Spasm of the large- or medium-sized coronary arteries.
Constriction of arteries in the SKULL due to sudden, sharp, and often persistent smooth muscle contraction in blood vessels. Intracranial vasospasm results in reduced vessel lumen caliber, restricted blood flow to the brain, and BRAIN ISCHEMIA that may lead to hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HYPOXIA-ISCHEMIA, BRAIN).
A clinical syndrome characterized by the development of CHEST PAIN at rest with concomitant transient ST segment elevation in the ELECTROCARDIOGRAM, but with preserved exercise capacity.
An ergot alkaloid (ERGOT ALKALOIDS) with uterine and VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE contractile properties.
The veins and arteries of the HEART.
Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.
A vasodilator used in the treatment of ANGINA PECTORIS. Its actions are similar to NITROGLYCERIN but with a slower onset of action.
Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.
Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.
Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.
The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
A benzothiazepine derivative with vasodilating action due to its antagonism of the actions of CALCIUM ion on membrane functions.
Dilation of an occluded coronary artery (or arteries) by means of a balloon catheter to restore myocardial blood supply.
The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Narrowing or constriction of a coronary artery.
The symptom of paroxysmal pain consequent to MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA usually of distinctive character, location and radiation. It is thought to be provoked by a transient stressful situation during which the oxygen requirements of the MYOCARDIUM exceed that supplied by the CORONARY CIRCULATION.
A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.
NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.
Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.
A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.
An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.
The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.
Abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of CORONARY VESSELS. Most coronary aneurysms are due to CORONARY ATHEROSCLEROSIS, and the rest are due to inflammatory diseases, such as KAWASAKI DISEASE.
Coagulation of blood in any of the CORONARY VESSELS. The presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) often leads to MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)
Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.
Recurrent narrowing or constriction of a coronary artery following surgical procedures performed to alleviate a prior obstruction.

Prostaglandin endoperoxide-dependent vasospasm in bovine coronary arteries after nitration of prostacyclin synthase. (1/422)

In the present study we used a bioassay to study the effects of peroxynitrite (ONOO-) on angiotensin II (A-II)-triggered tension in isolated bovine coronary arteries in order to show the consequences of the previously reported PGI2-synthase inhibition by ONOO- in this model. The following results were obtained: 1. 1 micromol L(-1) ONOO- impaired A-II-induced vasorelaxation and caused a second long lasting constriction phase. Indomethacin (10(-5)M) prevented both effects. U51605, a dual blocker of PGI2-synthase and thromboxane (TX)A2-synthase mimicked the effects of ONOO-. 2. The selective TXA2/prostaglandin endoperoxide (PGH2) receptor antagonist SQ29548 antagonized the second vasoconstriction phase after ONOO- -treatment. Since a generation of TXA2 and 8-iso-prostaglandin F2alpha could be excluded a direct action of unmetabolized PGH2 on the TXA2/PGH2 receptor was postulated. 3. ONOO- dose-dependently inhibited the conversion of 14C-PGH2 into 6-keto-PGF1alpha in isolated bovine coronary arteries with an IC50-value of 100 nM. 4. Immunoprecipitation of 3-nitrotyrosine-containing proteins with a monoclonal antibody revealed PGI2-synthase as the only nitrated protein in bovine coronary arteries treated with 1 micromol 1(-1) ONOO-. 5. Using immunohistochemistry a co-localization of PGI2-synthase and nitrotyrosine-containing proteins was clearly visible in both endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells. We concluded that ONOO- not only eliminated the vasodilatory, growth-inhibiting, antithrombotic and antiadhesive effects of PGI2 but also allowed and promoted an action of the potent vasoconstrictor, prothrombotic agent, growth promoter, and leukocyte adherer, PGH2.  (+info)

Racial heterogeneity in coronary artery vasomotor reactivity: differences between Japanese and Caucasian patients. (2/422)

Japanese investigators have provided a substantial contribution in the understanding of coronary vasomotor reactivity. On occasions, their findings have been at variance with those undertaken on caucasian patients, raising speculation that vasomotor differences between races may exist. In a comparative review of the published literature, we evaluated the vasoreactive differences among Japanese and caucasian patients with variant angina or myocardial infarction. In variant angina, Japanese patients appear to have diffusely hyperreactive coronary arteries compared with caucasian people, manifested by their segmental rather than focal spasm, hyperreactive nonspastic vessels and multivessel spasm. These differences may reflect the increased basal tone among Japanese variant angina patients and may relate to controversial differences in endothelial nitric oxide production or autonomic nervous system activity. Provocative vasomotor studies of Japanese patients with a recent myocardial infarction report a higher incidence of inducible spasm than caucasian studies, an observation recently supported by a controlled study. Furthermore, the hyperreactivity was diffuse, occurring in both non-infarct- and infarct-related vessels. These observations support the existence of racial coronary vasomotor reactivity differences but require confirmation in further prospectively conducted studies.  (+info)

Intraoperative spasm of coronary and peripheral artery--a case occurring after tourniquet deflation during sevoflurane anesthesia. (3/422)

A 68-yr-old man with a 9-yr history of hypertension presented for hemiglossectomy, segmental resection of the mandible, and the radial forearm free flap grafting. Intraoperatively, facial artery spasm was observed during microvascular suturing of the radial artery to the facial artery. Simultaneously, systolic blood pressure decreased from 100 to 80 torr and the ST segment elevated to 15 mm from the base line. The possible mechanisms responsible for vasospasm in coronary as well as in peripheral arteries under sevoflurane anesthesia are discussed.  (+info)

T-786-->C mutation in the 5'-flanking region of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene is associated with coronary spasm. (4/422)

BACKGROUND: Coronary spasm plays an important role in the pathogenesis of ischemic heart diseases in general. However, the precise mechanism(s) responsible for coronary spasm remains to be elucidated, and we examined the molecular genetics of coronary spasm. METHODS AND RESULTS: We searched for the possible mutations in the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene in patients with coronary spasm. In this study, we demonstrate the existence of 3 linked mutations in the 5'-flanking region of the eNOS gene (T-786-->C, A-922-->G, and T-1468-->A). The incidence of the mutations was significantly greater in patients with coronary spasm than in the control group (P<0.0001). Multiple logistic regression analysis with forward stepwise selection using the environmental risk factors and the eNOS gene variant revealed that the most predictive independent risk factor for coronary spasm was the mutant allele (P<0.0001). As assessed by luciferase reporter gene assays, the T-786-->C mutation resulted in a significant reduction in eNOS gene promoter activity (P<0.05), whereas neither the A-922-->G nor the T-1468-->A mutation had any affect. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these findings strongly suggest that the T-786-->C mutation in the eNOS gene reduces the endothelial NO synthesis and predisposes the patients with the mutation to coronary spasm.  (+info)

A case of vasospastic angina presenting Brugada-type ECG abnormalities. (5/422)

An electrophysiological study and a provocative test of coronary artery spasm was attempted in a 68-year-old man who was having syncopal attacks and chest pain. His electrocardiogram had the characteristics of Brugada syndrome and ventricular fibrillation (VF) was induced by programmed electrical stimulation. ST-segment elevation became exaggerated by procainamide, which could not prevent the induction of VF. Coronary angiography revealed no stenotic lesions, and spasm in the left coronary artery was induced by intracoronary administration of acetylcholine with similar chest pain to that experienced before. Under treatment with diltiazem and flecainide, which suppressed the induction of VF, the patient experienced no recurrence of symptoms despite persistent ST-segment elevation. No previous reports have described coronary spasm associated with Brugada-type ECG abnormalities, and patients with syncope should be evaluated carefully.  (+info)

Hypoxia-reoxygenation triggers coronary vasospasm in isolated bovine coronary arteries via tyrosine nitration of prostacyclin synthase. (6/422)

