Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Coronary Circulation: The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Microspheres: Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.Coronary Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Coronary Artery Disease: Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.Cardiac Output: The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Blood Circulation: The movement of the BLOOD as it is pumped through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Splanchnic Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS supplying the abdominal VISCERA.Scandium: Scandium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sc, atomic number 21, and atomic weight 45.Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary: Dilation of an occluded coronary artery (or arteries) by means of a balloon catheter to restore myocardial blood supply.Renal Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the vessels of the KIDNEY.Liver Circulation: The circulation of BLOOD through the LIVER.Coronary Stenosis: Narrowing or constriction of a coronary artery.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Coronary Artery Bypass: Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.Pulmonary Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.Laser-Doppler Flowmetry: A method of non-invasive, continuous measurement of MICROCIRCULATION. The technique is based on the values of the DOPPLER EFFECT of low-power laser light scattered randomly by static structures and moving tissue particulates.Xenon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of xenon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Xe atoms with atomic weights 121-123, 125, 127, 133, 135, 137-145 are radioactive xenon isotopes.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Radioisotopes: Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Nitrogen Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of nitrogen that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. N atoms with atomic weights 12, 13, 16, 17, and 18 are radioactive nitrogen isotopes.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Tomography, Emission-Computed: Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Nafronyl: A drug used in the management of peripheral and cerebral vascular disorders. It is claimed to enhance cellular oxidative capacity and to be a spasmolytic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1310) It may also be an antagonist at 5HT-2 serotonin receptors.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Microcirculation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.Phentolamine: A nonselective alpha-adrenergic antagonist. It is used in the treatment of hypertension and hypertensive emergencies, pheochromocytoma, vasospasm of RAYNAUD DISEASE and frostbite, clonidine withdrawal syndrome, impotence, and peripheral vascular disease.Coronary Vasospasm: Spasm of the large- or medium-sized coronary arteries.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Oxygen Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of oxygen that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. O atoms with atomic weights 13, 14, 15, 19, and 20 are radioactive oxygen isotopes.Ventilation-Perfusion Ratio: The ratio of alveolar ventilation to simultaneous alveolar capillary blood flow in any part of the lung. (Stedman, 25th ed)Collateral Circulation: Maintenance of blood flow to an organ despite obstruction of a principal vessel. Blood flow is maintained through small vessels.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Models, Cardiovascular: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Organotechnetium Compounds: Organic compounds that contain technetium as an integral part of the molecule. These compounds are often used as radionuclide imaging agents.Coronary Aneurysm: Abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of CORONARY VESSELS. Most coronary aneurysms are due to CORONARY ATHEROSCLEROSIS, and the rest are due to inflammatory diseases, such as KAWASAKI DISEASE.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Coronary Thrombosis: Coagulation of blood in any of the CORONARY VESSELS. The presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) often leads to MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Partial Pressure: The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Blood Volume: Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.Ischemia: A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.Iliac Artery: Either of two large arteries originating from the abdominal aorta; they supply blood to the pelvis, abdominal wall and legs.Immersion: The placing of a body or a part thereof into a liquid.Renal Artery: A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester: A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.Pulmonary Gas Exchange: The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Supine Position: The posture of an individual lying face up.Anesthesia, Inhalation: Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.Isoflurane: A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.Coronary Restenosis: Recurrent narrowing or constriction of a coronary artery following surgical procedures performed to alleviate a prior obstruction.Coronary Occlusion: Complete blockage of blood flow through one of the CORONARY ARTERIES, usually from CORONARY ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Leg: The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.Infusions, Parenteral: The administration of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through some other route than the alimentary canal, usually over minutes or hours, either by gravity flow or often by infusion pumping.Propranolol: A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.Mesenteric Arteries: Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A family of percutaneous techniques that are used to manage CORONARY OCCLUSION, including standard balloon angioplasty (PERCUTANEOUS TRANSLUMINAL CORONARY ANGIOPLASTY), the placement of intracoronary STENTS, and atheroablative technologies (e.g., ATHERECTOMY; ENDARTERECTOMY; THROMBECTOMY; PERCUTANEOUS TRANSLUMINAL LASER ANGIOPLASTY). PTCA was the dominant form of PCI, before the widespread use of stenting.Forearm: Part of the arm in humans and primates extending from the ELBOW to the WRIST.