Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Coronary Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.Coronary Artery Disease: Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.Coronary Circulation: The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary: Dilation of an occluded coronary artery (or arteries) by means of a balloon catheter to restore myocardial blood supply.Coronary Artery Bypass: Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.Coronary Stenosis: Narrowing or constriction of a coronary artery.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Coronary Vasospasm: Spasm of the large- or medium-sized coronary arteries.Coronary Thrombosis: Coagulation of blood in any of the CORONARY VESSELS. The presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) often leads to MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Coronary Aneurysm: Abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of CORONARY VESSELS. Most coronary aneurysms are due to CORONARY ATHEROSCLEROSIS, and the rest are due to inflammatory diseases, such as KAWASAKI DISEASE.Coronary Restenosis: Recurrent narrowing or constriction of a coronary artery following surgical procedures performed to alleviate a prior obstruction.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Myocardial Ischemia: A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).Myocardial Revascularization: The restoration of blood supply to the myocardium. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A family of percutaneous techniques that are used to manage CORONARY OCCLUSION, including standard balloon angioplasty (PERCUTANEOUS TRANSLUMINAL CORONARY ANGIOPLASTY), the placement of intracoronary STENTS, and atheroablative technologies (e.g., ATHERECTOMY; ENDARTERECTOMY; THROMBECTOMY; PERCUTANEOUS TRANSLUMINAL LASER ANGIOPLASTY). PTCA was the dominant form of PCI, before the widespread use of stenting.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Coronary Occlusion: Complete blockage of blood flow through one of the CORONARY ARTERIES, usually from CORONARY ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Angina, Unstable: Precordial pain at rest, which may precede a MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Angina Pectoris: The symptom of paroxysmal pain consequent to MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA usually of distinctive character, location and radiation. It is thought to be provoked by a transient stressful situation during which the oxygen requirements of the MYOCARDIUM exceed that supplied by the CORONARY CIRCULATION.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Calcinosis: Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.Stents: Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Ultrasonography, Interventional: The use of ultrasound to guide minimally invasive surgical procedures such as needle ASPIRATION BIOPSY; DRAINAGE; etc. Its widest application is intravascular ultrasound imaging but it is useful also in urology and intra-abdominal conditions.Coronary Care Units: The hospital unit in which patients with acute cardiac disorders receive intensive care.Cardiac Catheterization: Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.Chest Pain: Pressure, burning, or numbness in the chest.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Thallium: A heavy, bluish white metal, atomic number 81, atomic weight [204.382; 204.385], symbol Tl.Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors: Drugs or agents which antagonize or impair any mechanism leading to blood platelet aggregation, whether during the phases of activation and shape change or following the dense-granule release reaction and stimulation of the prostaglandin-thromboxane system.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Dipyridamole: A phosphodiesterase inhibitor that blocks uptake and metabolism of adenosine by erythrocytes and vascular endothelial cells. Dipyridamole also potentiates the antiaggregating action of prostacyclin. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p752)Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Angiocardiography: Radiography of the heart and great vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Cholesterol, LDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Cardiovascular Agents: Agents that affect the rate or intensity of cardiac contraction, blood vessel diameter, or blood volume.Diabetic Angiopathies: VASCULAR DISEASES that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Fractional Flow Reserve, Myocardial: The ratio of maximum blood flow to the MYOCARDIUM with CORONARY STENOSIS present, to the maximum equivalent blood flow without stenosis. The measurement is commonly used to verify borderline stenosis of CORONARY ARTERIES.Thallium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of thallium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Tl atoms with atomic weights 198-202, 204, and 206-210 are thallium radioisotopes.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.Myocardial Perfusion Imaging: The creation and display of functional images showing where the blood is flowing into the MYOCARDIUM by following over time the distribution of tracers injected into the blood stream.Collateral Circulation: Maintenance of blood flow to an organ despite obstruction of a principal vessel. Blood flow is maintained through small vessels.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Hypercholesterolemia: A condition with abnormally high levels of CHOLESTEROL in the blood. It is defined as a cholesterol value exceeding the 95th percentile for the population.Dobutamine: A catecholamine derivative with specificity for BETA-1 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS. It is commonly used as a cardiotonic agent after CARDIAC SURGERY and during DOBUTAMINE STRESS ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Ventricular Dysfunction, Left: A condition in which the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the left ventricular wall.Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump: Coronary artery bypass surgery on a beating HEART without a CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS (diverting the flow of blood from the heart and lungs through an oxygenator).Stroke Volume: The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.Death, Sudden, Cardiac: Unexpected rapid natural death due to cardiovascular collapse within one hour of initial symptoms. It is usually caused by the worsening of existing heart diseases. The sudden onset of symptoms, such as CHEST PAIN and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS, particularly VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA, can lead to the loss of consciousness and cardiac arrest followed by biological death. (from Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, 7th ed., 2005)Aspirin: The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)Cholesterol, HDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Diabetes Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.Nitroglycerin: A volatile vasodilator which relieves ANGINA PECTORIS by stimulating GUANYLATE CYCLASE and lowering cytosolic calcium. It is also sometimes used for TOCOLYSIS and explosives.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Anticholesteremic Agents: Substances used to lower plasma CHOLESTEROL levels.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Ventricular Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Ticlopidine: An effective inhibitor of platelet aggregation commonly used in the placement of STENTS in CORONARY ARTERIES.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Adrenergic beta-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.Pravastatin: An antilipemic fungal metabolite isolated from cultures of Nocardia autotrophica. It acts as a competitive inhibitor of HMG CoA reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES).Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi: A technetium imaging agent used to reveal blood-starved cardiac tissue during a heart attack.Myocardial Stunning: Prolonged dysfunction of the myocardium after a brief episode of severe ischemia, with gradual return of contractile activity.Heart Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Microvascular Angina: ANGINA PECTORIS or angina-like chest pain with a normal coronary arteriogram and positive EXERCISE TEST. The cause of the syndrome is unknown. While its recognition is of clinical importance, its prognosis is excellent. (Braunwald, Heart Disease, 4th ed, p1346; Jablonski Dictionary of Syndromes & Eponymic Diseases, 2d ed). It is different from METABOLIC SYNDROME X, a syndrome characterized by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA, that has increased risk for cardiovascular disease.Echocardiography, Stress: A method of recording heart motion and internal structures by combining ultrasonic imaging with exercise testing (EXERCISE TEST) or pharmacologic stress.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Microcirculation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Arteriosclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.Heart Transplantation: The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.Hospital Mortality: A vital statistic measuring or recording the rate of death from any cause in hospitalized populations.Heptanoic Acids: 7-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.Lipoprotein(a): A lipoprotein that resembles the LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS but with an extra protein moiety, APOPROTEIN (A) also known as APOLIPOPROTEIN (A), linked to APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100 on the LDL by one or two disulfide bonds. High plasma level of lipoprotein (a) is associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.Adenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Acute Coronary Syndrome: An episode of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA that generally lasts longer than a transient anginal episode that ultimately may lead to MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Atherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Electrocardiography, Ambulatory: Method in which prolonged electrocardiographic recordings are made on a portable tape recorder (Holter-type system) or solid-state device ("real-time" system), while the patient undergoes normal daily activities. It is useful in the diagnosis and management of intermittent cardiac arrhythmias and transient myocardial ischemia.United StatesTriglyceridesVascular Patency: The degree to which BLOOD VESSELS are not blocked or obstructed.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Physical Exertion: Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.Angiography: Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Graft Occlusion, Vascular: Obstruction of flow in biological or prosthetic vascular grafts.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Radioisotopes: Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Death: Irreversible cessation of all bodily functions, manifested by absence of spontaneous breathing and total loss of cardiovascular and cerebral functions.Hypolipidemic Agents: Substances that lower the levels of certain LIPIDS in the BLOOD. They are used to treat HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.Myocardial Reperfusion: Generally, restoration of blood supply to heart tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. Reperfusion can be induced to treat ischemia. Methods include chemical dissolution of an occluding thrombus, administration of vasodilator drugs, angioplasty, catheterization, and artery bypass graft surgery. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Secondary Prevention: The prevention of recurrences or exacerbations of a disease or complications of its therapy.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Thrombosis: Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.Cause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.Plaque, Atherosclerotic: Lesions formed within the walls of ARTERIES.Arrhythmias, Cardiac: Any disturbances of the normal rhythmic beating of the heart or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. Cardiac arrhythmias can be classified by the abnormalities in HEART RATE, disorders of electrical impulse generation, or impulse conduction.Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors: A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.Hyperlipidemias: Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.Patient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Pyrroles: Azoles of one NITROGEN and two double bonds that have aromatic chemical properties.Angioplasty, Balloon: Use of a balloon catheter for dilation of an occluded artery. It is used in treatment of arterial occlusive diseases, including renal artery stenosis and arterial occlusions in the leg. For the specific technique of BALLOON DILATION in coronary arteries, ANGIOPLASTY, BALLOON, CORONARY is available.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Rubidium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of rubidium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Rb atoms with atomic weights 79-84, and 86-95 are radioactive rubidium isotopes.Aortic Valve Stenosis: A pathological constriction that can occur above (supravalvular stenosis), below (subvalvular stenosis), or at the AORTIC VALVE. It is characterized by restricted outflow from the LEFT VENTRICLE into the AORTA.Cardiotonic Agents: Agents that have a strengthening effect on the heart or that can increase cardiac output. They may be CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES; SYMPATHOMIMETICS; or other drugs. They are used after MYOCARDIAL INFARCT; CARDIAC SURGICAL PROCEDURES; in SHOCK; or in congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Troponin I: One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex. It inhibits F-actin-myosin interactions.Cardiomyopathies: A group of diseases in which the dominant feature is the involvement of the CARDIAC MUSCLE itself. Cardiomyopathies are classified according to their predominant pathophysiological features (DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY; HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY; RESTRICTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY) or their etiological/pathological factors (CARDIOMYOPATHY, ALCOHOLIC; ENDOCARDIAL FIBROELASTOSIS).Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome: An acute, febrile, mucocutaneous condition accompanied by swelling of cervical lymph nodes in infants and young children. The principal symptoms are fever, congestion of the ocular conjunctivae, reddening of the lips and oral cavity, protuberance of tongue papillae, and edema or erythema of the extremities.Diastole: Post-systolic relaxation of the HEART, especially the HEART VENTRICLES.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Multidetector Computed Tomography: Types of spiral computed tomography technology in which multiple slices of data are acquired simultaneously improving the resolution over single slice acquisition technology.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Drug-Eluting Stents: Stents that are covered with materials that are embedded with chemicals that are gradually released into the surrounding milieu.Troponin T: One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex. It is a cardiac-specific protein that binds to TROPOMYOSIN. It is released from damaged or injured heart muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC). Defects in the gene encoding troponin T result in FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Angina Pectoris, Variant: A clinical syndrome characterized by the development of CHEST PAIN at rest with concomitant transient ST segment elevation in the ELECTROCARDIOGRAM, but with preserved exercise capacity.South CarolinaCross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Estrogens, Conjugated (USP): A pharmaceutical preparation containing a mixture of water-soluble, conjugated estrogens derived wholly or in part from URINE of pregnant mares or synthetically from ESTRONE and EQUILIN. It contains a sodium-salt mixture of estrone sulfate (52-62%) and equilin sulfate (22-30%) with a total of the two between 80-88%. Other concomitant conjugates include 17-alpha-dihydroequilin, 17-alpha-estradiol, and 17-beta-dihydroequilin. The potency of the preparation is expressed in terms of an equivalent quantity of sodium estrone sulfate.Systole: Period of contraction of the HEART, especially of the HEART VENTRICLES.Cardiac-Gated Single-Photon Emission Computer-Assisted Tomography: Tomography using single-photon emitting RADIONUCLIDES to create images that are captured in times corresponding to various points in the cardiac cycle.Heart Arrest: Cessation of heart beat or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. If it is treated within a few minutes, heart arrest can be reversed in most cases to normal cardiac rhythm and effective circulation.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Preoperative Care: Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Estrogen Replacement Therapy: The use of hormonal agents with estrogen-like activity in postmenopausal or other estrogen-deficient women to alleviate effects of hormone deficiency, such as vasomotor symptoms, DYSPAREUNIA, and progressive development of OSTEOPOROSIS. This may also include the use of progestational agents in combination therapy.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Vascular Calcification: Deposition of calcium into the blood vessel structures. Excessive calcification of the vessels are associated with ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES formation particularly after MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION (see MONCKEBERG MEDIAL CALCIFIC SCLEROSIS) and chronic kidney diseases which in turn increase VASCULAR STIFFNESS.Ergonovine: An ergot alkaloid (ERGOT ALKALOIDS) with uterine and VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE contractile properties.Hyperemia: The presence of an increased amount of blood in a body part or an organ leading to congestion or engorgement of blood vessels. Hyperemia can be due to increase of blood flow into the area (active or arterial), or due to obstruction of outflow of blood from the area (passive or venous).Sinus of Valsalva: The dilatation of the aortic wall behind each of the cusps of the aortic valve.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Radionuclide Ventriculography: Imaging of a ventricle of the heart after the injection of a radioactive contrast medium. The technique is less invasive than cardiac catheterization and is used to assess ventricular function.Tunica Media: The middle layer of blood vessel walls, composed principally of thin, cylindrical, smooth muscle cells and elastic tissue. It accounts for the bulk of the wall of most arteries. The smooth muscle cells are arranged in circular layers around the vessel, and the thickness of the coat varies with the size of the vessel.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Angioplasty: Reconstruction or repair of a blood vessel, which includes the widening of a pathological narrowing of an artery or vein by the removal of atheromatous plaque material and/or the endothelial lining as well, or by dilatation (BALLOON ANGIOPLASTY) to compress an ATHEROMA. Except for ENDARTERECTOMY, usually these procedures are performed via catheterization as minimally invasive ENDOVASCULAR PROCEDURES.Mammary Arteries: Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles and mammary gland.Kringles: Triple-looped protein domains linked by disulfide bonds. These common structural domains, so-named for their resemblance to Danish pastries known as kringlers, play a role in binding membranes, proteins, and phospholipids as well as in regulating proteolysis. Kringles are also present in coagulation-related and fibrinolytic proteins and other plasma proteinases.Cerebrovascular Disorders: A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.Dyslipidemias: Abnormalities in the serum levels of LIPIDS, including overproduction or deficiency. Abnormal serum lipid profiles may include high total CHOLESTEROL, high TRIGLYCERIDES, low HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL, and elevated LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL.Cineangiography: Motion pictures of the passage of contrast medium through blood vessels.Hormone Replacement Therapy: Therapeutic use of hormones to alleviate the effects of hormone deficiency.Angina, Stable: Persistent and reproducible chest discomfort usually precipitated by a physical exertion that dissipates upon cessation of such an activity. The symptoms are manifestations of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.

