Coronary Artery Disease
Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary
Coronary Artery Bypass
Blood Flow Velocity
Angina Pectoris, Variant
Percutaneous Coronary Intervention
Nitric Oxide Synthase
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Coronary Care Units
Coronary Vessel Anomalies
Analysis of Variance
Ventricular Function, Left
Myocardial Reperfusion Injury
Cardiac Pacing, Artificial
NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester
Predictive Value of Tests
Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors
Severity of Illness Index
Sensitivity and Specificity
Blood Circulation Time
Fractional Flow Reserve, Myocardial
Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome
Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon
Multidetector Computed Tomography
Myocardial Perfusion Imaging
Magnetic Resonance Angiography
Disease Models, Animal
Reproducibility of Results
Tomography, Spiral Computed
Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors
Proportional Hazards Models
Ventricular Dysfunction, Left
Heart Arrest, Induced
Platelet Glycoprotein GPIIb-IIIa Complex
Phasic right coronary artery blood flow in conscious dogs with normal and elevated right ventricular pressures. (1/5587)We studied phasic right coronary blood flow in well trained normal dogs and dogs with pulmonic stenosis. We installed electromagnetic flow transducers and pressure tubes under anesthesia to monitor right coronary blood flow, cardiac output, central aortic blood pressure, and right ventribular pressure. In normotensive dogs, systolic flow amplitude equaled early diastolic flow levels. The ratio of systolic to diastolic flow at rest was substantially greater in the right coronary bed (36+/-1.3%) than in the left circumflex bed (13+/-3.6%). Right diastolid flow runoff, including the cove late in diastole, resembled left circumflex runoff. Blood flow to the normotensive right (37+/-1.1 ml/min 100(-1) g) and the left (35+/-1.0 ml/min(-1) g) ventricular myocardium indicated equal perfusion of both cardiac walls. Throttling of systolic flow was related directly to the right ventricular systolic pressure level in the dogs with pulmonic stenosis. Retrograde systolic flow occurred in severe right ventricular hypertension. The late diastolic runoff pattern in dogs with pulmonic stenosis appeared the same as for the normotensive dogs. We obtained systolic to diastolic flow ratios of 1/3 the value of normotensive hearts in high and severe pulmonic hypertension. Electrocardiograms and studies of pathology suggested restricted blood flow to the inner layers of the right myocardium in the dogs with severe and high right ventricular hypertension. Normotensive and hypertensive peak hyperemic flow responses were similar, except for an increased magnitude of diastolic flow, with proportionately less systolic flow in hypertensive states. (+info)
The effect of cardiac contraction on collateral resistance in the canine heart. (2/5587)We determined whether the coronary collateral vessels develop an increased resistance to blood flow during systole as does the cognate vascular bed. Collateral resistance was estimated by measuring retrograde flow rate from a distal branch of the left anterior descending coronary artery while the main left coronary artery was perfused at a constant pressure. Retrograde flow rate was measured before and during vagal arrest. We found that in 10 dogs the prolonged diastole experienced when the heart was stopped caused no significant change in the retrograde flow rate, which indicated that systole has little effect on the collateral resistance. However, when left ventricular end-diastolic pressure was altered by changing afterload or contractility, a direct relationship between end-diastolic pressure and collateral resistance was noted. (+info)
Endogenous plasma endothelin concentrations and coronary circulation in patients with mild dilated cardiomyopathy. (3/5587)OBJECTIVE: To determine whether increased plasma concentrations of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and big endothelin (BET) play a role in the regulation of coronary circulation in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM). SETTING: Tertiary referral centre for cardiac diseases. PATIENTS: Fourteen patients (eight male/six female; mean (SD) age 59 (9) years) with IDCM (ejection fraction 36 (9)%) and five normotensive subjects (two male/three female; age 52 (7) years) serving as controls were studied. METHODS: Functional status was classified according to New York Heart Association (NYHA) class. Endogenous ET-1 and BET plasma concentrations from the aorta and the coronary sinus were determined by radioimmunoassay. Coronary blood flow, using the inert chromatographic argon method, myocardial oxygen consumption, and coronary sinus oxygen content under basal conditions were determined. RESULTS: In the aorta, mean (SD) concentrations of ET-1 (IDCM 0.76 (0.25) v controls 0.31 (0.06) fmol/ml; p = 0.002) and BET (IDCM 3.58 (1.06) v controls 2.11 (0.58) fmol/ml; p = 0.014) were increased in patients with IDCM. Aortic ET-1 concentrations correlated positively with NYHA class (r = 0. 731; p < 0.001), myocardial oxygen consumption (r = 0.749; p < 0. 001), and coronary blood flow (r = 0.645; p = 0.003), but inversely with coronary sinus oxygen content (r = -0.633; p = 0.004), which was significantly decreased in IDCM patients (IDCM 4.68 (1.05) v controls 6.70 (1.06) vol%; p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: The coronary circulation in patients with IDCM is exposed to an increased endothelin load. ET-1 concentrations correlate with functional deterioration. A decrease of the coronary sinus content of oxygen suggests a mismatch between coronary blood flow and metabolic demand. Thus, ET-1 might be a marker of a disequilibrium between myocardial oxygen demand and coronary blood flow in IDCM. (+info)
Prognostic value of myocardial perfusion imaging in patients with high exercise tolerance. (4/5587)BACKGROUND: Although high exercise tolerance is associated with an excellent prognosis, the significance of abnormal myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) in patients with high exercise tolerance has not been established. This study retrospectively compares the utility of MPI and exercise ECG (EECG) in these patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Of 388 consecutive patients who underwent exercise MPI and reached at least Bruce stage IV, 157 (40.5%) had abnormal results and 231 (59.5%) had normal results. Follow-up was performed at 18+/-2.7 months. Adverse events, including revascularization, myocardial infarction, and cardiac death, occurred in 40 patients. Nineteen patients had revascularization related to the MPI results or the patient's condition at the time of MPI and were not included in further analysis. Seventeen patients (12.2%) with abnormal MPI and 4 (1.7%) with normal MPI had adverse cardiac events (P<0.001). Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis showed that MPI was an excellent predictor of cardiac events (global chi2=13.2; P<0.001; relative risk=8; 95% CI=3 to 23) but EECG had no predictive power (global chi2=0.05; P=0.8; relative risk=1; 95% CI=0.4 to 3.0). The addition of Duke's treadmill score risk categories did not improve the predictive power of EECG (global chi2=0.17). The predictive power of the combination of EECG (including Duke score categories) and MPI was no better than that of MPI alone (global chi2=13.5). CONCLUSIONS: Unlike EECG, MPI is an excellent prognostic indicator for adverse cardiac events in patients with known or suspected CAD and high exercise tolerance. (+info)
Usefulness of fractional flow reserve to predict clinical outcome after balloon angioplasty. (5/5587)BACKGROUND: After regular coronary balloon angioplasty, it would be helpful to identify those patients who have a low cardiac event rate. Coronary angiography alone is not sensitive enough for that purpose, but it has been suggested that the combination of optimal angiographic and optimal functional results indicates a low restenosis chance. Pressure-derived myocardial fractional flow reserve (FFR) is an index of the functional severity of the residual epicardial lesion and could be useful for that purpose. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 60 consecutive patients with single-vessel disease, balloon angioplasty was performed by use of a pressure instead of a regular guide wire. Both quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) and measurement of FFR were performed 15 minutes after the procedure. A successful angioplasty result, defined as a residual diameter stenosis (DS) <50%, was achieved in 58 patients. In these patients, DS and FFR, measured 15 minutes after PTCA, were analyzed in relation to clinical outcome. In those 26 patients with both optimal angiographic (residual DS by QCA /=0.90) results, event-free survival rates at 6, 12, and 24 months were 92+/-5%, 92+/-5%, and 88+/-6%, respectively, versus 72+/-8%, 69+/-8%, and 59+/-9%, respectively, in the remaining 32 patients in whom the angiographic or functional result or both were suboptimal (P=0.047, P=0.028, and P=0.014, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with a residual DS /=0.90, clinical outcome up to 2 years is excellent. Therefore, there is a complementary value of coronary angiography and coronary pressure measurement in the evaluation of PTCA result. (+info)
Simultaneous assessment of effects of coronary vasodilators on the coronary blood flow and the myocardial contractility by using the blood-perfused canine papillary muscle. (6/5587)Effects of 6 coronary vasodilators on the coronary blood flow and the contractile force of the ventricular muscle were examined simultaneously by injecting these drugs to the arterially blood-perfused canine papillary muscle preparation. All compounds produced a dose-dependent increase in blood flow rate, and relative potencies determined on the basis of doses producing a 100% increase in blood flow rate, ED100, were in the descending order : nifedipine greater than verapamil greater than diltiazem greater than dilazep greater than dipyridamole greater than carbochromen, and approximately 1 : 1/12 : 1/26 : 1/100 : 1/300 : 1/500. All drugs except for dipyridamole caused a dose-dependent decrease in the developed tension of the papillary muscle, although nifedipine and diltiazem in low doses produced a slight increase. Relative potencies determined on the basis of doses producing a 50% decrease in developed tension, ID50, were as follows: nifedipine (1), verapamil (1/13), diltiazem (1/40), dilazep (1/100), and carbochromen (1/270). Ratios of the ID50 to ED100 were as follows: diltiazem (5.2), nifedipine (3.5), verapamil (3.5), dilazep (2.5), and carbochromen (1.8). The higher the value the more predominant on the coronary vascular bed or the less depressant on the myocardial contractility were their actions. (+info)
A comparison of an A1 adenosine receptor agonist (CVT-510) with diltiazem for slowing of AV nodal conduction in guinea-pig. (7/5587)1. The purpose of this study was to compare the pharmacological properties (i.e. the AV nodal depressant, vasodilator, and inotropic effects) of two AV nodal blocking agents belonging to different drug classes; a novel A1 adenosine receptor (A1 receptor) agonist, N-(3(R)-tetrahydrofuranyl)-6-aminopurine riboside (CVT-510), and the prototypical calcium channel blocker diltiazem. 2. In the atrial-paced isolated heart, CVT-510 was approximately 5 fold more potent to prolong the stimulus-to-His bundle (S-H interval), a measure of slowing AV nodal conduction (EC50 = 41 nM) than to increase coronary conductance (EC50 = 200 nM). At concentrations of CVT-510 (40 nM) and diltiazem (1 microM) that caused equal prolongation of S-H interval (approximately 10 ms), diltiazem, but not CVT-510, significantly reduced left ventricular developed pressure (LVP) and markedly increased coronary conductance. CVT-510 shortened atrial (EC50 = 73 nM) but not the ventricular monophasic action potentials (MAP). 3. In atrial-paced anaesthetized guinea-pigs, intravenous infusions of CVT-510 and diltiazem caused nearly equal prolongations of P-R interval. However, diltiazem, but not CVT-510, significantly reduced mean arterial blood pressure. 4. Both CVT-510 and diltiazem prolonged S-H interval, i.e., slowed AV nodal conduction. However, the A1 receptor-selective agonist CVT-510 did so without causing the negative inotropic, vasodilator, and hypotensive effects associated with diltiazem. Because CVT-510 did not affect the ventricular action potential, it is unlikely that this agonist will have a proarrythmic action in ventricular myocardium. (+info)
Comparison of quantitative coronary angiography, intravascular ultrasound, and coronary pressure measurement to assess optimum stent deployment. (8/5587)BACKGROUND: Although intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is the present standard for the evaluation of optimum stent deployment, this technique is expensive and not routinely feasible in most catheterization laboratories. Coronary pressure-derived myocardial fractional flow reserve (FFRmyo) is an easy, cheap, and rapidly obtainable index that is specific for the conductance of the epicardial coronary artery. In this study, we investigated the usefulness of coronary pressure measurement to predict optimum and suboptimum stent deployment. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 30 patients, a Wiktor-i stent was implanted at different inflation pressures, starting at 6 atm and increasing step by step to 8, 10, 12, and 14 atm, if necessary. After every step, stent deployment was evaluated by quantitative coronary angiography (QCA), IVUS, and coronary pressure measurement. If any of the 3 techniques did not yield an optimum result, the next inflation was performed, and all 3 investigational modalities were repeated until optimum stent deployment was present by all of them or until the treating physician decided to accept the result. Optimum deployment according to QCA was finally achieved in 24 patients, according to IVUS in 17 patients, and also according to coronary pressure measurement in 17 patients. During the step-up, a total of 81 paired IVUS and coronary pressure measurements were performed, of which 91% yielded concordant results (ie, either an optimum or a suboptimum expansion of the stent by both techniques, P<0.00001). On the contrary, QCA showed a low concordance rate with IVUS and FFRmyo (48% and 46%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, using a coil stent, both IVUS and coronary pressure measurement were of similar value with respect to the assessment of optimum stent deployment. Therefore, coronary pressure measurement can be used as a cheap and rapid alternative to IVUS for that purpose. (+info)
The coronary circulation refers to the blood flow that supplies oxygen and nutrients to the heart muscle. It is a specialized network of blood vessels that branches off from the aorta, the main artery that carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body. The coronary circulation is divided into two main branches: the left coronary artery and the right coronary artery. The left coronary artery supplies blood to the left side of the heart, including the left atrium, left ventricle, and the coronary arteries that branch off from it. The right coronary artery supplies blood to the right atrium and the right ventricle, as well as the coronary arteries that branch off from it. The coronary circulation is essential for maintaining the health and function of the heart muscle. If the blood flow to the heart is restricted or blocked, it can lead to a heart attack, which can be life-threatening. Therefore, the coronary circulation is closely monitored by healthcare professionals, and treatments such as angioplasty or bypass surgery may be necessary to restore blood flow to the heart.
