treatment or instances in which treatment preserves permanent unconsciousness or cannot end dependence on intensive medical care. (From Ann Intern Med 1990 Jun 15;112(12):949)Alternaria: A mitosporic Loculoascomycetes fungal genus including several plant pathogens and at least one species which produces a highly phytotoxic antibiotic. Its teleomorph is Lewia.Early Termination of Clinical Trials: Earlier than planned termination of clinical trials.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.

Isolation of animal viruses from farm livestock waste, soil and water. (1/337)

Ten porcine enteroviruses, 2 porcine adenoviruses and 1 coronavirus were isolated directly from 32 samples of slurry collected from a pig fattening house. Concentration of the same samples by adsorption with the polyelectrolyte PE-60 yielded 24 porcine enteroviruses and 3 porcine adenoviruses. A porcine enterovirus was isolated, following PE-60 concentration, from 1 to 6 slurry samples from a sow farrowing house. No virus was isolated from 12 samples of slurry from dairy cows nor from 6 slurry samples from a calf-rearing unit. A porcine enterovirus was isolated from soil samples, after concentration with PE-60, collected 1, 2 and 8 days after pig slurry was spread on hay stubble. Two porcine enteroviruses were isolated by membrane filtration from 26 samples of surface run-off from land on which pig slurry was routinely spread, and 2 bovine enteroviruses were isolated from cattle feedlot run-off after adsorption to layers of talc and celite followed by hydroextraction. A porcine enterovirus was also isolated from 1 of 33 samples of surface water collected on farms on which pig slurry was routinely spread on the land, but no virus was isolated from 36 samples of ground water from the same farms. The surface water and ground water samples were concentrated by talc-celite adsorption and hydroextraction.  (+info)

A novel internal open reading frame product expressed from a polycistronic mRNA of porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus may not contribute to virus attenuation. (2/337)

Cell-culture-adapted (ca) porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) contains three internal open reading frames (I ORF) within the nucleocapsid protein gene and lacks the downstream counterpart of porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus ORF7 or feline infectious peritonitis virus ORF6a. To confirm whether such features also exist in wild-type (wt) PEDV, the 3' 1800 nucleotides of its genome were sequenced and were found to be identical to those of ca virus. The coding potential of I-1 ORF was ascertained by transient expression in Vero cells followed by immunofluorescence using antipeptide sera. The I-1 protein was synthesized as a 12 kDa non-phosphorylated PEDV-specific protein that was not present in detectable amounts in virions. However, a low copy number of I-1 in the virion would suggest it is a structural component. Nevertheless, identical nucleotide sequences and gene expression strategies of attenuated ca virus and its virulent parent, wt PEDV, demonstrate that the 3' 1800 nucleotides or the genes and gene products encoded therein may not contribute to virus attenuation.  (+info)

In situ hybridization for the detection and localization of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in the intestinal tissues from naturally infected piglets. (3/337)

Detection and localization of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) was studied by in situ hybridization with a nonradioactive digoxigenin-labeled probe in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from 10 naturally infected piglets. A 377-base pair cDNA probe for viral RNA encoding the membrane proteins of PEDV cell-culture-adapted strain V215/78 was generated by the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. In the retrospective study of pigs from herds with diarrhea, the 10 piglets naturally infected with PEDV had positive signals for PEDV by in situ hybridization. When intestinal tissues were hybridized with the PEDV probe, a strong signal was seen in the villus enterocytes of jejunum and ileum but not in the cecum and colon. Positive cells typically had dark brown reaction products in the cytoplasm. Scattered epithelial cells along the ileal Peyer's patches dome areas contained viral RNA. In one piglet, hybridization signal was also found in the duodenum. PEDV was not demonstrated in tissues outside of the intestinal tract. These findings indicate that jejunal and ileal villus enterocytes are the main target of PEDV replication during epizootic outbreaks of the disease.  (+info)

Detection of Australian gill-associated virus (GAV) and lymphoid organ virus (LOV) of Penaeus monodon by RT-nested PCR. (4/337)

A highly sensitive test based on reverse transcription followed by nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nPCR) was developed to detect the Australian yellow-head-like viruses, gill-associated virus (GAV) and lymphoid organ virus (LOV) of Penaeus monodon. The RT-nPCR detected viral RNA in as little as 10 fg lymphoid organ total RNA isolated from GAV-infected P. monodon. Amplification of serial dilutions of a GAV cDNA clone showed that the nested PCR was sufficiently sensitive to detect a single genome equivalent using a DNA template. The specificity and sensitivity of the RT-nPCR was also demonstrated using experimentally infected P. (Marsupenaeus) japonicus, where GAV sequences could be amplified from lymphoid organ and haemocyte RNA as early as 6 h post infection (p.i.), and from gills by 24 h p.i. In contrast, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) identified nucleocapsids and virions in lymphoid organ cells and haemocytes from Days 3 and 6 p.i., respectively, while there was no evidence of infection in gill cells at any time. The practical application of the RT-nPCR was demonstrated by screening healthy wild-caught P. monodon broodstock. The high prevalence (>98%) of broodstock that were positive by RT-nPCR suggests that LOV is endemic in northern Queensland. In addition, results with lymphoid organ, gill and haemocyte RNA suggest that small gill biopsies may be best suited to the non-sacrificial testing of valuable broodstock. The speed and sensitivity of the RT-nPCR make it a useful adjunct to TEM for diagnosing LOV/GAV infection of P. monodon, with the additional benefit that screening of gill biopsies may facilitate selection of LOV-free broodstock.  (+info)

Acute undifferentiated neonatal diarrhea in beef calves. I. Occurence and distribution of infectious agents. (5/337)

Beef calves in a 48-cow herd were studied during one calving season from birth to ten days of age to determine the presence or absence of potentially enteropathogenic bacteria, viruses, and/or chlamydia in both normal and diarrheic calves. Calves were born and raised outside in large pens unless the ambient temperature was below minus 10 degrees F when calving was done inside. Fecal swabs, fecal aliquots, and nasal swabs were taken from each calf at 32, 128 plus or minus 3, and 248 plus or minus 3 hours of age and as soon after the onset of diarrhea as possible. Diarrhea was defined as that condition in which the feces contained less than 10% dry matter. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in feces were identified using the ligated gut loop procedure in calves and by feeding broth cultures to colostrum fed lambs seven to 16 hours old. Potentially enteropathogenic viruses were detected using a variety of methods which included tissue culture, fluorescent antibody, hemadsorption, and electron microscope techniques. Of the 40 calves studied, 32 (80%) developed diarrhea before ten days of age. Twenty-two strains of Escherichia coli which caused dilation of calf ligated intestinal loops were isolated from 11 scouring calves and from one normal calf. Nine out of ten strains of Escherichia coli which dilated ligated loops also caused diarrhea when fed to colostrum-fed lambs seven to 16 hours old. Using antibody technique a Reo-like virus was detected in the feces of 15 calves before, during, and after the onset of diarrhea. Four calves excreted both loop dilating strains of E. coli and Reo-like virus in the feces before ten days of age; in all cases the loop dilating E. coli were isolated from the feces prior to the demonstration of Reo-like virus. A Corona-like virus was also demonstrated in three of the 15 calves infected with Reo-like virus and a noncytopathogenic strain of bovine virus diarrhea virus was isolated from two of the 15 calves infected with Reo-like virus. A loop dilating strain of Citrobacter was isolated from one diarrheic calf. There was no consistent pattern of onset or duration of diarrhea in calves which excreted different infectious agents. Salmonella species, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, parvovirus, adenoviruses, parainfluenza-3 virus, and Chlamydia species could not be demonstrated in any of the calves or their dams. No potentially enteropathogenic agents could be demonstrated in 11 of the 32 calves which scoured. These findings emphasize the complexity of the infectious aspect of the neonatal diarrhea syndrome and illustrate the difficulty in making an etiological diagnosis in field outbreaks of the calf scours complex.  (+info)

