Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Coronary Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.Coronary Artery Disease: Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.Coronary Circulation: The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary: Dilation of an occluded coronary artery (or arteries) by means of a balloon catheter to restore myocardial blood supply.Coronary Stenosis: Narrowing or constriction of a coronary artery.Pericardium: A conical fibro-serous sac surrounding the HEART and the roots of the great vessels (AORTA; VENAE CAVAE; PULMONARY ARTERY). Pericardium consists of two sacs: the outer fibrous pericardium and the inner serous pericardium. The latter consists of an outer parietal layer facing the fibrous pericardium, and an inner visceral layer (epicardium) resting next to the heart, and a pericardial cavity between these two layers.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Coronary Artery Bypass: Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.Blood Vessels: Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).Coronary Restenosis: Recurrent narrowing or constriction of a coronary artery following surgical procedures performed to alleviate a prior obstruction.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Coronary Vessel Anomalies: Malformations of CORONARY VESSELS, either arteries or veins. Included are anomalous origins of coronary arteries; ARTERIOVENOUS FISTULA; CORONARY ANEURYSM; MYOCARDIAL BRIDGING; and others.Coronary Vasospasm: Spasm of the large- or medium-sized coronary arteries.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Coronary Aneurysm: Abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of CORONARY VESSELS. Most coronary aneurysms are due to CORONARY ATHEROSCLEROSIS, and the rest are due to inflammatory diseases, such as KAWASAKI DISEASE.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Coronary Thrombosis: Coagulation of blood in any of the CORONARY VESSELS. The presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) often leads to MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Stents: Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.Nitroglycerin: A volatile vasodilator which relieves ANGINA PECTORIS by stimulating GUANYLATE CYCLASE and lowering cytosolic calcium. It is also sometimes used for TOCOLYSIS and explosives.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Vasa Vasorum: Nutrient blood vessels which supply the walls of large arteries or veins.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Myocardial Ischemia: A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Coronary Occlusion: Complete blockage of blood flow through one of the CORONARY ARTERIES, usually from CORONARY ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Ultrasonography, Interventional: The use of ultrasound to guide minimally invasive surgical procedures such as needle ASPIRATION BIOPSY; DRAINAGE; etc. Its widest application is intravascular ultrasound imaging but it is useful also in urology and intra-abdominal conditions.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A family of percutaneous techniques that are used to manage CORONARY OCCLUSION, including standard balloon angioplasty (PERCUTANEOUS TRANSLUMINAL CORONARY ANGIOPLASTY), the placement of intracoronary STENTS, and atheroablative technologies (e.g., ATHERECTOMY; ENDARTERECTOMY; THROMBECTOMY; PERCUTANEOUS TRANSLUMINAL LASER ANGIOPLASTY). PTCA was the dominant form of PCI, before the widespread use of stenting.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Adenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Lymphatic Vessels: Tubular vessels that are involved in the transport of LYMPH and LYMPHOCYTES.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Calcinosis: Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Coronary Care Units: The hospital unit in which patients with acute cardiac disorders receive intensive care.Neovascularization, Physiologic: The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.Retinal Vessels: The blood vessels which supply and drain the RETINA.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Models, Cardiovascular: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.Quail: Common name for two distinct groups of BIRDS in the order GALLIFORMES: the New World or American quails of the family Odontophoridae and the Old World quails in the genus COTURNIX, family Phasianidae.Coturnix: A genus of BIRDS in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES, containing the common European and other Old World QUAIL.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Tunica Media: The middle layer of blood vessel walls, composed principally of thin, cylindrical, smooth muscle cells and elastic tissue. It accounts for the bulk of the wall of most arteries. The smooth muscle cells are arranged in circular layers around the vessel, and the thickness of the coat varies with the size of the vessel.Tunica Intima: The innermost layer of an artery or vein, made up of one layer of endothelial cells and supported by an internal elastic lamina.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Veins: The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.Sirolimus: A macrolide compound obtained from Streptomyces hygroscopicus that acts by selectively blocking the transcriptional activation of cytokines thereby inhibiting cytokine production. It is bioactive only when bound to IMMUNOPHILINS. Sirolimus is a potent immunosuppressant and possesses both antifungal and antineoplastic properties.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Myocardial Revascularization: The restoration of blood supply to the myocardium. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump: Coronary artery bypass surgery on a beating HEART without a CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS (diverting the flow of blood from the heart and lungs through an oxygenator).Angina, Unstable: Precordial pain at rest, which may precede a MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Collateral Circulation: Maintenance of blood flow to an organ despite obstruction of a principal vessel. Blood flow is maintained through small vessels.Paracrine Communication: Cellular signaling in which a factor secreted by a cell affects other cells in the local environment. This term is often used to denote the action of INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS on surrounding cells.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Cardiac Catheterization: Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester: A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.Angina Pectoris: The symptom of paroxysmal pain consequent to MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA usually of distinctive character, location and radiation. It is thought to be provoked by a transient stressful situation during which the oxygen requirements of the MYOCARDIUM exceed that supplied by the CORONARY CIRCULATION.Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors: Drugs or agents which antagonize or impair any mechanism leading to blood platelet aggregation, whether during the phases of activation and shape change or following the dense-granule release reaction and stimulation of the prostaglandin-thromboxane system.Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Microcirculation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A: The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.Drug-Eluting Stents: Stents that are covered with materials that are embedded with chemicals that are gradually released into the surrounding milieu.Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Chest Pain: Pressure, burning, or numbness in the chest.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Plaque, Atherosclerotic: Lesions formed within the walls of ARTERIES.Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Dipyridamole: A phosphodiesterase inhibitor that blocks uptake and metabolism of adenosine by erythrocytes and vascular endothelial cells. Dipyridamole also potentiates the antiaggregating action of prostacyclin. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p752)Cardiovascular Agents: Agents that affect the rate or intensity of cardiac contraction, blood vessel diameter, or blood volume.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Myocardial Reperfusion: Generally, restoration of blood supply to heart tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. Reperfusion can be induced to treat ischemia. Methods include chemical dissolution of an occluding thrombus, administration of vasodilator drugs, angioplasty, catheterization, and artery bypass graft surgery. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Arterioles: The smallest divisions of the arteries located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries.Fractional Flow Reserve, Myocardial: The ratio of maximum blood flow to the MYOCARDIUM with CORONARY STENOSIS present, to the maximum equivalent blood flow without stenosis. The measurement is commonly used to verify borderline stenosis of CORONARY ARTERIES.Mammary Arteries: Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles and mammary gland.Vasomotor System: The neural systems which act on VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE to control blood vessel diameter. The major neural control is through the sympathetic nervous system.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Multidetector Computed Tomography: Types of spiral computed tomography technology in which multiple slices of data are acquired simultaneously improving the resolution over single slice acquisition technology.Ticlopidine: An effective inhibitor of platelet aggregation commonly used in the placement of STENTS in CORONARY ARTERIES.Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome: An acute, febrile, mucocutaneous condition accompanied by swelling of cervical lymph nodes in infants and young children. The principal symptoms are fever, congestion of the ocular conjunctivae, reddening of the lips and oral cavity, protuberance of tongue papillae, and edema or erythema of the extremities.Ventricular Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.Hyperemia: The presence of an increased amount of blood in a body part or an organ leading to congestion or engorgement of blood vessels. Hyperemia can be due to increase of blood flow into the area (active or arterial), or due to obstruction of outflow of blood from the area (passive or venous).Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Angina Pectoris, Variant: A clinical syndrome characterized by the development of CHEST PAIN at rest with concomitant transient ST segment elevation in the ELECTROCARDIOGRAM, but with preserved exercise capacity.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Aspirin: The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Saphenous Vein: The vein which drains the foot and leg.Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Vascular Calcification: Deposition of calcium into the blood vessel structures. Excessive calcification of the vessels are associated with ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES formation particularly after MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION (see MONCKEBERG MEDIAL CALCIFIC SCLEROSIS) and chronic kidney diseases which in turn increase VASCULAR STIFFNESS.Myocardial Perfusion Imaging: The creation and display of functional images showing where the blood is flowing into the MYOCARDIUM by following over time the distribution of tracers injected into the blood stream.Ergonovine: An ergot alkaloid (ERGOT ALKALOIDS) with uterine and VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE contractile properties.Thrombosis: Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.Constriction, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Cineangiography: Motion pictures of the passage of contrast medium through blood vessels.Arteriosclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Radial Artery: The direct continuation of the brachial trunk, originating at the bifurcation of the brachial artery opposite the neck of the radius. Its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to the three regions in which the vessel is situated, the forearm, wrist, and hand.Graft Occlusion, Vascular: Obstruction of flow in biological or prosthetic vascular grafts.Sinus of Valsalva: The dilatation of the aortic wall behind each of the cusps of the aortic valve.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Tomography, Spiral Computed: Computed tomography where there is continuous X-ray exposure to the patient while being transported in a spiral or helical pattern through the beam of irradiation. This provides improved three-dimensional contrast and spatial resolution compared to conventional computed tomography, where data is obtained and computed from individual sequential exposures.Vascular Patency: The degree to which BLOOD VESSELS are not blocked or obstructed.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Hypercholesterolemia: A condition with abnormally high levels of CHOLESTEROL in the blood. It is defined as a cholesterol value exceeding the 95th percentile for the population.Diabetic Angiopathies: VASCULAR DISEASES that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Angina, Stable: Persistent and reproducible chest discomfort usually precipitated by a physical exertion that dissipates upon cessation of such an activity. The symptoms are manifestations of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Angioscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery performed on the interior of blood vessels.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Thallium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of thallium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Tl atoms with atomic weights 198-202, 204, and 206-210 are thallium radioisotopes.Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.Atherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.Capillaries: The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Vasoconstrictor Agents: Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Femoral Artery: The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.Stroke Volume: The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Angioplasty, Balloon: Use of a balloon catheter for dilation of an occluded artery. It is used in treatment of arterial occlusive diseases, including renal artery stenosis and arterial occlusions in the leg. For the specific technique of BALLOON DILATION in coronary arteries, ANGIOPLASTY, BALLOON, CORONARY is available.Cholesterol, LDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Hemorrhage: Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.Papaverine: An alkaloid found in opium but not closely related to the other opium alkaloids in its structure or pharmacological actions. It is a direct-acting smooth muscle relaxant used in the treatment of impotence and as a vasodilator, especially for cerebral vasodilation. The mechanism of its pharmacological actions is not clear, but it apparently can inhibit phosphodiesterases and it may have direct actions on calcium channels.Myocardial Reperfusion Injury: Damage to the MYOCARDIUM resulting from MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION (restoration of blood flow to ischemic areas of the HEART.) Reperfusion takes place when there is spontaneous thrombolysis, THROMBOLYTIC THERAPY, collateral flow from other coronary vascular beds, or reversal of vasospasm.Dobutamine: A catecholamine derivative with specificity for BETA-1 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS. It is commonly used as a cardiotonic agent after CARDIAC SURGERY and during DOBUTAMINE STRESS ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Isosorbide Dinitrate: A vasodilator used in the treatment of ANGINA PECTORIS. Its actions are similar to NITROGLYCERIN but with a slower onset of action.Ventricular Dysfunction, Left: A condition in which the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the left ventricular wall.Dilatation, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being dilated beyond normal dimensions.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Swine, Miniature: Genetically developed small pigs for use in biomedical research. There are several strains - Yucatan miniature, Sinclair miniature, and Minnesota miniature.Cardiopulmonary Bypass: Diversion of the flow of blood from the entrance of the right atrium directly to the aorta (or femoral artery) via an oxygenator thus bypassing both the heart and lungs.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Microvascular Angina: ANGINA PECTORIS or angina-like chest pain with a normal coronary arteriogram and positive EXERCISE TEST. The cause of the syndrome is unknown. While its recognition is of clinical importance, its prognosis is excellent. (Braunwald, Heart Disease, 4th ed, p1346; Jablonski Dictionary of Syndromes & Eponymic Diseases, 2d ed). It is different from METABOLIC SYNDROME X, a syndrome characterized by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA, that has increased risk for cardiovascular disease.Carotid Arteries: Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.Hospital Mortality: A vital statistic measuring or recording the rate of death from any cause in hospitalized populations.Myocardial Bridging: A malformation that is characterized by a muscle bridge over a segment of the CORONARY ARTERIES. Systolic contractions of the muscle bridge can lead to narrowing of coronary artery; coronary compression; MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and SUDDEN CARDIAC DEATH.Cholesterol, HDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Platelet Glycoprotein GPIIb-IIIa Complex: Platelet membrane glycoprotein complex important for platelet adhesion and aggregation. It is an integrin complex containing INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB and INTEGRIN BETA3 which recognizes the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) sequence present on several adhesive proteins. As such, it is a receptor for FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; FIBRONECTIN; VITRONECTIN; and THROMBOSPONDINS. A deficiency of GPIIb-IIIa results in GLANZMANN THROMBASTHENIA.Diabetes Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Fistula: Abnormal communication most commonly seen between two internal organs, or between an internal organ and the surface of the body.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Cardiotonic Agents: Agents that have a strengthening effect on the heart or that can increase cardiac output. They may be CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES; SYMPATHOMIMETICS; or other drugs. They are used after MYOCARDIAL INFARCT; CARDIAC SURGICAL PROCEDURES; in SHOCK; or in congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).Adrenergic beta-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.Arterio-Arterial Fistula: Abnormal communication between two ARTERIES that may result from injury or occur as a congenital abnormality.Internal Mammary-Coronary Artery Anastomosis: Direct myocardial revascularization in which the internal mammary artery is anastomosed to the right coronary artery, circumflex artery, or anterior descending coronary artery. The internal mammary artery is the most frequent choice, especially for a single graft, for coronary artery bypass surgery.Fibrinolytic Agents: Fibrinolysin or agents that convert plasminogen to FIBRINOLYSIN.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Bradykinin: A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.Nitroprusside: A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Heart Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.