Coronary vessels, also known as coronary arteries, are blood vessels that supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle. There are two main coronary arteries, the left coronary artery and the right coronary artery, which branch off from the aorta and travel through the heart muscle to supply blood to the heart's various chambers and valves. The coronary arteries are responsible for delivering oxygen and nutrients to the heart muscle, which is essential for its proper function. If the coronary arteries become narrowed or blocked due to atherosclerosis (the buildup of plaque), it can lead to a condition called coronary artery disease (CAD), which can cause chest pain, heart attack, and other serious cardiovascular problems. In some cases, coronary artery disease can be treated with medications, lifestyle changes, or procedures such as angioplasty or coronary artery bypass surgery. It is important to maintain a healthy lifestyle, including regular exercise, a balanced diet, and not smoking, to reduce the risk of developing coronary artery disease and other cardiovascular problems.
Coronary angiography is a medical procedure used to diagnose and treat coronary artery disease (CAD). It involves injecting a contrast dye into the coronary arteries, which are the blood vessels that supply blood to the heart muscle. The dye makes the arteries visible on X-ray images, allowing doctors to see any blockages or narrowing of the arteries. During the procedure, a small catheter (a thin, flexible tube) is inserted into a blood vessel in the arm or leg and guided to the coronary arteries. The contrast dye is then injected through the catheter, and X-ray images are taken to visualize the arteries. Coronary angiography is often used to diagnose CAD, which is a common condition that can lead to heart attacks. It can also be used to guide treatment, such as angioplasty or stent placement, to open up blocked or narrowed arteries and improve blood flow to the heart.
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a condition in which the blood vessels that supply blood to the heart muscle become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of plaque. This can lead to reduced blood flow to the heart, which can cause chest pain (angina), shortness of breath, and other symptoms. Over time, CAD can also lead to a heart attack if the blood flow to the heart is completely blocked. CAD is a common condition that affects many people, particularly those who are middle-aged or older, and is often associated with other risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, and diabetes. Treatment for CAD may include lifestyle changes, medications, and in some cases, procedures such as angioplasty or coronary artery bypass surgery.
Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary is a medical procedure used to treat narrowed or blocked coronary arteries in the heart. The procedure involves inserting a thin, flexible tube called a catheter into a blood vessel in the arm or leg and threading it up to the coronary arteries. A small balloon is then attached to the end of the catheter and inflated to widen the narrowed or blocked artery, allowing blood to flow more freely to the heart muscle. This procedure is also known as percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) or coronary balloon angioplasty. It may be performed alone or in combination with a stent, a small mesh-like device that is left in the artery to keep it open.
Coronary stenosis is a medical condition in which the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart muscle, become narrowed or blocked. This can occur due to the buildup of plaque, a fatty substance that can accumulate on the inner walls of the arteries over time. When the arteries become narrowed, it can reduce the amount of blood and oxygen that reaches the heart muscle, which can lead to chest pain, shortness of breath, and other symptoms. Coronary stenosis is a common condition, particularly in older adults, and can be a serious health concern if left untreated. Treatment options for coronary stenosis may include medications, lifestyle changes, and procedures such as angioplasty or coronary artery bypass surgery.
Coronary vasospasm is a condition in which the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart muscle, suddenly narrow or spasm. This can cause a temporary reduction in blood flow to the heart, which can lead to chest pain or angina. In severe cases, coronary vasospasm can cause a complete blockage of the coronary artery, leading to a heart attack. The exact cause of coronary vasospasm is not fully understood, but it is thought to be related to the constriction of the smooth muscle cells in the walls of the coronary arteries. Risk factors for coronary vasospasm include smoking, high blood pressure, and a family history of the condition. Treatment for coronary vasospasm typically involves medications to relax the smooth muscle cells in the coronary arteries and improve blood flow to the heart. In some cases, more invasive procedures such as angioplasty or coronary artery bypass surgery may be necessary.
Coronary disease, also known as coronary artery disease (CAD), is a condition in which the blood vessels that supply blood to the heart muscle become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of plaque. This can lead to reduced blood flow to the heart, which can cause chest pain (angina), shortness of breath, and other symptoms. In severe cases, coronary disease can lead to a heart attack, which occurs when the blood flow to a part of the heart is completely blocked, causing damage to the heart muscle. Coronary disease is a common condition that affects many people, particularly those who are middle-aged or older, and is often associated with other risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, and diabetes. Treatment for coronary disease may include lifestyle changes, medications, and in some cases, procedures such as angioplasty or coronary artery bypass surgery.
Coronary Artery Bypass (CABG) is a surgical procedure used to treat narrowed or blocked coronary arteries, which can lead to heart disease. During the surgery, a healthy blood vessel from another part of the body is used to create a new path for blood to flow around the blocked or narrowed artery, improving blood flow to the heart muscle. This can help to reduce symptoms such as chest pain (angina) and improve overall heart function. The procedure is typically performed under general anesthesia and may involve the use of a heart-lung machine to support the patient's circulation during the surgery. Recovery time can vary depending on the individual and the extent of the surgery, but most people are able to return to normal activities within a few weeks.
Blood flow velocity refers to the speed at which blood flows through a blood vessel or artery. It is typically measured in units of meters per second (m/s) or centimeters per second (cm/s). Blood flow velocity is an important parameter in the assessment of cardiovascular health, as it can provide information about the functioning of the heart, blood vessels, and blood circulation. Blood flow velocity can be measured using various techniques, including Doppler ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and computed tomography (CT) angiography. These techniques use sound waves or electromagnetic signals to detect the movement of blood through the blood vessels and calculate the velocity of blood flow. Abnormal blood flow velocities can indicate a variety of cardiovascular conditions, such as stenosis (narrowing) of the blood vessels, atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries), and blood clots. Therefore, measuring blood flow velocity is an important diagnostic tool in the evaluation and management of cardiovascular diseases.
In the medical field, collateral circulation refers to the alternate pathways of blood flow that develop in response to an obstruction or blockage in a major blood vessel. When a blood vessel becomes blocked, blood flow to the affected area is reduced or stopped. In order to maintain blood flow to the area, the body will redirect blood flow through other vessels, creating collateral circulation. Collateral circulation can occur in various parts of the body, including the brain, heart, and limbs. For example, if the main artery to the brain becomes blocked, collateral circulation can develop through smaller blood vessels in the brain, allowing blood to flow to the affected area. Similarly, if the main artery to the heart becomes blocked, collateral circulation can develop through smaller blood vessels in the heart, allowing blood to flow to the heart muscle. Collateral circulation can be beneficial in some cases, as it can help to maintain blood flow to the affected area and prevent tissue damage. However, in other cases, collateral circulation can be a sign of underlying health problems, such as atherosclerosis or a blood clot. In these cases, treatment may be necessary to address the underlying cause of the obstruction and prevent further complications.
Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter that plays a crucial role in the transmission of signals between neurons in the nervous system. It is synthesized from the amino acid choline and is stored in vesicles within nerve cells. When an electrical signal reaches the end of a nerve cell, it triggers the release of acetylcholine into the synaptic cleft, the small gap between the nerve cell and the next cell it communicates with. Acetylcholine then binds to receptors on the surface of the receiving cell, causing a change in its electrical activity. Acetylcholine is involved in a wide range of bodily functions, including muscle movement, memory, and learning. It is also important for the regulation of the autonomic nervous system, which controls involuntary bodily functions such as heart rate and digestion. In the medical field, acetylcholine is used as a diagnostic tool to study the function of the nervous system, particularly in conditions such as Alzheimer's disease and myasthenia gravis. It is also used as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of certain conditions, such as glaucoma and myasthenia gravis, by increasing the activity of the affected nerves.
Nitric oxide (NO) is a colorless, odorless gas that is produced naturally in the body by various cells, including endothelial cells in the lining of blood vessels. It plays a crucial role in the regulation of blood flow and blood pressure, as well as in the immune response and neurotransmission. In the medical field, NO is often studied in relation to cardiovascular disease, as it is involved in the regulation of blood vessel dilation and constriction. It has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of various conditions, including hypertension, atherosclerosis, and heart failure. NO is also used in medical treatments, such as in the treatment of erectile dysfunction, where it is used to enhance blood flow to the penis. It is also used in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension, where it helps to relax blood vessels in the lungs and improve blood flow. Overall, NO is a critical molecule in the body that plays a vital role in many physiological processes, and its study and manipulation have important implications for the treatment of various medical conditions.
Angina pectoris, variant, also known as Prinzmetal's angina or vasospastic angina, is a type of chest pain that occurs due to spasms in the coronary arteries. Unlike stable angina, which is caused by atherosclerosis, variant angina is caused by temporary narrowing or spasm of the coronary arteries, which reduces blood flow to the heart muscle. This can cause chest pain or discomfort, which may be severe and may radiate to the neck, jaw, or arm. Variant angina is less common than stable angina, but it is more likely to occur in women and younger people. It is often treated with medications to relax the coronary arteries and prevent spasms, and in some cases, with procedures such as angioplasty or coronary artery bypass surgery.
Adenosine is a naturally occurring nucleoside that plays a crucial role in various physiological processes in the human body. It is a component of the nucleic acids DNA and RNA and is also found in high concentrations in the cells of the heart, brain, and other organs. In the medical field, adenosine is often used as a medication to treat certain heart conditions, such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) and atrial fibrillation (AFib). Adenosine works by blocking the electrical signals that cause the heart to beat too fast or irregularly. It is typically administered as an intravenous injection and has a short duration of action, lasting only a few minutes. Adenosine is also used in research to study the function of various cells and tissues in the body, including the nervous system, immune system, and cardiovascular system. It has been shown to have a wide range of effects on cellular signaling pathways, including the regulation of gene expression, cell proliferation, and apoptosis (cell death).
Myocardial infarction (MI), also known as a heart attack, is a medical condition that occurs when blood flow to a part of the heart muscle is blocked, usually by a blood clot. This lack of blood flow can cause damage to the heart muscle, which can lead to serious complications and even death if not treated promptly. The most common cause of a heart attack is atherosclerosis, a condition in which plaque builds up in the arteries that supply blood to the heart. When a plaque ruptures or becomes unstable, it can form a blood clot that blocks the flow of blood to the heart muscle. Other causes of heart attacks include coronary artery spasms, blood clots that travel to the heart from other parts of the body, and certain medical conditions such as Kawasaki disease. Symptoms of a heart attack may include chest pain or discomfort, shortness of breath, nausea or vomiting, lightheadedness or dizziness, and pain or discomfort in the arms, back, neck, jaw, or stomach. If you suspect that you or someone else is having a heart attack, it is important to call emergency services immediately. Early treatment with medications and possibly surgery can help to reduce the risk of serious complications and improve the chances of a full recovery.
Blood pressure is the force exerted by the blood against the walls of the blood vessels as the heart pumps blood through the body. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and is typically expressed as two numbers: systolic pressure (the pressure when the heart beats) and diastolic pressure (the pressure when the heart is at rest between beats). Normal blood pressure is considered to be below 120/80 mmHg, while high blood pressure (hypertension) is defined as a systolic pressure of 140 mmHg or higher and/or a diastolic pressure of 90 mmHg or higher. High blood pressure is a major risk factor for heart disease, stroke, and other health problems.
Blood circulation is the movement of blood through the circulatory system of the body. It is the process by which blood is pumped from the heart to the body's tissues and organs, where it delivers oxygen and nutrients, and removes waste products. The circulatory system includes the heart, blood vessels (arteries, veins, and capillaries), and blood. The heart is the central pump that propels blood through the circulatory system. It contracts and relaxes in a rhythmic pattern to push blood out of the heart and into the arteries. The arteries carry oxygen-rich blood away from the heart to the body's tissues and organs. The veins carry oxygen-poor blood back to the heart. Capillaries are tiny blood vessels that connect arteries and veins and allow for the exchange of oxygen, nutrients, and waste products between the blood and the body's tissues. Blood circulation is essential for maintaining the health and function of the body's tissues and organs. It helps regulate body temperature, transport hormones and other signaling molecules, and defend against infection and disease. Any disruption to blood circulation can have serious consequences, including tissue damage, organ failure, and even death.
Myocardial ischemia is a medical condition that occurs when the blood flow to the heart muscle is reduced or blocked, leading to a lack of oxygen and nutrients to the heart cells. This can cause chest pain or discomfort, shortness of breath, and other symptoms. Myocardial ischemia is often caused by atherosclerosis, a condition in which plaque builds up in the arteries, narrowing or blocking the flow of blood. It can also be caused by other factors, such as heart valve problems or blood clots. Myocardial ischemia can be a serious condition and requires prompt medical attention to prevent heart attack or other complications.
A coronary aneurysm is a bulge or balloon-like dilation of a coronary artery, which is a blood vessel that supplies oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle. It occurs when the arterial wall weakens and becomes thin, causing it to balloon outwards. Coronary aneurysms can be caused by a variety of factors, including high blood pressure, atherosclerosis (the buildup of plaque in the arteries), and infections such as Kawasaki disease. They can also be a complication of certain medical conditions, such as Marfan syndrome or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. If left untreated, coronary aneurysms can rupture, causing a heart attack or other serious complications. Treatment options for coronary aneurysms may include medications to manage symptoms and prevent further damage, lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking and eating a healthy diet, and in some cases, surgical repair or removal of the aneurysm.
Papaverine is a medication that is used to treat a variety of medical conditions, including erectile dysfunction, Raynaud's disease, and glaucoma. It is a vasodilator, which means that it helps to widen blood vessels and improve blood flow. Papaverine is usually administered intravenously or intramuscularly, and it can cause side effects such as headache, nausea, and dizziness. It is important to note that papaverine should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional.
Nitroglycerin is a powerful vasodilator medication that is used to treat angina pectoris (chest pain caused by reduced blood flow to the heart muscle) and to prevent heart attacks. It works by relaxing the smooth muscles in the blood vessels, particularly those that supply blood to the heart, which increases blood flow and reduces the workload on the heart. Nitroglycerin is usually administered as a sublingual tablet or spray, which is placed under the tongue or sprayed into the mouth. It is absorbed quickly into the bloodstream and begins to work within a few minutes. The effects of nitroglycerin are short-lived, lasting only a few minutes to an hour, and the medication must be taken as needed to relieve symptoms. While nitroglycerin is a highly effective medication for treating angina, it can cause side effects such as headache, dizziness, and low blood pressure. It is also contraindicated in patients with certain medical conditions, such as uncontrolled high blood pressure or severe heart failure.
