Coronary Artery Disease
Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary
Coronary Artery Bypass
Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors
Tissue Plasminogen Activator
Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial
Platelet Glycoprotein GPIIb-IIIa Complex
Carotid Artery Thrombosis
Percutaneous Coronary Intervention
Sagittal Sinus Thrombosis
Coronary Care Units
Intracranial Embolism and Thrombosis
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Predictive Value of Tests
Upper Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis
Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump
Blood Flow Velocity
Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis
Vena Cava, Inferior
Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products
Severity of Illness Index
Lateral Sinus Thrombosis
Intravenous magnesium reduces infarct size after ischemia/reperfusion injury combined with a thrombogenic lesion in the left anterior descending artery. (1/1009)Experimental studies have demonstrated that intravenous magnesium (Mg) can protect the ischemic myocardium and has an antithrombotic effect. In patients with myocardial infarction, the reperfusion injury is complicated by the presence of a thrombogenic area in the affected coronary artery that may cause repetitive thrombus formation and embolization. We investigated the effect of Mg on infarct size in a randomized study in pigs. Myocardial infarction was induced by a 50-minute mechanical occlusion of the left anterior descending artery combined with an arterial injury, which stimulated a dynamic thrombus formation with emboli shedding on reperfusion. Magnesium sulfate (6 mmol/20 min plus 3 mmol/h) or saline was started at 30 minutes after coronary occlusion. Real-time ventricular pressure-volume loops were generated from the left ventricle by using a microtip pressure manometer and a conductance catheter. Platelet accumulation in the myocardium was evaluated by using 111In-labeled platelets. After 4 hours of reperfusion, the infarct size/area at risk ratio in the placebo group was 46+/-0.06% (n=8) compared with 22+/-0.07% (n=6) in the Mg-treated animals (P=0. 03). Ejection fraction decreased significantly in the control group but not in the Mg-treated animals (P=0.03). Platelet accumulation in the myocardium did not change significantly between the Mg- and placebo-treated animals (placebo group, 191+/-19%; Mg group, 177+/-29%; NS). The present study demonstrates that intravenous Mg infusion is able to reduce infarct size by >50% and preserve the ejection fraction in this model where ischemia/reperfusion injury was evaluated in the presence of a thrombogenic area in the nutrient artery. (+info)
A role for changes in platelet production in the cause of acute coronary syndromes. (2/1009)Platelets are heterogeneous with respect to their size, density, and reactivity. Large platelets are more active hemostatically, and platelet volume has been found to be increased both in patients with unstable angina and with myocardial infarction. Furthermore, platelet volume is a predictor of a further ischemic event and death when measured after myocardial infarction. Platelets which are anucleate cells with no DNA are derived from their precursor, the megakaryocyte. Therefore, it is suggested that changes in platelet size are determined at thrombopoiesis in the megakaryocyte and that those changes might precede acute cardiac events. Understanding of the signaling system that controls platelet production may also further elucidate the cascade of events leading to acute vascular occlusion in some patients. (+info)
Endothelial injuries of coronary arteries distal to thrombotic sites: role of adhesive interaction between endothelial P-selectin and leukocyte sialyl LewisX. (3/1009)Intracoronary thrombus formation is associated with epicardial vasoconstriction distal to the thrombotic site. To investigate the mechanisms of abnormal vasomotor function of the artery distal to the thrombotic site, we studied coronary vessels in dogs with cyclic flow variations (CFVs) of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) stenosis with endothelial injury. Coronary rings isolated from the LAD (proximal, stenotic, and distal sites) and control circumflex coronary arteries were tested for responsiveness to endothelium-dependent (acetylcholine and A23187) and endothelium-independent vasodilators (NaNO2). Endothelium-independent relaxation was intact in all 4 sites. Endothelium-dependent relaxation was intact in the control and proximal sites and impaired in the stenotic sites. Relaxations not only to acetylcholine and A23187 but also to serotonin, ADP, and thrombin were impaired in the distal sites after observing CFVs for 80 minutes. Electron microscopy revealed the loss of endothelial integrity with leukocyte adherence to the endothelium in the distal sites. Immunohistochemical expression of P-selectin on the endothelial cells was more upregulated in the distal site than in the proximal site, and P-selectin mRNA expression was significantly greater in the ischemic region distal to the thrombotic site than in the proximal nonischemic region. PB1.3, a neutralizing monoclonal antibody against P-selectin, and sialyl LewisX (SLeX)-containing oligosaccharide SLeX, a carbohydrate analogue of selectin ligand, preserved endothelial function without affecting CFVs. SLeX-containing oligosaccharide preserved endothelial integrity of the distal site and inhibited P-selectin expression of the distal site. Thus, the adhesive interaction between endothelial P-selectin and leukocyte SLeX may play an important role in endothelial injuries of the coronary artery distal to the thrombotic site. (+info)
Antithrombotic efficacy of thrombin inhibitor L-374,087: intravenous activity in a primate model of venous thrombus extension and oral activity in a canine model of primary venous and coronary artery thrombosis. (4/1009)The small molecule direct thrombin inhibitor L-374,087 was characterized across species in an in vitro activated partial thromboplastin clotting time (aPTT) assay and in vivo in rhesus monkey and dog thrombosis models. In vitro in rhesus, dog, and human plasma, L-374,087 concentrations eliciting 2-fold increases in aPTT were 0.25, 1.9, and 0.28 microM, respectively. In anesthetized rhesus monkeys, 300 microgram/kg bolus plus 12 microgram/kg/min and 300 microgram/kg bolus plus 30 microgram/kg/min L-374,087 i.v. infusions significantly reduced jugular vein thrombus extension, with both regimens limiting venous thrombus extension to 2-fold that of baseline thrombus mass compared with a 5-fold extension observed in the vehicle control group. Antithrombotic efficacy in the rhesus with the lower-dose regimen was achieved with 2.3- to 2.4-fold increases in aPTT and prothrombin time. In a conscious instrumented dog model of electrolytic vessel injury, the oral administration of two 10 mg/kg L-374,087 doses 12 h apart significantly reduced jugular vein thrombus mass, reduced the incidence of and delayed time to occlusive coronary artery thrombosis, and significantly reduced coronary artery thrombus mass and ensuing posterolateral myocardial infarct size. Antithrombotic efficacy in the dog was achieved with 1.6- to 2.0-fold increases in aPTT at 1 to 6 h after oral dosing with L-374,087. These results indicate significant antithrombotic efficacy against both venous and coronary arterial thrombosis with L-374,087 with only moderate elevations in aPTT or prothrombin time. The oral efficacy of L-374,087 characterizes this compound as a prototype for the further development of orally active direct thrombin inhibitors. (+info)