The role of peroxynitrite in hypoxia-reoxygenation-induced coronary vasospasm was investigated in isolated bovine coronary arteries. Hypoxia-reoxygenation selectively blunted prostacyclin (PGI2)-dependent vasorelaxation and elicited a sustained vasoconstriction that was blocked by a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin, and SQ29548, a thromboxane (Tx)A2/prostaglandin H2 receptor antagonist, but not by CGS13080, a TxA2 synthase blocker. The inactivation of PGI2 synthase, as evidenced by suppressed 6-keto-PGF1 alpha release and a decreased conversion of 14C-prostaglandin H2 into 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, was paralleled by an increased nitration in both vascular endothelium and smooth muscle of hypoxia-reoxygenation-exposed vessels. The administration of the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitors as well as polyethylene-glycolated superoxide dismutase abolished the vasospasm by preventing the inactivation and nitration of PGI2 synthase, suggesting that peroxynitrite was implicated. Moreover, concomitant administration to the organ baths of the two precursors of peroxynitrite, superoxide, and NO mimicked the effects of hypoxia-reoxygenation, although none of them were effective when given separately. We conclude that hypoxia-reoxygenation elicits the formation of superoxide, which causes loss of the vasodilatory action of NO and at the same time yields peroxynitrite. Subsequently, peroxynitrite nitrates and inactivates PGI2 synthase, leaving unmetabolized prostaglandin H2, which causes vasospasm, platelet aggregation, and thrombus formation via the TxA2/prostaglandin H2 receptor.  (+info)

Transient severe mitral regurgitation complicating myocardial stunning due to coronary vasospasm. (7/422)

As in papillary muscle dysfunction complicating mitral prolapse, dyskinesis of the left ventricular wall underlying the papillary muscles has been shown to cause mitral regurgitation following myocardial infarction. Myocardial stunning has been experimentally evidenced to cause mitral regurgitation due to a wall motion abnormality, but it has not yet been clinically defined. We report a clinical case of transient severe mitral regurgitation complicating myocardial stunning caused by coronary vasospasm. Transient wall motion abnormality beneath the anterolateral papillary muscle was considered to be responsible for the mitral regurgitation.  (+info)

Prognostic significance of the pattern of multivessel spasm in patients with variant angina. (8/422)

Multivessel spasm in variant angina is believed to be a major prognostic factor. Three patterns of multivessel spasm have been detected: (1) spasm at different sites on different occasions (migratory spasm); (2) spasm sequentially affecting 2 different sites (sequential spasm); and (3) simultaneous spasm at more than 1 site (simultaneous spasm). The present study investigated the prognosis based on this factor for variant angina without fixed coronary stenosis and examined the influence of multivessel spasm on cardiac events. Twenty-six patients were diagnosed as having variant angina without fixed coronary stenosis using 12-lead 24-h ECG recording system and coronary cineangiography. These patients were followed up prospectively for 57.1+/-7.6 months. Of the 26 patients 13 had single-vessel spasm, 6 had migratory multivessel spasm angina, and 7 showed sequential and/or simultaneous multivessel spasm angina. The survival free of serious cardiac events and of all cardiac events was significantly lower for patients with sequential and/or simultaneous multivessel spasm than for those with migratory multivessel spasm (p<0.05, p<0.05), whereas for patients with migratory multivessel spasm the difference comparison with single-vessel spasm did not attain statistical significance (p = ns, p = ns). The results of this study suggest that there seems to be a high-risk subgroup (i.e., sequential and/or simultaneous multivessel spasm) among patients with variant angina.  (+info)

Coronary vasospasm refers to a sudden constriction (narrowing) of the coronary arteries, which supply oxygenated blood to the heart muscle. This constriction can reduce or block blood flow, leading to symptoms such as chest pain (angina) or, in severe cases, a heart attack (myocardial infarction). Coronary vasospasm can occur spontaneously or be triggered by various factors, including stress, smoking, and certain medications. It is also associated with conditions such as coronary artery disease and variant angina. Prolonged or recurrent vasospasms can cause damage to the heart muscle and increase the risk of cardiovascular events.

Intracranial vasospasm is a medical condition characterized by the narrowing or constriction of the intracranial arteries, which are the blood vessels that supply blood to the brain. This narrowing is usually caused by the contraction or spasming of the smooth muscle in the walls of the arteries, leading to reduced blood flow and oxygen delivery to the brain tissue.

Intracranial vasospasm is often associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), a type of stroke caused by bleeding in the space surrounding the brain. SAH can cause the release of blood components, such as hemoglobin and iron, which can irritate and damage the walls of the arteries. This irritation can trigger an inflammatory response that leads to the contraction of the smooth muscle in the artery walls, causing vasospasm.

Vasospasm can cause further ischemia (reduced blood flow) or infarction (tissue death) in the brain, leading to serious neurological deficits or even death. Therefore, prompt diagnosis and treatment of intracranial vasospasm are crucial for improving patient outcomes. Treatment options may include medications to dilate the blood vessels, angioplasty (balloon dilation) or stenting procedures to mechanically open up the arteries, or surgical intervention to relieve pressure on the brain.

Angina pectoris, variant (also known as Prinzmetal's angina or vasospastic angina) is a type of chest pain that results from reduced blood flow to the heart muscle due to spasms in the coronary arteries. These spasms cause the arteries to narrow, temporarily reducing the supply of oxygen-rich blood to the heart. This can lead to symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, and fatigue.

Variant angina is typically more severe than other forms of angina and can occur at rest or with minimal physical exertion. It is often treated with medications that help relax the coronary arteries and prevent spasms, such as calcium channel blockers and nitrates. In some cases, additional treatments such as angioplasty or bypass surgery may be necessary to improve blood flow to the heart.

It's important to note that chest pain can have many different causes, so it is essential to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of angina or other types of chest pain. A healthcare professional can help determine the cause of your symptoms and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Ergonovine is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called ergot alkaloids. It is derived from the ergot fungus and is used in medical settings as a uterotonic agent, which means it causes the uterus to contract. Ergonovine is often used after childbirth to help the uterus return to its normal size and reduce bleeding.

Ergonovine works by binding to specific receptors in the smooth muscle of the uterus, causing it to contract. It has a potent effect on the uterus and can also cause vasoconstriction (narrowing of blood vessels) in other parts of the body. This is why ergonovine is sometimes used to treat severe bleeding caused by conditions such as uterine fibroids or ectopic pregnancy.

Like other ergot alkaloids, ergonovine can have serious side effects if not used carefully. It should be administered under the close supervision of a healthcare provider and should not be used in women with certain medical conditions, such as high blood pressure or heart disease. Ergonovine can also interact with other medications, so it's important to inform your healthcare provider of all medications you are taking before receiving this drug.

Coronary vessels refer to the network of blood vessels that supply oxygenated blood and nutrients to the heart muscle, also known as the myocardium. The two main coronary arteries are the left main coronary artery and the right coronary artery.

The left main coronary artery branches off into the left anterior descending artery (LAD) and the left circumflex artery (LCx). The LAD supplies blood to the front of the heart, while the LCx supplies blood to the side and back of the heart.

The right coronary artery supplies blood to the right lower part of the heart, including the right atrium and ventricle, as well as the back of the heart.

Coronary vessel disease (CVD) occurs when these vessels become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of plaque, leading to reduced blood flow to the heart muscle. This can result in chest pain, shortness of breath, or a heart attack.

Coronary angiography is a medical procedure that uses X-ray imaging to visualize the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart muscle. During the procedure, a thin, flexible catheter is inserted into an artery in the arm or groin and threaded through the blood vessels to the heart. A contrast dye is then injected through the catheter, and X-ray images are taken as the dye flows through the coronary arteries. These images can help doctors diagnose and treat various heart conditions, such as blockages or narrowing of the arteries, that can lead to chest pain or heart attacks. It is also known as coronary arteriography or cardiac catheterization.

Isosorbide dinitrate is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called nitrates. It is primarily used in the prevention and treatment of angina pectoris, which is chest pain caused by reduced blood flow to the heart muscle.