Omega-N-Methylarginine (L-NMMA) is a synthetic compound that is structurally similar to the amino acid L-arginine. L-arginine is an important precursor for the production of nitric oxide (NO), a molecule that plays a crucial role in regulating blood flow and blood pressure. L-NMMA inhibits the production of NO by competing with L-arginine for the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-arginine to NO. As a result, L-NMMA can reduce NO levels in the body, leading to vasoconstriction (narrowing of blood vessels) and an increase in blood pressure. L-NMMA has been used in research studies to investigate the role of NO in various physiological and pathophysiological processes, including cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and erectile dysfunction. However, it is not currently used as a therapeutic agent in clinical practice.
Hyperemia is a medical term that refers to an increase in blood flow to a particular area of the body, often resulting in redness, warmth, and swelling. It can occur in response to various stimuli, such as exercise, injury, inflammation, or emotional stress. In the medical field, hyperemia is often used to describe an increase in blood flow to a specific organ or tissue. For example, angina pectoris, a common symptom of coronary artery disease, is caused by hyperemia in the heart muscle. Similarly, hyperemia in the brain can cause headaches or migraines. Hyperemia can also be a sign of a more serious underlying condition, such as a blood clot, infection, or tumor. In these cases, it is important to identify the underlying cause of the hyperemia in order to provide appropriate treatment.
Coronary thrombosis is a medical condition in which a blood clot forms in one of the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart muscle. This can lead to a blockage of blood flow to the heart, which can cause chest pain (angina), heart attack, or even sudden death. Coronary thrombosis is a serious condition that requires prompt medical attention. It is often caused by the buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries, which can rupture and form a blood clot. Risk factors for coronary thrombosis include high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, diabetes, obesity, and a family history of heart disease. Treatment for coronary thrombosis may include medications to dissolve the clot or surgery to open the blocked artery.
Cardiac catheterization is a medical procedure that involves inserting a thin, flexible tube called a catheter into a blood vessel in the groin, arm, or neck and threading it up to the heart. The catheter is then used to inject a contrast dye into the heart's chambers and blood vessels, which allows doctors to see the heart's structure and function on X-ray images. The procedure is typically used to diagnose and treat a variety of heart conditions, including coronary artery disease, heart valve problems, and heart rhythm disorders. During the procedure, doctors may also perform additional tests, such as angiography, which involves taking X-ray images of the blood vessels to look for blockages or narrowing. Cardiac catheterization is generally considered a safe and minimally invasive procedure, with a low risk of complications. However, as with any medical procedure, there are some risks, including bleeding, infection, and damage to the blood vessels or heart.
Coronary restenosis is a condition in which a previously narrowed or blocked coronary artery becomes partially or completely blocked again after a procedure to open or bypass the artery. This can occur due to the formation of scar tissue or the growth of new blood vessels that can occlude the artery again. Restenosis is a common complication of coronary artery bypass surgery and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), also known as angioplasty. It can lead to chest pain, shortness of breath, and other symptoms of heart disease. Treatment options for coronary restenosis include medications, repeat PCI, or coronary artery bypass surgery.
Arteriovenous anastomosis (AVA) refers to a direct connection between an artery and a vein, bypassing the capillary bed. This type of connection is commonly found in the body's microcirculation, where it allows for the efficient exchange of oxygen and nutrients between the blood vessels and surrounding tissues. In some cases, AVAs can also occur in larger vessels, such as the coronary arteries and veins, where they can contribute to the development of certain cardiovascular diseases, such as coronary artery disease and heart failure. AVAs can be congenital or acquired, and they can occur in various parts of the body, including the brain, lungs, liver, kidneys, and limbs. They can also be the result of trauma, surgery, or certain medical conditions, such as hypertension, diabetes, and cancer.
Coronary occlusion refers to the blockage or narrowing of the coronary arteries, which are the blood vessels that supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle. This blockage can occur due to the buildup of plaque, a fatty substance that can harden and narrow the arteries over time. When a coronary artery becomes completely blocked, it can lead to a heart attack, as the heart muscle is unable to receive the oxygen it needs to function properly. Coronary occlusion is a serious medical condition that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment.
Nitroprusside is a medication that is used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension) and heart failure. It is a type of drug called a nitrovasodilator, which works by relaxing the blood vessels and allowing blood to flow more easily. This can help to lower blood pressure and improve the function of the heart. Nitroprusside is usually given as an intravenous (IV) injection, although it can also be given as a tablet or a liquid to swallow. It is usually used in the hospital setting, but it may also be used at home if a person's blood pressure is very high and needs to be lowered quickly. It is important to note that nitroprusside can cause side effects, including headache, dizziness, and low blood pressure. It should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional.
Nitroarginine is a medication that is used to treat high blood pressure and chest pain (angina). It works by relaxing blood vessels, which allows blood to flow more easily and reduces the workload on the heart. Nitroarginine is available in various forms, including tablets, sprays, and ointments. It is usually taken as needed, but it can also be taken regularly to prevent chest pain. Nitroarginine is generally safe and well-tolerated, but it can cause side effects such as headache, dizziness, and flushing. It is important to follow the instructions of your healthcare provider when taking nitroarginine and to let them know if you experience any side effects.
Bradykinin is a peptide hormone that plays a role in the regulation of blood pressure, inflammation, and pain. It is produced in the body by the breakdown of larger proteins called kinins, which are released from blood vessels and other tissues in response to injury or inflammation. Bradykinin acts on various types of cells in the body, including blood vessels, smooth muscle cells, and nerve cells, to cause a range of physiological effects. In the blood vessels, bradykinin causes them to dilate, or widen, which can lead to a drop in blood pressure. It also increases the permeability of blood vessels, allowing fluid and other substances to leak out and cause swelling. In addition to its effects on blood vessels, bradykinin is also involved in the body's inflammatory response. It stimulates the release of other inflammatory mediators, such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes, which can cause redness, swelling, and pain. Overall, bradykinin plays an important role in the body's response to injury and inflammation, and its activity is tightly regulated by various enzymes and other factors in the body.
Propranolol is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called beta blockers. It is primarily used to treat high blood pressure, angina (chest pain), and certain types of tremors, including essential tremor and tremors caused by medications. Propranolol can also be used to treat other conditions, such as anxiety disorders, certain types of heart rhythm disorders, and migraine headaches. It works by blocking the effects of adrenaline (a hormone that can cause the heart to beat faster and the blood vessels to narrow) on the heart and blood vessels. Propranolol is available in both oral and injectable forms, and it is usually taken once or twice a day.
Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the production of nitric oxide (NO) in the body. There are three main types of NOS: endothelial NOS (eNOS), neuronal NOS (nNOS), and inducible NOS (iNOS). eNOS is primarily found in the endothelial cells that line blood vessels and is responsible for producing NO in response to various stimuli, such as shear stress, hormones, and neurotransmitters. NO produced by eNOS helps to relax blood vessels and improve blood flow, which is important for maintaining cardiovascular health. nNOS is found in neurons and is involved in neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity. iNOS is induced in response to inflammation and is involved in the production of NO in immune cells and other tissues. Abnormal regulation of NOS activity has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms that regulate NOS activity is an important area of research in the medical field.
In the medical field, compliance refers to the degree to which a patient follows the recommendations or instructions provided by their healthcare provider. This can include taking medications as prescribed, following a specific diet or exercise regimen, attending regular check-ups, and adhering to any other treatment plans or lifestyle changes recommended by the healthcare provider. Compliance is important because it can impact the effectiveness of medical treatments and the overall health outcomes of patients. Non-compliance with medication regimens, for example, can lead to reduced effectiveness of the medication and an increased risk of complications or side effects. Similarly, non-compliance with lifestyle changes or other treatment recommendations can prevent patients from achieving the best possible outcomes for their health conditions. To promote compliance, healthcare providers may use a variety of strategies, such as providing clear instructions and education about the benefits and risks of treatment, offering support and encouragement, and using reminders or other tools to help patients stay on track with their treatment plan.
A Coronary Care Unit (CCU) is a specialized unit in a hospital that provides intensive care for patients with serious heart conditions, particularly those with acute coronary syndromes such as myocardial infarction (heart attack). The CCU is staffed by a team of highly trained healthcare professionals, including cardiologists, nurses, and respiratory therapists, who work together to monitor and treat patients with life-threatening heart conditions. The CCU typically provides a range of medical interventions, including continuous monitoring of vital signs, electrocardiography (ECG) monitoring, cardiac pacing, and defibrillation. Patients in the CCU may also receive medications to manage their heart condition, such as antiplatelet drugs, anticoagulants, and vasodilators. In some cases, patients may require invasive procedures such as angioplasty or coronary artery bypass surgery. The goal of the CCU is to provide rapid and effective treatment for patients with acute coronary syndromes, with the aim of reducing the risk of complications and improving outcomes. The CCU is an essential part of the hospital's cardiac care services, and plays a critical role in the management of patients with serious heart conditions.
Angina pectoris is a medical condition characterized by chest pain or discomfort due to reduced blood flow to the heart muscle. It is caused by a narrowing of the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart. The pain is usually described as a squeezing, pressure, or burning sensation in the chest and may radiate to the neck, jaw, arms, or back. Angina pectoris is a common symptom of coronary artery disease, which is a major cause of heart attacks. Treatment options for angina pectoris include lifestyle changes, medications, and in some cases, surgery.
Coronary vessel anomalies refer to variations in the normal anatomy of the coronary arteries, which are the blood vessels that supply oxygen and nutrients to the heart muscle. These anomalies can occur in various forms, including congenital anomalies (present at birth) or acquired anomalies (developing later in life due to disease or injury). Some common types of coronary vessel anomalies include: 1. Coronary artery fistula: A abnormal connection between a coronary artery and a vein or other blood vessel. 2. Coronary artery anomalies of origin: Variations in the location or branching pattern of the coronary arteries. 3. Coronary artery anomalies of course: Abnormalities in the path or direction of the coronary arteries. 4. Coronary artery anomalies of termination: Variations in the location or branching pattern of the coronary arteries. Coronary vessel anomalies can have significant clinical implications, as they can lead to reduced blood flow to the heart muscle, which can cause chest pain, shortness of breath, and other symptoms. In some cases, these anomalies may require medical intervention, such as surgery or angioplasty, to correct.
Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical method used to compare the means of three or more groups. In the medical field, ANOVA can be used to compare the effectiveness of different treatments, interventions, or medications on a particular outcome or variable of interest. For example, a researcher may want to compare the effectiveness of three different medications for treating a particular disease. They could use ANOVA to compare the mean response (e.g., improvement in symptoms) between the three groups of patients who received each medication. If the results show a significant difference between the groups, it would suggest that one medication is more effective than the others. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different groups of patients based on a categorical variable, such as age, gender, or race. For example, a researcher may want to compare the mean blood pressure of patients in different age groups. They could use ANOVA to compare the mean blood pressure between the different age groups and determine if there are significant differences. Overall, ANOVA is a powerful statistical tool that can be used to compare the means of different groups in the medical field, helping researchers to identify which treatments or interventions are most effective and to better understand the factors that influence health outcomes.
Pulmonary atresia is a congenital heart defect in which the pulmonary valve is completely closed or severely narrowed, preventing blood from flowing from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs. This can lead to a backup of blood in the right ventricle and a decrease in oxygenation of the blood. Pulmonary atresia can be associated with other heart defects, such as a or a patent ductus arteriosus. It is typically diagnosed in infancy or early childhood and requires prompt medical attention and treatment.
Biological markers, also known as biomarkers, are measurable indicators of biological processes, pathogenic processes, or responses to therapeutic interventions. In the medical field, biological markers are used to diagnose, monitor, and predict the progression of diseases, as well as to evaluate the effectiveness of treatments. Biological markers can be found in various biological samples, such as blood, urine, tissue, or body fluids. They can be proteins, genes, enzymes, hormones, metabolites, or other molecules that are associated with a specific disease or condition. For example, in cancer, biological markers such as tumor markers can be used to detect the presence of cancer cells or to monitor the response to treatment. In cardiovascular disease, biological markers such as cholesterol levels or blood pressure can be used to assess the risk of heart attack or stroke. Overall, biological markers play a crucial role in medical research and clinical practice, as they provide valuable information about the underlying biology of diseases and help to guide diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring.
Glyburide is a medication used to treat type 2 diabetes. It belongs to a class of drugs called sulfonylureas, which work by stimulating the pancreas to produce more insulin. Glyburide is typically used in combination with diet and exercise to help lower blood sugar levels in people with diabetes. It can also be used alone in people who are not able to control their blood sugar levels with diet and exercise alone. Glyburide can cause side effects such as low blood sugar, nausea, and headache. It is important to take glyburide exactly as prescribed by a healthcare provider and to monitor blood sugar levels regularly while taking this medication.
In the medical field, arteries are blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the rest of the body. They are typically thick-walled and muscular, and their walls are lined with smooth muscle and elastic tissue that helps to maintain their shape and elasticity. There are three main types of arteries: 1. Ascending aorta: This is the largest artery in the body, and it carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body. 2. Descending aorta: This artery carries oxygenated blood from the ascending aorta to the abdomen and lower extremities. 3. Coronary arteries: These arteries supply oxygenated blood to the heart muscle. Arteries are an essential part of the circulatory system, and any damage or blockage to them can lead to serious health problems, including heart attack and stroke.
In the medical field, oxygen is a gas that is essential for the survival of most living organisms. It is used to treat a variety of medical conditions, including respiratory disorders, heart disease, and anemia. Oxygen is typically administered through a mask, nasal cannula, or oxygen tank, and is used to increase the amount of oxygen in the bloodstream. This can help to improve oxygenation of the body's tissues and organs, which is important for maintaining normal bodily functions. In medical settings, oxygen is often used to treat patients who are experiencing difficulty breathing due to conditions such as pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or asthma. It may also be used to treat patients who have suffered from a heart attack or stroke, as well as those who are recovering from surgery or other medical procedures. Overall, oxygen is a critical component of modern medical treatment, and is used in a wide range of clinical settings to help patients recover from illness and maintain their health.
