Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Coronary Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.Coronary Artery Disease: Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.Coronary Circulation: The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary: Dilation of an occluded coronary artery (or arteries) by means of a balloon catheter to restore myocardial blood supply.Coronary Stenosis: Narrowing or constriction of a coronary artery.Coronary Artery Bypass: Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Coronary Vasospasm: Spasm of the large- or medium-sized coronary arteries.Coronary Aneurysm: Abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of CORONARY VESSELS. Most coronary aneurysms are due to CORONARY ATHEROSCLEROSIS, and the rest are due to inflammatory diseases, such as KAWASAKI DISEASE.Coronary Thrombosis: Coagulation of blood in any of the CORONARY VESSELS. The presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) often leads to MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Metabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)Down Syndrome: A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)Coronary Restenosis: Recurrent narrowing or constriction of a coronary artery following surgical procedures performed to alleviate a prior obstruction.Coronary Occlusion: Complete blockage of blood flow through one of the CORONARY ARTERIES, usually from CORONARY ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A family of percutaneous techniques that are used to manage CORONARY OCCLUSION, including standard balloon angioplasty (PERCUTANEOUS TRANSLUMINAL CORONARY ANGIOPLASTY), the placement of intracoronary STENTS, and atheroablative technologies (e.g., ATHERECTOMY; ENDARTERECTOMY; THROMBECTOMY; PERCUTANEOUS TRANSLUMINAL LASER ANGIOPLASTY). PTCA was the dominant form of PCI, before the widespread use of stenting.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Coronary Care Units: The hospital unit in which patients with acute cardiac disorders receive intensive care.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Nephrotic Syndrome: A condition characterized by severe PROTEINURIA, greater than 3.5 g/day in an average adult. The substantial loss of protein in the urine results in complications such as HYPOPROTEINEMIA; generalized EDEMA; HYPERTENSION; and HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. Diseases associated with nephrotic syndrome generally cause chronic kidney dysfunction.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Sjogren's Syndrome: Chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease in which the salivary and lacrimal glands undergo progressive destruction by lymphocytes and plasma cells resulting in decreased production of saliva and tears. The primary form, often called sicca syndrome, involves both KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS SICCA and XEROSTOMIA. The secondary form includes, in addition, the presence of a connective tissue disease, usually rheumatoid arthritis.Stents: Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.Myocardial Ischemia: A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).Angina, Unstable: Precordial pain at rest, which may precede a MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Ultrasonography, Interventional: The use of ultrasound to guide minimally invasive surgical procedures such as needle ASPIRATION BIOPSY; DRAINAGE; etc. Its widest application is intravascular ultrasound imaging but it is useful also in urology and intra-abdominal conditions.Calcinosis: Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Myocardial Revascularization: The restoration of blood supply to the myocardium. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump: Coronary artery bypass surgery on a beating HEART without a CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS (diverting the flow of blood from the heart and lungs through an oxygenator).Turner Syndrome: A syndrome of defective gonadal development in phenotypic females associated with the karyotype 45,X (or 45,XO). Patients generally are of short stature with undifferentiated GONADS (streak gonads), SEXUAL INFANTILISM, HYPOGONADISM, webbing of the neck, cubitus valgus, elevated GONADOTROPINS, decreased ESTRADIOL level in blood, and CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS. NOONAN SYNDROME (also called Pseudo-Turner Syndrome and Male Turner Syndrome) resembles this disorder; however, it occurs in males and females with a normal karyotype and is inherited as an autosomal dominant.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors: Drugs or agents which antagonize or impair any mechanism leading to blood platelet aggregation, whether during the phases of activation and shape change or following the dense-granule release reaction and stimulation of the prostaglandin-thromboxane system.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Abnormalities, MultipleBiological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Cardiac Catheterization: Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Myelodysplastic Syndromes: Clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by dysplasia in one or more hematopoietic cell lineages. They predominantly affect patients over 60, are considered preleukemic conditions, and have high probability of transformation into ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Chest Pain: Pressure, burning, or numbness in the chest.Cushing Syndrome: A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excess levels of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) or other GLUCOCORTICOIDS from endogenous or exogenous sources. It is characterized by upper body OBESITY; OSTEOPOROSIS; HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; HIRSUTISM; AMENORRHEA; and excess body fluid. Endogenous Cushing syndrome or spontaneous hypercortisolism is divided into two groups, those due to an excess of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN and those that are ACTH-independent.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A complex disorder characterized by infertility, HIRSUTISM; OBESITY; and various menstrual disturbances such as OLIGOMENORRHEA; AMENORRHEA; ANOVULATION. Polycystic ovary syndrome is usually associated with bilateral enlarged ovaries studded with atretic follicles, not with cysts. The term, polycystic ovary, is misleading.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Acute Coronary Syndrome: An episode of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA that generally lasts longer than a transient anginal episode that ultimately may lead to MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Collateral Circulation: Maintenance of blood flow to an organ despite obstruction of a principal vessel. Blood flow is maintained through small vessels.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Williams Syndrome: A disorder caused by hemizygous microdeletion of about 28 genes on chromosome 7q11.23, including the ELASTIN gene. Clinical manifestations include SUPRAVALVULAR AORTIC STENOSIS; MENTAL RETARDATION; elfin facies; impaired visuospatial constructive abilities; and transient HYPERCALCEMIA in infancy. The condition affects both sexes, with onset at birth or in early infancy.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Adenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.DiGeorge Syndrome: Congenital syndrome characterized by a wide spectrum of characteristics including the absence of the THYMUS and PARATHYROID GLANDS resulting in T-cell immunodeficiency, HYPOCALCEMIA, defects in the outflow tract of the heart, and craniofacial anomalies.Long QT Syndrome: A condition that is characterized by episodes of fainting (SYNCOPE) and varying degree of ventricular arrhythmia as indicated by the prolonged QT interval. The inherited forms are caused by mutation of genes encoding cardiac ion channel proteins. The two major forms are ROMANO-WARD SYNDROME and JERVELL-LANGE NIELSEN SYNDROME.