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Pulsatile Flow: Rhythmic, intermittent propagation of a fluid through a BLOOD VESSEL or piping system, in contrast to constant, smooth propagation, which produces laminar flow.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Coronary Care Units: The hospital unit in which patients with acute cardiac disorders receive intensive care.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Myocardial Ischemia: A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).Hyperemia: The presence of an increased amount of blood in a body part or an organ leading to congestion or engorgement of blood vessels. Hyperemia can be due to increase of blood flow into the area (active or arterial), or due to obstruction of outflow of blood from the area (passive or venous).Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Stents: Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Capillaries: The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.Adenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Ultrasonography, Interventional: The use of ultrasound to guide minimally invasive surgical procedures such as needle ASPIRATION BIOPSY; DRAINAGE; etc. Its widest application is intravascular ultrasound imaging but it is useful also in urology and intra-abdominal conditions.Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Blood DonorsCalcinosis: Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.Myocardial Revascularization: The restoration of blood supply to the myocardium. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump: Coronary artery bypass surgery on a beating HEART without a CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS (diverting the flow of blood from the heart and lungs through an oxygenator).Angina, Unstable: Precordial pain at rest, which may precede a MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Adrenergic beta-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.Cardiac Catheterization: Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.Rheology: The study of the deformation and flow of matter, usually liquids or fluids, and of the plastic flow of solids. The concept covers consistency, dilatancy, liquefaction, resistance to flow, shearing, thixotrophy, and VISCOSITY.Vasomotor System: The neural systems which act on VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE to control blood vessel diameter. The major neural control is through the sympathetic nervous system.Dipyridamole: A phosphodiesterase inhibitor that blocks uptake and metabolism of adenosine by erythrocytes and vascular endothelial cells. Dipyridamole also potentiates the antiaggregating action of prostacyclin. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p752)Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Ultrasonography, Doppler: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Nitroglycerin: A volatile vasodilator which relieves ANGINA PECTORIS by stimulating GUANYLATE CYCLASE and lowering cytosolic calcium. It is also sometimes used for TOCOLYSIS and explosives.Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors: Drugs or agents which antagonize or impair any mechanism leading to blood platelet aggregation, whether during the phases of activation and shape change or following the dense-granule release reaction and stimulation of the prostaglandin-thromboxane system.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Xenon: A noble gas with the atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.30. It is found in the earth's atmosphere and has been used as an anesthetic.Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Blood Circulation Time: Determination of the shortest time interval between the injection of a substance in the vein and its arrival at some distant site in sufficient concentration to produce a recognizable end result. It represents approximately the inverse of the average velocity of blood flow between two points.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Myocardial Reperfusion: Generally, restoration of blood supply to heart tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. Reperfusion can be induced to treat ischemia. Methods include chemical dissolution of an occluding thrombus, administration of vasodilator drugs, angioplasty, catheterization, and artery bypass graft surgery. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Plethysmography: Recording of change in the size of a part as modified by the circulation in it.Chest Pain: Pressure, burning, or numbness in the chest.Gene Flow: The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.Arterioles: The smallest divisions of the arteries located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries.Papaverine: An alkaloid found in opium but not closely related to the other opium alkaloids in its structure or pharmacological actions. It is a direct-acting smooth muscle relaxant used in the treatment of impotence and as a vasodilator, especially for cerebral vasodilation. The mechanism of its pharmacological actions is not clear, but it apparently can inhibit phosphodiesterases and it may have direct actions on calcium channels.Cerebral Arteries: The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Femoral Artery: The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Ventricular Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.Nitroprusside: A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Physical Exertion: Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.Injections, Intra-Arterial: Delivery of drugs into an artery.Vasoconstrictor Agents: Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial: A non-invasive technique using ultrasound for the measurement of cerebrovascular hemodynamics, particularly cerebral blood flow velocity and cerebral collateral flow. With a high-intensity, low-frequency pulse probe, the intracranial arteries may be studied transtemporally, transorbitally, or from below the foramen magnum.Cardiovascular Agents: Agents that affect the rate or intensity of cardiac contraction, blood vessel diameter, or blood volume.