Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary
Coronary Artery Disease
Coronary Artery Bypass
Percutaneous Coronary Intervention
Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors
Coronary Care Units
Predictive Value of Tests
Coated Materials, Biocompatible
Angioplasty, Balloon, Laser-Assisted
Arterial Occlusive Diseases
Severity of Illness Index
Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Blood Flow Velocity
Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex
Serial intravascular ultrasound analysis of the impact of lesion length on the efficacy of intracoronary gamma-irradiation for preventing recurrent in-stent restenosis. (1/1466)BACKGROUND: The relation between lesion length and effectiveness of brachytherapy is not well studied. METHODS AND RESULTS: We compared serial (postintervention and follow-up) intravascular ultrasound findings in 66 patients with native coronary artery in-stent restenosis (ISR) who were treated with (192)Ir (15 Gy delivered 2 mm away from the radiation source). Patients were enrolled in the Washington Radiation for In-Stent Restenosis Trial (WRIST; ISR length, 10 to 47 mm; n=36) or Long WRIST (ISR length, 36 to 80 mm; n=30). External elastic membrane, stent, lumen, and intimal hyperplasia (IH; stent minus lumen) areas and source-to-target (intravascular ultrasound catheter to external elastic membrane) distances were measured. Postintervention stent areas were larger in WRIST and smaller in Long WRIST patients (P:<0.0001). At follow-up, maximum IH area significantly increased in both WRIST and Long WRIST patients (P:<0.0001 for both), but this increase was greater in Long WRIST patients (P:=0.0006). Similarly, minimum lumen cross-sectional area significantly decreased in both WRIST and Long WRIST patients (P:<0.05 and P:<0.0001, respectively), but this decrease was more pronounced in Long WRIST patients (P:=0.0567). The maximum source-to-target distance was longer in Long WRIST than in WRIST, and it correlated directly with ISR length (r=0.547, P:<0.0001). Overall, the change in minimum lumen area and the change in maximum IH area correlated with the maximum source-to-target distance (r=0.352, P:=0.0038 and r=0.523, P:<0.0001 for WRIST and Long WRIST, respectively). The variability (maximum/minimum) in IH area at follow-up also correlated with the maximum source-to-target distance (r=0.378, P:<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Brachytherapy may be less effective in longer ISR lesions because of the greater variability and longer source-to-target distances in diffuse ISR. (+info)
Lack of neointimal proliferation after implantation of sirolimus-coated stents in human coronary arteries: a quantitative coronary angiography and three-dimensional intravascular ultrasound study. (2/1466)BACKGROUND: Restenosis remains an important limitation of interventional cardiology. Therefore, we aimed to determine the safety and efficacy of sirolimus (a cell-cycle inhibitor)-coated BX Velocity stents. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirty patients with angina pectoris were electively treated with 2 different formulations of sirolimus-coated stents (slow release [SR], n=15, and fast release [FR], n=15). All stents were successfully delivered, and patients were discharged without clinical complications. Independent core laboratories analyzed angiographic and 3D volumetric intravascular ultrasound data (immediately after procedure and at 4-month follow-up). Eight-month clinical follow-up was obtained for all patients. There was minimal neointimal hyperplasia in both groups (11.0+/-3.0% in the SR group and 10.4+/-3.0% in the FR group, P:=NS) by ultrasound and quantitative coronary angiography (in-stent late loss, 0.09+/-0.3 mm [SR] and -0.02+/-0.3 mm [FR]; in-lesion late loss, 0.16+/-0.3 mm [SR] and -0.1+/-0.3 mm [FR]). No in-stent or edge restenosis (diameter stenosis >or=50%) was observed. No major clinical events (stent thrombosis, repeat revascularization, myocardial infarction, or death) had occurred by 8 months. CONCLUSIONS: The implantation of sirolimus-coated BX Velocity stents is feasible and safe and elicits minimal neointimal proliferation. Additional placebo-controlled trials are required to confirm these promising results. (+info)
Oral anticoagulant therapy during and after coronary angioplasty the intensity and duration of anticoagulation are essential to reduce thrombotic complications. (3/1466)BACKGROUND: In the randomized Balloon Angioplasty and Anticoagulation Study (BAAS), the addition of oral anticoagulants to aspirin significantly reduced early and late events after coronary angioplasty. However, bleeding episodes were increased. The present report studied the intensity and the duration of anticoagulation as predictors of thrombotic and bleeding events. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 530 patients, 34% of whom received a stent, were treated with aspirin plus coumarins. Half of the patients were randomized to angiographic follow-up. The target international normalized ratio (INR) was 2.1 to 4.8 during angioplasty and 6-month follow-up. Thrombotic events were death, myocardial infarction, target lesion revascularization, and thrombotic stroke. Bleeding complications were hemorrhagic stroke, major extracranial bleeding, and false aneurysm. "Optimal" anticoagulation was defined as an INR in the target range for at least 70% of the follow-up time. There were 17 early thrombotic events (3.2%), 7 early bleeding episodes (1.3%), and 10 false aneurysms (1.9%). The incidence rate for both early thrombotic and bleeding events was lowest in patients in the target range. A total of 61 late thrombotic events occurred (11.6%). Optimal anticoagulation was an independent predictor of late thrombotic events (relative risk, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.19 to 0.57) and was associated with a 0.21 mm (95% CI, 0.17 to 0.42) larger vessel lumen at 6 months. Late bleeding episodes (1.4%) were lowest in patients in the target range. CONCLUSIONS: Coumarins started before coronary angioplasty with a target INR of 2.1 to 4.8 led to the lowest procedural event rate, without an increase in bleeding episodes. During follow-up, optimal anticoagulation was associated with a decrease in the incidence of late events by 67% and a significant improvement in 6-month angiographic outcome. (+info)
