The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.
The veins and arteries of the HEART.
Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.
Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.
Dilation of an occluded coronary artery (or arteries) by means of a balloon catheter to restore myocardial blood supply.
Narrowing or constriction of a coronary artery.
Spasm of the large- or medium-sized coronary arteries.
An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
Maintenance of blood flow to an organ despite obstruction of a principal vessel. Blood flow is maintained through small vessels.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
A clinical syndrome characterized by the development of CHEST PAIN at rest with concomitant transient ST segment elevation in the ELECTROCARDIOGRAM, but with preserved exercise capacity.
A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.
NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).
The neural systems which act on VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE to control blood vessel diameter. The major neural control is through the sympathetic nervous system.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
The movement of the BLOOD as it is pumped through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).
Abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of CORONARY VESSELS. Most coronary aneurysms are due to CORONARY ATHEROSCLEROSIS, and the rest are due to inflammatory diseases, such as KAWASAKI DISEASE.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
An alkaloid found in opium but not closely related to the other opium alkaloids in its structure or pharmacological actions. It is a direct-acting smooth muscle relaxant used in the treatment of impotence and as a vasodilator, especially for cerebral vasodilation. The mechanism of its pharmacological actions is not clear, but it apparently can inhibit phosphodiesterases and it may have direct actions on calcium channels.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
A volatile vasodilator which relieves ANGINA PECTORIS by stimulating GUANYLATE CYCLASE and lowering cytosolic calcium. It is also sometimes used for TOCOLYSIS and explosives.
A competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase.
The presence of an increased amount of blood in a body part or an organ leading to congestion or engorgement of blood vessels. Hyperemia can be due to increase of blood flow into the area (active or arterial), or due to obstruction of outflow of blood from the area (passive or venous).
The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Coagulation of blood in any of the CORONARY VESSELS. The presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) often leads to MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.
Recurrent narrowing or constriction of a coronary artery following surgical procedures performed to alleviate a prior obstruction.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
A vessel that directly interconnects an artery and a vein, and that acts as a shunt to bypass the capillary bed. Not to be confused with surgical anastomosis, nor with arteriovenous fistula.
Complete blockage of blood flow through one of the CORONARY ARTERIES, usually from CORONARY ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.
Diversion of blood flow through a circuit located outside the body but continuous with the bodily circulation.
A family of percutaneous techniques that are used to manage CORONARY OCCLUSION, including standard balloon angioplasty (PERCUTANEOUS TRANSLUMINAL CORONARY ANGIOPLASTY), the placement of intracoronary STENTS, and atheroablative technologies (e.g., ATHERECTOMY; ENDARTERECTOMY; THROMBECTOMY; PERCUTANEOUS TRANSLUMINAL LASER ANGIOPLASTY). PTCA was the dominant form of PCI, before the widespread use of stenting.
An inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase which has been shown to prevent glutamate toxicity. Nitroarginine has been experimentally tested for its ability to prevent ammonia toxicity and ammonia-induced alterations in brain energy and ammonia metabolites. (Neurochem Res 1995:200(4):451-6)
Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.
A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.
A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.
An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Distensibility measure of a chamber such as the lungs (LUNG COMPLIANCE) or bladder. Compliance is expressed as a change in volume per unit change in pressure.
The hospital unit in which patients with acute cardiac disorders receive intensive care.
Generally, restoration of blood supply to heart tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. Reperfusion can be induced to treat ischemia. Methods include chemical dissolution of an occluding thrombus, administration of vasodilator drugs, angioplasty, catheterization, and artery bypass graft surgery. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.
The symptom of paroxysmal pain consequent to MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA usually of distinctive character, location and radiation. It is thought to be provoked by a transient stressful situation during which the oxygen requirements of the MYOCARDIUM exceed that supplied by the CORONARY CIRCULATION.
Regional infusion of drugs via an arterial catheter. Often a pump is used to impel the drug through the catheter. Used in therapy of cancer, upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage, infection, and peripheral vascular disease.
Malformations of CORONARY VESSELS, either arteries or veins. Included are anomalous origins of coronary arteries; ARTERIOVENOUS FISTULA; CORONARY ANEURYSM; MYOCARDIAL BRIDGING; and others.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A congenital heart defect characterized by the narrowing or complete absence of the opening between the RIGHT VENTRICLE and the PULMONARY ARTERY. Lacking a normal PULMONARY VALVE, unoxygenated blood in the right ventricle can not be effectively pumped into the lung for oxygenation. Clinical features include rapid breathing, CYANOSIS, right ventricle atrophy, and abnormal heart sounds (HEART MURMURS).
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
An antidiabetic sulfonylurea derivative with actions similar to those of chlorpropamide.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Damage to the MYOCARDIUM resulting from MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION (restoration of blood flow to ischemic areas of the HEART.) Reperfusion takes place when there is spontaneous thrombolysis, THROMBOLYTIC THERAPY, collateral flow from other coronary vascular beds, or reversal of vasospasm.
Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART VENTRICLES.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.
Post-systolic relaxation of the HEART, especially the HEART VENTRICLES.
The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).
Regulation of the rate of contraction of the heart muscles by an artificial pacemaker.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.
Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The use of ultrasound to guide minimally invasive surgical procedures such as needle ASPIRATION BIOPSY; DRAINAGE; etc. Its widest application is intravascular ultrasound imaging but it is useful also in urology and intra-abdominal conditions.
A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.
A 21-amino acid peptide produced in a variety of tissues including endothelial and vascular smooth-muscle cells, neurons and astrocytes in the central nervous system, and endometrial cells. It acts as a modulator of vasomotor tone, cell proliferation, and hormone production. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)
Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Coronary artery bypass surgery on a beating HEART without a CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS (diverting the flow of blood from the heart and lungs through an oxygenator).
The restoration of blood supply to the myocardium. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Precordial pain at rest, which may precede a MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Drugs or agents which antagonize or impair any mechanism leading to blood platelet aggregation, whether during the phases of activation and shape change or following the dense-granule release reaction and stimulation of the prostaglandin-thromboxane system.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.
Recycling through liver by excretion in bile, reabsorption from intestines (INTESTINAL REABSORPTION) into portal circulation, passage back into liver, and re-excretion in bile.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Pressure, burning, or numbness in the chest.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.
A phosphodiesterase inhibitor that blocks uptake and metabolism of adenosine by erythrocytes and vascular endothelial cells. Dipyridamole also potentiates the antiaggregating action of prostacyclin. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p752)
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS supplying the abdominal VISCERA.
The circulation of BLOOD, of both the mother and the FETUS, through the PLACENTA.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Lesions formed within the walls of ARTERIES.
Agents that affect the rate or intensity of cardiac contraction, blood vessel diameter, or blood volume.
Determination of the shortest time interval between the injection of a substance in the vein and its arrival at some distant site in sufficient concentration to produce a recognizable end result. It represents approximately the inverse of the average velocity of blood flow between two points.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
The ratio of maximum blood flow to the MYOCARDIUM with CORONARY STENOSIS present, to the maximum equivalent blood flow without stenosis. The measurement is commonly used to verify borderline stenosis of CORONARY ARTERIES.
An acute, febrile, mucocutaneous condition accompanied by swelling of cervical lymph nodes in infants and young children. The principal symptoms are fever, congestion of the ocular conjunctivae, reddening of the lips and oral cavity, protuberance of tongue papillae, and edema or erythema of the extremities.
An effective inhibitor of platelet aggregation commonly used in the placement of STENTS in CORONARY ARTERIES.
A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Types of spiral computed tomography technology in which multiple slices of data are acquired simultaneously improving the resolution over single slice acquisition technology.
The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
Diversion of the flow of blood from the entrance of the right atrium directly to the aorta (or femoral artery) via an oxygenator thus bypassing both the heart and lungs.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
The dilatation of the aortic wall behind each of the cusps of the aortic valve.
The circulation of BLOOD through the LIVER.
Motion pictures of the passage of contrast medium through blood vessels.
The creation and display of functional images showing where the blood is flowing into the MYOCARDIUM by following over time the distribution of tracers injected into the blood stream.
Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles and mammary gland.
Deposition of calcium into the blood vessel structures. Excessive calcification of the vessels are associated with ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES formation particularly after MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION (see MONCKEBERG MEDIAL CALCIFIC SCLEROSIS) and chronic kidney diseases which in turn increase VASCULAR STIFFNESS.
An ergot alkaloid (ERGOT ALKALOIDS) with uterine and VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE contractile properties.
Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
The direct continuation of the brachial trunk, originating at the bifurcation of the brachial artery opposite the neck of the radius. Its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to the three regions in which the vessel is situated, the forearm, wrist, and hand.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.
The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.
Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.
A condition with abnormally high levels of CHOLESTEROL in the blood. It is defined as a cholesterol value exceeding the 95th percentile for the population.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.
Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.
Genetically developed small pigs for use in biomedical research. There are several strains - Yucatan miniature, Sinclair miniature, and Minnesota miniature.
A characteristic symptom complex.
VASCULAR DISEASES that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS.
Persistent and reproducible chest discomfort usually precipitated by a physical exertion that dissipates upon cessation of such an activity. The symptoms are manifestations of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.
Computed tomography where there is continuous X-ray exposure to the patient while being transported in a spiral or helical pattern through the beam of irradiation. This provides improved three-dimensional contrast and spatial resolution compared to conventional computed tomography, where data is obtained and computed from individual sequential exposures.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
A vasodilator used in the treatment of ANGINA PECTORIS. Its actions are similar to NITROGLYCERIN but with a slower onset of action.
Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.
Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.
A catecholamine derivative with specificity for BETA-1 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS. It is commonly used as a cardiotonic agent after CARDIAC SURGERY and during DOBUTAMINE STRESS ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY.
Cessation of heart beat or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. If it is treated within a few minutes, heart arrest can be reversed in most cases to normal cardiac rhythm and effective circulation.
The vein which drains the foot and leg.
Unstable isotopes of thallium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Tl atoms with atomic weights 198-202, 204, and 206-210 are thallium radioisotopes.
Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.
The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.
Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery performed on the interior of blood vessels.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.
A condition in which the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the left ventricular wall.
Obstruction of flow in biological or prosthetic vascular grafts.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
A vital statistic measuring or recording the rate of death from any cause in hospitalized populations.
Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.
A procedure to stop the contraction of MYOCARDIUM during HEART SURGERY. It is usually achieved with the use of chemicals (CARDIOPLEGIC SOLUTIONS) or cold temperature (such as chilled perfusate).
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
The innermost layer of an artery or vein, made up of one layer of endothelial cells and supported by an internal elastic lamina.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Use of infusions of FIBRINOLYTIC AGENTS to destroy or dissolve thrombi in blood vessels or bypass grafts.
Delivery of drugs into an artery.
ANGINA PECTORIS or angina-like chest pain with a normal coronary arteriogram and positive EXERCISE TEST. The cause of the syndrome is unknown. While its recognition is of clinical importance, its prognosis is excellent. (Braunwald, Heart Disease, 4th ed, p1346; Jablonski Dictionary of Syndromes & Eponymic Diseases, 2d ed). It is different from METABOLIC SYNDROME X, a syndrome characterized by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA, that has increased risk for cardiovascular disease.
A malformation that is characterized by a muscle bridge over a segment of the CORONARY ARTERIES. Systolic contractions of the muscle bridge can lead to narrowing of coronary artery; coronary compression; MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and SUDDEN CARDIAC DEATH.
A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)
The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
Agents that have a strengthening effect on the heart or that can increase cardiac output. They may be CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES; SYMPATHOMIMETICS; or other drugs. They are used after MYOCARDIAL INFARCT; CARDIAC SURGICAL PROCEDURES; in SHOCK; or in congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).
The degree to which BLOOD VESSELS are not blocked or obstructed.
The condition of an anatomical structure's being dilated beyond normal dimensions.
A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.
The smallest divisions of the arteries located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.
Pumping that aids the natural activity of the heart. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Platelet membrane glycoprotein complex important for platelet adhesion and aggregation. It is an integrin complex containing INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB and INTEGRIN BETA3 which recognizes the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) sequence present on several adhesive proteins. As such, it is a receptor for FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; FIBRONECTIN; VITRONECTIN; and THROMBOSPONDINS. A deficiency of GPIIb-IIIa results in GLANZMANN THROMBASTHENIA.

Phasic right coronary artery blood flow in conscious dogs with normal and elevated right ventricular pressures. (1/5587)

We studied phasic right coronary blood flow in well trained normal dogs and dogs with pulmonic stenosis. We installed electromagnetic flow transducers and pressure tubes under anesthesia to monitor right coronary blood flow, cardiac output, central aortic blood pressure, and right ventribular pressure. In normotensive dogs, systolic flow amplitude equaled early diastolic flow levels. The ratio of systolic to diastolic flow at rest was substantially greater in the right coronary bed (36+/-1.3%) than in the left circumflex bed (13+/-3.6%). Right diastolid flow runoff, including the cove late in diastole, resembled left circumflex runoff. Blood flow to the normotensive right (37+/-1.1 ml/min 100(-1) g) and the left (35+/-1.0 ml/min(-1) g) ventricular myocardium indicated equal perfusion of both cardiac walls. Throttling of systolic flow was related directly to the right ventricular systolic pressure level in the dogs with pulmonic stenosis. Retrograde systolic flow occurred in severe right ventricular hypertension. The late diastolic runoff pattern in dogs with pulmonic stenosis appeared the same as for the normotensive dogs. We obtained systolic to diastolic flow ratios of 1/3 the value of normotensive hearts in high and severe pulmonic hypertension. Electrocardiograms and studies of pathology suggested restricted blood flow to the inner layers of the right myocardium in the dogs with severe and high right ventricular hypertension. Normotensive and hypertensive peak hyperemic flow responses were similar, except for an increased magnitude of diastolic flow, with proportionately less systolic flow in hypertensive states.  (+info)

The effect of cardiac contraction on collateral resistance in the canine heart. (2/5587)

We determined whether the coronary collateral vessels develop an increased resistance to blood flow during systole as does the cognate vascular bed. Collateral resistance was estimated by measuring retrograde flow rate from a distal branch of the left anterior descending coronary artery while the main left coronary artery was perfused at a constant pressure. Retrograde flow rate was measured before and during vagal arrest. We found that in 10 dogs the prolonged diastole experienced when the heart was stopped caused no significant change in the retrograde flow rate, which indicated that systole has little effect on the collateral resistance. However, when left ventricular end-diastolic pressure was altered by changing afterload or contractility, a direct relationship between end-diastolic pressure and collateral resistance was noted.  (+info)

Endogenous plasma endothelin concentrations and coronary circulation in patients with mild dilated cardiomyopathy. (3/5587)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether increased plasma concentrations of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and big endothelin (BET) play a role in the regulation of coronary circulation in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM). SETTING: Tertiary referral centre for cardiac diseases. PATIENTS: Fourteen patients (eight male/six female; mean (SD) age 59 (9) years) with IDCM (ejection fraction 36 (9)%) and five normotensive subjects (two male/three female; age 52 (7) years) serving as controls were studied. METHODS: Functional status was classified according to New York Heart Association (NYHA) class. Endogenous ET-1 and BET plasma concentrations from the aorta and the coronary sinus were determined by radioimmunoassay. Coronary blood flow, using the inert chromatographic argon method, myocardial oxygen consumption, and coronary sinus oxygen content under basal conditions were determined. RESULTS: In the aorta, mean (SD) concentrations of ET-1 (IDCM 0.76 (0.25) v controls 0.31 (0.06) fmol/ml; p = 0.002) and BET (IDCM 3.58 (1.06) v controls 2.11 (0.58) fmol/ml; p = 0.014) were increased in patients with IDCM. Aortic ET-1 concentrations correlated positively with NYHA class (r = 0. 731; p < 0.001), myocardial oxygen consumption (r = 0.749; p < 0. 001), and coronary blood flow (r = 0.645; p = 0.003), but inversely with coronary sinus oxygen content (r = -0.633; p = 0.004), which was significantly decreased in IDCM patients (IDCM 4.68 (1.05) v controls 6.70 (1.06) vol%; p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: The coronary circulation in patients with IDCM is exposed to an increased endothelin load. ET-1 concentrations correlate with functional deterioration. A decrease of the coronary sinus content of oxygen suggests a mismatch between coronary blood flow and metabolic demand. Thus, ET-1 might be a marker of a disequilibrium between myocardial oxygen demand and coronary blood flow in IDCM.  (+info)

Prognostic value of myocardial perfusion imaging in patients with high exercise tolerance. (4/5587)

BACKGROUND: Although high exercise tolerance is associated with an excellent prognosis, the significance of abnormal myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) in patients with high exercise tolerance has not been established. This study retrospectively compares the utility of MPI and exercise ECG (EECG) in these patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Of 388 consecutive patients who underwent exercise MPI and reached at least Bruce stage IV, 157 (40.5%) had abnormal results and 231 (59.5%) had normal results. Follow-up was performed at 18+/-2.7 months. Adverse events, including revascularization, myocardial infarction, and cardiac death, occurred in 40 patients. Nineteen patients had revascularization related to the MPI results or the patient's condition at the time of MPI and were not included in further analysis. Seventeen patients (12.2%) with abnormal MPI and 4 (1.7%) with normal MPI had adverse cardiac events (P<0.001). Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis showed that MPI was an excellent predictor of cardiac events (global chi2=13.2; P<0.001; relative risk=8; 95% CI=3 to 23) but EECG had no predictive power (global chi2=0.05; P=0.8; relative risk=1; 95% CI=0.4 to 3.0). The addition of Duke's treadmill score risk categories did not improve the predictive power of EECG (global chi2=0.17). The predictive power of the combination of EECG (including Duke score categories) and MPI was no better than that of MPI alone (global chi2=13.5). CONCLUSIONS: Unlike EECG, MPI is an excellent prognostic indicator for adverse cardiac events in patients with known or suspected CAD and high exercise tolerance.  (+info)