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Horner Syndrome: A syndrome associated with defective sympathetic innervation to one side of the face, including the eye. Clinical features include MIOSIS; mild BLEPHAROPTOSIS; and hemifacial ANHIDROSIS (decreased sweating)(see HYPOHIDROSIS). Lesions of the BRAIN STEM; cervical SPINAL CORD; first thoracic nerve root; apex of the LUNG; CAROTID ARTERY; CAVERNOUS SINUS; and apex of the ORBIT may cause this condition. (From Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, pp500-11)Prader-Willi Syndrome: An autosomal dominant disorder caused by deletion of the proximal long arm of the paternal chromosome 15 (15q11-q13) or by inheritance of both of the pair of chromosomes 15 from the mother (UNIPARENTAL DISOMY) which are imprinted (GENETIC IMPRINTING) and hence silenced. Clinical manifestations include MENTAL RETARDATION; MUSCULAR HYPOTONIA; HYPERPHAGIA; OBESITY; short stature; HYPOGONADISM; STRABISMUS; and HYPERSOMNOLENCE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p229)Nitroglycerin: A volatile vasodilator which relieves ANGINA PECTORIS by stimulating GUANYLATE CYCLASE and lowering cytosolic calcium. It is also sometimes used for TOCOLYSIS and explosives.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Guillain-Barre Syndrome: An acute inflammatory autoimmune neuritis caused by T cell- mediated cellular immune response directed towards peripheral myelin. Demyelination occurs in peripheral nerves and nerve roots. The process is often preceded by a viral or bacterial infection, surgery, immunization, lymphoma, or exposure to toxins. Common clinical manifestations include progressive weakness, loss of sensation, and loss of deep tendon reflexes. Weakness of respiratory muscles and autonomic dysfunction may occur. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1312-1314)Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome: An acute, febrile, mucocutaneous condition accompanied by swelling of cervical lymph nodes in infants and young children. The principal symptoms are fever, congestion of the ocular conjunctivae, reddening of the lips and oral cavity, protuberance of tongue papillae, and edema or erythema of the extremities.Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome: A syndrome that is associated with microvascular diseases of the KIDNEY, such as RENAL CORTICAL NECROSIS. It is characterized by hemolytic anemia (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC); THROMBOCYTOPENIA; and ACUTE RENAL FAILURE.Plaque, Atherosclerotic: Lesions formed within the walls of ARTERIES.Cardiovascular Agents: Agents that affect the rate or intensity of cardiac contraction, blood vessel diameter, or blood volume.Dipyridamole: A phosphodiesterase inhibitor that blocks uptake and metabolism of adenosine by erythrocytes and vascular endothelial cells. Dipyridamole also potentiates the antiaggregating action of prostacyclin. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p752)Myocardial Reperfusion: Generally, restoration of blood supply to heart tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. Reperfusion can be induced to treat ischemia. Methods include chemical dissolution of an occluding thrombus, administration of vasodilator drugs, angioplasty, catheterization, and artery bypass graft surgery. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Antiphospholipid Syndrome: The presence of antibodies directed against phospholipids (ANTIBODIES, ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID). The condition is associated with a variety of diseases, notably systemic lupus erythematosus and other connective tissue diseases, thrombopenia, and arterial or venous thromboses. In pregnancy it can cause abortion. Of the phospholipids, the cardiolipins show markedly elevated levels of anticardiolipin antibodies (ANTIBODIES, ANTICARDIOLIPIN). Present also are high levels of lupus anticoagulant (LUPUS COAGULATION INHIBITOR).Ticlopidine: An effective inhibitor of platelet aggregation commonly used in the placement of STENTS in CORONARY ARTERIES.Compartment Syndromes: Conditions in which increased pressure within a limited space compromises the BLOOD CIRCULATION and function of tissue within that space. Some of the causes of increased pressure are TRAUMA, tight dressings, HEMORRHAGE, and exercise. Sequelae include nerve compression (NERVE COMPRESSION SYNDROMES); PARALYSIS; and ISCHEMIC CONTRACTURE.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Tourette Syndrome: A neuropsychological disorder related to alterations in DOPAMINE metabolism and neurotransmission involving frontal-subcortical neuronal circuits. Both multiple motor and one or more vocal tics need to be present with TICS occurring many times a day, nearly daily, over a period of more than one year. The onset is before age 18 and the disturbance is not due to direct physiological effects of a substance or a another medical condition. The disturbance causes marked distress or significant impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. (From DSM-IV, 1994; Neurol Clin 1997 May;15(2):357-79)Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Microcirculation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Fractional Flow Reserve, Myocardial: The ratio of maximum blood flow to the MYOCARDIUM with CORONARY STENOSIS present, to the maximum equivalent blood flow without stenosis. The measurement is commonly used to verify borderline stenosis of CORONARY ARTERIES.Aspirin: The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome: A syndrome characterized by outbreaks of late term abortions, high numbers of stillbirths and mummified or weak newborn piglets, and respiratory disease in young unweaned and weaned pigs. It is caused by PORCINE RESPIRATORY AND REPRODUCTIVE SYNDROME VIRUS. (Radostits et al., Veterinary Medicine, 8th ed, p1048)Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Ventricular Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.Klinefelter Syndrome: A form of male HYPOGONADISM, characterized by the presence of an extra X CHROMOSOME, small TESTES, seminiferous tubule dysgenesis, elevated levels of GONADOTROPINS, low serum TESTOSTERONE, underdeveloped secondary sex characteristics, and male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE). Patients tend to have long legs and a slim, tall stature. GYNECOMASTIA is present in many of the patients. The classic form has the karyotype 47,XXY. Several karyotype variants include 48,XXYY; 48,XXXY; 49,XXXXY, and mosaic patterns ( 46,XY/47,XXY; 47,XXY/48,XXXY, etc.).Multidetector Computed Tomography: Types of spiral computed tomography technology in which multiple slices of data are acquired simultaneously improving the resolution over single slice acquisition technology.Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: Entrapment of the MEDIAN NERVE in the carpal tunnel, which is formed by the flexor retinaculum and the CARPAL BONES. This syndrome may be associated with repetitive occupational trauma (CUMULATIVE TRAUMA DISORDERS); wrist injuries; AMYLOID NEUROPATHIES; rheumatoid arthritis (see ARTHRITIS, RHEUMATOID); ACROMEGALY; PREGNANCY; and other conditions. Symptoms include burning pain and paresthesias involving the ventral surface of the hand and fingers which may radiate proximally. Impairment of sensation in the distribution of the median nerve and thenar muscle atrophy may occur. (Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1995, Ch51, p45)Werner Syndrome: An autosomal recessive disorder that causes premature aging in adults, characterized by sclerodermal skin changes, cataracts, subcutaneous calcification, muscular atrophy, a tendency to diabetes mellitus, aged appearance of the face, baldness, and a high incidence of neoplastic disease.Reye Syndrome: A form of encephalopathy with fatty infiltration of the LIVER, characterized by brain EDEMA and VOMITING that may rapidly progress to SEIZURES; COMA; and DEATH. It is caused by a generalized loss of mitochondrial function leading to disturbances in fatty acid and CARNITINE metabolism.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Angina Pectoris, Variant: A clinical syndrome characterized by the development of CHEST PAIN at rest with concomitant transient ST segment elevation in the ELECTROCARDIOGRAM, but with preserved exercise capacity.