Relation of a common methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase mutation and plasma homocysteine with intimal hyperplasia after coronary stenting. (4/1466)BACKGROUND: Hyperhomocysteinemia has been identified as an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease. Recent studies have shown that a common mutation (nucleotide 677 C-->T) in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene may contribute to mild hyperhomocysteinemia and, therefore, to the incidence of coronary artery disease. No information exists, however, regarding the association between the mutation of the MTHFR gene or plasma homocysteine levels and morphological analysis of coronary atherosclerosis using intravascular ultrasound. METHODS AND RESULTS: To examine the potential influence of MTHFR genotype and homocysteine on coronaryarteries morphologically, we screened 62 patients with 65 lesions that were treated with 93 Palmaz-Schatz stents. The plasma homocysteine levels in the patients with the TT genotype were not significantly higher than those in the patients with non-TT (CC+CT) genotypes (13.1 +/- 5.5 versus 11.5 +/- 3.1 mmol/L, P=0.16). Angiographic analysis showed that the percent diameter stenosis in the patients with the TT genotype was significantly greater than that in those with non-TT genotypes (43.7 +/- 17.8% versus 29.0 +/- 22.0%, P=0.015). Intravascular ultrasound analysis showed that the TT genotype was significantly associated with greater intimal hyperplasia area (5.70 +/- 1.94 versus 3.72 +/- 1.38 mm2, P=0.001). In multiple stepwise regression analysis, the number of the T alleles was the only independent predictor of intimal hyperplasia after intervention (r2=0.21, P=0.004). CONCLUSIONS: The homozygous mutant genotype of the MTHFR gene may increase the risk of in-stent restenosis more than does the normal homozygous or heterozygous genotype. (+info)
Long-term effects of intracoronary beta-radiation in balloon- and stent-injured porcine coronary arteries. (5/1466)BACKGROUND: The data on the long-term safety and efficacy of intracoronary beta-radiation in animal models are limited. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 30 coronary arteries in 15 swine were subjected to balloon or stent injury followed by beta-radiation from a centered 32P source (2000 cGy to 1 mm beyond lumen surface) or a sham radiation procedure. The animals received aspirin for 6 months and ticlopidine for 30 days. Five of the 10 animals subjected to radiation died (at 5 days, 7 days, 3 months [n = 2], and 4 months) as a result of layered, occlusive thrombus at the intervention site (3 stent and 2 balloon injury sites). No deaths occurred in the control group. In the surviving animals, balloon-injured and irradiated vessels showed a trend toward larger lumens than controls (2.15 +/- 0.17 versus 1.80 +/- 0.08 mm2, P=0.06) and larger external elastic lamina areas (3.32 +/- 0.21 versus 2.62 +/- 0.10 mm2, P=0.003). In the stent-injured vessels from surviving animals, lumen, neointimal, and external elastic lamina areas were 3.58 +/- 0.33, 3.16 +/- 0.35, and 8.12 +/- 0.42 mm2 for irradiated vessel segments; these values were not different from those in controls (3.21 +/- 0.15, 2.84 +/- 0.27, and 7.76 +/- 0.28 mm2, respectively). Histologically, healing was complete in most survivors, although intramural fibrin and hemorrhage were occasionally seen. CONCLUSION: In the long-term (6 month) porcine model of restenosis, the inhibition by intracoronary beta-radiotherapy of the neointimal formation that is known to be present at 1 month is not sustained. This lack of effect on neointimal formation after balloon and stent arterial injury is accompanied by subacute and late thrombosis that leads to cardiac death on a background of continuous aspirin but relatively brief ticlopidine treatment. (+info)
Lipid peroxidation may predict restenosis after coronary balloon angioplasty. (6/1466)The present study assessed whether lipid peroxidation in plasma might predict restenosis after coronary balloon angioplasty. A total of 87 patients, who had undergone successful coronary balloon angioplasty using standard techniques, were enrolled. Fasting blood samples before the intervention were measured for plasma levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, an indicator of lipid peroxidation). Angiography was carried out before and 15 min after angioplasty, and at follow-up (4 months after angioplasty), and evaluated using a quantitative approach. There were 23 patients with restenosis (group R) and 64 patients without restenosis (group N) after coronary balloon angioplasty. The plasma TBARS level (mean+/-SEM) of 4.3+/-0.1 micromol/L in group R was significantly higher than that of 3.2+/-0.1 micromol/L in group N (p<0.01). There were no significant differences in other parameters, including plasma lipid levels, between the 2 groups. The plasma level of TBARS positively correlated with lumen loss of the coronary artery at the time of follow-up angiography (r=0.57, p<0.01). Our results suggest that oxidative stress contributes to restenosis and indicate that an elevated plasma level of TBARS may be a reliable predictor of restenosis. (+info)
Histopathologic evaluation of coronary artery thrombi obtained by directional coronary atherectomy in patients with restenosis-induced unstable angina pectoris. (7/1466)The pathogenesis of unstable angina pectoris (UAP) following percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) or directional coronary atherectomy (DCA) has not been adequately investigated, so the present study aimed to determine whether thrombi are present in restenotic lesions. The study group comprised 14 patients (16 arterial branches) with angina pectoris in whom either PTCA or DCA was performed and who had developed UAP associated with restenosis, and who then underwent DCA of the restenosed lesion (R-UAP group). The control groups comprised individuals with UAP undergoing DCA with no prior history of PTCA or DCA (P-UAP group; n=29, 29 branches), patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI group; n=34, 34 branches), and patients with stable angina pectoris (SAP group; n=31, 33 branches). The presence of thrombi was determined by light microscopy of histologic specimens. Thrombus was present in only 1 of the 16 (6.3%) branches in the R-UAP group. 21 of the 29 (72.4%) branches in the P-UAP group, and in 25 of the 34 (73.5%) in the AMI group. In the SAP group, it was detected in only 2 of the 33 (7.1%) branches. The incidence of thrombus was significantly lower in the R-UAP group than in the P-UAP group. In conclusion, the role of thrombus is limited in causing post-interventional UAP at restenosed sites. (+info)
Intracoronary brachytherapy in the treatment of in-stent restenosis. Initial experience in Brazil. (8/1466)Intracoronary brachytherapy using beta or gamma radiation is currently the most efficient type of therapy for preventing the recurrence of coronary in-stent restenosis. Its implementation depends on the interaction among interventionists, radiotherapists, and physicists to assure the safety and quality of the method. The authors report the pioneering experience in Brazil of the treatment of 2 patients with coronary in-stent restenosis, in whom beta radiation was used as part of the international multicenter randomized PREVENT study (Proliferation REduction with Vascular ENergy Trial). The procedures were performed rapidly and did not require significant modifications in the traditional techniques used for conventional angioplasty. Alteration in the radiological protection devices of the hemodynamic laboratory were also not required, showing that intracoronary brachytherapy using beta radiation can be incorporated into the interventional tools of cardiology in our environment. (+info)
Coronary restenosis is a common complication after coronary interventions, such as angioplasty or stenting. It is estimated that up to 20% of patients may experience restenosis within six months after treatment. If left untreated, restenosis can lead to chest pain, heart attack, or even death.