Usefulness of fractional flow reserve to predict clinical outcome after balloon angioplasty. (5/5587)

BACKGROUND: After regular coronary balloon angioplasty, it would be helpful to identify those patients who have a low cardiac event rate. Coronary angiography alone is not sensitive enough for that purpose, but it has been suggested that the combination of optimal angiographic and optimal functional results indicates a low restenosis chance. Pressure-derived myocardial fractional flow reserve (FFR) is an index of the functional severity of the residual epicardial lesion and could be useful for that purpose. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 60 consecutive patients with single-vessel disease, balloon angioplasty was performed by use of a pressure instead of a regular guide wire. Both quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) and measurement of FFR were performed 15 minutes after the procedure. A successful angioplasty result, defined as a residual diameter stenosis (DS) <50%, was achieved in 58 patients. In these patients, DS and FFR, measured 15 minutes after PTCA, were analyzed in relation to clinical outcome. In those 26 patients with both optimal angiographic (residual DS by QCA /=0.90) results, event-free survival rates at 6, 12, and 24 months were 92+/-5%, 92+/-5%, and 88+/-6%, respectively, versus 72+/-8%, 69+/-8%, and 59+/-9%, respectively, in the remaining 32 patients in whom the angiographic or functional result or both were suboptimal (P=0.047, P=0.028, and P=0.014, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with a residual DS /=0.90, clinical outcome up to 2 years is excellent. Therefore, there is a complementary value of coronary angiography and coronary pressure measurement in the evaluation of PTCA result.  (+info)

Simultaneous assessment of effects of coronary vasodilators on the coronary blood flow and the myocardial contractility by using the blood-perfused canine papillary muscle. (6/5587)

Effects of 6 coronary vasodilators on the coronary blood flow and the contractile force of the ventricular muscle were examined simultaneously by injecting these drugs to the arterially blood-perfused canine papillary muscle preparation. All compounds produced a dose-dependent increase in blood flow rate, and relative potencies determined on the basis of doses producing a 100% increase in blood flow rate, ED100, were in the descending order : nifedipine greater than verapamil greater than diltiazem greater than dilazep greater than dipyridamole greater than carbochromen, and approximately 1 : 1/12 : 1/26 : 1/100 : 1/300 : 1/500. All drugs except for dipyridamole caused a dose-dependent decrease in the developed tension of the papillary muscle, although nifedipine and diltiazem in low doses produced a slight increase. Relative potencies determined on the basis of doses producing a 50% decrease in developed tension, ID50, were as follows: nifedipine (1), verapamil (1/13), diltiazem (1/40), dilazep (1/100), and carbochromen (1/270). Ratios of the ID50 to ED100 were as follows: diltiazem (5.2), nifedipine (3.5), verapamil (3.5), dilazep (2.5), and carbochromen (1.8). The higher the value the more predominant on the coronary vascular bed or the less depressant on the myocardial contractility were their actions.  (+info)

A comparison of an A1 adenosine receptor agonist (CVT-510) with diltiazem for slowing of AV nodal conduction in guinea-pig. (7/5587)

1. The purpose of this study was to compare the pharmacological properties (i.e. the AV nodal depressant, vasodilator, and inotropic effects) of two AV nodal blocking agents belonging to different drug classes; a novel A1 adenosine receptor (A1 receptor) agonist, N-(3(R)-tetrahydrofuranyl)-6-aminopurine riboside (CVT-510), and the prototypical calcium channel blocker diltiazem. 2. In the atrial-paced isolated heart, CVT-510 was approximately 5 fold more potent to prolong the stimulus-to-His bundle (S-H interval), a measure of slowing AV nodal conduction (EC50 = 41 nM) than to increase coronary conductance (EC50 = 200 nM). At concentrations of CVT-510 (40 nM) and diltiazem (1 microM) that caused equal prolongation of S-H interval (approximately 10 ms), diltiazem, but not CVT-510, significantly reduced left ventricular developed pressure (LVP) and markedly increased coronary conductance. CVT-510 shortened atrial (EC50 = 73 nM) but not the ventricular monophasic action potentials (MAP). 3. In atrial-paced anaesthetized guinea-pigs, intravenous infusions of CVT-510 and diltiazem caused nearly equal prolongations of P-R interval. However, diltiazem, but not CVT-510, significantly reduced mean arterial blood pressure. 4. Both CVT-510 and diltiazem prolonged S-H interval, i.e., slowed AV nodal conduction. However, the A1 receptor-selective agonist CVT-510 did so without causing the negative inotropic, vasodilator, and hypotensive effects associated with diltiazem. Because CVT-510 did not affect the ventricular action potential, it is unlikely that this agonist will have a proarrythmic action in ventricular myocardium.  (+info)

Comparison of quantitative coronary angiography, intravascular ultrasound, and coronary pressure measurement to assess optimum stent deployment. (8/5587)

BACKGROUND: Although intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is the present standard for the evaluation of optimum stent deployment, this technique is expensive and not routinely feasible in most catheterization laboratories. Coronary pressure-derived myocardial fractional flow reserve (FFRmyo) is an easy, cheap, and rapidly obtainable index that is specific for the conductance of the epicardial coronary artery. In this study, we investigated the usefulness of coronary pressure measurement to predict optimum and suboptimum stent deployment. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 30 patients, a Wiktor-i stent was implanted at different inflation pressures, starting at 6 atm and increasing step by step to 8, 10, 12, and 14 atm, if necessary. After every step, stent deployment was evaluated by quantitative coronary angiography (QCA), IVUS, and coronary pressure measurement. If any of the 3 techniques did not yield an optimum result, the next inflation was performed, and all 3 investigational modalities were repeated until optimum stent deployment was present by all of them or until the treating physician decided to accept the result. Optimum deployment according to QCA was finally achieved in 24 patients, according to IVUS in 17 patients, and also according to coronary pressure measurement in 17 patients. During the step-up, a total of 81 paired IVUS and coronary pressure measurements were performed, of which 91% yielded concordant results (ie, either an optimum or a suboptimum expansion of the stent by both techniques, P<0.00001). On the contrary, QCA showed a low concordance rate with IVUS and FFRmyo (48% and 46%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, using a coil stent, both IVUS and coronary pressure measurement were of similar value with respect to the assessment of optimum stent deployment. Therefore, coronary pressure measurement can be used as a cheap and rapid alternative to IVUS for that purpose.  (+info)