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Bartter Syndrome: A group of disorders caused by defective salt reabsorption in the ascending LOOP OF HENLE. It is characterized by severe salt-wasting, HYPOKALEMIA; HYPERCALCIURIA; metabolic ALKALOSIS, and hyper-reninemic HYPERALDOSTERONISM without HYPERTENSION. There are several subtypes including ones due to mutations in the renal specific SODIUM-POTASSIUM-CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus: A species of ARTERIVIRUS causing reproductive and respiratory disease in pigs. The European strain is called Lelystad virus. Airborne transmission is common.Myocardial Perfusion Imaging: The creation and display of functional images showing where the blood is flowing into the MYOCARDIUM by following over time the distribution of tracers injected into the blood stream.Vascular Calcification: Deposition of calcium into the blood vessel structures. Excessive calcification of the vessels are associated with ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES formation particularly after MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION (see MONCKEBERG MEDIAL CALCIFIC SCLEROSIS) and chronic kidney diseases which in turn increase VASCULAR STIFFNESS.HELLP Syndrome: A syndrome of HEMOLYSIS, elevated liver ENZYMES, and low blood platelets count (THROMBOCYTOPENIA). HELLP syndrome is observed in pregnant women with PRE-ECLAMPSIA or ECLAMPSIA who also exhibit LIVER damage and abnormalities in BLOOD COAGULATION.Brugada Syndrome: An autosomal dominant defect of cardiac conduction that is characterized by an abnormal ST-segment in leads V1-V3 on the ELECTROCARDIOGRAM resembling a right BUNDLE-BRANCH BLOCK; high risk of VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA; or VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION; SYNCOPAL EPISODE; and possible sudden death. This syndrome is linked to mutations of gene encoding the cardiac SODIUM CHANNEL alpha subunit.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Sinus of Valsalva: The dilatation of the aortic wall behind each of the cusps of the aortic valve.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome: A heterogeneous group of autosomally inherited COLLAGEN DISEASES caused by defects in the synthesis or structure of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are numerous subtypes: classical, hypermobility, vascular, and others. Common clinical features include hyperextensible skin and joints, skin fragility and reduced wound healing capability.Ergonovine: An ergot alkaloid (ERGOT ALKALOIDS) with uterine and VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE contractile properties.Bloom Syndrome: An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by telangiectatic ERYTHEMA of the face, photosensitivity, DWARFISM and other abnormalities, and a predisposition toward developing cancer. The Bloom syndrome gene (BLM) encodes a RecQ-like DNA helicase.Cholesterol, HDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Hyperemia: The presence of an increased amount of blood in a body part or an organ leading to congestion or engorgement of blood vessels. Hyperemia can be due to increase of blood flow into the area (active or arterial), or due to obstruction of outflow of blood from the area (passive or venous).Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Cholesterol, LDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Hemorrhage: Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.Angina, Stable: Persistent and reproducible chest discomfort usually precipitated by a physical exertion that dissipates upon cessation of such an activity. The symptoms are manifestations of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA.Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult: A syndrome characterized by progressive life-threatening RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY in the absence of known LUNG DISEASES, usually following a systemic insult such as surgery or major TRAUMA.Mammary Arteries: Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles and mammary gland.Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Angelman Syndrome: A syndrome characterized by multiple abnormalities, MENTAL RETARDATION, and movement disorders. Present usually are skull and other abnormalities, frequent infantile spasms (SPASMS, INFANTILE); easily provoked and prolonged paroxysms of laughter (hence "happy"); jerky puppetlike movements (hence "puppet"); continuous tongue protrusion; motor retardation; ATAXIA; MUSCLE HYPOTONIA; and a peculiar facies. It is associated with maternal deletions of chromosome 15q11-13 and other genetic abnormalities. (From Am J Med Genet 1998 Dec 4;80(4):385-90; Hum Mol Genet 1999 Jan;8(1):129-35)Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Thrombosis: Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.Job Syndrome: Primary immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by recurrent infections and hyperimmunoglobulinemia E. Most cases are sporadic. Of the rare familial forms, the dominantly inherited subtype has additional connective tissue, dental and skeletal involvement that the recessive type does not share.Cineangiography: Motion pictures of the passage of contrast medium through blood vessels.Radial Artery: The direct continuation of the brachial trunk, originating at the bifurcation of the brachial artery opposite the neck of the radius. Its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to the three regions in which the vessel is situated, the forearm, wrist, and hand.Tomography, Spiral Computed: Computed tomography where there is continuous X-ray exposure to the patient while being transported in a spiral or helical pattern through the beam of irradiation. This provides improved three-dimensional contrast and spatial resolution compared to conventional computed tomography, where data is obtained and computed from individual sequential exposures.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Diabetic Angiopathies: VASCULAR DISEASES that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Angioscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery performed on the interior of blood vessels.Thallium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of thallium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Tl atoms with atomic weights 198-202, 204, and 206-210 are thallium radioisotopes.Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Hypercholesterolemia: A condition with abnormally high levels of CHOLESTEROL in the blood. It is defined as a cholesterol value exceeding the 95th percentile for the population.Constriction, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome: A viral disorder characterized by high FEVER, dry COUGH, shortness of breath (DYSPNEA) or breathing difficulties, and atypical PNEUMONIA. A virus in the genus CORONAVIRUS is the suspected agent.Restless Legs Syndrome: A disorder characterized by aching or burning sensations in the lower and rarely the upper extremities that occur prior to sleep or may awaken the patient from sleep.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Stroke Volume: The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.Swine, Miniature: Genetically developed small pigs for use in biomedical research. There are several strains - Yucatan miniature, Sinclair miniature, and Minnesota miniature.Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome: A rare, X-linked immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by ECZEMA; LYMPHOPENIA; and, recurrent pyogenic infection. It is seen exclusively in young boys. Typically, IMMUNOGLOBULIN M levels are low and IMMUNOGLOBULIN A and IMMUNOGLOBULIN E levels are elevated. Lymphoreticular malignancies are common.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Dilatation, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being dilated beyond normal dimensions.JapanChurg-Strauss Syndrome: Widespread necrotizing angiitis with granulomas. Pulmonary involvement is frequent. Asthma or other respiratory infection may precede evidence of vasculitis. Eosinophilia and lung involvement differentiate this disease from POLYARTERITIS NODOSA.Ventricular Dysfunction, Left: A condition in which the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the left ventricular wall.Vasomotor System: The neural systems which act on VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE to control blood vessel diameter. The major neural control is through the sympathetic nervous system.Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.Hospital Mortality: A vital statistic measuring or recording the rate of death from any cause in hospitalized populations.Myocardial Reperfusion Injury: Damage to the MYOCARDIUM resulting from MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION (restoration of blood flow to ischemic areas of the HEART.) Reperfusion takes place when there is spontaneous thrombolysis, THROMBOLYTIC THERAPY, collateral flow from other coronary vascular beds, or reversal of vasospasm.Paraneoplastic Syndromes: In patients with neoplastic diseases a wide variety of clinical pictures which are indirect and usually remote effects produced by tumor cell metabolites or other products.Diabetes Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.Death, Sudden, Cardiac: Unexpected rapid natural death due to cardiovascular collapse within one hour of initial symptoms. It is usually caused by the worsening of existing heart diseases. The sudden onset of symptoms, such as CHEST PAIN and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS, particularly VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA, can lead to the loss of consciousness and cardiac arrest followed by biological death. (from Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, 7th ed., 2005)Platelet Glycoprotein GPIIb-IIIa Complex: Platelet membrane glycoprotein complex important for platelet adhesion and aggregation. It is an integrin complex containing INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB and INTEGRIN BETA3 which recognizes the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) sequence present on several adhesive proteins. As such, it is a receptor for FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; FIBRONECTIN; VITRONECTIN; and THROMBOSPONDINS. A deficiency of GPIIb-IIIa results in GLANZMANN THROMBASTHENIA.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Sweet Syndrome: Condition characterized by large, rapidly extending, erythematous, tender plaques on the upper body usually accompanied by fever and dermal infiltration of neutrophilic leukocytes. It occurs mostly in middle-aged women, is often preceded by an upper respiratory infection, and clinically resembles ERYTHEMA MULTIFORME. Sweet syndrome is associated with LEUKEMIA.Dobutamine: A catecholamine derivative with specificity for BETA-1 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS. It is commonly used as a cardiotonic agent after CARDIAC SURGERY and during DOBUTAMINE STRESS ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Cardiopulmonary Bypass: Diversion of the flow of blood from the entrance of the right atrium directly to the aorta (or femoral artery) via an oxygenator thus bypassing both the heart and lungs.Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.Saphenous Vein: The vein which drains the foot and leg.Arrhythmias, Cardiac: Any disturbances of the normal rhythmic beating of the heart or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. Cardiac arrhythmias can be classified by the abnormalities in HEART RATE, disorders of electrical impulse generation, or impulse conduction.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Tunica Intima: The innermost layer of an artery or vein, made up of one layer of endothelial cells and supported by an internal elastic lamina.Atherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome: A form of ventricular pre-excitation characterized by a short PR interval and a long QRS interval with a delta wave. In this syndrome, atrial impulses are abnormally conducted to the HEART VENTRICLES via an ACCESSORY CONDUCTING PATHWAY that is located between the wall of the right or left atria and the ventricles, also known as a BUNDLE OF KENT. The inherited form can be caused by mutation of PRKAG2 gene encoding a gamma-2 regulatory subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase.Graft Occlusion, Vascular: Obstruction of flow in biological or prosthetic vascular grafts.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Intellectual Disability: Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)Heart Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Adrenergic beta-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.Myocardial Bridging: A malformation that is characterized by a muscle bridge over a segment of the CORONARY ARTERIES. Systolic contractions of the muscle bridge can lead to narrowing of coronary artery; coronary compression; MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and SUDDEN CARDIAC DEATH.Models, Cardiovascular: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.

Wave intensity analysis of para-aortic counterpulsation. (1/4)

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An unusual case of bilateral subclavian-carotid artery graft occlusion with coronary steal syndrome managed in the cath lab. (2/4)

A 65-year-old man, s/p coronary bypass surgery (CABG) with left internal mammary artery (LIMA) to the left anterior descending (LAD) artery 12 years previously, presented to his local hospital with left upper extremity pain, dizziness, falls, and chest pain. At the outside hospital, a proximal total left subclavian occlusion was found and the patient underwent left subclavian artery to common carotid artery (SCA-CCA) bypass surgery. Shortly thereafter, the patient developed right subclavian thrombosis, and underwent right SCA-CCA bypass surgery. Twenty days later, coronary steal symptoms recurred; troponin levels were elevated and ultrasound exam revealed bilateral SCA-CCA graft occlusion. The patient was then transferred to a tertiary care facility with a diagnosis of non-ST elevation myocardial infarct (NSTEMI). A successful endovascular procedure was performed in the cardiac catheterization laboratory with the use of coronary chronic total occlusion (CTO) devices, to treat the coronary steal syndrome.  (+info)

Coronary-subclavian steal syndrome treated with carotid to subclavian artery by-pass. (3/4)

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Coronary subclavian steal from a left internal thoracic artery coronary bypass graft due to ipsilateral subclavian artery stenosis and an arteriovenous graft in a hemodialysis patient with left vertebral artery occlusion. (4/4)

Coronary subclavian steal syndrome is an unusual cause of myocardial ischemia, secondary to a reversed blood flow in patients with patent internal thoracic artery coronary bypass grafts. The causes of coronary subclavian steal are either ipsilateral subclavian artery stenosis or upper extremity arteriovenous hemodialysis fistula formation or both. This report involves a 68-year-old woman with left vertebral artery occlusion who developed severe coronary steal in the absence of vertebral subclavian steal due to left subclavian artery stenosis and an arteriovenous hemodialysis graft.  (+info)

Question - Experiencing debilitating balance problems. Has left vertebral artery occlusion. Taking Sotalol, Digoxin and Synthroid. What can be done?. Ask a Doctor about uses, dosages and side-effects of Digoxin, Ask a General & Family Physician
Background: Pulmonary regurgitation (PR) and the resultant right ventricular (RV) dilatation/dysfunction are important determinants of long-term outcome in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). Although residual pulmonary stenosis (PS), which often coexists with PR, increases RV pressure load, it may help reduce PR and prevent RV dilatation. A certain degree of PS might even enhance RV function and thereby enhance left ventricular (LV) function via interventricular interaction. To test these hypotheses, we investigated pulmonary wave front behavior by wave intensity analysis (WIA) and interventricular interaction by pressure-volume relationships.. Methods: WI of the peripheral pulmonary arteries (PA) and LV pressure-volume relationships were computed during cardiac catheterization in 31 patients with repaired TOF and 28 control subjects. WIA yielded 3 major components: (1) compression and acceleration wave (W1), which reflects RV-PA interaction; (2) negative wave (WN), which ...