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Myocardial Perfusion Imaging: The creation and display of functional images showing where the blood is flowing into the MYOCARDIUM by following over time the distribution of tracers injected into the blood stream.Fractional Flow Reserve, Myocardial: The ratio of maximum blood flow to the MYOCARDIUM with CORONARY STENOSIS present, to the maximum equivalent blood flow without stenosis. The measurement is commonly used to verify borderline stenosis of CORONARY ARTERIES.Constriction, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Infusions, Intra-Arterial: Regional infusion of drugs via an arterial catheter. Often a pump is used to impel the drug through the catheter. Used in therapy of cancer, upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage, infection, and peripheral vascular disease.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Plaque, Atherosclerotic: Lesions formed within the walls of ARTERIES.Dobutamine: A catecholamine derivative with specificity for BETA-1 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS. It is commonly used as a cardiotonic agent after CARDIAC SURGERY and during DOBUTAMINE STRESS ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Carotid Arteries: Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Aspirin: The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)omega-N-Methylarginine: A competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase.Swine, Miniature: Genetically developed small pigs for use in biomedical research. There are several strains - Yucatan miniature, Sinclair miniature, and Minnesota miniature.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Stroke Volume: The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.Angiography: Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Radial Artery: The direct continuation of the brachial trunk, originating at the bifurcation of the brachial artery opposite the neck of the radius. Its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to the three regions in which the vessel is situated, the forearm, wrist, and hand.Echocardiography, Doppler: Measurement of intracardiac blood flow using an M-mode and/or two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiogram while simultaneously recording the spectrum of the audible Doppler signal (e.g., velocity, direction, amplitude, intensity, timing) reflected from the moving column of red blood cells.Ticlopidine: An effective inhibitor of platelet aggregation commonly used in the placement of STENTS in CORONARY ARTERIES.Ligation: Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.Multidetector Computed Tomography: Types of spiral computed tomography technology in which multiple slices of data are acquired simultaneously improving the resolution over single slice acquisition technology.Oximes: Compounds that contain the radical R2C=N.OH derived from condensation of ALDEHYDES or KETONES with HYDROXYLAMINE. Members of this group are CHOLINESTERASE REACTIVATORS.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Thrombosis: Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.Retinal Vessels: The blood vessels which supply and drain the RETINA.Mammary Arteries: Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles and mammary gland.Cardiopulmonary Bypass: Diversion of the flow of blood from the entrance of the right atrium directly to the aorta (or femoral artery) via an oxygenator thus bypassing both the heart and lungs.Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome: An acute, febrile, mucocutaneous condition accompanied by swelling of cervical lymph nodes in infants and young children. The principal symptoms are fever, congestion of the ocular conjunctivae, reddening of the lips and oral cavity, protuberance of tongue papillae, and edema or erythema of the extremities.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Rest: Freedom from activity.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Veins: The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Middle Cerebral Artery: The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.Cineangiography: Motion pictures of the passage of contrast medium through blood vessels.Antipyrine: An analgesic and antipyretic that has been given by mouth and as ear drops. Antipyrine is often used in testing the effects of other drugs or diseases on drug-metabolizing enzymes in the liver. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p29)Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
It allows for quantification of coronary flow reserve and myocardial blood flow. 82Rb also has an advantage in that it has a ... A standard visual perfusion imaging assessment is based on defining regional uptake relative to the maximum uptake in the ... 82Rb myocardial blood flow quantification is expected to improve the detection of multivessel coronary heart disease. 82Rb/PET ... Myocardial Ischemia is an inadequate blood supply to the heart. 82Rb/PET can be used to quantify the myocardial flow reserve in ...
Vasodilators are used to dilate coronary vessels, which causes increased blood velocity and flow rate in normal vessels and ... the nuclear stress tests more accurately identify regional areas of reduced blood flow. Stress and potential cardiac damage ... Limitation in blood flow to the left ventricle can lead to recurrent angina pectoris. Cardiac steal syndrome Harvard step test ... This is because the stress test compares the patient's coronary flow status before and after exercise and is suitable to ...
... regional blood flow MeSH G09.330.582.163.812 --- renal circulation MeSH G09.330.582.163.812.700 --- renal blood flow, effective ... coronary circulation MeSH G09.330.582.163.645 --- microcirculation MeSH G09.330.582.163.749 --- placental circulation MeSH ... blood flow velocity MeSH G09.330.553.400.114 --- blood pressure MeSH G09.330.553.400.114.695 --- pulmonary wedge pressure MeSH ... maximal midexpiratory flow rate MeSH G09.772.765.650.300.790 --- peak expiratory flow rate MeSH G09.772.765.650.430 --- forced ...