Phasic right coronary artery blood flow in conscious dogs with normal and elevated right ventricular pressures. (1/8389)

We studied phasic right coronary blood flow in well trained normal dogs and dogs with pulmonic stenosis. We installed electromagnetic flow transducers and pressure tubes under anesthesia to monitor right coronary blood flow, cardiac output, central aortic blood pressure, and right ventribular pressure. In normotensive dogs, systolic flow amplitude equaled early diastolic flow levels. The ratio of systolic to diastolic flow at rest was substantially greater in the right coronary bed (36+/-1.3%) than in the left circumflex bed (13+/-3.6%). Right diastolid flow runoff, including the cove late in diastole, resembled left circumflex runoff. Blood flow to the normotensive right (37+/-1.1 ml/min 100(-1) g) and the left (35+/-1.0 ml/min(-1) g) ventricular myocardium indicated equal perfusion of both cardiac walls. Throttling of systolic flow was related directly to the right ventricular systolic pressure level in the dogs with pulmonic stenosis. Retrograde systolic flow occurred in severe right ventricular hypertension. The late diastolic runoff pattern in dogs with pulmonic stenosis appeared the same as for the normotensive dogs. We obtained systolic to diastolic flow ratios of 1/3 the value of normotensive hearts in high and severe pulmonic hypertension. Electrocardiograms and studies of pathology suggested restricted blood flow to the inner layers of the right myocardium in the dogs with severe and high right ventricular hypertension. Normotensive and hypertensive peak hyperemic flow responses were similar, except for an increased magnitude of diastolic flow, with proportionately less systolic flow in hypertensive states.  (+info)

The effect of cardiac contraction on collateral resistance in the canine heart. (2/8389)

We determined whether the coronary collateral vessels develop an increased resistance to blood flow during systole as does the cognate vascular bed. Collateral resistance was estimated by measuring retrograde flow rate from a distal branch of the left anterior descending coronary artery while the main left coronary artery was perfused at a constant pressure. Retrograde flow rate was measured before and during vagal arrest. We found that in 10 dogs the prolonged diastole experienced when the heart was stopped caused no significant change in the retrograde flow rate, which indicated that systole has little effect on the collateral resistance. However, when left ventricular end-diastolic pressure was altered by changing afterload or contractility, a direct relationship between end-diastolic pressure and collateral resistance was noted.  (+info)

Variations in 35SO4 incorporation into glycosaminoglycans along canine coronary arteries. A possible index of artery wall stress. (3/8389)

Focal areas of accentuated wall stress along the course of canine coronary arteries may be revealed by the level of 35SO4 incorporation into glycosaminoglycans (GAG). In the anterior descending artery, 35SO4 incorporation in higher in the proximal than in the distal region and may be extraordinarily high as the vessel enters a proximally located muscle bridge and at the takeoff region of multidirectional branches. In the circumflex artery, the incorporation also is higher in the proximal than in the distal region and is high at the genu where the posterior descending artery forms. There are differences in uptake of 35SO4 in vessels even when the arteries arise from the same vascular bed.this was shown by the higher incorporation in the left coronary artery than in the right coronary artery. A general anatomical agreement exists between these sites of high 35SO4 incorporation and previously described locations of interval elastic disruption ans proliferation of intimal connective tissue in the dog.  (+info)

Site of myocardial infarction. A determinant of the cardiovascular changes induced in the cat by coronary occlusion. (4/8389)

The influence of site of acute myocardial infarction on heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac output, total peripheral resistance (TPR), cardiac rhythm, and mortality was determined in 58 anesthetized cats by occlusion of either the left anterior descending (LAD), left circumflex or right coronary artery. LAD occlusion resulted in immediate decrease in cardiac output, heart rate, and blood pressure, an increase in TPR, and cardiac rhythm changes including premature ventricular beats, ventricular tachycardia, and occasionally ventricular fibrillation. The decrease in cardiac output and increase in TPR persisted in the cats surviving a ventricular arrhythmia. In contrast, right coronary occlusion resulted in a considerably smaller decrease in cardiac output. TPR did not increase, atrioventricular condition disturbances were common, and sinus bradycardia and hypotension persisted in the cats recovering from an arrhythmia. Left circumflex ligation resulted in cardiovascular changes intermediate between those produced by occlusion of the LAD or the right coronary artery. Mortality was similar in each of the three groups. We studied the coronary artery anatomy in 12 cats. In 10, the blood supply to the sinus node was from the right coronary artery and in 2, from the left circumflex coronary artery. The atrioventricular node artery arose from the right in 9 cats, and from the left circumflex in 3. The right coronary artery was dominant in 9 cats and the left in 3. In conclusion, the site of experimental coronary occlusion in cats is a major determinant of the hemodynamic and cardiac rhythm changes occurring after acute myocardial infarction. The cardiovascular responses evoked by ligation are related in part to the anatomical distribution of the occluded artery.  (+info)

Inhibition of endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization by endothelial prostanoids in guinea-pig coronary artery. (5/8389)

1. In smooth muscle of the circumflex coronary artery of guinea-pig, acetylcholine (ACh, 10(-6) M) produced an endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization consisting of two components. An initial component that occurs in the presence of ACh and a slow component that developed after ACh had been withdrawn. Each component of the hyperpolarization was accompanied by an increase in membrane conductance. 2. Indomethacin (5 x 10(-6) M) or diclofenac (10(-6) M), both inhibitors of cyclooxygenase, abolished only the slow hyperpolarization. The initial hyperpolarization was not inhibited by diclofenac nor by nitroarginine, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. 3. Both components of the ACh-induced hyperpolarization were abolished in the presence of atropine (10(-6) M) or high-K solution ([K+]0 = 29.4 mM). 4. The interval between ACh-stimulation required to generate an initial hyperpolarization of reproducible amplitude was 20 min or greater, but it was reduced to less than 5 min after inhibiting cyclooxygenase activity. Conditioning stimulation of the artery with substance P (10(-7) M) also caused a long duration (about 20 min) inhibition of the ACh-response. 5. The amplitude of the hyperpolarization generated by Y-26763, a K+-channel opener, was reproducible within 10 min after withdrawal of ACh. 6. Exogenously applied prostacyclin (PGI2) hyperpolarized the membrane and reduced membrane resistance in concentrations over 2.8 x 10(-9)M. 7. At concentrations below threshold for hyperpolarization and when no alteration of membrane resistance occurred, PGI2 inhibited the initial component of the ACh-induced hyperpolarization. 8. It is concluded that endothelial prostanoids, possibly PGI2, have an inhibitory action on the release of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor.  (+info)

A comparison of an A1 adenosine receptor agonist (CVT-510) with diltiazem for slowing of AV nodal conduction in guinea-pig. (6/8389)

1. The purpose of this study was to compare the pharmacological properties (i.e. the AV nodal depressant, vasodilator, and inotropic effects) of two AV nodal blocking agents belonging to different drug classes; a novel A1 adenosine receptor (A1 receptor) agonist, N-(3(R)-tetrahydrofuranyl)-6-aminopurine riboside (CVT-510), and the prototypical calcium channel blocker diltiazem. 2. In the atrial-paced isolated heart, CVT-510 was approximately 5 fold more potent to prolong the stimulus-to-His bundle (S-H interval), a measure of slowing AV nodal conduction (EC50 = 41 nM) than to increase coronary conductance (EC50 = 200 nM). At concentrations of CVT-510 (40 nM) and diltiazem (1 microM) that caused equal prolongation of S-H interval (approximately 10 ms), diltiazem, but not CVT-510, significantly reduced left ventricular developed pressure (LVP) and markedly increased coronary conductance. CVT-510 shortened atrial (EC50 = 73 nM) but not the ventricular monophasic action potentials (MAP). 3. In atrial-paced anaesthetized guinea-pigs, intravenous infusions of CVT-510 and diltiazem caused nearly equal prolongations of P-R interval. However, diltiazem, but not CVT-510, significantly reduced mean arterial blood pressure. 4. Both CVT-510 and diltiazem prolonged S-H interval, i.e., slowed AV nodal conduction. However, the A1 receptor-selective agonist CVT-510 did so without causing the negative inotropic, vasodilator, and hypotensive effects associated with diltiazem. Because CVT-510 did not affect the ventricular action potential, it is unlikely that this agonist will have a proarrythmic action in ventricular myocardium.  (+info)

Acetylcholine-induced relaxation in blood vessels from endothelial nitric oxide synthase knockout mice. (7/8389)

1. Isometric tension was recorded in isolated rings of aorta, carotid, coronary and mesenteric arteries taken from endothelial nitric oxide synthase knockout mice (eNOS(-/-) mice) and the corresponding wild-type strain (eNOS(+/+) mice). The membrane potential of smooth muscle cells was measured in coronary arteries with intracellular microelectrodes. 2. In the isolated aorta, carotid and coronary arteries from the eNOS(+/+) mice, acetylcholine induced an endothelium-dependent relaxation which was inhibited by N(omega)-L-nitro-arginine. In contrast, in the mesenteric arteries, the inhibition of the cholinergic relaxation required the combination of N(omega)-L-nitro-arginine and indomethacin. 3. The isolated aorta, carotid and coronary arteries from the eNOS(-/-) mice did not relax in response to acetylcholine. However, acetylcholine produced an indomethacin-sensitive relaxation in the mesenteric artery from eNOS(-/-) mice. 4. The resting membrane potential of smooth muscle cells from isolated coronary arteries was significantly less negative in the eNOS(-/-) mice (-64.8 +/- 1.8 mV, n = 20 and -58.4 +/- 1.9 mV, n = 17, for eNOS(+/+) and eNOS(-/-) mice, respectively). In both strains, acetylcholine, bradykinin and substance P did not induce endothelium-dependent hyperpolarizations whereas cromakalim consistently produced hyperpolarizations (- 7.9 +/- 1.1 mV, n = 8 and -13.8 +/- 2.6 mV, n = 4, for eNOS(+/+) and eNOS(-/-) mice, respectively). 5. These findings demonstrate that in the blood vessels studied: (1) in the eNOS(+/+) mice, the endothelium-dependent relaxations to acetylcholine involve either NO or the combination of NO plus a product of cyclo-oxygenase but not EDHF; (2) in the eNOS(-/-) mice, NO-dependent responses and EDHF-like responses were not observed. In the mesenteric arteries acetylcholine releases a cyclo-oxygenase derivative.  (+info)

In-stent neointimal proliferation correlates with the amount of residual plaque burden outside the stent: an intravascular ultrasound study. (8/8389)

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between residual plaque burden after coronary stent implantation and the development of late in-stent neointimal proliferation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Between January 1996 and May 1997, 50 patients underwent intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) interrogation at 6+/-1.2 months after coronary stent implantation in native coronary arteries. IVUS images were acquired with a motorized pullback, and cross-sectional measurements were performed within the stents at 1-mm intervals. The following measurements were obtained: (1) lumen area (LA), (2) stent area (SA), (3) area delimited by the external elastic membrane (EEMA), (4) percent neointimal area calculated as (SA-LA/SA)x100, and (5) percent residual plaque area calculated as (EEMA-SA)/EEMAx100. Volume measurements within the stented segments were calculated by applying Simpson's rule. In the pooled data analysis of 876 cross sections, linear regression showed a significant positive correlation between percent residual plaque area and percent neointimal area (r=0.50, y= 45.03+0.29x, P<0.01). There was significant incremental increase in mean percent neointimal area for stepwise increase in percent residual plaque area. Mean percent neointimal area was 16.3+/-10.3% for lesions with a percent residual plaque area of <50% and 27.7+/-11% for lesions with a percent residual plaque area of >/=50% (P<0.001). The volumetric analysis showed that the percent residual plaque volume was significantly greater in restenotic lesions compared with nonrestenotic lesions (58.7+/-4.3% versus 51.4+/-5.7%, respectively; P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Late in-stent neointimal proliferation has a direct correlation with the amount of residual plaque burden after coronary stent implantation, supporting the hypothesis that plaque removal before stent implantation may reduce restenosis.  (+info)

*Verification and validation

2008). "Drug-eluting or bare-metal stents forlarge coronary vessel stenting? The BASKET-PROVE (PROspective Validation ...

*Systole

Notably, cardiac muscle perfusion through the heart's coronary vessels doesn't happen during ventricular systole; rather, it ... coordinated depolarisation and excitation-contraction coupling from the apex of the heart up to the roots of the great vessels ...

*Atheroma

MRI coronary vessel wall imaging, although currently limited to research studies, has demonstrated the ability to detect vessel ... There was incremental significant increase in CIMT with the number coronary vessel involved. In accordance with the literature ... Coronary Artery Atherosclerosis at eMedicine Waller BF, Orr CM, Slack JD, Pinkerton CA, Van Tassel J, Peters T (June 1992). " ... Angiogram ApoA-1 Milano Atherosclerosis Atherothrombosis Coronary circulation Coronary catheterization EBT Hemorheologic- ...

*Ventricular remodeling

Fibroblasts, collagen, the interstitium, and the coronary vessels to a lesser extent, also play a role. A common scenario for ...

*Thrombus

This drug is administered intravenously and can be used to dissolve blood clots in coronary vessels. However, streptokinase is ... Mural thrombi are thrombi that adhere to the wall of a blood vessel. They occur in large vessels such as the heart and aorta, ... A thrombus in a large blood vessel will decrease blood flow through that vessel (termed a mural thrombus). In a small blood ... This may be aided by drugs (for example after occlusion of a coronary artery). The best response to fibrinolytic drugs is ...

*Coronary artery anomaly

Coronary artery anomalies (or malformation of coronary vessels) are congenital abnormalities in the coronary anatomy of the ... Many coronary anomalies don't cause symptoms and are recognized only at the time of autopsy. They can be associated with sudden ... Basso C, Maron BJ, Corrado D, Thiene G (May 2000). "Clinical profile of congenital coronary artery anomalies with origin from ... The Congenital Heart Surgeons' Society has started a long-term ongoing study called anomalous aortic origin of a coronary ...

*Coronary stent

Similar stents and procedures are used in non-coronary vessels e.g. in the legs in peripheral artery disease. Play media ... The MASS-II trial compared PCI, CABG and optimum medical therapy for the treatment of multi-vessel coronary artery disease. The ... A coronary stent is a tube-shaped device placed in the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart, to keep the arteries ... Coronary artery stents, typically a metal framework, can be placed inside the artery to help keep it open. However, as the ...

*Carotid endarterectomy

Left main or multi vessel coronary artery disease. Need for open heart surgery within 30 days. Left ventricular ejection ... The internal, common and external carotid arteries are carefully identified, controlled with vessel loops, and clamped. The ...

*Instant Karma (House)

He tells Foreman that the cardiac arrest was a coronary event, meaning Jack's coronary vessels were obstructed, which can't be ... It is, meaning it is most likely affecting the small blood vessels which explains why they did not see any inflammation on the ...

*Urocortin II

In rat coronary vessels, PKA mediates inhibition of calcium-independent phospholipase A and calcium influx which results in ... Ucn2 produced a dose dependent relaxation of coronary. This correlation was a result of the cAMP/ PKA pathway and independent ... It is highly selective for CRF2 which is predominantly found in the myocardium, blood vessels and peripheral tissues. This ... increased coronary flow, significantly altered intracellular calcium handling and increased SR calcium. These relaxation ...