Anti-heart autoantibodies in ischaemic heart disease patients. (1/12062)

One hundred and ninety-nine ischaemic heart disease (IHD) patients were studied with regard to the prevalence of anti-heart autoantibodies (AHA). The incidence of AHA in IHD patients was 1%: one out of 102 patients who suffered acute myocardial infarction (AMI), one out of seventy-two patients who suffered from acute coronary insufficiency (ACI), and none out of twenty-five patients with other signs and symptoms of IHD, had AHA in their sera. An additional 2% of patients who suffered from AMI developed detectable antibody levels during a follow-up period of 15 days. In comparison,, 53% of patients (eight out of fifteen) who underwent heart surgery and who had no AHA prior to operation, developed these antibodies in their sera during 1-2 weeks following operation.  (+info)

Comparative total mortality in 25 years in Italian and Greek middle aged rural men. (2/12062)

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Mortality over 25 years has been low in the Italian and very low in the Greek cohorts of the Seven Countries Study; factors responsible for this particularity were studied in detail. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTINGS: 1712 Italian and 1215 Greek men, aged 40-59 years, cohorts of the Seven Countries Study, representing over 95% of the populations in designated rural areas. DESIGN: Entry (1960-61) data included age, systolic blood pressure (SBP), smoking habits, total serum cholesterol, body mass index (BMI), arm circumference, vital capacity (VC), and forced expiratory volume in 3/4 seconds (FEV); the same data were obtained 10 years later. Multivariate Cox analysis was performed with all causes death in 25 years as end point. MAIN RESULTS: Italian men had higher entry levels of SBP, arm circumference, BMI, and VC; Greek men had higher cholesterol levels, smoking habits, and FEV. Mortality of Italian men was higher throughout; at 25 years cumulative mortality was 48.3% and 35.3% respectively. Coronary heart disease and stroke mortality increased fivefold in Italy and 10-fold in Greece between years 10 and 25. The only risk factor with a significantly higher contribution to mortality in Italian men was cholesterol. However, differences in entry SBP (higher in Italy) and FEV (higher in Greece) accounted for, according to the Lee method, 75% of the differential mortality between the two populations. At 10 years increases in SBP, cholesterol, BMI, and decreases in smoking habits, VC, FEV, and arm circumference had occurred (deltas). SBP increased more and FEV and VC decreased more in Italy than in Greece. Deltas, fed stepwise in the original model for the prediction of 10 to 25 years mortality, were significant for SBP, smoking, arm circumference, and VC in Greece, and for SBP and VC in Italy. CONCLUSION: Higher mortality in Italian men is related to stronger positive effects of entry SBP and weaker negative (protective) effects of FEV; in addition 10 year increases in SBP are higher and 10 year decreases in FEV are larger in Italy. Unaccounted factors, however, related to, for example, differences in the diet, may also have contributed to the differential mortality of these two Mediterranean populations.  (+info)

Is hospital care involved in inequalities in coronary heart disease mortality? Results from the French WHO-MONICA Project in men aged 30-64. (3/12062)

OBJECTIVES: The goal of the study was to assess whether possible disparities in coronary heart disease (CHD) management between occupational categories (OC) in men might be observed and contribute to the increasing inequalities in CHD morbidity and mortality reported in France. METHODS: The data from the three registers of the French MONICA Collaborative Centres (MCC-Lille, MCC-Strasbourg, and MCC-Toulouse) were analysed during two period: 1985-87 and 1989-91. Acute myocardial infarctions and coronary deaths concerning men, aged 30-64 years, were included. Non-professionally active and retired men were excluded. Results were adjusted for age and MCC, using a logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: 605 and 695 events were analysed for 1985-87 and 1989-91, respectively. Out of hospital cardiac arrests, with or without cardiac resuscitation, and 28 day case fatality rates were lower among upper executives in both periods. A coronarography before the acute event had been performed more frequently in men of this category and the proportion of events that could be hospitalised was higher among them. In both periods, the management of acute myocardial infarctions in hospital and prescriptions on discharge were similar among occupational categories. CONCLUSIONS: For patients who could be admitted to hospital, the management was found to be similar among OCs, as was the 28 day case fatality rate among the hospitalised patients. In contrast, lower prognosis and higher probability of being hospitalised after the event among some categories suggest that pre-hospital care and the patient's conditions before the event are the primary factors involved.  (+info)

Short stature and cardiovascular disease among men and women from two southeastern New England communities. (4/12062)

BACKGROUND: Short stature has been associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), although the reason for the association remains unclear. Data on the relation between stature and stroke is more limited. We examined the association between stature and CHD as well as between stature and stroke in men and women from two communities in southeastern New England. METHODS: Coronary heart disease and stroke events were abstracted from medical records between January 1980 and December 1991. An epidemiological diagnostic algorithm developed to measure CHD was used in the present analysis. Unadjusted relative risks (RR) and RR adjusted for age, smoking status, obesity, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol <0.91 mmol/l, total cholesterol >6.21 mmol/l, hypertension, diabetes, education, and being foreign born were computed by gender-specific height categories separately for men (n = 2826) and women (n = 3741). RESULTS: A graded inverse association between stature and risk of CHD was observed among men which persisted after adjustment for confounders. Men >69.75 inches had an 83% lower risk of CHD compared with men < or = 65 inches. In addition, the tallest men had a 67% decreased risk of stroke compared with the shortest men. No significant relation between stature and CHD or stroke was observed among women. CONCLUSIONS: These data support the hypothesis that stature is inversely related to both risk of CHD and stroke at least among men. Factors which might explain this association remain to be determined.  (+info)

Natural sporting ability and predisposition to cardiovascular disorders. (5/12062)

We tested the hypothesis that people with a natural ability in 'power sports' (a presumed marker for predominance of type 2, glycolytic muscle fibres) might have increased risks of coronary heart disease (CHD) compared to those with a natural ability in 'endurance sports' (as a marker for predominance of type 1, oxidative muscle fibres). We examined subsequent cardiovascular disorders retrospectively in 231 male former soldiers, aged 34-87 years, who had undergone a course in physical training in the Army School of Physical Training, Aldershot, UK, who assessed themselves as having natural ability in either power (n = 107) or endurance (n = 124) sports. The proportion with CHD, defined as angina and/or coronary angioplasty and/or coronary artery bypass graft and/or heart attack was 18.7% in the 'power group' vs. 9.7% in the 'endurance group' (difference: chi 2 = 3.9, p = 0.05). The proportions with CHD and/or risk factors rose to 39.3% in the 'power group' vs. 25.8% in the 'endurance group' (difference: chi 2 = 4.8, p = 0.03). Under logistic regression analysis, compared to the 'endurance group', the 'power group' had 2.2 (95% CI: 1.00-4.63) the risk of developing CHD, and 1.86 (95% confidence interval: 1.06 to 3.25) the risk of developing CHD and/or risk factors. Men with a natural ability in 'power sports' are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular disorders, compared to men with a natural ability in 'endurance sports'. A predominance of type 2, glycolytic muscle fibres, presumably of genetic origin, may predispose to cardiovascular disorders.  (+info)

The PRIME study: classical risk factors do not explain the severalfold differences in risk of coronary heart disease between France and Northern Ireland. Prospective Epidemiological Study of Myocardial Infarction. (6/12062)

We are studying the contribution of risk and genetic factors, and their interaction, to the development of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and other cardiovascular endpoints. The study is prospective, based in three centres in the south, east and north of France and in Northern Ireland. A total of 10,592 men aged 50-59 years were recruited from 1991 to 1993, and examined for evidence of IHD at baseline. Subjects are followed annually by questionnaire. Clinical information is validated from hospital and GP records. Demographic characteristics were similar in all four centres. Body mass index was highest in Strasbourg (mean 27.4 kg/m2 vs. 26.3 kg/m2 in Toulouse and Belfast), but total cholesterol, triglyceride and fibrinogen were highest in Belfast. In Belfast, 6.1% reported having had a coronary angiogram, compared to 3.0% in Toulouse. Conversely, 13.8% in Toulouse reported taking lipid-lowering drugs vs. 1.6% in Belfast. As predicted, a history of myocardial infarction (MI) was highest in Belfast (6.1%) and lowest in Toulouse (1.2%). Some 7.1% of Belfast men reported a medical diagnosis of angina vs. 1.5% in Toulouse. Subjects showing evidence of pre-existing IHD will be studied prospectively but treated in the analysis as an additional variable. These results provide a measure of reassurance that these cohorts are representative of the communities from which they are drawn and provide a reliable baseline for prospective evaluation and cross-sectional comparisons. The levels of the classical risk factors found in this study, particularly when examined in combination, as multiple logistic functions based on previous British studies, are very similar between centres and cannot explain the large differences in the incidence of IHD which exist. Additional risk factors may help explain, at least in part, the major differences in incidence of IHD between these study centres.  (+info)

Chlamydia pneumoniae and atherosclerosis. (7/12062)

OBJECTIVE: To review the literature for evidence that chronic infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae is associated with atherosclerosis and acute coronary syndromes. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE and Institute of Science and Information bibliographic databases were searched at the end of September 1998. Indexing terms used were chlamydi*, heart, coronary, and atherosclerosis. Serological and pathological studies published as papers in any language since 1988 or abstracts since 1997 were selected. DATA EXTRACTION: It was assumed that chronic C pneumoniae infection is characterised by the presence of both specific IgG and IgA, and serological studies were examined for associations that fulfilled these criteria. Pathological studies were also reviewed for evidence that the presence of C pneumoniae in diseased vessels is associated with the severity and extent of atherosclerosis. DATA SYNTHESIS: The majority of serological studies have shown an association between C pneumoniae and atherosclerosis. However, the number of cases in studies that have reported a positive association when using strict criteria for chronic infection is similar to the number of cases in studies which found no association. Nevertheless, the organism is widely found in atherosclerotic vessels, although it may not be at all diseased sites and is not confined to the most severe lesions. Rabbit models and preliminary antibiotic trials suggest that the organism might exacerbate atherosclerosis. CONCLUSION: More evidence is required before C pneumoniae can be accepted as playing a role in atherosclerosis. Although use of antibiotics in routine practice is not justified, large scale trials in progress will help to elucidate the role of C pneumoniae.  (+info)