Play media Restoring adequate blood flow to the heart muscle in people with heart failure and significant coronary artery ... Ischemic cardiomyopathy can be diagnosed via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol, imaging both global and regional ... is caused by too little blood flow and hence oxygen reaching the muscular layer of the heart due to a narrowing of coronary ... Ischemic cardiomyopathy is a type of cardiomyopathy caused by a narrowing of the coronary arteries which supply blood to the ...
"Changes in myocardial blood flow and ST segment elevation following coronary artery occlusion in dogs." Circulation research 36 ... "A noninvasive scintiphotographic method for detecting regional ventricular dysfunction in man." New England Journal of Medicine ...
... the syndrome resulting from the blood flow problem called coronary steal Carotid sinus syndrome (carotid sinus syncope)-see ... a cable-exclusive regional sports television network Citizens Signpost Service, a body of the European Commission Commission on ... a study collecting data across a population at one point in time Coronary steal syndrome, ...
Coronary steal syndrome, the syndrome resulting from the blood flow problem called coronary steal ... Comcast/Charter Sports Southeast, a cable-exclusive regional sports television network. *Citizens Signpost Service, a body of ...
... thereby increasing blood flow. When injected into the penis (intracavernosal), it increases blood flow to the penis, which ... Phentolamine Therapy for Cocaine-Association Acute Coronary Syndrome (CAACS). Journal of Medical Toxicology. 2006 Sep;2(3):108- ... Phentolamine also has diagnostic and therapeutic roles in complex regional pain syndrome (reflex sympathetic dystrophy). ... When given by injection it causes blood vessels to dilate, ... which help to offset the decrease in systemic blood pressure. ...
In difficult cases or in situations where intervention to restore blood flow is appropriate, coronary angiography can be ... New regional wall motion abnormalities on an echocardiogram are also suggestive of a myocardial infarction. Echo may be ... blood tests for heart muscle cell damage). A coronary angiogram allows visualization of narrowings or obstructions on the heart ... thallium-201 chloride or Rubidium-82 Chloride can be used in nuclear medicine to visualize areas of reduced blood flow in ...
If a coronary artery suddenly becomes very narrowed or completed blocked, interrupting or severely reducing blood flow, a ... Frank-Starling law of the heart Regional function of the heart Nebulette S., Sinnatamby, Chummy (2006). Last's anatomy : ... The flow of sodium ions is rapid but very short-lived, while the flow of calcium is sustained and gives the plateau phase ... If these narrowings gradually become severe enough to partially restrict blood flow, the syndrome of angina pectoris may occur ...
Blood flow through the left coronary artery is at a maximum during diastole (in contrast to the rest of systemic circulation, ... Regional circulation[edit]. Name of circulation. % of cardiac output. Autoregulation. Perfusion. Comments ... coronary circulation. 5%. high. under-perfused. Minimal ability to use anaerobic respiration. ...
The mitral valve controls the blood flow from the lungs back into the left side of the heart, to be pumped back out through the ... Other Baker Institute colleagues such as Kenneth N Morris and George Stirling performed the first coronary bypass and the first ... This domain leads research projects in close collaboration with community stakeholders across remote, regional and urban ... flow and pressure in circulation and introducing diagnostic materials Development of plethysmography to measure blood flow in ...
... the regional dysfunction due to ischemia will become evident when the myocardial oxygen demand surpasses the Coronary flow ... A novel method for angle independent ultrasonic imaging of blood flow and tissue motion. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 1991 Mar;38(3): ... Also in regional asynchrony, as in Bundle branch block, there is regional heterogeneity of systolic function. By strain rate ... so the regional measurements are not pure regional, but rather to a degree, spline functions of the global average. In addition ...
Similarly we could also include on such a mobile platform diagnostic capability to monitor pulse flow of the blood in regional ... Indians have the highest incidence of coronary artery disease compared to any other ethnic group in the world. To create ... United Kingdom Member American Association of Blood Banks Member International Society of Blood Transfusion International ... One example of simplification that we are contemplating is to develop capability to do all the blood chemistry on a cell phone ...
A novel method for angle independent ultrasonic imaging of blood flow and tissue motion. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 1991 Mar;38(3): ... so the regional measurements are not pure regional, but rather to a degree, spline functions of the global average. AS the ... However, this study only included patients with coronary disease. The lower frame rate has been seen to be a problem in stress ... 2005 May;18(5):411-8. Amundsen BH, Crosby J, Steen PA, Torp H, Slørdahl SA, Støylen A. Regional myocardial long-axis strain and ...