Lipoprotein(a) and coronary thrombosis and restenosis after stent placement. (5/1009)OBJECTIVES: The objective of this prospective study was to evaluate the relation between high lipoprotein(a) levels and thrombotic and restenotic events after coronary stent implantation. BACKGROUND: Lipoprotein(a) may promote atherogenesis, coronary thrombosis and restenosis after balloon angioplasty, but the clinical significance remains unclear. METHODS: The study included 2,223 consecutive patients with successful coronary stent placement. According to the serum level of lipoprotein(a), patients were divided in two groups: 457 patients of the highest quintile formed the high lipoprotein(a) group, and 1,766 patients of the lower four quintiles formed the low lipoprotein(a) group. Primary end points were the incidence of angiographic restenosis at six months and the event-free survival at one year. Secondary end point was the incidence of angiographic stent occlusion. RESULTS: Early stent occlusion occurred in four of the 457 patients (0.9%) with high and 37 of the 1,766 patients (2.1%) with low lipoprotein(a) levels, odds ratio of 0.41 (95% confidence interval, 0.15 to 1.16). Angiographic restenosis occurred in 173 of the 523 lesions (33.2%) in the high lipoprotein(a) group and 636 of the 1,943 lesions (32.7%) in the low lipoprotein(a) group, odds ratio of 1.02 (0.83 to 1.25). The probability of event-free survival was 73.0% in the high lipoprotein(a) group and 74.8% in the low lipoprotein(a) group (p = 0.45). On the basis of the findings in the low lipoprotein(a) group, the power of this study to detect a 25% increase in the incidence of restenosis and adverse events in the group with elevated lipoprotein(a) was 90% and 75%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated lipoprotein(a) levels did not influence the one-year clinical and angiographic outcome after stent placement. Thrombotic events and measures of restenosis were not adversely affected by the presence of high lipoprotein(a) levels. (+info)
Antithrombin activity during the period of percutaneous coronary revascularization: relation to heparin use, thrombotic complications and restenosis. (6/1009)OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated changes in antithrombin (AT) activity around the time of percutaneous transluminal coronary revascularization (PTCR) with unfractionated heparin anticoagulation and the effects these changes had on major thrombotic complications of PTCR. BACKGROUND: Heparin is used during PTCR to prevent thrombosis. However, heparin, a cofactor for AT, causes AT activity to fall. AT activity <70% is associated with thrombosis. There is a prothrombotic state after heparin discontinuation that has not been well explained. METHODS: Antithrombin activity was sampled at the start and end of PTCR and the next two mornings in 250 consecutive patients. We recorded occurrence of major thrombotic events, defined as 1) major thrombotic complications of PTCR; 2) major in-lab thrombus formation; or 3) subacute occlusion. Discriminant analysis was employed to evaluate the relationship of AT activity to these events. Change in AT activity and its relationship to heparin was evaluated. Evidence of restenosis at six months was obtained. RESULTS: There were 14 major thrombotic events. Antithrombin activity <70% was strongly (p = 0.006) associated with these events. The AT activity fell significantly through the morning after PTCR when 21% of patients had AT activity <70%; AT activity did not normalize until >20 h after heparin discontinuation. Pre-PTCR use of heparin led to lower AT activity in proportion to duration of heparin use. There was no relationship between AT activity and restenosis. CONCLUSIONS: Low AT activity may contribute to major thrombotic complications of PTCR. The way heparin is used before and after PTCR is important to development of low AT activity. (+info)
Pravastatin therapy in hyperlipidemia: effects on thrombus formation and the systemic hemostatic profile. (7/1009)OBJECTIVES: The study sought to determine the effects of lipid-lowering with pravastatin on the systemic fibrinolytic profile and on thrombus formation under dynamic flow conditions. BACKGROUND: Lowering cholesterol (C) decreases clinical events in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients, but an analysis of the effects of lipid-lowering on the entire hemostatic and thrombotic profile has not been conducted. METHODS: We prospectively studied 93 stable patients with untreated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) >145 mg/dl. The CAD patients received pravastatin, and non-CAD patients were randomized to pravastatin versus placebo (double-blind). Thrombus formation upon an injured vascular surface was assessed in a substudy of 40 patients with a previously validated ex vivo perfusion chamber system. Systemic hemostatic markers and thrombus formation were evaluated at baseline, three and six months. RESULTS: Placebo produced no changes in either the lipid profile, any of the hemostatic markers, or the ex vivo thrombus formation. Both pravastatin groups (CAD and non-CAD) showed decreased LDL-C by 30% within 6 weeks (188 to 126 mg/dl, p < 0.001 vs. baseline), and decreased plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 at 3- and 6-month follow-up compared to baseline (15% to 18% decrease at 3 months and 21% to 23% at 6 months). For the tissue plasminogen activator antigen, CAD and non-CAD groups showed significant decreases at 6 months compared to baseline (10% and 13%, respectively). No significant changes were observed with treatment in d-dimer, fibrinopeptide A, prothrombin fragment F1.2, factor VIIa, von Willebrand factor, or C-reactive protein. Fibrinogen levels were significantly increased at 6 months compared to baseline, though still below the upper normal limit. In the perfusion chamber substudy, there was a decrease in thrombus area in non-CAD patients treated with pravastatin at both 3 and 6 months compared to baseline (by 21% and 34%, respectively). The CAD patients showed decreases in thrombus formation by 13% at 3 months, and by 16% at 6 months. The change in LDL-C- correlated modestly with the change in thrombus formation (r = 0.49; p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Pravastatin therapy significantly decreased thrombus formation and improved the fibrinolytic profile in patients with and without CAD. These early effects may, in part, explain the benefit rendered in primary and secondary prevention of CAD. (+info)
Adhesive interaction between P-selectin and sialyl Lewis(x) plays an important role in recurrent coronary arterial thrombosis in dogs. (8/1009)Cell adhesion molecules may play an important role in the disease process of acute coronary syndromes. We have shown a neutralizing anti-P-selectin monoclonal antibody and a sialyl Lewis(x)-containing oligosaccharide (SLe(x)-OS), an analogue of selectin ligand on leukocytes, reduce cyclic flow variations (CFVs) in a canine model of recurrent coronary arterial thrombosis, suggesting the important interaction between P-selectin and SLex for the pathophysiology of these syndromes. However, the functional role of these adhesion molecules in the thrombotic process remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated effects of SLe(x)-OS on CFVs, platelet P-selectin expression, and morphology of the stenotic site in the same model. Anesthetized open-chest dogs (n=34) were randomly divided into 4 groups after developing CFVs. Dogs intravenously received saline or graded doses of SLe(x)-OS (5, 20, or 40 mg/kg bolus) infusion followed by a continuous infusion (5 mg. kg-1. h-1) for 60 minutes. By flow cytometric analysis, P-selectin expression on platelets after CFVs was significantly upregulated during CFVs. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed the incorporation of platelets with upregulated P-selectin within thrombi at the stenotic site. Microscopic observations revealed the presence of numerous platelets adhered to leukocytes at the stenotic site on the damaged endothelium. SLe(x)-OS significantly reduced CFVs, inhibited the P-selectin expression on platelets, and prevented the adherence of platelets and leukocytes. These findings further support the notion that the adhesive interaction between P-selectin on platelets and SLe(x) on leukocytes plays an important role in platelet-mediated thrombus formation in this model. (+info)
Coronary thrombosis is a medical condition in which a blood clot forms in one of the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart muscle. This can lead to a blockage of blood flow to the heart, which can cause chest pain (angina), heart attack, or even sudden death. Coronary thrombosis is a serious condition that requires prompt medical attention. It is often caused by the buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries, which can rupture and form a blood clot. Risk factors for coronary thrombosis include high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, diabetes, obesity, and a family history of heart disease. Treatment for coronary thrombosis may include medications to dissolve the clot or surgery to open the blocked artery.