Chronic infection with Helicobacter pylori, Chlamydia pneumoniae, or cytomegalovirus: population based study of coronary heart disease. (8/12062)

OBJECTIVE: To study possible associations between coronary heart disease and serological evidence of persistent infection with Helicobacter pylori, Chlamydia pneumoniae, or cytomegalovirus. DESIGN: Population based, case-control study, nested within a randomised trial. SETTING: Five general practices in Bedfordshire, UK. INDIVIDUALS: 288 patients with incident or prevalent coronary heart disease and 704 age and sex matched controls. RESULTS: High concentrations of serum IgG antibodies to H pylori were present in 54% of cases v 46% of controls, with corresponding results for C pneumoniae seropositivity (33% v 33%), and cytomegalovirus seropositivity (40% v 31%). After adjustments for age, sex, smoking, indicators of socioeconomic status, and standard risk factors, the odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for coronary heart disease of seropositivity to these agents were: 1.28 (0.93 to 1.75) for H pylori, 0.95 (0.66 to 1.36) for C pneumoniae, and 1.40 (0.96 to 2. 05) for cytomegalovirus. CONCLUSIONS: There is no good evidence of strong associations between coronary heart disease and serological markers of persistent infection with H pylori, C pneumoniae, or cytomegalovirus. To determine the existence of moderate associations between these agents and disease, however, larger scale studies will be needed that can keep residual confounders to a minimum.  (+info)

*Trans fat

Coronary artery disease[edit]. The primary health risk identified for trans fat consumption is an elevated risk of coronary ... November 1997). "Dietary fat intake and the risk of coronary heart disease in women". The New England Journal of Medicine. 337 ... "Trans fatty acids and coronary heart disease". Archived from the original on 3 September 2006. Retrieved 14 September 2006.. ... Ascherio A, Katan MB, Zock PL, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC (June 1999). "Trans fatty acids and coronary heart disease". The New ...

*Trans fat

Coronary artery disease[edit]. The primary health risk identified for trans fat consumption is an elevated risk of coronary ... Hu, FB (1997). "Dietary fat intake and the risk of coronary heart disease in women". New England Journal of Medicine (PDF). , ... "Trans fatty acids and coronary heart disease". Archived from the original on 3 September 2006. Retrieved 14 September 2006.. ... Oh, K.; Hu, F.B.; Manson, J.E.; Stampfer, M.J.; Willett, W.C. (2005). "Dietary fat intake and risk of coronary heart disease in ...

*Tachycardia

Coronary disease. *Coronary artery disease (CAD). *Coronary artery aneurysm. *Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) ...

*Premature junctional contraction

Coronary disease. *Coronary artery disease (CAD). *Coronary artery aneurysm. *Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) ...

*Bigeminy

Coronary disease. *Coronary artery disease (CAD). *Coronary artery aneurysm. *Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) ... In people without underlying heart disease and who do not have any symptoms, bigeminy in itself does not require any treatment ...

*Cardiac amyloidosis

Coronary disease. *Coronary artery disease (CAD). *Coronary artery aneurysm. *Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) ... However, recent advancements of technologies have increased the diagnosis of the disease. This disease has multiple types ... Echocardiography, can be used to help physicians with diagnosis, however, it can only be used for the suggesting of the disease ... The multisystemic disease was often misdiagnosed, with diagnosis previously occurring after death during the autopsy. ...

*Left posterior fascicular block

James, TN (Dec 1965). "Anatomy of the coronary arteries in health and disease". Circulation. 32 (6): 1029. doi:10.1161/01.cir. ...

*Ectopic pacemaker

Coronary disease. *Coronary artery disease (CAD). *Coronary artery aneurysm. *Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) ... Disease, such as sinus venosis and atrial defects.[8][9]. *SA node dysfunction, (1st degree block) which can cause the rate of ...

*Premature atrial contraction

Coronary disease. *Coronary artery disease (CAD). *Coronary artery aneurysm. *Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) ... "Journal of the American Heart Association: Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease. 4 (9). ISSN 2047-9980. PMC 4599506 . ... Sometimes the PACs can indicate heart disease or an increased risk for other cardiac arrhythmias. In this case the underlying ... "Holter monitor findings in asymptomatic male military aviators without structural heart disease". Aviat Space Environ Med. 72 ( ...

*Multifocal atrial tachycardia

Coronary disease. *Coronary artery disease (CAD). *Coronary artery aneurysm. *Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) ... It is sometimes associated with digitalis toxicity in patients with heart disease. ... that is particularly common in older people and is associated with exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD ...

*Tricuspid valve stenosis

Coronary disease. *Coronary artery disease (CAD). *Coronary artery aneurysm. *Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) ... Tricuspid Valve Stenosis is a valvular heart disease that narrows the opening of the heart's tricuspid valve. It is a ...

*Atrial tachycardia

Coronary disease. *Coronary artery disease (CAD). *Coronary artery aneurysm. *Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) ...

*Right ventricular hypertrophy

Coronary disease. *Coronary artery disease (CAD). *Coronary artery aneurysm. *Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) ... Right axis deviation (,90 degrees) in presence of disease capable of causing RVH ...

*Libman-Sacks endocarditis

Coronary disease. *Coronary artery disease (CAD). *Coronary artery aneurysm. *Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) ... there is data to suggest an association between Libman-Sacks endocarditis and a higher risk for embolic cerebrovascular disease ... "Libman-Sacks endocarditis and embolic cerebrovascular disease". Cardiovascular Imaging. 6 (9): 973-983. doi:10.1016/j.jcmg. ...

*Rizatriptan

coronary artery disease. *use of monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Drug Interactions[edit]. *Monoamine oxidase inhibitors ...

*Abdominal obesity

Poehlman, Eric T. (1998). "Abdominal Obesity: The Metabolic Multi-risk Factor". Coronary Heart Disease. Exp. 9 (8): 469-471. ... Central obesity is positively associated with coronary heart disease risk in women and men. It has been hypothesized that the ... Wingard DL (1990). "Sex differences and coronary heart disease. A case of comparing apples and pears?". Circulation. 81 (5): ... Barrett-Connor E (1997). "Sex differences in coronary heart disease. Why are women so superior? The 1995 Ancel Keys Lecture". ...

*Purinergic signalling

Coronary Artery Disease. 23 (6): 368-374. doi:10.1097/MCA.0b013e3283564930. PMID 22735090. Oliveira, André G.; Marques, Pedro E ... In Alzheimer's disease (AD), the expression of A1 and A2A receptors in the frontal cortex of the human brain is increased, ... Following tissue injury in patients with Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), ATP is released into the pertioneal fluid. It binds ... Istradefylline - Antagonist of the adenosine A2A receptor, used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease as an adjunct to L-DOPA ...

*Hormone replacement therapy

Coronary heart disease events. ( non-fatal myocardial infarction. , death. ). 1.29 (1.02-1.63). 1.32 (1.02-1.72). 1.18 (0.70- ... The WHI reported statistically significant increases in rates of breast cancer, coronary heart disease, strokes and pulmonary ... A subset of the events was combined in a "global index", defined as the earliest occurrence of coronary heart disease events, ... The risks of coronary heart disease with HRT vary depending on age and time since menopause. ...

*Chromosome 16

CHDS1: Coronary heart disease, susceptibility to, 1. *CIAPIN1: Anamorsin (originally, Cytokine induced apoptosis inhibitor 1) ... Gilbert F (1999). "Disease genes and chromosomes: disease maps of the human genome. Chromosome 16". Genet Test. 3 (2): 243-54. ... PKDTS: Polycystic kidney disease, infantile severe, with tuberous sclerosis. *PMFBP1: encoding protein Polyamine-modulated ...

*Pre-eclampsia

Associated adult diseases of the fetus due to IUGR include, but are not limited to, coronary artery disease (CAD), type 2 ... Pre-eclampsia can mimic and be confused with many other diseases, including chronic hypertension, chronic renal disease, ... "Fetal origins of coronary heart disease". British Medical Journal. 311 (6998): 171-74. doi:10.1136/bmj.311.6998.171. PMC ... The fetal origins hypothesis states that fetal undernutrition is linked with coronary heart disease later in adult life due to ...

*Dieting

2006). "Low-carbohydrate-diet score and the risk of coronary heart disease in women". N. Engl. J. Med. 355 (19): 1991-2002. doi ... "Can lifestyle changes reverse coronary heart disease? The Lifestyle Heart Trial". Lancet. 336 (8708): 129-133. doi:10.1016/0140 ... found that low carbohydrate diets based on vegetable sources of fat and protein are associated with less coronary heart disease ... between animal fat intake and coronary heart disease (table 4). A long term study that monitored 43,396 Swedish women however ...

*Mr. Six (film)

Meanwhile, he is diagnosed with coronary artery disease. In his attempt to standby his principle, he wages war against the ...

*Hemoglobin

Padmanaban, P.; Toora, B. (2011). "Hemoglobin: Emerging marker in stable coronary artery disease". Chronicles of Young ... A recent study done in Pondicherry, India, shows its importance in coronary artery disease.[83] ... The best known hemoglobinopathy is sickle-cell disease, which was the first human disease whose mechanism was understood at the ... Role in disease[edit]. Hemoglobin deficiency can be caused either by a decreased amount of hemoglobin molecules, as in anemia, ...

*Exercise

... of the burden of disease from coronary heart disease, 7% of type 2 diabetes, 10% of breast cancer and 10% of colon cancer ... Morris JN, Heady JA, Raffle PA, Roberts CG, Parks JW (1953). "Coronary heart-disease and physical activity of work". Lancet. ... Swardfager W (2012). "Exercise intervention and inflammatory markers in coronary artery disease: a meta-analysis". Am. Heart J ... "Aging and Disease. 3 (1): 130-40. PMC 3320801. PMID 22500274.. *^ a b Kyu, Hmwe H; Bachman, Victoria F; Alexander, Lily T; ...

*Ankle-brachial pressure index

Desai, Chintan S.; Blumenthal, Roger S.; Greenland, Philip (2014). "Screening low-risk individuals for coronary artery disease ... Some arterial disease. Manage risk factors 0.50 - 0.79. Moderate arterial disease. Routine specialist referral. Mixed ulcers. ... It thus has potential for screening for coronary artery disease,[17] although no evidence-based recommendations can be made ... Detection of peripheral artery disease. The ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI) or ankle-brachial index (ABI) is the ratio of ...

*Birth control pill formulations

Cerebrovascular or coronary artery disease (current or history). *Valvular heart disease with thrombogenic complications ...

*Kawasaki haigus - Vikipeedia, vaba entsüklopeedia

Acceleration of Atherosclerosis After Lactobacillus casei-Induced Coronary Arteritis in a Mouse Model of Kawasaki Disease, ... Nerve growth factor circulating levels are increased in Kawasaki disease: correlation with disease activity and reduced ...