Protective effect of immunoglobulins in serum and milk of sows exposed to transmissible gastroenteritis virus. (6/337)

Experimental exposure of susceptible pregnant sows by various routes to the gut-origin transmissible gastroenteritis virus stimulated production of milk and serum antibodies. These antibodies neutralized the cytopathic effect of transmissible gastroenteritis virus propagated in cell culture. This in vitro neutralizing antibody resided in the IgG and IgA immunoglobulin classes. On the other hand, protection for baby pigs resided in the IgA class of milk immunoglobulin of sows exposed orally or intramammarily but not of sows exposed intramuscularly to the virus.  (+info)

Differential detection of transmissible gastroenteritis virus and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus by duplex RT-PCR. (7/337)

Transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) and porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) are highly contagious enteric diseases of piglets. The clinical signs of these diseases are very similar and include watery, yellowish diarrhea. Thus, the effective differential detection of TGE virus and PED virus is required. In the present study, a duplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was established for the differential detection of TGE and PED viruses. The primers were designed for the S gene of each virus. RNA was extracted from the intestines and stool samples that were collected from the swine with diarrhea. The RT-PCR test could detect both TGE and PED viruses with 2 TCID50/200 microl. Among 90 clinical samples, 7 TGE viruses and 2 PED viruses were detected by the duplex RT-PCR. This duplex RT-PCR may be a useful diagnostic method for the rapid, specific, and sensitive differential detection of TGE and PED viruses using clinical samples.  (+info)

The sialate-4-O-acetylesterases of coronaviruses related to mouse hepatitis virus: a proposal to reorganize group 2 Coronaviridae. (8/337)

Group 2 coronaviruses are characterized within the order Nidovirales by a unique genome organization. A characteristic feature of group 2 coronaviruses is the presence of a gene encoding the haemagglutinin-esterase (HE) protein, which is absent in coronaviruses of groups 1 and 3. At least three coronavirus strains within group 2 expressed a structural protein with sialate-4-O-acetylesterase activity, distinguishing them from other members of group 2, which encode an enzyme specific for 5-N-acetyl-9-O-acetylneuraminic acid. The esterases of mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) strains S and JHM and puffinosis virus (PV) specifically hydrolysed 5-N-acetyl-4-O-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu4,5Ac2) as well as the synthetic substrates p-nitrophenyl acetate, 4-methylumbelliferyl acetate and fluorescein diacetate. The K(m) values of the MHV-like esterases for the latter substrates were two- to tenfold lower than those of the sialate-9-O-acetylesterases of influenza C viruses. Another unspecific esterase substrate, alpha-naphthyl acetate, was used for the in situ detection of the dimeric HE proteins in SDS-polyacrylamide gels. MHV-S, MHV-JHM and PV bound to horse serum glycoproteins containing Neu4,5Ac2. De-O-acetylation of the glycoproteins by alkaline treatment or incubation with the viral esterases resulted in a complete loss of recognition, indicating a specific interaction of MHV-like coronaviruses with Neu4,5Ac2. Combined with evidence for distinct phylogenetic lineages of group 2 coronaviruses, subdivision into subgroups 2a (MHV-like viruses) and 2b (bovine coronavirus-like viruses) is suggested.  (+info)