Thrombosis is a medical condition in which a blood clot forms within a blood vessel. This can occur when the blood flow is slow or when the blood vessel is damaged, allowing the blood to clot. Thrombosis can occur in any blood vessel in the body, but it is most commonly seen in the veins of the legs, which can lead to a condition called deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Thrombosis can also occur in the arteries, which can lead to a condition called（arterial thrombosis）. Arterial thrombosis can cause serious complications, such as heart attack or stroke, if the clot breaks off and travels to the lungs or brain. Thrombosis can be caused by a variety of factors, including injury to the blood vessel, prolonged immobility, certain medical conditions such as cancer or diabetes, and the use of certain medications such as birth control pills or hormone replacement therapy. Treatment for thrombosis depends on the severity of the condition and the location of the clot, but may include anticoagulant medications to prevent the clot from growing or breaking off, and in some cases, surgical removal of the clot.
Venous thrombosis is a condition in which a blood clot forms in a vein, usually in the legs, but it can also occur in other parts of the body such as the arms, pelvis, or brain. The clot can block blood flow and cause swelling, pain, and redness in the affected area. If the clot breaks loose and travels through the bloodstream, it can cause serious complications such as pulmonary embolism, which can be life-threatening. Venous thrombosis is a common condition, particularly in older adults and people who are bedridden or have a sedentary lifestyle. It can be treated with anticoagulant medications, compression stockings, and other therapies.
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a condition in which the blood vessels that supply blood to the heart muscle become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of plaque. This can lead to reduced blood flow to the heart, which can cause chest pain (angina), shortness of breath, and other symptoms. Over time, CAD can also lead to a heart attack if the blood flow to the heart is completely blocked. CAD is a common condition that affects many people, particularly those who are middle-aged or older, and is often associated with other risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, and diabetes. Treatment for CAD may include lifestyle changes, medications, and in some cases, procedures such as angioplasty or coronary artery bypass surgery.
Myocardial infarction (MI), also known as a heart attack, is a medical condition that occurs when blood flow to a part of the heart muscle is blocked, usually by a blood clot. This lack of blood flow can cause damage to the heart muscle, which can lead to serious complications and even death if not treated promptly. The most common cause of a heart attack is atherosclerosis, a condition in which plaque builds up in the arteries that supply blood to the heart. When a plaque ruptures or becomes unstable, it can form a blood clot that blocks the flow of blood to the heart muscle. Other causes of heart attacks include coronary artery spasms, blood clots that travel to the heart from other parts of the body, and certain medical conditions such as Kawasaki disease. Symptoms of a heart attack may include chest pain or discomfort, shortness of breath, nausea or vomiting, lightheadedness or dizziness, and pain or discomfort in the arms, back, neck, jaw, or stomach. If you suspect that you or someone else is having a heart attack, it is important to call emergency services immediately. Early treatment with medications and possibly surgery can help to reduce the risk of serious complications and improve the chances of a full recovery.
Coronary disease, also known as coronary artery disease (CAD), is a condition in which the blood vessels that supply blood to the heart muscle become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of plaque. This can lead to reduced blood flow to the heart, which can cause chest pain (angina), shortness of breath, and other symptoms. In severe cases, coronary disease can lead to a heart attack, which occurs when the blood flow to a part of the heart is completely blocked, causing damage to the heart muscle. Coronary disease is a common condition that affects many people, particularly those who are middle-aged or older, and is often associated with other risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, and diabetes. Treatment for coronary disease may include lifestyle changes, medications, and in some cases, procedures such as angioplasty or coronary artery bypass surgery.
Amrinone is a medication that is used to treat heart failure. It is a type of drug called a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, which works by relaxing the muscles in the walls of blood vessels and the heart. This helps to increase blood flow and improve the heart's ability to pump blood. Amrinone is usually given as a intravenous infusion, and it is sometimes used in combination with other medications to treat heart failure. It is important to note that amrinone can have side effects, and it should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional.
Dibenzothiepins are a class of organic compounds that contain a dibenzothiophene ring system. They are typically found in coal tar and have been studied for their potential medicinal properties. Some dibenzothiepins have been shown to have anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-viral effects. They are also being investigated as potential treatments for a variety of other conditions, including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. However, more research is needed to fully understand their potential therapeutic uses and to determine their safety and efficacy in humans.
Coronary stenosis is a medical condition in which the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart muscle, become narrowed or blocked. This can occur due to the buildup of plaque, a fatty substance that can accumulate on the inner walls of the arteries over time. When the arteries become narrowed, it can reduce the amount of blood and oxygen that reaches the heart muscle, which can lead to chest pain, shortness of breath, and other symptoms. Coronary stenosis is a common condition, particularly in older adults, and can be a serious health concern if left untreated. Treatment options for coronary stenosis may include medications, lifestyle changes, and procedures such as angioplasty or coronary artery bypass surgery.
Thromboxane-A synthase (TXAS) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the production of thromboxane A2 (TXA2), a potent vasoconstrictor and platelet aggregator. TXA2 is synthesized from arachidonic acid, a polyunsaturated fatty acid that is released from membrane phospholipids in response to injury or inflammation. In the medical field, TXAS is primarily associated with the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, and thrombosis. Elevated levels of TXA2 have been linked to platelet aggregation, vasoconstriction, and increased blood pressure, all of which contribute to the development and progression of cardiovascular disease. In addition, TXAS has been implicated in other inflammatory and immune-related disorders, such as asthma, inflammatory bowel disease, and rheumatoid arthritis. Therefore, TXAS inhibitors have been developed as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of these conditions.