"Videodensitometric system for measurement of vessel blood flow, particularly in the coronary arteries, in man". Am J Cardiol. ... Hoffman, EA; Ritman, EL (1987). "Heart-lung interaction: effect on regional lung air content and total heart volume". Ann. ... hence increasing blood pressure and blood flow to the brain. The G-suit was a superior solution to another alternative (a water ... After his work on the G-Suit, Wood worked on techniques for measuring cardiac blood flow. He was granted a patent for the ear ...
Smoking also has a deleterious effect on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). The chances of having a stroke increase with the ... De Groot, PC; Dekkers, OM; Romijn, JA; Dieben, SW; Helmerhorst, FM (2011). "PCOS, coronary heart disease, stroke and the ... "Effects of smoking on regional cerebral blood flow in neurologically normal subjects". Stroke: A Journal of Cerebral ... Transfusion therapy lowers the risk for a new silent stroke in children who have both abnormal cerebral artery blood flow ...
This allows assessment of both normal and abnormal blood flow through the heart. Color Doppler, as well as spectral Doppler, is ... Contrast echocardiography has also been used to assess blood perfusion throughout myocardium in the case of coronary artery ... The most commonly used application is in the enhancement of LV endocardial borders for assessment of global and regional ... Ischemia of one or more coronary arteries could cause a wall motion abnormality, which could indicate coronary artery disease. ...
... and measuring radioactivity over the anterior chest as the radioactive blood flows through the large vessels and the heart ... In a stress MUGA, patients with coronary artery disease may exhibit a decrease in ejection fraction. For a patient that has had ... in cardiac function may be manifested as a decrease in LVEF and/or the presence of abnormalities in global and regional wall ... Red blood cell binding of the radioactive tracer is generally more efficient than in vitro labeling, and it is preferred in ...
It actively inflates in diastole, increasing blood flow to the coronary arteries via retrograde flow. These actions combine to ... Regional Cardiac Center, Morriston Hospital, Swansea, UK, Ital Heart J 2005; 6 (4): 361-362). ... Increasing cardiac output increases coronary blood flow and therefore myocardial oxygen delivery. It consists of a cylindrical ... That is, it actively deflates in systole, increasing forward blood flow by reducing afterload through a vacuum effect. ...
... from ischemic areas of the myocardium to the normally supplied myocardial in order to maintain overall myocardial blood flow. ... He was involved with research pertaining to premature coronary artery disease in those hailing from the Indian sub-continent ... Oxford Regional Health Authority and St. Mary's Medical School, Paddington, London. The research he conducted shed light on the ...
... blood-brain barrier damage, and cognitive deficits), daily RIC for two weeks increased cerebral blood flow, and this increase ... "Remote Ischemic Conditioning in Percutaneous Coronary Intervention and Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting". Circulation Journal. ... Przyklenk, K.; Bauer, B.; Ovize, M.; Kloner, R. A.; Whittaker, P. (1993-03-01). "Regional ischemic 'preconditioning' protects ... Reduced cerebral blood flow is an early finding in vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). Cardiovascular risk factor control is ...
... in turn allowing cerebral blood flow to be assessed with the nuclear gamma camera. Because blood flow in the brain is tightly ... 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT scanning competes with fludeoxyglucose (FDG) PET scanning of the brain, which works to assess regional brain ... ISBN 978-1-85233-617-2. . Elhendy et al., Dobutamine Stress Myocardial Perfusion Imaging in Coronary Artery Disease, J Nucl Med ... Emissions from the radionuclide indicate amounts of blood flow in the capillaries of the imaged regions. In the same way that a ...
The leads themselves do not cause a change in the blood flow to the heart. Battery charger: The battery charger ensures the ... Marcus, Melvin L. (1983). The Coronary Circulation in Health and Disease. McGraw Hill. ISBN 978-0070402935. Butter, C.; et al ... Dec 2009). "Impact of cardiac contractility modulation on left ventricular global and regional function and remodeling" (PDF). ... the average percentage of blood volume ejected by the left ventricle with each heart beat (left ventricular ejection fraction ...
Spasm of coronary arteries, such as Prinzmetal's angina may cause blockage. If impaired blood flow to the heart lasts long ... This may be part of regional cardiovascular disease prevention programs, or through the health impact assessment of regional ... coronary artery spasm, coronary embolism, anemia, arrhythmias, high blood pressure or low blood pressure Sudden unexpected ... In a STEMI, treatments attempt to restore blood flow to the heart, and include percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), where ...