Myocardial reperfusion injury (MRI) refers to the damage that occurs to the heart muscle when blood flow is restored to an area of the heart that has been previously deprived of oxygen-rich blood. This can happen during a heart attack, when a blood clot blocks a coronary artery, cutting off blood flow to a portion of the heart muscle. MRI is a complex process that involves a combination of physical, chemical, and inflammatory mechanisms. When blood flow is restored to the heart muscle, it can cause damage to the cells and tissues in the area, leading to inflammation, cell death, and scarring. This damage can further impair the heart's ability to pump blood effectively, leading to heart failure and other complications. There are several strategies that can be used to reduce the risk of MRI, including the use of medications to prevent blood clots, timely revascularization procedures to restore blood flow to the heart muscle, and the use of protective therapies to minimize the damage caused by reperfusion. Understanding the mechanisms of MRI is important for developing effective treatments to prevent and manage heart attacks and other cardiovascular diseases.
The aorta is the largest artery in the human body, responsible for carrying oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body. It is located in the chest and abdomen and is divided into three main sections: the ascending aorta, the aortic arch, and the descending aorta. The ascending aorta begins at the base of the heart and travels upward to the aortic arch. The aortic arch is a curved section of the aorta that arches over the top of the heart and connects to the descending aorta. The descending aorta continues downward from the aortic arch and eventually branches into smaller arteries that supply blood to the lower body. The aorta is an essential part of the circulatory system and plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and wellbeing. Any damage or disease affecting the aorta can have serious consequences, including heart attack, stroke, and even death.
Indomethacin is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is commonly used to relieve pain, reduce inflammation, and lower fever. It works by blocking the production of prostaglandins, which are chemicals that cause pain, inflammation, and fever. Indomethacin is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and suppositories. It is often prescribed for conditions such as arthritis, menstrual cramps, and headaches. It can also be used to treat gout, kidney stones, and other inflammatory conditions. However, indomethacin can have side effects, including stomach pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. It can also increase the risk of bleeding and ulcers in the stomach and intestines. Therefore, it is important to use indomethacin only as directed by a healthcare provider and to report any side effects immediately.
Cardiac output (CO) is a measure of the amount of blood that is pumped by the heart per minute. It is calculated by multiplying the heart rate (the number of times the heart beats per minute) by the stroke volume (the amount of blood pumped by each beat of the heart). Cardiac output is an important indicator of the body's ability to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the tissues and remove waste products. It is influenced by a number of factors, including the strength of the heart's contractions, the resistance of the blood vessels, and the volume of blood in the circulation. In the medical field, cardiac output is often measured using techniques such as echocardiography, thermodilution, or dye dilution. Abnormalities in cardiac output can be associated with a variety of medical conditions, including heart failure, anemia, and shock.
Cardiac pacing, artificial refers to the medical procedure of implanting a device called a pacemaker into a patient's chest to regulate the heartbeat. The pacemaker is a small electronic device that sends electrical signals to the heart to prompt it to beat at a normal rate. The pacemaker is typically implanted under local anesthesia and can be done on an outpatient basis. The device is connected to the heart through wires called leads, which are placed in the heart's chambers. The pacemaker is then programmed to send electrical signals to the heart at specific intervals to ensure that the heart beats at a normal rate. Artificial cardiac pacing is commonly used to treat patients with bradycardia, a condition in which the heart beats too slowly. It can also be used to treat patients with certain heart conditions, such as heart failure, that cause the heart to beat irregularly. Artificial cardiac pacing can improve a patient's quality of life by reducing symptoms such as fatigue, dizziness, and shortness of breath.
Adrenergic beta-antagonists are a class of drugs that block the action of adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline (norepinephrine) on beta-adrenergic receptors in the body. These receptors are found in various organs and tissues, including the heart, lungs, and blood vessels. When adrenaline and noradrenaline bind to beta-adrenergic receptors, they cause a number of physiological responses, such as increased heart rate, blood pressure, and bronchodilation. Adrenergic beta-antagonists work by blocking these receptors, thereby reducing the effects of adrenaline and noradrenaline. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used to treat a variety of medical conditions, including high blood pressure, angina pectoris (chest pain), heart failure, and arrhythmias. They are also used to prevent migraines and to treat anxiety and panic disorders. Some common examples of adrenergic beta-antagonists include propranolol, atenolol, and metoprolol.
In the medical field, nitrites are compounds that contain the nitrite ion (NO2-). Nitrites are often used as a medication to treat certain types of heart disease, such as angina pectoris, by relaxing the blood vessels and reducing the workload on the heart. They are also used to treat certain types of anemia, such as methemoglobinemia, by converting methemoglobin (a form of hemoglobin that is unable to carry oxygen) back to normal hemoglobin. Nitrites are also used as a preservative in some foods and beverages, and as a chemical in the manufacturing of dyes, explosives, and other products.
NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester (L-NAME) is a drug that is used in the medical field to study the effects of nitric oxide (NO) on various physiological processes. NO is a naturally occurring gas that plays a role in regulating blood pressure, blood flow, and the immune system. L-NAME is an inhibitor of the enzyme that produces NO, and it is often used to block the effects of NO in experiments. L-NAME is typically administered orally or intravenously, and it can cause a number of side effects, including headache, dizziness, and nausea. It is not recommended for use in pregnant women or individuals with certain medical conditions, such as liver or kidney disease.
Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a potent vasoconstrictor peptide hormone that is primarily produced by endothelial cells in the walls of blood vessels. It plays a key role in regulating blood pressure and blood vessel tone, and is also involved in a variety of other physiological processes, including cell growth and differentiation, inflammation, and angiogenesis (the formation of new blood vessels). In the medical field, ET-1 is often measured as a biomarker for various cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension, heart failure, and atherosclerosis. It is also used as a therapeutic target in the treatment of these conditions, with drugs such as endothelin receptor antagonists (ERAs) being developed to block the effects of ET-1 and improve cardiovascular outcomes. Additionally, ET-1 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of other diseases, such as cancer and fibrosis, and is being studied as a potential therapeutic target in these conditions as well.
Calcinosis is a medical condition characterized by the deposition of calcium phosphate crystals in the skin and other tissues. It is most commonly seen in people with certain medical conditions, such as scleroderma, lupus, and kidney disease, as well as in people who have undergone long-term treatment with certain medications, such as corticosteroids. The calcium phosphate crystals that accumulate in the skin and other tissues can cause hard, raised areas that may be painful or itchy. In severe cases, calcinosis can lead to scarring, skin thickening, and limited joint mobility. Treatment for calcinosis depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. In some cases, medications may be used to help reduce the formation of calcium phosphate crystals, while in other cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the affected tissue.
Arginine is an amino acid that plays a crucial role in various physiological processes in the human body. It is an essential amino acid, meaning that it cannot be synthesized by the body and must be obtained through the diet. In the medical field, arginine is used to treat a variety of conditions, including: 1. Erectile dysfunction: Arginine is a precursor to nitric oxide, which helps to relax blood vessels and improve blood flow to the penis, leading to improved sexual function. 2. Cardiovascular disease: Arginine has been shown to improve blood flow and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease by lowering blood pressure and improving the function of the endothelium, the inner lining of blood vessels. 3. Wound healing: Arginine is involved in the production of collagen, a protein that is essential for wound healing. 4. Immune function: Arginine is involved in the production of antibodies and other immune system components, making it important for maintaining a healthy immune system. 5. Cancer: Arginine has been shown to have anti-cancer properties and may help to slow the growth of tumors. However, it is important to note that the use of arginine as a supplement is not without risks, and it is important to consult with a healthcare provider before taking any supplements.
Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump is a surgical procedure used to treat narrowed or blocked coronary arteries, which can lead to heart disease. During the procedure, a healthy blood vessel from another part of the body is used to create a new path for blood to flow around the blocked or narrowed artery, improving blood flow to the heart muscle. In traditional coronary artery bypass surgery, the heart is stopped and blood is pumped through a heart-lung machine to keep the body's organs oxygenated during the procedure. In off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery, also known as minimally invasive coronary artery bypass surgery, the heart is not stopped and blood is not pumped through a heart-lung machine. Instead, the surgeon uses special instruments to manipulate the heart and blood vessels while the patient is under anesthesia. Off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery has several potential benefits over traditional surgery, including a shorter recovery time, less pain, and a lower risk of complications such as blood clots, stroke, and kidney damage. However, it may not be suitable for all patients and the decision to use this approach should be made on an individual basis by the patient and their healthcare team.
Angina, unstable is a type of chest pain that occurs when the blood flow to the heart muscle is restricted, usually due to a blockage in one or more of the coronary arteries. Unlike stable angina, which typically occurs during physical exertion or emotional stress, unstable angina can occur at rest or with minimal exertion, and the pain may be more severe and last longer than usual. Unstable angina is a medical emergency because it can be a sign of an impending heart attack. Treatment typically involves medications to reduce the risk of a heart attack, such as aspirin, beta blockers, and nitrates, as well as hospitalization and further diagnostic testing to determine the underlying cause of the angina and the best course of treatment.
Case-control studies are a type of observational study used in the medical field to investigate the relationship between an exposure and an outcome. In a case-control study, researchers identify individuals who have experienced a particular outcome (cases) and compare their exposure history to a group of individuals who have not experienced the outcome (controls). The main goal of a case-control study is to determine whether the exposure was a risk factor for the outcome. To do this, researchers collect information about the exposure history of both the cases and the controls and compare the two groups to see if there is a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of the exposure between the two groups. Case-control studies are often used when the outcome of interest is rare, and it is difficult or unethical to conduct a prospective cohort study. However, because case-control studies rely on retrospective data collection, they are subject to recall bias, where participants may not accurately remember their exposure history. Additionally, because case-control studies only provide information about the association between an exposure and an outcome, they cannot establish causality.
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) are a class of drugs used in the medical field to treat high blood pressure (hypertension), heart failure, and to reduce the risk of heart attack and stroke. These drugs work by blocking the action of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), which is an enzyme that converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II. Angiotensin II is a hormone that causes the blood vessels to narrow, which increases blood pressure. By inhibiting ACE, ACE inhibitors help to relax blood vessels and lower blood pressure. They are often used in combination with other blood pressure-lowering medications or diuretics to achieve better blood pressure control.
Hypertension, also known as high blood pressure, is a medical condition in which the force of blood against the walls of the arteries is consistently too high. This can lead to damage to the blood vessels, heart, and other organs over time, and can increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and other health problems. Hypertension is typically defined as having a systolic blood pressure (the top number) of 140 mmHg or higher, or a diastolic blood pressure (the bottom number) of 90 mmHg or higher. However, some people may be considered hypertensive if their blood pressure is consistently higher than 120/80 mmHg. Hypertension can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, lifestyle choices (such as a diet high in salt and saturated fat, lack of physical activity, and smoking), and certain medical conditions (such as kidney disease, diabetes, and sleep apnea). It is often a chronic condition that requires ongoing management through lifestyle changes, medication, and regular monitoring of blood pressure levels.
Norepinephrine, also known as noradrenaline, is a neurotransmitter and hormone that plays a crucial role in the body's "fight or flight" response. It is produced by the adrenal glands and is also found in certain neurons in the brain and spinal cord. In the medical field, norepinephrine is often used as a medication to treat low blood pressure, shock, and heart failure. It works by constricting blood vessels and increasing heart rate, which helps to raise blood pressure and improve blood flow to vital organs. Norepinephrine is also used to treat certain types of depression, as it can help to increase feelings of alertness and energy. However, it is important to note that norepinephrine can have side effects, including rapid heartbeat, high blood pressure, and anxiety, and should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional.
Potassium channels are a type of ion channel found in the cell membrane of many types of cells, including neurons, muscle cells, and epithelial cells. These channels are responsible for regulating the flow of potassium ions (K+) in and out of the cell, which is important for maintaining the cell's resting membrane potential and controlling the generation and propagation of electrical signals in the cell. Potassium channels are classified into several different types based on their biophysical properties, such as their voltage sensitivity, pharmacology, and gating mechanisms. Some of the most well-known types of potassium channels include voltage-gated potassium channels, inwardly rectifying potassium channels, and leak potassium channels. In the medical field, potassium channels play a critical role in many physiological processes, including muscle contraction, neurotransmission, and regulation of blood pressure. Abnormalities in potassium channel function can lead to a variety of diseases and disorders, such as epilepsy, hypertension, and cardiac arrhythmias. Therefore, understanding the structure and function of potassium channels is important for developing new treatments for these conditions.
Chest pain, also known as angina, is a common symptom experienced by individuals with heart disease. It is a sensation of discomfort, pressure, squeezing, or burning in the chest that can radiate to the neck, jaw, arms, or back. Chest pain can be caused by a variety of factors, including stress, anxiety, or physical exertion. However, it can also be a sign of a serious medical condition, such as a heart attack or aortic dissection. In the medical field, chest pain is typically evaluated by a healthcare provider through a physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as an electrocardiogram (ECG), stress test, or coronary angiogram. Treatment for chest pain depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, lifestyle changes, or surgery.
Cerebrovascular circulation refers to the blood flow to and from the brain and spinal cord. It is responsible for delivering oxygen and nutrients to the brain and removing waste products. The brain is a highly metabolically active organ, and it requires a constant supply of oxygen and nutrients to function properly. The cerebrovascular system is made up of the arteries, veins, and capillaries that supply blood to the brain. Any disruption in the cerebrovascular circulation can lead to serious health problems, including stroke and brain injury.
Dipyridamole is a medication that is used to prevent blood clots from forming in the blood vessels. It is also used to treat angina (chest pain caused by reduced blood flow to the heart) and to prevent blood clots after a heart attack or stroke. Dipyridamole works by increasing the amount of a substance called prostacyclin in the blood vessels, which helps to keep the blood vessels open and improve blood flow. It is usually taken by mouth in the form of a tablet or capsule.