Treatment options for coronary restenosis include repeat angioplasty or stenting, medications such as beta blockers and calcium channel blockers, or bypass surgery. It is important for patients to work closely with their healthcare provider to monitor their symptoms and undergo regular follow-up appointments to prevent or diagnose restenosis early on.
Coronary disease is often caused by a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, smoking, obesity, and a lack of physical activity. It can also be triggered by other medical conditions, such as diabetes and kidney disease.
The symptoms of coronary disease can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but may include:
* Chest pain or discomfort (angina)
* Shortness of breath
* Swelling of the legs and feet
* Pain in the arms and back
Coronary disease is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as electrocardiograms (ECGs), stress tests, and cardiac imaging. Treatment for coronary disease may include lifestyle changes, medications to control symptoms, and surgical procedures such as angioplasty or bypass surgery to improve blood flow to the heart.
Preventative measures for coronary disease include:
* Maintaining a healthy diet and exercise routine
* Quitting smoking and limiting alcohol consumption
* Managing high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, and other underlying medical conditions
* Reducing stress through relaxation techniques or therapy.
Recurrence can also refer to the re-emergence of symptoms in a previously treated condition, such as a chronic pain condition that returns after a period of remission.
In medical research, recurrence is often studied to understand the underlying causes of disease progression and to develop new treatments and interventions to prevent or delay its return.
The buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries is often caused by high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, smoking, high blood pressure, diabetes, and a family history of heart disease. The plaque can also rupture, causing a blood clot to form, which can completely block the flow of blood to the heart muscle, leading to a heart attack.
CAD is the most common type of heart disease and is often asymptomatic until a serious event occurs. Risk factors for CAD include:
* Age (men over 45 and women over 55)
* Gender (men are at greater risk than women, but women are more likely to die from CAD)
* Family history of heart disease
* High blood pressure
* High cholesterol
* Lack of exercise
Diagnosis of CAD typically involves a physical exam, medical history, and results of diagnostic tests such as:
* Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG)
* Stress test
* Coronary angiography
Treatment for CAD may include lifestyle changes such as a healthy diet, regular exercise, stress management, and quitting smoking. Medications such as beta blockers, ACE inhibitors, and statins may also be prescribed to manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. In severe cases, surgical intervention such as coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) may be necessary.
Prevention of CAD includes managing risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and diabetes, quitting smoking, maintaining a healthy weight, and getting regular exercise. Early detection and treatment of CAD can help to reduce the risk of complications and improve quality of life for those affected by the disease.
The severity of coronary stenosis can range from mild to severe, with blockages ranging from 15% to over 90%. In mild cases, lifestyle changes and medication may be enough to manage symptoms. However, more severe cases typically require interventional procedures such as angioplasty or bypass surgery to improve blood flow to the heart.
Coronary Thrombosis can cause a range of symptoms including chest pain, shortness of breath, lightheadedness and fatigue. The severity of the symptoms depends on the location and size of the clot. In some cases, the condition may be asymptomatic and diagnosed incidentally during a medical examination or imaging test.
Diagnosis of Coronary Thrombosis is typically made using electrocardiogram (ECG), blood tests and imaging studies such as angiography or echocardiography. Treatment options include medications to dissolve the clot, surgery to open or bypass the blocked artery or other interventional procedures such as angioplasty or stenting.
Prevention of Coronary Thrombosis includes managing risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, smoking and diabetes through lifestyle changes and medications. Early detection and treatment can help reduce the risk of complications and improve outcomes for patients with this condition.
Word Origin: From coronary (pertaining to the crown) + vasospasm (a spasmodic constriction of a blood vessel).
Graft occlusion can occur due to a variety of factors, including:
1. Blood clots forming within the graft
2. Inflammation or infection within the graft
3. Narrowing or stenosis of the graft
4. Disruption of the graft material
5. Poor blood flow through the graft
The signs and symptoms of vascular graft occlusion can vary depending on the location and severity of the blockage. They may include:
1. Pain or tenderness in the affected limb
2. Swelling or redness in the affected limb
3. Weakness or numbness in the affected limb
4. Difficulty walking or moving the affected limb
5. Coolness or discoloration of the skin in the affected limb
If you experience any of these symptoms, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. A healthcare professional can diagnose vascular graft occlusion using imaging tests such as ultrasound, angiography, or MRI. Treatment options for vascular graft occlusion may include:
1. Medications to dissolve blood clots or reduce inflammation
2. Surgical intervention to repair or replace the graft
3. Balloon angioplasty or stenting to open up the blocked graft
4. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy to improve blood flow and promote healing.
Preventive measures to reduce the risk of vascular graft occlusion include:
1. Proper wound care and infection prevention after surgery
2. Regular follow-up appointments with your healthcare provider
3. Avoiding smoking and other cardiovascular risk factors
4. Taking medications as directed by your healthcare provider to prevent blood clots and inflammation.
It is important to note that vascular graft occlusion can be a serious complication after surgery, but with prompt medical attention and appropriate treatment, the outcome can be improved.
There are different types of myocardial infarctions, including:
1. ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI): This is the most severe type of heart attack, where a large area of the heart muscle is damaged. It is characterized by a specific pattern on an electrocardiogram (ECG) called the ST segment.
2. Non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI): This type of heart attack is less severe than STEMI, and the damage to the heart muscle may not be as extensive. It is characterized by a smaller area of damage or a different pattern on an ECG.