This video demonstrates a left carotid to subclavian artery bypass. Due to increased use of aortic stent grafts that sometimes cover or compromise the orifice of the left subclavian artery, cardiothoracic surgeons need to be familiar with revascularization of the extremity.. ...
Subclavian artery stenosis (SAS) is a significant form of peripheral artery disease, which may be a marker of diffuse atherosclerosis and increased risk for cardiovascular events. SAS can lead to symptomatic ischemia affecting the upper extremities, the brain, and, in some cases, the heart. In general, asymptomatic subclavian artery disease is treated with medical therapy and invasive treatment is reserved for the more symptomatic patients. This article discusses the evaluation of four patients with varying presentations of subclavian artery disease. [Rev Cardiovasc Med.
4 in 5 people have a heart age older than their real age. Take the Heart Age Test to find out how old your heart is… https://t.co/3DdA1cLZmB. 11 hours ago • Follow us on Twitter ...
Cardiac Valve Replacement: When you replace a cardiac valve, a clot may form on the plastic-like valve, so anticoagulants are used to prevent from forming on that valve.. Atrial fibrillation: Patients who have atrial fibrillation means their atrium is not having a full contraction. That means the blood is never fully emptying out of the atrium. That residual blood could eventually form a clot and go down into the ventricles and go down into any of the arteries (coronary; carotid). So these people will be on continuous therapy.. ...
Flush thoracic aortic angiogram shows a concentric proximal left subclavian artery stenosis with no antegrade flow in the vertebral artery.
Affiliation:東京都市大学,工学部,教授, Research Field:Circulatory organs internal medicine,Medical systems,Biomedical engineering/Biological material science,Fluid engineering,Rehabilitation science/Welfare engineering, Keywords:心機能,wave intensity,頚動脈,エコー・トラッキング,Wave intensity,超音波,超音波計測,carotid artery,ウェーブ・インテンシティ,diastolic function, # of Research Projects:12, # of Research Products:144, Ongoing Project:ヨガによる高齢者の不整脈予防効果の検討:心・血管および自律神経機能解析の応用
cDNA microarray. The mouse erythroleukemia cell line DP16.1 and its derivative DP16.1/p53ts (which bears a temperature-sensitive mutation of p53 that inactivates it at 37°C) were cultured in α-MEM supplemented with 10% FCS for 6 hours at 37°C or 32°C. Total RNA was extracted using the RNeasy total RNA extraction kit (Qiagen, Valencia, CA). Synthesis of cDNA probes using Cy3 and Cy5, hybridization of these probes to the mouse GEM1 cDNA microarray, and signal intensity analyses were done by IncyteGenomics, Inc. (Palo Alto, CA).. Prediction of promoter and p53-binding sites. Mouse and human genomic DNA sequences were obtained from National Center for Biotechnology Information Entrez Gene (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=gene). Promoter sequences were predicted using WWW Promoter Scan program (http://www-bimas.cit.nih.gov/molbio/proscan/; ref. 10). Potential p53-binding sites were sought using TFBIND (http://tfbind.hgc.jp/; ref. 11).. Cell culture and DNA transfection. E14K ...
Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. To decrease mortality and morbidity in cardiovascular disease, the development of accurate, non-invasive methods for early diagnosis of atherosclerotic cardiac and vascular engagement is of considerable clinical interest. Cardiovascular ultrasound imaging is today the cornerstone in the routine evaluation of cardiovascular function and recent development has resulted in two new techniques, tissue velocity imaging (TVI) and speckle tracking, which allow objective quantification of cardiovascular function. TVI and speckle tracking are the basis for three new approaches to cardiac and vascular monitoring presented in this thesis: wave intensity wall analysis (WIWA), two-dimensional strain imaging in the common carotid artery, and the state diagram of the heart.. WIWA uses longitudinal and radial strain rate as input for calculations of wave intensity in the arterial wall. In this thesis, WIWA was validated against a ...
Vertebral artery post-angioplasty, X-ray. Digital angiogram of a section through the subclavian and left vertebral arteries of a patient after undergoing an angioplasty to widen the narrowed left vertebral artery. - Stock Image C023/7550
Noninvasively determined local wave speed ( c) and wave intensity (WI) parameters provide insights into arterial stiffness and cardiac-vascular interactions in response to physiological perturbations. However, the effects of incremental exercise and subsequent recovery on c and WI have not been fully established. We examined the changes in c and WI parameters in the common carotid artery (CCA) during exercise and recovery in eight young, healthy male athletes. Ultrasound measurements of CCA diameter and blood flow velocity were acquired at rest, during five stages of incremental exercise (up to 70% maximum work rate), and throughout 1 h of recovery, and noninvasive WI analysis [diameter-velocity ( DU) approach] was performed. During exercise, c increased (+136%), showing increased stiffness with work rate. All peak and area of forward compression, backward compression, and forward expansion waves increased during exercise (+452%, +700%, and +900%, respectively). However, WI reflection indexes ...