Tissue Plasminogen Activator (tPA) is a protein that plays a crucial role in the body's natural clotting process. It is produced by cells in the lining of blood vessels and is released into the bloodstream in response to injury or inflammation. tPA works by activating plasminogen, a protein found in the blood that helps to break down blood clots. When tPA binds to plasminogen, it converts it into plasmin, which then breaks down the fibrin fibers that make up the clot. This process helps to dissolve the clot and restore blood flow to the affected area. tPA is often used in medical treatments to dissolve blood clots that can cause serious health problems, such as heart attacks and strokes. It is typically administered as a medication, either intravenously or through injection into the affected area. However, tPA can also be dangerous if administered incorrectly or in excessive amounts, as it can cause bleeding. Therefore, it is typically only used under the supervision of a healthcare professional.
Heparin is a medication that is used to prevent and treat blood clots. It is a natural anticoagulant that works by inhibiting the activity of enzymes that are involved in the formation of blood clots. Heparin is typically administered intravenously, but it can also be given by injection or applied topically to the skin. It is commonly used to prevent blood clots in people who are at risk due to surgery, pregnancy, or other medical conditions. Heparin is also used to treat blood clots that have already formed, such as deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). It is important to note that heparin can have serious side effects, including bleeding, and should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional.
Sinus thrombosis, also known as intracranial sinus thrombosis, is a rare but serious condition that occurs when a blood clot forms in one of the sinuses, which are hollow spaces in the skull that drain mucus from the nose and sinuses. The condition can occur in any of the sinuses, but it is most commonly seen in the ethmoid sinuses, which are located between the eyes. Sinus thrombosis can be caused by a variety of factors, including blood clots that form in the veins of the neck or legs, infections of the sinuses or surrounding tissues, and certain medications, such as oral contraceptives or blood thinners. The condition can also occur as a complication of other medical conditions, such as cancer or sickle cell disease. Symptoms of sinus thrombosis can include headache, facial pain or pressure, fever, and a decrease in vision or loss of vision. In severe cases, the condition can lead to brain damage or death if not treated promptly. Treatment for sinus thrombosis typically involves the use of blood-thinning medications to dissolve the clot, as well as antibiotics to treat any underlying infections. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the clot or repair any damage to the sinuses or surrounding tissues. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for a good outcome.
Angina, unstable is a type of chest pain that occurs when the blood flow to the heart muscle is restricted, usually due to a blockage in one or more of the coronary arteries. Unlike stable angina, which typically occurs during physical exertion or emotional stress, unstable angina can occur at rest or with minimal exertion, and the pain may be more severe and last longer than usual. Unstable angina is a medical emergency because it can be a sign of an impending heart attack. Treatment typically involves medications to reduce the risk of a heart attack, such as aspirin, beta blockers, and nitrates, as well as hospitalization and further diagnostic testing to determine the underlying cause of the angina and the best course of treatment.
Platelet Glycoprotein GPIIb-IIIa Complex is a protein complex found on the surface of platelets, which are small blood cells that play a crucial role in blood clotting. The GPIIb-IIIa complex is also known as the alphaIIb beta3 integrin, and it is a receptor for fibrinogen, a protein that is essential for blood clotting. The GPIIb-IIIa complex is a transmembrane protein that consists of two subunits, alphaIIb and beta3. The alphaIIb subunit has a globular head domain that binds to fibrinogen, while the beta3 subunit has a cytoplasmic tail that interacts with other platelet proteins to regulate platelet activation and aggregation. The GPIIb-IIIa complex plays a critical role in platelet aggregation, which is the process by which platelets stick together to form a plug at the site of a blood vessel injury. When the complex binds to fibrinogen, it triggers a series of signaling events that activate platelets and promote their aggregation. In addition to its role in platelet aggregation, the GPIIb-IIIa complex is also involved in other platelet functions, such as adhesion to the blood vessel wall and the release of platelet granules that contain clotting factors. Disruptions in the function of the GPIIb-IIIa complex can lead to bleeding disorders, such as von Willebrand disease and Glanzmann thrombasthenia. These disorders are characterized by impaired platelet aggregation and bleeding episodes that can be severe and life-threatening.
Fibrinogen is a plasma protein that plays a crucial role in the blood clotting process. It is synthesized in the liver and circulates in the bloodstream as a soluble protein. When the blood vessels are damaged, platelets aggregate at the site of injury and release various substances, including thrombin. Thrombin then converts fibrinogen into insoluble fibrin strands, which form a mesh-like structure that stabilizes the platelet plug and prevents further bleeding. This process is known as coagulation and is essential for stopping bleeding and healing wounds. Fibrinogen levels can be measured in the blood as a diagnostic tool for various medical conditions, including bleeding disorders, liver disease, and cardiovascular disease.
Aspirin is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is commonly used to relieve pain, reduce inflammation, and lower fever. It is also used to prevent blood clots and reduce the risk of heart attack and stroke. Aspirin works by inhibiting the production of prostaglandins, which are chemicals that cause inflammation and pain. It is available over-the-counter in various strengths and is also used as a prescription medication for certain medical conditions. Aspirin is generally considered safe when taken as directed, but it can cause side effects such as stomach pain, nausea, and bleeding.
Coronary vasospasm is a condition in which the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart muscle, suddenly narrow or spasm. This can cause a temporary reduction in blood flow to the heart, which can lead to chest pain or angina. In severe cases, coronary vasospasm can cause a complete blockage of the coronary artery, leading to a heart attack. The exact cause of coronary vasospasm is not fully understood, but it is thought to be related to the constriction of the smooth muscle cells in the walls of the coronary arteries. Risk factors for coronary vasospasm include smoking, high blood pressure, and a family history of the condition. Treatment for coronary vasospasm typically involves medications to relax the smooth muscle cells in the coronary arteries and improve blood flow to the heart. In some cases, more invasive procedures such as angioplasty or coronary artery bypass surgery may be necessary.
Intracranial thrombosis refers to the formation of a blood clot within the blood vessels of the brain. This can occur due to a variety of factors, including injury, infection, or underlying medical conditions such as atrial fibrillation or sickle cell disease. Intracranial thrombosis can lead to a range of symptoms, including headache, seizures, weakness or numbness on one side of the body, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, and loss of consciousness. If left untreated, it can also lead to serious complications such as stroke or brain damage. Treatment for intracranial thrombosis typically involves the use of blood-thinning medications to dissolve the clot, as well as supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent further complications.
In the medical field, an acute disease is a condition that develops suddenly and progresses rapidly over a short period of time. Acute diseases are typically characterized by severe symptoms and a high degree of morbidity and mortality. Examples of acute diseases include pneumonia, meningitis, sepsis, and heart attacks. These diseases require prompt medical attention and treatment to prevent complications and improve outcomes. In contrast, chronic diseases are long-term conditions that develop gradually over time and may persist for years or even decades.