*Angina

... allowing blood clots to precipitate and further decrease the area of the coronary vessel's lumen. This explains why, in many ... in the context of normal epicardial coronary arteries (the largest vessels on the surface of the heart, prior to significant ... coronary artery spasms, or coronary thrombosis. The process starts with atherosclerosis, progresses through inflammation to ... as well as their predilection towards ischemia and acute coronary syndromes in the absence of obstructive coronary artery ...

*Langendorff heart

... forcing the solution into the coronary vessels, which normally supply the heart tissue with blood. This feeds nutrients and ... In the Langendorff preparation, the heart is removed from the animal's body, severing the blood vessels; it is then perfused in ... The Langendorff heart preparation-Reappraisal of its role as a research and teaching model for coronary vasoactive drugs, K.J. ...

*Coronary circulation

However, the epicardial coronary vessels (the vessels that run along the outer surface of the heart) remain open. Because of ... Coronary circulation is the circulation of blood in the blood vessels of the heart muscle (myocardium). Coronary arteries ... The third sinus, the right posterior aortic sinus, typically does not give rise to a vessel. Coronary vessel branches that ... During contraction of the ventricular myocardium (systole), the subendocardial coronary vessels (the vessels that enter the ...

*Human HGF plasmid DNA therapy

A phase I clinical trial entailed injecting an adenovirus vector with the human HGF (Ad-hHGF) gene into the coronary vessels ... Results demonstrate that it is in fact safe to administer the Ad-hHGF vector into patients with coronary artery disease in ... Human HGF plasmid DNA therapy of cardiomyocytes is being examined as a potential treatment for coronary artery disease (a major ... hopes of re-vascularizing damaged tissue in patients for which coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) or percutaneous coronary ...

*Cardiac catheterization

... coronary angiography is a diagnostic procedure that allows the interventional cardiologist to visualize the coronary vessels. ... The coronary arteries are known as "epicardial vessels" as they are located in the epicardium, the outermost layer of the heart ... It is important to note that the coronary arteries are not accessed during a right heart catheterization. Main page: Coronary ... However, in cases where multiple vessels are blocked (so called "three vessel disease"), the interventional cardiologist may ...

*Bernard Lown

In 1957, Lown was concerned with how to visualize an atherosclerotic aortic plaque, which occurs in the big coronary vessels ... Among these were the coronary care unit. His work made possible and safe much of modern cardiac surgery, as well as a host of ... "The Coronary Artery Entrapment". 31 July 2012. Dersiewicz, Bill (Winter 1990). "Bernard Lown Speaks From the Heart". Harvard ... DC defibrillation provided a safe way to restore a normal heart rhythm during the surgical bypass of obstructed coronary ...

*Drug-eluting stent

Coronary artery bypass graft surgery versus percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with three-vessel disease and left ... suggest drug-eluting stenting is not inferior to coronary bypass for treatment of multiple-vessel coronary disease. The ARTS II ... Coronary arterial healing occurs after the placement of a drug-eluting stent, but complete healing of the vessel takes time. ... bypass surgery, only a small minority of patients with multiple-vessel coronary disease have been eligible for inclusion in the ...

*Blood vessel epicardial substance

Reese DE, Zavaljevski M, Streiff NL, Bader D (May 1999). "bves: A novel gene expressed during coronary blood vessel development ... Blood vessel epicardial substance (BVES) also known as popeye domain-containing protein 1 (POPDC1) is a protein that in humans ...

*Richard Bing

... developing techniques for high-speed photography of the coronary vessels, and measurement of blood flow using nitric oxide. ...

*Fibrin scaffold

In atherosclerosis, a severe disease in modern society, coronary blood vessels occlude. These vessels have to be freed and held ... Usually autologous vessels from the patient or synthetic polymer grafts are used for this purpose. Both options have ... Firstly there are only few autologous vessels available in a human body that might be of low quality, considering the health ... Unfortunately after certain time these vessels close again and have to be bypassed to allow for upkeep of circulation. ...

*WNT10B

... by promoting coronary vessel formation and attenuating pathological fibrosis. This protein is 96% identical to the mouse Wnt10b ...

*Spiral computed tomography

These can produce an image in less than a second and thus can obtain images of the heart and its blood vessels (coronary ... vessels) as if frozen in time. In order to illuminate multiple rows of detector elements in a multi-slice scanner, the x-ray ...

*Norbormide

2-10 µg NRB had been injected into the coronary vessel which resulted in a reduction of blood flow, attended with decreased ... These irreversible effects weren't marked in the heart muscle (myocardium) as perhaps expected, but straight in the coronary ...

*List of ICD-9 codes 390-459: diseases of the circulatory system

Aneurysm of coronary vessels (414.12) Dissection of coronary artery (414.8) Ischemic heart disease, chronic, other (414.9) ... Of deep vessels of lower extremities (451.11) Deep vein thrombosis, femoral (451.19) Deep vein thrombosis, other leg veins ( ... Coronary atherosclerosis (414.1) Aneurysm and dissection of heart (414.10) Aneurysm of heart (wall) (414.11) ... Intermediate coronary syndrome (412) Old myocardial infarction (413) Angina pectoris (413.0) Angina decubitus (413.1) ...

*Amlodipine

... and thromboxane A2 analog in experimental animal models and in human coronary vessels in vitro. Amlodipine has additionally ... Variant angina: amlodipine blocks spasm of the coronary arteries and restores blood flow in coronary arteries and arterioles in ... Amlodipine causes more dilation in the arterioles and precapillary vessels than the postcapillary vessels and venules. The ... Amlodipine, sold under the brand name Norvasc among others, is a medication used to treat high blood pressure and coronary ...

*St. Mary's Medical Center (San Francisco)