3. Incomplete myocardial infarction: This type of heart attack is when there is some damage to the heart muscle but not a complete blockage of blood flow.
4. Collateral circulation myocardial infarction: This type of heart attack occurs when there are existing collateral vessels that bypass the blocked coronary artery, which reduces the amount of damage to the heart muscle.
Symptoms of a myocardial infarction can include chest pain or discomfort, shortness of breath, lightheadedness, and fatigue. These symptoms may be accompanied by anxiety, fear, and a sense of impending doom. In some cases, there may be no noticeable symptoms at all.
Diagnosis of myocardial infarction is typically made based on a combination of physical examination findings, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as an electrocardiogram (ECG), cardiac enzyme tests, and imaging studies like echocardiography or cardiac magnetic resonance imaging.
Treatment of myocardial infarction usually involves medications to relieve pain, reduce the amount of work the heart has to do, and prevent further damage to the heart muscle. These may include aspirin, beta blockers, ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, and statins. In some cases, a procedure such as angioplasty or coronary artery bypass surgery may be necessary to restore blood flow to the affected area.
Prevention of myocardial infarction involves managing risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, diabetes, and obesity. This can include lifestyle changes such as a healthy diet, regular exercise, and stress reduction, as well as medications to control these conditions. Early detection and treatment of heart disease can help prevent myocardial infarction from occurring in the first place.
Types of Coronary Aneurysms:
There are two main types of coronary artery aneurysms:
1. Fusiform aneurysm: This is the most common type of CAA and occurs when the artery bulges outward in a fusiform shape, similar to a balloon.
2. Saccular aneurysm: This type of CAA occurs when there is a small outpouching or sac in the artery wall.
Causes and Risk Factors:
The exact cause of coronary artery aneurysms is not fully understood, but several risk factors have been identified, including:
1. Atherosclerosis: The buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries can lead to an aneurysm.
2. High blood pressure: Hypertension can put additional strain on the coronary arteries, increasing the risk of an aneurysm.
3. Heart disease: People with heart disease, such as coronary artery disease or heart failure, are at higher risk for developing a CAA.
4. Genetics: Some people may be more susceptible to CAA due to genetic factors.
5. Infections: Certain infections, such as endocarditis, can cause aneurysms in the coronary arteries.
Symptoms and Diagnosis:
Coronary artery aneurysms may not produce any symptoms, or they may cause mild chest pain or discomfort. In some cases, a CAA may be detected incidentally during a diagnostic test for another condition. Diagnosis is typically made using imaging tests such as:
1. Echocardiography: This non-invasive test uses sound waves to create images of the heart and can help identify any abnormalities in the coronary arteries.
2. Cardiac catheterization: During this test, a thin tube is inserted into the coronary arteries through a blood vessel in the arm or leg to evaluate blood flow and pressure within the heart.
3. Computed tomography (CT) angiography: This test uses X-rays and computer technology to create detailed images of the coronary arteries.
4. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA): This non-invasive test uses magnetic fields and radio waves to create detailed images of the coronary arteries.
Treatment and Management:
The treatment and management of CAA depend on several factors, including the size and location of the aneurysm, the patient's overall health, and the presence of any other medical conditions. Treatment options may include:
1. Monitoring: Small aneurysms that are not causing symptoms may not require immediate treatment and can be monitored with regular check-ups.
2. Medications: Medications such as beta blockers, ACE inhibitors, or calcium channel blockers may be prescribed to control blood pressure, reduce stress on the aneurysm, and prevent complications.
3. Endovascular repair: In this minimally invasive procedure, a small tube is inserted through a blood vessel in the leg and guided to the site of the aneurysm. Once there, the tube expands and secures the aneurysm with a mesh-like device.
4. Open surgical repair: In this surgical procedure, the surgeon makes an incision in the chest to access the aneurysm and repair it with a synthetic graft.
5. Heart transplantation: In severe cases of CAA that are not responding to other treatments, heart transplantation may be considered.
While there is no cure for coronary artery aneurysms, making lifestyle changes can help manage symptoms and improve overall health. These changes may include:
1. Quitting smoking: Smoking is a major risk factor for CAA, so quitting can help reduce the risk of complications.
2. Exercise regularly: Regular physical activity can help improve cardiovascular health and reduce stress on the aneurysm.
3. Eating a healthy diet: A heart-healthy diet that is low in saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium can help manage risk factors such as high blood pressure and high cholesterol.
4. Reducing stress: Stress can increase blood pressure and worsen CAA symptoms. Practicing stress-reducing techniques such as meditation or deep breathing can be helpful.
5. Limiting alcohol consumption: Excessive alcohol consumption can worsen CAA symptoms, so it is important to limit or avoid alcohol altogether.
In conclusion, coronary artery aneurysms are a serious condition that can lead to complications such as heart failure, arrhythmias, and stroke. While there is no cure for CAA, early detection and proper management can help reduce the risk of complications and improve quality of life. Treatment options may include medications, endovascular repair, open surgical repair, or heart transplantation, depending on the severity of the condition. Lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking, exercising regularly, eating a healthy diet, reducing stress, and limiting alcohol consumption can also help manage symptoms and improve cardiovascular health.
Some examples of pathologic constrictions include:
1. Stenosis: A narrowing or constriction of a blood vessel or other tubular structure, often caused by the buildup of plaque or scar tissue.
2. Asthma: A condition characterized by inflammation and constriction of the airways, which can make breathing difficult.
3. Esophageal stricture: A narrowing of the esophagus that can cause difficulty swallowing.
4. Gastric ring constriction: A narrowing of the stomach caused by a band of tissue that forms in the upper part of the stomach.
5. Anal fissure: A tear in the lining of the anus that can cause pain and difficulty passing stools.
Pathologic constrictions can be caused by a variety of factors, including inflammation, infection, injury, or genetic disorders. They can be diagnosed through imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or endoscopies, and may require surgical treatment to relieve symptoms and improve function.
There are several types of coronary occlusion, including:
* Complete coronary occlusion: When all blood flow to the heart is blocked.
* Incomplete coronary occlusion: When only part of the coronary artery is blocked.