A 2015 study of users in the United States also found elevated blood lead levels in 40 percent of those tested. Other concerns ... Chiropractic was developed in the belief that manipulating the spine affects the flow of a supernatural vital energy and ... "intercessory prayer had no significant effect on medical outcomes after hospitalization in a coronary care unit."[79] ... piercing the body with needles to influence the flow of a supernatural energy) might be believed to increase the effectiveness ...
... a regional cerebral perfusion disturbance might be caused. In addition, it has been reported11 12 that coronary atheroscrelosis ... The role of adenosine in the regulation of cerebral blood flow. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab.. 1981;1:239-244. ... Extraction of [99mTc]-d, l-HM-PAO across the blood-brain barrier. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab.. 1988;8:S44-S51. ... has been widely used for the measurement of coronary flow reserve in patients with coronary artery disease as well as coronary ...
The effect of acetylcholine on the regional coronary perfusion and O2consumption was determined in anesthetized open chest ... 1989) The Effect of Acetylcholine on Regional Myocardial O2 Consumption and Coronary Blood Flow in the Rabbit Heart. In: ... The Effect of Acetylcholine on Regional Myocardial O2 Consumption and Coronary Blood Flow in the Rabbit Heart. ... Coronary blood flow decreased uniformly across the left ventricular wall by about 50% and resistance to flow increased by 42% ...
MEASUREMENT OF REGIONAL MYOCARDIAL BLOOD FLOW BY HYDROGEN GAS CLEARANCE METHOD (4TH REPORT) ON RELATION BETWEEN CORONARY INFLOW ... AND REGIONAL MYOCARDIAL BLOOD FLOW IN BEATING AND FIBRILLATING HEART * * Inooka Eiji ...
C5a decreases regional coronary blood flow and myocardial function in pigs: implications for a granulocyte mechanism.. S E ... C5a decreases regional coronary blood flow and myocardial function in pigs: implications for a granulocyte mechanism. ... C5a decreases regional coronary blood flow and myocardial function in pigs: implications for a granulocyte mechanism. ... C5a decreases regional coronary blood flow and myocardial function in pigs: implications for a granulocyte mechanism. ...
WICKER, P. & TARAZI, R.C. (1982). Coronary blood flow measurements with left atrial injection of microspheres in conscious rats ... Effects of ET-1 and MgSO4 on regional and subregional blood flows. Effects on cranial flow (brain, eye, tongue, cranial skin). ... MgSO4 had no effect on blood flow through the eyes or cranial skin, but increased brain and tongue blood flows to above ... MALIK, A.B., KAPLAN, J.E. & SABA, T.M. (1976). Reference sample method for cardiac output and regional blood flow determination ...
Relationship between changes in left ventricular bipolar electrograms and regional myocardial blood flow during acute coronary ... Relationship between changes in left ventricular bipolar electrograms and regional myocardial blood flow during acute coronary ... Relationship between changes in left ventricular bipolar electrograms and regional myocardial blood flow during acute coronary ... Relationship between changes in left ventricular bipolar electrograms and regional myocardial blood flow during acute coronary ...
... grade 3 flow has been identified as a predictor of final TIMI grade 3 flow and better survival. Yet pharmacologic strategies ... Pre-percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) ... Regional Blood Flow. Vascular Patency / physiology*. Chemical. Reg. No./Substance: 0/Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0/Immunoglobulin ... Coronary Angiography*. Coronary Circulation / physiology*. Coronary Vessels / physiopathology*. Drug-Eluting Stents. ...
A proposed mechanism, based on animal studies, is myocardial ischemia resulting from inadequate coronary blood fl ... Lactates / blood. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms / metabolism, physiopathology. Oxygen Consumption. Regional Blood Flow. Shock, ... is myocardial ischemia resulting from inadequate coronary blood flow. Coronary flow observations have not been reported for ... thermodilution coronary sinus catheters were placed in seven patients with septic shock for measurements of coronary flow and ...
coronary blood flow. HR. heart rate. RMBFs. regional myocardial blood flows. **Received June 19, 2001. ... aortic pressure and coronary blood flow (CBFv) (Doppler). Circumflex coronary artery stenosis was set up to suppress the ...