1971 The first coronary bypass surgery at St. Mary's is performed. St. Mary's breaks ground for the current hospital facility. ... The Arctic collided with another vessel in a dense fog, and everyone on board died. After crossing the Atlantic, the Sisters ... Surgeons perform approximately 1,000 coronary artery bypass procedures each year, in addition to 1,200 cardiac catheterizations ...
muscle cell in human body human coronary artery smooth muscle cells 2 photo, muscle cell in human body human coronary artery smooth muscle cells 2 image, muscle cell in human body human coronary artery smooth muscle cells 2 gallery
These results show for the first time that the presence of atherosclerosis in human coronary arteries specifically augments contractions to cysteinyl leukotrienes and provides an enzymatic capacity within the vessel wall in the form of infiltrating macrophages and possibly smooth muscle cells to produce leukotrienes that could contribute to the hyperreactivity of atherosclerotic vessels. Hyperreactivity of human atherosclerotic coronary arteries to LTC4 and LTD4 was unaffected by endothelium-derived mediators. Previous reports29 have shown increased responsiveness of atherosclerotic arteries to serotonin that was unaffected by the endothelium. In those studies, hyperreactivity was reported to involve an increased responsiveness of the receptor or signal transduction system that was not apparent in the receptors present in the nondiseased arteries. Our present findings provide no evidence of cysteinyl leukotriene receptors in nonatherosclerotic epicardial coronary arteries, as suggested by the ...
Objective To visualize epicardial and intramyocardial coronary blood flow by using a noninvasive echocardiography system.. Methods In five juvenile swines, coronary flow imaging was used to visualize the different segments of epicardial coronary and intramyocardial arteries. Pulsed-Doppler spectrums were recorded and analyzed. The left anterior descending artery (LAD) and intramyocardial coronary blood flow signals were recorded at baseline and during dipyridamole administration.. Results Epicardial and intramyocardial coronary arteries could be visualized by coronary flow imaging. The systolic component of coronary flow in the right coronary artery (RCA) was greater than in the LAD. The intramyocardial blood flow was characterized by persistent retrograde blood flow velocity during systole. Vasodilation with dipyridamole produced exaggerated differences in the phasic pattern of coronary blood flow in epicardial and intramyocardial vessels.. Conclusion Color Doppler coronary flow imaging ...
The present study showed that ET-1 at small and physiological concentrations (10−11 mol/L) caused significant contraction in coronary smooth muscle cells with no detectable increases in [Ca2+]i. Although some studies have shown that picomolar concentrations of ET-1 increase [Ca2+]i in cultured human coronary smooth muscle cells,42 the present data are consistent with previous reports that these small ET-1 concentrations do not significantly increase [Ca2+]i in freshly isolated porcine coronary smooth muscle cells.32 The difference in the results could be related to differences in the cell preparation or the species studied. We should note that in the present study, [Ca2+]i was measured in an area of homogeneous fluorescence 1 μm in diameter, 1 μm from the plasma membrane, and 1 μm from the nucleus. Although small concentrations of ET-1 did not cause any detectable increases in [Ca2+]i in this representative part of the cell, small concentrations of PGF2α significantly increased [Ca2+]i in ...
B129 Mouse Coronary Artery Endothelial Cells from Creative Bioarray are isolated from coronary artery of pathogen-free laboratory B129S2/SvPasCrl mice. B129 Mouse Coronary Artery Endothelial Cells are grown in T25 tissue culture flasks pre-coated with gelatin-based coating solution for 2 min and incubated in Creative Bioarray Culture Complete Growth Medium generally for 3-7 days. Cultures are then expanded. Prior to shipping, cells are detached from flasks and immediately cryo-preserved in vials. Each vial contains at least 1x10^6 cells per ml and are delivered frozen. The method we use to isolate endothelial cells was developed based on a combination of established and our proprietary methods. These cells are pre-coated with PECAM-1 antibody, following the application of magnetic pre-coated with secondary antibody ...
Studies in animals with normal coronary arteries have shown that coronary flow reserve can be predicted by angiographic measurements of arterial stenosis. Studies in man, however, suggest that even quantitative analysis of coronary angiograms cannot predict the physiologic significance of individual coronary lesions. These studies, however, were carried out in patients with either widespread, diffuse coronary artery disease or by measurement techniques that tend to underestimate maximal coronary flow reserve. To determine the relationship between coronary arterial stenosis and coronary flow reserve (CFR) in patients with discrete limited coronary atherosclerosis, we studied 50 patients with a single discrete coronary stenosis in only one or two vessels. The minimum coronary arterial cross-sectional area (mCSA), percent area stenosis (%AS), and percent diameter stenosis in the left and right anterior oblique projections were determined by the Brown/Dodge method of quantitative coronary ...
OBJECTIVE--To assess whether the extent of LDL oxidation influences its cytotoxic effects, thus contributing to its atherogenic potential. DESIGN AND SETTING--The effects of native and modified LDL on cultured human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (SMC) and endothelial cells (ECs) were investigated. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Four indices of cytotoxicity were studied: (i) chromium-51 release; (ii) 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrDUrd) uptake; (iii) morphological appearance; and (iv) EC migration. RESULTS--(i) Minimally modified (mm) LDL (400 micrograms/ml) causes significant 51Cr release; the cytotoxic effect was significantly greater for copper oxidised (ox) LDL (400 micrograms/ml). Native LDL had no effect. (ii) BrDUrd uptake studies showed significant inhibition of cell proliferation by 100 micrograms/ml of oxLDL and to a lesser extent by mmLDL; native LDL had no effect. (iii) Morphological appearance was not altered by native LDL. Changes in cell morphology were induced by mmLDL (400 ...
Several limitations of the present study must be considered. 1) Angiographically normal patients were included in the present study. Recently developed intravascular ultrasound has been reported [33]to demonstrate intimal thickening with a three-layered appearance in the normal coronary artery in vitro. Localized atherosclerotic lesions have been confirmed in angiographically minimally diseased coronary arteries by intravascular ultrasound in patients with focal vasospasm [34]. Diffuse concentric thickening of the coronary vessel wall might be demonstrated by intravascular ultrasound in patients with diabetes mellitus or diabetic retinopathy because in the present study, coronary diameters were significantly smaller in diabetic patients than in control patients, and minimally diseased coronary arteries ,25% were demonstrated by angiography in the left circumflex or right coronary artery in 5 patients. Such differences would be resolved by intravascular ultrasound. 2) Reduced coronary flow ...
Mechanisms mediating the cardioprotective actions of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) were unknown. Here, we show in both ex vivo and in vivo models of ischemic injury that treatment with GLP-1(28-36), a neutral endopeptidase-generated (NEP-generated) metabolite of GLP-1, was as cardioprotective as GLP-1 and was abolished by scrambling its amino acid sequence. GLP-1(28-36) enters human coronary artery endothelial cells (caECs) through macropinocytosis and acts directly on mouse and human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (caSMCs) and caECs, resulting in soluble adenylyl cyclase Adcy10-dependent (sAC-dependent) increases in cAMP, activation of protein kinase A, and cytoprotection from oxidative injury. GLP-1(28-36) modulates sAC by increasing intracellular ATP levels, with accompanying cAMP accumulation lost in sAC-/- cells. We identify mitochondrial trifunctional protein-α (MTPα) as a binding partner of GLP-1(28-36) and demonstrate that the ability of GLP-1(28-36) to shift substrate ...
Mechanisms mediating the cardioprotective actions of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) were unknown. Here, we show in both ex vivo and in vivo models of ischemic injury that treatment with GLP-1(28-36), a neutral endopeptidase-generated (NEP-generated) metabolite of GLP-1, was as cardioprotective as GLP-1 and was abolished by scrambling its amino acid sequence. GLP-1(28-36) enters human coronary artery endothelial cells (caECs) through macropinocytosis and acts directly on mouse and human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (caSMCs) and caECs, resulting in soluble adenylyl cyclase Adcy10-dependent (sAC-dependent) increases in cAMP, activation of protein kinase A, and cytoprotection from oxidative injury. GLP-1(28-36) modulates sAC by increasing intracellular ATP levels, with accompanying cAMP accumulation lost in sAC-/- cells. We identify mitochondrial trifunctional protein-α (MTPα) as a binding partner of GLP-1(28-36) and demonstrate that the ability of GLP-1(28-36) to shift substrate ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Deformationally dependent fluid transport properties of porcine coronary arteries based on location in the coronary vasculature. AU - Keyes, Joseph T.. AU - Lockwood, Danielle R.. AU - Simon, Bruce R.. AU - Geest, Jonathan P.Vande. PY - 2013/1. Y1 - 2013/1. N2 - Objective: Understanding coronary artery mass transport allows researchers to better comprehend how drugs or proteins move through, and deposit into, the arterial wall. Characterizing how the convective component of transport changes based on arterial location could be useful to better understand how molecules distribute in different locations in the coronary vasculature. Methods and results: We measured the mechanical properties and wall fluid flux transport properties of de-endothelialized (similar to post-stenting or angioplasty) left anterior descending (LADC) and right (RC) porcine coronary arteries along their arterial lengths. Multiphoton microscopy was used to determine microstructural differences. Proximal LADC ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Protective effects of an indenoindole antioxidant on coronary endothelial function after long-term storage. AU - Wiklund, L.. AU - Miller, Virginia M. AU - McGregor, C. G A. AU - Sjoquist, P. O.. AU - Berggren, H.. AU - Nilsson, F.. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - Experiments were designed to evaluate function of the endothelium and smooth muscle of coronary arteries following storage of hearts in cardioplegia containing an inhibitor of lipid peroxidation (H 290/51, cis-7- metyl-9-methoxy-5,5a, 6,10b tetrahydroindeno [2,1-b] indole). Canine hearts were perfused with crystalloid cardioplegia (Plegisol, 15 ml/kg, 4°C) and left circumflex arteries were isolated and studied either immediately (group I, n=6), or after storage of the hearts at 4°C for 10 (group II, n=6) or 24 hr with (group III, n=6) or without (group IV, n=6) addition of H 290/51. The final concentration of H 290/51 was 1 μmol/L. Arteries were removed, cut into rings, and suspended in organ chambers for measurements of ...
Compared with the normal coronary arteries, significant alpha-adrenergic constriction of the stenotic coronary arteries can be induced by cardiac sympathetic nerve stimulation, resulting in the precipitation of myocardial ischemia with regional wall-motion abnormalities and net lactate production (26). In an experimental model, post-stenotic coronary vasoconstriction that was prevented by intravenous phentolamine or selective alpha2-blockade with rauwolscine in the absence as well as in the presence of acute beta-blockade was observed (26).. Under clinical conditions, sympathetic nerve activation may be induced by isometric as well as dynamic exercise, which may be involved in the narrowing of stenotic coronary arteries (4,5). This narrowing of the epicardial coronary segments can be prevented by administration of intracoronary nitroglycerin or the calcium-antagonist diltiazem, probably owing to the direct vasodilating properties of these two agents.. The precise mechanism responsible for ...
Definition of Circumflex coronary artery in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Circumflex coronary artery? Meaning of Circumflex coronary artery as a legal term. What does Circumflex coronary artery mean in law?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Enhancement of potassium induced relaxation of isolated coronary artery smooth muscle by adenosine. AU - Foley, D. H.. AU - Mason, D. T.. AU - Amsterdam, Ezra A. PY - 1975. Y1 - 1975. N2 - Local regulation of coronary blood flow may involve an interplay of the vasoactive properties of several metabolic factors. To evaluate the effect of adenosine (Ado) on K+ induced relaxation of vascular smooth muscle, helical strips of cat coronary arteries, suspended in an organ bath of Krebs solution (37° C, 95% O2 and 5% CO2), were studied during isometric contraction stimulated by acetylcholine (ACh). From a baseline concentration of 3.0 mM, a small increment in [K+] of 2 mM induced a 16.0 ± 2.7% relaxation of tension from the initial level. However, in the presence of Ado, which induced a 20.4 ± 3.0% relaxation of 29.7 ± 4.6%. The latter was significantly greater (P , 0.005) than the response in the absence of Ado. Similarly, a 4 mM [K+] increment elicited a 14.9 ± 3.0% relaxation ...
Recent evidence suggests that higher restenosis rate is observed after coronary angioplasty of an infarct-related artery. Furthermore, angiographic restenosis seems associated with a deterioration of left ventricular function at follow-up. The aim of this study was to assess the acute results and angiographic restenosis following coronary artery stenting of infarct-related (Group 1) and non infarct-related coronary arteries (Group 2). We retrospectively analyzed the results of 381 consecutive patients treated with Palmaz-Schatz coronary stent implantation between May 1992 and January 1996. Stenting of the infarct-related artery was performed in 154 patients (Group 1), while 227 patients (Group 2) received stenting of the non infarct-related artery. Both groups had similar age, gender, clinical conditions and coronary angiographic pattern. There were no significant differences between groups, concerning type of stented coronary vessel (left anterior descending-LAD 52.4% vs non-LAD 47.6%, Group 1, ...
Olivey H.E., Svensson E.C.. The establishment of the coronary circulation is critical for the development of the embryonic heart. Over the last several years, there has been tremendous progress in elucidating the pathways that control coronary development. Interestingly, many of the pathways that regulate the development of the coronary vasculature are distinct from those governing vasculogenesis in the rest of the embryo. It is becoming increasingly clear that coronary development depends on a complex communication between the epicardium, the subepicardial mesenchyme, and the myocardium mediated in part by secreted growth factors. This communication coordinates the growth of the myocardium with the formation of the coronary vasculature. This review summarizes our present understanding of the role of these growth factors in the regulation of coronary development. Continued progress in this field holds the potential to lead to novel therapeutics for the treatment of patients with coronary artery ...
A coronary arterial fistula is a connection between 1 or more of the coronary arteries and a cardiac chamber or great vessel. This is a rare defect and usually occurs in isolation (1). We report a case of coronary arterial fistula with adjacent atherosclerotic plaque treated with a covered stent in a patient with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. This 59-year-old man had a medical history of type 2 diabetes mellitus and experienced severe chest tightness. A high serum troponin I level of 3.219 ng/ml was noted, and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction was diagnosed. Coronary angiography showed 3 coronary arterial fistulae at the left main coronary artery proximal and mid left anterior descending coronary artery (Figure 1A). The stenotic lesion with haziness was noted at the mid left anterior descending coronary artery, and the biggest coronary arterial fistula stood aside (Figure 1B, Online Video 1). An intravascular ultrasound study showed severe stenosis with ...
A number of studies have asserted that moderate drinking has a positive benefit on cardiovascular health. Now, scientists at the University of Rochester Medical Center have discovered how alcohol consumption can help to prevent heart disease. The research, published in the journal Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology, studied the effects of moderate amounts of alcohol in human coronary artery smooth muscle cells and in the carotid arteries of mice [1]. In both cases, regular, limited amounts of alcohol inhibited a protein called Notch 1 and prevented the buildup of smooth muscle cells in blood vessels that leads to the narrowing of the arteries and can put you at risk for a heart attack or stroke.. ...
Coronary artery disease: A major cause of illness and death, coronary artery disease (CAD) begins when hard cholesterol substances (plaques) are deposited within a coronary artery. (The coronary arteries arise from the aorta adjacent to the heart and supply the heart muscle with blood that is rich in oxygen. They are called the coronary arteries because they encircle the heart in the manner of a crown.) The plaques in the coronary arteries can cause a tiny clot to form which can obstruct the flow of blood to the heart muscle producing symptoms and signs of CAD that may include: Chest pain (angina pectoris) from inadequate blood flow to the heart; Heart attack (acute myocardial infarction), from the sudden total blockage of a coronary artery; or Sudden death, due to a fatal disturbance of the heart rhythm. Common Misspellings: coronary artery diease, coronary artery desease ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Role of potassium channels in coronary vasodilation. AU - Dick, Gregory M.. AU - Tune, Johnathan D.. PY - 2010/1/1. Y1 - 2010/1/1. N2 - K+ channels in coronary arterial smooth muscle cells (CASMC) determine the resting membrane potential (Em) and serve as targets of endogenous and therapeutic vasodilators. Em in CASMC is in the voltage range for activation of L-type Ca2+ channels; therefore, when K+ channel activity changes, Ca2+ influx and arterial tone change. This is why both Ca2+ channel blockers and K+ channel openers have such profound effects on coronary blood flow; the former directly inhibits Ca2+ influx through L-type Ca2+ channels, while the latter indirectly inhibits Ca2+influx by hyperpolarizing Em and reducing Ca2+ channel activity. K+ channels in CASMC play important roles in vasodilation to endothelial, ischemic and metabolic stimuli. The purpose of this article is to review the types of K+ channels expressed in CASMC, discuss the regulation of their activity by ...
2016 International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of various degrees of percentage stenosis on hemodynamic parameters during the hyperemic flow condition. 3D patient-specific coronary artery models were generated based on the CT scan data using MIMICS-18. Numerical simulation was performed for normal and stenosed coronary artery models of 70, 80 and 90% AS (area stenosis). Pressure, velocity, wall shear stress and fractional flow reserve (FFR) were measured and compared with the normal coronary artery model during the cardiac cycle. The results show that, as the percentage AS increase, the pressure drop increases as compared with the normal coronary artery model. Considerable elevation of velocity was observed as the percentage AS increases. The results also demonstrate a recirculation zone immediate after the stenosis which could lead to further progression of stenosis in the flow-disturbed area. Highest wall shear stress ...
Both the right and left coronary artery ostia arise from their respective aortic sinuses. Both ostia are located more than half the distance between the sinotubular junction and aortic valve annulus (Fig. 2-1). The left main coronary artery originates with an elliptic ostium measuring approximately 3.2 ± 1.1 mm × 4.7 ± 1.2 mm.2 This coronary artery continues at an acute angle and travels parallel to the aortic sinus wall, coursing between the pulmonary artery and the left atrium in the region of the left atrial appendage. The length of the left main artery ranges from 0 mm ("double-barrel ostium") to 20 mm. However, in most cases, the length of the left main coronary artery is between 6 and 15 mm, with an average diameter ranging from 3 to 6 mm.3 In two-thirds of cases, the left main coronary artery bifurcates into the left anterior descending (LAD) and circumflex arteries (Fig. 2-2); in one-third of cases, it trifurcates into the LAD artery, the circumflex artery, and a ramus intermedius ...
1. The consequences of the reduced production of nitric oxide (NO) by cells from regenerated endothelium were investigated by measuring membrane potential of smooth muscle cells (SMCs), isometric tension and cyclic nucleotides content in porcine coronary arteries with intimal thickening, four weeks following angioplasty. 2. Under basal conditions, SMCs of coronary arteries with regenerated endothelium were depolarized by 10 mV. This depolarization was associated with 82% decreased level of cGMP without alteration in cAMP. 3. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 1 μM) repolarized SMCs of the previously denuded coronary arteries. This repolarization was abolished by 1H-[1,2,4]-oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 10 μM) and not suppressed by glibenclamide (10 μM), iberiotoxin (IbTX, 100 nM) and the combination of charybdotoxin (ChTX, 40 nM) plus apamin (100 nM). 4. Four-aminopyridine (4-AP, 1-5 mM) generated spontaneous rhythmic activities only in coronary arteries with regenerated endothelium which ...
The two main coronary arteries are the left main and right coronary arteries. The left main coronary artery (LMCA), which divides into the left anterior descending artery and the circumflex branch, supplies blood to the left ventricle and left atrium. The right coronary artery (RCA), which divides into the right posterior descending and acute marginal arteries, supplies blood to the right ventricle, right atrium, sinoatrial node (cluster of cells in the right atrial wall that regulates the hearts rhythmic rate), and atrioventricular node (AV node, a cluster of cells between the atria and ventricles that regulate the electrical current).. Additional arteries branch off the left main coronary artery to supply the left side of the heart muscle with blood. These include the following:. ...