The medical definition of Isosorbide dinitrate is:

A soluble nitrate ester used in the prevention and treatment of anginal attacks. It acts by dilating coronary and peripheral arteries and veins, thereby reducing cardiac workload and increasing oxygen delivery to the heart muscle. Its therapeutic effects are attributed to its conversion to nitric oxide, a potent vasodilator, in the body. Isosorbide dinitrate is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and oral solutions, and is typically taken 2-3 times daily for optimal effect.

Electrocardiography (ECG or EKG) is a medical procedure that records the electrical activity of the heart. It provides a graphic representation of the electrical changes that occur during each heartbeat. The resulting tracing, called an electrocardiogram, can reveal information about the heart's rate and rhythm, as well as any damage to its cells or abnormalities in its conduction system.

During an ECG, small electrodes are placed on the skin of the chest, arms, and legs. These electrodes detect the electrical signals produced by the heart and transmit them to a machine that amplifies and records them. The procedure is non-invasive, painless, and quick, usually taking only a few minutes.

ECGs are commonly used to diagnose and monitor various heart conditions, including arrhythmias, coronary artery disease, heart attacks, and electrolyte imbalances. They can also be used to evaluate the effectiveness of certain medications or treatments.

A subarachnoid hemorrhage is a type of stroke that results from bleeding into the space surrounding the brain, specifically within the subarachnoid space which contains cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This space is located between the arachnoid membrane and the pia mater, two of the three layers that make up the meninges, the protective covering of the brain and spinal cord.

The bleeding typically originates from a ruptured aneurysm, a weakened area in the wall of a cerebral artery, or less commonly from arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) or head trauma. The sudden influx of blood into the CSF-filled space can cause increased intracranial pressure, irritation to the brain, and vasospasms, leading to further ischemia and potential additional neurological damage.

Symptoms of a subarachnoid hemorrhage may include sudden onset of severe headache (often described as "the worst headache of my life"), neck stiffness, altered mental status, nausea, vomiting, photophobia, and focal neurological deficits. Rapid diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent further complications and improve the chances of recovery.

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a medical condition in which the coronary arteries, which supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle, become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of cholesterol, fatty deposits, and other substances, known as plaque. Over time, this buildup can cause the arteries to harden and narrow (a process called atherosclerosis), reducing blood flow to the heart muscle.

The reduction in blood flow can lead to various symptoms and complications, including:

1. Angina (chest pain or discomfort) - This occurs when the heart muscle doesn't receive enough oxygen-rich blood, causing pain, pressure, or discomfort in the chest, arms, neck, jaw, or back.
2. Shortness of breath - When the heart isn't receiving adequate blood flow, it can't pump blood efficiently to meet the body's demands, leading to shortness of breath during physical activities or at rest.
3. Heart attack - If a piece of plaque ruptures or breaks off in a coronary artery, a blood clot can form and block the artery, causing a heart attack (myocardial infarction). This can damage or destroy part of the heart muscle.
4. Heart failure - Chronic reduced blood flow to the heart muscle can weaken it over time, leading to heart failure, a condition in which the heart can't pump blood efficiently to meet the body's needs.
5. Arrhythmias - Reduced blood flow and damage to the heart muscle can lead to abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias), which can be life-threatening if not treated promptly.

Coronary artery disease is typically diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests such as electrocardiograms (ECGs), stress testing, cardiac catheterization, and imaging studies like coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). Treatment options for CAD include lifestyle modifications, medications, medical procedures, and surgery.

Coronary circulation refers to the circulation of blood in the coronary vessels, which supply oxygenated blood to the heart muscle (myocardium) and drain deoxygenated blood from it. The coronary circulation system includes two main coronary arteries - the left main coronary artery and the right coronary artery - that branch off from the aorta just above the aortic valve. These arteries further divide into smaller branches, which supply blood to different regions of the heart muscle.

The left main coronary artery divides into two branches: the left anterior descending (LAD) artery and the left circumflex (LCx) artery. The LAD supplies blood to the front and sides of the heart, while the LCx supplies blood to the back and sides of the heart. The right coronary artery supplies blood to the lower part of the heart, including the right ventricle and the bottom portion of the left ventricle.

The veins that drain the heart muscle include the great cardiac vein, the middle cardiac vein, and the small cardiac vein, which merge to form the coronary sinus. The coronary sinus empties into the right atrium, allowing deoxygenated blood to enter the right side of the heart and be pumped to the lungs for oxygenation.

Coronary circulation is essential for maintaining the health and function of the heart muscle, as it provides the necessary oxygen and nutrients required for proper contraction and relaxation of the myocardium. Any disruption or blockage in the coronary circulation system can lead to serious consequences, such as angina, heart attack, or even death.

Vasodilator agents are pharmacological substances that cause the relaxation or widening of blood vessels by relaxing the smooth muscle in the vessel walls. This results in an increase in the diameter of the blood vessels, which decreases vascular resistance and ultimately reduces blood pressure. Vasodilators can be further classified based on their site of action:

1. Systemic vasodilators: These agents cause a generalized relaxation of the smooth muscle in the walls of both arteries and veins, resulting in a decrease in peripheral vascular resistance and preload (the volume of blood returning to the heart). Examples include nitroglycerin, hydralazine, and calcium channel blockers.
2. Arterial vasodilators: These agents primarily affect the smooth muscle in arterial vessel walls, leading to a reduction in afterload (the pressure against which the heart pumps blood). Examples include angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and direct vasodilators like sodium nitroprusside.
3. Venous vasodilators: These agents primarily affect the smooth muscle in venous vessel walls, increasing venous capacitance and reducing preload. Examples include nitroglycerin and other organic nitrates.

Vasodilator agents are used to treat various cardiovascular conditions such as hypertension, heart failure, angina, and pulmonary arterial hypertension. It is essential to monitor their use carefully, as excessive vasodilation can lead to orthostatic hypotension, reflex tachycardia, or fluid retention.

Diltiazem is a calcium channel blocker medication that is used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure), angina (chest pain), and certain heart rhythm disorders. It works by relaxing the muscles of the blood vessels, which lowers blood pressure and improves blood flow to the heart. Diltiazem may also be used to reduce the risk of heart attack in patients with coronary artery disease.

The medication is available in various forms, including immediate-release tablets, extended-release tablets, and extended-release capsules. It is usually taken orally, one to three times a day, depending on the formulation and the individual patient's needs. Diltiazem may cause side effects such as dizziness, headache, nausea, and constipation.

It is important to follow the dosage instructions provided by your healthcare provider and to inform them of any other medications you are taking, as well as any medical conditions you have, before starting diltiazem.

Coronary balloon angioplasty is a minimally invasive medical procedure used to widen narrowed or obstructed coronary arteries (the blood vessels that supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle) and improve blood flow to the heart. This procedure is typically performed in conjunction with the insertion of a stent, a small mesh tube that helps keep the artery open.

During coronary balloon angioplasty, a thin, flexible catheter with a deflated balloon at its tip is inserted into a blood vessel, usually through a small incision in the groin or arm. The catheter is then guided to the narrowed or obstructed section of the coronary artery. Once in position, the balloon is inflated to compress the plaque against the artery wall and widen the lumen (the inner space) of the artery. This helps restore blood flow to the heart muscle.

The procedure is typically performed under local anesthesia and conscious sedation to minimize discomfort. Coronary balloon angioplasty is a relatively safe and effective treatment for many people with coronary artery disease, although complications such as bleeding, infection, or re-narrowing of the artery (restenosis) can occur in some cases.

Vasoconstriction is a medical term that refers to the narrowing of blood vessels due to the contraction of the smooth muscle in their walls. This process decreases the diameter of the lumen (the inner space of the blood vessel) and reduces blood flow through the affected vessels. Vasoconstriction can occur throughout the body, but it is most noticeable in the arterioles and precapillary sphincters, which control the amount of blood that flows into the capillary network.

The autonomic nervous system, specifically the sympathetic division, plays a significant role in regulating vasoconstriction through the release of neurotransmitters like norepinephrine (noradrenaline). Various hormones and chemical mediators, such as angiotensin II, endothelin-1, and serotonin, can also induce vasoconstriction.