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US - The number of pig farm samples that are confirmed positive for porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) in the last week was 16, while no premises were confirmed with porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) or the dual infection (PEDV and PDCoV).
Infectious bronchitis, a disease of chickens caused by Avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), leads to severe economic losses for the poultry industry worldwide. Various attempts to control the virus based on vaccination strategies are performed. However, due to the emergence of novel genotypes, an effective control of the virus is hindered. In 1996, a novel viral genotype named IBV-QX was reported for the first time in Qingdao, Shandong province, China. The first appearance of an IBV-QX isolate in Europe was reported between 2003 and 2004 in The Netherlands. Subsequently, infections with this genotype were found in several other European countries such as France, Italy, Germany, United Kingdom, Slovenia, and Sweden. The present report describes the use of a new set of degenerate primers that amplify a 636-bp fragment within the S1 gene by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to detect the occurrence of IBV-QX infection in Switzerland. ...
Avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), a coronavirus, requires initial isolation in, and adaptation to, chicken embryos (CE) before transfer to primary avian cell and chicken tracheal organ cultures. These are the only presently known cell cultures in which IBV replicates and produces cytopathic effects (c.p.e.) in serial passage (Estola, 1966; Cunningham, 1970). Monkey kidney cells have been reported (Fahey & Crawley, 1956; Steele & Luginbuhl, 1964) to support relication of IBV without c.p.e. when first inoculated with virus propagated in CE. Attempts apparently were not made to passage the virus in these cells. Direct haemagglutination (HA) is not a normal property of IBV (Biswal, Nazerian & Cunningham, 1966) or of the human coronaviruses (Kapikian, 1969). However, human coronaviruses OC 38 and OC 43 adapted to suckling mouse brain (McIntosh et al. 1969) cause direct HA (Kaye & Dowdle, 1969) and produce syncytia and plaques in African green monkey kidney and BSC-1 cells (Bruckova,
Avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is the type species of the family Coronaviridae (Siddell et al., 1983). It has a large positive-stranded RNA genome which has been estimated at 20-24 kilobases...
A virulent avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) was isolated from 30-day-old broiler chickens that exhibited respiratory symptoms, nephropathologic lesions, and a high proportion of deaths in the Peoples Republic of China during 2005. The strain, designated YN, was genetically and pathologically characterized. Phylogenetic analysis showed that YN and most of the previously characterized IBV isolates found in China were phylogenetically classified into 2 main genetic clusters. The YN isolate caused severe lesions and resulted in deaths of 65% in experimental infections of 30-day-old specific-pathogen-free chickens. Tracheal and severe kidney lesions developed in all infected birds, confirming the ability of YN strain to induce both respiratory and renal disease. IBV antigens were detected by immunohistochemical analysis in the trachea, lung, kidney, and bursa, consistent with histopathologic observations, virus isolation, and reverse transcription PCR detection. We showed that YN IBV exhibits severe
The epididymal region of the rooster consists of the rete testes, the efferent ductules and the epididymal duct. In the epididymal region, the spermatozoa gain the ability to move and acquire surface proteins. The specialized microenvironment of the epididymal region is vital for these developments to occur. A dysfunction of the epididymal region, epididymal stones, has been shown to affect fertility in the rooster. The cause of these epididymal stones was investigated and avian infectious bronchitis virus (AIBV) has been identified as a cause. AIBV is a highly contagious respiratory disease in chickens. The pathogenesis of AIBV in the female reproductive tract has been well studied; however, there have been few studies concerning the effects of AIBV on the rooster reproductive tract. Therefore this investigation was undertaken to identify the role of AIBV in epididymal stone formation and to characterize changes in seminal plasma composition. Specific objectives were: (1) to determine if AIBV ...
A virus isolated from a respiratory disease in chickens was identified as infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). By serum neutralisation tests the virus was shown to be serologically distinct from the Massachusetts type but to possess a one-way relationship with the Connecticut type. Experimentally, it caused a relatively mild respiratory disease in baby chicks. Vaccination of young chicks with H-120 Massachusetts IBV vaccine afforded a high degree of protection against challenge with the isolate. Some problems relating to the isolation and classification of field strains of IBV are briefly discussed.. ...
Looking for online definition of Coronaviridae in the Medical Dictionary? Coronaviridae explanation free. What is Coronaviridae? Meaning of Coronaviridae medical term. What does Coronaviridae mean?
Avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a major respiratory disease-causing agent in birds that leads to significant losses. Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialised cells responsible for sampling antigens and presenting them to T cells, which also play an essential role in recognising and neutralising viruses. Recent studies have suggested that non-coding RNAs may regulate the functional program of DCs. Expression of host non-coding RNAs changes markedly during infectious bronchitis virus infection, but their role in regulating host immune function has not been explored. Here, microarrays of mRNAs, miRNAs, and lncRNAs were globally performed to analyse how avian DCs respond to IBV. First, we found that IBV stimulation did not enhance the maturation ability of avian DCs. Interestingly, inactivated IBV was better able than IBV to induce DC maturation and activate lymphocytes. We identified 1093 up-regulated and 845 down-regulated mRNAs in IBV-infected avian DCs. Gene Ontology analysis suggested that
Coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus is a positive-stranded RNA virus, which synthesises a 3-coterminal nested set of six subgenomic RNAs. Subgenomic RNA transcription and genome replication are...
Avian infectious bronchitis (IB), caused by avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), is a worldwide endemic disease of chickens that affects all branches of the poultry industry. Multiple geno/serotypes occur, and low vaccine cross-protection results from the highly divergent IBV types. In view of the lack of consistent data on the economic losses caused by IB and the poor protection resulting from the use of the Massachusetts type as a live vaccine in Brazil, this survey aimed to estimate the losses per 1,000 birds in broiler and breeder flocks positive for IBV. Thirty-two different IBV genetic types were found. In breeders, the total loss per 1,000 birds was US$3,567.4 and US$4,210.8 at 25-26 and 42 weeks old, respectively, whereas in broilers (48 days old), the estimated loss was US$266.3 per 1,000 birds. Taken together, the results show a significant and measurable economic impact on the broiler and breeder industries, with an age-dependent increasing trend and an association with multiple ...
Over the past years the research, we have been able to clone and propagate full length coronavirus (CoV) cDNAs from several CoVs using vaccinia virus as eukaryotic cloning vector. The reverse genetic system is based upon the in vitro transcription of infections RNA from a cloned full-length cDNA copy of a CoV genome, and the introduction of nucleotide changes, deletions or insertions is facilitated by vaccinia virus-mediated recombination. The reverse genetic system has proven to be rapid, robust and versatile and is available in the laboratory of Dr. Thiel for the generation of recombinant prototype viruses of all major CoV phylogenetic lineages, namely for HCoV 229E, type-I and type-II Feline CoVs (genus Alphacoronavirus), Mouse Hepatitis Virus strain A59, SARS-CoV (genus Betacoronavirus), Avian Infectious Bronchitis Virus (genus Gammacoronavirus).. One of our long-term goals is to study CoV replication in order to develop strategies to prevent and control CoV infections. Thus, we have applied ...
Over the past years the research, we have been able to clone and propagate full length coronavirus (CoV) cDNAs from several CoVs using vaccinia virus as eukaryotic cloning vector. The reverse genetic system is based upon the in vitro transcription of infections RNA from a cloned full-length cDNA copy of a CoV genome, and the introduction of nucleotide changes, deletions or insertions is facilitated by vaccinia virus-mediated recombination. The reverse genetic system has proven to be rapid, robust and versatile and is available in the laboratory of Dr. Thiel for the generation of recombinant prototype viruses of all major CoV phylogenetic lineages, namely for HCoV 229E, type-I and type-II Feline CoVs (genus Alphacoronavirus), Mouse Hepatitis Virus strain A59, SARS-CoV (genus Betacoronavirus), Avian Infectious Bronchitis Virus (genus Gammacoronavirus).. One of our long-term goals is to study CoV replication in order to develop strategies to prevent and control CoV infections. Thus, we have applied ...