The two main coronary arteries are the left main and right coronary arteries. The left main coronary artery (LMCA), which divides into the left anterior descending artery and the circumflex branch, supplies blood to the left ventricle and left atrium. The right coronary artery (RCA), which divides into the right posterior descending and acute marginal arteries, supplies blood to the right ventricle, right atrium, sinoatrial node (cluster of cells in the right atrial wall that regulates the hearts rhythmic rate), and atrioventricular node (AV node, a cluster of cells between the atria and ventricles that regulate the electrical current).. Additional arteries branch off the left main coronary artery to supply the left side of the heart muscle with blood. These include the following:. ...
Normal Human HUVEC Primary, 10-Donor Pool HUVEC, Aortic Endothelial, Aortic Smooth Muscle, Coronary Artery Endothelial, Coronary Artery Smooth Muscle Cells.
The current in vitro studies demonstrate an enhanced vasoconstrictor response of small coronary arteries to ET-1 and S6c in pigs with experimental hypercholesterolemia. This response is mediated mainly through the ETB receptor. These alterations in the coronary responsiveness occurred in the setting of long-term elevation of circulating ET-1. These studies support a role for both the ETA and ETB receptors in the regulation of coronary tone in the presence and absence of hypercholesterolemia.. Seo and colleagues12 previously demonstrated that the contractile response of porcine epicardial arteries to endothelins is biphasic; the first phase attained at low concentrations is primarily mediated by the endothelin ETB receptor, whereas both endothelin receptors mediate contraction in the latter, more pronounced phase attained at high concentrations. Takase and colleagues32 found similar results in noncoronary resistance vessels. The current studies extend these previous observations and demonstrate ...
I read with interest the manuscript by Ortiz-Pérez et al. (1) regarding the concordance between the 17-segment American Heart Association model (2) and coronary arterial anatomy using contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. In 93 subjects with an acute coronary syndrome, the investigators report a moderately good agreement between the actual and model-predicted coronary artery distribution and suggest that the inferior apical, lateral apical, and mid anterolateral segments are most commonly supplied by the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), contrary to what the model predicts.. In a previous study assessing the accuracy of a 17-segment model widely used in the nuclear cardiology literature, we projected the actual coronary artery anatomy of 135 patients undergoing coronary angiography onto the 17-segment model (3). We found that in general the model-predicted coronary anatomy was appropriate. There was only 1 segment (the apical lateral) in which the model-predicted ...
1. The electrical stimulation model of thrombus formation was tested on rabbit carotid artery and Actapted to sheep left circumflex coronary artery (LCCA). 2. LCCA blood flow, mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and ECG were monitored continuously and arterial and coronary venous blood samples were taken for radioimmunoassay of thromboxane B2. 3. Stimulation of the LCCA mimicked acute myocardial infarction; reduction in LCCA blood flow preceded a fall in MAP and appearance of ECG abnormalities. 4. Thromboxane B2 levels rose by 126% 35min after stimulation. 5. These findings support the proposal by other authors that thromboxane plays an important role in the pathogenesis of acute myocardial infarction ...
Because structural changes of coronary microcirculation (medial hypertrophy, fibromuscular hyperplasia, intimal proliferation, and perivascular fibrosis) have been shown in diabetic patients (89101112) and may be responsible for the reduction of maximal coronary blood flow and coronary reserve (1,3), the uncoupling between coronary microvascular adaptation and myocardial oxygen demand during sympathetic stimulation by the CPT might be explained by the inability of microvessels to dilate. Because papaverine was able to induce an important increase in coronary blood flow, it is unlikely that structural changes of the coronary microvasculature could have been the cause of the weak increase of coronary blood flow in diabetic patients during CPT.. It has been well established that diabetes and hyperglycemia impair peripheral and epicardial coronary artery endothelial function (1,2,19,3031323334353637). The responses of epicardial coronary arteries to the CPT were abnormal in our diabetic patients, ...
ACC 2017, 3/30/2017 - Poor Outcomes for Bioresorbable Stents in Small Coronary Arteries WATCH VIDEO: Bioresorbable Stent Comparable to Xience at Two Years, With Concerns Stephen Ellis, M.D., professor of medicine and director of interventional cardiology at Cleveland Clinic, discusses the two year outcomes of the ABSORB III trial of Absorb vs. Xience.…
The principal findings of the present study can be summarized as follows: 1) the vessel phantom study found that intraluminal attenuation declined as vessel diameter decreased even though all vessels were filled with the same concentration of contrast media without any active flow; 2) according to the animal study, even in vivo, the peak attenuation of distal small coronary arteries did not reach that of larger arteries; and 3) in the clinical study, TAG showed significant correlation with the diameter gradient, implying that TAG may be a secondary result of decreased intraluminal attenuation because of decreased diameter.. Our study showed that the diameter of the vessel affected intraluminal attenuation. Particularly when the diameter was small, intracoronary luminal attenuation was more greatly affected. For example, in the 2-mm coronary artery model of our phantom study, we observed approximately one-half of the CT number compared with that of the 5-mm coronary artery even though both ...
Research presented at the Society of Nuclear Medicines 57th Annual Meeting is challenging the typical paradigm used to determine whether heart patients will benefit from invasive procedures like stent-placement or open-heart surgery. Current medical practice favors treating patients with coronary atherosclerosis (or hardening of the artery walls due to plaque build-up) with such procedures if a coronary artery is shown to be blocked by 70 percent or more in order to reduce symptoms and potentially prevent heart attack. However, a group of cardiac investigators are now finding that in addition to the degree of blockage, composition of the plaque causing the blockage also has significant impact on coronary artery blood flow. This may help explain why two people with similarly blocked coronary arteries can experience vastly different symptoms - ScienceDaily ...
The Coronary system is responsible for the supply of oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle itself. The system originates from the Aorta, and the main Coronary arteries are: Left Main )LM), Left Anterior Descending )LAD), Circumflex (CX) and Right Coronary Artery (RCA).. Different arteries supply blood to different areas of the heart.. The coronary system is more strongly exposed to the development of Atherosclerosis compared with other arterial systems and this fact explains the enormous incidence of Ischemic heart disease.. ...
INTRODUCTION The course and distribution of the coronary arteries of laboratory animals1, 7, 9, 10, 25, 32, domestic mammals25, 34, and birds20 are well known. The coronary arteries of the dormouse29, ordinary mice17 and rodents that have anomalous hearts19 have also been investigated. However, in these studies the authors investigated abnormalites of the origin of the main coronary arteries and used different methods. In this study, we aimed to reveal the conformation and branching of the coronary arteries in Swiss albino mice subgrossly. The mouse is a model that has been widely used to study several aspects of the cardiovascular system: embryology, physiology18, the molecular determinants of coronary arteries6, 33, the control of arteriosclerosis18, 31, and the mechanism of ischaemia-reperfusion23, 30. This opportunity prompted us to study the anatomy of the coronary arteries in the hope that our findings would be useful for clinical studies with similar anatomical settings. MATERIALS AND ...
The patients medical history included an acute myocardial infarction followed by elective coronary angiography revealing the following multivessel disease: anterior interventricular branch stenosis up to 75% in the proximal one-third; circumflex artery stenosis up to 90% in the medium one-third; obtuse marginal branch stenosis up to 65% in the proximal one-third; right coronary artery occlusion in the median one- ...
IN 1947, Eckenhoff et al. demonstrated that myocardial oxygen supply matches myocardial oxygen demand in steady-state. [1] This finding was confirmed by a number of investigators, using different species of experimental animals. [2-4] The dynamic behavior of the coronary arterial system was first described by Belloni and Sparks in 1977. [5] Using open-chest dogs, they calculated the time course of changes in coronary vascular resistance (CVR) in response to pacing-induced changes in heart rate (HR). Using dogs and goats, Dankelman et al. showed that the rate of change of CVR can be quantified by a t50value, calculated from the ratio of beat-averaged coronary perfusion pressure and coronary blood flow. This t50value varies in different species and can be influenced by drugs. [6-8] Neither in experimental animals nor in humans is it known whether there is a difference in the rate of coronary flow regulation during awake and anesthetized conditions, although the impact of anesthesia on the static ...
www.MOLUNA.de Coronary Vasculature [4212655] - This book surveys coronary vasculature from its embryonic origins through postnatal growth, adulthood and senescence, with chapters on normal coronary development, anomalies, adaptations to exercise training, aging, hypoxia, myocardial ischemia and more.Ischemic heart disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed world. The high metabolism and
Aim: Evaluation of eNOS mRNA level in the endothelium of human coronary arteries upon opioids treatment (mediators of ischaemic preconditioning) and after incubation with proinflammatory cytokines (stress stimuli). Methods: Different concentrations of β-endorphin, endomorphin-1 and endomorphin-2 (alone or in combination with the opioid receptor blocker naloxone) as well as different concentrations of cytokines alone (IL-1β, TNF-α) or in combination were applied to in vitro cultured human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC). After 24 hrs incubation, the cells were harvested, mRNA extracted and relative quantification of eNOS mRNA was conducted using real-time PCR. ...
The majority of the acute coronary events are caused by coronary artery segments with minimal luminal disease, but with potentially significant vascular wall inflammation and oxidative stress leading to plaque vulnerability. It has become apparent that an initial injury at the endothelial surface, is the primary site of the mechanisms involved and a role for vascular inflammation and the interaction with oxidative stress continues to emerge. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is a novel biomarker for vascular wall inflammation that circulates in the blood bound to both low density (LDL) and high density (HDL) lipoprotein and promotes vascular inflammation. Circulating levels of Lp-PLA2 mass and activity are an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events. Recent studies, demonstrating that Lp-PLA2 is also associated with coronary endothelial dysfunction. However, the relationship between Lp-PLA2 and early atherosclerotic changes in the coronary arteries, and the contribution ...
Engineering of non-toxic nanoparticles for tissue-specific targeting has gained widespread attention this decade. Liposomes were one of the earliest classes of engineered nanoparticles to be utilized for the purpose of delivering drugs within the human body. While many have successfully designed and tested such
The vascular system consists of networks of blood and lymphatic vessels that interact with their target tissues in intricate and often surprising ways. The Majesky Laboratory uses molecular biological and developmental genetic approaches to address fundamental questions in development and differentiation of blood vessels.. We currently have two major areas of research focus. One concerns the molecular mechanisms that control formation and differentiation of coronary vessels during heart development. The other is on vascular stem and progenitor cells that reside in the adventitial layer of artery wall.. Developmental fate mapping studies show that progenitor cells in the proepicardium (PE) give rise to coronary vessels. Formation of coronary vessels occurs by an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) of epicardial cells followed by vasculogenesis in the subepicardial space, assembly and remodeling of a primitive coronary plexus, and investment by pericytes and coronary smooth muscle cells ...
A coronary angiogram is a test that uses x-ray imaging and contrast dye to view the coronary arteries, the blood vessels that deliver blood to the muscle of the heart.. During this procedure, a guidewire is carefully inserted into the femoral artery through a small incision in the patients upper thigh. This wire is then guided up into the heart.A long, thin, tube with a specialized tip, called a cardiac catheter, is then inserted along the guidewire into the heart . The guidewire is removed and then the catheter is positioned in the opening of a coronary artery. While x-ray images are taken, contrast dye is injected into the coronary artery. Blockages in the artery show up as areas of narrowing.. If the coronary arteries are blocked, an angioplasty or stenting may be performed to open the narrowed arteries. The catheter is removed from the body when the procedure is finished.. ...
The right coronary artery is one of several major vessels that provide blood to the heart. The right coronary artery splits into the acute marginal arteries and the right posterior coronary artery . Other arteries that are derived from the right and left artery include the left anterior descending artery
Mediators of Inflammation is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research and review articles on all types of inflammatory mediators, including cytokines, histamine, bradykinin, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, PAF, biological response modifiers and the family of cell adhesion-promoting molecules.
The purpose of this thesis has been to validate the in-vitro heart simulation model of the coronary arteries called Flowlab, identify limitations and potential problems, and to offer suggestions for improvement. Flowlab emulates arterial characteristics such as pressure and flow, providing a simulation environment with the ability to measure the volumetric coronary blood flow and arterial blood pressure. Compared to current simulation systems, this will give a better understanding of both position and severity of the cardiovascular disease, and also provide essential information regarding the hemodynamics in the coronary arteries.. To understand the fluid dynamics of the coronary system and gain a deeper understanding of the arterial function and physiology, the first phase of this thesis will focus on gathering information regarding the anatomy, physiology and hemodynamics of the coronary arteries. This will also be done to provide the Flowlab construction with appropriate measurements for the ...
Today was a really great day. I think the coronary vessels lab that we did this morning was one of the best seminars we have had all year so far, if not the best. We were broken up into our PBL groups, and we went through four different stations. Some of them were more of a question-and-answer kind of format, while the last one involved us getting to see a cardiac catheterization. It was seriously one of the coolest things I have ever seen in my entire life. We all had to put on these really heavy lead aprons to avoid exposure to the contrast agent, and then we filed into the OR to watch the procedure. When the contrast agent was injected, we were able to watch on the screen as it went through the coronary arteries. We were also able to determine that the patient has a right-dominant heart (meaning that her right coronary artery is the one that perfuses the back part of her heart). This is the most common arrangement in humans; most of us are right-hearters. We also got to see the catheters that ...
Coronary heart disease is also called coronary artery disease. It is the number one killer of both men and women in the U.S. Coronary heart disease is when the innermost layer of the coronary arteries becomes inflamed and narrowed. This is caused by a buildup of fatty deposits called plaque. These deposits may start in childhood and continue to thicken and enlarge throughout the life span. This thickening is called atherosclerosis. It can cut or block blood flow to the heart. A blood clot may also form on top of the plaque. Either of these can lead to a heart attack and even death. The coronary arteries supply blood to the heart muscle. Like all other tissues in the body, the heart muscle needs oxygen-rich blood to work, and oxygen-depleted blood must be carried away. The coronary arteries run along the outside of the heart. They have small branches that supply blood to the heart muscle. The 2 main coronary arteries are the left main and right coronary arteries. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Malondialdehyde mediates oxidized LDL-induced coronary toxicity through the Akt-FGF2 pathway via DNA methylation. AU - Yang, Tzu Ching. AU - Chen, Yi Jie. AU - Chang, Shwu Fen. AU - Chen, Chu Huang. AU - Chang, Po Yuan. AU - Lu, Shao Chun. PY - 2014/2/3. Y1 - 2014/2/3. N2 - Background: Oxidized LDL (oxLDL) is involved in the development of atherosclerotic heart disease through a mechanism that is not fully understood. In this study, we examined the role of malondialdehyde (MDA), an important oxidative stress epitope of oxLDL, in mediating coronary endothelial cytotoxicity. Results: Human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) were treated with oxLDL in the presence or absence of antibody against MDA (anti-MDA) or apoB100 (anti-apoB100). In HCAECs treated with oxLDL (100 μg/ml) alone, DNA synthesis, cell viability, and expression of prosurvival fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) were significantly reduced (P ,0.01 vs phosphate buffered saline-treated cells). These inhibitory ...
Coronary blood flow closely matches to metabolic demands of heart and myocardial oxygen consumption and is conditioned by function of coronary resistance vessels. The microvascular endothelium of coronary resistance vessels is exposed to a spatially
Choice of coronary artery stenosis,1 what is a coronary artery?Coronary artery is the artery supplying blood to the heart. As a result of coronary heart disease caused by cor
Estrogens are highly effective both prophylactically and therapeutically against cholesterol-induced coronary atherogenesis in cockerels. The relative immunity of premenopausal women to coronary sclerosis may be related to the presence of these ovarian hormones. Therefore, estrogens may be useful in the treatment of human coronary atherosclerosis. With this object in mind, the elimination of the feminizing effects of estrogens would be highly desirable. The present experiments prove that concomitant exhibition of androgens and estrogens maintain masculine sex characteristics without interfering with the beneficent effect of estrogens on the coronary arteries in cockerels.. ...
Increased sized coronary anatomy depicting the cardiac veins and coronary arteries extending around the exterior of the heart. These arteries and veins circulate blood to and from the muscles of the heart. This Coronary Arteries and Cardiac Veins Model is manufactured by GPI and sold by GTSimulators.
Intra-atrial course of the right coronary artery is an uncommon anatomic variation in the course of the right coronary artery, usually involving the mid and distal segments, where the vessel partially or completely courses through the right atria...
Guidelines are available for nomenclature of coronary artery segments, used in coronary artery catheterization and thrombolysis in myocardial infarction flow (TIMI flow). The TIMI flow is expressed as grade 0, grade 1, grade 2, or grade 3, from lowest flow (or severest lesion) to highest flow. |
Guidelines are available for nomenclature of coronary artery segments, used in coronary artery catheterization and thrombolysis in myocardial infarction flow (TIMI flow). The TIMI flow is expressed as grade 0, grade 1, grade 2, or grade 3, from lowest flow (or severest lesion) to highest flow. |
If the central part (lumen) becomes blocked the heart would receive less nutrients and less oxygen. This blockage could be a partial blockage which reduces blood flow. A patient suffering from this will suffer from this is experience Angina (heart pain). A serious version of this would be where the coronary artery will completely blocked which is called Myocardial Infarction. If the coronary artery is blocked than all the heart cells supplied by the coronary artery will be deprived or oxygen and nutrients. The cells in that part will begin to die and this is what is better known as a heart attack; when severe this can lead to death. Coronary bypass is where the surgeon re-route the blockage using a extra blood vessel ...
If I had a cure for coronary disease, what would it look like? What would constitute cure? Would you recognize it if I showed it to you?. In the strictest sense, "cure" means an absolute elimination of any sign of coronary plaque, as well as elimination of any and all dangers associated with coronary disease. It would also mean elimination of the factors that created coronary atherosclerotic plaque in the first place.. In a more practical sense, you could argue that "cure" means a reduction of the amount of material that constitute coronary disease along with a dramatic reduction of the associated risks (i.e., heart attack).. You might call this second, more lax definition "regression" or "reversal".. Is "cure" in the strictest sense possible? No, not to my knowledge in 2006. Yes, there are many (kooks) who claim this is possible, but theres no objective evidence of this occurring.. Regression, or reversal, however, is indeed possible. In fact, Ive seen it countless times following the ...
Coronary heart Disease in Women Heart illness is not just a mans issue since women can get it. In the United States, coronary heart attack is the primary trigger of most fatalities between ladies opposite to well-known belief that breast cancer is the variety one particular cause of death in women. Coronary heart disease is also the major lead to of disability in women. In fact, practically twice as many ladies residing in the United States die of stroke, coronary heart assaults and other varieties of cardiovascular conditions than the amount of fatalities in ladies triggered by breast cancer.. The blockage or narrowing of the coronary arteries is the widespread trigger of heart assaults. This is also referred to as coronary heart disease. Considering that the coronary arteries are blocked, the coronary heart can not effectively pump blood, triggering absence of blood offer and oxygen. This sort of coronary heart condition happens gradually more than time. Coronary illness is the principal ...