Vasoconstriction is a vital physiological response that helps maintain blood pressure and regulate blood flow distribution in the body. However, excessive or prolonged vasoconstriction may contribute to several pathological conditions, including hypertension, stroke, and peripheral vascular diseases.

Coronary stenosis is a medical condition that refers to the narrowing of the coronary arteries, which supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle. This narrowing is typically caused by the buildup of plaque, made up of fat, cholesterol, and other substances, on the inner walls of the arteries. Over time, as the plaque hardens and calcifies, it can cause the artery to become narrowed or blocked, reducing blood flow to the heart muscle.

Coronary stenosis can lead to various symptoms and complications, including chest pain (angina), shortness of breath, irregular heart rhythms (arrhythmias), and heart attacks. Treatment options for coronary stenosis may include lifestyle changes, medications, medical procedures such as angioplasty or bypass surgery, or a combination of these approaches. Regular check-ups and diagnostic tests, such as stress testing or coronary angiography, can help detect and monitor coronary stenosis over time.

Angina pectoris is a medical term that describes chest pain or discomfort caused by an inadequate supply of oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle. This condition often occurs due to coronary artery disease, where the coronary arteries become narrowed or blocked by the buildup of cholesterol, fatty deposits, and other substances, known as plaques. These blockages can reduce blood flow to the heart, causing ischemia (lack of oxygen) and leading to angina symptoms.

There are two primary types of angina: stable and unstable. Stable angina is predictable and usually occurs during physical exertion or emotional stress when the heart needs more oxygen-rich blood. The pain typically subsides with rest or after taking prescribed nitroglycerin medication, which helps widen the blood vessels and improve blood flow to the heart.

Unstable angina, on the other hand, is more severe and unpredictable. It can occur at rest, during sleep, or with minimal physical activity and may not be relieved by rest or nitroglycerin. Unstable angina is considered a medical emergency, as it could indicate an imminent heart attack.

Symptoms of angina pectoris include chest pain, pressure, tightness, or heaviness that typically radiates to the left arm, neck, jaw, or back. Shortness of breath, nausea, sweating, and fatigue may also accompany angina symptoms. Immediate medical attention is necessary if you experience chest pain or discomfort, especially if it's new, severe, or persistent, as it could be a sign of a more serious condition like a heart attack.

Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are a class of medications that work by inhibiting the influx of calcium ions into cardiac and smooth muscle cells. This action leads to relaxation of the muscles, particularly in the blood vessels, resulting in decreased peripheral resistance and reduced blood pressure. Calcium channel blockers also have anti-arrhythmic effects and are used in the management of various cardiovascular conditions such as hypertension, angina, and certain types of arrhythmias.

Calcium channel blockers can be further classified into two main categories based on their chemical structure: dihydropyridines (e.g., nifedipine, amlodipine) and non-dihydropyridines (e.g., verapamil, diltiazem). Dihydropyridines are more selective for vascular smooth muscle and have a greater effect on blood pressure than heart rate or conduction. Non-dihydropyridines have a more significant impact on cardiac conduction and contractility, in addition to their vasodilatory effects.

It is important to note that calcium channel blockers may interact with other medications and should be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional. Potential side effects include dizziness, headache, constipation, and peripheral edema.

Myocardial infarction (MI), also known as a heart attack, is a medical condition characterized by the death of a segment of heart muscle (myocardium) due to the interruption of its blood supply. This interruption is most commonly caused by the blockage of a coronary artery by a blood clot formed on the top of an atherosclerotic plaque, which is a buildup of cholesterol and other substances in the inner lining of the artery.

The lack of oxygen and nutrients supply to the heart muscle tissue results in damage or death of the cardiac cells, causing the affected area to become necrotic. The extent and severity of the MI depend on the size of the affected area, the duration of the occlusion, and the presence of collateral circulation.

Symptoms of a myocardial infarction may include chest pain or discomfort, shortness of breath, nausea, lightheadedness, and sweating. Immediate medical attention is necessary to restore blood flow to the affected area and prevent further damage to the heart muscle. Treatment options for MI include medications, such as thrombolytics, antiplatelet agents, and pain relievers, as well as procedures such as percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).

Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter, a type of chemical messenger that transmits signals across a chemical synapse from one neuron (nerve cell) to another "target" neuron, muscle cell, or gland cell. It is involved in both peripheral and central nervous system functions.

In the peripheral nervous system, acetylcholine acts as a neurotransmitter at the neuromuscular junction, where it transmits signals from motor neurons to activate muscles. Acetylcholine also acts as a neurotransmitter in the autonomic nervous system, where it is involved in both the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems.

In the central nervous system, acetylcholine plays a role in learning, memory, attention, and arousal. Disruptions in cholinergic neurotransmission have been implicated in several neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and myasthenia gravis.

Acetylcholine is synthesized from choline and acetyl-CoA by the enzyme choline acetyltransferase and is stored in vesicles at the presynaptic terminal of the neuron. When a nerve impulse arrives, the vesicles fuse with the presynaptic membrane, releasing acetylcholine into the synapse. The acetylcholine then binds to receptors on the postsynaptic membrane, triggering a response in the target cell. Acetylcholine is subsequently degraded by the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which terminates its action and allows for signal transduction to be repeated.

Coronary artery bypass surgery, also known as coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), is a surgical procedure used to improve blood flow to the heart in patients with severe coronary artery disease. This condition occurs when the coronary arteries, which supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle, become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of fatty deposits, called plaques.

During CABG surgery, a healthy blood vessel from another part of the body is grafted, or attached, to the coronary artery, creating a new pathway for oxygen-rich blood to flow around the blocked or narrowed portion of the artery and reach the heart muscle. This bypass helps to restore normal blood flow and reduce the risk of angina (chest pain), shortness of breath, and other symptoms associated with coronary artery disease.

There are different types of CABG surgery, including traditional on-pump CABG, off-pump CABG, and minimally invasive CABG. The choice of procedure depends on various factors, such as the patient's overall health, the number and location of blocked arteries, and the presence of other medical conditions.

It is important to note that while CABG surgery can significantly improve symptoms and quality of life in patients with severe coronary artery disease, it does not cure the underlying condition. Lifestyle modifications, such as regular exercise, a healthy diet, smoking cessation, and medication therapy, are essential for long-term management and prevention of further progression of the disease.

Cardiac catheterization is a medical procedure used to diagnose and treat cardiovascular conditions. In this procedure, a thin, flexible tube called a catheter is inserted into a blood vessel in the arm or leg and threaded up to the heart. The catheter can be used to perform various diagnostic tests, such as measuring the pressure inside the heart chambers and assessing the function of the heart valves.

Cardiac catheterization can also be used to treat certain cardiovascular conditions, such as narrowed or blocked arteries. In these cases, a balloon or stent may be inserted through the catheter to open up the blood vessel and improve blood flow. This procedure is known as angioplasty or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Cardiac catheterization is typically performed in a hospital cardiac catheterization laboratory by a team of healthcare professionals, including cardiologists, radiologists, and nurses. The procedure may be done under local anesthesia with sedation or general anesthesia, depending on the individual patient's needs and preferences.

Overall, cardiac catheterization is a valuable tool in the diagnosis and treatment of various heart conditions, and it can help improve symptoms, reduce complications, and prolong life for many patients.

Rho-associated kinases (ROCKs) are serine/threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of various cellular processes, including actin cytoskeleton organization, cell migration, and gene expression. They are named after their association with the small GTPase RhoA, which activates them upon binding.

ROCKs exist as two isoforms, ROCK1 and ROCK2, which share a high degree of sequence homology and have similar functions. They contain several functional domains, including a kinase domain, a coiled-coil region that mediates protein-protein interactions, and a Rho-binding domain (RBD) that binds to active RhoA.

Once activated by RhoA, ROCKs phosphorylate a variety of downstream targets, including myosin light chain (MLC), LIM kinase (LIMK), and moesin, leading to the regulation of actomyosin contractility, stress fiber formation, and focal adhesion turnover. Dysregulation of ROCK signaling has been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders, and fibrosis. Therefore, ROCKs have emerged as promising therapeutic targets for the treatment of these diseases.