Influence of cardiac contraction and coronary vasomotor tone on regional myocardial blood flow AUSTIN RE Jr ... The influence of coronary pressure and coronary flow on intracoronary blood volume and geometry of the left ventricle ... Evaluation of local blood flow velocity in proximal and distal coronary arteries by laser doppler method KAJIYA F. ... Effect of inhibition of nitric oxide formation on coronary blood flow during exercise in the dog. ALTMAN J. D. ...
Following baseline measurements of systemic hemodynamics and regional myocardial blood flow, coronary microembolization was ... were injected into the coronary perfusion circuit to determine the regional myocardial blood flow and its distribution ... 4 The immediate consequences of coronary microembolization are a transient decrease in coronary blood flow with subsequent ... and subendocardial blood flow. Area at risk (as percentage of the left ventricle) and subendocardial blood flow at 5 minutes of ...
Growth hormone increases regional coronary blood flow and capillary density in aged rats. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2001; ... Parati G, Frattola A, Di Rienzo M, Castiglioni P, Mancia G. Broadband spectral analysis of blood pressure and heart rate ...
Effect of hyperoxia on regional blood flow after coronary occlusion in awake dogs. Am J Physiol 1980; 238: h244-h248. ... Independent role of arterial O2 tension in local control of coronary blood flow. Am J Physiol 1990; 258: H1388-H1394. ... Animal studies have shown that hyperoxia can reduce coronary blood flow,3 particularly to ischaemic areas.4 Hyperoxia can also ... 5 6 These haemodynamic changes may further impair blood flow and delivery of oxygen to tissues already hypoperfused. This ...
Regional muscle work,Myocardial oxygen demand and energetics,Coronary blood flow Electrophysiological responses. Action ... Blood flow in the artery is mostly laminar with the exception of the proximal aorta and main pulmonary artery. The blood flow ... The heart valves allow blood to flow in only one direction through the heart, permitting forward flow and preventing back flow ... The blood flow velocity is calculated with the Doppler equation. V. =. F. d. ×. c. 2. ×. F. o. ×. c. o. s. θ. {\displaystyle V ...
The catheter is adapted for improved retention in the coronary sinus. The catheter comprises a catheter tube having infusion, ... A coronary sinus catheter for the retrograde infusion of cardioplegia solutions into the coronary sinus. ... Effects of Diastolic Synchronized Retroperfusion on Regional Coronary Blood Flow in Experimental Myocardial Ischemia; Berdeaux ... Effects of Diastolic Synchronized Retroperfusion on Regional Coronary Blood Flow in Experimental Myocardial Ischemia; Berdeaux ...
However, during hyperemia, flow progressively decreases when the degree of stenosis is about 40 percent or more and does not ... differ significantly from basal flow when stenosis is 80 percen … ... basal myocardial blood flow remains constant regardless of the severity of coronary-artery stenosis. ... Regional myocardial blood flow in the area supplied by the stenosed artery was measured by positron-emission tomography with ...
Most of the coronary blood vessels are embedded in the... ... While the heart pumps blood to serve the whole body, the heart ... Bassingthwaighte, J.B., King, R.B., and Roger, S.A. (1989). Fractal nature of regional myocardial blood flow heterogeneity. ... Left Anterior Descend Right Coronary Artery Coronary Blood Flow Order Number Vessel Element These keywords were added by ... The interaction between the muscle cells and the blood vessels dominates the coronary blood flow. None of the individual ...
Relationship between changes in bipolar electrograms and regional myocardial blood flow during acute coronary artery occlusion ... instantaneous flow response and regional distribution during coronary hyperemia as measures of coronary flow reserve. Am J ... blood flow. Coronary angiography remains the cornerstone of diagnosis in patients with coronary artery disease. Presence, ... myocardial resistance and blood flow are fitted to metabolic demand by coronary autoregulation. At rest, the coronary vascular ...
CFD Analysis of the Blood Flow in Left Coronary Bifurcation with Variable Angulation. Midiya Khademi, Ali Nikoo, Shabnam ... A Comparative Study of Regional Climate Models and Global Coupled Models over Uttarakhand. Sudip Kumar Kundu, Charu Singh ...
... rCFVR gives a direct measurement of the regional decreased blood flow; rCFVR of 0.7 means a flow reduction of 30% but a flow ... CORONARY FLOW VELOCITY ANALYSIS. Coronary blood flow velocity measurements were performed with a Doppler angioplasty guide wire ... RELATIVE CORONARY FLOW RESERVE AND MYOCARDIAL PERFUSION SCINTIGRAPHY. A 50% decrease in regional flow during hyperaemia is ... Functional assessment of coronary artery stenosis by Doppler derived absolute and relative coronary blood flow velocity reserve ...