The Cornell University Animal Health Diagnostic Center (AHDC) has seen a rise in the diagnosis of equine enteric coronavirus cases since initial outbreaks were investigated starting in 2010. The AHDC Veterinary Support Services veterinarians are attributing this increase in equine enteric coronavirus in our area of the Northeast to improved awareness of the disease and
Infectious bronchitis (IB) is an acute, highly contagious, and economically important viral disease of chickens. The S1 subunit from Spike (S) protein plays the major role in protective immunity and is involved in the host-virus interactions, as well as infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) serotyping. Aim of the present study was multi-aspect analysis of the molecular and immunological features of 5 part belonging to the S1 glycoprotein sequence of Iranian 793/B IBV strain isolates. This might ideally help in characterization, prevention, and vaccine development. The tissue samples were prepared, followed by virus isolation, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. In addition, sequencing and registration of the sequences in the National Center for Biotechnology Information were performed. Moreover, 12 sequences were retrieved from Fars province, Iran. The next steps included evaluation of conservation/variability along the sequences,
Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) causes losses of £23.6M a year to th...A pre-hatching prototype vaccine virus which provides immunity to IBV ...IBV is the worst infectious disease in terms of economic loss to the U...The researchers funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences R...The scientists have extracted a so-called spike protein from a pathoge...,In-shell,vaccine,for,chick,disease,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) causes highly contagious respiratory or urogenital tract diseases in chickens. genes, with the 3 untranslated area (UTR), which differs from Ark-like strains. Phylogenetic evaluation and series alignments demonstrate that 1196681-44-3 manufacture Md27 can be a chimera including different gene sections that are most carefully linked to the SE17, JMK and Conn strains. This current research provides proof for genomic mutations and intergenic recombination which have occurred in the advancement of IBV stress Md27. can be a pathogen of home chickens that triggers acute, contagious respiratory disease [1 extremely,2]. The IBV genome consists of an individual, positive-strand RNA molecule, which is approximately 27.6 kb long and includes a cap in the 5end and poly (A) tail in the 3end [3]. It comprises ten open up reading structures (ORFs) as well as the 1st 20 kb genome comprises of ORF1, which really is a replicase gene. The replicase offers two ORFs, 1a and 1b [4]; ...
Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) variants constantly emerge and pose economic threats to poultry farms worldwide. Numerous studies on the molecular and pathogenic characterization of IBV variants have been performed between 2007 and 2017, which we have reviewed herein. We noted that viral genetic mutations and recombination events commonly gave rise to distinct IBV genotypes, serotypes and pathotypes. In addition to characterizing the S1 genes, full viral genomic sequencing, comprehensive antigenicity, and pathogenicity studies on emerging variants have advanced our understanding of IBV infections, which is valuable for developing countermeasures against IBV field outbreaks. This review of IBV variants provides practical value for understanding their phylogenetic relationships and epidemiology from both regional and worldwide viewpoints.
Virus classification of Infectious Bronchitis virus (IBV) according to reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction or virus neutralization.
This thesis deals with the molecular characterization and detection of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), an important pathogen that causes heavy losses in the poultry populations worldwide. The aim of the research was to better understand the molecular characteristics of the virus and to investigate the factors behind the continuous emergence of new genetic variants and the occurrence of outbreaks. The studies showed that the viral genome is under a continuous evolution, due to mutations, strong selective pressure and recombination events. These forces lead to a wide genetic diversity and the generation of new variants of this virus. The viral genes encoding the spike, envelope and membrane proteins can be considered the main genomic regions, which are indicating the evolution processes of IBV. The various strains contain specific structural and functional motifs in their genes and the alterations in these motifs may affect the infection biology of the virus. The constant emergence of new ...
The nucleotide sequences of a region including S1, S2, 3a, 3b and E genes of twenty-seven infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) isolates in Korea between 1990-2011 were determined and phylogenetic and computational recombination analyses were conducted. The sizes of coding regions of some genes varied among IBV isolates due to deletion or insertion of nucleotides; the nucleotide similarities of S1, S2, 3a, 3b and E genes among the 27 isolates were 75.9%-100.0%, 85%-100.0%, 64.0%-100.0%, 60.4%-100.0% and 83.1%-100.0%, respectively. According to phylogenetic analysis of S1 gene, the 27 isolates were divided into five genotypes, Mass, Korean-I (K-I), QX-like, KM91-like and New cluster 1. The phylogenetic trees based on the S2, 3a, 3b, E genes and S1-S2-3a-3b-E (S1-E) region nucleotide sequences did not closely follow the clustering based on the S1 sequence. The New cluster 1 prevalent during 2009 and 2010 was not found in 2011 but QX-like viruses became prevalent in 2011. The recombination analysis revealed
Whats further perplexing about the situation is the fact that it took two months for the full gene sequence of this mutated coronavirus strain to be released by the National Institute of Virology, which received it a while back after it was collected from a patient in Kerala.. Why it took this Indian government agency so long to release it has created more questions than there are answers as to just how serious this situation truly is. Even more concerning is a warning put out by the South China Morning Post, admittedly a communist Chinese government propaganda outlet, that theres much more to come in the area of mutations.. "[T]here is real concern growing that thousands of strains sampled and sequenced are just the tip of the iceberg - and great variety increases the risk that new strains will require new vaccines in the same way the flu virus does," the paper reported.. Even so, the race is on to release one, two, or even seven, in the case of billionaire eugenicist Bill Gates, different ...
Infectious bronchitis is a disease of chickens causing respiratory symptoms and affecting the urogenital tract of the chicken. Vaccination with Nobilis IB Ma5, Nobilis IB 4/91 and Nobilis IB inac. prevents disease.
US - The number of pig farm samples that were confirmed positive for porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) in the last week was 78. There has been one premises confirmed with having porcine delta coronavirus (PDCoV) and five with the dual infection (PEDV and PDCoV), in the 8 October 2015 weekly report.
PubMed journal article: A Universal Design of Betacoronavirus Vaccines against COVID-19, MERS, and SARS. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Animal health company, Zoetis, has obtained a full license from the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) to sell Poulvac Bron GA 08, the first commercially available vaccine to reduce disease caused by Georgia 2008 (GA 08) Type infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) in poultry.
望月 雅美 , 光武 由香理 , 宮之原 佑子 , 東原 孝 , 清水 孜 , 宝達 勉 The journal of veterinary medical science 59(4), 253-258, 1997-04-25 CiNii PDF - オープンアクセス 医中誌Web 参考文献30件 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Feline infectious peritonitis viruses arise by mutation from endemic feline enteric coronaviruses. AU - Vennema, Harry. AU - Poland, Amy. AU - Foley, Janet E. AU - Pedersen, Niels C. PY - 1998/3/30. Y1 - 1998/3/30. N2 - Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) strains from six cats and three different geographic areas were compared genetically with feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) isolates obtained from cats inhabiting the same environments. Sequence comparisons were made from 1.2- to 8.9-kb segments on the 3 end of the genome. FECV/FIPV pairs from the same catteries or shelters were 97.3-99.5% related but were genetically distinct from FIPV and FECV strains obtained from cats living in geographically distinct environments. The high genetic similarity between FECVs and FIPVs from the same environment strongly suggested a common ancestry. Based on the presence of deletion mutations in the FIPVs and not in the FECVs, it was concluded that FIPVs evolved as mutants of FECVs. The ...
Cell-mediated immunity is thought to play a decisive role in protecting cats against feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), a progressive and lethal coronavirus disease. In view of the potential of DNA vaccines to induce cell-mediated responses, their efficacy to induce protective immunity in cats was evaluated. The membrane (M) and nucleocapsid ... read more (N) proteins were chosen as antigens, because antibodies to the spike (S) protein of FIP virus (FIPV) are known to precipitate pathogenesis. However, vaccination by repeated injections of plasmids encoding these proteins did not protect kittens against challenge infection with FIPV. Also, a prime boost protocol failed to afford protection, with priming using plasmid DNA and boosting using recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing the same coronavirus proteins. Because of the role of IL-12 in initiating cell-mediated immunity, the effects of co-delivery of plasmids encoding the feline cytokine were studied. Again, IL-12 did not meet expectations ...