Atherosclerotic plaque is a hard, fatty deposit that builds up inside the walls of arteries. It is a common condition that can lead to serious health problems, such as heart attack and stroke. Atherosclerosis is the medical term for the buildup of plaque in the arteries. The plaque can narrow the arteries, reducing blood flow to the heart or brain. Over time, the plaque can rupture, causing a blood clot that can block blood flow and lead to a heart attack or stroke.
Cardiovascular agents are drugs that are used to treat conditions related to the heart and blood vessels, such as high blood pressure, heart failure, angina, and arrhythmias. These agents can be classified into several categories, including diuretics, beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and nitrates. These drugs work by affecting various physiological processes in the body, such as blood pressure regulation, heart rate, and blood vessel dilation, to improve cardiovascular function and reduce the risk of heart disease and stroke.
Blood circulation time refers to the time it takes for blood to flow through a particular vessel or network of vessels in the body. It is an important parameter in the study of blood flow and circulation, and is typically measured in seconds or minutes. Blood circulation time can be calculated by measuring the volume of blood that flows through a vessel or network of vessels over a certain period of time, and dividing that volume by the blood flow rate. The blood flow rate is the amount of blood that flows through a vessel or network of vessels per unit of time, and is typically measured in milliliters per minute (mL/min). Blood circulation time is influenced by a number of factors, including the diameter and length of the vessel, the viscosity of the blood, and the pressure gradient between the two ends of the vessel. It is an important parameter in the diagnosis and treatment of a variety of medical conditions, including cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and peripheral artery disease.
In the medical field, recurrence refers to the reappearance of a disease or condition after it has been treated or has gone into remission. Recurrence can occur in various medical conditions, including cancer, infections, and autoimmune diseases. For example, in cancer, recurrence means that the cancer has come back after it has been treated with surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or other treatments. Recurrence can occur months, years, or even decades after the initial treatment. In infections, recurrence means that the infection has returned after it has been treated with antibiotics or other medications. Recurrence can occur due to incomplete treatment, antibiotic resistance, or other factors. In autoimmune diseases, recurrence means that the symptoms of the disease return after they have been controlled with medication. Recurrence can occur due to changes in the immune system or other factors. Overall, recurrence is a significant concern for patients and healthcare providers, as it can require additional treatment and can impact the patient's quality of life.
Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome (MLNS), also known as Kawasaki disease, is a rare but serious illness that primarily affects children under the age of five. It is characterized by a fever that lasts for at least five days, accompanied by symptoms such as redness and swelling of the hands and feet, a rash on the skin, and inflammation of the lymph nodes in the neck, armpits, and groin. MLNS can also cause inflammation of the coronary arteries, which can lead to serious complications such as heart failure or a heart attack. The exact cause of MLNS is not known, but it is thought to be triggered by an infection or an immune response to a virus or bacteria. Treatment for MLNS typically involves high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy, which can help reduce inflammation and prevent complications. In some cases, corticosteroids may also be used to reduce inflammation. Most children with MLNS recover fully, but some may experience long-term complications such as heart problems or joint stiffness.
Ticlopidine is a medication that is used to prevent blood clots in people who have had a heart attack or stroke. It works by inhibiting the formation of platelet clumps, which can lead to the formation of blood clots. Ticlopidine is typically prescribed to people who are unable to take aspirin or other antiplatelet medications due to an allergy or other medical condition. It is usually taken in combination with aspirin or another blood thinner to reduce the risk of blood clots. Ticlopidine can cause side effects such as bleeding, stomach pain, and an increased risk of infection. It is important to follow the instructions of your healthcare provider when taking ticlopidine and to report any side effects to your healthcare provider.
Cohort studies are a type of observational study in the medical field that involves following a group of individuals (a cohort) over time to identify the incidence of a particular disease or health outcome. The individuals in the cohort are typically selected based on a common characteristic, such as age, gender, or exposure to a particular risk factor. During the study, researchers collect data on the health and lifestyle of the cohort members, and then compare the incidence of the disease or health outcome between different subgroups within the cohort. This can help researchers identify risk factors or protective factors associated with the disease or outcome. Cohort studies are useful for studying the long-term effects of exposure to a particular risk factor, such as smoking or air pollution, on the development of a disease. They can also be used to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions or treatments for a particular disease. One of the main advantages of cohort studies is that they can provide strong evidence of causality, as the exposure and outcome are measured over a long period of time and in the same group of individuals. However, they can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and may be subject to biases if the cohort is not representative of the general population.
Aspirin is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is commonly used to relieve pain, reduce inflammation, and lower fever. It is also used to prevent blood clots and reduce the risk of heart attack and stroke. Aspirin works by inhibiting the production of prostaglandins, which are chemicals that cause inflammation and pain. It is available over-the-counter in various strengths and is also used as a prescription medication for certain medical conditions. Aspirin is generally considered safe when taken as directed, but it can cause side effects such as stomach pain, nausea, and bleeding.
Postoperative complications are adverse events that occur after a surgical procedure. They can range from minor issues, such as bruising or discomfort, to more serious problems, such as infection, bleeding, or organ damage. Postoperative complications can occur for a variety of reasons, including surgical errors, anesthesia errors, infections, allergic reactions to medications, and underlying medical conditions. They can also be caused by factors such as poor nutrition, dehydration, and smoking. Postoperative complications can have serious consequences for patients, including prolonged hospital stays, additional surgeries, and even death. Therefore, it is important for healthcare providers to take steps to prevent postoperative complications and to promptly recognize and treat them if they do occur.
Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is a surgical procedure that is used to support the heart and lungs during certain types of heart surgery. During CPB, a machine is used to take over the function of the heart and lungs, allowing the surgeon to perform the necessary procedures on the heart without the risk of the patient's organs failing due to lack of oxygen or blood flow. The CPB machine works by pumping oxygenated blood from the patient's body to the heart, where it is then pumped out to the rest of the body. At the same time, the machine removes carbon dioxide from the blood and returns it to the patient's body. This allows the surgeon to work on the heart without the patient's organs being starved of oxygen or blood flow. CPB is typically used during procedures such as heart valve surgery, coronary artery bypass surgery, and heart transplant surgery. It is a complex procedure that requires specialized training and equipment, and is typically performed by a team of highly skilled medical professionals in a hospital setting.
In the medical field, an acute disease is a condition that develops suddenly and progresses rapidly over a short period of time. Acute diseases are typically characterized by severe symptoms and a high degree of morbidity and mortality. Examples of acute diseases include pneumonia, meningitis, sepsis, and heart attacks. These diseases require prompt medical attention and treatment to prevent complications and improve outcomes. In contrast, chronic diseases are long-term conditions that develop gradually over time and may persist for years or even decades.
In the medical field, the chi-square distribution is a statistical tool used to analyze the relationship between two categorical variables. It is often used in medical research to determine whether there is a significant association between two variables, such as the presence of a disease and a particular risk factor. The chi-square distribution is a probability distribution that describes the sum of the squared differences between the observed and expected frequencies of a categorical variable. It is commonly used in hypothesis testing to determine whether the observed frequencies of a categorical variable differ significantly from the expected frequencies. In medical research, the chi-square test is often used to analyze the relationship between two categorical variables, such as the presence of a disease and a particular risk factor. For example, a researcher may want to determine whether there is a significant association between smoking and lung cancer. To do this, the researcher would collect data on the smoking habits of a group of people and their incidence of lung cancer. The chi-square test would then be used to determine whether the observed frequencies of lung cancer among smokers differ significantly from the expected frequencies based on the overall incidence of lung cancer in the population. Overall, the chi-square distribution is a valuable tool in medical research for analyzing the relationship between categorical variables and determining whether observed frequencies differ significantly from expected frequencies.
Cineangiography is a medical imaging technique used to visualize the blood flow in the arteries and veins of the body. It involves the injection of a contrast dye into the bloodstream, which makes the blood vessels visible on X-ray images. The images are then captured using a specialized camera and displayed on a monitor in real-time, allowing the physician to view the blood flow as it occurs. Cineangiography is commonly used to diagnose and treat a variety of cardiovascular conditions, including coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, and venous thrombosis. It can also be used to guide interventional procedures, such as angioplasty and stent placement, which are used to open blocked or narrowed blood vessels. The procedure typically involves the insertion of a catheter, a thin, flexible tube, into a blood vessel in the groin or arm. The catheter is then guided to the desired location using X-ray guidance, and the contrast dye is injected. The images are captured in real-time, allowing the physician to view the blood flow and any abnormalities. Cineangiography is a safe and effective diagnostic tool that has revolutionized the field of cardiovascular medicine. However, like all medical procedures, it carries some risks, including bleeding, infection, and damage to blood vessels.
Vascular calcification is a process in which calcium and phosphate deposits build up in the walls of blood vessels, leading to the formation of hard, mineralized plaques. This can occur in both arteries and veins, and is a common complication of a variety of medical conditions, including atherosclerosis, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease. Vascular calcification can lead to a number of serious health problems, including heart attack, stroke, and peripheral artery disease. It is thought to be an active process that is regulated by a number of different factors, including calcium and phosphate levels in the blood, as well as the activity of certain enzymes and hormones. Treatment of vascular calcification typically involves managing the underlying medical condition that is causing it, such as controlling blood pressure or blood sugar levels. In some cases, medications may be prescribed to help prevent the formation of new calcifications or to slow the progression of existing ones.
Ergonovine is a synthetic alkaloid that is used in the medical field as a uterotonic agent. It is used to prevent or control heavy bleeding during childbirth or abortion. Ergonovine works by constricting the smooth muscles of the uterus, which helps to stop bleeding. It is usually administered as an injection, and the dosage and frequency of administration will depend on the individual patient's needs and the specific situation. Ergonovine can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, headache, and muscle spasms. It is important to use ergonovine only under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional, as it can be dangerous if used improperly.
Contrast media are substances that are used to enhance the visibility of certain structures or organs in medical imaging procedures, such as X-rays, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and ultrasound. These substances are typically introduced into the body through injection, ingestion, or inhalation, and they work by altering the way that X-rays or other imaging waves interact with the tissues they pass through. There are several different types of contrast media, including iodinated contrast agents, gadolinium-based contrast agents, and barium sulfate. Iodinated contrast agents are the most commonly used type of contrast media and are typically used to enhance the visibility of blood vessels, organs, and other structures in the body. Gadolinium-based contrast agents are used in MRI scans to enhance the visibility of certain tissues, while barium sulfate is used in X-rays to outline the digestive tract. Contrast media are generally considered safe and effective when used appropriately, but they can cause side effects in some people, such as allergic reactions, nausea, and kidney problems. It is important for patients to discuss the potential risks and benefits of contrast media with their healthcare provider before undergoing an imaging procedure that involves the use of these substances.
Hypercholesterolemia is a medical condition characterized by abnormally high levels of cholesterol in the blood. Cholesterol is a waxy substance that is produced by the liver and is essential for the normal functioning of the body. However, when levels of cholesterol become too high, it can lead to the formation of plaque in the arteries, which can increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and other cardiovascular problems. Hypercholesterolemia can be classified into two types: primary and secondary. Primary hypercholesterolemia is caused by genetic factors and is inherited from one or both parents. Secondary hypercholesterolemia is caused by other medical conditions or lifestyle factors, such as obesity, diabetes, kidney disease, and certain medications. The diagnosis of hypercholesterolemia is typically made through blood tests that measure the levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides in the blood. Treatment for hypercholesterolemia typically involves lifestyle changes, such as a healthy diet and regular exercise, as well as medications to lower cholesterol levels. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove plaque from the arteries.
Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance that is produced by the liver and is also found in some foods. It is an essential component of cell membranes and is necessary for the production of hormones, bile acids, and vitamin D. However, high levels of cholesterol in the blood can increase the risk of developing heart disease and stroke. There are two main types of cholesterol: low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, which is often referred to as "bad" cholesterol because it can build up in the walls of arteries and lead to plaque formation, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, which is often referred to as "good" cholesterol because it helps remove excess cholesterol from the bloodstream and transport it back to the liver for processing.
Pathologic constriction refers to a medical condition in which a blood vessel or other tubular structure becomes narrowed or blocked, leading to reduced blood flow or obstruction of the flow of other substances through the vessel. This can occur due to a variety of factors, including inflammation, scarring, abnormal growths, or the presence of a foreign object. Pathologic constriction can have serious consequences, depending on the location and severity of the constriction, and may require medical intervention to treat.
Angiography is a medical imaging technique used to visualize the blood vessels in the body. It involves injecting a contrast dye into a blood vessel, usually through a small puncture in the skin, and then using an X-ray machine or other imaging device to capture images of the dye as it flows through the blood vessels. This allows doctors to see any blockages, narrowing, or other abnormalities in the blood vessels, which can help them diagnose and treat a variety of medical conditions, including heart disease, stroke, and cancer. Angiography is often used in conjunction with other imaging techniques, such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), to provide a more complete picture of the patient's condition.
In the medical field, a syndrome is a set of symptoms and signs that occur together and suggest the presence of a particular disease or condition. A syndrome is often defined by a specific pattern of symptoms that are not caused by a single underlying disease, but rather by a combination of factors, such as genetic, environmental, or hormonal. For example, Down syndrome is a genetic disorder that is characterized by a specific set of physical and intellectual characteristics, such as a flattened facial profile, short stature, and intellectual disability. Similarly, the flu syndrome is a set of symptoms that occur together, such as fever, cough, sore throat, and body aches, that suggest the presence of an influenza virus infection. Diagnosing a syndrome involves identifying the specific set of symptoms and signs that are present, as well as ruling out other possible causes of those symptoms. Once a syndrome is diagnosed, it can help guide treatment and management of the underlying condition.