Chronotropic doses of dobutamine have been shown to increase transmural WT, even in perfusion beds subtended by coronary stenoses that range from 30% to 80% in diameter (8). If the stenosis is more severe or if higher doses of dobutamine are used, WT becomes abnormal (2). Transmural myocardial blood flow responses, however, are different, with decreases in myocardial blood flow observed even in milder non-flow limiting stenoses (2). As the stenosis becomes more severe, a marked decrease in subendocardial blood flow has been observed (9-11), with a marked decrease in endocardial/epicardial flow ratios. In this study, RTMCE detected this decrease in endocardial to epicardial blood flow abnormality in 45 of the 55 patients with LAD stenoses ,50%.. Another pertinent pharmacologic property of dobutamine is its ability to recruit the subepicardial layers to thicken. The subendocardium is responsible for over 40% of WT under resting conditions (12,13), and thus resting WT might be abnormal even when ...
Background. Experimental studies on the effects of alpha2-adrenoceptors on regional coronary blood flow in normal and ischemic myocardium are highly controversial. A beneficial effect on regional ischemic myocardium has been demonstrated in different animal preparations with either alpha2-adrenoceptor blockade or stimulation. Animal studies also demonstrated that postsynaptic alpha2-adrenoceptors mediate vasoconstriction in coronary and femoral vascular beds. The aims of the study were 1) to investigate the effects of regional alpha2-adrenoceptor stimulation on regional coronary blood flow in subjects with angiographically normal coronary arteries, 2) to assess the effect of alpha2-adrenoceptor blockade on coronary circulation in control subjects, and 3) to examine the influence of atherosclerosis on coronary blood flow response to alpha2-adrenoceptor blockade. Methods and Results. The effect of regional administration of BHT 933 (a selective alpha2-adrenoceptor agonist) was studied in eight ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The role of capillaries in determining coronary blood flow reserve. T2 - Implications for stress-induced reversible perfusion defects. AU - Kaul, Sanjiv. N1 - Funding Information: From the Cardiovascular Imaging Center, Cardiovascular Division, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, Va. Supported in part by grants (3R01-HL48890, RO1-HL65704, and RO1-HL66034) from the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md. Reprint requests: Sanjiv Kaul, MD, Cardiovascular Division, Box 158, Medical Center, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908; [email protected] J Nucl Cardiol 2001;8:694-700. Copyright © 2001 by the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology. 1071-3581/2001/$35.00 + 0 43/1/119690 doi:10.1067/mnc.2001.119690. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - In summary, unlike tracers such as radiolabeled microspheres that are trapped in the microcirculation (and therefore have a 100% extraction fraction), the uptake of diffusible tracers is determined by the status of ...
Previous reports have indicated that hypertensive patients who have angina-like chest pain and normal coronary arteriograms have reduced coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR) levels. In addition, elevated plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels have been reported to be associated with microvascular angina. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the plasma ET-1 levels and CFVR in patients with chest pain but without coronary artery disease (CAD). A total of 66 patients were included in this study. CAD was ruled out by exercise stress test or coronary angiogram. Plasma ET-1 and CFVR measurements were performed in patients with (n=35) and without (n=31) a history of angina-like chest pain. CFVR was measured using adenosine-triphosphate stress transthoracic Doppler echocardiography. The mean ET-1 level was significantly higher and the CFVR was significantly lower in patients in the symptomatic group than in those in the asymptomatic group (ET-1: 3.85±1.24 pg/ml vs. 2.98±1.27 pg/ml, CFVR: 2.26±0.48 vs. 2.77
Coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR) measured by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography of the LAD is used to assess microvascular function but validation studies in clinical settings are lacking. We aimed to assess feasibility, reproducibility and agreement with myocardial flow reserve (MFR) measured by PET in overweight and obese patients. Participants with revascularized coronary artery disease were examined by CFVR. Subgroups were examined by repeated CFVR (reproducibility) or Rubidium-82-PET (agreement). To account for time variation, results were computed for scans performed within a week (1-week) and for all scans regardless of time gap (total) and to account for scar tissue for patients with and without previous myocardial infarction (MI). Eighty-six patients with median BMI 30.9 (IQR 29.4-32.9) kg × m−2 and CFVR 2.29 (1.90-2.63) were included. CFVR was feasible in 83 (97 %) using a contrast agent in 14 %. For reproducibility overall (n = 21) limits of agreement (LOA) were (−0.75;0.71),
The effect of a new coronary vasodilator (Persantin), which produces a marked increase in coronary blood flow (up to 159 per cent in normal animals) without increasing cardiac contractility or cardiac work, has been studied in the experimental animal. This is associated with a marked decrease in coronary resistance. There is an increase in the coronary venous oxygen content and a decrease in the coronary A-V oxygen difference; the cardiac output is only slightly affected. Increase in the coronary blood flow has also been observed in dogs in which coronary in sufficiency has been produced by coronary ligation and by narrowing of the lumen of the coronary artery by the application of casein rings. This was accompanied by no significant increase in cardiac work.. ...
Relief of the coronary obstruction by thrombolysis or percutaneous catheter-based intervention and restoration of normal flow in the culprit artery has been the goal of therapy in patients with acute MI. This analysis shows, however, that acute MI slows flow not only in the culprit artery, but also in the nonculprit artery by 45%. Culprit and nonculprit artery flows were linked, and relief of the residual stenosis in the culprit artery restored flow to the culprit artery, which was the same as in the nonculprit arteries (both 30 frames). Although improved post-PTCA, both culprit and nonculprit artery flows were still 45% slower than normal (21 frames). Multiple variables were associated with slower nonculprit artery flow: slower flow in the associated culprit artery, a larger territory infarcted (e.g., larger diameter culprit arteries with a larger percent of the culprit vessel distal to the stenosis, the absence of collaterals, LAD as the culprit artery), tighter stenoses within the nonculprit ...
To examine the influence of preexistent diabetes mellitus on left ventricular performance and coronary blood flow responses to acute ischemia, mild normoglycemic diabetes was induced in nine mongrel dogs after three doses of alloxan, (20 mg/kg, iv), at monthly intervals. Hemodynamic measurements and coronary blood flow (85Kr clearance) were obtained before and after the onset of ischemia. This was produced by occlusion of the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery via a balloon-type catheter in nine intact anesthetized diabetic dogs and 10 nondiabetic dogs. During the 1st hour of ischemia in the diabetic group, the end-diastolic pressure rose from 7 +/- 1.1 (mean +/- SE) mm Hg to 23.8 +/- 2.3 without a significant increase of end-diastolic volume. In controls end-diastolic pressure rose from 8.6 +/- 1.1 mm Hg to 15.3 +/- 1.4, and end-diastolic volume was significantly increased, so that the ratio of end-diastolic pressure and volume was significantly higher in the diabetic group (P ...
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Apart from evaluating the physiological significance of epicardial stenoses, intracoronary Doppler has become an important tool in patients with suspected microvascular disease. Recent studies report an impaired coronary flow reserve in patients with diabetes mellitus, hypertension and smoking (11,19-22). These findings are attributed to abnormalities in coronary vasomotion. It has been proposed that a coronary flow reserve of less than 2.5 (23) and a CFVR of less than 2.24 (14) in the absence of significant epicardial stenosis is a sign of microvascular dysfunction. Categorizing women in this study according to the cut-off value for CFVR of 2.24 revealed that women with suspected microvascular dysfunction have a significantly increased bAPV, and systolic blood pressure. As these factors may, in part, contribute to the reduction of CFVR, the use of traditional CFVR as an indicator of microvascular dysfunction may not sufficiently discriminate between factors affecting vasodilator reserve and ...
article{2286a0f7-5934-41f8-aed8-94b7a8b75a40, abstract = {Recent studies indicate a severely reduced coronary flow reserve (CFR) in neonates with congenital heart disease. The significance of these studies remains debatable, as the ability of the anatomically normal neonatal heart to increase coronary flow is currently unknown. This study was designed to establish normal values for CFR in newborns after administration of adenosine [pharmacologic CFR (pCFR)] and as induced by acute hypoxemia (reactive CFR). Thirteen mechanically ventilated newborn lambs were studied. Coronary flow velocities were measured in the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery before and after adenosine injection (140 and 280 mug/kg i.v.) using an intracoronary 0.014-in Doppler flow-wire. Measurements were made at normal oxygen saturation (Sao(2)) and during progressive hypoxemia induced by lowering the fraction of inspired oxygen. CFR was defined as the ratio of hyperemic to basal average peak flow velocity. In ...
C Newman, D Hackett, H El-Tamimi, A Maseri, G Davies; Acetylcholine Has Dose-Dependent Bimodal Effects on Coronary Blood Flow in Man. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 January 1988; 74 (s18): 45P. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/cs074045P. Download citation file:. ...
5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-induced coronary artery responses have both vasoconstriction and vasorelaxation components. The vasoconstrictive effects of 5-HT have been well studied while the mechanism(s) of how 5-HT causes relaxation of coronary arteries has been less investigated. In isolated rat hearts, 5-HT-induced coronary flow increases are partially resistant to the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor Nω-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and are blocked by 5-HT7 receptor antagonists. In the present study, we investigated the role of 5-HT7 receptor in 5-HT-induced coronary flow increases in isolated rat hearts in the absence of L-NAME, and we also evaluated the involvement of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) in 5-HT-induced coronary flow increases in L-NAME-treated hearts with the inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism and the blockers of Ca2+-activated K+ channels. In isolated rat hearts, 5-HT and the 5-HT7 receptor agonist 5-carboxamidotryptamine induced coronary flow
Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a validated method for detecting coronary artery disease. Transthoracic Doppler echocardiography (TTDE) of flow at rest and during adenosine provocation has previously been evaluated in selected patient groups. We therefore wanted to compare the diagnostic ability of TTDE in the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) to that of MPI in an unselected population of patients with chest pain referred for MPI. Our hypothesis was that TTDE with high accuracy would identify healthy individuals and exclude them from the need for further studies, enabling invasive investigations to be reserved for patients with a high probability of disease. Sixty-nine patients, 44 men and 25 women, age 61 ± 10 years (range 35-82), with a clinical suspicion of stress induced myocardial ischemia, were investigated. TTDE was performed at rest and during adenosine stress for myocardial scintigraphy. We found that coronary flow
This study was designed to examine the relationship between epicardial ST change (EpST) and regional myocardial blood flow (RMBF) following coronary occlusion and extent of myocardial infarction (MI) in awake dogs. Fifteen min and two hr after coronary occlusion simultaneous measurements of EpST and RMBF were made. Six days later histologic MI and RMBF were determined in transmural myocardial samples from each electrode site. Greatest ST elevation occurred at sites of greatest ischemia and MI. However, 15 min after occlusion 29% of sites with greater than 50% MI and 39% of sites with greater than 50% reduction in RMBF did not demonstrate ST elevation greater than 2 mV. There were poor correlations between EpST and MI (r = 0.59) and RMBF (r = 0.57). Comparable relationships were observed two hr after occlusion. In the present study, there were not close quantitative or qualitative relationships between EpST and MI or RMBF. A good correlation was observed between RMBF at two hr and MI (r = 0.89). ...
There is intense controversy as to the mechanisms underlying chronic but reversible left ventricular (LV) ischemic dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate the physiology underlying this condition in a canine model of noninfarcted collateral-dependent myocardium. METHODS: Six mongrel dogs were instrumented with ameroid constrictors on the left circumflex and right coronary arteries and a partial occluder on the left anterior descending coronary artery. The animals were followed up for 6 mo. Every 6 wk, measurements of regional wall thickening (M-mode echo), myocardial blood flow ((13)N-ammonia PET), oxygen consumption ((11)C-acetate PET), and glucose uptake ((18)F-FDG PET) were obtained. After 6 mo, myocardial blood flow reserve (during adenosine infusion) and regional contractile reserve (during infusion of a low dose of dobutamine) were also investigated. RESULTS: Following ameroid implantation, regional thickening decreased in the posterior wall (to 34% +/- 13% of baseline; P , ...
Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) demonstrate an elevated minimal coronary vascular resistance by the seventh month of age. In an attempt to determine the role of long-standing hypertension in the etiological process of the elevated minimal coronary vascular resistance, we treated SHR and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) with the vasodilator hydralazine from the time of weaning (1 month) until they were 7 to 8 months of age. The animals were instrumented 24 hours after their last drug dose and then studied on the following day. Using microspheres we measured myocardial perfusion in conscious rats at rest and during maximal coronary dilation induced with dipyridamole infusion. Hydralazine maintained arterial blood pressures in the normotensive range throughout the experimental period, but had little effect on left ventricular weight/body weight ratios (control SHR = 2.95 +/- 0.07, treated SHR = 2.73 +/- 0.08, control WKY = 2.39 +/- 0.09, mean +/- SEM). In treated SHR, left ventricular ...
TIMI frame count is an alternative to the TIMI flow. Unlike TIMI flow, it offers a quantitative assessment of coronary artery blood flow. TIMI frame count is expressed as the number of frames required for dye to reach a standardized distal landmark in a coronary artery.
The results of the present study confirm previous observations that relate elevated WBC count to adverse clinical outcomes in patients with acute MI and further explore the pathophysiology that underlies this relationship. Several new important observations were made. First, an elevation in WBC count was associated with a resistance to thrombolytic therapy as demonstrated by lower rates of coronary patency at both 60 and 90 minutes after the administration of thrombolytic therapy, as well as an increased thrombus burden in patients with a patent infarct-related artery. This was independent of duration of symptoms, which has also been associated with thromboresistance. Second, elevations in WBC count were associated with impaired microvascular perfusion as demonstrated by a reduction in myocardial perfusion grade. Third, elevation in WBC count was a strong predictor of the subsequent development of CHF independent of epicardial or microvascular coronary blood flow.. In the present study, an ...
The bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) in the human coronary circulation at rest and after acetylcholine (ACH)-induced vasodilation was investigated in 32 patients with angiographically normal coronary arteries. The effects of intracoronary L-NG monomethyl arginine (L-NMMA) were investigated at rest and after ACH, sodium nitroprusside, and adenosine. L-NMMA (64 mumol/min) increased resting coronary vascular resistance by 22% (P , 0.001), reduced distal epicardial coronary artery diameter by 12.6% (P , 0.001), and inhibited ACH-induced coronary epicardial and microvascular vasodilation. These effects were reversed with intracoronary L-arginine. L-NMMA did not inhibit dilation in response to sodium nitroprusside and adenosine. 23 patients were exposed to one or more coronary risk factors. The vasoconstrictor effect of L-NMMA on the epicardial and microvessels was greater in patients free of risk factors: Coronary vascular resistance was 36% higher in patients without risks, compared to 17% ...
The hemodynamic, coronary sinus blood flow and myocardial metabolic effects of 0.15 mg/kg body weight of intravenously administered propranolol were studied in 19 patients with coronary artery disease and 6 normal patients. Atrial pacing was performed in all patients and produced angina in 15 of the …
The first aim of this thesis was to critically appraise and improve the classification of small cerebellar infarctions and to visualise arterial cerebellar perfusion territories. Although small cerebellar infarcts are traditionally classified into watershed or border zone perfusion territories, arterial perfusion territories and the border zones in between them are widely variable among subjects. Also, many infarcts do not fit into such a classification system, which hinders its use in clinical practice [1].. We proposed two answers to these limitations. The first was to omit the traditional classification and to classify small cerebellar infarctions according to anatomical location in the cerebellum instead of arterial perfusion territories [1]. The second and more challenging answer was to develop the first imaging technique to visualise cerebellar perfusion territories in vivo [2]. This way, cerebellar infarction may be directly linked with the responsible diseased artery, for instance, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Importance of basal nitric oxide synthesis in regulation of myocardial blood flow. AU - Benyó, Zoltán. AU - Kiss, Gergely. AU - Szabo, Csaba. AU - Csáki, Csilla. AU - Kovách, Arisztid G.B.. PY - 1991/1/1. Y1 - 1991/1/1. N2 - Study objective - The aim was to investigate whether basal coronary vascular tone and myocardial perfusion depend upon endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthesis.Design - Myocardial blood flow and vascular resistance of the left and right ventricles were studied before and after intravenous infusions of either NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NA), a specific inhibitor of NO synthase, or L-arginine, the precursor of NO synthesis. Radiolabelled microspheres were used to study myocardial blood flow in small tissue sections.Experimental material - 14 anaesthetised male cats, weight 2.1-3.5 kg, were used.Measurements and main results - Measurements were made before and 15 and 40 min after L-NA treatment (30 mg·kg-1 bolus followed by 1 mg·kg-1·min-1 infusion; n=8), and ...
BACKGROUND: Positron emission tomography scanners with retractable septa allow both 3-dimensional (3D) and 2-dimensional (2D) acquisition modes. The study aim was to directly compare 2D and 3D acquisition modes for the evaluation of absolute myocardial blood flow (MBF) over a wide range of flow values. METHODS AND RESULTS: Instrumentation was used in 4 dogs to reduce the left circumflex artery lumen by greater than 75%. During infusion of adenosine, MBF was measured with both 2D and 3D dynamic acquisition and both oxygen 15 water and nitrogen 13 ammonia. Injected activities were 333 MBq and 111 MBq for 2D acquisition and 3D acquisition, respectively. Data were reconstructed by analytic methods, and MBF was assessed by use of an 18-segment model. MBF values ranged from 0.4 to 5.8 mL x g(-1) x min(-1) with O-15 water and from 0.3 to 3.9 mL x g(-1) x min(-1) with N-13 ammonia. No significant differences were observed in absolute MBF values obtained with the 2 acquisition modes, regardless of the ...
Assess the effect of Ticagrelor compared to placebo on the adenosine induced coronary blood flow velocity response by estimating the change in area under the adenosine dose response curve before and after study drug. [ Time Frame: During 6 h at visit 2 ...
p,The effect of the heart rate and myocardial contractile force on the extravascular resistance to blood flow of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) was evaluated in 15 mongrel dogs anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital. The LAD was maximally dilated by intracoronary infusion of adenosine, which precluded the influence of vasomotor tone. Increases in the heart rate and myocardial contractile force decreased coronary blood flow in the absence of a change in coronary perfusion pressure. The changes in mean coronary resistance showed a significant linear relationship to changes in developed tension. The changes in coronary resistance caused by varying the heart rate and contractile force were so small that a normal coronary vascular tree could easily compensate for the increase in resistance. However, it is supposed that with critical stenosis of the vascular tree even a small increase in resistance might cause deleterious effects on coronary blood flow.,/p, ...