* Proximal coronary occlusion: When the blockage occurs closer to the origins of the coronary arteries.
* Distal coronary occlusion: When the blockage occurs further down the coronary arteries, closer to the heart muscle.
The symptoms of coronary occlusion can vary depending on the location and severity of the blockage, but may include:
* Chest pain or discomfort (angina)
* Shortness of breath
* Dizziness or lightheadedness
Coronary occlusion can be diagnosed through various tests such as electrocardiogram (ECG), stress test, echocardiogram, and coronary angiography. Treatment options for coronary occlusion include medications to reduce blood pressure and improve blood flow, angioplasty or stenting to open or clear the blockage, and in some cases, coronary artery bypass surgery.
Preventive measures to reduce the risk of coronary occlusion include:
* Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
* Not smoking
* Managing high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and diabetes
* Exercising regularly
* Maintaining a healthy weight
Early diagnosis and treatment of coronary occlusion can help improve outcomes and reduce the risk of complications such as heart attack or death.
There are different types of hyperplasia, depending on the location and cause of the condition. Some examples include:
1. Benign hyperplasia: This type of hyperplasia is non-cancerous and does not spread to other parts of the body. It can occur in various tissues and organs, such as the uterus (fibroids), breast tissue (fibrocystic changes), or prostate gland (benign prostatic hyperplasia).
2. Malignant hyperplasia: This type of hyperplasia is cancerous and can invade nearby tissues and organs, leading to serious health problems. Examples include skin cancer, breast cancer, and colon cancer.
3. Hyperplastic polyps: These are abnormal growths that occur in the gastrointestinal tract and can be precancerous.
4. Adenomatous hyperplasia: This type of hyperplasia is characterized by an increase in the number of glandular cells in a specific organ, such as the colon or breast. It can be a precursor to cancer.
The symptoms of hyperplasia depend on the location and severity of the condition. In general, they may include:
* Enlargement or swelling of the affected tissue or organ
* Pain or discomfort in the affected area
* Abnormal bleeding or discharge
* Changes in bowel or bladder habits
* Unexplained weight loss or gain
Hyperplasia is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, imaging tests such as ultrasound or MRI, and biopsy. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause and severity of the condition, and may include medication, surgery, or other interventions.
Myocardial ischemia can be caused by a variety of factors, including coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, and smoking. It can also be triggered by physical exertion or stress.
There are several types of myocardial ischemia, including:
1. Stable angina: This is the most common type of myocardial ischemia, and it is characterized by a predictable pattern of chest pain that occurs during physical activity or emotional stress.
2. Unstable angina: This is a more severe type of myocardial ischemia that can occur without any identifiable trigger, and can be accompanied by other symptoms such as shortness of breath or vomiting.
3. Acute coronary syndrome (ACS): This is a condition that includes both stable angina and unstable angina, and it is characterized by a sudden reduction in blood flow to the heart muscle.
4. Heart attack (myocardial infarction): This is a type of myocardial ischemia that occurs when the blood flow to the heart muscle is completely blocked, resulting in damage or death of the cardiac tissue.
Myocardial ischemia can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including electrocardiograms (ECGs), stress tests, and imaging studies such as echocardiography or cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Treatment options for myocardial ischemia include medications such as nitrates, beta blockers, and calcium channel blockers, as well as lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking, losing weight, and exercising regularly. In severe cases, surgical procedures such as coronary artery bypass grafting or angioplasty may be necessary.
There are two main types of carotid stenosis:
1. Internal carotid artery stenosis: This type of stenosis occurs when the internal carotid artery, which supplies blood to the brain, becomes narrowed or blocked.
2. Common carotid artery stenosis: This type of stenosis occurs when the common carotid artery, which supplies blood to the head and neck, becomes narrowed or blocked.
The symptoms of carotid stenosis can vary depending on the severity of the blockage and the extent of the affected area. Some common symptoms include:
* Dizziness or lightheadedness
* Vertigo (a feeling of spinning)
* Blurred vision or double vision
* Memory loss or confusion
* Slurred speech
* Weakness or numbness in the face, arm, or leg on one side of the body
If left untreated, carotid stenosis can lead to a stroke or other serious complications. Treatment options for carotid stenosis include medications to lower cholesterol and blood pressure, as well as surgical procedures such as endarterectomy (removing plaque from the artery) or stenting (placing a small mesh tube in the artery to keep it open).
In conclusion, carotid stenosis is a serious medical condition that can lead to stroke and other complications if left untreated. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
Neointima can be observed in various cardiovascular conditions such as atherosclerosis, stenosis, and graft stenosis. The thickness of the neointima is an important predictor of cardiovascular events such as restenosis after angioplasty or stenting.
Neointima can be characterized using various imaging techniques such as intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT), which provide detailed information on the morphology and composition of the neointima.
Understanding the mechanisms of neointima formation and its role in cardiovascular disease can help to develop new therapeutic strategies for preventing or treating these conditions.
Word origin: Greek "anginos" meaning "pain in the neck".
There are several different types of calcinosis, each with its own unique causes and symptoms. Some common forms of calcinosis include:
1. Dystrophic calcinosis: This type of calcinosis occurs in people with muscular dystrophy, a group of genetic disorders that affect muscle strength and function. Dystrophic calcinosis can cause calcium deposits to form in the muscles, leading to muscle weakness and wasting.
2. Metastatic calcinosis: This type of calcinosis occurs when cancer cells spread to other parts of the body and cause calcium deposits to form. Metastatic calcinosis can occur in people with a variety of different types of cancer, including breast, lung, and prostate cancer.
3. Idiopathic calcinosis: This type of calcinosis occurs for no apparent reason, and the exact cause is not known. Idiopathic calcinosis can affect people of all ages and can cause calcium deposits to form in a variety of different tissues.
4. Secondary calcinosis: This type of calcidosis occurs as a result of an underlying medical condition or injury. For example, secondary calcinosis can occur in people with kidney disease, hyperparathyroidism (a condition in which the parathyroid glands produce too much parathyroid hormone), or traumatic injuries.