Diabetic Angiopathies refer to a group of circulatory disorders that affect the blood vessels of people with diabetes. These disorders can occur in any part of the body, but are most commonly seen in the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and heart. The most common type of diabetic angiopathy is diabetic retinopathy, which affects the blood vessels in the retina of the eye. This can lead to vision loss or blindness if left untreated. Another type of diabetic angiopathy is diabetic nephropathy, which affects the blood vessels in the kidneys and can lead to kidney failure. Diabetic neuropathy, which affects the nerves, is also a common type of diabetic angiopathy. Diabetic angiopathies are caused by damage to the blood vessels that occurs as a result of high blood sugar levels over a long period of time. This damage can lead to the formation of abnormal blood vessels, which can become blocked or leaky, leading to a range of complications. Treatment for diabetic angiopathies typically involves managing blood sugar levels through diet, exercise, and medication, as well as addressing any underlying risk factors such as high blood pressure or high cholesterol. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to treat more severe cases of diabetic angiopathy.
Angina, stable is a type of chest pain that occurs when the heart muscle does not receive enough oxygen-rich blood. It is caused by a narrowing of the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart muscle. Stable angina typically occurs during physical activity or emotional stress and can be relieved by rest or by taking medication. It is called "stable" because the symptoms and triggers are consistent over time and do not change significantly. Stable angina is a common condition that affects millions of people worldwide and is often treated with lifestyle changes, medications, and in some cases, surgery.
In the medical field, "Disease Models, Animal" refers to the use of animals to study and understand human diseases. These models are created by introducing a disease or condition into an animal, either naturally or through experimental manipulation, in order to study its progression, symptoms, and potential treatments. Animal models are used in medical research because they allow scientists to study diseases in a controlled environment and to test potential treatments before they are tested in humans. They can also provide insights into the underlying mechanisms of a disease and help to identify new therapeutic targets. There are many different types of animal models used in medical research, including mice, rats, rabbits, dogs, and monkeys. Each type of animal has its own advantages and disadvantages, and the choice of model depends on the specific disease being studied and the research question being addressed.
C-Reactive Protein (CRP) is a protein that is produced by the liver in response to inflammation or infection in the body. It is a nonspecific marker of inflammation and is often used as a diagnostic tool in the medical field. CRP levels can be measured in the blood using a blood test. Elevated levels of CRP are often seen in people with infections, autoimmune diseases, and certain types of cancer. However, it is important to note that CRP levels can also be elevated in response to other factors such as exercise, injury, and stress. In addition to its diagnostic role, CRP has also been studied as a potential predictor of future health outcomes. For example, high levels of CRP have been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, and other chronic conditions. Overall, CRP is an important biomarker in the medical field that can provide valuable information about a person's health and help guide treatment decisions.
Cholesterol, LDL (Low-Density Lipoprotein) is a type of cholesterol that is commonly referred to as "bad" cholesterol. It is one of the two main types of cholesterol found in the blood, the other being HDL (High-Density Lipoprotein) or "good" cholesterol. LDL cholesterol is produced by the liver and carries cholesterol from the liver to other parts of the body, such as the muscles and the brain. However, when there is too much LDL cholesterol in the blood, it can build up in the walls of arteries, leading to the formation of plaques. These plaques can narrow the arteries and reduce blood flow, which can increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and other cardiovascular problems. Therefore, high levels of LDL cholesterol are considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and doctors often recommend lifestyle changes and medications to lower LDL cholesterol levels in patients with high levels.
Isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) is a medication that is used to treat chest pain (angina) caused by a lack of blood flow to the heart. It works by relaxing the blood vessels, which allows more blood to flow to the heart and reduces the workload on the heart. ISDN is also used to treat high blood pressure and to prevent blood clots in people who are at risk of developing them. It is usually taken by mouth as a tablet or as a spray under the tongue. Side effects of ISDN may include headache, dizziness, and flushing.
Thrombosis is a medical condition in which a blood clot forms within a blood vessel. This can occur when the blood flow is slow or when the blood vessel is damaged, allowing the blood to clot. Thrombosis can occur in any blood vessel in the body, but it is most commonly seen in the veins of the legs, which can lead to a condition called deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Thrombosis can also occur in the arteries, which can lead to a condition called（arterial thrombosis）. Arterial thrombosis can cause serious complications, such as heart attack or stroke, if the clot breaks off and travels to the lungs or brain. Thrombosis can be caused by a variety of factors, including injury to the blood vessel, prolonged immobility, certain medical conditions such as cancer or diabetes, and the use of certain medications such as birth control pills or hormone replacement therapy. Treatment for thrombosis depends on the severity of the condition and the location of the clot, but may include anticoagulant medications to prevent the clot from growing or breaking off, and in some cases, surgical removal of the clot.
Dobutamine is a medication that is used to increase the strength of the heart's contractions and to increase the heart's rate. It is a synthetic form of dopamine, a hormone that is naturally produced by the body to help regulate blood pressure and heart function. Dobutamine is typically used to treat heart failure, a condition in which the heart is unable to pump blood effectively throughout the body. It is also sometimes used to treat low blood pressure (hypotension) and to increase blood flow to the heart muscle after a heart attack. Dobutamine is usually given intravenously, and the dosage is adjusted based on the patient's response and any side effects that may occur.
Heart arrest is a medical emergency that occurs when the heart stops beating effectively, resulting in a lack of blood flow to the body's vital organs. This can happen suddenly or gradually, and it can be caused by a variety of factors, including heart disease, electrical abnormalities in the heart, trauma, or certain medications. In heart arrest, the heart's electrical activity is disrupted, and the heart muscle is unable to contract and pump blood. This can lead to a loss of consciousness, respiratory arrest, and death if not treated promptly. Treatment for heart arrest typically involves cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), which involves chest compressions and rescue breathing to try to restore blood flow to the body and the heart. In some cases, defibrillation may also be necessary to shock the heart back into a normal rhythm. If the heart arrest is caused by an underlying medical condition, such as a heart attack or arrhythmia, additional treatment may be required to address the underlying cause.
Thallium radioisotopes are radioactive isotopes of the element thallium that are used in medical imaging procedures, particularly in nuclear medicine. Thallium-201 (Tl-201) is the most commonly used thallium radioisotope in medical imaging, and it is used primarily for myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) to evaluate blood flow to the heart muscle. During an MPI procedure, a small amount of Tl-201 is injected into the patient's bloodstream, and a gamma camera is used to detect the gamma rays emitted by the Tl-201 as it is taken up by the heart muscle. The gamma camera creates images of the heart that can reveal areas of reduced blood flow, which may indicate the presence of coronary artery disease or other heart conditions. Thallium radioisotopes are also used in other medical imaging procedures, such as bone scans and brain scans, but Tl-201 is the most commonly used thallium radioisotope in nuclear medicine.
Hemorrhage is the medical term used to describe the loss of blood from a vessel or vessel system. It can occur due to a variety of reasons, including injury, disease, or abnormal blood vessel function. Hemorrhage can be classified based on the location of the bleeding, the amount of blood lost, and the severity of the condition. For example, internal hemorrhage occurs within the body's organs or tissues, while external hemorrhage occurs outside the body, such as through a wound or broken skin. The severity of hemorrhage can range from mild to life-threatening, depending on the amount of blood lost and the body's ability to compensate for the loss. In severe cases, hemorrhage can lead to shock, which is a life-threatening condition characterized by low blood pressure and inadequate blood flow to the body's organs and tissues. Treatment for hemorrhage depends on the cause and severity of the bleeding. In some cases, simple measures such as applying pressure to the wound or elevating the affected limb may be sufficient to stop the bleeding. In more severe cases, medical intervention such as surgery or blood transfusions may be necessary to control the bleeding and prevent further complications.
Angioscopy is a medical procedure that involves using a specialized instrument called an angioscope to examine the inside of blood vessels, such as arteries and veins. The angioscope is a thin, flexible tube with a light and camera at the end, which is inserted into the blood vessel through a small incision. The camera allows the doctor to view the inside of the blood vessel on a screen, and any abnormalities or blockages can be seen in real-time. Angioscopy is often used to diagnose and treat a variety of cardiovascular conditions, including peripheral artery disease, coronary artery disease, and venous insufficiency. During the procedure, the doctor may use a variety of tools, such as balloons, stents, or clips, to treat any issues that are found. Angioscopy is a minimally invasive procedure that typically requires only local anesthesia and has a shorter recovery time than more invasive procedures.
In the medical field, "age factors" refer to the effects of aging on the body and its various systems. As people age, their bodies undergo a variety of changes that can impact their health and well-being. These changes can include: 1. Decreased immune function: As people age, their immune system becomes less effective at fighting off infections and diseases. 2. Changes in metabolism: Aging can cause changes in the way the body processes food and uses energy, which can lead to weight gain, insulin resistance, and other metabolic disorders. 3. Cardiovascular changes: Aging can lead to changes in the heart and blood vessels, including increased risk of heart disease, stroke, and high blood pressure. 4. Cognitive changes: Aging can affect memory, attention, and other cognitive functions, which can lead to conditions such as dementia and Alzheimer's disease. 5. Joint and bone changes: Aging can cause changes in the joints and bones, including decreased bone density and increased risk of osteoporosis and arthritis. 6. Skin changes: Aging can cause changes in the skin, including wrinkles, age spots, and decreased elasticity. 7. Hormonal changes: Aging can cause changes in hormone levels, including decreased estrogen in women and decreased testosterone in men, which can lead to a variety of health issues. Overall, age factors play a significant role in the development of many health conditions and can impact a person's quality of life. It is important for individuals to be aware of these changes and to take steps to maintain their health and well-being as they age.
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a group of conditions that affect the heart and blood vessels. They are the leading cause of death worldwide, accounting for more than 17 million deaths each year. CVDs include conditions such as coronary artery disease (CAD), heart failure, arrhythmias, valvular heart disease, peripheral artery disease (PAD), and stroke. These conditions can be caused by a variety of factors, including high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, diabetes, obesity, and a family history of CVDs. Treatment for CVDs may include lifestyle changes, medications, and in some cases, surgery.
Ventricular dysfunction, left, is a medical condition in which the left ventricle of the heart is unable to pump blood efficiently. The left ventricle is responsible for pumping oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the rest of the body. When it is not functioning properly, it can lead to a variety of symptoms, including shortness of breath, fatigue, and chest pain. There are several causes of left ventricular dysfunction, including heart attacks, high blood pressure, coronary artery disease, and heart valve problems. Treatment for left ventricular dysfunction depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, lifestyle changes, and in some cases, surgery. Left ventricular dysfunction can be a serious condition and requires prompt medical attention.
Graft occlusion, vascular, refers to the blockage or narrowing of a blood vessel or graft that has been surgically implanted to bypass a blocked or narrowed artery or vein. This can occur due to various factors, including the formation of scar tissue, the buildup of plaque, or the development of blood clots. Graft occlusion can lead to reduced blood flow to the affected area, which can cause symptoms such as pain, swelling, and tissue damage. Treatment options for graft occlusion may include medications to dissolve blood clots or prevent further clot formation, angioplasty to open up the blocked vessel, or surgery to replace the occluded graft.
Lipids are a diverse group of organic compounds that are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents such as ether or chloroform. They are an essential component of cell membranes and play a crucial role in energy storage, insulation, and signaling in the body. In the medical field, lipids are often measured as part of a routine blood test to assess an individual's risk for cardiovascular disease. The main types of lipids that are measured include: 1. Total cholesterol: This includes both low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, which is often referred to as "bad" cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, which is often referred to as "good" cholesterol. 2. Triglycerides: These are a type of fat that is stored in the body and can be converted into energy when needed. 3. Phospholipids: These are a type of lipid that is a major component of cell membranes and helps to regulate the flow of substances in and out of cells. 4. Steroids: These are a type of lipid that includes hormones such as testosterone and estrogen, as well as cholesterol. Abnormal levels of lipids in the blood can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, including heart attack and stroke. Therefore, monitoring and managing lipid levels is an important part of maintaining overall health and preventing these conditions.
Arteriosclerosis is a medical condition characterized by the hardening and thickening of the walls of arteries due to the buildup of plaque. This buildup can restrict blood flow to the organs and tissues that the arteries supply, leading to a range of health problems, including heart disease, stroke, and peripheral artery disease. The process of arteriosclerosis involves the accumulation of fatty deposits, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances in the inner lining of the arteries. Over time, these deposits can harden and form plaques, which can narrow the arteries and reduce blood flow. The plaques can also rupture, causing blood clots that can block blood flow and lead to serious complications. Arteriosclerosis is a common condition that can affect people of all ages, but it is more likely to occur in older adults and people with certain risk factors, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, diabetes, and a family history of heart disease. Treatment for arteriosclerosis typically involves lifestyle changes, such as quitting smoking, eating a healthy diet, and exercising regularly, as well as medications to lower blood pressure, cholesterol, and blood sugar levels. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove plaque or open blocked arteries.
Cholesterol, HDL (high-density lipoprotein) is a type of cholesterol that is considered "good" cholesterol. It is transported in the bloodstream and helps remove excess cholesterol from the body's tissues, including the arteries. HDL cholesterol is often referred to as "good" cholesterol because it helps prevent the buildup of plaque in the arteries, which can lead to heart disease and stroke. High levels of HDL cholesterol are generally considered to be beneficial for overall cardiovascular health.
Microvascular angina is a type of angina that occurs due to reduced blood flow to the heart muscle caused by narrowing or blockage of the small blood vessels (microvessels) that supply blood to the heart. Unlike classic angina, which is caused by blockages in the larger coronary arteries, microvascular angina is not typically associated with significant blockages in the larger arteries. The symptoms of microvascular angina are similar to those of classic angina, including chest pain or discomfort, shortness of breath, and nausea. However, the pain associated with microvascular angina is often described as a burning or squeezing sensation, and may be more difficult to describe than the classic crushing or pressure-like pain of classic angina. Microvascular angina is often diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests such as electrocardiography (ECG), stress testing, and coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA). Treatment for microvascular angina typically involves lifestyle changes such as diet and exercise, as well as medications to improve blood flow to the heart and reduce inflammation. In some cases, more invasive treatments such as angioplasty or coronary artery bypass surgery may be necessary.
Myocardial bridging is a rare condition in which a segment of the coronary artery is "bridged" by a band of myocardium (heart muscle). This means that the artery is physically covered by a layer of heart muscle, which can cause narrowing or obstruction of blood flow through the artery. This can lead to chest pain, shortness of breath, and other symptoms of heart disease. Myocardial bridging is usually diagnosed with an echocardiogram or coronary angiogram, and treatment may involve medications, lifestyle changes, or surgery in some cases.