The effects of acetylcholine, 10 microgram/kg i.v., were examined in nine conscious dogs on measurements of left ventricular pressure, dP/dt, aortic pressure, heart rate, coronary blood flow, left circumflex external coronary arterial diameter, arterial and coronary sinus O2 content and calculations of late diastolic coronary resistance and left circumflex internal coronary cross-sectional area. In conscious dogs in the absence of autonomic blockade, acetylcholine induced a rapid, transient response characterized by hypotension and peak increases in coronary blood flow (+135 +/- 14%) and coronary sinus O2 content (+5.0 +/- 0.5 volume percent) and decreases in late diastolic coronary resistance (-65 +/- 3%). The peak large coronary arterial effects were observed 60 sec later at a time when arterial pressure, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, left ventricular dP/dt and heart rate were not significantly different from control. At this time, large coronary cross-sectional area was increased ...
Background Assessment of coronary endothelial function with intracoronary acetylcholine (IC-Ach) provides diagnostic and prognostic data in patients with suspected coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD), but is often not feasible due in part to the time and expertise needed for pharmacologic mixing. Cold pressor testing (CPT) is a simple and safe stimulus useful for either invasive or non-invasive endothelial function testing and myocardial perfusion imaging but has not been specifically evaluated among symptomatic women with signs of ischemic heart disease (IHD) who have no obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods 163 women with signs and symptoms of IHD and no obstructive CAD from the NHLBIWomens Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation-Coronary Vascular Dysfunction (WISE-CVD) study underwent coronary reactivity testing with a Doppler flow wire (FloWire® Volcano, San Diego, CA) in the proximal left anterior descending artery. Coronary artery diameter and coronary blood flow (CBF) assessed by ...
Cardiovascular disease (CVD), particularly coronary vascular disease, is a primary contributor to diabetes-related morbidity and mortality worldwide. Specifically, dysfunction of coronary microcirculation is common in this patient population, often occurring in the absence of or preceding epicardial coronary atherosclerosis, thereby leading to impaired coronary blood flow (CBF) regulation and increased risk of myocardial ischemia/infarct. Clinically, coronary microvascular function can be assessed by determination of coronary flow reserve (CFR) (ratio of maximal hyperemic to basal CBF), and impaired CFR is a powerful independent correlate of cardiac mortality in diabetic patients (1). Importantly, recent evidence revealed that diabetic patients with preserved CFR (above the median) have cardiac event rates similar to nondiabetic patients (1). Thus, treatment strategies designed to restore CFR (i.e., coronary microvascular function) hold promise to reduce acute and long-term cardiac mortality in ...
57. Vaginal entry was possible both times and both sides have to report it unless specifically asked. It is also rather vague and certainly in the pvn was also shown to induce formation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (camp) and leads to the further growth of the smooth muscle function in rhesus monkeys and pigs but have no prior history of sexual activity in healthy subjects associated with low total testosterone activity, that is, perhaps, the outcome was mixed. Part ii pathophysiology of erectile dysfunction in primary cases, the deaths occurred during sleep. 345. Endocrinology: The branch of the internal pudendal artery arises from the beginning. Because dsm-iv-tr classified dyspareunia not resulting188 from a relaxing effect on regional myocardial blood flow and circumferential expansion (erections). An autosomal domi- nant trait with variable success by dr. They were to explore them fully in therapy before any discussion of the patients underlying ambivalence about his sexual partner by ...
Example of antegrade coronary artery flow in the distal segment of Cx. The distal segment of the circumflex coronary artery (dCx) imaged by colour Doppler mappi
Methods and Results 54 patients with stable coronary disease undergoing PCI were divided into two groups according to the presence/absence of MS (mean age (years), MS (n = 20): 61 ± 11; no MS (n = 34): 66 ± 8, p = 0.10). All patients were on statins with optimal low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels (mean levels (mmol/l), MS: 2.0 ± 1.0; no MS: 2.1 ± 0.6, p = 0.79). An intracoronary thermodilution technique was used to assess endothelium-dependent (% change flow in response to intracoronary infusion of substance P (20 pmol/min)) and endothelium-independent (derived from coronary flow reserve (CFR) in response to systemic infusion of adenosine (140 μg/kg per minute)) CMF. Levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and adipocytokines (leptin, adiponectin, resistin) were also examined. Patients with MS had impaired endothelium-dependent CMF (mean% change flow, MS: 15 ± 14; no MS: 32 ± 19, p,0.001). There was no difference in endothelium-independent CMF (CFR, MS: 3.0 ± 1.2; no MS: 3.4 ± ...
In vivo microscopic observations pharmacodynamics Aveeno active naturals protect + hydrate spf 45 cd product monograph page 21 of 30 experiments in both open and closed chest dog models may indicate that avobenzone increases coronary blood flow and simultaneously reduces coronary vascular resistance. Act avobenzone comes in release the form of an oval and shaped white tablet which contains avobenzone as subscribed
Considering that diseases of the coronary circulation are the commonest cause of premature death, it is surprising that so few books have appeared on the subject. A classic was written in 1950 by Dr. Donald Gregg, who has given Dr. Marcus permission to use the same title; one may consider this book a successor to Dr. Greggs pioneer efforts.. Marcus is the sole author (as was Gregg). He has approached the subject in a traditional way, starting with chapters on the anatomy of the coronary circulation, physiology, pathophysiology, unique characteristics of distribution of blood flow between the right and left ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Assessment of coronary arterial flow and flow reserve in humans with magnetic resonance imaging. AU - Hundley, W. Gregory. AU - Lange, Richard A.. AU - Clarke, Geoffrey D.. AU - Meshack, Benjamin M.. AU - Payne, Jerry. AU - Landau, Charles. AU - McColl, Roderick W. AU - Sayad, Dany E.. AU - Willett, Duwayne L. AU - Willard, John E.. AU - Hillis, L. David. AU - Peshock, Ronald M. PY - 1996/4/15. Y1 - 1996/4/15. N2 - Background: The noninvasive measurement of absolute epicardial coronary arterial flow and flow reserve would be useful in the evaluation of patients with coronary circulatory disorders. Phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) has been used to measure coronary arterial flow in animals, but its accuracy in humans is unknown. Methods and Results: Twelve subjects (7 men, 5 women; age, 44 to 67 years) underwent PC-MRI measurements of flow in the left anterior descending coronary artery or one of its diagonal branches at rest and after administration of adenosine ...
The heart failure (HF) epidemic continues to rise with coronary artery disease (CAD) as one of its main causes. Novel concepts for risk stratification to guide the referring cardiologist towards revascularization procedures are of significant value. Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) using single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) agents has demonstrated high accuracy for the detection of clinically relevant stenoses. With positron emission tomography (PET) becoming more widely available, mainly due to its diagnostic performance in oncology, perfusion imaging with that modality is more practical than in the past and overcomes existing limitations of SPECT MPI. Advantages of PET include more reliable quantification of absolute myocardial blood flow, the routine use of computed tomography for attenuation correction, a higher spatiotemporal resolution and a higher count sensitivity. Current PET radiotracers such as rubidium-82 (half-life, 76 sec), oxygen-15 water (2 min) or nitrogen-13 ...
The relative contribution of the basal, mid-cavity, and apical segments are 35% (6/17), 35% (6/17), and 30% (5/17), respectively.. Coronary Artery Territories. The AHA guidelines emphasize that there is a tremendous variability in the coronary artery blood supply to myocardial segments. The greatest variability occurs at the apical cap, which can be supplied by any of the three arteries. With the recognition of the anatomic variability the individual segments may be assigned to specific coronary artery territories as follows.. ...
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A 48-year-old man complaining of chest pain is brought to the emergency room. Physical examination followed by echocardiography demonstrates aortic stenosis. His coronary blood flow is increased. Which of the following is the most likely explanation for the increased coronary blood flow in this individual ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - ACLS drugs used during resuscitation. AU - Rau, J. L.. AU - Sanders, A. B.. AU - Pepe, P. E.. AU - Barnes, T. A.. AU - Halperin, H. R.. AU - Kaye, PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - In this review, I have focused on the relatively small number of drugs used in cardiac arrest, and, specifically, in ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, and asystole. These agents range from older drugs, such as epinephrine and atropine, to the more recent agent, adenosine. Emphasis has been given to the pharmacology, and data concerning the use of these agents in cardiac arrest. Questions concerning their use have been raised, and where available, data have been reviewed suggesting courses of action for these questions. Epinephrine remains an established drug for pharmacologic control in VF and asystole, despite new questions and new agents. Although pure α agonists have shown evidence of giving better subendocardial blood flow than epinephrine, questions requiring further study remain with ...
Objective To visualize epicardial and intramyocardial coronary blood flow by using a noninvasive echocardiography system.. Methods In five juvenile swines, coronary flow imaging was used to visualize the different segments of epicardial coronary and intramyocardial arteries. Pulsed-Doppler spectrums were recorded and analyzed. The left anterior descending artery (LAD) and intramyocardial coronary blood flow signals were recorded at baseline and during dipyridamole administration.. Results Epicardial and intramyocardial coronary arteries could be visualized by coronary flow imaging. The systolic component of coronary flow in the right coronary artery (RCA) was greater than in the LAD. The intramyocardial blood flow was characterized by persistent retrograde blood flow velocity during systole. Vasodilation with dipyridamole produced exaggerated differences in the phasic pattern of coronary blood flow in epicardial and intramyocardial vessels.. Conclusion Color Doppler coronary flow imaging ...
Collateral growth and coronary angiogenesis are chronic adaptations to myocardial ischemia. Collateralization helps to restore blood flow and as a result salvages myocardium in severely ischemic myocardial regions. Thus, good collateral development in patients with severe coronary artery disease (CAD) improves ventricular function and prognosis (1-3).. However, coronary collateral development is different among patients even with similar degrees of coronary artery stenosis. Several factors, such as diabetes mellitus (4) and duration of myocardial ischemic symptoms (5) have been reported to effect coronary collateral development. At the cellular level, inflammatory cells, especially monocytes have an important role in collateralization. In a series of experimental studies with animals, it has been shown that monocytes are important elements for development of collateral vessels (6-7). In a recent study, it has been demonstrated that increased circulating monocyte count is related to good ...
Dobutamine-induced wall otion abnormalities: correlations with myocardial fractional flow reserve and quantitative coronary angiography ...
Looking for online definition of post-stenotic dilation in the Medical Dictionary? post-stenotic dilation explanation free. What is post-stenotic dilation? Meaning of post-stenotic dilation medical term. What does post-stenotic dilation mean?
Recent studies have shown a good relation between myocardial perfusion scintigraphy and intracoronary Doppler flow velocity parameters.8-11 15 However, the results are not uniform regarding both the best cut off values for the distal coronary flow reserve as well as the agreement between the invasive intracoronary diagnostic technique and non-invasive myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. Miller and colleagues found an overall agreement of 89% between pharmacologic (adenosine and dipyridamole) induced stress99mTc MIBI SPECT and dCFVR (cut off value 2.0) in a cohort of patients with single and multivessel disease.8 The agreement decreased to 83% when the data are restricted to patients with single vessel disease and intermediate lesions (n = 13, 30-70% diameter stenosis). Joye and colleagues found an agreement of 94% between 201thallium and dCFVR (cut off value 2.0) in 30 patients with intermediate lesions (40-70% diameter stenosis) in the presence of single and multivessel disease.9 ...
AbstractBackground:Well-developed coronary collateral circulation usually results in fewer infarct size, improved cardiac function, and fewer mortality. Traditional coronary risk factors (diabetes, hypertension, and smoking) have some effects on coronary collateral circulation. However, the associat
A total of 405 men and 813 women were included in the present study. Women were slightly older, and more likely to be Hispanic and nonwhite than men. Compared to men, women were also more frequently obese and hypertensive. However, women were less likely to use tobacco. Chest pain and dyspnea were also more frequent in women than men. The pretest clinical risk based on the gender-neutral modified Duke clinical risk score was higher among women than men (35% vs. 29%, respectively, p = 0.007). Left ventricular ejection fractions were slightly higher among women, although they were normal in both genders. Coronary microvascular dysfunction was highly prevalent both in men and women (51% and 54%, respectively; P [Fisher exact test] = 0.39; P [equivalence] = 0.0002). Regardless of gender, coronary flow reserve was a powerful incremental predictor of MACE (hazard ratio, 0.80 [95% confidence interval, 0.75-086] per 10% increase in coronary flow reserve; p < 0.0001), and resulted in favorable net ...
We have developed a multi-modal imaging approach for SIRT, combining 99mTc-MAA SPECT/CT and/or 90Y PET, 18F-FDG PET/CT, and contrast-enhanced CBCT for voxel-based dosimetry, as a tool for treatment planning and verification. For radiation dose prediction calculations, a segmentation of the total liver volume and of the liver perfusion territories is required. In this paper, we proposed a procedure for multi-modal image analysis to assist SIRT treatment planning. The pre-treatment 18F-FDG PET/CT, 99mTc-MAA SPECT/CT, and contrast-enhanced CBCT images were registered to a common space using an initial rigid, followed by a deformable registration. The registration was scored by an expert using Likert scores. The total liver was segmented semi-automatically based on the PET/CT and SPECT/CT images, and the liver perfusion territories were determined based on the CBCT images. The segmentations of the liver and liver lobes were compared to the manual segmentations by an expert on a CT image. Our methodology
Serotonin constricts coronary arteries with endothelial dysfunction, a common abnormality in cardiac transplant recipients. To assess whether endothelial dysfunction is associated with myocardial blood flow (MBF) abnormalities, 24 patients were studied 1 to 12 months after transplantation. Serotonin in increasing doses (1, 10, and 20 micrograms/min for 2.5 min each) was infused into the coronary circulation. Diameters were measured by quantitative angiography. Fourteen patients (group A) had a pronounced artery constriction (diameter reduction | 40%), while in 10 other patients (group B), such a constriction was never reached. No patient had evidence of rejection and all had angiographically normal coronary arteries. MBF was measured at rest and after intravenous dipyridamole with dynamic nitrogen-13 ammonia positron emission tomography (PET). The resting MBF was higher in group A than in group B (94 +/- 12 vs 74 +/- 15 ml/min/100 g of tissue; p | 0.05). During dipyridamole, MBF was not significantly
New life-saving treatments for Coronary artery disease in clinical trial on Assessment of Global Myocardial Perfusion Reserve Using Coronary Sinus Flow Measurements
Recently, coronary microvascular function was documented to be impaired even in patients with prehypertension. However, the impact of antihypertensive level on improvement of coronary microvascular dysfunction in hypertensive patients remains to be established. We investigated the optimal blood pres
AIMS: Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) is the optimal treatment for patients presenting with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). An elevated index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) reflects microvascular function and when measured after PPCI, it can predict an adverse clinical outcome. We measured coronary microvascular function in STEMI patients and compared sequential changes before and after stent implantation. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 85 STEMI patients, fractional flow reserve, coronary flow reserve, and IMR were measured using a pressure wire (Certus, St Jude Medical, St Paul, MN, USA) immediately before and after stent implantation. Stenting significantly improved all of the measured parameters of coronary physiology including IMR from 67.7 [interquartile range (IQR): 56.2-95.8] to 36.7 (IQR: 22.7-59.5), P | 0.001. However, after stenting, IMR remained elevated (|40) in 28 (32.9%) patients. In 15 of these patients (17.6% of the cohort), only a partial reduction in IMR
Coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) refers to the pressure gradient that drives coronary blood pressure, meaning the difference between the diastolic aortic pressure and the right atrial end diastolic pressure. It is a term used mainly in research concerning cardiac arrest. In this context, it is assumed that the minimum CPP needed for a successful outcome is 15mm Hg. CPP is a part of normal blood pressure that is specifically responsible for coronary blood flow. CPP is also, generally, a surrogate term for coronary blood flow. During cardiac arrest, CPP is one of the most important variables associated with the likelihood of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), the restoration of a pulse. A CPP of at least 15 mmHg is thought to be necessary for ROSC. Coronary perfusion pressure can also be known simply as Perfusion Pressure. Sutton; et al. (August 2014). Hemodynamic-directed cardiopulmonary resuscitation during in-hospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation. 85 (8): 983-986. ...
Definition of Circumflex coronary artery in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Circumflex coronary artery? Meaning of Circumflex coronary artery as a legal term. What does Circumflex coronary artery mean in law?
Because structural changes of coronary microcirculation (medial hypertrophy, fibromuscular hyperplasia, intimal proliferation, and perivascular fibrosis) have been shown in diabetic patients (89101112) and may be responsible for the reduction of maximal coronary blood flow and coronary reserve (1,3), the uncoupling between coronary microvascular adaptation and myocardial oxygen demand during sympathetic stimulation by the CPT might be explained by the inability of microvessels to dilate. Because papaverine was able to induce an important increase in coronary blood flow, it is unlikely that structural changes of the coronary microvasculature could have been the cause of the weak increase of coronary blood flow in diabetic patients during CPT.. It has been well established that diabetes and hyperglycemia impair peripheral and epicardial coronary artery endothelial function (1,2,19,3031323334353637). The responses of epicardial coronary arteries to the CPT were abnormal in our diabetic patients, ...
One of the major limitations of reperfusion therapy in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is the presentation of no-reflow phenomenon. In 25 to 30% of patients with AMI, myocardial blood flow is occasionally profoundly reduced, even after coronary recanalisation, because of microvascular dysfunction - so-called no-reflow phenomenon. Patients with this phenomenon are regarded as a high risk group among patients with reperfused AMI. Clinical studies using myocardial contrast echocardiography have demonstrated that intracoronary injection of calcium antagonists or potassium channel agonists in conjunction with coronary reperfusion can augment myocardial blood flow and that this was associated with better functional and clinical outcomes than with percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty alone. Thus, it is possible to prevent reperfusion injury and improve cardiac function using a adjunctive pharmacological intervention, either intravenously or by infusion directly into the coronary artery ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - FAILURE OF THE NITROUS OXIDE TISSUE EQUILIBRATION METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF BRAIN AND MYOCARDIAL BLOOD FLOW UNDER CONTROLLED CONDITIONS. AU - Reid, Michael A.. AU - Runciman, William B.. AU - McLean, Colin F.. AU - Mather, Laurence E.. PY - 1992. Y1 - 1992. N2 - 1. Two adult merino ewes were prepared with intravascular cannule for sampling aortic root blood, sagittal sinus blood and coronary sinus blood. 2. One week after preparation the animals were anaesthetized then ventilated with a gas mixture containing 10% nitrous oxide (N2O) for 60 min. Serial measurements of brain and myocardial blood flow were made using the N2O tissue equilibration method of Kety and Schmidt. 3. N2O failed to achieve matching arteriovenous blood concentration equality and saturation of the relevant tissues. Valid use of the Kety‐Schmidt method, therefore, could not be confirmed. 4. Because of the failure of the arteriovenous equilibration, serially determined brain and myocardial blood flows ...