I have tachycardia, mitral valve prolapse, some pvcs. I take dixogin and it controls the rapid heart beat pretty well. My change of insurance meant a new cardiologist. I have seen her a few times for chest pains and she has said there was no cause of concern. A scan of my lungs ordered by another dr indicated anomalous origin of left vertebral artery. He didnt know anything about it so I emailed my new cardiologist. Her response stated it is something I was born with and it isnt dangerous. However, I did find limited information that was cause for concern. Supposedly it is crucial to advise surgeons before any neck surgery or angiogram about this condition and that it can mimic stroke symptoms and actually cause strokes, if I understand the jargon correctly.If this is true, then why didnt the cardiologist say anything? I also am concerned that my elderly mom who has already had two strokes and may at some point need an angiogram has not been diagnosed with this same condition. Should I ask ...
On Monday July 16, 2012, Elis cardiologist will take him before the surgery team to discuss his subclavian steal syndrome. He apparently has been going back and forth with some other doctors and gathering data to present to the team. There are several options and things to consider. Of course they always go from the most invasive to the least invasive. The most invasive is of course is full on heart surgery. This would be very risky since what they would do is bypass surgery. They would take an artery from somewhere else and put it in the spot where Elis artery doesnt exsist. This is where Elis original heart problem is though so if his aorta recoarcs then the vessel could tear and kill him almost instantly. This is EXTREMELY risky and most likely NOT the way they will proceed. Another option is to tie off the left vertebral artery (the artery that goes to Elis brain that now that is stealing the oxygenated blood from his brain). This apparently is normally done during the original surgery, ...
Subclavian steal syndrome Vascular resistance Arteriolar vasodilator Gould KL (August 1989). "Coronary steal. Is it clinically ... Coronary steal (with its symptoms termed coronary steal syndrome or cardiac steal syndrome) is a phenomenon where an alteration ... but a therapeutic failure because of the coronary steal phenomenon. Coronary steal is also the mechanism in most drug-based ... It is caused when there is narrowing of the coronary arteries and a coronary vasodilator is used - "stealing" blood away from ...
As in vertebral-subclavian steal, coronary-subclavian steal may occur in patients who have received a coronary artery bypass ... Subclavian steal syndrome (SSS), also called subclavian steal phenomenon or subclavian steal steno-occlusive disease, is a ... subclavian steal syndrome". Circ J. 67 (5): 464-6. doi:10.1253/circj.67.464. PMID 12736489. Subclavian Steal Syndrome - ... causing myocardial ischemia due to coronary steal. Vertebral-subclavian and coronary-subclavian steal can occur concurrently in ...
... such as subclavian steal syndrome or coronary steal syndrome. Terms for anatomical location Porcellini M, Selvetella L, De Rosa ... In nephrology, vascular access steal syndrome or dialysis-associated steal syndrome (DASS) is a syndrome caused by ischemia ( ... vascular access steal syndrome is also less precisely just called steal syndrome (for short), but in wider contexts that term ... Asif A, Leon C, Merrill D, Bhimani B, Ellis R, Ladino M, Gadalean F (2006). "Arterial steal syndrome: a modest proposal for an ...
Fainting may result from subclavian steal syndrome or carotid sinus hypersensitivity. There is also often anemia and marked ... A rare complication of this condition are coronary artery aneurysms. Although the cause of Takayasu arteritis is unknown, the ... Abou Sherif, Sara; Ozden Tok, Ozge; Taşköylü, Özgür; Goktekin, Omer; Kilic, Ismail Dogu (5 May 2017). "Coronary Artery ... Milan B, Josip K (November 1967). "Ocular manifestations of the aortic arch syndrome (pulseless disease; Takayasu's disease) ( ...
... subclavian steal syndrome MeSH C14.907.320.191 --- diabetic foot MeSH C14.907.320.382 --- diabetic retinopathy MeSH C14.907. ... coronary stenosis MeSH C14.280.647.250.285.200 --- coronary restenosis MeSH C14.280.647.250.290 --- coronary thrombosis MeSH ... long qt syndrome MeSH C14.280.067.565.070 --- andersen syndrome MeSH C14.280.067.565.440 --- jervell-lange nielsen syndrome ... behcet syndrome MeSH C14.907.940.110 --- Churg-Strauss syndrome MeSH C14.907.940.560 --- mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome MeSH ...
Basilar artery syndrome (435.1) Vertebral artery syndrome (435.2) Subclavian steal syndrome (435.3) Vertebrobasilar artery ... Intermediate coronary syndrome (412) Old myocardial infarction (413) Angina pectoris (413.0) Angina decubitus (413.1) ... Aneurysm of coronary vessels (414.12) Dissection of coronary artery (414.8) Ischemic heart disease, chronic, other (414.9) ... 427.8) Other specified cardiac dysrhythmias (427.81) Sick sinus syndrome (427.89) Sinus bradycardia, NOS (427.9) Cardiac ...
precerebral: Anterior spinal artery syndrome. *Vertebrobasilar insufficiency *Subclavian steal syndrome. *brainstem: medulla * ... Coronary artery aneurysm. *head / neck *Intracranial aneurysm. *Intracranial berry aneurysm. *Carotid artery dissection ... Ehlers-Danlos syndrome types II and IV.. Specific genes have also had reported association with the development of intracranial ...
precerebral: Anterior spinal artery syndrome. *Vertebrobasilar insufficiency *Subclavian steal syndrome. *brainstem: medulla * ... Coronary disease. *Coronary artery disease (CAD). *Coronary artery aneurysm. *Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) ...
... syndrome Stratton Parker syndrome Streff syndrome Stuck song syndrome Student syndrome Sturge-Weber syndrome Subclavian steal ... tooth syndrome Activation syndrome Acute aortic syndrome Acute brain syndrome Acute chest syndrome Acute coronary syndrome ... syndrome Wende-Bauckus syndrome Werner syndrome Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome West syndrome Westerhof syndrome Wet lung syndrome ... syndrome Coronary steal Costeff syndrome Costello syndrome Cotard delusion Cotard's Syndrome Cotton fever Cowden syndrome ...
... coronary system into the subclavian artery and supports prior reports of the existence of coronary-subclavian steal syndrome in ... Angiographic Evidence of Coronary-Subclavian Steal Syndrome. C.R. Kroll, M. Agarwal, G.A. Stouffer ... The arrow points to the subclavian artery. B, Angiography of the left subclavian artery in an anterior-posterior projection. C ... A, Angiography of the left coronary artery and LIMA in a right anterior oblique cranial projection. The figure is a composite ...