Carotid artery thrombosis refers to the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) in the carotid artery, which is one of the major arteries in the neck that supplies blood to the brain. This condition can lead to a stroke or other serious complications if not treated promptly. Carotid artery thrombosis can occur due to various factors, including blood clots that have traveled from other parts of the body, injury or damage to the artery, or underlying medical conditions such as heart disease, high blood pressure, or diabetes. Symptoms of carotid artery thrombosis may include sudden weakness or numbness on one side of the face or body, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, vision problems, dizziness or loss of balance, and severe headache. If left untreated, carotid artery thrombosis can lead to a stroke, which can cause permanent damage to the brain and other serious complications. Treatment for carotid artery thrombosis typically involves the use of blood-thinning medications to dissolve the clot or prevent it from growing larger, as well as surgery to remove the clot or repair the damaged artery. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if you suspect that you or someone else may have carotid artery thrombosis.
A coronary aneurysm is a bulge or balloon-like dilation of a coronary artery, which is a blood vessel that supplies oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle. It occurs when the arterial wall weakens and becomes thin, causing it to balloon outwards. Coronary aneurysms can be caused by a variety of factors, including high blood pressure, atherosclerosis (the buildup of plaque in the arteries), and infections such as Kawasaki disease. They can also be a complication of certain medical conditions, such as Marfan syndrome or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. If left untreated, coronary aneurysms can rupture, causing a heart attack or other serious complications. Treatment options for coronary aneurysms may include medications to manage symptoms and prevent further damage, lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking and eating a healthy diet, and in some cases, surgical repair or removal of the aneurysm.
Coronary restenosis is a condition in which a previously narrowed or blocked coronary artery becomes partially or completely blocked again after a procedure to open or bypass the artery. This can occur due to the formation of scar tissue or the growth of new blood vessels that can occlude the artery again. Restenosis is a common complication of coronary artery bypass surgery and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), also known as angioplasty. It can lead to chest pain, shortness of breath, and other symptoms of heart disease. Treatment options for coronary restenosis include medications, repeat PCI, or coronary artery bypass surgery.
Coronary occlusion refers to the blockage or narrowing of the coronary arteries, which are the blood vessels that supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle. This blockage can occur due to the buildup of plaque, a fatty substance that can harden and narrow the arteries over time. When a coronary artery becomes completely blocked, it can lead to a heart attack, as the heart muscle is unable to receive the oxygen it needs to function properly. Coronary occlusion is a serious medical condition that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment.
Sagittal sinus thrombosis is a rare but serious condition in which a blood clot forms in the sagittal sinus, a large vein in the brain that drains blood from the upper part of the brain. This can lead to increased pressure in the brain, which can cause symptoms such as headache, nausea, vomiting, confusion, and seizures. In severe cases, it can lead to brain damage or even death. Sagittal sinus thrombosis is most commonly seen in people with certain medical conditions, such as cancer, heart failure, or blood disorders, and is often treated with anticoagulant medications to dissolve the clot.
Intracranial Embolism and Thrombosis are medical conditions that involve the formation of blood clots or other foreign substances within the blood vessels of the brain. These clots or foreign substances can block the flow of blood to the brain, leading to a lack of oxygen and nutrients to the brain cells, which can cause damage or even death. Intracranial Embolism occurs when a blood clot or other foreign substance travels through the bloodstream and lodges in a blood vessel within the brain. This can occur as a result of a heart attack, stroke, or other medical condition. Thrombosis, on the other hand, refers to the formation of a blood clot within a blood vessel, which can occur as a result of injury, infection, or other medical conditions. Both Intracranial Embolism and Thrombosis can lead to serious and potentially life-threatening complications, such as stroke, brain damage, and even death. Treatment typically involves the use of medications to dissolve the clot or prevent it from growing larger, as well as supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications.
Thrombophilia is a medical condition characterized by an increased tendency to form blood clots. This can lead to a variety of health problems, including deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), and stroke. Thrombophilia can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic mutations, hormonal imbalances, and certain medical conditions. It is typically diagnosed through blood tests that measure the levels of clotting factors in the blood. Treatment for thrombophilia may include medications to prevent blood clots, lifestyle changes, and in some cases, surgery.
Myocardial ischemia is a medical condition that occurs when the blood flow to the heart muscle is reduced or blocked, leading to a lack of oxygen and nutrients to the heart cells. This can cause chest pain or discomfort, shortness of breath, and other symptoms. Myocardial ischemia is often caused by atherosclerosis, a condition in which plaque builds up in the arteries, narrowing or blocking the flow of blood. It can also be caused by other factors, such as heart valve problems or blood clots. Myocardial ischemia can be a serious condition and requires prompt medical attention to prevent heart attack or other complications.
Upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (UEDVT) is a blood clot that forms in the deep veins of the upper arm or upper leg. It is a less common type of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) compared to the more common DVTs that occur in the legs. UEDVT can cause symptoms such as swelling, pain, warmth, redness, and tenderness in the affected arm or leg. If left untreated, UEDVT can lead to serious complications such as pulmonary embolism, which is a blockage of blood flow in the lungs. Diagnosis of UEDVT typically involves imaging tests such as ultrasound or venography. Treatment options include anticoagulant medications to prevent the clot from growing or breaking off and causing complications, as well as compression stockings to reduce swelling. In severe cases, surgical intervention may be necessary.
Calcinosis is a medical condition characterized by the deposition of calcium phosphate crystals in the skin and other tissues. It is most commonly seen in people with certain medical conditions, such as scleroderma, lupus, and kidney disease, as well as in people who have undergone long-term treatment with certain medications, such as corticosteroids. The calcium phosphate crystals that accumulate in the skin and other tissues can cause hard, raised areas that may be painful or itchy. In severe cases, calcinosis can lead to scarring, skin thickening, and limited joint mobility. Treatment for calcinosis depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. In some cases, medications may be used to help reduce the formation of calcium phosphate crystals, while in other cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the affected tissue.
Ticlopidine is a medication that is used to prevent blood clots in people who have had a heart attack or stroke. It works by inhibiting the formation of platelet clumps, which can lead to the formation of blood clots. Ticlopidine is typically prescribed to people who are unable to take aspirin or other antiplatelet medications due to an allergy or other medical condition. It is usually taken in combination with aspirin or another blood thinner to reduce the risk of blood clots. Ticlopidine can cause side effects such as bleeding, stomach pain, and an increased risk of infection. It is important to follow the instructions of your healthcare provider when taking ticlopidine and to report any side effects to your healthcare provider.
In the medical field, recurrence refers to the reappearance of a disease or condition after it has been treated or has gone into remission. Recurrence can occur in various medical conditions, including cancer, infections, and autoimmune diseases. For example, in cancer, recurrence means that the cancer has come back after it has been treated with surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or other treatments. Recurrence can occur months, years, or even decades after the initial treatment. In infections, recurrence means that the infection has returned after it has been treated with antibiotics or other medications. Recurrence can occur due to incomplete treatment, antibiotic resistance, or other factors. In autoimmune diseases, recurrence means that the symptoms of the disease return after they have been controlled with medication. Recurrence can occur due to changes in the immune system or other factors. Overall, recurrence is a significant concern for patients and healthcare providers, as it can require additional treatment and can impact the patient's quality of life.