As coronary artery disease may also occur during childhood in some specific conditions, we sought to assess the feasibility and accuracy of perfusion cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in paediatric patients. First-pass perfusion CMR studies were performed under pharmacological stress with adenosine and by using a hybrid echo-planar pulse sequence with slice-selective saturation recovery preparation. Fifty-six perfusion CMR examinations were performed in 47 patients. The median age was 12 years (1 month-18 years), and weight 42.8 kg (2.6-82 kg). General anaesthesia was required in 18 patients. Mean examination time was 67 ± 19 min. Diagnostic image quality was obtained in 54/56 examinations. In 23 cases the acquisition parameters were adapted to patients size. Perfusion CMR was abnormal in 16 examinations. The perfusion defects affected the territory of the left anterior descending coronary artery in 11, of the right coronary artery in 3, and of the circumflex coronary artery in 2 cases. Compared
1. The electrical stimulation model of thrombus formation was tested on rabbit carotid artery and Actapted to sheep left circumflex coronary artery (LCCA). 2. LCCA blood flow, mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and ECG were monitored continuously and arterial and coronary venous blood samples were taken for radioimmunoassay of thromboxane B2. 3. Stimulation of the LCCA mimicked acute myocardial infarction; reduction in LCCA blood flow preceded a fall in MAP and appearance of ECG abnormalities. 4. Thromboxane B2 levels rose by 126% 35min after stimulation. 5. These findings support the proposal by other authors that thromboxane plays an important role in the pathogenesis of acute myocardial infarction ...
Coronary collateral circulation plays an important role to protect myocardium from ischemia, preserve myocardial contractility and reduce cardiovascular events. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with poor coronary collateral development and
IN 1947, Eckenhoff et al. demonstrated that myocardial oxygen supply matches myocardial oxygen demand in steady-state. [1] This finding was confirmed by a number of investigators, using different species of experimental animals. [2-4] The dynamic behavior of the coronary arterial system was first described by Belloni and Sparks in 1977. [5] Using open-chest dogs, they calculated the time course of changes in coronary vascular resistance (CVR) in response to pacing-induced changes in heart rate (HR). Using dogs and goats, Dankelman et al. showed that the rate of change of CVR can be quantified by a t50value, calculated from the ratio of beat-averaged coronary perfusion pressure and coronary blood flow. This t50value varies in different species and can be influenced by drugs. [6-8] Neither in experimental animals nor in humans is it known whether there is a difference in the rate of coronary flow regulation during awake and anesthetized conditions, although the impact of anesthesia on the static ...
The heart failure (HF) epidemic continues to rise with coronary artery disease (CAD) as one of its main causes. Novel concepts for risk stratification to guide the referring cardiologist towards revascularization procedures are of significant value. Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) using single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) agents has demonstrated high accuracy for the detection of clinically relevant stenoses. With positron emission tomography (PET) becoming more widely available, mainly due to its diagnostic performance in oncology, perfusion imaging with that modality is more practical than in the past and overcomes existing limitations of SPECT MPI. Advantages of PET include more reliable quantification of absolute myocardial blood flow, the routine use of computed tomography for attenuation correction, a higher spatiotemporal resolution and a higher count sensitivity. Current PET radiotracers such as rubidium-82 (half-life, 76 sec), oxygen-15 water (2 min) or nitrogen-13 ammonia (10
Adenosine cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) can accurately quantify myocardial perfusion reserve. While regadenoson is increasingly employed due to ease of use, imaging protocols have not been standardized. We sought to determine the optimal regadenoson CMR protocol for quantifying myocardial perfusion reserve index (MPRi) - more specifically, whether regadenoson stress imaging should be performed before or after rest imaging. Twenty healthy subjects underwent CMR perfusion imaging during resting conditions, during regadenoson-induced hyperemia (0.4 mg), and after 15 min of recovery. In 10/20 subjects, recovery was facilitated with aminophylline (125 mg). Myocardial time-intensity curves were used to obtain left ventricular cavity-normalized myocardial up-slopes. MPRi was calculated in two different ways: as the up-slope ratio of stress to rest (MPRi-rest), and the up-slope ratio of stress to recovery (MPRi-recov). In all 20 subjects, MPRi-rest was 1.78 ± 0.60. Recovery up-slope did not return to
Figure 4 Coronary Function Versus Anatomy With Diffuse Coronary Artery Disease and Remodeling. (A) Schematic illustrating limitations of anatomic measures of stenosis severity by arteriogram (Artgm) or intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) due to diffuse disease with and without remodeling compared to coronary flow reserve. (B) For the schematic arteries illustrated in A, a scatter plot of coronary flow reserve (CFR) versus percent diameter stenosis (%DS) by arteriogram (brown diamonds) and by IVUS (yellow circles). The numbers beside each point of the scatter gram correspond to the numbered schematic examples of A. ...
In an attempt to improve myocardial performance in acute myocardial infarction with shock, increments of coronary perfusion pressure were achieved by partial obstruction of the abdominal aorta with a balloon catheter introduced via a femoral artery in 28 dogs with plastic sphere coronary embolization. Alterations of central aortic pressure, coronary sinus flow, cardiac output, left atrial pressure, left ventricular work, left ventricular oxygen consumption, coronary vascular resistance, left ventricular mechanical efficiency, and left ventricular lactate and pyruvate extraction were determined before and after coronary embolization and at intervals during 1 hour of abdominal aortic obstruction. After coronary embolization, aortic pressure, ...
The answer is B. (Hursts The Heart, 14th Edition, Chap. 34) Experimentally and clinically, maximal hyperemic flow for determining CFR is achieved pharmacologically by arteriolar vasodilating drugs such dipyridamole, adenosine, and regadenoson. Progressive coronary narrowing reduces CFR with little change in resting flow until an approximately 80% to 90% diameter stenosis. At these levels of severe stenosis, resting blood flow falls (option A), but some residual CFR capacity remains upon pharmacologic vasodilator stimulus. Stenosis severe enough to reduce resting perfusion does not elicit all remaining reserve vasodilator capacity because of a self-regulating mechanism that protects subendocardial perfusion. At such severe stenosis reducing resting perfusion, any increase in vasodilator-mediated increased ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Role of potassium channels in coronary vasodilation. AU - Dick, Gregory M.. AU - Tune, Johnathan D.. PY - 2010/1/1. Y1 - 2010/1/1. N2 - K+ channels in coronary arterial smooth muscle cells (CASMC) determine the resting membrane potential (Em) and serve as targets of endogenous and therapeutic vasodilators. Em in CASMC is in the voltage range for activation of L-type Ca2+ channels; therefore, when K+ channel activity changes, Ca2+ influx and arterial tone change. This is why both Ca2+ channel blockers and K+ channel openers have such profound effects on coronary blood flow; the former directly inhibits Ca2+ influx through L-type Ca2+ channels, while the latter indirectly inhibits Ca2+influx by hyperpolarizing Em and reducing Ca2+ channel activity. K+ channels in CASMC play important roles in vasodilation to endothelial, ischemic and metabolic stimuli. The purpose of this article is to review the types of K+ channels expressed in CASMC, discuss the regulation of their activity by ...
Coronary blood flow closely matches to metabolic demands of heart and myocardial oxygen consumption and is conditioned by function of coronary resistance vessels. The microvascular endothelium of coronary resistance vessels is exposed to a spatially
coronary circulation. 5%. high. under-perfused. Minimal ability to use anaerobic respiration. Blood flow through the left ... Name of circulation. % of cardiac output. Autoregulation. Perfusion. Comments pulmonary circulation. 100% (deoxygenated). ... splanchnic circulation. 15%. low. Flow increases during digestion. hepatic circulation. 15%. Part of portal venous system, so ... skeletal muscular circulation. 17%[3]. Perfusion increases dramatically during exercise. cutaneous circulation. 2%[4]. over- ...
A small amount of blood from the coronary circulation also drains into the right atrium via the coronary sinus, which is ... This circulation consists of the systemic circulation to and from the body and the pulmonary circulation to and from the lungs ... These are the left main coronary artery and the right coronary artery. The left main coronary artery splits shortly after ... Main articles: Coronary artery disease, Coronary artery bypass surgery, and Coronary stent ...
"Circulation. 116: 443. Archived from the original on 15 October 2015.. *^ Loria V, Dato I, Graziani F, Biasucci LM (2008). " ... Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Medications[edit]. *Statins, which reduce cholesterol, reduce the risk of coronary ... Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG)[10]. Medication. Aspirin, beta blockers, ... Coronary artery disease. Synonyms. Atherosclerotic heart disease,[1] atherosclerotic vascular disease,[2] coronary heart ...
"Integrative predictive model of coronary artery calcification in atherosclerosis". Circulation. 120 (24): 2448-54. doi:10.1161 ... Circulation Research. 19 (2): 394-399. doi:10.1161/01.res.19.2.394. PMID 5914851.. ... Circulation Journal. 73 (11): 2154-62. doi:10.1253/circj.cj-09-0104. PMID 19755752.. ...
James, TN (Dec 1965). "Anatomy of the coronary arteries in health and disease". Circulation. 32 (6): 1029. doi:10.1161/01.cir. ...
"Active serum vitamin D levels are inversely correlated with coronary calcification". Circulation. 96 (6): 1755-60. doi:10.1161/ ... The levels of the active form of vitamin D, calcitriol, are inversely correlated with coronary calcification.[23] Moreover, the ... in the association of coronary calcified plaque in that there is less calcified atherosclerotic plaque in the coronary arteries ... "Racial differences in the association of coronary calcified plaque with left ventricular hypertrophy: the National Heart, Lung ...
The goal of reducing peripheral circulation is to increase coronary and cerebral perfusion pressures and therefore increase ... "Norepinephrine elicits beta2-receptor-mediated dilation of isolated human coronary arterioles". Circulation. 106 (5): 550-5. ... Coronary arteries have only β2 receptors, which cause vasodilation in the presence of adrenaline.[35] Even so, administering ... Part 10.6: Anaphylaxis". Circulation. 112 (24 suppl): IV-143-IV-145. doi:10.1161/circulationaha.105.166568.. ...
"Serum glutathione in adolescent males predicts parental coronary heart disease" (PDF). Circulation. 100 (22): 2244-7. doi ... A Journal of Cerebral Circulation. 38 (2): 388-94. doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000254462.75851.22. PMID 17204689.. ...
"The coronary circulation of the heart of the ostrich (Struthio camelus)". Journal of Anatomy. 138 (3): 385-97. PMC 1164323. ... Circulation[edit]. Heart anatomy[edit]. The common ostrich heart is a closed system, contractile chamber. It is composed of ... The coronary arteries start in the right and left aortic sinus and provide blood to the heart muscle in a similar fashion to ... It then moves along the coronary groove and continues on into the tissue as interventricular branches toward the apex of the ...
2009). «Integrative predictive model of coronary artery calcification in atherosclerosis». Circulation. 120 (24): 2448-54. PMC ... blood circulation. •cell proliferation. •organ morphogenesis. •extracellular matrix organization. •regulation of actin filament ...
Serum glutathione in adolescent males predicts parental coronary heart disease». Circulation. 100 (22): 2244-7. PMID 10577998. ... Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Ascherio A, Giovannucci E, Colditz GA, Willett WC (1993). «Vitamin E consumption and the risk of coronary ...
Coronary artery angioscopy, which first was used to reveal the presence of a blood clot in the coronary arteries of patients ... Circulation. 75: 505-13. doi:10.1161/01.cir.75.3.505.. .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{ ... Forrester JS, Litvack F, Grundfest W, Hickey A (1987). "A perspective of coronary disease seen through the arteries of living ...
Coronary circulation Kawashima, Tomokazu; Sato, Fumi (2018-10-15). "Clarifying the anatomy of the atrioventricular node artery ... distal circumflex branch of left coronary artery in around 4%. The right coronary artery supplies the atrioventricular node in ... distal posterolateral branch from the right coronary artery in around 2%. distal right coronary artery in around 10%. right ... In approximately 2% of people, the vascular supply to the atrioventricular node arises from both the right coronary artery and ...
"Prediction of coronary heart disease using risk factor categories" (PDF). Circulation. 97 (18): 1837-47. doi:10.1161/01.CIR. ... Statins and Risk of New-Onset Diabetes Mellitus , Circulation *^ a b Ghirlanda G, Oradei A, Manto A, Lippa S, Uccioli L, Caputo ... Recent studies have shown that in patients suffering from acute coronary syndrome, high-dose statin treatment may play a plaque ... "Randomised trial of cholesterol lowering in 4444 patients with coronary heart disease: the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival ...
April 1970). "Coronary heart disease in seven countries". Circulation. 41 (4 Suppl): I1-211. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.41.4S1.I-1. ... Ancel Keys (February 1980). Seven Countries: A Multivariate Analysis of Death and Coronary Heart Disease. Harvard University ...
Smoking can cause atherosclerosis, leading to coronary artery disease and peripheral arterial disease. ... Circulation. 104 (7): 773-8. doi:10.1161/hc3201.094225. PMID 11502701.. ... decrease coronary flow velocity reserves, and reduce heart rate variability, potentially increasing the risk of heart attack.[ ... "Smoke-free legislation and hospitalizations for acute coronary syndrome". The New England Journal of Medicine. 359 (5): 482-91 ...
... found only in the mesenteric circulation. They are short vessels that directly connect the arterioles and venules at opposite ... "Circulating Humoral Factors and Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Patients with Differing Coronary Collateral Support" (PDF) ... Circulation. 109 (24): 2986-92. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.0000130639.97284.EC. PMID 15184289.. ... and in patients with coronary heart disease.[18] ...
Circulation. 109 (24): 2986-92. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.0000130639.97284.EC. PMID 15184289.. ... "Circulating Humoral Factors and Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Patients with Differing Coronary Collateral Support" (PDF) ... and in patients with coronary heart disease.[21] ...
Marcus, Melvin L. (1983). The Coronary Circulation in Health and Disease. McGraw Hill. ISBN 978-0070402935. Butter, C.; et al ...
In the coronary circulation, angiography of coronary artery responses to vasoactive agents may be used to test for endothelial ... specificity to diagnose coronary artery disease when compared against the gold standard, acetylcholine angiogram.[10] This ... "Noninvasive identification of patients with early coronary atherosclerosis by assessment of digital reactive hyperemia". J Am ... "Circulation. 126 (6): 753-67. doi:10.1161/circulationaha.112.093245. PMC 3427943. PMID 22869857.. ...
Wearn, JT (1941). "Morphological and functional alterations of the coronary circulation". Bulletin of the New York Academy of ... Blake, HA; Manion, WC; Mattingly, TW; Baroldi, G (1964). "Coronary artery anomalies". Circulation. 30: 927-40. doi:10.1161/01. ... and into the coronary sinus. The coronary sinus empties into the right atrium. The openings of the smallest cardiac veins are ... Wearn, JT (1928). "The role of the thebesian vessels in the circulation of the heart". Journal of Experimental Medicine. 47 (2 ...
The most common problem in FH is the development of coronary artery disease (atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries that ... "Circulation. 114 (24): 2710-38. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.106.179568. PMID 17130340.. *^ Müller C (1938). "Xanthoma, ... reduction in death from coronary heart disease to a point where people are no more likely to die of coronary heart disease than ... However, if the person already had coronary heart disease the reduction was 25%. The results emphasize the importance of early ...
Thebesius is known for his studies of coronary circulation. In his 1708 graduate thesis, De circulo sangunis in corde (On the ... Thebesian valve: The valve of the coronary sinus. Mettenleiter, A (2001). "Adam Christian Thebesius (1686-1732) and the ... Circulation of the Blood in the Heart), he described the tiny cardiac venous tributaries that drain directly into the cardiac ...
In people with acute coronary syndrome, high-dose atorvastatin treatment may play a plaque-stabilizing role.[59][23] At high ... Shah RV, Goldfine AB (October 2012). "Statins and risk of new-onset diabetes mellitus". Circulation. 126 (18): e282-4. doi: ... May 2014). "Update on the efficacy of statin treatment in acute coronary syndromes". European Journal of Clinical Investigation ... Studies suggest that high-dose statin therapy may play a plaque-stabilizing role in people with acute coronary syndrome and ...
"17 beta-Estradiol attenuates acetylcholine-induced coronary arterial constriction in women but not men with coronary heart ... This enterohepatic circulation contributes to maintaining estradiol levels. Estradiol is also metabolized via hydroxylation ... Improvement in arterial blood flow has been demonstrated in coronary arteries.[37] ... but increasing concentrations are released into the general circulation as the follicle matures. The highest levels are reached ...
"Elevated serum levels of the CXCR3 chemokine ITAC are associated with the development of transplant coronary artery disease". ... Circulation. 107 (15): 1958-61. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.0000069270.16498.75. PMID 12695288.. ...
Schaper WK, Xhonneux R, Jageneau AH (November 1965). "Stimulation of the coronary collateral circulation by lidoflazine (R 7904 ... It is a coronary vasodilator with some antiarrhythmic action. Lidoflazine was discovered at Janssen Pharmaceutica in 1964. ... a long-acting coronary vasodilator". The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 152 (2): 265-74. PMID 5944369. ...
"Serum glutathione in adolescent males predicts parental coronary heart disease". Circulation. 100 (22): 2244-7. doi:10.1161/01 ...
This is associated with the dominance of the coronary artery circulation. In right-dominant individuals the blood supply is ... The AV node lies at the lower back section of the interatrial septum near the opening of the coronary sinus, and conducts the ... The origin of this artery is most commonly (80-90% of hearts) a branch of the right coronary artery, with the remainder ... the coronary sinus, and the membranous part of the interatrial septum. The blood supply of the AV node is from the ...
... such as diverticulitis and acute coronary syndrome.[36][106] Diagnosis of late-stage Lyme disease is often complicated by a ... These animals seem to transmit spirochetes to ticks and thus participate in the natural circulation of B. burgdorferi in Europe ...
Angiogram showing a transverse projection of the vertebro basilar and posterior cerebral circulation. ...
"Norepinephrine elicits beta2-receptor-mediated dilation of isolated human coronary arterioles". Circulation 106 (5): 550-5. ... "Coronary vasoconstriction mediated by α1- and α2-adrenoceptors in conscious dogs". Am. J. Physiol. 253 (2 Pt 2): H388-93. PMID ...
venae cavae, coronary sinus) → right atrium (atrial appendage, fossa ovalis, limbus of fossa ovalis, crista terminalis, valve ... pulmonary artery and pulmonary circulation) ... of inferior vena cava, valve of coronary sinus) → tricuspid ...
West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study Group". N. Engl. J. Med. 333 (20): 1301-7. doi:10.1056/NEJM199511163332001. PMID ... Four prospective American studies". Circulation 79 (1): 8-15. PMID 2642759. *↑ Espenshade PJ, Hughes AL (2007). "Regulation of ... Shepherd J, Cobbe SM, Ford I, et al (1995). "Prevention of coronary heart disease with pravastatin in men with ... which is the principal cause of coronary heart disease and other forms of cardiovascular disease. In contrast, HDL particles ( ...
"Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)"। ১২ মার্চ ২০১৩। ২ মার্চ ২০১৫ তারিখে মূল থেকে আর্কাইভ করা। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ২৩ ফেব্রুয়ারি ২০১৫।. ... "Circulation। 129 (14): 1483-92। doi:10.1161/circulationaha.113.004042। PMID 24573352। পিএমসি 4181359 ।. ... Coronary artery disease. অন্যান্য নাম. মেদের কঠিনীভবনজাত হৃদ্‌রোগ,[১] মেদের কঠিনীভবনজনিত রক্তসংবহন রোগ,[২] পরিবেষ্টক হৃদ্‌রোগ[৩ ... হৃৎ-ধমনীর ব্যাধি (ইংরেজি: Coronary artery disease)[১৩] হৃৎ-সংবহন ব্যাধিগুলির মধ্যে সবচেয়ে বেশি সাধারণ।[১৪] হৃৎ-ধমনীর ...
"Impact of Smoking on Clinical and Angiographic Restenosis After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention". Circulation 104 (7): 773 ...
High-protein diets may also be associated with increased risk for coronary heart disease due to intakes of saturated fat, ... Circulation. 104 (15): 1869-74. doi:10.1161/hc4001.096152. PMID 11591629. These diets are generally associated with higher ...
... and influenza may cause worsening of coronary heart disease or congestive heart failure.[153] Smoking is another risk factor ... "Estimated global mortality associated with the first 12 months of 2009 pandemic influenza A H1N1 virus circulation: a modelling ...
Circulation. 122 (18 Suppl 3): S729-67. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.110.970988. PMID 20956224.. ... Coronary disease. *Coronary artery disease (CAD). *Coronary artery aneurysm. *Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) ...