Coronary subclavian steal syndrome is a rare complication of coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG) when a left ... Coronary Subclavian Steal Syndrome: An Unusual Cause of Angina in a Post-CABG Patient. Usman Younus,1 Brandon Abbott,1 Deepika ... This syndrome is characterized by retrograde flow from the LIMA to the left subclavian artery (SA) when a proximal left SA ... Subsequent coronary angiography showed severe native three-vessel coronary artery disease with intermittent retrograde blood ...
... whereby an occlusion or stenosis of the proximal SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY causes a reversal of the blood flow away from the CORONARY ... CIRCULATION, through the grafted INTERNAL MAMMARY ARTERY (internal thoracic artery), and back to the distal subclavian ... A complication of INTERNAL MAMMARY-CORONARY ARTERY ANASTOMOSIS ... Coronary-Subclavian Steal Syndrome (0) * Delayed Emergence from ...
Carotid-subclavian bypass is the surgical procedure of choice for the management of coronary-subclavian steal syndrome, 12 ... The coronary-subclavian steal syndrome was first described in 1974 during a routine follow-up angiography in an asymptomatic ... Recognition of the coronary-subclavian steal syndrome requires a high index of suspicion. Left arm claudication may be present ... Angina as an Indication for Noncardiac Surgery: The Case of the Coronary-Subclavian Steal Syndrome. Anesthesiology 2 2000, Vol. ...
Coronary angiography revealed coronary aneurysm and IHD. Enhanced computed tomography showed coronary aneurysm, complete left ... A Surgical Case of CABG with Subclavian Steal Syndrome and Bilateral Iliac Type ASO. ... In the first operation, we chose coronary artery bypass grafting, excision of the coronary aneurysm and simultaneously Ao-ltFG ... Although in the operative findings no coronary aneurysm was recognized, we performed the other operations and the postoperative ...
Coronary-subclavian steal syndrome in a hemodialysis patient with ipsilateral subclavian artery occlusion and contralateral ... Coronary-subclavian steal syndrome in a hemodialysis patient with ipsilateral subclavian artery occlusion and contralateral ...
Primary stenting as treatment for coronary-subclavian steal syndrome. Aust N Z J Med 1997;27:80-81. [ Links ]. 20. Jaeger HJ, ... steal syndrome.. Keywords: subclavian steal syndrome, subclavian artery stenosis, peripheral arterial stents, stents in ... Giavroglou C, Proios T, Daponte P, Loannidis I, Paraskevaidis S, Louridas G. Coronary-subclavian steal syndrome: treatment with ... Subclavian steal can be demonstrated by transcranial doppler (TCD) with the subclavian-steal test. The VA is insonated with the ...
Subclavian steal may also occur in asymptomatic individuals. (From J Cardiovasc Surg 1994;35(1):11-4; Acta Neurol Scand 1994;90 ... resulting from reversal of blood flow through the VERTEBRAL ARTERY from occlusion or stenosis of the proximal subclavian or ... Subclavian Steal Syndrome: A clinically significant reduction in blood supply to the BRAIN STEM and CEREBELLUM (i.e., ... 07/01/2015 - "Subclavian steal syndrome in a post-coronary artery bypass patient.". 06/01/2015 - "Coronary steal is a rare ...
Symptoms from SAS usually relate to subclavian steal, and include syncope, vertigo, ataxia, and, rarely, upper limb paralysis ... Subclavian artery stenosis (SAS) is a rare lesion accounting for nearly 2.5% of all extracranial arterial occlusions. ... Coronary subclavian steal syndrome. Am Heart J 1993;126:1463-1466.. PubMed , CrossRef ... Symptoms from SAS usually relate to subclavian steal, and include syncope, vertigo, ataxia, and, rarely, upper limb paralysis ...
... clinicaltrials.gov Reactive platelet hyperactivity following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) might lead to thrombotic ... Coronary-subclavian Steal Syndrome. A complication of INTERNAL MAMMARY-CORONARY ARTERY ANASTOMOSIS whereby an occlusion or ... Bland White Garland Syndrome. A congenital coronary vessel anomaly in which the left main CORONARY ARTERY originates from the ... Coronary revascularization for coronary artery disease dates to the introduction of coronary bypass surgery by Favaloro in 1967 ...
... continues to develop as a non-invasive method for the assessment of coronary vessel geometry and the ident... ... Coronary-subclavian Steal Syndrome. A complication of INTERNAL MAMMARY-CORONARY ARTERY ANASTOMOSIS whereby an occlusion or ... Coronary Plaque Geometry and Acute Coronary Syndromes. The aim of GEOMETRY study is to investigate the correlation between ... Coronary Aneurysm. Abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of CORONARY VESSELS. Most coronary aneurysms are due to ...
As in vertebral-subclavian steal, coronary-subclavian steal may occur in patients who have received a coronary artery bypass ... Subclavian steal syndrome (SSS), also called subclavian steal phenomenon or subclavian steal steno-occlusive disease, is a ... subclavian steal syndrome". Circ J. 67 (5): 464-6. doi:10.1253/circj.67.464. PMID 12736489. Subclavian Steal Syndrome - ... causing myocardial ischemia due to coronary steal. Vertebral-subclavian and coronary-subclavian steal can occur concurrently in ...
Interventional treatment of the left subclavian in 2 patients with coronary steal syndrome. ...
Cornelia de Lange syndrome + Corneodermatoosseous Syndrome Coronary-Subclavian Steal Syndrome Costello syndrome ... complex regional pain syndrome + CONGENITAL ANOMALIES OF KIDNEY AND URINARY TRACT SYNDROME WITH OR WITHOUT HEARING LOSS, ... multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome + Multiple Congenital Anomalies/Dysmorphic Syndrome-Intellectual ... Cerebellar Vermis Aplasia with Associated Features suggesting Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome and Meckel Syndrome ...
Cornelia de Lange syndrome + Corneodermatoosseous Syndrome Coronary-Subclavian Steal Syndrome Costello syndrome ... Nestor-Guillermo Progeria Syndrome Netherton syndrome A skin disease that is characterized by chronic skin inflammation, ... complex regional pain syndrome + CONGENITAL ANOMALIES OF KIDNEY AND URINARY TRACT SYNDROME WITH OR WITHOUT HEARING LOSS, ... multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome + Multiple Congenital Anomalies/Dysmorphic Syndrome-Intellectual ...