Nitrates are chemical compounds that consist of a nitrogen atom bonded to three oxygen atoms (NO3-). In the context of medical science, nitrates are often discussed in relation to their use as medications or their presence in food and water.

As medications, nitrates are commonly used to treat angina (chest pain) caused by coronary artery disease. Nitrates work by relaxing and widening blood vessels, which improves blood flow and reduces the workload on the heart. Some examples of nitrate medications include nitroglycerin, isosorbide dinitrate, and isosorbide mononitrate.

In food and water, nitrates are naturally occurring compounds that can be found in a variety of vegetables, such as spinach, beets, and lettuce. They can also be present in fertilizers and industrial waste, which can contaminate groundwater and surface water sources. While nitrates themselves are not harmful, they can be converted into potentially harmful compounds called nitrites under certain conditions, particularly in the digestive system of young children or in the presence of bacteria such as those found in unpasteurized foods. Excessive levels of nitrites can react with hemoglobin in the blood to form methemoglobin, which cannot transport oxygen effectively and can lead to a condition called methemoglobinemia.

Coronary artery disease, often simply referred to as coronary disease, is a condition in which the blood vessels that supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of fatty deposits called plaques. This can lead to chest pain (angina), shortness of breath, or in severe cases, a heart attack.

The medical definition of coronary artery disease is:

A condition characterized by the accumulation of atheromatous plaques in the walls of the coronary arteries, leading to decreased blood flow and oxygen supply to the myocardium (heart muscle). This can result in symptoms such as angina pectoris, shortness of breath, or arrhythmias, and may ultimately lead to myocardial infarction (heart attack) or heart failure.

Risk factors for coronary artery disease include age, smoking, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, obesity, physical inactivity, and a family history of the condition. Lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking, exercising regularly, eating a healthy diet, and managing stress can help reduce the risk of developing coronary artery disease. Medical treatments may include medications to control blood pressure, cholesterol levels, or irregular heart rhythms, as well as procedures such as angioplasty or bypass surgery to improve blood flow to the heart.

The basilar artery is a major blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the brainstem and cerebellum. It is formed by the union of two vertebral arteries at the lower part of the brainstem, near the junction of the medulla oblongata and pons.

The basilar artery runs upward through the center of the brainstem and divides into two posterior cerebral arteries at the upper part of the brainstem, near the midbrain. The basilar artery gives off several branches that supply blood to various parts of the brainstem, including the pons, medulla oblongata, and midbrain, as well as to the cerebellum.

The basilar artery is an important part of the circle of Willis, a network of arteries at the base of the brain that ensures continuous blood flow to the brain even if one of the arteries becomes blocked or narrowed.

A coronary aneurysm is a localized dilation or bulging of a portion of the wall of a coronary artery, which supplies blood to the muscle tissue of the heart. It's similar to a bubble or balloon-like structure that forms within the artery wall due to weakness in the arterial wall, leading to abnormal enlargement or widening.

Coronary aneurysms can vary in size and may be classified as true or false aneurysms based on their structure. True aneurysms involve all three layers of the artery wall, while false aneurysms (also known as pseudoaneurysms) only have one or two layers involved, with the remaining layer disrupted.

These aneurysms can lead to complications such as blood clots forming inside the aneurysm sac, which can then dislodge and cause blockages in smaller coronary arteries (embolism). Additionally, coronary aneurysms may rupture, leading to severe internal bleeding and potentially life-threatening situations.

Coronary aneurysms are often asymptomatic but can present with symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, or palpitations, especially if the aneurysm causes a significant narrowing (stenosis) in the affected artery. They can be diagnosed through imaging techniques like coronary angiography, computed tomography (CT), or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Treatment options include medications to manage symptoms and prevent complications, as well as surgical interventions such as stenting or bypass grafting to repair or reroute the affected artery.

Coronary thrombosis is a medical condition that refers to the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) inside a coronary artery, which supplies oxygenated blood to the heart muscle. The development of a thrombus can partially or completely obstruct blood flow, leading to insufficient oxygen supply to the heart muscle. This can cause chest pain (angina) or a heart attack (myocardial infarction), depending on the severity and duration of the blockage.

Coronary thrombosis often results from the rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque, a buildup of cholesterol, fat, calcium, and other substances in the inner lining (endothelium) of the coronary artery. The ruptured plaque exposes the underlying tissue to the bloodstream, triggering the coagulation cascade and resulting in the formation of a thrombus.

Immediate medical attention is crucial for managing coronary thrombosis, as timely treatment can help restore blood flow, prevent further damage to the heart muscle, and reduce the risk of complications such as heart failure or life-threatening arrhythmias. Treatment options may include medications, such as antiplatelet agents, anticoagulants, and thrombolytic drugs, or interventional procedures like angioplasty and stenting to open the blocked artery. In some cases, surgical intervention, such as coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), may be necessary.

A Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA), also known as a "mini-stroke," is a temporary period of symptoms similar to those you'd get if you were having a stroke. A TIA doesn't cause permanent damage and is often caused by a temporary decrease in blood supply to part of your brain, which may last as little as five minutes.

Like an ischemic stroke, a TIA occurs when a clot or debris blocks blood flow to part of your nervous system. However, unlike a stroke, a TIA doesn't leave lasting damage because the blockage is temporary.

Symptoms of a TIA can include sudden onset of weakness, numbness or paralysis in your face, arm or leg, typically on one side of your body. You could also experience slurred or garbled speech, or difficulty understanding others. Other symptoms can include blindness in one or both eyes, dizziness, or a severe headache with no known cause.

Even though TIAs usually last only a few minutes, they are a serious condition and should not be ignored. If you suspect you or someone else is experiencing a TIA, seek immediate medical attention. TIAs can be a warning sign that a full-blown stroke is imminent.

Cerebral angiography is a medical procedure that involves taking X-ray images of the blood vessels in the brain after injecting a contrast dye into them. This procedure helps doctors to diagnose and treat various conditions affecting the blood vessels in the brain, such as aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, and stenosis (narrowing of the blood vessels).

During the procedure, a catheter is inserted into an artery in the leg and threaded through the body to the blood vessels in the neck or brain. The contrast dye is then injected through the catheter, and X-ray images are taken to visualize the blood flow through the brain's blood vessels.

Cerebral angiography provides detailed images of the blood vessels in the brain, allowing doctors to identify any abnormalities or blockages that may be causing symptoms or increasing the risk of stroke. Based on the results of the cerebral angiography, doctors can develop a treatment plan to address these issues and prevent further complications.

Coronary restenosis is the re-narrowing or re-occlusion of a coronary artery after a previous successful procedure to open or widen the artery, such as angioplasty or stenting. This narrowing is usually caused by the excessive growth of scar tissue or smooth muscle cells in the artery lining, which can occur spontaneously or as a response to the initial procedure. Restenosis can lead to recurrent symptoms of coronary artery disease, such as chest pain or shortness of breath, and may require additional medical intervention.