Clinical trial for Coronary Artery Disease | Coronary heart disease , PIONEER III Trial to Assess Safety and Efficacy of the BuMA Supreme Drug Coated Coronary Stent in Patients With Coronary Disease
The new nonobstructive in vivo IV MR coil has significantly improved the resolution obtained over conventional surface phased-array coil imaging. This improvement allows the accurate detection and characterization discrimination of aortic atherosclerotic lesions in this experimental model. Given the critical role of atherosclerotic plaque composition in lesion vulnerability and subsequent thrombogenicity, the availability of an imaging device able to clearly define plaque composition would have significant clinical implications. Catheter-based imaging techniques may be required to allow adequate resolution for the accurate quantification and characterization of human coronary atherosclerotic lesions. In this regard, the possibility of acquiring images without totally occluding the arterial lumen facilitates the use of this type of device for the imaging of human coronary arteries. We have shown that a nonobstructive IV MR receive coil is able to improve the resolution obtained with surface coil ...
NISHIMURA Yuki , NITTO Takeaki , INOUE Teruo , NODE Koichi Circulation journal : official journal of the Japanese Circulation Society 72(3), 469-475, 2008-02-20 J-STAGE 医中誌Web 参考文献36件 被引用文献1件 ...
The coronary artery stenosis occurs due to the atherosclerosis that takes place in epicardial coronary arteries. The Atherosclerotic plaques affect the blood flow also narrow down that coronary artery lumen. The decrease in the coronary artery may give symptoms or not. It could occur during rest or while involving in any physical activity. This heart Read more ...
The coronary artery stenosis occurs due to the atherosclerosis that takes place in epicardial coronary arteries. The Atherosclerotic plaques affect the blood flow also narrow down that coronary artery lumen. The decrease in the coronary artery may give symptoms or not. It could occur during rest or while involving in any physical activity. This heart Read more ...
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... An anterior view of the heart shows the right coronary artery and the anterior descending branch of the left coronary
Narrowing of the main valve which controls blood leaving the heart leads to a marked increase in death. To overcome this narrowing the heart muscle thickens abnormally and contracts more vigorously. However, in doing so, blood flow patterns to the heart muscle change through mechanisms which are incompletely understood. New technology allows such heart valve blockages to be fixed using balloons and metal stents inserted through tubes placed in arteries in the leg. Using sensors placed in these tubes it is possible to make detailed measurements of coronary flow and pressure, and apply new mathematical techniques to allow a better understanding of the detrimental effects that aortic stenosis has on coronary flow, before and after valve surgery ...
The ATCC collection includes cell lines derived from normal bovine pulmonary artery, as well as primary coronary artery smooth muscle cells from human.
The presence of stenotic lesions in multiple arteries can lead to a condition called "vascular steal." This occurs when dilation of one vascular network (e.g., during exercise or vasodilator therapy) "steals" blood flow from another region within the organ that is already maximally dilated because of the presence of proximal lesions.. Coronary steal phenomenon refers to the phenomenon in which small vessel dilation and an increase in flow to an area already well-perfused myocardium leads to a decrease in flow to another area of myocardium with borderline perfusion and limited coronary reserve. Coronary steal can occur between 2 arteries connected by collateral vessels (intercoronary steal) or from subendocardium to subepicardium distal to a coronary stenosis (transmural steal).. It is seen with drugs like Dipyridamole, Hydralazine and Isoflurane.. ...
BACKGROUND: Incretin analogue drugs, a FDA-approved treatment in diabetes, has been tested for its therapeutic properties as modulators of atherosclerosis. We investigated the effects of incretin drugs on the modulation of gene expression and protein levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) as well as their inhibitors - tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) in coronary artery smooth muscle cells (hCASMC) in the context of atherosclerotic plaque formation and inflammation. METHODS: TNFα-stimulated hCASMC were treated with Glucagon-like Peptide 1 (GLP-1) (10 nM and 100 nM) and Exendin-4 (1 nM and 10 nM ...
All the office-based screening calculations assess a patients 10-year risk of developing coronary heart disease. Over the last few years, coronary artery calcium (CAC) imaging, where a cardiac CT scan reveals information about the extent of hardened plaque in the coronary arteries (atherosclerosis), has been increasingly used to further assess a patients risk, particularly those in an intermediate risk category. However, there is a poor correlation between CAC and the degree of narrowing of the coronary blood vessels and its ability to predict which patients will go on to suffer a medical event, although there has been a large amount of data demonstrating its utility in predicting cardiovascular survival over 7 - 10 years. Patients who are without symptoms and assigned to the high-risk group with office-based risk assessment calculations will benefit from intensive risk modification. In asymptomatic diabetic subjects Raggi and colleagues (2) have shown that mortality rates are significantly ...
Coronary calcium scans use a special X-ray test called computed tomography (CT) to check for the buildup of calcium in plaque on the walls of the arteries of the heart ( coronary arteries). This test is used to check for heart disease in an early stage and to determine how severe it is. Coronary calcium scans are also...
A lead having pre-formed biased portion is adapted for implantation on or about the heart within the coronary vasculature and for connection to a signal generator. The lead is constructed and arranged so that when it is implanted, the electrodes are housed in the coronary vasculature and are biased toward a vessel wall by the preformed biased portion, which operates to fixate the lead against the vessel wall.
Research at Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine could help lead to new ways to prevent coronary arteries from reclogging after balloon angioplasties.. The latest in a series of studies in this effort is published online ahead of print in Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology, a journal of the American Heart Association. Senior author is Allen M. Samarel, MD, and first author is Yevgeniya E. Koshman, PhD.. In an angioplasty, a tiny balloon is inflated to open a clogged coronary artery. Typically, a stent is deployed to prevent the artery from collapsing after the balloon is deflated.. The procedure itself irritates the interior walls of the artery. In response, smooth muscle cells migrate to the site and form scar tissue. In roughly one-third of cases, the artery reclogs and another angioplasty is needed.. Newer stents release drugs that prevent migration of muscle cells to the site. But these drugs have the unwanted effect of also stopping endothelial cells from ...
The circumflex artery, fully titled as the circumflex branch of the left coronary artery, is an artery that branches off from the left coronary artery to supply portions of the heart with oxygenated blood. The circumflex artery itself divides into smaller arterial systems.
If we think we have unraveled all the mysteries of human coronary blood flow we are sadly mistaken . Most cardiac physicians spend their prime life in opening the obstructed coronary arteries playing a role of coronary plumber. Like any plumber , it is not going to be one time job and our patients …
Another name for Coronary Chest Pain is Angina. If a clot forms in a diseased coronary artery, oxygen no longer flows to the part of the heart muscle ...
A stent suitable for implantation in myocardial tissue to enhance perfusion therein may include a tubular member having first and second ends and a lumen. The first end of the stent may be configured to pierce myocardial tissue and the lumen may be configured to be placed in flow communication with a coronary vessel. The stent may further include a means for retaining the tubular member within the myocardial tissue. A method for implanting the stent may include positioning the first end of the stent at a desired implantation site and applying force to the second end of the stent to implant the stent within the myocardial tissue. The method may further include engaging the means for retaining with the myocardial tissue to retain the stent in position.
This was a question on a test and I received an X for this question. On the test, I wrote: This is so that blood flow from the left ventricle flows controllably to the coronary artery. If the opening was in front of the semilunar valve, most of the blood from the left ventricle would simply flow into the coronary artery. The aorta and other arteries would not receive enough blood ...
Most of us are aware of heart attack as it has become so common these days. A heart attack normally occurs when there is some blood clot that blocks the flow of blood that flows through the coronary artery. Coronary artery is the main blood vessel that is responsible for sending blood to a part Read more ...
A device is provided for locally immobilizing a beating heart, in order to avoid tears or hematomas of the heart tissue during the application of strong pressure or suction forces. The device is particularly useful during an anastomosis procedure between a bypass conduit and a coronary vessel of the anterior wall of the left ventricle. The device includes a fork-like platform with two essentially parallel fork blades that form an intermediate space therebetween. The intermediate space has a width which corresponds to one to five times the width of a coronary vessel that is to be arranged in the intermediate space. At least one opening is provided on each of the fork blades adjacent to the intermediate space. Elements that can be guided through the openings and secured to a fixing device are provided for winding around the coronary vessel.
Devax, from Irvine, California, has received CE approval for its AXXESS Biolimus A9 eluting coronary bifurcation stent. Stenosis of the coronary bifurcatio
This in utero echocardiographic study showed morphological cardiac changes in Akt1−/− fetuses resulting in abnormal mitral flow patterns and diastolic as well as systolic cardiac dysfunction. Ex vivo 3D μCT analysis revealed a reduced left ventricular volume, a dilated morphology with thinner fetal myocardium. Ex vivo histology confirmed altered cardiac morphology, and illustrated a reduced number of coronary blood vessels and myocardial capillaries in Akt1−/− fetuses. In neonatal Akt1−/− mice in vivo cardiac MRI and histology confirmed altered cardiac function and structure. Impaired myocardial angiogenesis with concomitant aberrant fibrinogenesis proceeded after birth in neonatal Akt1−/− mice displaying reduced survival.. In this study we used multiple imaging modalities leading to unique and powerful datasets to generate simultaneous high‐resolution anatomical and functional information. Multiparameter in utero echocardiographic analyses could associate a functional ...
Coronary X‐ray angiography is the gold standard for coronary artery imaging, but is an invasive procedure, with a minor risk of potentially serious complications in addition to the drawback of exposure to ionizing radiation
Coronary X‐ray angiography is the gold standard for coronary artery imaging, but is an invasive procedure, with a minor risk of potentially serious complications in addition to the drawback of exposure to ionizing radiation
Google Glass allowed the surgeons to clearly visualize the distal coronary vessel and verify the direction of the guide wire advancement relative to the course
Coronary arteries are the vessels responsible for blood supply, oxygen and nutrients to the heart muscle. When the coronary arteries have blockage by fatty plaque there is a difficulty in the passage of blood, which can cause chest pain (angina pectoris) and / or acute myocardial infarction. Angioplasty is a ...
Study on the Coronary Circulation (Report 7) : Experimental and Clinical Observation on the Effect of Various Drugs Dilatating Coronary Blood Vessels : PROCEEDINGS OF THE 25TH ANNUAL MEETlNG, JAPANESE CIRCULATION SOCIETY Part III (1961 ...
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a condition in which the lumen of the coronary arteries (blood vessels that supply blood and oxygen to the heart) are narrowed
A coil is screwed into the heart wall HW between the left ventricle and coronary artery, followed by forming of a channel with laser, plasma, electrical, or mechanical device therethrough.
This video explains how blockage in the coronary arteries can lead to an heart attack, also known as myocardial infarction. This video reveals the heart and a blocked coronary artery. *******www.facebook****/visualmd. *******thevisualmd****/
... definition, either of two arteries that originate in the aorta and supply the heart muscle with blood. See more.
Coronary arteries showing blocked vessels. The blood vessels can become blocked as fatty substances such as cholesterol and triglycerides build up along the inner lining, obstructing blood flow. Magnification: 1.5x - Stock Image C004/8260
This analogy also helps another money spinner of coronary revascularisation. Lay people think that blocked coronaries are like blocked toilet pipes to be bypassed. Never do they realize that the body has its own wisdom to compensate for those long standing blocks, many of which start in early childhood, by providing collateral vessels and also remodeling the blocked vessels.. The blood supply to the heart muscle does not as much depend on the blocked four large coronaries on the surface of the heart that your doctor shows you on the x-ray(angiogram) as it does on the capacity of the millions of small vessels going directly into the muscle of the heart having a wide capacity to dilate excessively in case of reducewd supply from the larger vessels. This Flow Fraction Ration (FFR) is called CORONARY RESERVE, the latter could vary from one to another, the large surface vessel patency notwithstanding!. It is not the science of medicine that is bad but it is the "scientist" that twists the facts to ...
Teaching Files with CT Medical Imaging and case studies on Anatomical Regions including Adrenal, Colon, Cardiac, Stomach, Pediatric, Spleen, Vascular, Kidney, Small Bowel, Liver, Chest | CTisus
Management of Patients With Coronary Vascular Disease. Question Is the following statement true or false? Individuals at highest risk for a cardiac risk for a cardiac event within 10 years are those with existing coronary disease. Answer. True Slideshow 1927630 by trevet
CCU Nursing / Coronary / Cardiac, CCU Nursing / Coronary / Cardiac is available for Nurses who are involved in the care of the cardiac critical care patients who may have a myriad of acute... - pg. 5
CCU Nursing / Coronary / Cardiac, CCU Nursing / Coronary / Cardiac is available for Nurses who are involved in the care of the cardiac critical care patients who may have a myriad of acute... - pg. 14
Heart attacks caused by massive blockages in coronary arteries may be less common in women, who often suffer something called Inoperable Coronary Microvascular Disease instead.
Looking for online definition of Anterior interventricular groove in the Medical Dictionary? Anterior interventricular groove explanation free. What is Anterior interventricular groove? Meaning of Anterior interventricular groove medical term. What does Anterior interventricular groove mean?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Long-Term Prognosis of Vasospastic Angina without Significant Atherosclerotic Coronary Artery Disease. AU - Egashira, Kcnsuke. AU - Kikuchi, Yutaka. AU - Sagara, Tomohiko. AU - Sugihara, Masayoshi. AU - Nakamura, Motoomi. PY - 1987/1/1. Y1 - 1987/1/1. N2 - Long-term prognosis of 90 patients with vasospastic angina without significant coronary artery disease (less than 50% reduction in luminal diameter) was examined for a mean follow-up period of 4 years. All patients had episodes of angina at rest and were treated with calcium antagonists. One patient developed myocardial infarction and 2 died suddenly during the follow-up period. In the patient with myocardial infarction, there was an abrupt worsening of angina prior to the infarction despite therapy with a calcium antagonist. One of the sudden death patients discontinued his calcium antagonist before his death. Of the sudden death patients, one had ventricular tachycardia and the other had a complete atrioventricular block ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Reimplantation of anomalous right coronary artery from left main coronary artery. T2 - A surgical option. AU - Karimi, Mohsen. AU - Murdison, Kenneth A. AU - Blackwood, Wesley. AU - Davis, Wesley. PY - 2010/4/1. Y1 - 2010/4/1. N2 - Anomalous right coronary artery (ARCA) from left sinus of Valsalva could present in several forms either being intramural or extramural, and most occurring with separate ostium from left coronary system. ARCA originating from the left main coronary artery (LMCA) is very rare and treatments proposed for this type of anomaly are pulmonary artery translocation or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) of the right coronary system. There has not been any report in the literature of successful reimplantation of ARCA from LMCA, to the best of our knowledge, as another surgical option for this anomaly. We are reporting a case of successful surgical reimplantation of an ARCA from LMCA.. AB - Anomalous right coronary artery (ARCA) from left sinus of Valsalva ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Noninvasive visualization of the left main coronary artery by cross sectional echocardiography. AU - Weyman, A. E.. AU - Feigenbaum, Harvey. AU - Dillon, J. C.. AU - Johnston, K. W.. AU - Eggleton, R. C.. PY - 1976. Y1 - 1976. N2 - Real time cross sectional echocardiographic studies of the left main coronary artery (LMCA) were performed in 15 normal patients, 15 patients with angiographically proven coronary artery disease but normal left main coronary segments, three patients with greater than 75% obstruction of the left main coronary artery, and one patient with a large aneurysm of the left main coronary artery. In normal subjects the LMCA evaginates from the inferolateral wall of the aorta. The artery appears as two dominant parallel linear echoes separated by a clear space representing the lumen of the vessel. The LMCA courses beneath the right ventricular outflow tract and can generally be followed to its expected point of bifurcation. Confirmation that this structure was in ...
Looking for online definition of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty in the Medical Dictionary? percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty explanation free. What is percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty? Meaning of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty medical term. What does percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty mean?
BACKGROUND: Patients with obstructive left main coronary artery disease are usually treated with coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG). Randomized trials have suggested that drug-eluting stents may be an acceptable alternative to CABG in selected patients with left main coronary disease. METHODS: We randomly assigned 1905 eligible patients with left main coronary artery disease of low or intermediate anatomical complexity to undergo either percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with fluoropolymer-based cobalt-chromium everolimus-eluting stents (PCI group, 948 patients) or CABG (CABG group, 957 patients). Anatomic complexity was assessed at the sites and defined by a Synergy between Percutaneous Coronary Intervention with Taxus and Cardiac Surgery (SYNTAX) score of 32 or lower (the SYNTAX score reflects a comprehensive angiographic assessment of the coronary vasculature, with 0 as the lowest score and higher scores [no upper limit] indicating more complex coronary anatomy). The primary end point was
... Rev Cardiovasc Med. 2011;12(2):e77-83. Authors: Lee MS, Nguyen J. Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is the gold standard for the treatment of left main disease, whereas percutaneous coronary intervention is a viable option for patients who are candidates for revascularization but ineligible for CABG. CABG is limited by extended hospital stay followed by rehabilitation and mediocre long-term patency of saphenous vein grafts. Drug-eluting stents decrease the restenosis rates compared with bare metal stents and provide comparable clinical outcomes with those of CABG. Patients with isolated left main disease limited to the ostium or midbody are most likely to have good clinical outcomes with low restenosis and stent thrombosis rates. The results of the ongoing EXCEL trial, which compares left main percutaneous coronary intervention with drug-eluting stents and CABG, will provide insight regarding the ideal revascularization ...
Title:Intracoronary Injection of Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa, Abciximab, as Adjuvant Therapy in Primary Coronary Intervention. VOLUME: 11 ISSUE: 2. Author(s):Andrea Rognoni, Alessadro Lupi, Chiara Cavallino, Roberta Rosso, Alessia Veia, Sara Bacchini and Angelo Sante Bongo. Affiliation:Coronary Care Unit and Catheterization Laboratory, Hospital "Maggiore della Carita", Corso Mazzini 18, 28100 Novara, Italy.. Keywords:STEMI, Acute coronary syndrome, adjuvant therapy, bleeding, GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors, in - stent restenosis, no - reflow phenomenon, percutaneous coronary intervention, platelet, thrombosis.. Abstract:Acute coronary syndromes and, in paticular, ST - segment elevation myocardial infarction are the principle causes or mortality and morbidity in the industrialized countries. The manadgement of acute myocadial infarction is much debated in the literature; primary percutaneous coronary intervention is the treatment of choice. In the recent years there has been an increasing interest in the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Algorithm to predict triple-vessel/left main coronary artery disease in patients without myocardial infarction. T2 - An international cross validation. AU - Detrano, Robert. AU - Jánosi, A.. AU - Steinbrunn, Walter. AU - Pfisterer, Matthias. AU - Schmid, Johann Jakob. AU - Maggie Meyer, M.. AU - Guppy, Kern H.. AU - Abi-Mansour, Pierre. PY - 1991. Y1 - 1991. N2 - Logistic regression was applied to the clinical, risk factor, and exercise data of consecutive angiographic referrals without prior myocardial infarction to determine an algorithm predicting the probability of triple-vessel/left main coronary artery disease. These data were obtained from a total of 1,074 such subjects from patient populations at four centers (Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio; Hungarian Institute of Cardiology, Budapest, Hungary; the university hospitals, Zurich and Basel, Switzerland; and the Veterans Administration Medical Center, Long Beach, Calif.) and used to derive four separate ...