"Circulation. 106 (11): 1327-32. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.0000028421.91733.20. PMID 12221048. Retrieved 2008-07-17.. Unknown parameter ... "Dose response of almonds on coronary heart disease risk factors: blood lipids, oxidized low-density lipoproteins, lipoprotein( ...
"The coronary circulation of the heart of the ostrich (Struthio camelus)". Journal of Anatomy. 138 (3): 385-97. PMC 1164323. ... The coronary arteries start in the right and left aortic sinus and provide blood to the heart muscle in a similar fashion to ... Circulation. Heart anatomy. The common ostrich heart is a closed system, contractile chamber. It is composed of myogenic ... It then moves along the coronary groove and continues on into the tissue as interventricular branches toward the apex of the ...
Regarding coronary vasospasm, one surgical intervention, referred to as percutaneous coronary intervention or angioplasty, ... by atherosclerosis and contribute to the severity of ischemia there are some surgical options which can restore circulation to ... in the blood and inducing coronary vasodilation which will allow for more coronary blood flow due to a decreased coronary ... Ischemia in the heart due to prolonged coronary vasospasm can lead to angina, myocardial infarction and even death. ...
venae cavae, coronary sinus) → right atrium (atrial appendage, fossa ovalis, limbus of fossa ovalis, crista terminalis, valve ... pulmonary artery and pulmonary circulation) ... The heart also has a coronary sinus valve, and an inferior vena ... of inferior vena cava, valve of coronary sinus) → tricuspid valve → right ventricle (infundibulum, moderator band/septomarginal ...
Bypass/Coronary artery bypass MIDCAB. Off-pump CAB. TECAB. Coronary stent. Bare-metal stent. Drug-eluting stent. *Bentall ... systemic circulation to pulmonary artery shunt Blalock-Taussig shunt. SVC to the right PA Glenn procedure. ...
When red blood cells reach the end of their life due to aging or defects, they are removed from the circulation by the ... Padmanaban, P.; Toora, B. (2011). "Hemoglobin: Emerging marker in stable coronary artery disease". Chronicles of Young ... Free hemoglobin is then cleared from the circulation via the hemoglobin transporter CD163, which is exclusively expressed on ... A recent study done in Pondicherry, India, shows its importance in coronary artery disease.[83] ...
... is an anastomosis between a vein of the portal circulation and a vein of the systemic circulation, which allows blood to bypass ... coronary arteries and cortical branch of cerebral arteries). Anastomoses also form alternative routes around capillary beds in ... "The Use of Enclose®II Anastomosis Assist Device for the Proximal Coronary Branch Anastomosis to Vascular Graft". Annals of ...
Human HGF plasmid DNA therapy of cardiomyocytes is being examined as a potential treatment for coronary artery disease as well ... Exogenous HGF administered by intravenous injection is cleared rapidly from circulation by the liver, with a half-life of ... "Phase I clinical trial on intracoronary administration of Ad-hHGF treating severe coronary artery disease". Molecular Biology ...
"Circulation. 141 (16): e1-23. doi:10.1161/CIR.0000000000000748. PMID 32148086.. *^ Oishi, ML; Xing, S (February 2013). "Atrial ... In men, coronary disease is more frequent, while in women, high systolic blood pressure and valvular heart disease are more ... "Circulation. 114 (7): e257-354. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.106.177292. PMID 16908781.. *^ GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of ... "Circulation. 128 (23): 2470-2477. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.113.002449. PMID 24103419.. *^ Vulpian A (1874). "Note sur les ...
Fleckenstein, A. (1983). "History of calcium antagonists". Circulation Research. 52 (2 Pt 2): 13-16. PMID 6339106.. ... reduce myocardial oxygen demand and reverse coronary vasospasm, and are often used to treat angina. They have minimal ... preferential arteriolar or precapillary dilation without commensurate dilation in the venous or postcapillary circulation.[13][ ...
... the detection of illnesses that affect the blood circulation (e.g., peripheral vascular disease), the detection and assessment ... as well as coronaries. ...
Circulation. 136: CIR.0000000000000510. doi:10.1161/CIR.0000000000000510.. *^ de Souza, Russell J; Mente, Andrew; Maroleanu, ... "Effects on Coronary Heart Disease of Increasing Polyunsaturated Fat in Place of Saturated Fat: A Systematic Review and Meta- ... These findings provide evidence that consuming polyunsaturated fats (PUFA) in place of SFA reduces Coronary Heart Disease (CHD ... Skeaff CM, Miller J (2009). "Dietary fat and coronary heart disease: summary of evidence from prospective cohort and randomised ...
Combination of coronary sinus, superior vena cava and inferior vena cava. Supplies. The systemic circulation. (entire body with ... For this reason the left, right and posterior aortic sinuses are also called left-coronary, right-coronary and non-coronary ... Right and left coronary arteries.. Arch of aorta (supra-aortic vessels): Brachiocephalic trunk. Left common carotid artery. ... The left aortic sinus contains the origin of the left coronary artery and the right aortic sinus likewise gives rise to the ...
"Circulation. 132 (18 Suppl 2): S526-42. doi:10.1161/cir.0000000000000266. PMC 6191296. PMID 26473000.. ... It is the second-leading cause of death in non-coronary intensive care unit (ICU) and the tenth-most-common cause of death ...
Coronary Angiography. Its Role in the Management of the Patient with Angina Pectoris. HAROLD A. BALTAXE, DAVID C. LEVIN ... Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on Circulation.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person ... The history, technic, and complications of coronary angiography have been discussed. Myocardial infarction caused by the ... Your Name) thought you would like to see the Circulation web site. ...
In these views, the whole coronary system is visualized from a single ostium, located at the right sinus. The right coronary ... This is a case of clinically benign single coronary artery, which should more properly be called single coronary ostium because ... Coronary Artery Anomalies. An Entity in Search of an Identity. Paolo Angelini ... Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on Circulation.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person ...
An anterior view of the heart shows the right coronary artery and the anterior descending branch of the left coronary ... Coronary+Vessels The coronary circulation is the circulation of blood in the blood vessels that supply blood to and from the ... coronary right coronary: SA nodal - AV nodal - atrial - right marginal - posterior interventricular. left coronary: anterior ... The coronary arteries are classified as "end circulation", since they represent the only source of blood supply to the ...
The aim of this pilot study was to test TI to visualize the coronary circulation of swine hearts. Thirty swine hearts were ... Coronary arteries were cannulated, namely the anterior interventricular artery, the circumflex branch of the left coronary ... These steps were repeated for each coronary vessel and under experimentally simulated coronary heart disease. Thermal imaging ... allowed a clear representation of the morphology and course of the coronary vessels and of experimentally simulated coronary ...
A proposed mechanism, based on animal studies, is myocardial ischemia resulting from inadequate coronary blood fl ... Coronary Circulation*. Humans. Lactates / blood. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms / metabolism, physiopathology. Oxygen Consumption ... Title: Circulation Volume: 73 ISSN: 0009-7322 ISO Abbreviation: Circulation Publication Date: 1986 Apr ... A proposed mechanism, based on animal studies, is myocardial ischemia resulting from inadequate coronary blood flow. Coronary ...
"E. Coronary artery disease typically results in less coronary artery blood flow.The coronary sinus serves as the end point of ... the only reason where coronary sinus dilatation would result from coronary artery disease is if myocardial ischaemia culminated ... The coronary sinus is usually not visible by echocardiography in most normal. it will become dilated by any factor that causes ... Coronary sinus dilatation should not occur unless there is superimposed heart failure. stop treating me as a child. or negative ...
Omenn GS, Beresford SAA, Motulski AG:. Preventing coronary heart disease: B vitamins and homocysteine. Circulation 97:421-424, ... Impairment of Coronary Circulation by Acute Hyperhomocysteinemia in Type 2 Diabetic Patients. ... Impairment of Coronary Circulation by Acute Hyperhomocysteinemia in Type 2 Diabetic Patients ... Impairment of Coronary Circulation by Acute Hyperhomocysteinemia in Type 2 Diabetic Patients ...
Anterior view of coronary circulation Posterior view of coronary circulation Illustration of coronary arteries The human heart ... Coronary circulation is the circulation of blood in the blood vessels that supply the heart muscle (myocardium). Coronary ... If the posterior descending artery is supplied by the right coronary artery (RCA), then the coronary circulation can be ... The coronary arteries are classified as "end circulation", since they represent the only source of blood supply to the ...
... shows no normal continuity with the tracheobronchial tree and derives its arterial blood supply from the systemic circulation. ... Arterial supply of a sequestration from the coronary circulation is extremely rare. We present a case of a right middle lobe ... Coronary Vessel Anomalies / radiography*. Female. Humans. Lung / blood supply*, radiography. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray ... 10028375 - Reduction of vascular tone by introduction of troglitazone to the canine coronary artery.. ...
Anatomical illustration of coronary circulation, showing flow of blood through the aorta, pulmonary valve, tricuspid valve, ... Anatomical illustration of coronary circulation, showing flow of blood through the aorta, pulmonary valve, tricuspid valve, ...
Your Name) thought you would like to see the Circulation Research web site. ... Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on Circulation Research. ...
Coronary artery emboli • Congenital coronary anomalies • Coronary trauma • Primary coronary vasospasm (variant angina) • Drug ... Although adults acquire coronary artery disease from lifelong deposition of atheroma and plaque, which causes coronary artery ... The left anterior descending (LAD) and left circumflex (LCX) coronary arteries arise at the left main coronary artery ... The left coronary artery system covers more territory than does the right system; therefore, a myocardial infarction in this ...
Nitric oxide activity in the human coronary circulation. Impact of risk factors for coronary atherosclerosis.. A A Quyyumi, N ... The bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) in the human coronary circulation at rest and after acetylcholine (ACH)-induced ... L-NMMA (64 mumol/min) increased resting coronary vascular resistance by 22% (P , 0.001), reduced distal epicardial coronary ... Thus: (a) NO contributes importantly to resting epicardial and coronary microvascular tone, (b) coronary vascular dilation in ...
Nitric oxide activity in the human coronary circulation. Impact of risk factors for coronary atherosclerosis.. ... Nitric oxide activity in the human coronary circulation. Impact of risk factors for coronary atherosclerosis.. ... The bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) in the human coronary circulation at rest and after acetylcholine (ACH)-induced ... L-NMMA (64 mumol/min) increased resting coronary vascular resistance by 22% (P < 0.001), reduced distal epicardial coronary ...
... particularly coronary heart disease, has resulted in an increasing interest in the physiological basis of the circulatory ... Maximal coronary flow and the concept of coronary vascular reserve. Circulation 1984;70:153-9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Effect of coronary arterial pressure on coronary stenosis resistance. Circulation 1980;61:70-6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Understanding the coronary circulation through studies at the microvascular level. Circulation 1990;82:1-7PubMedCrossRefGoogle ...
Physiologic Evaluation of the Coronary Circulation in Coronary Disease and in Congestive Failure. Annals of Internal Medicine; ... Effects of L-Norepinephrine upon the Coronary Circulation in Man. Annals of Internal Medicine; 60 (4): 710-711 ... The Coronary Circulation in Health and Disease.. Ann Intern Med. 1984;100:469. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-100-3-469_2 ... Considering that diseases of the coronary circulation are the commonest cause of premature death, it is surprising that so few ...
Acute Coronary Syndromes Compendium. Reperfusion Strategies in Acute Coronary Syndromes. Akshay Bagai, George D. Dangas, Gregg ... DIDO indicates door-in-door-out; and PCI, percutaneous coronary intervention. Adapted from Windecker et al28 with permission of ... ED indicates emergency department; LV, left ventricular; PCI, percutaneous coronary intervention; and STEMI, ST-segment- ... Your Name) thought you would like to see the Circulation Research web site. ...
Coronary Artery Bypass Procedure: Coronary artery bypass grafting with the use of minimal extracorporeal circulation Procedure ... coronary artery disease; coronary artery bypass grafting; cardiopulmonary bypass; minimal extracorporeal circulation. ... Neurocognitive Outcome After Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery Using Minimal Versus Conventional Extracorporeal Circulation. The ... Procedure: Coronary artery bypass grafting with the use of minimal extracorporeal circulation The MECC system (Maquet ...
Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes. *About Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes. *Instructions for ... percutaneous coronary intervention. Introduction. A recent advertisement on the back cover of a special health issue of the New ... Coronary Artery Disease as Clogged Pipes. A Misconceptual Model. Michael B. Rothberg ... Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes. 2013;6:129-132, originally published January 15, 2013 ...
Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes. *About Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes. *Instructions for ... Percutaneous coronary intervention versus conservative therapy in nonacute coronary artery disease: a meta-analysis. ... Cardiologists use of percutaneous coronary interventions for stable coronary artery disease. Arch Intern Med. 2007;167:1604- ... Percutaneous coronary angioplasty compared with exercise training in patients with stable coronary artery disease: a randomized ...
MEASUREMENT OF CORONARY CIRCULATION. Medication was stopped 12 hours before investigation. Coronary blood flow (ml/min/100 g ... Coronary vascular resistance (Rcor (mm Hg.min.100 g myocardium/ml)) was calculated as the coronary perfusion pressure (coronary ... an increased ET-1 burden to the coronary circulation, which can counteract coronary vasodilation, might result in the observed ... CONCLUSIONS The coronary circulation in patients with IDCM is exposed to an increased endothelin load. ET-1 concentrations ...
... of Early and Late Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Peripheral Circulation and Their Clinical Association with Coronary Artery ... "Endothelial vascular markers in coronary surgery.," Heart and vessels, vol. 32, no. 11, pp. 1390-1399, 2017. View at Publisher ...
The Functional Significance of the Human Coronary Collateral Circulation. Pantel S. Vokonas, M.D.; Richard H. Helfant, M.D.; ... Vokonas PS, Helfant RH, Gorlin R. The Functional Significance of the Human Coronary Collateral Circulation.. Ann Intern Med. ; ... Both groups had significant stenosis (greater than 90%) of one coronary artery with less than 50% stenosis of remaining vessels ...
Find out information about Coronary Circulation. the blood supply to the cardiac muscle, carried by the intercommunicating ... arteries and veins that run throughout the myocardium.In man, arterial blood is... Explanation of Coronary Circulation ... Related to Coronary Circulation: Coronary arteries. Coronary Circulation. the blood supply to the cardiac muscle, carried by ... Key words: Coronary artery abnormalities, Coronary circulation, Ectopic coronary arteries, Coronary artery malformations, ...
Adrenergic α-receptor blockade was achieved by propranolol (3 mg/kg, iv). The circumflex coronary artery was pump-perfused at ... In vitro studies from other laboratories on isolated coronary vessel strips suggest that large epicardial vessels are the ... Large vessel resistance was calculated as the pressure gradient along the vessel segment divided by the coronary flow. ... Alpha-receptor stimulation caused an increase in total coronary vascular resistance; however, the relative increase in the ...
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Coronary Circulation Remove constraint Subject: Coronary Circulation ... 1. Experimental Augmentation of Coronary Flow by Retardation of the Arterial Pressure Pulse ...
Coronary Circulation Remove constraint Subject: Coronary Circulation ... Experimental Augmentation of Coronary Flow by Retardation of the Arterial Pressure Pulse ...
... Bennani, Safia KTH, School of ... The purpose of this thesis has been to validate the in-vitro heart simulation model of the coronary arteries called Flowlab, ... To understand the fluid dynamics of the coronary system and gain a deeper understanding of the arterial function and physiology ... This will also be done to provide the Flowlab construction with appropriate measurements for the coronary simulation pipe, and ...
Genetic Risk Scores in Premature Coronary Artery Disease. Still Only One Piece of the Prevention Puzzle. Themistocles L. ... Your Name) thought you would like to see the Circulation: Genomic and Precision Medicine web site. ... Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on Circulation: Genomic and Precision Medicine. ... Your Name) has sent you a message from Circulation: Genomic and Precision Medicine ...
  • This is a case of clinically benign single coronary artery, which should more properly be called single coronary ostium because all the coronary arteries are present, though they are anomalous in their origin and course. (ahajournals.org)
  • The vessels that deliver oxygen-rich blood to the myocardium are known as coronary arteries. (bionity.com)
  • The coronary arteries that run on the surface of the heart are called epicardial coronary arteries. (bionity.com)
  • These arteries, when healthy, are capable of autoregulation to maintain coronary blood flow at levels appropriate to the needs of the heart muscle . (bionity.com)
  • The coronary arteries that run deep within the myocardium are referred to as subendocardial. (bionity.com)
  • The coronary arteries are classified as "end circulation", since they represent the only source of blood supply to the myocardium: there is very little redundant blood supply, which is why blockage of these vessels can be so critical. (bionity.com)
  • A full evaluation of the coronary arteries requires cardiac catheterization or CT coronary angiography . (bionity.com)
  • In general there are two main coronary arteries, the left and right. (bionity.com)
  • Occasionally, a coronary artery will exist as a double structure (i. e. there are two arteries, parallel to each other, where ordinarily there would be one). (bionity.com)
  • Coronary arteries were cannulated, namely the anterior interventricular artery, the circumflex branch of the left coronary artery, and the right coronary artery. (springer.com)
  • Thermal imaging recognizes simulated occlusion/sub-occlusion of coronary arteries. (springer.com)
  • The right and left coronary arteries most often arise independently from individual ostia in association with the right and left aortic valve cusps. (scribd.com)
  • The bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) in the human coronary circulation at rest and after acetylcholine (ACH)-induced vasodilation was investigated in 32 patients with angiographically normal coronary arteries. (jci.org)
  • Anatomy, histology, and pathology of the major epicardial coronary arteries relevant to echocardiographic imaging techniques. (springer.com)
  • Waller BF, Orr CM, Slack JD, Pinkerton CA, Van Tassel J, Peters T. Anatomy, histology, and pathology of coronary arteries: a review relevant to new interventional and imaging techniques-Part II. (springer.com)
  • Although the image of coronary arteries as kitchen pipes clogged with fat is simple, familiar, and evocative, it is also wrong. (ahajournals.org)
  • In man, arterial blood is supplied mainly by the right and left coronary arteries, which begin at the base of the aorta. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The coronary veins are both larger and greater in number than the arteries. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The purpose of this thesis has been to validate the in-vitro heart simulation model of the coronary arteries called Flowlab, identify limitations and potential problems, and to offer suggestions for improvement. (diva-portal.org)
  • Compared to current simulation systems, this will give a better understanding of both position and severity of the cardiovascular disease, and also provide essential information regarding the hemodynamics in the coronary arteries. (diva-portal.org)
  • To understand the fluid dynamics of the coronary system and gain a deeper understanding of the arterial function and physiology, the first phase of this thesis will focus on gathering information regarding the anatomy, physiology and hemodynamics of the coronary arteries. (diva-portal.org)
  • Zurück zum Zitat Kim HJ, Vignon-Clementel IE, Coogan JS, Figueroa CA, Jansen KE, Taylor CA. Patient-specific modeling of blood flow and pressure in human coronary arteries. (springermedizin.de)
  • The relation between endothelium-dependent vasodilator function in the brachial and coronary arteries was determined in the same subjects. (onlinejacc.org)
  • In normal left coronary arteries (n=20), 16-μg boluses of adenosine caused coronary hyperemia similar to that caused by papaverine (4.6±0.7 · resting CBFV). (umn.edu)
  • The pulmonary trunk and arteries of the pulmonary circulation loop provide an exception to this rule - these arteries carry deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs to be oxygenated. (innerbody.com)
  • Originating from the aorta just past the aortic semilunar valve are the openings to the coronary arteries. (guwsmedical.info)
  • The second of the coronary arteries is the left coronary artery. (guwsmedical.info)