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Shepherd, J.; Katusic, Z. S.; Vedernikov, Y.; Vanhoutte, P. M. (1991). "Mechanisms of coronary vasospasm: Role of endothelium ... "Inhibitory Role of the Endothelium in the Response of Isolated Coronary Arteries to Platelets". Science. 221 (4607): 273-274. ...
Prinzmetal's angina: Chest pain is caused by coronary vasospasm. More common in women younger than 50 years. Person usually ... Less than 20% of all cases of chest pain admissions are found to be due to coronary artery disease. The rate of chest pain as a ... If acute coronary syndrome ("heart attack") is suspected, many people are admitted briefly for observation, sequential ECGs, ... Acute coronary syndrome Stable or unstable angina Myocardial infarction ("heart attack"): People usually complained of a ...
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Chutkow WA, Pu J, Wheeler MT, Wada T, Makielski JC, Burant CF, McNally EM (July 2002). "Episodic coronary artery vasospasm and ... and deletion of the kir6.2 or sur2 genes leads to coronary artery vasospasm and death. Upon further exploration of sarcKATP's ...
They can cause vasospasm including coronary vasospasm and are contraindicated in people with coronary artery disease. Magnesium ...
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This can also occur in people with coronary vasospasm, a type of myocardial infarction involving severe constriction of the ... 2001). "Acute coronary syndromes. The diagnostic role of troponins". Thromb. Res. 103 (1): 63-69. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.500.6908. ... Zethelius B, Johnston N, Venge P (February 2006). "Troponin I as a predictor of coronary heart disease and mortality in 70-year ... October 1996). "Cardiac-specific troponin I levels to predict the risk of mortality in patients with acute coronary syndromes ...
The role of esophagocardiac reflex in the pathogenesis of coronary vasospasm: a case report. Z Gastroenterol. 2003; 41: 455(A ...
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... coronary vasospasm] without angina." Autopsy revealed localized fibrosis of the left papillary muscles, but no evidence of ... Rowe, William J. (May 1991). "A World Record Marathon Runner with Silent Ischemia without Coronary Atherosclerosis". Chest. 99 ... coronary atherosclerosis. Mah has been described as "an early leader of the modern running boom". Joe Henderson wrote an ...
... directly preventing coronary artery vasospasm). They are not used in the treatment of unstable angina . In vitro, they dilate ... Pfister M, Seiler C, Fleisch M, Göbel H, Lüscher T, Meier B (October 1998). "Nitrate induced coronary vasodilatation: ... reducing heart rate and improving coronary blood flow. In vivo, the vasodilation and hypotension trigger the baroreceptor ... the coronary and peripheral arteries and have negative inotropic and chronotropic effects - decreasing afterload, improving ...
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... coronary artery disease (CAD) and variant angina (also called Prinzmetal angina or coronary artery vasospasm, among other names ... Variant angina: amlodipine blocks spasm of the coronary arteries and restores blood flow in coronary arteries and arterioles in ... Amlodipine is used in the management of hypertension (high blood pressure) and coronary artery disease in people with either ... It can be used as either monotherapy or combination therapy for the management of hypertension or coronary artery disease. ...
... severe but transient neurological symptoms thought to be caused by cerebral vasospasm, coronary disease and early-onset ... coronary disease and dementia. The skin manifestations may precede the neurologic symptoms by years. Sneddon's syndrome is a ...
... reduce myocardial oxygen demand and reverse coronary vasospasm, and are often used to treat angina. They have minimal ... to prevent peripheral and cerebral vasospasm, and to reduce chest pain caused by angina pectoris. N-type, L-type, and T-type ... This substance can pass the blood-brain barrier and is used to prevent cerebral vasospasm. Nisoldipine (Baymycard, Sular, ...
Unlike angina pectoris, commonly caused due to ischemia of the heart muscle secondary to coronary artery occlusion or vasospasm ... Like acute coronary syndrome which precedes or is a sign of a heart attack, renal angina is used as a herald sign for a kidney ... revolutionized the survival for acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Without correct context, the performance of troponin for ...
... coronary artery disease, cerebral vasospasm and diabetic vascular disease. There he worked with Paul M. Vanhoutte and was ... ISBN 978-3-8055-4675-1. OCLC 610784230.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link) Coronary artery graft ... "Dark Chocolate Improves Coronary Vasomotion and Reduces Platelet Reactivity". Circulation. 116 (21): 2376-2382. doi:10.1161/ ...
... coronary vasospasm) Right heart catheterization, along with pulmonary function testing and other testing should be done to ... Coronary angiography is a diagnostic procedure that allows visualization of the coronary vessels. Fluoroscopy is used to ... A common example of cardiac catheterization is coronary catheterization that involves catheterization of the coronary arteries ... Acute coronary syndromes: ST elevation MI (STEMI), non-ST Elevation MI (NSTEMI), and unstable angina Evaluation of coronary ...
Variant angina - it is effective owing to its direct effects on coronary dilation. Unstable angina (preinfarction, crescendo ... diltiazem may be particularly effective if the underlying mechanism is vasospasm. Myocardial bridge For supraventricular ... Diltiazem is indicated for: Stable angina (exercise-induced) - diltiazem increases coronary blood flow and decreases myocardial ... Narimatsu A, Taira N (August 1976). "Effects of atrio-ventricular conduction of calcium-antagonistic coronary vasodilators, ...
... effusion Coronary artery disease Kawasaki disease Premature arterial sclerosis Structural associations Arterial vasospasm ... the sudden death of a family member under 35 years-old the early onset in a family member of coronary artery disease a family ... Cocaine/marijuana toxicity and induced vasospasm Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy Valvular stenosis Mitral valve prolapse Aortic ...
Coronary vasospasm refers to when a coronary artery suddenly undergoes either complete or sub-total temporary occlusion. In ... Due to the challenge of capturing episodes of coronary vasospasm spontaneously, provocative testing to induce coronary ... Angina due to coronary vasospasm is also known as variant angina. During the 70s and 80s, intense research headed by Dr. ... When coronary vasospasm causes an artery to undergo complete occlusion, an EKG might show evidence of ST-segment elevation in ...
... or smooth muscle constriction of the coronary artery, is an important cause of chest pain syndromes that can lead to myocardial ... encoded search term (Coronary Artery Vasospasm) and Coronary Artery Vasospasm What to Read Next on Medscape ... mechanisms of coronary artery vasospasm include enhanced phospholipase C activity. [11] In addition, coronary artery vasospasm ... Coronary artery vasospasm, or smooth muscle constriction of the coronary artery, is an important cause of chest pain syndromes ...
... or smooth muscle constriction of the coronary artery, is an important cause of chest pain syndromes that can lead to myocardial ... encoded search term (Coronary Artery Vasospasm) and Coronary Artery Vasospasm What to Read Next on Medscape ... mechanisms of coronary artery vasospasm include enhanced phospholipase C activity. [11] In addition, coronary artery vasospasm ... Coronary artery vasospasm, or smooth muscle constriction of the coronary artery, is an important cause of chest pain syndromes ...
We report a case in which DES-induced severe coronary vasospasm was clinically suspected as a cause of subacute stent ... This case describes the potential hazard of DES-induced coronary vasospasm. Although there are several overlapping risk factors ... Therefore, we should monitor new-onset rest angina after stent implantation and carefully assess DES-induced coronary vasospasm ... We performed a spasm provocation test to evaluate the coronary vasomotor response; it revealed severe stent-edge spasm in the ...
In rare cases, they may present with myocardial ischemia secondary to coronary artery vasospasm. We report a case of a 59-year- ... He had complete resolution of heart failure and no further recurrence of coronary artery vasospasm once treatment for ... A Combination of Tachycardia-Mediated Heart Failure and Coronary Artery Vasospasm-Induced Silent Myocardial Infarction in a ... tachycardiamediated heart failure that evolved to a silent myocardial infarction secondary to severe coronary artery vasospasm ...
Takotsubo syndrome and coronary microcirculation dysfunction: Vasospasm or damage due to adjacent cardiomyocyte injury and/or ... Takotsubo syndrome and coronary microcirculation dysfunction: Vasospasm or damage due to adjacent cardiomyocyte injury and/or ... Takotsubo syndrome and coronary microcirculation dysfunction: Vasospasm or damage due to adjacent cardiomyocyte injury and/or ... keywords = "Coronary vasospasm in takotsubo syndrome, Endothelin and takotsubo syndrome, Microcirculation in takotsubo syndrome ...
Altura, B. M., Altura, B. T., and Carella, A. (1983). Ethanol produces coronary vasospasm: evidence for a direct action of ... 2013). Menthol relaxes rat aortae, mesenteric and coronary arteries by inhibiting calcium influx. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 702, 79-84 ... Menthol blocks L-type voltage-gated nifedipine-sensitive calcium channels in VSM cells of rat aortic, mesenteric, coronary ( ... coronary (Altura et al., 1983), mesenteric (Toda et al., 1983; Ru et al., 2008), aortic (Ru et al., 2008), an effect that may ...