Tiny Forward-Looking Ultrasound Transducer for 3D View Inside Coronary Vessels | MedgadgetTiny Forward-Looking Ultrasound Transducer for 3D View Inside Coronary Vessels | Medgadget

Catheter-based ultrasound devices provide a unique view of the interior of vessels and the hearts anatomy when diagnosing and ... Tiny Forward-Looking Ultrasound Transducer for 3D View Inside Coronary Vessels. February 20th, 2014 Editors News ... Nanomachines Create Clots Inside Vessels Feeding Cancer Tumors. Machine Learning for Building Personalized Cancer Nanomedicines ... Catheter-based ultrasound devices provide a unique view of the interior of vessels and the hearts anatomy when diagnosing and ...
more infohttps://www.medgadget.com/2014/02/tiny-forward-looking-ultrasound-transducer-for-3d-forward-view-inside-heart-blood-vessels.html

Noninvasive Coronary Vessel Wall and Plaque Imaging With Magnetic Resonance Imaging | CirculationNoninvasive Coronary Vessel Wall and Plaque Imaging With Magnetic Resonance Imaging | Circulation

Coronary vessel wall images were readily acquired in all subjects. Both coronary vessel wall thickness (1.5±0.2 versus 1.0±0.2 ... measurements of coronary wall thickness suggests that MR coronary vessel wall imaging is able to assess coronary vessel wall ... free-breathing coronary vessel wall imaging approach using a dual IR TSE sequence and to compare coronary vessel wall and lumen ... small coronary vessel wall thickness, and low contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) between the coronary vessel wall and the ...
more infohttp://circ.ahajournals.org/content/102/21/2582

Proepicardial Origin of Developing Coronary Vessels | Revista Española de Cardiología (English Edition)Proepicardial Origin of Developing Coronary Vessels | Revista Española de Cardiología (English Edition)

Proepicardial Origin of Developing Coronary Vessels. Paul Palmquist-Gomes a,b, José María Pérez-Pomares a,b, Juan Antonio ... Device to Narrow the Coronary Sinus in Refractory Angina Images subject to Copyright. to reprint, please follow this link. ...
more infohttp://revespcardiol.org/en/proepicardial-origin-of-developing-coronary/articulo/90463461/

Association between erectile dysfunction and coronary artery disease. Role of coronary clinical presentation and extent of...Association between erectile dysfunction and coronary artery disease. Role of coronary clinical presentation and extent of...

... acute coronary syndrome (ACS) vs. chronic coronary syndrome (CCS), and extent of vessel involvement (single vs. multi-vessel ... Role of coronary clinical presentation and extent of coronary vessels involvement: the COBRA trial.. Montorsi P1, Ravagnani PM ... single-vessel (OR=2.53; 95% CI, 1.43-4.51; P=0.0002), and CCS vs. ACS (OR=2.32; 95% CI, 1.22-4.41; P=0.01) were independent ... 285 patients with CAD divided into three age-matched groups: group 1 (G1, n=95), ACS and one-vessel disease (1-VD); group 2 (G2 ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16854949?dopt=Abstract

Clinical and angiographic outcome of elective stent implantation in small coronary vessels: an analysis of the BENESTENT trial.Clinical and angiographic outcome of elective stent implantation in small coronary vessels: an analysis of the BENESTENT trial.

We examined the influence of vessel size using an intention-to-treat approach in 259 patients who underwent stent implantation ... Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation*. Coronary Angiography. Coronary Disease / etiology, surgery*. Coronary Vessels / ... In the stented population, smaller vessel size was associated with a higher stent:vessel ratio, a greater relative gain and a ... 9231549 - Coronary artery stenting in acute myocardial infarction.. 19205549 - Left main coronary artery stenosis treatment ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Clinical-angiographic-outcome-elective-stent/9552519.html

Histonet] Aorta and  coronary vessel sections sourceHistonet] Aorta and coronary vessel sections source

Histonet] Aorta and coronary vessel sections source. Ze Lu lu_ze ,@t, sbcglobal.net Tue Oct 11 11:57:46 CDT 2005 *Previous ... Hi, histonet friends, In one of project, we need to stain the aorta and coronary. We need a few these paraffine sections from ...
more infohttp://lists.utsouthwestern.edu/pipermail/histonet/2005-October/018211.html

FURTHER OBSERVATIONS ON THE ACTION OF DRUGS ON THE CALIBER OF CORONARY VESSELS PAPAVERINE HYDROCHLORIDE, DIGITALIS DERIVATIVES,...FURTHER OBSERVATIONS ON THE ACTION OF DRUGS ON THE CALIBER OF CORONARY VESSELS PAPAVERINE HYDROCHLORIDE, DIGITALIS DERIVATIVES,...

3. Calcium gluconate, in contrast with the chloride salt which is a powerful dilator of the coronary vessels, does not cause ... FURTHER OBSERVATIONS ON THE ACTION OF DRUGS ON THE CALIBER OF CORONARY VESSELS PAPAVERINE HYDROCHLORIDE, DIGITALIS DERIVATIVES ... FURTHER OBSERVATIONS ON THE ACTION OF DRUGS ON THE CALIBER OF CORONARY VESSELS PAPAVERINE HYDROCHLORIDE, DIGITALIS DERIVATIVES ... FURTHER OBSERVATIONS ON THE ACTION OF DRUGS ON THE CALIBER OF CORONARY VESSELS PAPAVERINE HYDROCHLORIDE, DIGITALIS DERIVATIVES ...
more infohttp://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/72/3/306

Inner and outer coronary vessel wall segmentation from CCTA using an active contour model with machine learning-based 3D voxel...Inner and outer coronary vessel wall segmentation from CCTA using an active contour model with machine learning-based 3D voxel...

Inner and outer coronary vessel wall segmentation from CCTA using an active contour model with machine learning-based 3D voxel ... In this paper, we present a fully automated approach to coronary vessel segmentation, which involves calcification or soft ... Adequately virtualizing the coronary lumen plays a crucial role for simulating blood ow by means of fluid dynamics while ... The regression model provides a strong estimate of the distance to the true vessel surface for every surface candidate point ...
more infohttps://www.spie.org/Publications/Proceedings/Paper/10.1117/12.2216200?origin_id=x4318

Three-vessel coronary artery disease with multi-vessel proximal aneurysms.Three-vessel coronary artery disease with multi-vessel proximal aneurysms.