Treatment for calcinosis depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. In some cases, treatment may involve managing the underlying disease or condition that is causing the calcium deposits to form. Other treatments may include medications to reduce inflammation and pain, physical therapy to improve mobility and strength, and surgery to remove the calcium deposits.
Types of Arterial Occlusive Diseases:
1. Atherosclerosis: Atherosclerosis is a condition where plaque builds up inside the arteries, leading to narrowing or blockages that can restrict blood flow to certain areas of the body.
2. Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD): PAD is a condition where the blood vessels in the legs and arms become narrowed or blocked, leading to pain or cramping in the affected limbs.
3. Coronary Artery Disease (CAD): CAD is a condition where the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart, become narrowed or blocked, leading to chest pain or a heart attack.
4. Carotid Artery Disease: Carotid artery disease is a condition where the carotid arteries, which supply blood to the brain, become narrowed or blocked, leading to stroke or mini-stroke.
5. Renal Artery Stenosis: Renal artery stenosis is a condition where the blood vessels that supply the kidneys become narrowed or blocked, leading to high blood pressure and decreased kidney function.
Symptoms of Arterial Occlusive Diseases:
1. Pain or cramping in the affected limbs
2. Weakness or fatigue
3. Difficulty walking or standing
4. Chest pain or discomfort
5. Shortness of breath
6. Dizziness or lightheadedness
7. Stroke or mini-stroke
Treatment for Arterial Occlusive Diseases:
1. Medications: Medications such as blood thinners, cholesterol-lowering drugs, and blood pressure medications may be prescribed to treat arterial occlusive diseases.
2. Lifestyle Changes: Lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking, exercising regularly, and eating a healthy diet can help manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease.
3. Endovascular Procedures: Endovascular procedures such as angioplasty and stenting may be performed to open up narrowed or blocked blood vessels.
4. Surgery: In some cases, surgery may be necessary to treat arterial occlusive diseases, such as bypass surgery or carotid endarterectomy.
Prevention of Arterial Occlusive Diseases:
1. Maintain a healthy diet and lifestyle
2. Quit smoking and avoid exposure to secondhand smoke
3. Exercise regularly
4. Manage high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and diabetes
5. Avoid excessive alcohol consumption
6. Get regular check-ups with your healthcare provider
Early detection and treatment of arterial occlusive diseases can help manage symptoms, slow the progression of the disease, and prevent complications such as heart attack or stroke.
There are several types of thrombosis, including:
1. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT): A clot forms in the deep veins of the legs, which can cause swelling, pain, and skin discoloration.
2. Pulmonary embolism (PE): A clot breaks loose from another location in the body and travels to the lungs, where it can cause shortness of breath, chest pain, and coughing up blood.
3. Cerebral thrombosis: A clot forms in the brain, which can cause stroke or mini-stroke symptoms such as weakness, numbness, or difficulty speaking.
4. Coronary thrombosis: A clot forms in the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart muscle, leading to a heart attack.
5. Renal thrombosis: A clot forms in the kidneys, which can cause kidney damage or failure.
The symptoms of thrombosis can vary depending on the location and size of the clot. Some common symptoms include:
1. Swelling or redness in the affected limb
2. Pain or tenderness in the affected area
3. Warmth or discoloration of the skin
4. Shortness of breath or chest pain if the clot has traveled to the lungs
5. Weakness, numbness, or difficulty speaking if the clot has formed in the brain
6. Rapid heart rate or irregular heartbeat
7. Feeling of anxiety or panic
Treatment for thrombosis usually involves medications to dissolve the clot and prevent new ones from forming. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the clot or repair the damaged blood vessel. Prevention measures include maintaining a healthy weight, exercising regularly, avoiding long periods of immobility, and managing chronic conditions such as high blood pressure and diabetes.
1. Infection: Bacterial or viral infections can develop after surgery, potentially leading to sepsis or organ failure.
2. Adhesions: Scar tissue can form during the healing process, which can cause bowel obstruction, chronic pain, or other complications.
3. Wound complications: Incisional hernias, wound dehiscence (separation of the wound edges), and wound infections can occur.
4. Respiratory problems: Pneumonia, respiratory failure, and atelectasis (collapsed lung) can develop after surgery, particularly in older adults or those with pre-existing respiratory conditions.
5. Cardiovascular complications: Myocardial infarction (heart attack), cardiac arrhythmias, and cardiac failure can occur after surgery, especially in high-risk patients.
6. Renal (kidney) problems: Acute kidney injury or chronic kidney disease can develop postoperatively, particularly in patients with pre-existing renal impairment.
7. Neurological complications: Stroke, seizures, and neuropraxia (nerve damage) can occur after surgery, especially in patients with pre-existing neurological conditions.
8. Pulmonary embolism: Blood clots can form in the legs or lungs after surgery, potentially causing pulmonary embolism.
9. Anesthesia-related complications: Respiratory and cardiac complications can occur during anesthesia, including respiratory and cardiac arrest.
10. delayed healing: Wound healing may be delayed or impaired after surgery, particularly in patients with pre-existing medical conditions.
It is important for patients to be aware of these potential complications and to discuss any concerns with their surgeon and healthcare team before undergoing surgery.
Arteriosclerosis can affect any artery in the body, but it is most commonly seen in the arteries of the heart, brain, and legs. It is a common condition that affects millions of people worldwide and is often associated with aging and other factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, and smoking.
There are several types of arteriosclerosis, including:
1. Atherosclerosis: This is the most common type of arteriosclerosis and occurs when plaque builds up inside the arteries.
2. Arteriolosclerosis: This type affects the small arteries in the body and can cause decreased blood flow to organs such as the kidneys and brain.
3. Medial sclerosis: This type affects the middle layer of the artery wall and can cause stiffness and narrowing of the arteries.
4. Intimal sclerosis: This type occurs when plaque builds up inside the innermost layer of the artery wall, causing it to become thick and less flexible.
Symptoms of arteriosclerosis can include chest pain, shortness of breath, leg pain or cramping during exercise, and numbness or weakness in the limbs. Treatment for arteriosclerosis may include lifestyle changes such as a healthy diet and regular exercise, as well as medications to lower blood pressure and cholesterol levels. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to open up or bypass blocked arteries.