Coronary Artery Vasospasm Need a Curbside Consult? Share cases and questions with Physicians on Medscape consult. Share a Case ... Coronary Sinus Stent May Aid Refractory Angina: Phase 2 Trial * AADVANCE - The African American Diovan (Valsartan) Amlodipine ( ... Angina & Coronary Artery Disease. Treatment of chronic stable angina, vasospastic angina (Prinzmetal or variant angina), and ... Angina & Coronary Artery Disease. Treatment of chronic stable angina, vasospastic angina (Prinzmetal or variant angina), and ...
Acute myocardial infarction secondary to coronary vasospasm during withdrawal from industrial nitroglycerin exposure - a case ...
Akcay, A. B., Ozcan, T., Seyis, S., and Acele, A. Coronary vasospasm and acute myocardial infarction induced by a topical ... Nitric-oxide mediated effects of transdermal capsaicin patches on the ischemic threshold in patients with stable coronary ...
What Is Coronary Vasospasm?. March 21, 2022. Did you know that heart disease is the leading cause of death for women, affecting ...
... and heavy consumption has been associated with serious cardiovascular complications like acute coronary syndrome, vasospasm, ...
Plaque disruption and coronary vasospasm are common in MINOCA. Coronary thrombosis or embolism and spontaneous coronary artery ... See also Overview of Acute Coronary Syndromes Загальні відомості про гострі коронарні синдроми (ГКС) Acute coronary syndromes ... Type 1: Spontaneous MI caused by ischemia due to a primary coronary event (eg, plaque rupture, erosion, or fissuring; coronary ... Slightly different criteria are used to diagnose MI during and after percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery ...
Coronary Vasospasm 1 0 Bursitis 1 0 Constriction, Pathologic 1 0 Rupture, Spontaneous 1 1 ...
Coronary artery vasospasm (eg, Prinzmetals angina). *Coronary artery dissection. *Pericarditis. *Myocarditis. *Aortic ... Percutaneous coronary intervention (preferred option) *Goal: PCI should be attempted if the procedure can be started within 120 ... 2014 AHA/ACC Guideline for the Management of Patients with Non-ST-Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes: a report of the American ... Patients with cardiac arrest and ST elevation at any point, even if resolved, should still under go emergent coronary ...
The coronary angiography showed diffuse occlusive coronary artery vasospasm, ameliorated after intra-coronary administration of ... Postoperative coronary vasospasm is a well-known cause of angina that may lead to myocardial infarction if not treated promptly ... Severe Coronary Artery Vasospasm after Mitral Valve Replacement in a Diabetic Patient with Previous Stent Implantation: A Case ... postoperative coronary artery vasospasm, hemodynamic instability, drug-eluting stent on April 8, 2022. by administrare. Using ...
have Angina (chest pain), including Prinzmetal angina (coronary vasospasm). *have blood vessel disease (e.g., ischemic bowel ...
have angina (chest pain), including Prinzmetals angina (coronary vasospasm). *have blood vessel disease (e.g., ischemic bowel ... family history of coronary artery disease, menopause, men over 40 years of age), tell your doctor. If you experience symptoms ...
Severe multivessel coronary vasospasm presenting as acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Krim, N. R., Narasimhan, ... Simultaneous very late stent thrombosis in multiple coronary arteries. Narasimhan, S., Krim, N. R., Silverman, G. & Monrad, E. ... Physicians Perceptions of the Effect of Nonclinical Factors on Coronary Revascularization. Barnhart, J. M., Monrad, E. S. & ... A randomized trial of stenting with or without balloon predilation for the treatment of coronary artery disease.. Kovar, L. I. ...
Their stimulation induces a vasodilation dependent of nitric oxyde (NO). These receptors could prevent vasospasm after coronary ... Characterization of beta3-adrenoceptors in human internal mammary artery and putative involvement in coronary artery bypass ...
DIAGNOSES: Sepsis-induced secondary myocardial injury or coronary vasospasm. INTERVENTIONS: Gastric decompression, antibiotics ... Three hundred ninety-five patients with a diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome were enrolled in the study. RESULTS: A total of ... Ventricular arrhythmias (VA) are frequently diagnosed in patients with T2DM, especially in those with associated coronary ... BACKGROUND: Patients with acute coronary syndrome may lead to various metabolic and electrophysiological changes that induce ...
History of coronary artery disease or coronary artery vasospasm. Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome or other cardiac accessory ... MI and coronary artery vasospasm in patients with CAD risk factors (extremely rare) ... Coronary artery vasospasm, transient ischemia, ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation, myocardial infarction, cardiac arrest and ... Not for administration to patients with risk factors for coronary artery disease ...
And are you ever concerned about O2 induced coronary vasospasm in an anemic patient with, say, an occlusion MI or the like? ...
... has been shown to improve long-term survival and has been a gold standard in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). However, ... study reported that the lower capacity of nitric oxide release may contribute to the susceptibility of RA to the vasospasm and ... Percutaneous coronary intervention versus coronary-artery bypass grafting for severe coronary artery disease. New England ... Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery Edited by Wilbert S. Aronow. Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery. Edited by Wilbert S. ...
... coronary vasospasm, electrocardiographic changes, myocardial infarction, palpitations, and sudden death. In general patients ... Cardiac catheterization reveals normal coronary arteries in these patients. It is believed that fluorouracil causes vasospastic ...
... coronary artery vasospasm, etc.). ... No link was made between the NSTEMI and the coronary dissection ... Question: if there is only a single normal cTn in the above scenario, and a culprit lesion is identified on coronary artery ... Identification of a coronary thrombus by angiography including intracoronary imaging Question: a provider notes "patient does ... The mothers heart catheterization demonstrated a spontaneous circumflex coronary artery dissection which was stented. Minimal ...
Recent studies have revealed increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) including hypertension, vasospasm, ... cardiomegaly, arrhythmias, left ventricular hypertrophy, myocardial infarction, and coronary artery disease at a young age. ...
"A few cases have been reported regarding coronary vasospasm and myocardial infarction caused by ingestion of cayenne pepper and ... "To the best of our knowledge after extensive literature search, our case is the first to report cerebral vasospasm leading to ...
... who underwent coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery in our clinic with signed informed consents were included. Based on ... Comparison of vasospasm and vasodilatation response of saphenous vein grafts harvested by conventional and no-touch techniques ...
  • Unlike classical angina pectoris, traditional cardiovascular risk factors are not thought to be significantly associated with coronary vasospasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • A subsequent study distinguished this type of angina from classical angina pectoris further by showing normal coronary arteries on cardiac catheterization. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, cocaine use can trigger vasospasm in coronary arteries through its actions on adrenergic receptors causing vasoconstriction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ultimately, when large coronary arteries undergo vasospasm, this can lead to either complete or transient occlusion of blood flow within the artery. (wikipedia.org)
  • This syndrome became known as Prinzmetal or variant angina, and was believed to be due to vasospasm in coronary arteries without obstructive lesions. (medscape.com)
  • Doctors detected multifocal luminal narrowing in his left supraclinoid internal carotid artery, M1 segment of bilateral middle cerebral arteries, and P1 segments of bilateral posterior cerebral arteries - a finding consistent with vasospasm. (medscape.com)
  • He was diagnosed with effort angina by coronary angiography and underwent DES implantation in the mid-left ascending artery (LAD) after the administration of dual anti-platelet therapy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • His baseline electrocardiogram (ECG) and echocardiography were normal, but coronary angiography (CAG) revealed intermediate stenosis in the left ascending artery (LAD) and left circumflex artery (LCx). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Among 212 patients with myocardial infarction in whom percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) or coronary thrombolysis was not performed at the acute stage, 21 patients (10%) showed no significant coronary stenosis (the degree of stenosis was less than 50% of the luminal diameter) by coronary angiography 4 weeks after myocardial infarction. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Coronary angiography was performed ( Video 1 and Figure 2 ). (acc.org)
  • Coronary angiography demonstrated mild obstructive epicardial coronary artery disease (CAD) with tapering of the distal left main artery with spasm. (acc.org)
  • Coronary angiography ( Figure 2 ) revealed spasm of the left main coronary artery with mild atherosclerotic disease. (acc.org)
  • Myocardial infarction in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease. (bvsalud.org)