Feline infectious peritonitis is a fatal viral disease which is currently incurable by drugs. Also, there are no effective vaccines. Cyclosporin A (CsA) was recently shown in vitro to exert potent antiviral activities on several virus-host systems, including various coronaviruses. However, whether CsA has clinically relevant activity in vivo resistant to various coronaviruses, including the severe acute respiratory syndrome and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, remains unknown. Herein, the authors report that treatment with CsA caused a sustained reduction in pleural fluid volume and viral copy number in a cat diagnosed with effusive feline infectious peritonitis. ...
Feline infectious peritonitis is a fatal viral disease which is currently incurable by drugs. Also, there are no effective vaccines. Cyclosporin A (CsA) was recently shown in vitro to exert potent antiviral activities on several virus-host systems, including various coronaviruses. However, whether CsA has clinically relevant activity in vivo resistant to various coronaviruses, including the severe acute respiratory syndrome and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, remains unknown. Herein, the authors report that treatment with CsA caused a sustained reduction in pleural fluid volume and viral copy number in a cat diagnosed with effusive feline infectious peritonitis. ...
Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a member of family Coronaviridae and is classified into group 3 of the Coronaviruses. The virus is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus with a genome of 27kbp. IBV is a highly infectious disease of chickens that results in high morbidity with moderate to severe mortality depending on the strain involved, age of the birds, and immune status of the chickens. Multiple worldwide investigations indicate that differentiation within the S1 glycoprotein gene can lead to serotype variation within the IBV species. In this study 46 isolates collected over two years from broiler and broiler breeder flocks and eight historical isolates were analyzed. Forty one isolates originated from the KwaZulu-Natal region whilst the remaining thirteen were isolated from 4 other poultry-dense provinces. The S1 gene was sequenced and compared to determine variation between South African isolates, as well as global sequences submitted to Genbank. The results indicate the division ...
Enjuanes L, Brian D, Cavanagh D, Holmes K, Lai MMC, Laude H, Masters P, Rottier P, Siddell SG, Spaan WJM et al (2000) Coronaviridae. In: van Regenmortel MHV, Fauquet CM, Bishop DHL, Carstens EB, Estes MK, Lemon S, Maniloff J, Mayo M, McGeoch DJ, Pringle CR, Wickner RB (eds): Virus Taxonomy. Classification and Nomenclature of Viruses. Academic Press, San Diego, 835-849Google Scholar ...
An ongoing outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 has raised global concerns in 2020 with millions of confirmed cases, which is identified as another clade within the Betacoronavirus genus, Coronaviridae family. This article will help to figure out how this kind of virus infect human body by introducing the interaction between the four stages of the life cycle of coronavirus and the cytoskeleton.. The first stage: virus invasion. The first stage of coronavirus infection is Spike(S) protein-mediated attachment to the cell surface via S protein to the ceramide acid portion (acidic carbohydrate with 9 carbon atoms) or heparan sulfate. This infection strategy is very effective because there are many types of receptor molecules on the surface of all mammalian cells, thus creating abundant conditions for plasma membrane attachment. After binding, the virus particles actively rearrange the cytoskeleton by regulating the FAK/Cofilin/Rac/Cdc42 pathway.. The second stage: transport. In the second phase, some studies ...
Haijema et al., 2004: Haijema BJ, Volders H, Rottier PJ. Live, attenuated coronavirus vaccines through the directed deletion of group-specific genes provide protection against feline infectious peritonitis. Journal of virology. 2004; 78(8); 3863-3871. [PubMed: 15047802 ...
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So I called 811 last night and as long as pain is lessening I dont have to go to tge doctor. Tonight though there is a spot on one of my bruises that is suddenly far more paunful when touched. And I am panicked. I dobt want to call 811 yet, cause its been really…
FELINE INFECTIOUS PERITONITIS Navies 2011 Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP) is a progressive, almost always fatal, viral disease of domestic cats. It affects some exotic cats, with the cheetah being particularly susceptible. It does not affect non-feline species, such as dogs. Etiology or Cause      Field strains of feline coronavirus vary in their ability to induce FIP. Some isolates cause FIP (feline infectious peritonitis virus [FIPV]others cause more localized GI disease) Mutations from feline enteric coronavirus to FIPV occur. FIP is thought to result from a mutation of the virus within the body, combined with the response of the immune system, leading to inflammation in various organ systems. FIPV and canine coronavirus are very closely related antigenically and may have crossed between hosts. Feline coronaviruses are fairly stable in the environment and, once dry, can survive for 4-6 wk. They are enveloped viruses and are destroyed by most household disinfectants, ...
Feline coronavirus (FCoV) is endemic in feral cat populations and cat colonies, frequently preceding outbreaks of fatal feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). FCoV exhibits 2 biotypes: the pathogenic disease and a benign infection with feline enteric coronavirus (FECV). Uncertainty remains regarding whether genetically distinctive avirulent and virulent forms coexist or whether an avirulent form mutates in vivo, causing FIP. To resolve these alternative hypotheses, we isolated viral sequences from FCoV-infected clinically healthy and sick cats (8 FIP cases and 48 FECV-asymptomatic animals); 735 sequences from 4 gene segments were generated and subjected to phylogenetic analyses. Viral sequences from healthy cats were distinct from sick cats on the basis of genetic distances observed in the membrane and nonstructural protein 7b genes. These data demonstrate distinctive circulating virulent and avirulent strains in natural populations. In addition, 5 membrane protein amino acid residues with functional
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Centers RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.. ...
What causes FIP?. FIP develops as a result of an adverse reaction to the feline enteric coronavirus. The feline enteric coronavirus is shed by infected animals in feces. An infected cat may shed some of the virus in feces, and when another cat comes along to investigate, the virus infects the new cat through the mouth and nose. When the cat is infected, the virus may be destroyed by the immune system or it may mutate, allowing it to take advantage of the hosts body and live undetected. This leads to the hosts body becoming infiltrated with the virus, causing pyogranulomas. Some cats infected by feline enteric coronavirus present with non-threatening flu like symptoms, and some develop FIP.. ...
Read "Molecular characterization of infectious bronchitis viruses isolated from broiler chicken farms in Iran, 2014-2015, Archives of Virology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP) is a fatal disease in cats caused by a Coronavirus. During FIPv infection the T-cell population is depleted. This is seen in many other diseases, such as measles and AIDS. In these two diseases, the Dendritic Cell (DC) has been shown to play a role ... read more in T-cell depletion. This study endeavours to prove if such a mechanism exists in FIP. In order to investigate permissiveness of DCs for FIPv, a growth curve was produced. This growth curve showed prolonged viral reproduction to intermediate titres. As T-cell depletion during FIPv infection occurs at least partly through apoptosis, a TUNEL assay was used to evaluate this. FACS analysis of infected and non-infected co-cultures of DCs with Thymocytes revealed no difference in apoptosis levels. These data suggest that T-cell depletion during FIPv infection does not occur through apoptosis initiated by FIPv-infected DCs. show less ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pathogenicity and sequence analysis studies suggest potential role of gene 3 in virulence of swine enteric and respiratory coronaviruses. AU - Paul, Prem S. AU - Vaughn, Eric M.. AU - Halbur, Patrick G.. PY - 1997/7/4. Y1 - 1997/7/4. N2 - Coronaviruses have been commonly associated with enteric and respiratory diseases. Two of the swine coronaviruses, namely transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) and porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV) have been extensively studied. TGEV replicates in both the enteric and respiratory tracts and causes enteric disease, whereas, PRCV replicates in the respiratory tract with limited to no replication in the enteric tract. We have isolated PRCV from swine herds with respiratory disease and have reproduced moderate pneumonia in gnotobiotic and conventionally reared pigs with two of the PRCV isolates. We have also identified two PRCV isolates with low virulence. One consistent difference that we have observed between PRCV isolates of different ...