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Drug-eluting stent impl3
- 3. Risk factors for revascularization and in-stent restenosis in patients with triple-vessel disease after second-generation drug-eluting stent implantation: a retrospective analysis. (nih.gov)
- 8. Impact of coronary anatomy and stenting technique on long-term outcome after drug-eluting stent implantation for unprotected left main coronary artery disease. (nih.gov)
- 9. Influence of insulin resistance on in-stent restenosis in patients undergoing coronary drug-eluting stent implantation after long-term angiographic follow-up. (nih.gov)
- IntraSight Mobile brings together imaging and physiology applications on a mobile system for coronary and peripheral artery disease therapy. (philips.com)
- 5. A prediction model based on platelet parameters, lipid levels, and angiographic characteristics to predict in-stent restenosis in coronary artery disease patients implanted with drug-eluting stents. (nih.gov)
- 6. Risk investigation of in-stent restenosis after initial implantation of intracoronary drug-eluting stent in patients with coronary heart disease. (nih.gov)
- 10. FGF-23 correlates with endocrine and metabolism dysregulation, worse cardiac and renal function, inflammation level, stenosis degree, and independently predicts in-stent restenosis risk in coronary heart disease patients underwent drug-eluting-stent PCI. (nih.gov)
- 11. Risk factors of in-stent restenosis among coronary artery disease patients with syphilis undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: a retrospective study. (nih.gov)
- An everolimus-eluting bioresorbable scaffold produces a comparable success rate to an everolimus-eluting metallic stent in aiding patients with coronary artery disease, according to results from the ABSORB II trial presented Sept. 14 at TCT 2014, and simultaneously published in the Lancet . (acc.org)
- The exercise electrocardiogram (ECG) is used in the evaluation of symptomatic patients to predict the presence and extent of coronary artery disease (CAD) [1,2]. (who.int)
- may refer to any of the disorders that can affect the circulatory system, but often means coronary heart disease (CHD), heart failure, and stroke, taken together. (cdc.gov)
- If you have a stent because of coronary heart disease or carotid artery disease, you are still at risk for heart attack or stroke. (nih.gov)
- A patent exists for the use of resveratrol to prevent and to treat restenosis after coronary disease treatment, and a patent application was filed for using resveratrol compounds with nucleoside analogs for treating HIV-1 infections. (nih.gov)
- SELUTION SLR was awarded CE Mark Approval for the treatment of coronary artery disease in May 2020. (salesandmarketingnetwork.com)
- It is headquartered in Nyon, Switzerland, MedAlliance specializes in the development of ground-breaking technology and commercialization of advanced drug device combination products for the treatment of coronary and peripheral artery disease. (salesandmarketingnetwork.com)
- The Resolute™ Integrity Zotarolimus-Eluting Stent in Coronary Artery Disease: A Review Banerjee, Subhash 2013-01-04 00:00:00 The introduction of first-generation drug-eluting stents (DES) was a major advance in the percutaneous treatment of coronary artery disease, with DES significantly reducing the incidence of restenosis and major adverse coronary events compared with bare metal stents. (deepdyve.com)
- Cancer, rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory diseases, atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, thrombosis, weak immune systems - not by chance some of our most common diseases are also among the most serious health problems associated with lack of omega-3 fats. (rv.ua)
- The Promus Element has a strut thickness of 81 µm and is currently being compared with the previous Co-Cr Promus EES in 1532 patients in A Prospective, Randomized, Multicenter Trial to Assess an Everolimus-Eluting Coronary Stent System (Promus Element) for the Treatment of up to Two de novo Coronary Artery Lesions (PLATINUM) clinical trial. (medscape.com)
- The Taxus Element stent is currently undergoing evaluation in A Prospective Evaluation in a Randomized Trial of the Safety and Efficacy of the Use of the Taxus Element Paclitaxel-Eluting Coronary Stent System for the Treatment of de novo Coronary Artery Lesions (PERSEUS) clinical trial program. (medscape.com)
- In addition to the BTK and superficial femoral artery (SFA) indications for which the company received FDA IDE approval in May and August 2022, MedAlliance received coronary in-stent restenosis (ISR) IDE approval in October 2022 and de novo coronary artery lesions on January 6th 2023, which will complement the substantial experience that the company has gained with the SELUTION DeNovo trial in Europe. (salesandmarketingnetwork.com)
- It is concluded that R-ZES use in complex patients and lesions is associated with durable efficacy and safety and represents another generational improvement in DES technology, which undoubtedly will enhance patient outcomes postpercutaneous coronary interventional. (deepdyve.com)
- Beyond their originally sole mechanical function, current drug-eluting stents (DES) implement the concept of local drug delivery for the re-opening of stenotic arterial vessels, and for prevention of in- stent restenosis as one of the major limitations of conventional bare metal stents (BMS). (bvsalud.org)
- 12. Everolimus-Eluting Stents in Patients With Bare-Metal and Drug-Eluting In-Stent Restenosis: Results From a Patient-Level Pooled Analysis of the RIBS IV and V Trials. (nih.gov)
- 14. Impact of stent diameter and length on in-stent restenosis after DES vs BMS implantation in patients needing large coronary stents-A clinical and health-economic evaluation. (nih.gov)
- The mid 1990s saw the rapid adoption of coronary stents, tiny mesh-like scaffolding devices which were shown to reduce modestly the risk of restenosis. (nih.gov)
- The technique of local arterial drug therapy with drug-eluting coronary stents has had explosive growth. (nih.gov)
- The new updates, aimed at innovating and advancing procedures including percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to treat the narrowing of coronary arteries, are being announced at the Transcatheter Cardiovascular Therapeutics (TCT) annual meeting (Orlando, USA, November 4-6). (philips.com)
- If this occurs in other arteries, restenosis may or may not cause symptoms. (nih.gov)
- Both coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) are commonly used to improve blood flow to the heart muscle supplied by diseased coronary arteries. (nih.gov)
- We included studies that assessed fish and plant sources of omega-3 fatty acids on coronary artery restenosis after angioplasty, carotid IMT, and exercise capacity. (nih.gov)