Hemorrhage is the medical term used to describe the loss of blood from a vessel or vessel system. It can occur due to a variety of reasons, including injury, disease, or abnormal blood vessel function. Hemorrhage can be classified based on the location of the bleeding, the amount of blood lost, and the severity of the condition. For example, internal hemorrhage occurs within the body's organs or tissues, while external hemorrhage occurs outside the body, such as through a wound or broken skin. The severity of hemorrhage can range from mild to life-threatening, depending on the amount of blood lost and the body's ability to compensate for the loss. In severe cases, hemorrhage can lead to shock, which is a life-threatening condition characterized by low blood pressure and inadequate blood flow to the body's organs and tissues. Treatment for hemorrhage depends on the cause and severity of the bleeding. In some cases, simple measures such as applying pressure to the wound or elevating the affected limb may be sufficient to stop the bleeding. In more severe cases, medical intervention such as surgery or blood transfusions may be necessary to control the bleeding and prevent further complications.
Heparin, low-molecular-weight (LMWH) is a type of heparin that has been chemically modified to have a smaller molecular weight than unfractionated heparin. LMWH is used to prevent blood clots and to treat blood clots in the legs, lungs, and other parts of the body. It is also used to prevent blood clots after surgery or during hospitalization. LMWH works by activating a protein in the blood called antithrombin, which helps to prevent blood clots from forming. It is usually given by injection, either under the skin or into a vein. LMWH is generally considered to be as effective as unfractionated heparin, but with a lower risk of bleeding side effects.
Factor V is a protein that plays a crucial role in the blood clotting process. It is also known as prothrombin activator or antihemophilic factor V. Factor V is produced by the liver and circulates in the bloodstream in an inactive form. When it comes into contact with a blood vessel that has been damaged, it is activated by other clotting factors, such as Factor Xa and Factor VIIIa, to form thrombin. Thrombin then converts fibrinogen, a soluble plasma protein, into insoluble fibrin strands, which form a mesh-like structure that stabilizes the blood clot and prevents further bleeding. Factor V is also involved in the regulation of blood clotting. It is activated by thrombin, which in turn activates Factor V to form a complex with Factor Xa and Factor VIIIa. This complex, known as the prothrombinase complex, is responsible for converting prothrombin into thrombin, the key enzyme in the blood clotting process. Mutations in the gene that codes for Factor V can lead to a condition called Factor V Leiden thrombophilia, which increases the risk of blood clots. This condition is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, meaning that a person only needs to inherit one copy of the mutated gene from one parent to develop the condition.
Graft occlusion, vascular, refers to the blockage or narrowing of a blood vessel or graft that has been surgically implanted to bypass a blocked or narrowed artery or vein. This can occur due to various factors, including the formation of scar tissue, the buildup of plaque, or the development of blood clots. Graft occlusion can lead to reduced blood flow to the affected area, which can cause symptoms such as pain, swelling, and tissue damage. Treatment options for graft occlusion may include medications to dissolve blood clots or prevent further clot formation, angioplasty to open up the blocked vessel, or surgery to replace the occluded graft.
Cavernous sinus thrombosis (CST) is a rare but serious condition that occurs when a blood clot forms in the cavernous sinus, a large, hollow space in the skull that contains veins and nerves. The cavernous sinus is located near the base of the brain and is surrounded by critical structures, including the optic nerves, cranial nerves, and arteries. CST can be caused by a variety of factors, including head or neck infections, trauma, or blood disorders. Symptoms of CST can include severe headache, double vision, eye pain, nausea and vomiting, and facial swelling. In severe cases, CST can lead to vision loss, cranial nerve palsies, and even death. Diagnosis of CST typically involves a combination of physical examination, imaging studies such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and blood tests. Treatment for CST typically involves the use of anticoagulants to dissolve the blood clot, as well as antibiotics to treat any underlying infection. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the clot or relieve pressure on surrounding structures. Early diagnosis and treatment are critical for a favorable outcome in patients with CST.
Thromboembolism is a medical condition that occurs when a blood clot (thrombus) forms in a vein or artery and breaks off, traveling through the bloodstream to block a smaller vessel. This can cause a variety of symptoms, depending on the location and size of the clot. When a clot forms in a deep vein, it is called deep vein thrombosis (DVT). If the clot breaks off and travels through the bloodstream to block a smaller vessel, it is called an embolism. An embolism can block blood flow to organs or tissues, leading to serious complications such as stroke, heart attack, or organ damage. Thromboembolism can be caused by a variety of factors, including prolonged immobility, surgery, pregnancy, certain medications, and underlying medical conditions such as cancer or blood disorders. It is a serious medical condition that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment to prevent complications.
Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS) is a disorder characterized by the presence of antibodies that react with phospholipids, a type of fat found in cell membranes. These antibodies can cause blood clots to form in blood vessels throughout the body, leading to a variety of serious health problems. APS can be primary or secondary. Primary APS is an autoimmune disorder in which the body produces antibodies to phospholipids without an underlying cause. Secondary APS occurs when the body produces these antibodies as a result of another underlying medical condition, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) or infections. Symptoms of APS can include blood clots in the legs, lungs, or brain, miscarriages or stillbirths, and heart valve problems. Diagnosis of APS typically involves blood tests to detect the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies and imaging studies to look for signs of blood clots. Treatment for APS typically involves anticoagulant medications to prevent blood clots from forming, as well as management of any underlying medical conditions. In some cases, immunosuppressive medications may also be used to reduce the production of antiphospholipid antibodies.
Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products (FDPs) are a group of proteins that are produced when fibrinogen, a protein in the blood, is broken down into smaller pieces. FDPs are typically measured in the blood as a way to assess the extent of blood clotting and fibrinolysis (the breakdown of blood clots). Fibrinogen is a key component of the blood clotting process, and it is converted into fibrin when the body needs to form a clot. Fibrin acts as a scaffold for platelets and other clotting factors to form a stable clot. When a clot is no longer needed, it is broken down by enzymes called fibrinolytic enzymes, which degrade the fibrin into smaller pieces. FDPs are produced when fibrin is broken down by these enzymes. They can be measured in the blood using a laboratory test called the FDP assay. Elevated levels of FDPs in the blood can indicate that there is either excessive fibrinolysis (too much breakdown of blood clots) or inadequate fibrinolysis (not enough breakdown of blood clots). This can be caused by a variety of medical conditions, including disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), deep vein thrombosis (DVT), and stroke.