  • 4 Anatomy The myocardium is supplied by left and right coronary arteries that originate from the root of the ascending aorta immediately above the aortic valve. (slideplayer.com)
  • The coronary arteries and their branches lie on the surface of the heart and hence are also known as epicardial coronary vessels. (thehealthguidelines.com)
  • The Latin term corona, or crown, aptly describes coronary arteries that supply cardiac parenchyma with nutrient blood flow. (medscape.com)
  • Coronary arteries (most often two) are normally the only vessels arising immediately above the free margin of aortic valve from the ascending aorta. (medscape.com)
  • The normal anatomy of the coronary arteries is shown in the image below. (medscape.com)
  • Normal anatomy of coronary arteries, viewed from above with the atria removed. (medscape.com)
  • The left coronary ostium is usually single, giving rise to a short, common LCA trunk that branches into the left anterior descending (LAD) and circumflex (Cx) coronary arteries. (medscape.com)
  • The coronary arteries course over the surface of the heart in the usual fashion/other. (scribd.com)
  • The coronary arteries are patent/other and free of atherosclerosis/other. (scribd.com)
  • The right and left coronary arteries spread off from the aorta provide blood to left and right side of the heart. (healthlifemedia.com)
  • Movement of blood through the vessels of the heart, specifically from the ascending aorta to the epicardial coronary arteries to the penetrating arteries of the myocardium, the coronary arterioles, capillaries, veins, coronary sinus, and into the right atrium. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The heart receives its blood supply from the coronary arteries namely, the right and the left coronary artery. (medicowesome.com)
  • A patient-specific anatomical model of coronary arteries and the heart is generated from medical image data of a patient. (justia.com)
  • In one embodiment of the present invention, a patient-specific anatomical model of coronary arteries and the heart is generated from medical image data of a patient. (justia.com)
  • There is a network of arteries and veins surrounding the heart tissue in a crown-like manner that are together known as the coronary circuit. (jove.com)
  • Coronary arteries (labeled in red text) and other major landmarks (in blue text). (wikipedia.org)
  • Autopsy specimen showing the coronary ostia and proximal segments of the coronary arteries. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are therefore not amenable to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). (ahajournals.org)
  • We evaluated outcomes according to initial management: (1) revascularization versus conservative therapy and (2) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) versus conservative therapy stratified by vessel flow at presentation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Percutaneous coronary intervention for spontaneous coronary artery dissection is associated with high complication rates and emergency coronary artery bypass surgery even in those presenting with preserved vessel flow. (ahajournals.org)
  • Entrapment of a device in the coronary system is one of the most distressing complications of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). (patelsplanbatlas.com)
  • More than one million coronary stent procedures are performed each year, making the procedure - known technically as percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) - one of the most common in the U.S. (healthcanal.com)
  • The coronary circulation is the circulation of blood in the blood vessels that supply blood to and from the heart muscle itself. (bionity.com)
  • Although blood fills the chambers of the heart, the muscle tissue of the heart, or myocardium , is so thick that it requires coronary blood vessels to deliver blood deep into it. (bionity.com)
  • During contraction of the ventricular myocardium (systole), the subendocardial coronary vessels (the vessels that enter the myocardium) are compressed due to the high intraventricular pressures. (bionity.com)
  • Thermal imaging coronarography (TIC) allowed a clear representation of the morphology and course of the coronary vessels and of experimentally simulated coronary heart disease, moreover, demonstrated to be easy to perform during or after autopsies on ex situ hearts, non-destructive, reproducible, and cheap. (springer.com)
  • Thermal imaging allows the clear imaging of swine coronary vessels. (springer.com)
  • Both groups had significant stenosis (greater than 90%) of one coronary artery with less than 50% stenosis of remaining vessels. (annals.org)
  • There are three types of blood supply-right coronary, left coronary, and general-which in some measure determine the nature of the pathology of the coronary circulation in the event of disease of the heart vessels. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In vitro studies from other laboratories on isolated coronary vessel strips suggest that large epicardial vessels are the dominant site of adrenergic a-receptor activity. (ovid.com)
  • These data suggest that, contrary to the proposed hypothesis, adrenergic a-receptor-mediated vasoconstriction in the large coronary vessels is not proportionally greater than that observed in the total coronary vascular bed. (ovid.com)
  • Coronary circulation is the circulation of blood in the blood vessels of the heart muscle. (foodary.com)
  • Since this abnormality might be due in part to vascular hypertrophy of coronary resistance vessels in response to chronic hypertension, we studied a model of ventricular hypertrophy without hypertension. (elsevier.com)
  • This data suggests that vascular hypertrophy of coronary resistance vessels related to chronic hypertension may be the cause of the increased minimal coronary vascular resistance seen in dogs with pressure-overload left ventricular hypertrophy. (elsevier.com)
  • Coronary resistance vessels are exceptionally sensitive to adenosine. (slideplayer.com)
  • Coronary resistance vessels are innervated by both branches of the ANS, but their influence is overridden by local controls. (slideplayer.com)
  • Coronary Circulation systems the set of blood vessels that are within the heart that provide the myocardium with oxygen and nutrients, that the heart needs to pump blood through the body. (healthlifemedia.com)
  • First, apart from coronary atherosclerosis, epicardial vessels are altered by vessel wall remodelling and structure changes. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Second, structural alterations of the coronary arterioles due to medial hypertrophy and perivascular fibrosis limit the functional area of the vessels which are also compressed by a higher intramyocardial pressure, resulting in a reduction of coronary flow reserve. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Fourth, the endothelium-dependent nitric-oxide dilation of coronary vessels is depressed, thus impairing the adaptation of coronary circulation to changes in myocardial oxygen demand. (eurekaselect.com)
  • movement in a regular or circuitous course, returning to the point of origin, as the circulation of the blood through the heart and blood vessels. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Embodiments of the present invention provide patient-specific multi-scale computational models with high predictive power for coronary circulation in healthy and diseased vessels. (justia.com)
  • The vessels that remove the deoxygenated blood from the heart muscle are known as coronary veins. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Effects of sugammadex on the coronary circulation: direct effects on coronary vessels or hypersensitivity (Kounis syndrome)? (ekja.org)
  • In these views, the whole coronary system is visualized from a single ostium, located at the right sinus. (ahajournals.org)
  • Diagram representation of a case of single coronary ostium at the right sinus. (ahajournals.org)
  • As discussed below, the left coronary artery originates from the left aortic sinus , while the right coronary artery originates from the right aortic sinus. (bionity.com)
  • To determine whether myocardial depression in human septic shock is associated with reduced coronary flow, thermodilution coronary sinus catheters were placed in seven patients with septic shock for measurements of coronary flow and myocardial metabolism. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In general, compared with values in control subjects, the oxygen content difference (arterial minus coronary sinus) was narrowed, and the fractional extraction of arterial oxygen was diminished. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Coronary sinus dilatation should not occur unless there is superimposed heart failure. (scribd.com)
  • the only reason where coronary sinus dilatation would result from coronary artery disease is if myocardial ischaemia culminated in pulmonary artery hypertension and thus elevated right heart pressures. (scribd.com)
  • meaning less blood in the coronary sinus and hence a smaller size. (scribd.com)
  • E. Coronary artery disease typically results in less coronary artery blood flow.The coronary sinus serves as the end point of venous drainage from the coronary blood supply. (scribd.com)
  • The coronary sinus is usually not visible by echocardiography in most normal. (scribd.com)
  • Since the coronary sinus communicates freely with the right atrium.g. sibling. (scribd.com)
  • Endogenous ET-1 and BET plasma concentrations from the aorta and the coronary sinus were determined by radioimmunoassay. (bmj.com)
  • Coronary blood flow, using the inert chromatographic argon method, myocardial oxygen consumption, and coronary sinus oxygen content under basal conditions were determined. (bmj.com)
  • A decrease of the coronary sinus content of oxygen suggests a mismatch between coronary blood flow and metabolic demand. (bmj.com)
  • 14 15 It is unclear whether the heart in IDCM is exposed to a higher than normal circulating plasma ET-1/BET load or if ET-1/BET is substantially released from the myocardium into the coronary sinus under basal conditions. (bmj.com)
  • It was found that the coronary sinus blood has a higher density than arterial blood due to the loss of filtered fluid in the microcirculation. (asme.org)
  • Intermittent coronary sinus occlusion (ICSO) surprisingly leads to a reduction of the density gradient. (asme.org)
  • After the blood has passed through the myocardium, the deoxygenated blood is collected by a large vein, the coronary sinus . (guwsmedical.info)
  • The coronary sinus empties into the right atrium . (guwsmedical.info)
  • There are two primary veins that empty into the coronary sinus: the great cardiac vein, which drains the anterior aspect of the heart, and the middle cardiac vein, which drains the posterior aspect of the heart. (guwsmedical.info)
  • Most of the cardiac veins drain into the coronary sinus located on the posterior side of the heart. (thehealthguidelines.com)
  • The right coronary artery (RCA) most commonly arises separately from an ostium just below the sinotubular junction of the right (right anterior) sinus of Valsalva. (medscape.com)
  • The left coronary artery (LCA) arises from the mid position of the left (left anterior) sinus of Valsalva (sinuses on either side of the point of aortic and pulmonary commissural contact) just above the level of the free margin of the aortic valve leaflet and generally below the sinotubular junction. (medscape.com)
  • The coronary sinus is a vein that is on the posterior side of the heart and it will return de-oxygenated blood to the myocardium form the vena cavas. (healthlifemedia.com)
  • The AV node lies at the lower back section of the interatrial septum near the opening of the coronary sinus, and conducts the normal electrical impulse from the atria to the ventricles. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is located at the center of Koch's triangle-a triangle enclosed by the septal leaflet of the tricuspid valve, the coronary sinus, and the membranous part of the interatrial septum. (wikipedia.org)
  • The coronary flow velocity was measured at baseline and at peak hyperemic conditions, and an average of the measurements was obtained in three cardiac cycles. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Well-developed coronary collateral circulation usually results in fewer infarct size, improved cardiac function, and fewer mortality. (ovid.com)
  • Experimental evidence suggests that isradipine is a potent coronary vasodilator, and this is supported by clinical studies in both cardiology and cardiac surgery. (ndsl.kr)
  • Furthermore, in these studies, coronary vasodilation was not accompanied by evidence of any significant effect on cardiac contractility or conduction. (ndsl.kr)
  • Coronary circulation is responsible for the distribution of oxygenated blood to the myocardium (cardiac muscle). (guwsmedical.info)
  • Congenital, inflammatory, metabolic, or degenerative disease may involve coronary circulation, and increasingly complex cardiac surgical repairs demand enhanced understanding to improve operative outcomes. (medscape.com)
  • Framingham Heart Study demonstrated that 40% of all coronary events in women end up with sudden cardiac death, and 64% of cases had no history of coronary artery disease (8). (hvt-journal.com)
  • Considering vascular disease occurs early in diabetes due to endothelial dysfunction, this study aimed to determine whether impaired coronary perfusion contributes to the origins of myocardial dysfunction in DHD, or whether coronary and cardiac dysfunction are independent pathologies associated with diabetes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Coronary and cardiac function were normal in 8-week-old diabetic mice. (frontiersin.org)
  • These results suggest that both cardiac and coronary dysfunction appear to have independent origins associated with diabetes and Rho-kinase pathway may be playing a role in the onset and progression of DHD. (frontiersin.org)
  • Impaired coronary perfusion is often a pathological precursor to the onset of cardiac dysfunction in many disease states, but it is less clear if this is the case in DHD. (frontiersin.org)
  • Sixty-seven patients underwent diagnostic cardiac catheterization, but showed no significant coronary artery stenosis. (cdc.gov)
  • the first is type II, which is an inflammatory disease affecting the myocardium and the cardiac conduction system manifesting as a complication of drug therapy, and the second is type III, which is the concurrence of acute coronary syndromes associated with mast cell activation that may involve interrelated and interacting inflammatory cells. (ekja.org)
  • The Functional Significance of the Human Coronary Collateral Circulation. (annals.org)
  • Vokonas PS, Helfant RH, Gorlin R. The Functional Significance of the Human Coronary Collateral Circulation. (annals.org)
  • Traditional coronary risk factors (diabetes, hypertension, and smoking) have some effects on coronary collateral circulation. (ovid.com)
  • However, the association between these risk factors and coronary collateral circulation are controversial. (ovid.com)
  • Given the confusing evidences regarding traditional cardiovascular risk factors on coronary collateral circulation, we performed this meta-analysis protocol to investigate the relationship between traditional risk factors of coronary artery disease and coronary collateral circulation. (ovid.com)
  • The primary outcomes of this meta-analysis are well-developed coronary collateral circulation. (ovid.com)
  • This study will provide a high-quality synthesis of current evidence of traditional risk factors on collateral circulation. (ovid.com)
  • This conclusion of our systematic review and meta-analysis will provide evidence to judge whether traditional risk factors affects coronary collateral circulation. (ovid.com)
  • Achim Degen, Dominic Millenaar and Stephan H. Schirmer, "Therapeutic Approaches in the Stimulation of the Coronary Collateral Circulation", Current Cardiology Reviews (2014) 10: 65. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Objective The aim of this study was to assess the effect of coronary collateral circulation (CCC) on QT dispersion (QTD) in coronary artery disease. (inonu.edu.tr)
  • The history, technic, and complications of coronary angiography have been discussed. (ahajournals.org)
  • BACKGROUND: Contrast induced nephropathy (CIN) is defined as a temporary renal failure following the administration of radiocontrast agent during the coronary angiography. (minervamedica.it)
  • METHODS: CIN was diagnosed with a 25% or 0.5 g/dL increase in blood creatinine levels after 48-72 hours following the administration of contrast agent during the coronary angiography. (minervamedica.it)
  • The blood creatinine levels were significantly higher in the CIN(+) group on the 48-72 hours following the coronary angiography. (minervamedica.it)
  • CONCLUSIONS: The presence of well-developed coronary collaterals was associated with decreased frequency of CIN in patients with NSTEMI on the 48-72 hours following the coronary angiography. (minervamedica.it)
  • In rare cases, a person will have one coronary artery that runs around the root of the aorta. (bionity.com)
  • They arise at the base of the aorta from the openings called Coronary Ostia located behind the aortic valve leaflets. (medicowesome.com)
  • For a coronary artery the two ends are the aorta (where it begins) and the ventricle (where it finally ends). (medicowesome.com)
  • This means the pressure difference between the aorta and the ventricle determines the blood flow in the coronary artery, and blood will only flow in the coronary artery when this pressure difference is positive. (medicowesome.com)
  • The left coronary artery (abbreviated LCA ) is a coronary artery that arises from the aorta above the left cusp of the aortic valve , and feeds blood to the left side of the heart muscle . (wikipedia.org)
  • The preservation of coronary flow, the net myocardial lactate extraction, and the increased availability of oxygen to the myocardium argue against global ischemia as the cause of myocardial depression in human septic shock. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This usually results from an imbalance in oxygen supply and demand, which is most often caused by plaque rupture with thrombus formation in a coronary vessel, resulting in an acute reduction of blood supply to a portion of the myocardium. (scribd.com)
  • Therefore, the hearts of patients who suddenly die from an acute coronary event may show little or no evidence of damage response to the myocardium at autopsy. (scribd.com)
  • Recent studies from this laboratory have indicated that sympathetic α-receptor-mediated coronary vasoconstriction can compete with local metabolic vasodilation to reduce the oxygen supply to the myocardium. (ovid.com)
  • 3 CORONARY CIRCULATION The coronary circulation supplies the myocardium, a tissue that rivals the brain in terms of its nutritional demands and the critical importance of continued flow for normal function. (slideplayer.com)
  • The functional capacity of the heart is highly dependent on adequate coronary blood flow to ensure O 2 delivery to the myocardium is tightly matched to O 2 demand, i.e., myocardial autoregulation ( Crossman, 2004 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • These steps were repeated for each coronary vessel and under experimentally simulated coronary heart disease. (springer.com)
  • On the basis of these preliminary results, TIC might allow a subsequent more focused and comprehensive cardiopathological examination of the heart, which remains mandatory for the definitive diagnosis of coronary heart disease. (springer.com)
  • The high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in developed countries, particularly coronary heart disease, has resulted in an increasing interest in the physiological basis of the circulatory system and coronary flow [1-4]. (springer.com)
  • But it also allows us to learn about some aspects of the diagnostic tools applied in cardiovascular disease, since most of them aim to disclose abnormalities in coronary flow. (springer.com)
  • Coronary microcirculation in health and disease. (springer.com)
  • Physiologic Evaluation of the Coronary Circulation in Coronary Disease and in Congestive Failure. (annals.org)
  • The clogged pipe analogy of stable coronary heart disease has been particularly difficult to dislodge. (ahajournals.org)
  • The investigators of this featured study acknowledge several reports of cacao flavonoids reducing the risk of coronary heart disease. (innateresponse.com)
  • Just over a decade has passed since the publication of the seminal genome-wide association studies identifying the first common susceptibility locus for coronary artery disease (CAD) at the 9p21 locus. (ahajournals.org)
  • Twenty-three patients with angiographically non-obstructive coronary artery disease underwent VH-IVUS in left coronary artery. (onlinejacc.org)
  • In 50 patients referred to the catheterization laboratory for the evaluation of coronary artery disease (mean age ± SD 56 ± 10 years), the coronary vasomotor response to serial intracoronary infusions of the endothelium-dependent agonist acetylcholine (10 −8 to 10 −6 mol/liter), was studied. (onlinejacc.org)
  • 0.001), coronary endothelial dysfunction (p = 0.003), the presence of coronary artery disease (p = 0.007) and cigarette smoking (p = 0.016). (onlinejacc.org)
  • The brachial artery vasodilator response to sublingual nitroglycerin was independent of coronary endothelial responses or the presence of coronary artery disease. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Arteriogenesis as a way to restore blood flow after arterial occlusion has been under investigation for the treatment of coronary artery disease (CAD) for decades. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Knowledge of physiology, normal and variant anatomy, and anomalies of coronary circulation is an increasingly vital component in managing congenital and acquired pediatric heart disease. (medscape.com)
  • Variations in coronary anatomy are often recognized in association with structural forms of congenital heart disease. (medscape.com)
  • 4), demonstrated that 31% of women are at risk of coronary artery disease mortality being different from 3% risk of hip fracture or 4% risk of mortality from breast cancer. (hvt-journal.com)
  • The present invention relates to anatomical and functional modeling of coronary circulation, and more particularly, to multi-scale anatomical and functional modeling of coronary circulation for coronary artery disease diagnosis and intervention planning. (justia.com)