- Be on the lookout for complications from a coronary stent, carotid stent, or stent graft. (nih.gov)
- The antithrombotic efficacy of prototype antibodies [murine 7E3 Fab and F(ab´) 2 ] and Abciximab was evaluated in dog, monkey and baboon models of coronary, carotid, and femoral artery thrombosis. (nih.gov)
- Advances in coronary stent technology--active drug-loaded stent surfaces for prevention of restenosis and improvement of biocompatibility. (bvsalud.org)
- In this context, this review paper discusses the current advances in coronary stent technology with a special focus on novel stent platforms, drugs and stent coatings for the prevention of restenosis and improvement of biocompatibility. (bvsalud.org)
- Cite this: Current and Future Drug-eluting Coronary Stent Technology - Medscape - Apr 01, 2011. (medscape.com)
- Although DES have impressively demonstrated their capability of reducing in- stent restenosis, their safety remains under debate due to potential risks , such as delayed healing, late thrombosis and hypersensitivity demanding further development. (bvsalud.org)
- In addition, the new platform has increased radial strength and thinner stent struts that have been shown to reduce clinical and angiographic restenosis in a BMS platform. (medscape.com)
- Impact of Coronary Stent Architecture on Clinical Outcomes: Do Minor Changes in Stent Architecture Really Matter? (springer.com)
- We found that paclitaxel prevents restenosis in small- and large-animal models, leading to confirmation of safety and efficacy in multiple human clinical trials worldwide. (nih.gov)
- Treating coronary ISR is challenging and having DEB technology made available through a well-designed and conducted randomized clinical trials is the next step. (salesandmarketingnetwork.com)
- Over 10,000 units have been used for patient treatments in routine clinical practice or as part of coronary clinical trials. (salesandmarketingnetwork.com)
- The hallmark of the restenosis following percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty or coronary atherectomy is the abnormal growth and migration of putative vascular smooth muscle cells. (nih.gov)
- If restenosis does occur, you will need another procedure, including possibly both angioplasty and the placement of another drug-eluting stent. (nih.gov)
- Decades of effort at preventing restenosis through angioplasty techniques or with pharmacotherapy were unsuccessful. (nih.gov)
- Coronary artery atherosclerosis can be asymptomatic, or can cause chest pain, or heart attack. (nih.gov)
- MedAlliance received on Jan 6th IDE approval for coronary de novo indications. (salesandmarketingnetwork.com)
- This is another significant milestone for MedAlliance: we were the first sustained limus release balloon to receive FDA IDE approval, the first to treat a US peripheral patient and now the first to treat a US coronary patient. (salesandmarketingnetwork.com)
- 16. Angiographic Scoring System for Predicting Successful Percutaneous Coronary Intervention of In-Stent Chronic Total Occlusion. (nih.gov)
- Balloon dilation of coronary artery narrowings was generally effective, but outcomes were sometimes limited by renarrowing, or restenosis. (nih.gov)
- Our innovation was to take the opposite strategy, utilizing the anti-cancer drug, paclitaxel, to inhibit microtubule function, a target critical for multiple, diverse cellular processes, and sufficient to stop cells which cause restenosis from growing, dividing, and migrating. (nih.gov)
- 1. Development and validation of a risk prediction nomogram for in-stent restenosis in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. (nih.gov)
- 13. The characteristics and risk factors of in-stent restenosis in patients with percutaneous coronary intervention: what can we do. (nih.gov)
- 15. A Nomogram for Predicting In-Stent Restenosis Risk in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A Population-Based Analysis. (nih.gov)
- To determine the best combination of parameters that would improve the diagnostic performance of exercise testing, coronary angiography plus exercise testing were done on 112 patients with angina pectoris and normal electrocardiogram. (who.int)
- The OUS SELUTION DeNovo study has more than 800 patients of the 3,326 enrolled in this ground-breaking coronary randomized study comparing treatment strategy with SELUTION SLR (DEB) vs. Limus drug eluting stent (DES) strategy. (salesandmarketingnetwork.com)
- SELUTION SLR is the first sustained limus release coronary drug-eluting balloon (DEB) to receive FDA IDE approval for In-stent restenosis (ISR) indications. (salesandmarketingnetwork.com)
- The search for an effective molecular approach to preventing restenosis drove vascular biology research. (nih.gov)
- Compared to placebo, the summary risk ratio of coronary artery restenosis with fish oil is 0.87 (95% CI 0.73, 1.05) across 12 randomized controlled trials. (nih.gov)
- A single nucleotide polymorphism is associated with restenosis risk after coronary stenting and modulates p27kip1 promoter activity. (snpedia.com)
- It can lead to a heart attack if your stent is in a coronary artery. (nih.gov)
- By virtue of the ability to simultaneously block the redundant pathways needed to produce restenosis, another benefit of this approach was that much lower overall drug levels would be effective since a static effect on cells would be sufficient to prevent restenosis, unlike cancer treatment where the requirement is to kill abnormal cells. (nih.gov)
- This study addresses the important unmet need of treatment for the ongoing problem of in-stent restenosis without adding an additional layer of metal stent. (salesandmarketingnetwork.com)
- Femoropopliteal in-stent restenosis (FP-ISR) is a challenging issue to treat considering the poor short-term patency and high possibility of target lesion revascularization (TLR) [ 1 ]. (termedia.pl)
- Chest pain can be a symptom of restenosis, which develops when there is too much tissue growth within the portion of the artery where the stent is placed. (nih.gov)
- Tomar vitamina B6 por vía oral reduce los niveles de prolactina en hombres con esta condición. (medlineplus.gov)
- Specifically inhibiting just one such pathway thus would be unable to prevent restenosis because other redundant pathways could be unaffected. (nih.gov)
- cellular growth of neointimal tissue inside the stent compromised the lumen available for blood flow, creating "in-stent restenosis. (nih.gov)
- Enrollment of the IDE SELUTION4ISR FDA coronary study is ongoing outside the US and additional US centers will soon join MedStar Washington Hospital Center after this first US enrollment. (salesandmarketingnetwork.com)