Sirolimus is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called immunosuppressants. It is primarily used to prevent organ rejection in people who have received a kidney, liver, or heart transplant. Sirolimus works by inhibiting the growth of T-cells, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the immune response. By suppressing the immune system, sirolimus helps to prevent the body from attacking the transplanted organ as a foreign object. It is also used to treat certain types of cancer, such as lymphoma and renal cell carcinoma.
Lateral Sinus Thrombosis (LST) is a rare but serious condition that occurs when a blood clot forms in the lateral sinus, which is one of the four sinuses in the skull that drain blood from the brain. The lateral sinus is located on the side of the head, behind the ear. LST can occur as a complication of an infection or injury in the head or neck, or as a result of a blood clot that forms elsewhere in the body and travels to the lateral sinus. The symptoms of LST can include headache, fever, nausea, vomiting, double vision, and weakness or numbness on one side of the face. Diagnosis of LST typically involves imaging tests such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head, as well as blood tests to check for signs of infection or blood clotting disorders. Treatment for LST typically involves the use of blood-thinning medications to dissolve the clot, as well as antibiotics to treat any underlying infection. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the clot or repair any damage to the brain or skull.
Chest pain, also known as angina, is a common symptom experienced by individuals with heart disease. It is a sensation of discomfort, pressure, squeezing, or burning in the chest that can radiate to the neck, jaw, arms, or back. Chest pain can be caused by a variety of factors, including stress, anxiety, or physical exertion. However, it can also be a sign of a serious medical condition, such as a heart attack or aortic dissection. In the medical field, chest pain is typically evaluated by a healthcare provider through a physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as an electrocardiogram (ECG), stress test, or coronary angiogram. Treatment for chest pain depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, lifestyle changes, or surgery.
Prothrombin is a protein that plays a crucial role in the blood clotting process. It is produced in the liver and is converted into thrombin by the enzyme thrombinase, which is activated by the tissue factor (TF) protein. Thrombin then catalyzes the conversion of fibrinogen, a soluble plasma protein, into insoluble fibrin strands, which form the basis of a blood clot. Prothrombin is also known as factor II, and it is one of the factors in the coagulation cascade, a series of reactions that ultimately leads to the formation of a blood clot. Deficiencies or mutations in the prothrombin gene can lead to bleeding disorders such as hemophilia A or B. On the other hand, excessive production of prothrombin can increase the risk of blood clots, which can lead to serious health problems such as stroke or heart attack.
List of deaths from coronary thrombosis
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- Men with more repeats within the regulatory region of the gene on both alleles had a significantly greater number of severely narrowed coronary arteries ( P = 0.009), larger areas of complicated lesions ( P = 0.008), and more calcifications of the coronary arteries ( P = 0.01) than men who had fewer repeats. (the-scientist.com)
- Coronary artery disease (CAD) is characterized by atherosclerotic plaque formation in the coronary arteries and underlies ischaemic heart disease, the leading cause of death worldwide. (thrombosisadviser.com)
- Stents for coronary arteries are expandable wire mesh cylinders that help hold stenotic areas open. (msdmanuals.com)
- The Promus ELITE Everolimus-Eluting Platinum Chromium Coronary Stent System is indicated for improving luminal diameter in patients, including those with diabetes mellitus, with symptomatic heart disease or documented silent ischemia due to de novo lesions in native coronary arteries ≥2.25 mm to ≤4.00 mm in diameter in lesions ≤34 mm in length. (bostonscientific.com)
- In all but one of the 38 cases, post-implant aortography or selective cannulation of both coronary arteries had confirmed a lack of obstruction. (medscape.com)
- She had no risk factors for coronary artery disease in her medical history but it was learned that she had undergone a mitral valve replacement 2 years before because of rheumatic mitral stenosis and that no international normalized ratio (INR) analysis had been done in the last 6 months. (who.int)
- The death certificate completed by the attending physician stated the cause of death as "acute myocardial infarction" (otherwise known as a heart attack) due to coronary artery disease (CAD). (cdc.gov)
- The FC had several risk factors for coronary artery disease and heart attack. (cdc.gov)
- ABSTRACT This study determined the prevalence of inherited factor V Leiden mutation in a group of 128 thrombosis patients (102 with venous thrombosis and 26 with arterial thrombosis) attending a hospital in Sousse, Tunisia, and a control group of 100 with no history of thrombosis. (who.int)
- The higher prevalence was significant in the subgroup of venous thrombosis patients but not in arterial thrombosis patients. (who.int)
- FVL is in- thrombosis and 26 arterial thrombosis. (who.int)
Deep Vein Throm1
- FVL occurs in 20% of patients with past history of thrombosis, heart problems deep vein thrombosis compared with 5% in or a family history of thrombotic disease. (who.int)
- Thienopyridines (often in combination with aspirin ) are continued for at least 6 to 12 months after PCI to decrease the risk of in-stent thrombosis until endothelialization of the stent has occurred. (msdmanuals.com)
- The use of this product carries the risks associated with coronary artery stenting, including stent thrombosis, vascular complications, and/or bleeding events. (bostonscientific.com)
- Stent thrombosis is a low-frequency event that current drug-eluting stent (DES) clinical trials are not adequately powered to fully characterize. (bostonscientific.com)
- Stent thrombosis is frequently associated with myocardial infarction (MI) or death. (bostonscientific.com)
- In the clinical trials analyzed to date, differences in the incidence of stent thrombosis have not been associated with an increased risk of cardiac death, MI, or all-cause mortality. (bostonscientific.com)
- Additional data from longer-term follow-up of the PLATINUM clinical trials and analyses of stent thrombosis related to DES are expected and should be considered in making treatment decisions as data become available. (bostonscientific.com)
- Compared to use within the specified Indications for Use, the use of DES in patients and lesions outside of the labeled indications may have an increased risk of adverse events, including stent thrombosis, stent embolization, MI or death. (bostonscientific.com)
- Angiography showed that the left coronary system was normal but the distal portion of the right coronary artery was totally occluded by a thrombus ( Figure 1 ). (who.int)
- In our case, the right coronary artery was involved and the patient presented with non-ST elevation myocardial infarction. (who.int)
- Microscopic examination of the heart showed inflammatory infiltrates of the right coronary artery consistent with Kawasaki disease. (hawaii.edu)
- The chest pain of the patient was assessed to be typical of acute coronary syndrome. (who.int)
- Ticagrelor or Prasugrel in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndromes. (nih.gov)
- Lesion reference to AHA types V and VI was discarded, because it failed to account for the 3 different morphologies (rupture, erosion, and calcified nodule) that give rise to acute coronary thrombosis. (medscape.com)