FIP is the most misdiagnosed cat disease. Theres no FIP test. A series of tests must be done to confirm an FIP/Feline Infectious Peritonitis diagnosis.
Feline Infectious Peritonitis or FIP is a fatal viral disease that creates a lot of fear and confusion in shelters. Find out information on the causes, transmissions, symptoms, and treatments.
|strong|Mouse anti Bovine Coronavirus Surface Antigen antibody, clone 5A4|/strong| recognizes the surface antigen of bovine coronavirus. Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) causes severe diarrhoea in newborn ca…
Dea, S.; Roy, R.S.; Begin, M.E., 1979: Counterimmunoelectroosmophoresis for detection of neonatal calf diarrhea coronavirus: methodology and comparison with electron microscopy
Chen, H., Gill, A., Dove, B.K., Emmett, S.R., Kemp, C.F., Ritchie, M.A., et al. (2005) Mass spectroscopic characterization of the coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus nucleoprotein and elucidation of the role of phosphorylation in RNA binding by using surface plasmon resonance. J Virol 79: 1164-1179 ...
Gastroenteritis virus - But what exactly is gastroenteritis? What are the causes, symptoms and treatment of this disease and how can you avoid it?
Human rectal tumor-18 (HRT-18) cell clones 3F3, 3E3, D2, and 4B3 exhibited differences in cellular morphology in Giemsa-stained cultures and developing monolayers. Differences were evident in growth kinetics and plating efficiency of each clone. The clones produced colonies in soft agar, demonstrating anchorage independence. Cytopathic expression (CPE) including cytoplasmic vacuolization and cell fusion occurred in BCV-L9-infected clones 3F3, D2, and 3E3. Cell fusion was inapparent in clone 4B3. Bovine coronavirus strain L9 (BCV-L9) and 5 wild-type isolates replicated in HRT-18 cells, inducing cell fusion. Strain L9, exclusively, replicated in D2BFS cells, requiring trypsin to induce cell fusion. Strain L9 produced plaques in the HRT-18 clones, but the ease of plaque formation and plaque morphology was host cell dependent. Host cell-dependent plaque formation was demonstrated by wild-type BCV strains, and plaque morphology was strain dependent. The intensity of trypsin enhancement of CPE and plaque
SOUTH AFRICA - Since the 1970s an increasing number of Infectious Bronchitis variants have popped up across the world, reports Glenneis Kriel from the Congress of the World Veterinary Poultry Association (WVPAC 2015) in Cape Town.
Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) is single-stranded RNA virus of the family Coronaviridae. MHV is not a single virus but consists of a group of serologically and genetically related but distinct strains. About 25 strains have been reported. Strains are characterized by cross-neutralization tests with known strains, but these serologic relationships do not correlate with pathogenicity. The best studied strains are the prototype strains MHV-1, MHV-2, MHV-3, JHM, A59 and S, of which MHV-3 is regarded as the most virulent. Field isolates often differ more or less from these. MHV mutates rapidly and there may be a large possible number of strains. Strains differ in tropisms, tendency to disseminate, and virulence. Although infection generally causes no significant clinical symptoms, especially in adult mice, it can dramatically affect the immune system of the animal, complicating interpretation of many experimental results. ...
BEIJING: A fourth person has died from an outbreak of a new coronavirus strain in Wuhan, local health authorities said on Tuesday (Jan 21). The ...
Hi: IB Ma5 vaccine might not give good immune protection against a field strain of IBV if there is significant genetic difference. Do you know what filed strain of IBV infected the flock? If not phylogenetic sequencing might be advised to find what strain of IBV is present and proper vaccine should be administered. There are many strains of IBV and cross protection might be not present if vaccine and the filed strain is genetically different. ...
We lost our dear little friend, Earl Grey yesterday after a brief, but fatal illness. He suddenly came down with FIP (Feline Infectious Peritonitis). We decided not to let him suffer, as the Doctor said that he could not last over two months, and there was no hope for a recovery. We are shocked and saddened by his passing, and are reminded of how fragile life is. Rest in Peace, pretty kitty ...
Principal Investigator:KOICHI Otsuki, Project Period (FY):1998 - 2000, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B)., Section:一般, Research Field:Applied veterinary science
Hi All, Im new to this forum. I have two Buff Orpingtons one is about two years (stew) and the other at point of lay (little one), weve only had...
Viral replication and spread throughout a host organism employs many proteins, but the process is not very well understood. Scientists at A*STAR have led a collaborative study to learn which host factors play a key role in ...
Bronchitis - MedHelps Bronchitis Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for Bronchitis. Find Bronchitis information, treatments for Bronchitis and Bronchitis symptoms.
... What is Bronchitis anyway? Bronchitis is something you are likely to have in your lifetime at least once.
bronchitisHow Does Smoking Affect Bronchitis - Bronchitis Medicine - Some Alternative Bronchitis MedicinesYou have bronchitis and want to get well quickly, then you might want to take a look at some alternative ...
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Treatment for bronchitis is available at Pulse-MD Urgent Care in Mahopac & Wappingers Falls, NY. Learn more about the symptoms of bronchitis.
Hughes, A.L. 2011. Recombinational histories of avian infectious bronchitis virus and turkey coronavirus. Arch. Virol. 156: 1823-1829.. Hughes, A.L. 2011. Stereotyped and non-stereotyped features of the temporal patterning of singing sessions in the ovenbird Seiurus auricapillus. Behav. Processes 87: 165-170.. Hughes, A.L., and Friedman, R. 2011. A survey of schistosome protein domain types: insights into unique biological properties. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 177:100-105.. Hughes, A.L., and Friedman, R. 2011. Distinctive amino acid composition profiles in salivary proteins of the tick Ixodes scapularis. Ticks Tick-Bourne Dis. 2: 219-224.. Callendret, B., Eccleston, H.B., Heksch, R., Hasselschwert, D.L., Purcell, R.H., Hughes, A.L., and Walker, C.M. 2011. Transmission of clonal heoatitis C virus genomes reveals dominant but transitory role for CD8+T cells in early viral evolution. J. Virol. 85: 11833-11845.. Creager, H.M., Becker, E.A., Sandman, K.K., Karl, J.A., Lank, S.M., Bimber, B.N., ...
Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a highly fatal systemic disease in cats, caused by feline coronavirus (FCoV) infection. FCoV usually has little clinical significance; however, a mutation of...
Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a fatal inflammatory disease caused by FIP virus an infection. mouse mAb 2C4-treated felines. of polybrene. in the dilution Fostamatinib disodium moderate filled with 1 of Actinomycin D (Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, U.S.A.) and pre-incubated at 37C for 3 hr. Diluted mouse mAb 2C4 Serially, chimeric mAb 2C4 or anti feline APN mAb (mAb R-G-4, being a control for mAb 2C4) was blended with 40 recombinant fTNF-alpha (R&D systems, Minneapolis, MN, U.S.A., 75% cytotoxic activity against WEHI-164 cells) or ascites of felines with FIP which were utilized as organic feline TNF-alpha examples (last focus of just one 1:8, 80% cytotoxic activity against WEHI-164 cells). The mix was incubated at 37C for 1 hr. Pre-incubated cells had been seeded within a level of 50 in the wells of the 96-well dish. Fifty microliters from the mixture was added into each well. After incubation at 37C for 24 hr, Fostamatinib disodium 10 of WST-8 alternative (WST-8 cell proliferation assay ...
Provided is a method for determining whether a feline is infected with pathogenic Feline Infectious Peritonitis Virus (FIPV) or Feline Enteric Infection Virus (FECV). The method involves determining t
The recent emergence of a number of new viral diseases as well as the re-emergence of tuberculosis (TB), indicate an urgent need for new drugs against viral and bacterial infections.. Coronavirus nsp1 has been shown to induce suppression of host gene expression and interfere with host immune response. However, the mechanism behind this is currently unknown. Here we present the first nsp1 structure from an alphacoronavirus, Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) nsp1. Contrary to previous speculation, the TGEV nsp1 structure clearly shows that alpha- and betacoronavirus nsp1s have a common evolutionary origin. However, differences in conservation, shape and surface electrostatics indicate that the mechanism for nsp1-induced suppression of host mRNA translation is likely to be different in the alpha- and betacoronavirus genera.. The Modoc virus is a neuroinvasive rodent virus with similar pathology as flavivirus encephalitis in humans. The flaviviral methyltransferase catalyses the two ...