In the medical field, a stroke is a medical emergency that occurs when blood flow to the brain is interrupted or reduced, causing brain cells to die. This can happen in two ways: 1. Ischemic stroke: This is the most common type of stroke, accounting for about 85% of all strokes. It occurs when a blood clot blocks a blood vessel in the brain, cutting off blood flow to the affected area. 2. Hemorrhagic stroke: This type of stroke occurs when a blood vessel in the brain ruptures, causing bleeding into the brain. Hemorrhagic strokes are less common than ischemic strokes, accounting for about 15% of all strokes. Strokes can cause a wide range of symptoms, depending on the location and severity of the brain damage. Common symptoms include sudden weakness or numbness in the face, arm, or leg, especially on one side of the body; difficulty speaking or understanding speech; vision problems; dizziness or loss of balance; and severe headache. Prompt medical treatment is crucial for stroke patients, as the sooner treatment is given, the better the chances of recovery. Treatment options may include medications to dissolve blood clots or prevent further clot formation, surgery to remove a blood clot or repair a ruptured blood vessel, and rehabilitation to help patients recover from the effects of the stroke.
Cardiotonic agents, also known as inotropic agents, are medications that increase the strength and force of contraction of the heart muscle. They are used to treat heart failure, a condition in which the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs. Cardiotonic agents work by increasing the sensitivity of the heart muscle to calcium, which is a key component of muscle contraction. This leads to an increase in the strength and force of the heart's contractions, allowing it to pump more blood and improve cardiac output. Some examples of cardiotonic agents include digitalis, dobutamine, and milrinone.
Pathologic dilatation refers to the abnormal enlargement or widening of a body structure, such as a blood vessel, organ, or tube, beyond its normal size. This can be caused by a variety of factors, including injury, disease, or genetic abnormalities. Pathologic dilatation can be a sign of underlying health problems and may require medical intervention to prevent further complications. It is important to note that not all dilatation is considered pathologic, as some degree of dilation may be normal or even beneficial in certain situations.
Atherosclerosis is a medical condition characterized by the hardening and narrowing of the arteries due to the buildup of plaque. Plaque is made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances that accumulate on the inner walls of the arteries over time. As the plaque builds up, it can restrict blood flow to the organs and tissues that the arteries supply, leading to a range of health problems. Atherosclerosis is a common condition that can affect any artery in the body, but it is most commonly associated with the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart. When atherosclerosis affects the coronary arteries, it can lead to the development of coronary artery disease (CAD), which is a major cause of heart attacks and strokes. Atherosclerosis can also affect the arteries that supply blood to the brain, legs, kidneys, and other organs, leading to a range of health problems such as peripheral artery disease, stroke, and kidney disease. Risk factors for atherosclerosis include high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, diabetes, obesity, and a family history of the condition.
Arterioles are small blood vessels that branch off from arteries and carry oxygenated blood to the capillaries, which are the smallest blood vessels in the body. They are responsible for regulating blood flow and pressure within the microcirculation, which is the network of blood vessels that supply blood to individual tissues and organs. Arterioles have a diameter of approximately 100-300 micrometers and are lined with smooth muscle cells that can contract or relax to change the diameter of the vessel. This allows for the regulation of blood flow and pressure in response to changes in the body's needs, such as during exercise or in response to changes in blood pressure. Arterioles also play a role in the exchange of nutrients, oxygen, and waste products between the blood and the surrounding tissues. They are an important part of the cardiovascular system and any dysfunction or disease affecting the arterioles can have significant consequences for overall health and wellbeing.
Diabetes complications refer to the various health problems that can arise as a result of having diabetes. These complications can affect various organs and systems in the body, including the eyes, kidneys, heart, blood vessels, nerves, and feet. Some common diabetes complications include: 1. Diabetic retinopathy: Damage to the blood vessels in the retina, which can lead to vision loss or blindness. 2. Diabetic nephropathy: Damage to the kidneys, which can lead to kidney failure. 3. Cardiovascular disease: Increased risk of heart attack, stroke, and other heart problems. 4. Peripheral artery disease: Narrowing or blockage of blood vessels in the legs and feet, which can lead to pain, numbness, and even amputation. 5. Neuropathy: Damage to the nerves, which can cause pain, numbness, and weakness in the hands and feet. 6. Foot ulcers: Sores or wounds on the feet that can become infected and lead to serious complications. 7. Gum disease: Increased risk of gum disease, which can lead to tooth loss. 8. Sexual dysfunction: Impaired sexual function in men and women. It is important for people with diabetes to manage their blood sugar levels and receive regular medical check-ups to prevent or delay the onset of these complications.
Assisted circulation refers to the use of medical devices or techniques to support or replace the pumping action of the heart in patients who are experiencing cardiac arrest or other critical cardiovascular conditions. There are several types of assisted circulation devices, including: 1. Mechanical circulatory support devices (MCS): These devices, such as ventricular assist devices (VADs) or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), are implanted or used temporarily to help pump blood throughout the body. 2. Intra-aortic balloon pumps (IABPs): These devices are inserted into the aorta to help increase blood flow to the body's vital organs. 3. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR): This is a technique used to manually pump blood and oxygen into the body of a person who has stopped breathing or whose heart has stopped beating. Assisted circulation is often used in emergency situations to stabilize critically ill patients and buy time for more definitive treatment, such as surgery or medication. It can also be used as a long-term treatment for patients with advanced heart failure or other chronic cardiovascular conditions.
Platelet Glycoprotein GPIIb-IIIa Complex is a protein complex found on the surface of platelets, which are small blood cells that play a crucial role in blood clotting. The GPIIb-IIIa complex is also known as the alphaIIb beta3 integrin, and it is a receptor for fibrinogen, a protein that is essential for blood clotting. The GPIIb-IIIa complex is a transmembrane protein that consists of two subunits, alphaIIb and beta3. The alphaIIb subunit has a globular head domain that binds to fibrinogen, while the beta3 subunit has a cytoplasmic tail that interacts with other platelet proteins to regulate platelet activation and aggregation. The GPIIb-IIIa complex plays a critical role in platelet aggregation, which is the process by which platelets stick together to form a plug at the site of a blood vessel injury. When the complex binds to fibrinogen, it triggers a series of signaling events that activate platelets and promote their aggregation. In addition to its role in platelet aggregation, the GPIIb-IIIa complex is also involved in other platelet functions, such as adhesion to the blood vessel wall and the release of platelet granules that contain clotting factors. Disruptions in the function of the GPIIb-IIIa complex can lead to bleeding disorders, such as von Willebrand disease and Glanzmann thrombasthenia. These disorders are characterized by impaired platelet aggregation and bleeding episodes that can be severe and life-threatening.
Heart diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the heart and blood vessels. These conditions can range from minor to severe and can affect the heart's ability to pump blood effectively, leading to a variety of symptoms and complications. Some common types of heart diseases include: 1. Coronary artery disease: This is the most common type of heart disease, which occurs when the arteries that supply blood to the heart become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of plaque. 2. Heart failure: This occurs when the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs. 3. Arrhythmias: These are abnormal heart rhythms that can cause the heart to beat too fast, too slow, or irregularly. 4. Valvular heart disease: This occurs when the heart valves become damaged or diseased, leading to problems with blood flow. 5. Congenital heart disease: This refers to heart defects that are present at birth. 6. Inflammatory heart disease: This includes conditions such as pericarditis and myocarditis, which cause inflammation of the heart. 7. Heart infections: These include conditions such as endocarditis and myocarditis, which can cause damage to the heart muscle and valves. Treatment for heart diseases depends on the specific condition and may include medications, lifestyle changes, and in some cases, surgery. Early detection and treatment are important for improving outcomes and reducing the risk of complications.
Heart failure, also known as congestive heart failure, is a medical condition in which the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs. This can lead to a buildup of fluid in the lungs, liver, and other organs, causing symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and swelling in the legs and ankles. Heart failure can be caused by a variety of factors, including damage to the heart muscle from a heart attack, high blood pressure, or long-term damage from conditions such as diabetes or coronary artery disease. It can also be caused by certain genetic disorders or infections. Treatment for heart failure typically involves medications to improve heart function and reduce fluid buildup, as well as lifestyle changes such as a healthy diet, regular exercise, and avoiding smoking and excessive alcohol consumption. In some cases, surgery or other medical procedures may be necessary to treat the underlying cause of the heart failure or to improve heart function.
Sirolimus is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called immunosuppressants. It is primarily used to prevent organ rejection in people who have received a kidney, liver, or heart transplant. Sirolimus works by inhibiting the growth of T-cells, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the immune response. By suppressing the immune system, sirolimus helps to prevent the body from attacking the transplanted organ as a foreign object. It is also used to treat certain types of cancer, such as lymphoma and renal cell carcinoma.
In the medical field, a fistula is an abnormal connection or passage between two organs or between an organ and the skin. Fistulas can occur in various parts of the body, including the digestive tract, urinary tract, reproductive system, and skin. For example, a colovesical fistula is a connection between the colon and the bladder, while a vesicovaginal fistula is a connection between the bladder and the vagina. Fistulas can be congenital, meaning present at birth, or acquired, meaning developed later in life due to injury, infection, or surgery. Fistulas can cause a variety of symptoms, depending on the location and severity of the abnormal connection. Some common symptoms include pain, discharge, difficulty urinating or defecating, and recurrent infections. Treatment for fistulas depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition, and may include surgery, medications, or other interventions.
Anticholesteremic agents, also known as cholesterol-lowering drugs, are medications that are used to lower the levels of cholesterol in the blood. Cholesterol is a waxy substance that is produced by the liver and is essential for the normal functioning of the body. However, high levels of cholesterol in the blood can increase the risk of heart disease and stroke. There are several types of anticholesteremic agents, including: 1. Statins: These are the most commonly prescribed cholesterol-lowering drugs. They work by inhibiting an enzyme in the liver that is involved in the production of cholesterol. 2. Bile acid sequestrants: These medications bind to bile acids in the digestive tract, preventing them from being reabsorbed and reducing the amount of cholesterol that is produced by the liver. 3. Nicotinic acid: This medication increases the amount of HDL (good) cholesterol in the blood and reduces the amount of LDL (bad) cholesterol. 4. Ezetimibe: This medication works by inhibiting an enzyme in the intestine that is involved in the absorption of cholesterol. Anticholesteremic agents are typically prescribed to people who have high levels of cholesterol in their blood, or who are at risk of developing heart disease or stroke due to other risk factors. They are usually taken in combination with a healthy diet and regular exercise to achieve the best results.
Creatine kinase (CK) is an enzyme that is found in various tissues throughout the body, including the heart, skeletal muscle, brain, and kidneys. It plays a crucial role in the metabolism of creatine, which is a compound that is involved in energy production in cells. In the medical field, CK is often measured as a blood test to help diagnose and monitor various medical conditions. For example, elevated levels of CK in the blood can be an indication of muscle damage or injury, such as from exercise or a muscle strain. CK levels can also be elevated in certain diseases, such as muscular dystrophy, polymyositis, and myocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle). In addition to its diagnostic uses, CK is also used as a biomarker to monitor the effectiveness of certain treatments, such as for heart failure or Duchenne muscular dystrophy. It is also used in research to study muscle metabolism and the effects of exercise on the body.
Cardiac surgical procedures refer to a range of surgical techniques used to treat various heart conditions. These procedures are typically performed by cardiothoracic surgeons and may involve the use of minimally invasive techniques or open surgery. Some common cardiac surgical procedures include: 1. Coronary artery bypass surgery: This procedure involves using a healthy blood vessel from another part of the body to bypass a blocked or narrowed coronary artery, which can improve blood flow to the heart muscle. 2. Valve replacement or repair: This procedure involves replacing or repairing damaged heart valves, which can improve blood flow through the heart. 3. Heart transplant: This procedure involves replacing a damaged or diseased heart with a healthy heart from a donor. 4. Ablation: This procedure involves using heat, cold, or radiofrequency energy to destroy abnormal heart tissue that is causing irregular heart rhythms. 5. Maze procedure: This procedure involves creating a series of small cuts in the heart to create a maze-like pattern that can help prevent abnormal heart rhythms. 6. Heart bypass surgery: This procedure involves using a healthy blood vessel from another part of the body to bypass a blocked or narrowed coronary artery, which can improve blood flow to the heart muscle. These procedures are typically performed under general anesthesia and may require a hospital stay of several days or more. The specific procedure and recovery time will depend on the individual patient's condition and the type of surgery performed.
An arterio-arterial fistula (AAF) is a type of abnormal connection between two arteries. It occurs when a weakened or damaged blood vessel wall allows blood to flow from one artery to another, bypassing the normal blood flow through the circulatory system. There are two types of AAFs: 1. True AAF: This type of AAF occurs when there is a direct connection between two arteries, bypassing the normal blood flow through the circulatory system. True AAFs are usually caused by trauma or surgery. 2. False AAF: This type of AAF occurs when there is a connection between an artery and a vein, rather than another artery. False AAFs are usually caused by atherosclerosis or other conditions that weaken the blood vessel walls. AAF can cause a variety of symptoms, including pain, swelling, and difficulty moving the affected limb. It can also lead to serious complications, such as high blood pressure, stroke, and heart attack. Treatment for AAF depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the symptoms. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or remove the abnormal connection.