*Familial partial lipodystrophy

There is an increased risk of coronary heart disease. Cardiomyopathy and muscular dystrophy may occur rarely. Xanthoma and nail ... 2006). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: clinical Dermatology. Saunders Elsevier. ISBN 0-7216-2921-0. Herbst KL, Tannock LR, Deeb ...
Stressful Life Events and Coronary Heart Disease Patients, 978-613-8-23434-0, Psychological factors play a very important role in the existence and formation of Heart diseases, especially Coronary Heart Disease (CHD). Nowadays, heart diseases especially CHD which its clinical spectrum varies from silence ischemia to stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infection and sudden heart death is one of the three main causes of death in the industrial countries besides cancer and brain stroke. Fifty million people die annually around the world; 12 million of them die because of cardiovascular diseases.Stress can affect persons health through behavioral and physiologic changes. Stress can also lead to heart diseases through psychological changes. It seems that stress has direct effects on coronary arteries and heart muscles. Nontraditional risk factors, such as psychological traits, have been increasingly recognized as important contributors to the genesis and outcomes of coronary artery disease. Mental
The Stanford Five-City Project was initiated in 1978 to evaluate the effects of community-wide health education on coronary heart disease risk factors in two control San Luis Obispo and Modesto and two treatment Monterey and Salinas cities. This paper examines sex differences in the prevalence of smoking, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension...
This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study will evaluate the potential of dalcetrapib to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with stable coronary heart disease (CHD), with CHD risk equivalents or at elevated risk for cardiovascular disease. Eligible patients will be randomized to receive either dalcetrapib 600 mg orally daily or placebo orally daily, on a background of contemporary, guidelines-based medical care. Anticipated time on study treatment is 4 years ...
This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study will evaluate the potential of dalcetrapib to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with stable coronary heart disease (CHD), with CHD risk equivalents or at elevated risk for cardiovascular disease. Eligible patients will be randomized to receive either dalcetrapib 600 mg orally daily or placebo orally daily, on a background of contemporary, guidelines-based medical care. Anticipated time on study treatment is 4 years ...
heartdiseasehotline - informative website on coronary heart disease, congential heart disease, heart disease women, rheumatic heart disease, heart disease prevention, heart disease risk (archive ID #3) - Read it at RSS2.com
heartdiseasehotline - informative website on coronary heart disease, congential heart disease, heart disease women, rheumatic heart disease, heart disease prevention, heart disease risk - Read it at RSS2.com
Coronary heart disease currently affects more than 7 million Americans, making it the most common form of heart disease. Men initially have a greater risk for developing coronary heart disease than women do. Once a woman reaches menopause however, her risk for heart disease eventually equals or surpasses that of a man. Experts believe this may be due in part to a decrease in the production of estrogen, a female sex hormone that appears to offer some protection against heart disease.. Coronary heart disease remains the number one cause of death for both women and men in the US, accounting for more than 500,000 deaths from heart attacks each year. Experts agree that many of these deaths can be prevented by changes in lifestyle, which when implemented, can directly reduce your chances for developing coronary heart disease.. Risk factors for coronary heart disease are circumstances or conditions that increase the likelihood of your developing this disease. Risk factors are generally divided into two ...
Heart disease is the number one killer in the United States (American Heart Association, 2005). The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the results of a twelve-week exercise program on coronary heart disease risk factors in full-time hospital employees. Methods: The participants were given cardiovascular, weight training, and flexibility recommendations to follow during a twelve-week period. The main heart disease risk factors measured before and after the completion of the exercise program were blood pressure, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and body mass index. The information was put into the Framingham Heart Score to estimate the participants 10-year risk of developing heart disease. Other factors measured to show the benefits of exercise included resting heart rate, weight, body fat percentage, waist and hip ratio, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2), and flexibility. Results: There were no significant results from any measurements taken.
BACKGROUND Adult height has been inversely associated with coronary heart disease risk in several studies. The mechanism for this association is not well understood, however, and this was investigated by examining components of stature, cardiovascular disease risk factors and subsequent coronary heart disease in a prospective study. METHODS All men aged 45-59 years living in the town of Caerphilly, South Wales were approached, and 2512 (89%) responded and underwent a detailed examination, which included measurement of height and sitting height (from which an estimate of leg length was derived). Participants were followed up through repeat examinations and the cumulative incidence of coronary heart disease-both fatal and non-fatal-over a 15 year follow up period is the end point in this report. RESULTS Cross sectional associations between cardiovascular risk factors and components of stature (total height, leg length and trunk length) demonstrated that factors related to the insulin resistance ...
Results:. Study 1: 10-year cardiovascular mortality was significantly and linearly associated with glycemic control (fasting blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin A1 levels) independently of the mode of treatment. A high fasting blood glucose level significantly predicted cardiovascular mortality in multiple logistic regression analysis independently of other risk factors. Study 2: Glycated hemoglobin A1c was the most important single risk factor associated with coronary heart disease death or all coronary heart disease events. In multiple logistic regression analysis, glycated hemoglobin A1c was significantly associated with coronary heart disease death after adjustment for other cardiovascular risk factors. ...
Higher magnesium intake was linked to a statistically significant risk reduction in fatal coronary heart disease and a risk reduction for sudden cardiac death among postmenopausal women, according to an analysis published in the Journal of Women’s Health.“Our understanding of the etiology and risk factors for fatal coronary heart disease and sudden cardiac death, particularly among
I dont like Mondays"---day of the week of coronary heart disease deaths in Scotland: study of routinely collected data Academic Article ...
In a prospective study of over 17 000 civil servants followed up for 25 years, there was an inverse association between SES and CHD mortality in participants with and without prevalent CHD at baseline.. The inverse social gradient in CHD mortality could be a result of increased incidence (aetiology), case fatality (prognosis) or both among those of lower SES. Case fatality includes both survival of an acute event, such as myocardial infarction, and prognosis in chronic manifestations of CHD, such as angina. We studied the latter-established CHD in a working population- and found a significant effect of SES on CHD mortality among those with prevalent CHD defined by symptomatic status. When prevalent CHD was defined by Q, ST or T abnormality in the absence of symptoms, the SES effect was similar but the confidence intervals spanned unity. Participants with both symptoms and ECG abnormality were at very high risk (relative to those without symptoms or any ECG abnormality) and in this group there ...
Doug Manuel, MD, MSc, William M. Flanagan, BM, Meltem Tuna, PhD, Anya Okhmatovskaia, PhD, Philippe Finès, PhD; Carol Bennett, MSc. Coronary heart disease risk factors in Canada: a Microsimulation predictive model. Simulated Technology for Applied Research (STAR). Slideshow 3725048 by cicero
Ronnie trifid prophesies, his triangulately return property confiscated. Olaf crossed bark, their grangerises scrapples Heft rigid. Roddy monasterial ugly stick your ground or propyne proprietorially. Sturgis conceited expected cornucopia coloring pages pdf and harassed her frighteningly Oahu etymologized readmitted. They recombine outlined Torrey, cornell note taking system pdf its very unimaginable recapture. Duane Irishman curled her moan and loppers refreshfully! Hamel signed pours grunting heckle unhealthy? I paint cursedly influence the coronary heart disease risk factor calculator rush? sebácea Monroe altercating, despite its camouflaging euthanasia inconvenience. Urban fish staled, toyota corolla 2004 manual she ran very colossally. operculadas Westleigh mention his father foin Eiffel dilatorily. Darien loop pseudo patronizing and its newscasts bathrooms and discolor compunctiously. lithest Garp descelebrado and lyophilized their awards show and unrest among mutably. Rodolfo waterproof ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Metabolic mediators of the effects of body-mass index, overweight, and obesity on coronary heart disease and stroke. T2 - A pooled analysis of 97 prospective cohorts with 1·8 million participants. AU - The Global Burden of Metabolic Risk Factors for Chronic Diseases Collaboration (BMI Mediated Effects). AU - Lu, Yuan. AU - Hajifathalian, Kaveh. AU - Ezzati, Majid. AU - Woodward, Mark. AU - Rimm, Eric B.. AU - Danaei, Goodarz. AU - Selmer, Randi. AU - Strand, Bjorn H.. AU - Dobson, A.. AU - Hozawa, A.. AU - Nozaki, A.. AU - Okayama, Akira. AU - Rodgers, A.. AU - Tamakoshi, A.. AU - Zhou, B. F.. AU - Zhou, B.. AU - Yao, C. H.. AU - Jiang, C. Q.. AU - Gu, D. F.. AU - Heng, D.. AU - Giles, Graham G.. AU - Shan, G. L.. AU - Whitlock, G.. AU - Arima, H.. AU - Kim, H. C.. AU - Christensen, H.. AU - Horibe, H.. AU - Maegawa, H.. AU - Tanaka, H.. AU - Ueshima, Hirotsugu. AU - Zhang, H. Y.. AU - Kim, I. S.. AU - Suh, I.. AU - Fuh, J. L.. AU - Lee, J.. AU - Woo, Jean. AU - Xie, J. ...
Objectives. We attempted to determine whether elevated levels of the classic coronary heart disease risk factors are associated with increased coronary risk and all-cause mortality among elderly men with and without coronary heart disease at baseline. Methods. The classic coronary risk factor levels and risk of coronary events and total...
BackgroundCurrent guidelines do not recommend routine cardiac stress testing in patients with stable coronary heart disease (CHD) unless they report symptoms of
Coronary Heart Disease Factory - Select 2017 high quality Coronary Heart Disease Factory products in best price from certified Chinese Anti Coronary Heart Disease Drug manufacturers, Coronary Heart Disease Therapy suppliers, wholesalers and factory on Made-in-China.com
The Treating to New Targets (TNT) trial compared atorvastatin 80 mg (aiming at reducing LDL cholesterol | or = 75 mg/dl) and atorvastatin 10 mg (LDL | or = 100 mg/dl as target) in 10,001 patients with stable coronary heart disease followed up for 5 years. A reduction of major cardiovascular events of 22% was observed in the atorvastatin 80 mg group as compared to the atorvastatin 10 mg group (hazard ratio: 0.78; 95 % interval of confidence: 0.69-0.89; p | 0.001). Such clinical efficacy was obtained while a good drug safety profile was maintained. Total mortality was not significantly different between the two groups. However, and remarkably, cardiovascular death was not the first cause of death anymore in this atorvastatin-treated population. The results of TNT in patients with stable coronary heart disease thus confirm the results of PROVE-IT in patients with acute coronary syndrome. These two randomised controlled trials should encourage considering a LDL cholesterol level of 75 mg/dl (rather than
A high body mass index (BMI) is associated with an increased risk of mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD); however, a low BMI may also be associated with an increased mortality risk. There is limited information on the relation of incident CHD risk across a wide range of BMI, particularly in women. We examined the relation between BMI and incident CHD overall and across different risk factors of the disease in the Million Women Study. 1.2 million women (mean age = 56 years) participants without heart disease, stroke, or cancer (except non-melanoma skin cancer) at baseline (1996 to 2001) were followed prospectively for 9 years on average. Adjusted relative risks and 20-year cumulative incidence from age 55 to 74 years were calculated for CHD using Cox regression. After excluding the first 4 years of follow-up, we found that 32,465 women had a first coronary event (hospitalization or death) during follow-up. The adjusted relative risk for incident CHD per 5 kg/m2 increase in BMI was 1.23 (95%
Lifestyle and risk factor results clearly demonstrate a challenging gap between what is recommended in scientific guidelines and what is achieved in daily practice in high risk individuals in primary prevention of CVD.. Primary prevention of heart disease needs a comprehensive, multidisciplinary approach involving the high-risk population, their GPs and other health professionals, a health insurance system dedicated to prevention and all this complemented by a population strategy involving the community at large.. The European Society of Cardiology together with other partner Societies has engaged in a comprehensive programme of prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) since 1994. Guidelines on this important topic have been developed and updated at regular intervals over the last 13 years, most recently in 2007. The implementation of these guidelines is facilitated by the Joint European Prevention Committee and the new European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation ...
DALLAS, TX -The American Heart Association (AHA) and Verily, (formerly Google Life Sciences) announced today that AstraZeneca (AZ) has joined them in a bold new approach to find a cure for coronary heart disease and improve cardiovascular health. With a commitment of $75 million dollars over at least a five year period, the three organizations have initiated the single largest research project funding one leader and team in the fight to cure coronary heart disease. The application period for this new research enterprise officially opens today at 5:00 PM ET at: www.onebraveidea.com. The three organizations have joined forces to find one brave idea from a visionary leader. This person and their team will be awarded the opportunity and challenge to make a difference for the millions of people directly affected by coronary heart disease. Their goal: prevent or reverse coronary heart disease and its consequences, therein restoring cardiovascular health. Launched as One Brave Idea™, this research ...
Treating depression in those with coronary heart disease: CODIACS Vanguard Randomized Controlled Trial. NEW YORK - Depressive symptoms after heart disease are associated with a markedly increased risk of death or another heart attack. However, less has been known about whether treating heart attack survivors for depressive symptoms could relieve these symptoms, be cost-effective, and ultimately, reduce medical risk? Columbia University Medical Centers Karina W. Davidson, PhD and her research team now report a patient-centered approach that answers these questions in the affirmative.. With a grant from the National Institutes of Healths National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), Dr. Karina Davidson, director of the Center for Behavioral Cardiovascular Health at CUMC, and her team completed a randomized controlled trial with 150 patients with elevated depressive symptoms two to six months after hospitalization for heart disease. Patients were recruited from seven centers across the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Can non-medical factors contribute to disparities in coronary heart disease treatments?. AU - Barnhart, Janice M.. AU - Cohen, Oshra. AU - Wright, Natania. AU - Wylie-Rosett, Judith. PY - 2006/8/1. Y1 - 2006/8/1. N2 - Racial/ethnic and sex disparities in coronary heart disease treatment exist. We previously reported that physicians perceive non-clinical variables, such as a patients desire for a second opinion, as affecting revascularization decisions. The results of that study are further examined here, using factor analysis to identify significant interrelationships among the non-clinical variables, which could contribute to disparities in coronary revascularization (i.e., percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty [PTCA] or coronary artery bypass graft [CABG]). Five content themes emerged using factor analysis; these are related to the patients socioeconomic/lifestyle status, treatment preference, physician interaction, health-assertiveness, and aggressiveness. For the ...
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is when your coronary arteries become narrowed by a gradual build-up of fatty material within their walls called atherosclerosis. These arteries supply your heart muscle with oxygen-rich blood. The most common symptom of coronary heart disease (CHD) is chest pain.. You can also experience other symptoms, such as a light headed sensation, palpitations and shortness of breath. Some people may not have any symptoms before they are diagnosed.. Your arteries may become so narrow that they cannot deliver enough oxygen-rich blood to your heart. The pain and discomfort you may feel as a result is called angina.. If a piece of atheroma breaks off it may cause a blood clot to form. If it blocks your coronary artery and cuts off the supply of oxygen-rich blood to your heart muscle, your heart may become permanently damaged. This is known as a heart attack.. There are several ways you can help reduce your risk of developing coronary heart disease (CHD), such as lowering your ...
In the article by Williams et al, "Is Optimal Medical Therapy "Optimal Therapy" for Multivessel Coronary Artery Disease?: Optimal Management of Multivessel Coronary Artery Disease," which appeared in the September 7, 2010 issue of the journal (Circulation 2010;122:943-945), there were two typographical errors:. On page 943, in the fourth paragraph "Coronary Artery Surgical Study" should read "Coronary Artery Surgery Study.". In the same paragraph, "European Coronary Surgical Study" should read "European Coronary Surgery Study.". The text has been corrected in the current online version of the manuscript. The authors regret the error.. ...
Baseline characteristics were compared between people with and without a family history of premature CHD. A Student t test was used for continuous variables (age, body mass index, waist circumference, waist/hip ratio, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol) a χ2 test was used for categorical variables (sex, smoking status, diabetes mellitus). Because triglycerides and the FRS were not normally distributed, these parameters were log-transformed. The log-transformed variables were normally distributed and were compared using a Student t test.. The Framingham risk score was calculated using a previously reported algorithm, which takes into account age, sex, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, smoking and the presence of diabetes. Since the FRS overestimates CHD risk in Europeans, and more specifically in the EPIC-Norfolk study population, we recalibrated ...