What Is Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP)?. Feline coronavirus (FCoV) infection is very common in cats; around 40% of the domestic cat population has been FCoV infected, and this figure increases to 90% in multi-cat households.1-2 A study of owned cats in Sydney reported a seroprevalence of 34%.3 Natural infections with FCoV are often transient and asymptomatic or result in mild gastrointestinal disease. However, occasionally, FCoV infection results in the multisystemic disease of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP),4 the single most important infectious cause of death in young cats4. No cure for FIP exists and it is an extremely distressing disease to deal with, for both cat owners and veterinary surgeons.. What Causes FIP?. Viral factors are thought to be important, and a recent Dutch study5 has identified mutations in the FCoV spike protein that distinguish FIP-associated FCoVs from those not associated with FIP. By these and perhaps other mutations, the virus could acquire its macrophage ...
NEWCASTLE DISEASE & AVIAN INFECTIOUS BRONCHITIS DISEASE, INACTIVATED VACCINE, COMBINED Description: High concentration of highly immunogenic inactivated ND virus (LaSota strain) and IB virus(Mass. type) mixed in effective proportions , processed and presented as high sheer water-in-oil emulsion. Content: ND : Minimum 50PD50 per dose of vaccine IB : Minimum 1PD90 per dose of vaccine Indications: Protection against ND and IB infections. Recommended for breeders to boost the immunity of flocks previously vaccinated with live vaccines Suggested in breeders for ideal protection to progeny against early infections Uniform transfer of maternal antibodies to progeny chicks on usage in breeders ...
Accurate and up to date information on FCoV, the cause of FIP, from Dr Diane Addie, lecturer and researcher in this field based at Glasgow University, UK. ...
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Sequencing RNA genomes was difficult in the 1980s, and cDNA cloning was just emerging. The first complete genome sequence of a coronavirus was for infectious bronchitis virus in 1987 (Boursnell et al., 1987) and a few years later it was completed for MHV (Lee et al., 1991). These genomes were assembled from many short cDNA clones and, when completed, indicated that the genome was ∼30 kb, significantly longer than had been estimated previously by sucrose gradient centrifugation, and that it was the longest of any known RNA virus. These sequences revealed two long open reading frames, ORF1a and 1b encoding 16 nonstructural proteins. It was also shown that both ORF1a and ORF1ab proteins were translated from genome RNA, and ORF1b via a translational frame shift at the end of ORF1a revealing new mechanisms of translational control (Bredenbeek et al., 1990). Alexander Gorbalenyas insightful analyses of the proteins encoded in ORFs1a and 1b revealed several protease and other enzymatic domains (for ...
Serologically coronavirus free kittens were placed in 2 catteries with a history of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), each cattery representing 1 of the 2 different predominant clinical characteristics of FIP--effusive and granulomatous. The kitte
Coronaviruses constitute the subfamily Orthocoronavirinae, in the family Coronaviridae, order Nidovirales, and realm Riboviria. They are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome and a nucleocapsid of helical symmetry. The genome size of coronaviruses ranges from approximately 27 to 34 kilobases, the largest among known RNA viruses. The name coronavirus is derived from the Latin corona, meaning "crown" or "halo", which refers to the characteristic appearance reminiscent of a crown or a solar corona around the virions (virus particles) when viewed under two-dimensional transmission electron microscopy, due to the surface being covered in club-shaped protein spikes.. ...
Buonavoglia, C.; Decaro, N.; Martella, V.; Elia, G.; Campolo, M.; Desario, C.; Castagnaro, M.; Tempesta, M., 2006: Canine coronavirus highly pathogenic for dogs
By Lawrence S. Sturman (auth.), V. ter Meulen, S. Siddell, H. Wege (eds.). This e-book is the results of a global symposium held on the Institute of Virology and Immunobiology of the-University of WUrzburg, Germany, in October 1980. The purpose of this symposium was once to supply a chance to check the information on coronavirus constitution and duplicate- tion in addition to to debate mechanisms of pathogenesis. For over a decade coronaviruses were famous as a big staff of viruses that are chargeable for quite a few ailments of medical significance in animals and guy. lately new and fascinating information at the molecular biology and pathogenesis of coronaviruses became to be had and this led us to arrange this assembly. The uniformity and variety during this virus staff used to be evaluated from a molecular standpoint and the replication of coronaviruses seems to be to contain features that could be particular for this virus staff. also, not like different confident strand RNA viruses it grew ...
Felin Infektiøs Peritonitis (FIP) er en dødelig og uhelbredelig bughindebetændelse, som rammer katte. Årsagen til sygdommen formodes at være en virus, som er en muteret version af Feline Enteric Coronavirus (FeCV), der ligesom aids er en muteret version af hiv. Der findes to typer af FIP: ...
Pig was euthanized at around 2 oclock this afternoon. Hed been sick for a couple of weeks and over the past couple of days deteriorated really quickly and really badly. While it broke my fucking heart into a million sharp little pieces it was also the only real choice that we had. It was very likely that he had Feline Infectious Peritonitis and would never really get better. He sat on our laps being touched and loved while the euthanasia kicked in. I miss him already and it feels now like that will never stop ...
This topic has 1 study abstract on Toona sinensis indicating that it may have therapeutic value in the treatment of Coronaviridae Infections, and SARS
About two weeks ago, I noticed that one of my Red Dorking girls (2 YO) had a really dirty butt, almost like the abdomen was sticking out under her vent...
Conventional treatment consists of antibiotic (Enrosol S.), vaccines against New Castle disease, infectious bronchitis, Gomboro, vitamins or anti-stress (Biocalphos, hydroprotein), and anti coccidian (CYCO-V ...
Dr. Robb Fraley, former Chief Technology Officer at Monsanto, discusses the role biotechnology is playing in learning about the novel COVID-19 coronavirus, and how it can aid in developing treatments and a vaccine.
Science writer David Quammen says the new coronavirus is the latest example of the way pathogens are migrating from animals to humans with increasing frequency - and sometimes deadly consequences.
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Genus Bafinivirus (früher zu Coronaviridae:Torovirinae) - Subgenera: Blicbavirus, Pimfabavirus. *Genus Oncotshavirus - Subgenus ...
Lai, M. M. C.; Holmes, K. V. (2001). "Coronaviridae". In Knipe, D. M.; Howley, P. M.; Griffin, D. E.; Lamb, R. A.; Martin, M. A ... Coronavirinae is one of two subfamilies in the family Coronaviridae. It is subdivided into the genera alphacoronavirus, ... Coronaviridae Thiel V, ed. (2007). Coronaviruses: Molecular and Cellular Biology (1st ed.). Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1- ...
Coronaviridae (fugleinfluenza). *Picornaviridae (polio). Gruppe V - Negativt polariseret enkeltstrenget RNA-virus (-ssRNA)[ ...
Virus Pathogen Database and Analysis Resource (ViPR): Coronaviridae. *German Research Foundation (Coronavirus Consortium) ...
腸道病毒(Enterovirus)又稱腸病毒,是一種主要寄生於腸道的正股單股RNA病毒,和人類及哺乳類的疾病有關。雖然名為腸病毒,在人類卻很少出現腸道的病狀。在病毒分類中,屬於第IV類的RNA病毒。腸道病毒的命名主要以它的英文名稱"Enterovirus"的
中東呼吸綜合症(英文縮寫:MERS)是一種由中東呼吸綜合症冠狀病毒(前稱「2012年新型冠狀病毒」)所引起的新型人畜共患的呼吸系統傳染病[6]。患者常見的症狀為
Family Coronaviridae. In: Virus Taxonomy: Ninth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. San Diego, CA: ...
The total length of this is about 28,000 nucleotides and, like all members of the Coronaviridae, toroviruses have a complex ... Torovirus is a genus of viruses in the order Nidovirales, in the family Coronaviridae, in the subfamily Torovirinae. They ... Torovirus particles share characteristics with other members of the Coronaviridae family; they are round, pleomorphic, ... Group: ssRNA(+) Order: Nidovirales Family: Coronaviridae Sub-Family: Torovirinae Genus: Torovirus Bovine torovirus Equine ...
... es are species of virus belonging to the subfamily Coronavirinae in the family Coronaviridae, in the order ... Virus Pathogen Database and Analysis Resource (ViPR): Coronaviridae German Research Foundation (Coronavirus Consortium). ... "Family Coronaviridae". In AMQ King, E Lefkowitz, MJ Adams, EB Carstens. Ninth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy ...
Družina: Coronaviridae › Poddružina: Coronavirinae › Genus: Betacoronavirus[51] › Species: Betakoronavirus 1 (običajno ime ...
Order Nidovirales Family Coronaviridae Subfamily Coronavirinae Genus Alphacoronavirus; type species: Alphacoronavirus 1 Species ... and delta-coronavirus in the subfamily Coronavirinae of the family Coronaviridae. Coronaviruses are enveloped, positive-sense, ...
Only one family of enveloped viruses causes gastroenteritis (Coronaviridae). All other viruses associated with gastroenteritis ...
Also included in the nidovirales order are the coronaviridae. The arteriviridae infect macrophages in animals and cause a ...
... is an order of viruses with animal and human hosts (MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV). It includes the families Coronaviridae ... which included the Coronaviridae and Roniviridae (the large nidoviruses) and those with small genomes (the small nidoviruses)-a ...
Examples of this class include the families Coronaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Picornaviridae. The negative-sense RNA viruses and ...