At coronary angiography, left anterior descending coronary artery was occluded with distal perfusion by collateral flow, and ... 6619704 - Coronary angiographic assessment of left posterior hemiblock.. 20443654 - Three-vessel coronary artery disease with ... Coronary Aneurysm / complications*, diagnosis*, therapy. Coronary Angiography. Coronary Artery Disease / complications*, ... right coronary artery with diffuse coronary atherosclerosis were present. Coronary thrombosis was also present into LCX ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Three-vessel-coronary-artery-disease/20443654.html

Clinical Progression of Incidental, Asymptomatic Lesions Discovered During Culprit Vessel Coronary Intervention | CirculationClinical Progression of Incidental, Asymptomatic Lesions Discovered During Culprit Vessel Coronary Intervention | Circulation

Coronary Heart Disease. Clinical Progression of Incidental, Asymptomatic Lesions Discovered During Culprit Vessel Coronary ... B, Progression of disease in nonculprit vessel. Mild disease is observed in mid right coronary artery (middle left) at the time ... A, Progression of disease in nonculprit vessel resulting in MI (top left). Distal right coronary artery lesion (solid arrows), ... Clinical Progression of Incidental, Asymptomatic Lesions Discovered During Culprit Vessel Coronary Intervention ...
more infohttp://circ.ahajournals.org/content/111/2/143?ijkey=96678892091e956f34ca3246b15d539252f0cfc6&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Long-term L-arginine supplementation improves small-vessel coronary endothelial function in humans.  - PubMed - NCBILong-term L-arginine supplementation improves small-vessel coronary endothelial function in humans. - PubMed - NCBI

Long-term L-arginine supplementation improves small-vessel coronary endothelial function in humans.. Lerman A1, Burnett JC Jr, ... Long-term oral L-arginine supplementation for 6 months in humans improves coronary small-vessel endothelial function in ... Twenty-six patients without significant coronary artery disease on coronary angiography and intravascular ultrasound were ... reverses coronary endothelial dysfunction to acetylcholine in humans with nonobstructive coronary artery disease. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9626172

Spontaneous triple vessel coronary artery dissection in a patient with effort angina | HeartSpontaneous triple vessel coronary artery dissection in a patient with effort angina | Heart

Selective coronary angiography revealed SCAD involving all three vessels. Right coronary angiogram showed linear dissection ... Spontaneous triple vessel coronary artery dissection in a patient with effort angina ... Spontaneous triple vessel coronary artery dissection in a patient with effort angina ... spontaneous three vessel coronary dissection associated with typical effort angina has never been reported. This case ...
more infohttp://heart.bmj.com/content/91/7/850

Phase-sensitive black-blood coronary vessel wall imaging | Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance | Full TextPhase-sensitive black-blood coronary vessel wall imaging | Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance | Full Text

1). Consequently, single-breath-hold multi-slice black-blood coronary vessel wall imaging is enabled using PS-DIR.. ... Black-blood coronary vessel wall imaging is a powerful non-invasive tool for the quantitative assessment of positive arterial ... 3 shows that PS-DIR enables delineation of the coronary artery vessel wall and supports an increased wall-lumen contrast when ... To develop, and test a phase-sensitive DIR (PS-DIR) single-breath-hold multi-slice spiral black-blood coronary vessel wall ...
more infohttps://jcmr-online.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1532-429X-11-S1-O11

Blood Vessels and Coronary Arteries - Our Heart and Cardiovascular System | CourseraBlood Vessels and Coronary Arteries - Our Heart and Cardiovascular System | Coursera

The left coronary artery and the right coronary artery.. The left coronary artery begins with the left main stem, which then ... Blood Vessels and Coronary Arteries. To view this video please enable JavaScript, and consider upgrading to a web browser that ... of blood vessels, the architecture of the blood vessels and the histology. ... All of our vessels basically are built in three layers.. And if we have a close look at those layers, we see in the innermost ...
more infohttps://www.coursera.org/lecture/infarction/blood-vessels-and-coronary-arteries-zDJ4L

Coronary vessel development and insight towards neovascular therapy. - Physiology, Anatomy and GeneticsCoronary vessel development and insight towards neovascular therapy. - Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics

When the need for regeneration arises, for example in the setting of coronary artery disease, a reactivation of embryonic ... Thus, an understanding of the mechanisms of embryonic coronary vasculogenesis and angiogenesis may prove invaluable in ... Even subtle perturbations in this process may lead to congenital coronary artery anomalies, as occur in 0.2-1.2% of the general ... Formation of the coronary arteries consists of a precisely orchestrated series of morphogenetic and molecular events which can ...
more infohttps://www.dpag.ox.ac.uk/publications/251941

Optilene   Suture for Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery | Clinical Research Trial Listing ( Coronary Artery Disease |  Multi...Optilene Suture for Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery | Clinical Research Trial Listing ( Coronary Artery Disease | Multi...

Multi Vessel Coronary Artery Disease , Coronary heart disease , Optilene Suture for Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery ... coronary artery stenosis or stenosis of the three main coronary vessels. ... Coronary artery bypass grafting is performed for patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) to improve quality of life and to ... Optilene Suture for Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery Brief description of study. The study is a voluntary study, initiated ...
more infohttp://www.centerwatch.com/clinical-trials/listings/78359/coronary-heart-disease-optilene--suture/?radius=50

Rcadia COR Analyzer System Receives Expanded FDA Clearance to Rule Out Coronary Artery Disease in Coronary Branch VesselsRcadia COR Analyzer System Receives Expanded FDA Clearance to Rule Out Coronary Artery Disease in Coronary Branch Vessels

System to assess coronary branch vessels in addition to main coronary arteries in patients with suspected coronary artery ... Rcadia COR Analyzer System Receives Expanded FDA Clearance to Rule Out Coronary Artery Disease in Coronary Branch Vessels. News ... Rcadia COR Analyzer System Receives Expanded FDA Clearance to Rule Out Coronary Artery Disease in Coronary Branch Vessels ... provides a high negative predictive value for the absence of coronary disease in branch vessels as well as the major coronary ...
more infohttps://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/rcadia-cor-analyzer-system-receives-expanded-fda-clearance-to-rule-out-coronary-artery-disease-in-coronary-branch-vessels-115633494.html

CCLCM Student Blog: Coronary Vessels Lab, PBL, POD, and PA MeetingCCLCM Student Blog: Coronary Vessels Lab, PBL, POD, and PA Meeting

Coronary Vessels Lab, PBL, POD, and PA Meeting Today was a really great day. I think the coronary vessels lab that we did this ... When the contrast agent was injected, we were able to watch on the screen as it went through the coronary arteries. We were ... Angiogenesis is the process of growing new blood vessels.) It was fairly interesting, but of course last weeks talk was a very ... and I was surprised to learn that there are different catheters for the right coronary artery versus the left. It makes sense, ...
more infohttp://cclcmstudent.blogspot.com/2006/10/coronary-vessels-lab-pbl-pod-and-pa.html

Coronary blood vessels | definition of Coronary blood vessels by Medical dictionaryCoronary blood vessels | definition of Coronary blood vessels by Medical dictionary

What is Coronary blood vessels? Meaning of Coronary blood vessels medical term. What does Coronary blood vessels mean? ... Looking for online definition of Coronary blood vessels in the Medical Dictionary? Coronary blood vessels explanation free. ... Coronary blood vessels. Coronary blood vessels. The arteries and veins that supply blood to the heart muscle. ... By carrying this gene vector into the coronary circulation, it should help the cells that form coronary blood vessels grow.. ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Coronary+blood+vessels

ICD-10-CM Code I25.81 - Atherosclerosis of other coronary vessels without angina pectorisICD-10-CM Code I25.81 - Atherosclerosis of other coronary vessels without angina pectoris

Coronary atherosclerosis due to calcified coronary lesion See code I25.84 Coronary atherosclerosis due to lipid rich plaque See ... I25.81 Atherosclerosis of other coronary vessels without angina pectoris NON-BILLABLE * * BILLABLE I25.810 Atherosclerosis of ... Atherosclerosis of other coronary vessels without angina pectoris NON-BILLABLE Non-Billable Code Non-Billable means the code is ... coronary artery of transplanted heart without angina pectoris * BILLABLE I25.812 Atherosclerosis of bypass graft of coronary ...
more infohttps://icd.codes/icd10cm/I2581

Number of Diseased Coronary Artery Vessels - Semantic ScholarNumber of Diseased Coronary Artery Vessels - Semantic Scholar

Number of major epicardial vessels with greater than or equal to 70% reduction in diameter or greater than or equal to 50% ... Number of Diseased Coronary Artery Vessels. Known as: NUMDCAV, Number of Diseased Coronary Vessels ... Long-term survival in patients with coronary artery disease: importance of peripheral vascular disease. The Coronary Artery ... Characteristics of circulating CD31+ cells from patients with coronary artery disease. *Moo Hyun Kim, Longzhe Guo, Han-Soo Kim ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/topic/Number-of-Diseased-Coronary-Artery-Vessels/8623276

Assessment of ischaemic burden in angiographic three-vessel coronary artery disease with high-resolution myocardial perfusion...Assessment of ischaemic burden in angiographic three-vessel coronary artery disease with high-resolution myocardial perfusion...

Assessment of ischaemic burden in angiographic three-vessel coronary artery disease with high-resolution myocardial perfusion ... Assessment of ischaemic burden in angiographic three-vessel coronary artery disease with high-resolution myocardial perfusion ...
more infohttp://www.zora.uzh.ch/id/eprint/98643/

Effects of sugammadex on the coronary circulation: direct effects on coronary vessels or hypersensitivity (Kounis syndrome)?Effects of sugammadex on the coronary circulation: direct effects on coronary vessels or hypersensitivity (Kounis syndrome)?

... ... Effects of sugammadex on the coronary circulation: direct effects on coronary vessels or hypersensitivity (Kounis syndrome)?. ... If the cardiac arrest was caused by coronary spasm, the theoretical causes of coronary spasm are diverse. Although we ... not a direct effect on coronary circulation [5]. The preceding hypersensitivities may have affected the myocardium and coronary ...
more infohttps://ekja.org/journal/view.php?number=8312&title=Effects+of+sugammadex+on+the+coronary+circulation%253A+direct+effects+on+coronary+vessels+or+hypersensitivity+%2528Kounis+syndrome%2529%253F

Effects of sugammadex on the coronary circulation: direct effects on coronary vessels or hypersensitivity (Kounis syndrome)?Effects of sugammadex on the coronary circulation: direct effects on coronary vessels or hypersensitivity (Kounis syndrome)?

... ... not a direct effect on coronary circulation [5]. The preceding hypersensitivities may have affected the myocardium and coronary ... Kounis syndrome is defined as the concurrence of acute coronary syndromes with conditions associated with mast cell and ... Considering the patients history, the impression of this case seems to correspond to hypersensitivity coronary syndrome or ...
more infohttps://ekja.org/journal/view.php?number=8312&viewtype=pubreader

Help for coronary vessel constrictions - Tübingen cardiologists have developed an alternative to drug eluting stentsHelp for coronary vessel constrictions - Tübingen cardiologists have developed an alternative to drug eluting stents

... an alternative approach for intracoronary pharmacotherapy for the treatment of patients with constricted coronary vessels. ... Coronary vessel constrictions (stenoses) are a serious health problem. Patients suffer from chest pain and distress, and in the ... Help for coronary vessel constrictions - Tübingen cardiologists have developed an alternative to drug eluting stents. Prof. ... Help for coronary vessel constrictions Tübingen cardiologists have developed an alternative to drug eluting stents ...
more infohttps://www.gesundheitsindustrie-bw.de/en/article/press-release/help-for-coronary-vessel-constrictions-tuebingen-cardiologists-have-developed-an-alternative-to-drug
  • Background- With the reduction in restenosis rates by drug-eluting stents, there is new controversy concerning the optimal management of incidental, nontarget lesions identified during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). (ahajournals.org)
  • Success stories range from hydrophilic coatings that increase lubricity of catheters passed through peripheral blood vessels to access the heart, to drug-eluting coatings on stents that keep coronary blood vessels patent (open). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Stenoses can be treated with the insertion of stents, small lattice tubes that support the vessels from the inside and keep them open in order to allow the blood to flow through. (gesundheitsindustrie-bw.de)
  • Heart specialists at the University Hospital in Tübingen have developed an alternative approach that combines the advantages of uncoated stents with the advantage of homogenous drug transfer to the vessel wall as a whole, thereby also avoiding the potential disadvantages of coated stents. (gesundheitsindustrie-bw.de)
  • There were no significant differences between groups, concerning type of stented coronary vessel (left anterior descending-LAD 52.4% vs non-LAD 47.6%, Group 1, LAD 59.5% vs non-LAD 40.5%, Group 2) and number of stents per patient (1.31 +/- 0.48 in Group 1, 1.18 +/- 0.56 in Group 2) and per coronary vessel (1.17 +/- 0.54 in Group 1, 1.09 +/- 0.46 in Group 2). (unimi.it)
  • Kounis syndrome is defined as the concurrence of acute coronary syndromes with conditions associated with mast cell and platelet activation, which involves inflammatory cells in the setting of allergic reactions or hypersensitivity, and anaphylactic or anaphylactoid insults. (ekja.org)
  • Using TI less than TI*, Fig. 3 shows that PS-DIR enables delineation of the coronary artery vessel wall and supports an increased wall-lumen contrast when compared with the conventional DIR in which TI was too short for adequate blood signal-nulling. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, signal from slow-flowing blood in the laminar boundary layer adjacent to the vessel wall may mimic vessel wall signal and cause an overestimation of wall thickness/area. (ahajournals.org)
  • Coronary artery wall magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been developed to assess coronary lumen diameter and wall thickness. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate physiologic parameters that affect measures of coronary wall thickness using black blood MRI pulse sequences. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We examined the influence of vessel size using an intention-to-treat approach in 259 patients who underwent stent implantation and in 257 patients who underwent balloon angioplasty alone in the BENESTENT trial. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We retrospectively analyzed the results of 381 consecutive patients treated with Palmaz-Schatz coronary stent implantation between May 1992 and January 1996. (unimi.it)
  • Recent evidence suggests that higher restenosis rate is observed after coronary angioplasty of an infarct-related artery. (unimi.it)
  • The COR Analyzer improves the utility of Coronary CTA studies in the emergency department to triage chest pain patients and optimizes work flow in cardiology and radiology departments. (prnewswire.com)
  • In my opinion, I think that this case may be a sugammadex hypersensitivity event, similar to Kounis syndrome, rather than acute coronary syndrome, as the authors had described [ 2 ]. (ekja.org)
  • Moreover, although hypersensitivity reactions are normally combined with specific skin lesions, Kounis hypersensitivity-associated coronary syndrome is not accompanied by skin lesions such as skin rash, redness, erythematous wheal, or urticaria [ 4 , 5 ]. (ekja.org)
  • 1. The digitalis derivatives, K -strophanthin, ouabain and digifoline at times have a direct coronary constrictor action even in therapeutic doses. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Thus, an understanding of the mechanisms of embryonic coronary vasculogenesis and angiogenesis may prove invaluable in developing novel strategies for cardiovascular regeneration and therapeutic coronary angiogenesis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The chip does forward-looking ultrasound imaging and can potentially identify occlusions within vessels as it's being snaked through on the front of a catheter. (medgadget.com)
  • Imaging devices operating within blood vessels can provide higher resolution images than devices used from outside the body because they can operate at higher frequencies. (medgadget.com)
  • 8 9 T2-weighted black-blood fast spin-echo (TSE) techniques have been successfully applied for aortic 10 and carotid 11 vessel wall imaging. (ahajournals.org)
  • Although dual-inversion-recovery [ 2 ] (DIR) is the gold standard for vessel wall imaging, optimal lumen-vessel wall contrast is sometimes difficult to obtain and the time-window available for imaging is limited due to the competing requirements between TI* (blood signal nulling time) and TD (period of minimal myocardial motion). (biomedcentral.com)
  • This work extends PS-IR to PS-DIR and combined with spiral-imaging, multi-slice black-blood coronary vessel wall imaging is enabled in a single breath-hold. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To develop, and test a phase-sensitive DIR (PS-DIR) single-breath-hold multi-slice spiral black-blood coronary vessel wall imaging method. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Consequently, single-breath-hold multi-slice black-blood coronary vessel wall imaging is enabled using PS-DIR. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cine four chamber imaging was used to determine the coronary artery rest period. (biomedcentral.com)