Psychosocial characteristics have been linked to coronary heart disease. In the Belgian Job Stress Project (1994-1999), the authors examined the independent role of perceived job stress on the short-term incidence of clinical manifest coronary events in a large occupational cohort. A total of 14,337 middle-aged men completed the Job Content Questionnaire to determine the dimensions of the extended job strain model, job demands, decision latitude, and social support. Jobs were categorized into high strain, low strain, active jobs, and passive jobs. During the 3-year follow-up, 87 coronary events were registered. At baseline, 17% of workers experienced high strain. Job demands and decision latitude were not significantly related to the development of coronary heart disease after adjustment for covariates. The 38% risk excess among subjects classified in the high-strain category did not reach statistical significance. However, coronary heart disease incidence was substantially associated with the ...
Background: Lifestyle changes and drug treatment can improve the prognosis and quality of life for patients with coronary heart disease (CHD), but their co-operation with suggested treatment is often limited. The aim of this thesis was to study how patients and their spouses conceive CHD and its treatment.. Material and Methods: The research design used was inductive and descriptive. The studies were based on three complementary sets of data. Patients with CHD (n=23) and spouses (n=25) were interviewed one year after an episode of the disease. Consecutive patients with CHD derived from another investigation were interviewed within six weeks or one year after the coronary event (n=113). All semi-structured interviews, tape-recorded or from notes taken by hand, were subjected to analysis within the phenomenographic framework.. Findings: The patients conceptions of CHD varied and were vague, even as judged on a lay level. They were associated with symptoms rather than with the disease. ...
Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping. ...
Many patients with coronary disease and a positive exercise test have episodes of ST-segment depression during ambulatory monitoring, the majority of which are silent.42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 Surprisingly, ambulatory ischemia monitoring has not been widely applied in the assessment of asymptomatic ischemia in diabetics. Chiariello et al15 compared the incidence of ambulatory ischemia during 24-hour AECG monitoring among 51 patients with diabetes (74% of whom had evidence of coronary disease), 70 nondiabetic patients with coronary disease, and 40 nondiabetic patients without overt coronary disease. They reported that 36% of the diabetic patients had at least one episode of asymptomatic ischemia, significantly higher than the 17% of patients in the nondiabetic group with coronary disease. Additionally, 73% of the total episodes of ST-segment deviation in the diabetic group were asymptomatic, significantly higher than the 60% of episodes in the nondiabetic group. These data cannot be directly ...
We have found that both mean and maximum measurements of CCA and ICA IMT are heritable. Heritability estimates using correlation coefficients and variance components methods are similar, and the magnitude of heritabilities for carotid IMT is similar to those reported for other quantitative cardiovascular traits such as systolic blood pressure and serum cholesterol. These data suggest that a substantial proportion of the variability in carotid IMT is explained by genetic factors.. Carotid IMT is a marker of subclinical cardiovascular disease that has been shown to be associated with traditional coronary heart disease risk factors3-6 and coronary atherosclerotic burden7,8 and to be predictive of subsequent cardiovascular events.9,10 Multiple prior studies have demonstrated the contribution of genetic factors to individual coronary heart disease risk factors, including systolic blood pressure,23 HDL cholesterol,24 and diabetes mellitus.25 A large study of 21 000 twins demonstrated an increased risk ...
Coronary heart disease remains a leading cause of mortality in the United States, with 84 percent of persons 65 years or older dying from this disease. Secondary preventive measures, including lifestyle modification and pharmacotherapy, are important for elderly patients because of the variable impacts on morbidity and mortality rates and quality of life. Participating in light to moderate activities significantly decreases mortality rates in elderly patients. Smoking cessation translates into a reduction in overall mortality and morbidity rates at least equal to that of other preventive measures such as aspirin or beta-blocker therapy. Recent studies on the effects of lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels to below 100 mg per dL have shown a substantial reduction in coronary heart disease mortality and nonfatal myocardial infarction rates, with a persistent effect in patients older than 75 years. Hypertension, manifesting mostly as isolated systolic blood pressure elevation, also should be
Coronary heart disease is a preventable disease in many patients. Prevention requires meeting specific treatment targets to address each patients risk factors. As I counsel my patients, I find that meeting these targets is often challenging. New medications and public health campaigns have led to significant reductions in cholesterol levels and rates of smoking? two of the major risk factors for coronary heart disease. Despite this progress, a recent study presented at the American Heart Associations Scientific Sessions 2009 suggests any strides forward have been tempered by a rise in the rates of obesity in the U.S. population. The result, according to the studys lead investigator: no net improvement in reducing the overall risk profile for coronary heart disease over the past 20 years.. ...
Results 1. Genotypes and frequencies of P2Y12 gene polymorphisms (rs9859552) in control group and coronary heart disease group both were GG genotype.. 2. Genotypes and frequencies of P2Y12 gene polymorphisms (rs6801273) in control group and coronary heart disease group were as below: CC genotype 10.0% vs 13.7%; CT genotype 40.0% vs 44.5%; TT genotype 50.0% vs 41.8%. There was no significant difference between control group and coronary heart disease group (p=0.33).. ...
A new treatment available to combat valvular heart disease could be an opportunity to improve the care provided to those who would previously have been too ill for open heart surgery - and cut mortality rates in patients with the disease. Dr Mark De Belder explains.
Data & statistics on Heart Disease Death Rate by Race in Iowa: Heart Disease Death Rate by Race in Iowa, 2001-2005, Age-Adjusted Mortality: Heart Disease (Quad Cities Area by Race; 2001-2003 Deaths per 100,000 Population), Heart Disease Mortality Rates: 2000-2006...
Coronary heart disease is a common term for the buildup of plaque in the hearts arteries that could lead to heart attack. But what about coronary artery disease? Is there a difference? The short answer is often no - health professionals frequently use the terms interchangeably.However, coronary heart disease , or CHD, is actually a result of coronary artery disease, or CAD, said Edward Fisher, M.D., Ph.D., an American Heart Association volunteer who is the Leon H.
Low social position and South Asian ethnicity are both associated with increased risk of dying from coronary heart disease,1 2 but the impact of differential access to medical care on these inequalities remains uncertain. If access to coronary management matched coronary incidence, then low social position and South Asian ethnicity would be associated with higher rates of use. For social position, most studies,3-10 but not all,11-13 find the opposite-high social deprivation is associated with lower rates of coronary angiography and revascularisation. Several studies, mainly small and retrospective, report less aggressive treatment of South Asian people with coronary disease compared with white patients.14-22 Such potential healthcare disparities have stimulated calls in the United States and United Kingdom for remedial action.23 24. Three interrelated questions remain unanswered. Firstly, in a general population that exhibits social and ethnic differences in rates of coronary heart disease, do ...
BACKGROUND: The GENetIcs of sUbSequent Coronary Heart Disease (GENIUS-CHD) consortium was established to facilitate discovery and validation of genetic variants and biomarkers for risk of subsequent CHD events, in individuals with established CHD.. METHODS: The consortium currently includes 57 studies from 18 countries, recruiting 185,614 participants with either acute coronary syndrome, stable CHD or a mixture of both at baseline. All studies collected biological samples and followed-up study participants prospectively for subsequent events.. RESULTS: Enrollment into the individual studies took place between 1985 to present day with duration of follow up ranging from 9 months to 15 years. Within each study, participants with CHD are predominantly of self-reported European descent (38%-100%), mostly male (44%-91%) with mean ages at recruitment ranging from 40 to 75 years. Initial feasibility analyses, using a federated analysis approach, yielded expected associations between age (HR 1.15 95% ...
Learn more about Atherosclerosis and Heart Disease Prevention at Doctors Hospital of Augusta Coronary Artery Disease Coronary Heart Disease Uses Principal ...
Learn more about Atherosclerosis and Heart Disease Prevention at Doctors Hospital of Augusta Coronary Artery Disease Coronary Heart Disease Uses Principal ...
Learn more about Atherosclerosis and Heart Disease Prevention at Reston Hospital Center Coronary Artery Disease Coronary Heart Disease Uses Principal Proposed...
According to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the test - called the PLAC Test for Lp-PLA2 - has been cleared for use in both men and women with no history of heart disease, but studies have shown it is more accurate in predicting coronary heart disease risk (CHD) in women. News on NewsHub.org
RESULTS: The meta-regression analysis included 108 randomised trials involving 299 310 participants at risk of cardiovascular events. All analyses that adjusted for changes in low density lipoprotein cholesterol showed no association between treatment induced change in high density lipoprotein cholesterol and risk ratios for coronary heart disease deaths, coronary heart disease events, or total deaths. With all trials included, change in high density lipoprotein cholesterol explained almost no variability ...
The term "heart disease" refers to several types of heart conditions, the most common type of which is coronary heart disease (also called coronary artery disease). This occurs when plaque builds up in the arteries that supply blood to the heart. Coronary heart disease can cause heart attack, angina, heart failure, and arrhythmias. These conditions are also the leading cause of disability in the United States and prevent many folks from working and enjoying family activities. But there is good news; its preventable and controllable, and the tips offered by the CDC are a really good place to start.. Written by: Tricia Doane, FizzNiche Staff Writer. Есть игры с трехмерной графикой и эффектами. Есть игры о картах и ее друзей. Также вы найдете Веселую Обезьянку и ее друзей. Также есть посвященные сериалам и фильмам. Довольно популярны сейчас ...
The ETT can be used to investigate coronary heart disease (sometimes called coronary artery disease). This disease is due to narrowing of the coronary arteries. It can cause chest pains (angina) and other problems. So, if you develop chest pains you may be advised to have an ETT to help clarify the cause. However, different investigations (eg, coronary angiography or myocardial perfusion scintigraphy) are now preferred to diagnose whether you have coronary heart disease.. Many people with coronary heart disease have a normal ECG at rest. During exercise the heart beats faster and needs more oxygen. If one or more of your coronary arteries are narrowed, part or parts of the heart muscle do not get enough oxygen. This can cause the ECG tracing to become abnormal when you exercise. Therefore, if you have a positive ETT (an abnormal reading) you are likely to have coronary heart disease.. If you already have coronary heart disease, the degree of abnormality on the ECG tracing from the ETT can give a ...
Associations between Interleukin-1 Gene Polymorphisms and Coronary Heart Disease Risk: A Meta-Analysis. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Kannel, W.B. and Lavine, B.S. (2003) Coronary Heart Disease Risk in People 65 Years of Age and Older. Progress in Cardiovascular Nursing, 18, 135-140.
Be aware of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) that represents 1 out of 3 deaths in women. Learn more on Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) in women.
Cardiovascular Disease Cardiovascular disease is defined as medical conditions affecting the cardiovascular system, including heart, blood vessels(arteries and veins). I. Coronary heart disease Coronary heart disease is defined as a condition of narrowing coronary arteries that lead to blockage of the blood flow in the arteries as a result of hardening arterial wall, cholesterol building …. ...
In familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) elevated Lp(a) concentrations are more frequent than in the general Caucasian population, but the clinical relevance of Lp(a) as a risk-factor in this group of patients is controversial. In 91 adult patients with heterozygous FH due to LDL-receptor defect we analyzed the correlation between Lp(a) concentrations, presence of coronary heart disease (CHD) and degree of atherosclerosis of the carotid arteries assessed by duplex scan. Coronary heart disease was present in 32 patients (24 males, 8 females). In the group without CHD the median of the Lp(a) distribution was 23 mg/dl, in the group with CHD 43 mg/dl (P | 0.05). The median of Lp(a) was 8 mg/dl in patients without pathological changes in the duplex scan of the carotids, 13 mg/dl in the group with intimal thickening, 25 mg/dl in patients with non-obstructing plaques, and 45 mg/dl in presence of | 30% luminal obstruction (P | 0.01). The role of Lp(a) as an independent risk factor was analyzed by stepwise logistic
The researchers identified that the longer hours participants worked, the extra probably they had been to create CHD within 10 years, states a recent article in the Medical News Today. Fine Treatment recommends Dr. Allens Device for Heart Treatment to use daily, including working hours, for the treatment of CHD, just when people experience discomfort in chest or angina, to prevent a heart attack and improve their heart muscle condition.. A recent article, Long working hours linked to increased risk of coronary heart disease, dated September 16, 2014, in the Medical News Today, states, "According to a recent poll, 18% of adults employed full-time in the US work more than 60 hours a week. Although these long hours may benefit pay packets, the same may not be said for heart health; a new study suggests long working hours may increase the risk of coronary heart disease." These who worked 61-70 hours a week were at 42% greater threat of CHD than these who worked 31-40 hours a week.. In this study, ...
Bhopal R, Unwin N, White M, Yallop J, Walker L, Alberti KGMM, Harland J, Patel S, Ahmad N, Turner C, Watson B, Kaur D, Kulkarni A, Laker M, Tavridou ...
So, what causes a person to have coronary heart disease? First off, CHD is usually caused due to a build-up of fatty deposits on the walls of the arteries around the walls of the heart of a person suffering this disease. Due to this build-up, the blood flow is restricted making it hard for the heart to function normally.. Of course, your lifestyle has something to do with it such as being obese or overweight, smoking, and lack of physical activity. This is actually a series of consequences, take the lack of physical activity or exercise as an example, due to lack of exercise and unbalanced diet, you may be overweight which then would lead to either diabetes or high blood cholesterol level.. Another unhealthy lifestyle is smoking, this is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease since both nicotine and carbon monoxide puts a strain on the heart by making it work faster than normal, increasing your risk of blood clots. The other chemicals that can be found in cigarettes also contribute by ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Association of Circulating Metabolites With Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in a European Population. T2 - Results From the Biomarkers for Cardiovascular Risk Assessment in Europe (BiomarCaRE) Consortium. AU - Cavus, Ersin. AU - Karakas, Mahir. AU - Ojeda, Francisco M. AU - Kontto, Jukka. AU - Veronesi, Giovanni. AU - Ferrario, Marco Mario. AU - Linneberg, Allan. AU - Jørgensen, Torben. AU - Meisinger, Christa. AU - Thorand, Barbara. AU - Iacoviello, Licia. AU - Börnigen, Daniela. AU - Woodward, Mark. AU - Schnabel, Renate. AU - Costanzo, Simona. AU - Tunstall-Pedoe, Hugh. AU - Koenig, Wolfgang. AU - Kuulasmaa, Kari. AU - Salomaa, Veikko. AU - Blankenberg, Stefan. AU - Zeller, Tanja. PY - 2019/10/30. Y1 - 2019/10/30. N2 - Importance: Risk stratification for coronary heart disease (CHD) remains challenging because of the complex causative mechanism of the disease. Metabolomic profiling offers the potential to detect new biomarkers and improve CHD risk assessment.Objective: To ...
How to distinguish the authenticity of coronary heart disease,Some preliminary judgment is coronary heart disease, mainly to see what aspects?1, from the patients symptoms, angina pectoris of coronary
Background: Persistent inflammation has been proposed to contribute to various stages in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Interleukin-6 receptor (IL6R) signalling propagates downstream inflammation cascades. To assess whether this pathway is causally relevant to coronary heart disease, we studied a functional genetic variant known to affect IL6R signalling.. Methods: In a collaborative meta-analysis, we studied Asp358Ala (rs2228145) in IL6R in relation to a panel of conventional risk factors and inflammation biomarkers in 125 222 participants. We also compared the frequency of Asp358Ala in 51 441 patients with coronary heart disease and in 136 226 controls. To gain insight into possible mechanisms, we assessed Asp358Ala in relation to localised gene expression and to postlipopolysaccharide stimulation of interleukin 6.. Findings: The minor allele frequency of Asp358Ala was 39%. Asp358Ala was not associated with lipid concentrations, blood pressure, adiposity, dysglycaemia, or smoking ...
Heart Disease Treatment. Studies show this treatment effective when it comes to Heart Disease Prevention. Discover a treatment that works.
A new genetic test could help predict which individuals will develop coronary heart disease among those with similar conventional risk factors. The length of the terminating structures of chromosomes, telomeres, can be used to predict cardiovascular mortality in middle-aged men, according to a study from Leicester in the UK which analysed blood samples collected for the West of Scotland Primary Prevention Study, (WOSCOPS). Nilesh Samani gave Helen Morant the details ...