Coronaviruses Viralzone: Gammacoronavirus Virus Pathogen Database and Analysis Resource (ViPR): Coronaviridae. ... and delta in the subfamily Coronavirinae of the family Coronaviridae. They are enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA ...
TGEV belongs to the coronaviridae family, genus Alphacoronavirus, species Alphacoronavirus 1. It is an enveloped virus with a ... Transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV) is a virus belonging to the family Coronaviridae, genus Alphacoronavirus, ...
... es are one of four genera of coronaviruses of the subfamily Coronavirinae in the family Coronaviridae, of the ... Coronaviruses Viralzone: Betacoronavirus Virus Pathogen Database and Analysis Resource (ViPR): Coronaviridae. ...
... is a virus of the family Coronaviridae, genus Betacoronavirus. The Murine coronavirus, Mouse hepatitis ...
Virus Pathogen Database and Analysis Resource (ViPR): Coronaviridae German Research Foundation (Coronavirus Consortium). ...
Virus Pathogen Database and Analysis Resource (ViPR): Coronaviridae German Research Foundation (Coronavirus Consortium). ...
Examples of this class include the families Astroviridae, Caliciviridae, Coronaviridae, Flaviviridae, Picornaviridae, ...
... is a genus in the subfamily Torovirinae in the family Coronaviridae in the order Nidovirales. It contains one ...
The family Coronaviridae includes the genera Coronavirus and Torovirus.. Facts and ideas from anywhere ... a genus in the Coronaviridae family that includes Berne virus, recovered from horses in Switzerland, and Breda virus, recovered ... A genus in the family Coronaviridae that causes enteric infections in animals. ... A genus in the family Coronaviridae that causes enteric infections in animals. ...
Nidoviruses (Coronaviridae, Arteriviridae, and Roniviridae) feature the most complex genetic organization among plus-strand RNA ...
Coronaviridae References[edit]. *Gonzalez, J.M., Gomez-Puertas, P., Cavanagh, D., Gorbalenya, A.E. & L. Enjuanes 2003: A ... Siddell, S.G., (ed.) 1995: The Coronaviridae. Series: The Viruses, (H. Fraenkel-Conrat and R.R. Wagner, eds), Plenum Press, New ... Familia: Coronaviridae. Subfamiliae: Coronavirinae - Torovirinae Name[edit]. ... comparative sequence analysis to revise the current taxonomy of the family Coronaviridae. Arch. Virol., 148: 2207-2235. ...
Coronaviridae 19. Coronaviridae Coronaviruses Focus on Coronaviruses Viralzone: Coronaviridae Virus Pathogen Database and ... Coronaviridae is a family of enveloped, positive-stranded RNA viruses. The viral genome is 26-32 kb in length. Virions are ... Group: ssRNA(+) Order: Nidovirales Family: Coronaviridae Sub-Family: Coronavirinae Genus: Alphacoronavirus Alphacoronavirus 1 ... "Family Coronaviridae". In: Ninth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. AMQ King, E Lefkowitz, MJ Adams ...
In: Siddell SG (ed): The Coronaviridae. Plenum Press, New York and London, 73-113Google Scholar ... In: Siddell SG (ed): The Coronaviridae. Plenum Press, New York and London, 115-139Google Scholar ... In: Siddell SG (ed): The Coronaviridae. Plenum Press, New York and London, 141-163Google Scholar ... In: Siddell SG (ed): The Coronaviridae. Plenum, Press, New York and London, 181-189Google Scholar ...
The family Coronaviridae is has 2 sub-families, 5 genera, 26 sub-genera, and 46 species.[1] More species are possible, but not ... Coronaviridae is a family of enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses. The viral genome is 26-32 kilobases in ... Retrieved from "https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Coronaviridae&oldid=6947004" ...
Coronaviridae and SARS-associated Coronavirus Strain HSR1. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2004;10(3):413-418. doi:10.3201/ ... In addition, we have observed that other biomolecular features shared by most Coronaviridae coexist in SARS-CoV HSR1 with ... Vicenzi, E., Canducci, F., Pinna, D., Mancini, N., Carletti, S., Lazzarin, A....Clementi, M. (2004). Coronaviridae and SARS- ... This feature is typical of all Coronaviridae viruses that bud intracellularly at membranes of the intermediate compartment ...
Coronaviridae and SARS-associated Coronavirus Strain HSR1 Elisa Vicenzi*. , Filippo Canducci*, Debora Pinna*, Nicasio Mancini ... Coronaviridae and SARS-associated Coronavirus Strain HSR1. ...
Coronaviridae explanation free. What is Coronaviridae? Meaning of Coronaviridae medical term. What does Coronaviridae mean? ... Looking for online definition of Coronaviridae in the Medical Dictionary? ... Coronaviridae. Also found in: Dictionary, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.. Related to Coronaviridae: coronavirus, Flaviviridae, ... Coronaviridae. /Co·ro·na·vi·ri·dae/ (ko-ro″nah-vir´ĭ-de) the coronaviruses: a family of RNA viruses with a positive-sense ...
Catalog No.:HG22975-CF. Synonym:DIPP2,DIPP2alpha,DIPP2beta,HDCMB47P. BC No:NM_019094.5. Vector:pCMV3-C-FLAG. Type:Expression-Ready ORF Clones ...
Coronaviridae is a family of enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses. The viral genome is 26-32 kilobases in ... The family Coronaviridae is organized in 2 sub-families, 5 genera, 23 sub-genera and about 40 species:[2] ... Coronavirus is the common name for Coronaviridae and Orthocoronavirinae, also called Coronavirinae.[4][5] Coronaviruses cause ... Coronaviridae. Wikipedia open wikipedia design.. Family of viruses in the order Nidovirales ...
Family Coronaviridae Family Paramyxoviridae Family Arenaviridae Family Flaviviridae Family Bunyaviridae Conclusions Cite This ... Family Coronaviridae. Beginning in late 2002, an outbreak of severe pneumonia associated with human deaths occurred in ...
Coronaviridae. In: Concise Review of Veterinary Virology Author(s):. Carter G.R. and ...
Coronaviridae. In: Concise Review of Veterinary Virology Author(s):. Carter G.R. and ...
We now examined for SECReTE presence in Group IV and V RNA viruses, the former including the Coronaviridae, like SARS-CoV-2 and ... "Identification and enrichment of SECReTE cis-acting RNA elements in the Coronaviridae and other (+) single-strand RNA viruses" ... "Identification and enrichment of SECReTE cis-acting RNA elements in the Coronaviridae and other (+) single-strand RNA viruses" ... "Identification and enrichment of SECReTE cis-acting RNA elements in the Coronaviridae and other (+) single-strand RNA viruses" ...
History of investigation and current classification of coronaviruses (,i,Nidovirales: Coronaviridae,/i,) *M. Yu. Shchelkanov ...
Issuu is a digital publishing platform that makes it simple to publish magazines, catalogs, newspapers, books, and more online. Easily share your publications and get them in front of Issuus millions of monthly readers. Title: Virology, Author: Christian, Name: Virology, Length: 32 pages, Page: 1, Published: 2018-05-07
Genus Bafinivirus (früher zu Coronaviridae:Torovirinae) - Subgenera: Blicbavirus, Pimfabavirus. *Genus Oncotshavirus - Subgenus ...
Coronaviridae Genus. Not listed Information From. B. Rehse-Kupper, R. Ackermann Address. Department of Virology, Neurology ...
Coronaviridae, Bunyaviridae, and Retroviridae. For example, it is intended that the present invention encompass methods for the ...
Coronaviridae 25. Arteriviridae 26. Picornaviridae 27. Caliciviridae 28. Astroviridae 29. Togaviridae 30. Flaviviridae 31. ...
Family Coronaviridae Family Arteriviridae Family Papillomaviridae Family Parvoviridae TT Virus: A Newly Described Human Virus ...
Coronaviridae. In: Fields Virology, Knipe DM and Howley PM (eds). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, pp. 1305-1335. ...
2011) Coronaviridae. Virus Taxonomy: Ninth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, eds King AMQ, Adams MJ ... family Coronaviridae)-that exhibit a propensity for interspecies transmission (1, 2). The betacoronaviruses severe acute ...
Products / Genes / Virus / Coronaviridae. SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) (strain WH20) 3CLpro ORF mammalian expression plasmid, C- ...
  • The Coronaviridae are a large group of RNA-containing viruses that infect a wide variety of avian and mammalian species ( 22 , 29 ). (asm.org)
  • We now examined for SECReTE presence in Group IV and V RNA viruses, the former including the Coronaviridae , like SARS-CoV-2 and other positive (+)ssRNA viruses, and the latter consisting of negative (-) ssRNA viruses. (cdc.gov)
  • Recently, we identified a novel virus in the family Coronaviridae in SARS patients (4). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • En biologisk virus består af et genom af DNA eller RNA og et antal enzymer, der er indlejret i en proteinkappe (kaldet en kapsid ), eventuelt omkrandset af membrankappe . (wikipedia.org)
  • Virus kan ikke formere sig alene, men overtager i stedet for en værtscelle og underkaster værtscellens molekylære maskineri for at fremstille kopier af sig selv og således producere den næste generation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Derfor bliver virus typisk ikke betragtet som levende organismer, fordi de alene ikke kan formere sig eller lave stofskifte , men kræver en vært . (wikipedia.org)
  • Dog har nye genetiske undersøgelser ændret på denne opfattelse, da det har vist sig at virus nedstammer fra en fælles stamform med moderne celler og har været en faktor, der har præget evolutionen . (wikipedia.org)
  • Virus består af et genom og nogle gange et par enzymer , der er indlejret i en proteinkappe (kaldet en kapsid ), eventuelt omkranset af membrankappe (en lipid-membran, eng. (wikipedia.org)
  • Virus kan ikke formere sig alene, men overtager i stedet for en værtscelle, dvs. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNA virus belonging to the family Coronaviridae . (cdc.gov)