- Sanchis-Gomar F, Perez-Quilis C, Leischik R, Lucia A. Epidemiology of coronary heart disease and acute coronary syndrome. (thrombosisadviser.com)
- Libby P. Mechanisms of acute coronary syndromes and their implications for therapy. (thrombosisadviser.com)
- Using a unique dataset from Israel National Emergency Medical Services (EMS) from 2019 to 2021, the study aims to evaluate the association between the volume of cardiac arrest and acute coronary syndrome EMS calls in the 16-39-year-old population with potential factors including COVID-19 infection and vaccination rates. (nature.com)
- Current guidelines of the European Society of Cardiology suggest starting clopidogrel therapy before any percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or when acute coronary syndrome (ACS) occurs [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Unstable angina belongs to the spectrum of clinical presentations referred to collectively as acute coronary syndromes (ACSs), which range from ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) to non-STEMI (NSTEMI). (medscape.com)
- Pathogenesis of acute coronary syndromes. (medscape.com)
- Acute coronary obstruction during transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has been a well-known and feared complication since preclinical studies, but it's the rare and deadly problem of delayed coronary obstruction that is being raised as a new concern. (medscape.com)
- In his editorial, Kleiman notes that although two thirds of patients had at least one classic risk factor for acute coronary obstruction, the index of suspicion was not high in a substantial number of patients. (medscape.com)
- The earliest pathologic descriptions of atherosclerotic lesions focused on morphologies of fatty streaks to fibroatheromas (FAs) and advanced plaques complicated by hemorrhage, calcification, ulceration, and thrombosis. (medscape.com)
- A modified version of the AHA classification was developed by our laboratory to include important pathologic lesions responsible for luminal thrombosis other than plaque rupture, such as plaque erosion and calcified nodule. (medscape.com)
- disease, we assessed the prevalence of FVL mutation among thrombosis patients and Disorders of the haemostatic mechanisms healthy subjects in a hospital in Sousse, that contribute towards a predisposition to Tunisia. (who.int)
- Screening Tunisian patients with venous thrombosis and their relatives for factor V Leiden may be justified. (who.int)
- Left and right coronary heights exceeded 12 mm in more than one half and about two thirds of patients, respectively. (medscape.com)
- As we move to lower-risk patients, there could be a greater incidence of delayed coronary obstruction occurring due to patients having a longer life expectancy post-TAVR," Jabbour said. (medscape.com)
- Second, patients may be relatively protected from the symptoms of coronary obstruction if they've had a prior coronary artery bypass graft , so we need to have a lower threshold for imaging the coronary system post-TAVR. (medscape.com)
- Other names for heart attack include acute myocardial infarction, coronary thrombosis, and coronary occlusion. (medindia.net)
- Meaning: n. obstruction of blood flow in a coronary artery by a blood clot (thrombus). (sentencedict.com)
- Infarct extent Acute myocardial infarction is myocardial necrosis resulting from acute obstruction of a coronary artery. (msdmanuals.com)
- Although a coronary guidewire was used as a preventive measure during TAVR in one patient, the autopsy confirmed valve leaflet obstruction. (medscape.com)
- Although coronary embolism due to mechanical valve thrombosis is encountered rarely, it is an important and serious complication. (who.int)
- Since the patient was young, had no coronary risk factors and had an INR of 1.6, myocardial infarction was thought to be due to coronary embolism. (who.int)
- In this paper, we report a rare case of myocardial infarction, which occurred as a result of a coronary embolism in a patient with prosthetic mitral valve thrombosis. (who.int)
- Mechanical valve thrombosis causes embolism rarely. (who.int)
- Other causes of coronary embolism include atrial fibrillation, left atrial tumours, bacterial endocarditis, atrial and ventricular mural thrombus, syphilis and pulmonary vein thrombosis . (who.int)
- Charles and colleagues reported that coronary embolism occurs in the left coronary artery in 75% of cases and three-quarters of them present with ST elevation myocardial infarction, whereas the rest present with non-ST elevation myocardial infarction . (who.int)
- There is no consensus regarding treatment of coronary embolism. (who.int)
- Various anticoagulation and antiplatelet regimens are used during and after angioplasty to reduce the incidence of thrombosis at the site of balloon dilation. (msdmanuals.com)
- 7 If coronary thrombosis occurs,(www.Sentencedict.com) the victim's life is immediately dangerous. (sentencedict.com)
- We report a case of clopidogrel-induced bone marrow toxicity manifesting with severe neutropenia in a patient treated with multiple coronary stents and provide suggestions for an alternative treatment. (hindawi.com)
- Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) was then undertaken, which, due to the complex nature of the stenosis, required implantation of two drug-eluting stents (DESs) (Xience V, Abbot, Temecula, Calif, USA) on both bifurcations. (hindawi.com)
- Coronary In-Stent Restenosis: Predictors and Treatment. (nih.gov)
- Percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) include percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) with or without stent insertion. (msdmanuals.com)
- Gross evaluation of the heart showed mild chamber dilatation, mitral and aortic valvulitis, focal myocarditis, and right coronary arteritis. (hawaii.edu)
- The patient was transferred to the coronary intensive care unit with the diagnosis of non-ST elevation myocardial infarction. (who.int)
- Unfortunately, within days he suffered a severe coronary thrombosis and was taken to St Joseph's Hospital in Mount Street, Preston. (wigantoday.net)
- Coronary angiogram, performed after administration of aspirin (100 mg) and of a 300 mg loading dose of clopidogrel, showed a critical stenosis of the left anterior descending artery involving the origin of the first diagonal branch and a severe short stenosis of a large, dominant circumflex artery at the level of the first marginal branch. (hindawi.com)
- The ambulance arrived on scene at 0018 hours and initiated advanced cardiac life support, which was continued en route to the hospital emergency department (ED). Hospital ED personnel continued resuscitation efforts unsuccessfully for approximately 20 minutes. (cdc.gov)
- 8 Some of his experiments suggested that high levels of processed sugar could lead to coronary thrombosis , diabetes and heart disease. (sentencedict.com)
- In 2016 she was awarded a fellowship by the ESRC under the Future Leader's scheme to investigate the biosocial mechanisms linking depression with long term conditions such as coronary heart disease, diabetes, cancer and arthritis. (surrey.ac.uk)
- 6 European researchers initiated trials of therapies to treat coronary thrombosis , concentrating on streptokinase use in AMI. (sentencedict.com)
- Coronary angiography was performed because her chest pain continued despite medical treatment. (who.int)
- The autopsy report documented an acute thrombosis in the left anterior descending coronary artery. (cdc.gov)
- The optimal duration of antiplatelet therapy, specifically P2Y12 inhibitor therapy, is unknown and DES thrombosis may still occur despite continued therapy. (bostonscientific.com)
- 3 Here is the coronary thrombosis at higher magnification. (sentencedict.com)
- 10 Heart attack is the popular term for what physicians call coronary thrombosis , or myocardial infarction. (sentencedict.com)
- Join more than 1.500 of your peers to stay up to date with the latest in thrombosis. (thrombosisadviser.com)