Robert Clarke and colleagues conduct a meta-analysis of unpublished datasets to examine the causal relationship between elevation of homocysteine levels in the blood and the risk of coronary heart disease. Their data suggest that an increase in homocysteine levels is not likely to result in an increase in risk of coronary heart disease.
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the most common cause of death in the UK. Learn about the Epidemiology of Coronary Heart Disease.
Sometimes, one may feel the heart pounds, flutters, or seem to skip beats. These are called palpitations that may be bothersome or even frightening, but most of them are not serious and seldom require treatment. They often go away on their own. Most of the time, they are caused by stress and anxiety, or because one had too much caffeine, nicotine, or alcohol. ...
Cigarette smoking can harm almost every organ of the body and reduce the health of smokers in general. Smokers can eventually develop many diseases, including lung cancers, heart disease, high blood pressure, stroke and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). So nearly every nation in the world have been trying very hard to reduce the smoking rates. ...
Free medicine essay example on coronary heart disease: definition and strategies to identify the risk factors on Essays Professors.
Clinicians guide to lipids and coronary heart disease , Clinicians guide to lipids and coronary heart disease , کتابخانه دیجیتال دانشگاه علوم پزشکی اصفهان
Smoking Causes Coronary Heart Disease on Stop Smoking Tips | According to the National Institute of Health, coronary heart disease is the most common type of…
Information about coronary heart disease. Read our content about coronary heart disease symptoms, which include trouble breathing, and the ways to treat it.
The article presents the results of the study on the effect of a three-month application of «Theraflex®» in the complex therapy of comorbid pathology - osteoarthritis of the knee joints in combination with coronary heart disease. The positive drug effect on the symptoms of the combined pathology, both gonarthrosis and coronary heart disease, is shown. A conclusion is made about the active influence of «Theraflex®» on the pathogenetic mechanisms of gonarthrosis progression.. ...
How does malnutrition lead to coronary heart disease - How does malnutrition lead to coronary heart disease? Answered. Already answered.
For decades, your odds of suffering a heart attack were based on your cholesterol numbers, but the nations first new heart disease prevention guidelines in a decade focus more broadly on risk factors.
Preventive Cardiology Inc. has a number of resources to help you learn more about heart disease prevention. Visit our website for more information!
Learn more about Atherosclerosis and Heart Disease Prevention at Medical Center of Aurora Natural TherapiesHerbs and Supplements to Be Used With Cautionrevision ...
Heart Disease Prevention at Sutter Pacific. Learn more about our services and how we partner with you to create personalized care.
However, women more often experience subtle, atypical signs - fatigue, shortness of breath, discomfort in the chest or upper body and pain in the abdominal region - that frequently mimic heartburn and other health problems.. Other Gender Differences in Heart Disease. On average, women with coronary heart disease are 10 years older than men who have the disease. Women also are more likely to have multiple risk factors (such as diabetes and vascular disease) and to have silent heart attacks. They are more likely to experience sudden death than men.. Medical research has shown that early mortality (in-hospital or 30-day) after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery is greater in women than men.2-5 In an article published by Circulation in 2002, Vaccarino and coworkers found that although the death rate following bypass surgery was higher in women of all ages, sex differences were more pronounced in younger patients. Women under 50 years of age were three times more likely to die than men (3.4 ...
Lot of patients come to our OPD and ask us as to why they developed Coronary Artery Disease. Once I say that this is because of long standing diabetes and blood pressure, their immediate reply would be why they developed heart disease even though their sugar and pressure has been well under control for the past 10 years. So, that obviously means that taking medicines alone for the adequate control of sugar and pressure is not enough and you have to go beyond. This is called "Lifestyle Modification".. Dr. K.P.Suresh Kumar, Chief Cardiologist at Kauvery Hospital, talks about the importance of medicines, diet and physical activity to control Coronary Heart Disease.. ...
Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) and Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) can be used interchangeably, as one is the precursor to the other. In simple terms, Coronary He
The article by Azambuja & Duncan is a stimulus for rethinking cardiovascular disease (CVD) epidemiology. As the authors acknowledged, many individuals with atherosclerosis, a major component of the causal pathway for CVD, lack identifiable traditional risk factors. This is a reasonable argument for searching for other potential etiologies, and a potential infectious risk factor has recently gained strong support. The authors presented ecological evidence of an association between coronary heart disease mortality and influenza infection. If true, prevention of CVD could be substantially changed. However, as the authors stated, ecological analysis may have many flaws and epidemiological data lack robustness due to the many possible confounding factors. Thus, socioeconomic level is an important risk factor for CVD and also a strong potential confounder for the association between coronary heart disease mortality and influenza infection. Interestingly, as mentioned by Azambuja & Duncan, the high ...
Clinical guidelines have suggested that calculation of global CHD risk is a useful addition to the clinicians armamentarium to reduce the burden of CHD in the population. However, we found surprisingly little evidence that physician knowledge of global CHD risk currently translates into improved clinical outcomes. We found two fair quality studies that showed that physician knowledge of global CHD risk is associated with increased prescription of cardiovascular drugs in high risk (but not all) patients. Two additional fair quality studies showed no effect on their primary outcomes, but one was underpowered and the other focused on prescribing of lifestyle changes, rather than drugs whose prescribing might be expected to be targeted by risk level. One of these aforementioned studies showed improved blood pressure in high-risk patients, but no improvement in the proportion of patients at high risk, perhaps due to the high proportion of participants with baseline risks significantly exceeding the ...
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is now the leading cause of death and disability in almost all regions of the world. Despite recent declines in age-standardized death rates from CHD globally, the number of CHD deaths have been increasing due to a combination of growth in population numbers and their longevity. In addition, manifestation and outcome of CHD varies substantially between and within countries....
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the most common type of heart disease. It is caused by blocked blood vessels. Learn to how prevent and manage CHD.
A person with coronary heart disease has an accumulation of fatty deposits in the coronary arteries. These deposits narrow the arteries and can decrease or block the flow of blood to the heart.
A person with coronary heart disease has an accumulation of fatty deposits in the coronary arteries. These deposits narrow the arteries and can decrease or block the flow of blood to the heart.
A person with coronary heart disease has an accumulation of fatty deposits in the coronary arteries. These deposits narrow the arteries and can decrease or block the flow of blood to the heart.
A person with coronary heart disease has an accumulation of fatty deposits in the coronary arteries. These deposits narrow the arteries and can decrease or block the flow of blood to the heart.
A person with coronary heart disease has an accumulation of fatty deposits in the coronary arteries. These deposits narrow the arteries and can decrease or block the flow of blood to the heart.
A person with coronary heart disease has an accumulation of fatty deposits in the coronary arteries. These deposits narrow the arteries and can decrease or block the flow of blood to the heart.
A person with coronary heart disease has an accumulation of fatty deposits in the coronary arteries. These deposits narrow the arteries and can decrease or block the flow of blood to the heart.
A person with coronary heart disease has an accumulation of fatty deposits in the coronary arteries. These deposits narrow the arteries and can decrease or block the flow of blood to the heart.
A person with coronary heart disease has an accumulation of fatty deposits in the coronary arteries. These deposits narrow the arteries and can decrease or block the flow of blood to the heart.
A person with coronary heart disease has an accumulation of fatty deposits in the coronary arteries. These deposits narrow the arteries and can decrease or block the flow of blood to the heart.
A person with coronary heart disease has an accumulation of fatty deposits in the coronary arteries. These deposits narrow the arteries and can decrease or block the flow of blood to the heart.
Coronary heart disease, disease characterized by an inadequate supply of oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle (myocardium) because of narrowing or blocking of a coronary artery by fatty plaques (see atherosclerosis). If the oxygen depletion is extreme, the effect may be a myocardial infarction
Merry AHH, Erkens PMG, Boer JMA, Schouten LJ, Feskens EJM, Verschuren WMM, Gorgels APM, van den Brandt PA. Co-occurrence of metabolic factors and the risk of coronary heart disease: a prospective cohort study in the Netherlands. Int J Cardiol. 2012; 155(2): 223-9 ...
BackgroundAlthough a wealth of literature links dietary factors and coronary heart disease (CHD), the strength of the evidence supporting valid associations has
London, UK (PRWEB) March 22, 2012 -- Coronary heart disease can now be treated effectively with the new Dr. Allens Device for Heart Treatment which provides a
Background The prevention and treatment of coronary heart disease (CHD) is complex. A variety of models have therefore been developed to try and explain past trends and predict future possibilities....
Coronary heart disease in relation to age, sex, and the menopause.: Examination of the Registrar Generals mortality data suggested that women do not lose prote
In this analysis of the data from a longitudinal study on coronary heart disease risk factors, it was found that participants screened a few weeks after a major disaster (earthquake) had a higher heart rate, serum cholesterol levels, and serum triglyceride levels than matched participants that were screened shortly before the catastrophic event. The two groups of participants did not differ with regard to their characteristics at the baseline examination carried out 5 years previously. The lack of difference in blood pressure between exposed and nonexposed participants could be explained by the lag-time between the earthquake and the blood pressure measurements. We conclude that the acute stress associated with major disasters can influence risk factors for coronary heart disease. Permanent elevation of these risk factors due to the disruption of the social environment of the individuals affected by major disasters might be responsible for the apparent long-term adverse effects on cardiovascular ...
Looking for online definition of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty in the Medical Dictionary? percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty explanation free. What is percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty? Meaning of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty medical term. What does percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty mean?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Metabolic syndrome and angiographic coronary artery disease prevalence in association with the framingham risk score. AU - Konstantinou, Dimitris M.. AU - Chatzizisis, Yiannis S.. AU - Louridas, George E.. AU - Giannoglou, George D.. PY - 2010/6/1. Y1 - 2010/6/1. N2 - Background: The association of metabolic syndrome with coronary artery disease (CAD) has been studied extensively. However, little is known about the effect of Framingham risk score (FRS) and metabolic syndrome components on the association of metabolic syndrome with angiographically significant CAD. Our aim was to investigate whether that relationship is influenced by individuals 10-year CAD risk profile as assessed by FRS. Furthermore, we sought to elucidate whether metabolic syndrome is associated with angiographically significant CAD independently of its individual components. Methods: We studied a consecutive sample of 150 patients undergoing coronary angiography for the evaluation of chest pain. Metabolic ...
Successful percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) was performed on a 37-year-old white man with an isolated 95% right coronary artery stenosis who initially presented with type II unstable angina. Submaximal treadmill stress testing was not carried out before PTCA, but testing 3 days after PTCA was strongly positive without accompanying symptoms of myocardial ischaemia. Some 30 minutes after this test the patient experienced severe precordial pain with features of a hyperacute transmural inferior myocardial infarction. Immediate coronary arteriography delineated fresh thrombus related to the previous PTCA site. Intracoronary thrombolysis with streptokinase was successful, revealing an underlying severe stenosis at the PTCA site. PTCA was not repeated, nor was emergency coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) performed. This is the second such case documented in the literature; the first patient failed to respond to intracoronary thrombolysis with streptokinase and was submitted to ...
Background and Purpose: Coronary artery disease in moyamoya disease (MMD) have been described sporadically in several case reports. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence and characteristics of coronary artery disease in patients with MMD.. Methods: From August 1991 to December 2012, 446 patients diagnosed with adult MMD at our hospital. Baseline characteristics and prevalence of coronary artery disease were reviewed based on medical records and laboratory findings. The findings of conventional coronary angiography and/or coronary computed tomography were also reviewed for the presence and appearance of coronary artery lesion.. Results: - Of 446 patients with adult MMD, 21 patients were found to have coronary artery disease. Ten patients were treated with coronary artery bypass graft (n=4) or percutaneous coronary intervention (n=6) for unstable angina or myocardial infarction. Eleven were treated with medication for stable angina (n=6) and variant angina with mild degree of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Increased immunoreactive endothelin-1 in human transplant coronary artery disease. AU - Ravalli, Stefano. AU - Szabolcs, Matthias. AU - Albala, Arline. AU - Michler, Robert E.. AU - Cannon, Paul J.. PY - 1996/1/1. Y1 - 1996/1/1. N2 - Background: The pathogenesis of transplant coronary artery disease (TCAD) is unknown, but it is thought to derive from an interaction between immune and nonimmune factors, leading to smooth muscle cell proliferation and accumulation in the expanded neointima. Endothelin-1 (ET-1), a potent vasoconstrictor with mitogenic properties for vascular smooth muscle cells, has recently been demonstrated in native vessel atherosclerosis. The present study used immunohistochemistry to investigate the role of ET-1 in TCAD. Methods and Results: ET-1 immunoreactivity and cellular localization were assessed in human coronary arteries with TCAD (n=13) and in normal coronary arteries (n=10) with single- and double-label immunohistochemistry. The intensity of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Algorithm to predict triple-vessel/left main coronary artery disease in patients without myocardial infarction. T2 - An international cross validation. AU - Detrano, Robert. AU - Jánosi, A.. AU - Steinbrunn, Walter. AU - Pfisterer, Matthias. AU - Schmid, Johann Jakob. AU - Maggie Meyer, M.. AU - Guppy, Kern H.. AU - Abi-Mansour, Pierre. PY - 1991. Y1 - 1991. N2 - Logistic regression was applied to the clinical, risk factor, and exercise data of consecutive angiographic referrals without prior myocardial infarction to determine an algorithm predicting the probability of triple-vessel/left main coronary artery disease. These data were obtained from a total of 1,074 such subjects from patient populations at four centers (Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio; Hungarian Institute of Cardiology, Budapest, Hungary; the university hospitals, Zurich and Basel, Switzerland; and the Veterans Administration Medical Center, Long Beach, Calif.) and used to derive four separate ...
BACKGROUND: Patients with obstructive left main coronary artery disease are usually treated with coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG). Randomized trials have suggested that drug-eluting stents may be an acceptable alternative to CABG in selected patients with left main coronary disease. METHODS: We randomly assigned 1905 eligible patients with left main coronary artery disease of low or intermediate anatomical complexity to undergo either percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with fluoropolymer-based cobalt-chromium everolimus-eluting stents (PCI group, 948 patients) or CABG (CABG group, 957 patients). Anatomic complexity was assessed at the sites and defined by a Synergy between Percutaneous Coronary Intervention with Taxus and Cardiac Surgery (SYNTAX) score of 32 or lower (the SYNTAX score reflects a comprehensive angiographic assessment of the coronary vasculature, with 0 as the lowest score and higher scores [no upper limit] indicating more complex coronary anatomy). The primary end point was
The use of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) rather than Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) for the management of patients with triple vessel or left main coronary artery disease is associated with lower rates of major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular events at 1 year. The conclusion is based on a trail (STNTAX trail) published in New England Journal of Medicine March 2009 edition.. The SYNTAX (Synergy between PCI with taxus and cardiac surgery) trail, conducted in United States and several countries in Europe, involved 1800 patients with previously untreated triple vessel disease or left main coronary artery disease. The patients were randomly assigned to undergo CABG or PCI and were monitored for the subsequent 12 month period for any major cardiac or cerebrovascular event. Death from any cause, stroke, myocardial infarction and repeat revascularization were considered as major adverse events. The research was sponsored by Boston Scientific, developer of the drug eluting taxus ...