  • These results suggest that coronary vasospasm may play an important role in the pathogenesis of myocardial infarction in patients without significant coronary stenosis. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Fukai, T , Koyanagi, S & Takeshita, A 1993, ' Role of coronary vasospasm in the pathogenesis of myocardial infarction: Study in patients with no significant coronary stenosis ', American Heart Journal , vol. 126, no. 6, pp. 1305-1311. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Characteristic electrocardiographic pattern indicating a critical stenosis high in left anterior descending coronary artery in patients admitted because of impending myocardial infarction. (wikem.org)
  • When coronary vasospasm occurs, the occlusion temporarily produces ischemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are cases of coronary vasospasm that occur without any symptoms at all, leading to episodes of silent or asymptomatic myocardial ischemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • In rare cases, they may present with myocardial ischemia secondary to coronary artery vasospasm. (mems.my)
  • Past research has shown regular use of cannabis can lead to chronic bronchitis, and heavy consumption has been associated with serious cardiovascular complications like acute coronary syndrome, vasospasm, and arrhythmias," said Ms Zahra. (edu.au)
  • Acute myocardial infarction is myocardial necrosis resulting from acute obstruction of a coronary artery. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Загальні відомості про гострі коронарні синдроми (ГКС) Acute coronary syndromes result from acute obstruction of a coronary artery. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Серцеві маркери Acute coronary syndromes result from acute obstruction of a coronary artery. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The patient may have underlying CAD, but the coronary plaques are stable without acute rupture or thrombosis. (thoracickey.com)
  • For non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction, reperfusion is via percutaneous intervention or coronary artery bypass graft surgery. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Treatment began with IV unfractionated hepa- history of diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, rin (18 UI/kg/h), hydroxychloroquine (200 mg oral- coronary heart disease, peripheral arterial disease, ly 2×/d), and antimicrobial drugs (ceftriaxone 1g by and atrial fibrillation (treated with apixaban [2.5 mg IV infusion/d). (cdc.gov)
  • On March 25, 2020, an 84-year-old man with a history of diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, coronary heart disease, peripheral arterial disease, and atrial fibrillation (treated with apixaban [2.5 mg orally 2×/d]) sought care for respiratory symptoms, including dyspnea and cough. (cdc.gov)
  • Although drug-eluting stents (DES) reduce restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) more effectively than bare-metal stents (BMS), there are a variety of DES-related complications, such as coronary artery vasospasm. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Coronary vasospasm-induced syncope along with powerful modifications involving local wall motion irregularities verified real-time: in a situation record. (p2receptor-signal.com)
  • We report a case in which DES-induced severe coronary vasospasm was clinically suspected as a cause of subacute stent thrombosis (ST). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Some of the factors that have been proposed to contribute to coronary vasospasm include the following: Endothelial dysfunction Certain vasodilatory agents exert their effects by working via the endothelium, the cells that make up the lining of blood vessels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Endothelial dysfunction wherein there is a deficiency in the production of nitric oxide has been found to be associated with coronary vasospasm in some but not all cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vasodilatory agents with mechanisms dependent on a functional endothelial nitric oxide synthase can cause vasoconstriction instead in the setting of endothelial dysfunction, leading to coronary vasospasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several genetic polymorphisms that compromise endothelial NO production have been found to be significantly associated with coronary artery vasospasm. (medscape.com)
  • The direct observation of coronary spasm and ischemic pattern of LGE on MRI in the corresponding territory with subsequent rapid recovery of LVEF led to the diagnosis and made an underlying cardiomyopathy or stress cardiomyopathy unlikely. (acc.org)
  • The role of coronary vasospasm in the pathogenesis of myocardial infarction is unclarified. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Coronary arterial tone varies normally via physiologic mechanisms, but the degree of vasoconstriction can range along a spectrum extending from undetectable constriction to complete arterial occlusion. (medscape.com)
  • To the best of our knowledge after extensive literature search, our case is the first to report cerebral vasospasm leading to reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome [RCVS] after ingestion of the Carolina Reaper," he added. (medscape.com)
  • Intracoronary ergonovine maleate induced coronary vasospasm in 12 (75%) of 16 patients examined. (elsevierpure.com)
  • described a type of chest pain resulting from coronary vasospasm, referring to it as a variant form of classical angina pectoris. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chronic inflammation Various markers of low-grade chronic inflammation have been found in cases of coronary vasospasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coronary vasospasm classically produces chest pain at rest, also known as vasospastic angina. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coronary artery vasospasm, or smooth muscle constriction of the coronary artery, is an important cause of chest pain syndromes that can lead to myocardial infarction (MI), ventricular arrhythmias, and sudden death. (medscape.com)
  • The relatively small infarct size suggests that coronary reperfusion occurred in the early stages of myocardial infarction. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Takotsubo syndrome and coronary microcirculation dysfunction: Vasospasm or damage due to adjacent cardiomyocyte injury and/or myocardial edema? (mssm.edu)
  • Coronary vasospasm increases the risk of life-threatening cardiovascular events. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Coronary vasospasm refers to when a coronary artery suddenly undergoes either complete or sub-total temporary occlusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Occasionally, a ruptured plaque or, more commonly, an eroded plaque may lead to microembolization of platelets and thrombi and impaired coronary flow without any residual, angiographically significant lesion or thrombus. (thoracickey.com)
  • [ 4 ] Certain behavioral traits (eg, type A personality, panic disorder, and severe anxiety) are also described as being associated with coronary artery vasospasm. (medscape.com)
  • We report a case of a 59-year-old Malay gentleman who presented with fast atrial fibrillation and tachycardiamediated heart failure that evolved to a silent myocardial infarction secondary to severe coronary artery vasospasm with undiagnosed severe thyrotoxicosis. (mems.my)
  • In many cases, coronary artery vasospasm can occur spontaneously without an identifiable cause. (medscape.com)
  • Patients with coronary artery vasospasm appear to have a heightened vasoconstrictor response to acetylcholine as well as an enhanced response to the vasodilator effects of nitrates, an observation that is consistent with a deficiency of endogenous NO activity. (medscape.com)
  • In general, it is thought that an abnormality within a coronary artery causes it to become hyperreactive to vasoconstrictor stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • If and when vasoconstrictor stimuli act upon the hyperreactive segment of the artery, then vasospasm can result. (wikipedia.org)
  • [ 11 ] In addition, coronary artery vasospasm is associated with increased markers of oxidative stress and inflammation, including thioredoxin, C-reactive protein (CRP), and monocyte levels. (medscape.com)
  • Coronary vasospasm is also associated with symptoms of fatigue and tiredness, dyspnea, and palpitations. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are several risk factors that are thought to precipitate, or trigger, episodes of coronary vasospasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to this, one of the risk factors for coronary vasospasm is smoking. (wikipedia.org)
  • His coronary risk factors were current smoking and dyslipidemia, and his only regular medication was rosuvastatin. (biomedcentral.com)
  • He had complete resolution of heart failure and no further recurrence of coronary artery vasospasm once treatment for thyrotoxicosis was initiated and euthyroidism achieved. (mems.my)
  • Instead, a combination of different factors has been proposed to contribute to coronary vasospasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, NO deficiency is believed to play an important role in the development of coronary artery vasospasm. (medscape.com)
  • [ 9 ] However, additional studies showing that NO levels are not decreased at the sites of coronary artery vasospasm dispute the primacy of the role of NO. (medscape.com)
  • Alternative (or coexisting) mechanisms of coronary artery vasospasm include enhanced phospholipase C activity. (medscape.com)
  • This case describes the potential hazard of DES-induced coronary vasospasm. (biomedcentral.com)