Could it be coronary-subclavian steal syndrome?. A thorough head and neck examination was negative for other cutaneous or ...
Unusual suspect-coronary subclavian steal syndrome caused severe myocardial ischemia.. Topics:. Bones ...
155439 - Axillo-axillary bypass for subclavian steal syndrome.. 16954589 - Thrombotic occlusion of a drug-eluting stent - is ... 19519919 - Predictors of inotrope use in patients undergoing concomitant coronary artery bypass gr.... ... 25197579 - Total anomalous systemic venous drainage with heterotaxia syndrome: a rare case.. 18352699 - Dirac neutrino masses ...
... usually in the setting of subclavian artery occlusion or stenosis proximal to the origin of the vertebral artery. Alternatively ... The term subclavian steal describes retrograde blood flow in the vertebral artery associated with proximal ipsilateral ... a phenomenon often referred to as coronary subclavian steal has become recognised. Where proximal subclavian artery disease ... encoded search term (Subclavian Steal Syndrome) and Subclavian Steal Syndrome What to Read Next on Medscape. Related Conditions ...
Subclavian steal syndrome Vascular resistance Arteriolar vasodilator Gould KL (August 1989). "Coronary steal. Is it clinically ... Coronary steal (with its symptoms termed coronary steal syndrome or cardiac steal syndrome) is a phenomenon where an alteration ... but a therapeutic failure because of the coronary steal phenomenon. Coronary steal is also the mechanism in most drug-based ... It is caused when there is narrowing of the coronary arteries and a coronary vasodilator is used - "stealing" blood away from ...
Unusual suspect-coronary subclavian steal syndrome caused severe myocardial ischemia. Patients with angina at rest within past ... Coronary artery fistula associated with slow coronary flow: a rare cause of myocardial ischemia/Koroner arter fistulu ile ... Should patients with unstable coronary syndromes routinely undergo cardiac catheterization and appropriate revascularization? ... C-reactive protein in unstable angina pectoris and its relation to coronary angiographic severity and diffusion scores of ...
Subclavian Steal Syndrome as a Common Denominator of Both Acute Coronary Syndrome and Ipsilateral Transient Ischemic Attack. ... NLRP3 Inflammasome Formation and Activation in Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis: Therapeutic Target for Antimetabolic Syndrome ...
Coronary Subclavian Steal Syndrome Feat. M. Sintek 17:14 Scottsdale Interventional Forum 2014 ... What is the Best Alternative Access for TAVR: Apical, Aortic, Subclavian... Feat. A. Greenbaum ...
Coronary subclavian steal syndrome: an extracoronary cause of acute coronary syndrome. Schatzl, Stefan; Karnik, Ronald; ... The origins of the branches of the subclavian artery are known to be variable. We present the case of a 55-year-old man whose ... Coronary bypasses 10 years on. Petch, M.C. // BMJ: British Medical Journal (International Edition);9/21/91, Vol. 303 Issue 6804 ... The article presents a case study of a 68-year-old man who was diagnosed with new-onset angina after 15 years of coronary ...
Subclavian steal syndrome. UpToDate, last updated Mar 22, 2016. UpToDate. *Thomassen L, Aarli JA. Subclavian steal phenomenon. ... A case of coronary-subclavian steal syndrom. Heart Lung Circ 2004; 13: 421-2. PubMed ... Subclavian steal syndrome. South Med J 2001; 94: 445-7. PubMed. *Rødevand E, Skomsvoll JF, Wallenius M et al. Takayasus ... Vertebral artery Doppler waveform changes indicating subclavian steal physiology. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2000; 174: 815-9. PubMed ...
  • Objective: The aim of the current analysis was to assess the changes in primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and mortality in a tertiary university hospital in southern Brazil during a six-year period. (bvsalud.org)
  • Objective: The aim of the current analysis was to assess the changes in primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and mortality in a tertiary university hospital in southern Brazil during a six-year period .Methods: We have included consecutive patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) who underwent primary PCI between March 2011 and February 2017. (bvsalud.org)
  • In the first operation, we chose coronary artery bypass grafting, excision of the coronary aneurysm and simultaneously Ao-ltFG to prepare for IABP. (umin.ac.jp)
  • Although in the operative findings no coronary aneurysm was recognized, we performed the other operations and the postoperative course was uneventful without IABP. (umin.ac.jp)
  • Congenital coronary-pulmonary artery fistulas complicated by continuity to a systemic artery and aneurysm are extremely rare. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • More commonly, patients with significant SAS have symptoms of cerebral ischemia, which are usually triggered by vigorous motion of the arm on the side of the severe proximal subclavian obstruction. (sma.org)
  • In some cases, patients may develop upper-limb ischemic symptoms due to reduced arterial flow in the setting of subclavian artery occlusion, or they may develop neurologic symptoms due to posterior circulation ischemia associated with exercise of the ipsilateral arm. (medscape.com)
  • Thus, dilating the resistance vessels in the coronary circulation causes blood to be shunted away from the coronary vessels supplying the ischemic zones, creating more ischemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vertebrobasilar "spells" that occur in association with subclavian steal syndrome represent a common example of hemodynamically based transient cerebral ischemia. (mhmedical.com)
  • An unusual cause of ischemia after coronary bypass grafting! (elsevier.pt)
  • Coronary subclavian steal syndrome is an uncommon cause of ischemia recurrence after coronary artery bypass grafting. (elsevier.pt)
  • CSSS is an uncommon but treatable cause of coronary ischemia. (blogspot.com)
  • To report a clinic case of subclavian steal syndrome, aspects of pathophysiology, diagnosis and efficacy of treatment with a neurotological approach by vestibular rehabilitation. (arquivosdeorl.org.br)
  • The target of this study is to present a case of subclavian steal syndrome and the description of its clinical and therapeutical process due to the relation between vertebrobasilar and vestibular systems associated to lack in the literature with a multiple otoneurological approach. (arquivosdeorl.org.br)
  • An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. (curehunter.com)
  • Two were performed via manubriotomy and a third case via standard median sternotomy because of concomitant coronary revascularisation. (biomedcentral.com)