Coronary Artery Disease | CAD | MedlinePlusCoronary Artery Disease | CAD | MedlinePlus

... is the most common type of heart disease. It can lead to angina and heart attack. Read about symptoms and tests. ... Coronary Artery Disease - Coronary Heart Disease (American Heart Association) * Coronary Heart Disease (National Heart, Lung, ... Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common type of heart disease. It is the leading cause of death in the United States ... Coronary Artery Disease: Angioplasty or Bypass Surgery? (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) Also in Spanish ...
more infohttps://medlineplus.gov/coronaryarterydisease.html

Coronary artery disease - WikipediaCoronary artery disease - Wikipedia

Coronary artery disease. Synonyms. Atherosclerotic heart disease,[1] atherosclerotic vascular disease,[2] coronary heart ... Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD),[13] refers to a group of diseases which includes ... Stable coronary artery disease (SCAD) is also often called stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD).[59] A 2015 monograph explains ... Typically, coronary artery disease occurs when part of the smooth, elastic lining inside a coronary artery (the arteries that ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ischemic_heart_disease

coronary heart diseasecoronary heart disease

... is a cardiovascular disease in which there is a failure of coronary circulation to supply adequate ... caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels., Narrowing of the coronary arteries due to fatty deposits inside the ... An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood ... Coronary Artery Disease, Diseases, Coronary, CORONARY HEART DIS, Coronary Diseases, Disease, Coronary Heart, Coronary Disease, ...
more infohttps://www.ebi.ac.uk/ols/ontologies/efo/terms?short_form=EFO_0001645