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- In this study, we investigated the association between -786T/C polymorphism of the endothelial nitric oxide (NOS3) gene in which thymidine is replaced by a cytosine at nucleotide -786 (rs 2070744) and coronary collateral circulation (CCC) in patients with stable coronary artery disease. (nih.gov)
- Currently, coronary artery disease (CAD) is managed primarily by detecting and treating stenosis in the epicardial coronary arteries, Indorkar and colleagues write. (medscape.com)
- Gender is one of the major risk factors for the development of coronary artery disease. (nih.gov)
- All had been diagnosed with coronary artery disease. (who.int)
- 0.05), i.e. a significant positive effect was observed when yoga therapy was used as an adjunct in patients with coronary artery disease. (who.int)
- These agents are used mainly for primary and secondary prevention of coronary artery disease. (nih.gov)
- The OPTIMISE trial randomized 3119 patients undergoing PCI for stable coronary artery disease or low-risk acute coronary syndrome with a zotarolimus-eluting stent (ZES) to 3 versus 12 months of DAPT. (hcplive.com)
- Conclusions: Microsimulation takes into account the dynamic nature of coronary artery disease by estimating most likely outcomes regarding a broad range of clinical events. (eur.nl)
Percutaneous coronary int5
- Over the past 2 decades, chronic total occlusion (CTO) percutaneous coronary intervention has developed into its own subspecialty of interventional cardiology . (bvsalud.org)
- However, only a few randomized trials have been performed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of CTO percutaneous coronary intervention . (bvsalud.org)
- The Chronic Total Occlusion Academic Research Consortium is a first step toward improved comparability and interpretability of study results, supplying an increasingly growing body of CTO percutaneous coronary intervention evidence. (bvsalud.org)
- He had been treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with an earlier-generation drug-eluting stent to the left anterior descending artery 12 months ago for an anterior wall myocardial infarction (MI). (acc.org)
- This may be explained by early recovery of the LVEF after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). (smw.ch)
- The coronary collateral circulation is an important factor in terms of the amount of damage to the myocardium that results from coronary occlusion. (medscape.com)
- Well-developed collaterals may greatly limit or even completely eliminate myocardial infarction despite complete occlusion of a coronary artery. (medscape.com)
- Definitions and Clinical Trial Design Principles for Coronary Artery Chronic Total Occlusion Therapies: CTO-ARC Consensus Recommendations. (bvsalud.org)
- One or more brief episodes of coronary artery occlusion protect or "precondition" the myocardium perfused by that artery from a subsequent episode of sustained ischemia. (nih.gov)
- We sought to determine whether ischemic preconditioning protects only those myocytes subjected to brief coronary occlusion or whether brief occlusions in one vascular bed also limit infarct size and/or attenuate contractile dysfunction in remote virgin myocardium subjected to subsequent sustained coronary occlusion. (nih.gov)
- In the preliminary limb of the study, six anesthetized dogs underwent four episodes of 5-minute circumflex branch occlusion plus 5-minute reperfusion, followed by 1 hour of sustained left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion and 4.5 hours of reflow. (nih.gov)
- Subendocardial blood flow during left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion (measured by injection of radiolabeled microspheres) was 0.07 +/- 0.03 mL.min-1 x g tissue-1, similar to the value of 0.07 +/- 0.02 mL.min-1 x g-1 observed in a group of eight concurrent control dogs. (nih.gov)
- An additional 18 dogs were then randomized to undergo either four episodes of circumflex branch occlusion (n = 8) or no intervention (n = 10) before 1 hour of left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion and 4.5 hours of reflow. (nih.gov)
- Brief episodes of ischemia in one vascular bed protect remote, virgin myocardium from subsequent sustained coronary artery occlusion in this canine model. (nih.gov)
- 95%) in at least one major epicardial coronary vessel were included in the study. (nih.gov)
- The COSMOS (coronary atherosclerosis Study measuring the effects of rosuvastatin using intravascular ultrasound in Japanese subjects) trial results indicated that patients treated with rosuvastatin had a substantial decrease in plaque volume independent of LDL-C reduction. (nih.gov)
- However, these arteries "represent only a tiny fraction of the overall coronary circulation," and some patients, often women, with normal coronary angiograms still have chest pain. (medscape.com)
- Okay, the coronary circulation system is mainly made up of arteries and veins . (osmosis.org)
- To begin, the arterial supply of the heart starts with the branching out of the left and right coronary arteries from the base of the aorta . (osmosis.org)
- The regulation of vascular reactivity, especially in the coronary arteries, may have a significant effect on vasospasm and the development of coronary vascular disease. (nih.gov)
- Unstable Angina) Acute coronary syndromes result from a sudden blockage in a coronary artery. (msdmanuals.com)
- Premature discontinuation of DAPT was soon recognized as a major predictor of stent thrombosis, especially in patients who had originally presented with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). (hcplive.com)
- Clopidogrel is the most frequently prescribed oral P2Y12 inhibitor for patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing treatment with PCI with drug-eluting stent. (acc.org)
- To determine CFR during a stress MRI test, blood flow leaving the coronary sinus is measured at rest and then after the administration of a medication like adenosine or regadenoson that stimulates relaxation in the microcirculation. (medscape.com)
- Optimal reperfusion in ST-elevation myocardial infarction--the role of the coronary microcirculation. (ox.ac.uk)
- Coronary microcirculation plays a crucial role for the outcomes of patients with STEMI. (ox.ac.uk)
- RESEARCH OBJECTIVES Background Recent studies reveal that temporary ischemia can occur, not only as a result of organic obstruction of the coronary artery, but also as a result of vasoconstriction and vasospasm. (nih.gov)
- Dr. Cannon's research in the field of clinical cardiology has focused on hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, coronary microvascular ischemia, nitric oxide transport in blood, and the role of nitric oxide deficiency in diabetic vascular disease. (nih.gov)
- CHICAGO - Among patients undergoing a cardiac MRI stress test with coronary flow reserve (CFR) measured at the same time, those with CFR below the median had worse outcomes, a new study shows. (medscape.com)
- On-Pump Versus Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery in a Matched Sample of Women: A Comparison of Outcomes. (getinge.com)
- Primary prevention programmes in many countries attempt to reduce mortality and morbidity due to coronary heart disease through modifying risk factors. (bmj.com)
- Off-pump surgery is associated with reduced occurrence of stroke and other morbidity as compared with traditional coronary artery bypass grafting: a meta-analysis of systematically reviewed trials. (getinge.com)
- Based on the 1989 U.S. National Health Inter- ter 7, adults with diabetes are more likely than those view Survey (NHIS), 3% of men and women without diabetes to have hypert en sion and age 18-44 years who reported having diabetes dyslipidemia (low levels of high-density lipoprotein, also reported having ischemic heart disease. (nih.gov)
- Unfortunately the criteria for ischemic (also called of the population for both heart disease and diabetes, coronary) heart disease have been less well stand- prevalence studies are also subject to ascertainment ardized and still vary from study to study. (nih.gov)
- B. Prospective genotyping to assess if the patient has CYP2C19 loss-of-function genetic variation to guide appropriate antiplatelet agent post-PCI will reduce long-term ischemic coronary events. (acc.org)
- A post hoc analysis found an 80% reduction in rate of ischemic events in the genotype-guided treatment arm in the first 3 months of treatment, but current evidence does not suggest a reduction in long-term ischemic coronary events with this strategy. (acc.org)
- Invasive methods include, for example, intracoronary infusion of acetylcholine followed by quantitative coronary angiography. (usz.ch)
- The most common cause creased risk of heart disease associated with diabetes of death in adults with diabetes is coronary heart appears to be independent of these factors. (nih.gov)
- Further, the bias because diabetes may be more often sought in most definitive diagnostic methods, such as coronary persons with heart disease and vice versa. (nih.gov)
- This Request for Applications (RFA), Effects of Sex Hormones on Coronary Artery Reactivity, is related to the priority area of heart disease and stroke. (nih.gov)
- GRS for various diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, coronary heart disease, breast cancer, prostate cancer, multiple sclerosis, and others, have been developed but have largely undefined clinical validity and utility in unselected populations. (cdc.gov)
- Khera and colleagues recently showed that the GRS can identify 2.5% of all individuals with a four-fold increased risk for coronary disease that is similar to FH disease risk. (cdc.gov)
- To assess the effectiveness of multiple risk factor intervention in reducing cardiovascular risk factors, total mortality, and mortality from coronary heart disease among adults. (bmj.com)
- Changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, smoking rates, blood cholesterol concentrations, total mortality, and mortality from coronary heart disease. (bmj.com)
- In the nine trials with clinical event end points the pooled odds ratios for total and coronary heart disease mortality were 0.97 (95% confidence interval 0.92 to 1.02) and 0.96 (0.88 to 1.04) respectively. (bmj.com)
- Improved Survival With an Implanted Defibrillator in Patients With Coronary Disease At High Risk for Ventricular Arrhythmia. (smw.ch)
- So, coronary circulation is the movement of blood throughout the vessels that supply the myocardium also known as the heart muscle . (osmosis.org)
- This study is the first to demonstrate the value of coronary sinus flow measurements at rest and during stress in addition to a routine stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) protocol, Hajime Sakuma, MD, PhD, Department of Radiology, Mie University Hospital, Tsu, Japan, writes in an accompanying editorial . (medscape.com)
- Regular mountaineering can enhance cardiovascular overall well being, decrease blood power, and decrease the possibility of coronary coronary heart situation. (ddkitjiaoyu.com)
- An optimal control theory was applied to analyze the total features of coronary circulation at systolic phase.The coronary circulation was cxprcssed by equivalent electrical circuit model composed of epicardial vessels and end cardial vesseis with intra and extra myocardial regions.Each region has resistance and capacitances.The performance function which must be minimized included the blood pressure and flow rates and their derivatives. (ieice.org)
- The reconstructed pressure and intra myocardial flow curves are almost similar to physiological ones.The most influential factors are the intra myocardial distribution of resistances and initial driving pressure at near the end cardium.Present model regulated by the performance function would be available for the analysis of coronary circulation. (ieice.org)
- Off-Pump coronary artery bypass grafting provides complete revascularization while reducing myocardial injury, transfusion requirements and length of stay: prospective randomized comparison of 200 unselected patients having OPCAB verses conventional CABG. (getinge.com)
- At 4.5 hours following reperfusion, segment shortening in the left anterior descending coronary artery bed (assessed by sonomicrometry) averaged -21 +/- 19% of baseline in control animals versus 13 +/- 12% of baseline in the preconditioned group (p = NS). (nih.gov)
- The antithrombotic efficacy of prototype antibodies [murine 7E3 Fab and F(ab´) 2 ] and Abciximab was evaluated in dog, monkey and baboon models of coronary, carotid, and femoral artery thrombosis. (nih.gov)
- Circulation 2001;104: 2442- 2446. (cdc.gov)
- The ultimate goal is to develop insights into therapeutic approaches for reducing the higher incidence of coronary diseases in men and post-menopausal women than pre-menopausal women. (nih.gov)
- Normally, the pulmonary artery carries the pulmonary circulation - the blood that goes to the lungs, and the aorta carries the systemic circulation - the blood that goes throughout the rest of the body. (luriechildrens.org)
- In truncus arteriosus, the trunk carries both the pulmonary and systemic circulation, as well as the coronary circulation, which normally arises off the aorta. (luriechildrens.org)
- Circulation;143(5): 479-500, 2021 02 02. (bvsalud.org)
- Approximately 1 in every 300 patients with chest pain transported to the ED by private vehicle goes into cardiac arrest en route. (medscape.com)
- in one study, only 23% of patients with a confirmed coronary event used EMS. (medscape.com)
- patients who have chest pain but who have normal coronary angiogram," he added. (medscape.com)
- Les patients ont été répartis aléatoirement en deux groupes, le premier bénéficiant d'une intervention basée sur le yoga contrairement au second. (who.int)
- Un effet positif important a donc été observé lorsqu'une thérapie yogique a été appliquée en tant que traitement adjuvant chez des patients atteints d'une maladie coronarienne. (who.int)
- The first studies demonstrating the clot-busting effects of tPA were conducted in the early 1980s, in animal models of coronary artery and other blockages and in a small number of heart attack patients, 7 though not yet in stroke patients. (nih.gov)
- Avoiding the clamp during off-pump coronary artery bypass reduces cerebral embolic events: results of a prospective randomized trial. (getinge.com)
- This is because the coronary blood vessels surrounding the heart resembles a little crown! (osmosis.org)
- And circulation refers to "the flow of blood. (osmosis.org)
- Zebrafish lacking sox9b showed pericardial edema, an elongated heart, and reduced blood circulation. (nih.gov)
- The baby can be blue, or "cyanotic," because some of the unoxygenated blood goes to the systemic circulation. (luriechildrens.org)
- As we traverse by way of rugged trails and conquer uphill climbs, our coronary coronary heart charge will enhance, enhancing blood circulation and boosting endurance. (ddkitjiaoyu.com)
- If you provide on a mathematical view coronary, like at general, you can improve an outcome motion on your something to show specific it describes perhaps started with Disclaimer. (sermondominical.com)
- Early outcome after off-pump versus on-pump coronary bypass surgery: results from a randomized study. (getinge.com)
- Impact of embolization during coronary artery bypass grafting on outcome and length of stay. (getinge.com)
- invading a view coronary circulation basic mechanism and clinical relevance is Sorry available with us! (sermondominical.com)
- Our view coronary circulation basic mechanism and clinical relevance 1990 introduces long develop at different misconfigured systems, scan ethics, articles, student costs, motion plants, environment or any man-made plant! (sermondominical.com)
- This is of the basic rules of same view coronary circulation basic mechanism and clinical which are now on book students undergoing 3D topics of programs. (sermondominical.com)
- Not too far along the sulcus, the left coronary artery divides into two major branches. (osmosis.org)
- view coronary circulation basic of Thermoplastic Polyesters studies been towards industries, eBooks and aldehydes involving in webpage, food and probability of losses. (sermondominical.com)
- English or any classic view coronary circulation. (sermondominical.com)
- Off-pump versus conventional coronary artery bypass grafting: a meta-analysis and consensus statement from the 2004 ISMICS Consensus Conference. (getinge.com)
- In this view coronary circulation basic mechanism, typical topics feel employed on View Factors for whole features, structure binding in online and specific students, Radiation is etc. (sermondominical.com)
- Platelet function generally recovers over the course of 48 hours (5,6), although Abciximab remains in the circulation for 15 days or more in a platelet-bound state. (nih.gov)
- Adequate positioning of the imaging slice for coronary sinus flow measurement may require a certain amount of experience or training. (medscape.com)