In addition, coronary blood flow is reduced, forcing the heart to work harder to deliver oxygen to the body. Such strain places ... There are, however, regional and sex differences in the incidence of smoking-related cardiovascular disease. In China, for ... It passes easily from the lungs into the bloodstream, where it binds to hemoglobin, the molecule in red blood cells that is ... coronary heart disease (in cardiovascular disease: Epidemiology) *genetic damage from environmental agents (in human genetic ...
In addition, coronary blood flow is reduced, forcing the heart to work harder to deliver oxygen to the body. Such strain places ... There are, however, regional and sex differences in the incidence of smoking-related cardiovascular disease. In China, for ... As previously discussed, the carbon monoxide present in cigarette smoke binds to hemoglobin in the blood, making fewer ...
Global presented the average LV value, and regional presented values for the 3 vascular territories in the regions of coronary ... myocardial blood flow. MFR. myocardial flow reserve. RCA. right coronary artery. SP. software package. TCM. tissue compartment ... 2009) Rubidium-82 PET-CT for quantitative assessment of myocardial blood flow: validation in a canine model of coronary artery ... 2012) Comparison of clinical tools for measurements of regional stress and rest myocardial blood flow assessed with 13N-ammonia ...
Regional myocardial blood flow. Collateral blood flow during sustained LAD occlusion was similar in saline- and calcium-treated ... Coronary blood flow remained stable at ≈100% of baseline throughout IC infusion of calcium or saline. All dogs were hyperemic ... Regional myocardial blood flow. Collateral blood flow during sustained occlusion was similar in all groups, ie, mean ... Regional myocardial blood flow. After LV weights had been obtained, tissue blocks were cut from the center of the previously ...
The coronary circulation is the vascular system that supplies the heart with blood and thereby with oxygen and substrates so it ... Domenech, R.J. 1978, Regional diastolic coronary blood flow during diastolic ventricular hypertension. Cardiovasc Res 12: 639- ... Coronary Flow Coronary Blood Flow Left Ventricular Pressure Cardiac Contraction Smooth Muscle Tone These keywords were added by ... Spaan, J.A.E. 1991, Interaction between contraction and coronary flow: Theory. 6, in: Coronary blood flow; Mechanics, ...
  • Recent development of intracoronary Doppler guide wires 11 12 has greatly facilitated the selective assessment of coronary flow reserve in the catheterization laboratory. (ahajournals.org)
  • The role of the ECG in diagnosis, risk estimation, and catheterization laboratory activation in patients with acute coronary syndromes: a consensus document. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Long term safety and efficacy of a novel abluminal groove-filled biodegradable polymer sirolimus-eluting stent for the treatment of coronary de novo lesions]. (annals.org)
  • Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare myocardial blood flow (MBF) and myocardial flow reserve (MFR) estimates from rubidium-82 positron emission tomography ( 82 Rb PET) data using 10 software packages (SPs) based on 8 tracer kinetic models. (onlinejacc.org)
  • The application of attenuation correction is suboptimal and the ambitious target of absolute blood flow is still within the PET (Positron emission tomography) domain - thus still far from clinical cardiology. (escardio.org)
  • Blood flow to the heart will be measured by positron emission tomography (PET scan). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • 82Rb/PET can be used to quantify the myocardial flow reserve in the ventricles which then allows the medical professional to make an accurate diagnosis and prognosis of the patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Liver function and liver blood flow can influence hepatic lactate clearance. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Traditionally, elevated blood lactate levels in hemodynamically unstable patients have been interpreted as reflecting acute circulatory shock. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The speed at which lactate is cleared from the blood through vigorous resuscitation strongly correlates with ultimate outcome, including mortality and organ failure. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Blood lactate concentration represents a global marker of tissue oxygenation but does not reflect loco-regional tissue oxygenation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The venoarterial lactate gradient on both sides of an organ can be used to detect regional hypoxia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The abnormality in laborotary test included lower white blood cell count, neutrophil count and lymphocyte countï¼ increasing fibrinogen and C-reactive proteinï¼ decreasing myohaemoglobin and increasing lactate dehydrogenase. (bvsalud.org)