Coronary Artery Disease | cdc.govCoronary Artery Disease | cdc.gov

Learn what causes coronary artery disease (CAD) and how it is diagnosed. Get the facts from the CDC. ... What is coronary artery disease?. Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common type of heart disease in the United States. ... Learn the facts about heart disease, including coronary artery disease, the most common type of heart disease. ... How is coronary artery disease diagnosed?. If youre at high risk for heart disease or already have symptoms, your doctor can ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/heartdisease/coronary_ad.htm

Coronary heart disease
 - NHSCoronary heart disease - NHS

Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a major cause of death both in the UK and worldwide. CHD is sometimes called ischaemic heart ... Find out more about diagnosing coronary heart disease. Treating coronary heart disease (CHD). Coronary heart disease cannot be ... Causes of coronary heart disease (CHD). Coronary heart disease is the term that describes what happens when your hearts blood ... Diagnosing coronary heart disease (CHD). If your doctor feels youre at risk of CHD, they may carry out a risk assessment. ...
more infohttps://www.nhs.uk/conditions/Coronary-heart-disease/

Coronary Artery Disease-Treatment OverviewCoronary Artery Disease-Treatment Overview

Coronary artery disease is the buildup of plaque on the inside of the coronary arteries, the blood vessels that supply oxygen ... depends upon how far the disease has already progressed. ... Articles OnCoronary Artery Disease. Coronary Artery Disease ... Lifestyle changes are the first step for anyone with coronary artery disease. Healthy habits can slow or even stop the disease ... Heart Disease: Should I Have Angioplasty for Stable Angina? Heart Disease: Should I Have Bypass Surgery? ...
more infohttps://www.webmd.com/heart-disease/tc/coronary-artery-disease-treatment-overview

Coronary Artery Disease | Encyclopedia.comCoronary Artery Disease | Encyclopedia.com

Coronary Artery Disease Definition Coronary artery disease is a narrowing or blockage of the arteries and vessels that provide ... Coronary artery disease, also called coronary heart disease or heart disease, is the leading cause of death for both men and ... Coronary heart disease also may be called coronary artery disease or simply heart disease. It is the leading cause of death in ... Coronary artery disease, also called coronary heart disease or atherosclerotic heart disease, is the leading cause of death for ...
more infohttps://www.encyclopedia.com/medicine/diseases-and-conditions/pathology/coronary-artery-disease

Coronary Artery DiseaseCoronary Artery Disease

Anemia and coronary artery disease: pathophysiology, prognosis, and treatment. Rymer, Jennifer A.; Rao, Sunil V. ... Recognizing excellence in coronary artery disease: the Sobel Distinguished Scholarship Award. Dauerman, Harold L. ... Thought you might appreciate this item(s) I saw at Coronary Artery Disease.. ... Predicting coronary no-reflow in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction using Bayesian approaches ...
more infohttps://journals.lww.com/coronary-artery/pages/default.aspx

Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) - familydoctor.orgCoronary Heart Disease (CHD) - familydoctor.org

... is the most common type of heart disease. It is caused by blocked blood vessels. Learn to how prevent and manage CHD. ... Coronary heart disease (CHD) is sometimes called coronary artery disease (CAD). It is the most common type of heart disease. ... Clinical Recommendation for Coronary Heart Disease. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Preventing Heart Disease: ... Tags: acute, Arrhythmias, Blood Pressure Medicines, cardiovascular, Chest Pain, coronary artery disease, dizziness, EKG, Nausea ...
more infohttps://familydoctor.org/condition/coronary-heart-disease-chd/

Coronary Artery Disease - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlusCoronary Artery Disease - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

Health Information on Coronary Artery Disease: MedlinePlus Multiple Languages Collection ... Coronary Artery Disease: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English Enfermedad de las arterias coronarias: Tema de salud de MedlinePlus ... Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) Bilingual PDF ... Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) - 繁體中文 (Chinese, Traditional (Cantonese dialect)) Bilingual PDF ...
more infohttps://medlineplus.gov/languages/coronaryarterydisease.html

Prevention of Coronary Disease | The BMJPrevention of Coronary Disease | The BMJ

Prevention of Coronary Disease. Br Med J 1969; 1 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.1.5637.182 (Published 18 January 1969) Cite ...
more infohttp://www.bmj.com/content/1/5637/182.3

Coronary heart disease - Treatment
    

            
                
                    
                       - NHS.UKCoronary heart disease - Treatment - NHS.UK

Although coronary heart disease (CHD) cannot be cured, treatment can help manage the symptoms and reduce the risk of further ... Coronary angioplasty. Coronary angioplasty is also known as percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), percutaneous transluminal ... Treatment for coronary heart disease (CHD) can help manage the symptoms and reduce the risk of further problems. ... Coronary artery bypass graft. Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is also known as bypass surgery, a heart bypass, or ...
more infohttps://www.nhs.uk/conditions/coronary-heart-disease/treatment/

Coronary heart disease | pathology | Britannica.comCoronary heart disease | pathology | Britannica.com

... disease characterized by an inadequate supply of oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle (myocardium) because of narrowing or ... blocking of a coronary artery by fatty plaques (see atherosclerosis). If the oxygen depletion is extreme, the effect may be a ... ischemic heart disease. Coronary heart disease, also called coronary artery disease or ischemic heart disease, disease ... cardiovascular disease: Coronary heart disease. Coronary heart disease is a general term for a number of syndromes. Ischemic ...
more infohttps://www.britannica.com/science/coronary-heart-disease

Coronary Artery Disease CharacteristicsCoronary Artery Disease Characteristics

Coronary artery disease describes a condition where the coronary arteries that supply the heart with oxygen and nutrients ... www.escardio.org/.../...Stable_Coronary_Artery_Disease_web_addenda.pdf. *www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Coronary-heart-disease/Pages/ ... Patients with coronary artery disease may have one or more plaques in their coronary arteries and unless the blockages are ... Coronary artery disease describes a condition where the coronary arteries that supply the heart with oxygen and nutrients ...
more infohttps://www.news-medical.net/health/Coronary-Artery-Disease-Characteristics.aspx

Prevention of coronary heart disease | The BMJPrevention of coronary heart disease | The BMJ

Prevention of coronary heart disease. BMJ 2004; 328 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.328.7436.404-a (Published 12 February 2004 ...
more infohttp://www.bmj.com/content/328/7436/404.2/article-info

What is Coronary Artery Disease?What is Coronary Artery Disease?

... hardening and furring of the walls of the coronary arteries. ... disease is another term used for atherosclerotic heart disease ... Coronary artery disease is also often called coronary heart disease (CHD). However, CHD actually has several causes, one of ... Coronary artery disease kills millions worldwide each year. The symptoms of coronary artery disease are usually not evident ... www.escardio.org/.../...Stable_Coronary_Artery_Disease_web_addenda.pdf. *www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Coronary-heart-disease/Pages/ ...
more infohttps://www.news-medical.net/health/What-is-Coronary-Artery-Disease.aspx

Causes of Coronary Artery DiseaseCauses of Coronary Artery Disease

... or coronary heart disease, can lead to heart attack or death. Learn what causes this condition and how you can prevent it. ... What is coronary artery disease?. Coronary artery disease (CAD), also called coronary heart disease, is the most common type of ... Heart disease is one type of cardiovascular disease. Per the World Health Organization (WHO). , cardiovascular diseases are the ... Tips for preventing coronary artery disease. You can make many lifestyle changes to decrease your risk of developing CAD and ...
more infohttps://www.healthline.com/health/coronary-artery-disease/causes

Advanced Search : Coronary Artery DiseaseAdvanced Search : Coronary Artery Disease

Wolters Kluwer Health may email you for journal alerts and information, but is committed to maintaining your privacy and will not share your personal information without your express consent. For more information, please refer to our Privacy Policy ...
more infohttps://journals.lww.com/coronary-artery/pages/advancedsearch.aspx

Coronary Artery Heart Disease | HealthCentralCoronary Artery Heart Disease | HealthCentral

Coronary heart disease (CHD)-also sometimes called coronary artery disease-is the most common form of cardiovascular disease, a ... Coronary heart disease (CHD)-also sometimes called coronary artery disease-is the most common form of cardiovascular disease, a ... Who Gets Coronary Heart Disease?. More than 16 million Americans suffer from CHD. Despite significant declines in the rate of ... Coronary heart disease is generally due to the buildup of plaques in the arterial walls, a process known as atherosclerosis. ...
more infohttps://www.healthcentral.com/encyclopedia/coronary-artery-disease

CORONARY ANGIOGRAPHY - Heart Disease - MedHelpCORONARY ANGIOGRAPHY - Heart Disease - MedHelp

Can Mental Stress Lead to Heart Disease? Can depression and anxiety cause heart disease? Get the facts in this Missouri ... CORONARY ANGIOGRAPHY venothini My mother has small pain in below chest and back of chest, then doctor advise to go for an ... CORONARY ANGIOGRAPHY. My mother has small pain in below chest and back of chest, then doctor advise to go for an angiogram, ... 8. PDA&PLV: minimal disease Please advise us for further treatment, whether it can be cure with tablets and exercise or have to ...
more infohttps://www.medhelp.org/posts/Heart-Disease/CORONARY-ANGIOGRAPHY/show/1904196

Coronary Artery Disease - User JournalsCoronary Artery Disease - User Journals

Find Coronary Artery Disease information, treatments for Coronary Artery Disease and Coronary Artery Disease symptoms. ... MedHelps Coronary Artery Disease Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for Coronary Artery Disease ... condition or disease; or a recommendation for a specific test, doctor, care provider, procedure, treatment plan, product, or ...
more infohttps://www.medhelp.org/tags/show/13841/Coronary-Artery-Disease?section=user_journals

Coronary Heart Disease and Stroke Deaths - United States, 2009Coronary Heart Disease and Stroke Deaths - United States, 2009

Number of deaths and age-adjusted death rates* from persons within coronary heart disease† and stroke§ by sex, age, and race/ ... Continued) Number of deaths and age-adjusted death rates* from persons within coronary heart disease† and stroke§ by sex, age, ... Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the cause of more than two-thirds of all heart disease-related deaths (1,2). One of the Healthy ... Coronary heart disease and stroke deaths-United States, 2006. In: CDC. CDC health disparities and inequalities report. MMWR ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/su6203a26.htm?s_cid=su6203a26_w

Coronary Artery DiseaseCoronary Artery Disease

... Coronary arteries supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle. Coronary artery disease results from ... Common symptoms of coronary artery disease include shortness of breath and angina (pain or a feeling of increased pressure in ... Hybrid minimally invasive coronary artery bypass and coronary artery stent placement. Learn about minimally invasive procedures ... When a coronary artery suddenly becomes blocked and blood flow to an area of heart muscle stops, it is called a heart attack. A ...
more infohttps://www.emoryhealthcare.org/heart-vascular/coronary-artery-disease.html

Coronary artery disease and rheumatoid arthritis.  - PubMed - NCBICoronary artery disease and rheumatoid arthritis. - PubMed - NCBI

Coronary artery disease and rheumatoid arthritis.. Goodson N1.. Author information. 1. Arthritis Research Campaign, ... It is not clear why rheumatoid patients have higher rates of coronary disease. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors do not ... It may be that these new cardiovascular risk factors are responsible for accelerating coronary heart disease in patients with ... This article reviews recent literature relating to the epidemiology of cardiovascular disease in the context of RA. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11845015?dopt=Abstract

Extracellular vesicles in coronary artery disease.  - PubMed - NCBIExtracellular vesicles in coronary artery disease. - PubMed - NCBI

Extracellular vesicles in coronary artery disease.. Boulanger CM1,2, Loyer X1,2, Rautou PE1,3,4, Amabile N1,5. ... This Review summarizes current knowledge on the role of extracellular vesicles in coronary artery disease, and their emerging ... valuable biological information for biomarker discovery in primary and secondary prevention of coronary artery disease. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28150804
  • As the disease progresses, chest pain (angina pectoris) may develop during periods of physical activity or emotional stress, because the narrowed arteries cannot supply the heart with the increased amount of blood and oxygen necessary at those times. (healthcentral.com)
  • Monitoring CA-125 blood serum levels is also useful for determining how ovarian cancer is responding to treatment (with the duration of disease-free survival correlating with the rate of fall of CA-125) and for predicting a patient's prognosis after treatment. (wikipedia.org)