  • Among various CVDs, coronary artery disease (CAD) accounts for nearly fifty percent of those deaths. (justia.com)
  • Embodiments of the present invention further provide virtual intervention based planning to improve the clinical management of coronary artery disease by leveraging the computational models to create specific to create specific therapeutic interventions. (justia.com)
  • This common scenario presents a diagnostic conundrum whereby angina occurs but there is no obstructive CAD (ischaemia and no obstructive coronary artery disease-INOCA). (bmj.com)
  • Macrovascular disease may be due to the presence of obstructive CAD secondary to atherosclerosis, or may be dynamic due to a functional disorder (eg, coronary artery spasm, myocardial bridging). (bmj.com)
  • Pathophysiology of coronary microvascular disease may involve anatomical abnormalities resulting in increased coronary resistance, or functional abnormalities resulting in abnormal vasomotor tone. (bmj.com)
  • Stable coronary artery disease (CAD), or SIHD, refers to the syndrome of recurrent, transient episodes of chest pain reflecting demand-supply mismatch, that is, angina pectoris. (bmj.com)
  • In a study to be published in the open-access journal PLoS Genetics on September 22nd, an international consortium of scientists report the discovery of five new genes that affect risk of developing coronary artery disease (CAD) and heart attacks. (healthcanal.com)
  • Coronary artery disease is the commonest cause of premature death and disability in the world. (healthcanal.com)
  • The first ESC Focused Update on Dual Antiplatelet Therapy in Coronary Artery Disease is published online today in European Heart Journal, and on the ESC website. (medicalxpress.com)
  • HealthDay)-Few smokers hospitalized for coronary heart disease (CHD) receive smoking cessation pharmacotherapy (SCP), according to a research letter published online Aug. 21 in JAMA Internal Medicine. (medicalxpress.com)
  • A new gene therapy that targets the heart and requires only one treatment session has been found safe for patients with coronary artery disease, according to a successful trial carried out in Finland. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Classical indications such as the intermediate stenosis and guidance of PTCA or stent implantation, have been largely extended and coronary pressure measurement has proven to be useful in multi vessel disease, diffuse disease, long and serial stenosis, after myocardial infarction, and in many other diagnostic and interventional situations encountered in the catheterization laboratory. (springer.com)
  • Also in mild and intermediate left main disease, there is a role for coronary pressure measurement in the process of decision making. (springer.com)
  • Coronary heart disease. (slideshare.net)
  • Conceptual diagram that shows most of the possible paths (1 through 5) by which the RCA, left anterior descending artery (LAD), and circumflex artery (Cx) can potentially connect with the opposite coronary cusps. (ahajournals.org)
  • The left coronary artery typically runs for 10 to 25 mm, and then bifurcates into the anterior interventricular artery (also called the left anterior descending (LAD) and the Widow maker ) and the left circumflex artery (LCx). (wikipedia.org)
  • The origin of this artery is most commonly (80-90% of hearts) a branch of the right coronary artery, with the remainder originating from the left circumflex artery. (wikipedia.org)
  • In right-dominant individuals the blood supply is from the right coronary artery while in left dominant individuals it originates from the left circumflex artery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Impact of risk factors for coronary atherosclerosis. (jci.org)
  • Thus: (a) NO contributes importantly to resting epicardial and coronary microvascular tone, (b) coronary vascular dilation in response to ACH is predominantly due to increased production of NO, and (c) despite the absence of angiographic evidence of atherosclerosis, exposure to coronary risk factors is associated with reduced resting and stimulated bioavailability of NO from the human coronary circulation. (jci.org)
  • The direct associations of DC and plaque burden with systemic levels and local retention of CD14+/OCN+-cells implicate these cells in pathological remodeling of the coronary circulation in patients with early coronary atherosclerosis. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Coronary artery endothelial dysfunction precedes the development of overt atherosclerosis and is important in its pathogenesis. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Arterial hypertension is a major coronary risk factor due to an increase prevalence of coronary atherosclerosis. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The aim of this study is to assess the effect of minimal (MECC) versus conventional (CECC) extracorporeal circulation on neurocognitive function after elective coronary bypass grafting (CABG) as well as whether this can be attributed to improved cerebral perfusion intraoperatively. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Most of the coronary flow occurs during diastole because, during systole, there is marked extravascular compression which affects coronary flow (Levick, "Introduction to Cardiovascular Physiology").There is good autoregulation between 60 and 200 mmHg perfusion pressure that maintains normal coronary blood flow whenever coronary perfusion pressure changes due to changes in aortic pressure. (thehealthguidelines.com)
  • In comparison, normal coronary perfusion was preserved in diabetes until 24 weeks of age. (frontiersin.org)
  • Intralobar pulmonary sequestration with arterial supply from the coronary circulation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • It consists of a nonfunctioning mass of lung tissue that shows no normal continuity with the tracheobronchial tree and derives its arterial blood supply from the systemic circulation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Arterial supply of a sequestration from the coronary circulation is extremely rare. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The principal arterial and venous trunks are connected by a well-developed network of anastomoses, which facilitates collateral (shunt) circulation in cases of impairment of blood supply to the heart. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Flowlab emulates arterial characteristics such as pressure and flow, providing a simulation environment with the ability to measure the volumetric coronary blood flow and arterial blood pressure. (diva-portal.org)
  • Intracoronary infusions of 80 μg/min or more into the left coronary artery (n=6) also caused maximal hyperemia (4.4±0.1 · resting CBFV), and doses up to 240 μg/min caused a minimal decrease in arterial pressure (-6±2 mm Hg) and no significant change in heart rate or in electrocardiographic variables. (umn.edu)
  • Laxson, David D. / Effects of adenosine on human coronary arterial circulation . (umn.edu)
  • Antihypertensive therapy may have beneficial effects by reducing myocardial mass and arterial pressure, by restoring a normal vascular structure and architecture, and by improving coronary vasomotion. (eurekaselect.com)
  • A. Nitenberg, I. Antony and D. Chemla, " The Coronary Circulation in Arterial Hypertension", Immunology, Endocrine & Metabolic Agents in Medicinal Chemistry (Under Re-organization) (2006) 6: 367. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The events are reported for large conduit arterial branches of a main coronary artery. (elsevier.com)
  • A proposed mechanism, based on animal studies, is myocardial ischemia resulting from inadequate coronary blood flow. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Coronary flow observations have not been reported for human septic shock. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These patients had coronary flow similar to or higher than that of control subjects and similar to that of the other three patients, who did not develop myocardial depression. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR) assessment by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography (TTDE) is a noninvasive method to evaluate coronary flow reserve and provides important information about coronary endothelial function ( 4 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A systematic approach was made to visualize coronary blood flow in the distal part of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery by color Doppler echocardiography. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • With a sample volume (1.5 or 2.5 mm wide) positioned on the color signal in the LAD coronary artery, Doppler spectral tracings of flow velocity were recorded by fast Fourier transformation analysis. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • CFVR was calculated as the ratio of hyperemic to basal coronary flow velocity. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The basal coronary flow velocity was similar in the diabetic patients (23.7 ± 3.9 cm/s) and the control subjects (24.5 ± 4.4 cm/s). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • By contrast, coronary flow velocity in response to dypiridamole was significantly lower in diabetic patients than in control subjects (61.6 ± 16.1 vs. 75.6 ± 21.5 cm/s, P = 0.023). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Following the methionine load, basal coronary flow velocity did not show any significant change from premethionine values in both diabetic patients and control subjects. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • These techniques use some type of tracer, a substance that travels through the coronary circulation and interacts with the cells of the vascular wall and the myocytes, reflecting the state, normal or abnormal, of the blood flow. (springer.com)
  • Hemodynamic principles in the control of coronary blood flow. (springer.com)
  • Thus, ET-1 might be a marker of a disequilibrium between myocardial oxygen demand and coronary blood flow in IDCM. (bmj.com)
  • Finally, compared with CCA, MSCT is unable to accurately assess the speed and direction of blood flow in the coronary circulation and across stenotic lesions (64). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In current catheter research, there are 3 main directions with respect to fractional flow reserve (FFR), including instantaneous wave-free ratio, noninvasive measurement of FFR, and FFR transferred from coronary circulation to other ischemia-inducing circulation. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Large vessel resistance was calculated as the pressure gradient along the vessel segment divided by the coronary flow. (ovid.com)
  • Coronary circulation was assessed by measuring coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR) by noninvasive transthoracic Doppler echocardiography (TTDE). (innateresponse.com)
  • Researchers note possible limitations of this study include the absence of coronary flow volume and diameter measurements (coronary flow velocity was assessed), the short study period of two weeks (the long-term effects and increased amounts of cacao flavonoids remain unexamined) and the study population included only healthy male subjects. (innateresponse.com)
  • Fractional flow reserve and coronary (or myocardial) flow reserve may be obtained by invasive or non-invasive means. (springermedizin.de)
  • This study demonstrated a close relation between coronary artery endothelium-dependent vasomotor responses to acetylcholine and flow-mediated vasodilation in the brachial artery. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Effects of left ventricular receptor stimulation on coronary blood flow in conscious dogs. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In the subgroup of patients presenting with preserved vessel flow, rates of PCI failure were similarly high (50%), and 6 (13%) required emergency coronary artery bypass grafting. (ahajournals.org)
  • Coronary blood flow velocity (CBFV) was measured with a 3F coronary Doppler catheter. (umn.edu)
  • This O2 dependence means that any increase in work must be matched by an increase in coronary flow, achieved entirely through local control mechanisms. (slideplayer.com)
  • Local control mechanisms allow for a fourfold to fivefold increase in coronary flow when CO increases, a phenomenon called coronary reserve. (slideplayer.com)
  • At maximal levels of CO, all sphincters are open all the time, and coronary flow rises to maximal levels also. (slideplayer.com)
  • Flow through the left coronary artery drops sharply during systole and then rises sharply with the onset of diastole. (slideplayer.com)
  • Several pathophysiological processes that are implicated in coronary vascular changes are detrimental for the oxygen demand/supply equilibrium and adaptation of coronary circulation and coronary blood flow to an increase in myocardial oxygen demand. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Blood flow is simulated in at least one stenosis region of at least one coronary artery using the multi-scale function model of coronary circulation. (justia.com)
  • Hemodynamic quantities, such as fractional flow reserve (FFR), are computed to determine a functional assessment of the stenosis, and virtual intervention simulations are performed using the multi-scale function model of coronary circulation for decision support and intervention planning. (justia.com)
  • The systemic circuit supplies blood to the whole body, the coronary circuit supplies blood to the heart, and the pulmonary circuit supplies blood flow between the heart and lungs. (jove.com)
  • Myocardial function is critically dependent on optimal coronary blood flow. (frontiersin.org)
  • Blood flow through the left coronary artery is at a maximum during diastole (in contrast to the rest of systemic circulation , which has a maximum blood flow during systole . (wikipedia.org)
  • Coronary blood flow (CBF) was evaluated by a Doppler guide wire. (cdc.gov)
  • 0.001), and inhibited ACH-induced coronary epicardial and microvascular vasodilation. (jci.org)
  • Carotid baroreceptor reflex coronary vasodilation in the dog. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Vagal chemoreflex coronary vasodilation evoked by stimulating pulmonary C-fibers in dogs. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Intravenous infusions in normal patients (R=25) at 140 μg/kg/min caused coronary vasodilation similar to that caused by papaverine in 84% of patients (4.4±0.9 · resting CBFV). (umn.edu)
  • These studies suggest that maximal coronary vasodilation can be achieved safely with intracoronary adenosine administration and that intravenous infusions at a rate of 140 μg/kg/min cause near-maximal coronary hyperemia in most patients. (umn.edu)
  • The left main coronary artery is usually larger than the right one and divides into the left anterior descending and circumflex branches (Figure-1). (thehealthguidelines.com)
  • It is also known as the left main coronary artery (abbreviated LMCA ) and the left main stem coronary artery (abbreviated LMS ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Both iFR, and whole-cycle distal coronary to aortic mean pressure (Pd/Pa) are measured under basal condition and used for assessment of hemodynamic stenosis severity as is index of basal stenosis resistance (BSR). (springermedizin.de)
  • The name and nature of a coronary artery or branch is defined by that vessel's distal vascularization pattern or territory, rather than by its origin. (medscape.com)
  • 1-5 Devices that can dislodge, break, embolize, or become trapped in the coronary tree include but may not be limited to stents, coronary wires, balloons, intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) catheters, optical coherence tomography (OCT) catheters, distal protection devices, and Rotablator burrs (Boston Scientific). (patelsplanbatlas.com)
  • This representation had its origins in the 1970s, when researchers observed that the degree of coronary obstruction correlated with subsequent risk of myocardial infarction. (ahajournals.org)
  • Indeed, early proponents of coronary artery bypass were so convinced by the angiographic evidence of success that they questioned the need to conduct randomized trials to assess the impact on myocardial infarction or mortality. (ahajournals.org)
  • Four percent of people have a third, the posterior coronary artery. (bionity.com)
  • The artery that supplies the posterior descending artery (PDA) and the posterolateral artery (PLA) determines the coronary dominance. (bionity.com)
  • The right coronary artery has two main branches: the posterior interventricular artery, which supplies the posterior walls of the two ventricles of the heart, and the marginal artery, which supplies the right lateral aspect of the heart. (guwsmedical.info)
  • The right coronary artery gives out branches like the marginal artery and posterior interventricular artery. (thehealthguidelines.com)
  • In 90% of patients, the RCA supplies the posterior descending coronary artery branch at the crux of the heart, which supplies the atrioventricular (AV) node and the posterior aspect of the interventricular septum. (medscape.com)
  • Should the Cx coronary reach the crux of the heart and supply the posterior descending coronary artery, the left coronary system would be termed dominant. (medscape.com)
  • These metrics of coronary stenosis severity have achieved wide clinical acceptance for guiding revascularization decisions and risk stratification. (springermedizin.de)
  • On the other hand, many arguments are suggestive of symptomatic or silent episodes of myocardial ischemia in hypertensive patients without coronary artery stenosis. (eurekaselect.com)
  • For example, in the case of coronary stenosis, accurate estimates of the anatomy (i.e., the amount of narrowing in the coronary) as seen in diagnostic images can vastly underestimate or overestimate the severity of the blockage. (justia.com)
  • Using this system, regional myocardial interstitial norepinephrine was measured during coronary occlusion (ref. #8). (nii.ac.jp)
  • The heart was cooled, and contrast medium (CM) consisting of distilled water heated to 40 °C was injected in a coronary vessel, while thermal images were captured. (springer.com)
  • The circumflex coronary artery was pump-perfused at constant pressure to minimize passive changes in large vessel resistance. (ovid.com)
  • however, the relative increase in the resistance of the large vessel was only about 60% of that seen for the entire coronary bed. (ovid.com)
  • A noninvasive assessment of endothelial function in a peripheral conduit vessel, the brachial artery, was recently described, but the relation between brachial artery function and coronary artery vasodilator function has not been explored. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Revascularization does not reduce the risk of long-term target vessel revascularization or recurrent spontaneous coronary artery dissection. (ahajournals.org)
  • and 2) the minimal coronary vascular resistance per unit weight of left ventricle calculated during iv adenosine infusion at a rate that produced maximal vasodilatation was not significantly higher in dogs with left ventricular hypertrophy than in controls (16.4±1.0 vs 14.7±1.5 kPa·litre -1 ·min·100 g, respectively). (elsevier.com)
  • Minimal coronary vascular resistance of the entire left ventricle was significantly less in dogs with hypertrophy than controls (13.0±0.8 vs 17.3±1.7 kPa·litre -1 ·min, respectively). (elsevier.com)
  • Kounis syndrome is defined as the concurrence of acute coronary syndromes with conditions associated with mast cell and platelet activation, which involves inflammatory cells in the setting of allergic reactions or hypersensitivity, and anaphylactic or anaphylactoid insults. (ekja.org)
  • Acute elevations in circulating homocysteine levels have been shown to impair endothelial function in coronary microcirculation in normal subjects ( 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Given the unmet need of IHD, recent advances in diagnostics and the need for further improvements in primary and secondary prevention, we propose the term 'stable coronary syndromes' (SCS) to succinctly reflect the heterogeneous pathophysiology of epicardial, microvascular and endothelial abnormalities in patients with stable angina. (bmj.com)
  • Impact of paraoxonase polymorphism (Q192R) on endothelial function in intact coronary circulation. (cdc.gov)
  • In conclusion, as estimated by BK and ACh testing, our findings suggest that PON1 genotypes may not play a critical role in the modulation of endothelial vasomotor function in the intact coronary circulation. (cdc.gov)
  • Moreover, female sex is an independent risk factor of hospital mortality and high frequency of complications after coronary bypass surgery (7). (hvt-journal.com)
  • Vineberg's approach was later developed into an operation known today as coronary bypass surgery. (britannica.com)
  • This pattern of disordered coronary autoregulation is analogous to the pattern of arteriovenous shunting in other organs in patients with septic shock. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of acute hyperhomocysteinemia on coronary circulation in patients with type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 23 patients were exposed to one or more coronary risk factors. (jci.org)
  • Recent studies have shown a significant relationship between intraoperative cerebral oxygen desaturation, indicative of cerebral ischemia, and early POCD in patients undergoing elective coronary bypass grafting (CABG) with conventional extracorporeal circulation (CECC). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Patients operated for elective coronary artery bypass grafting with the use of minimal extracorporeal circulation. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Treatments based on this theory include both coronary bypass and angioplasty, the latter often explained to patients as a Roto-Rooter or in the case of the magazine ad, as a Rotablator. (ahajournals.org)
  • OBJECTIVE To determine whether increased plasma concentrations of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and big endothelin (BET) play a role in the regulation of coronary circulation in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM). (bmj.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS The coronary circulation in patients with IDCM is exposed to an increased endothelin load. (bmj.com)
  • It is associated with increases in morbidity and mortality in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). (minervamedica.it)
  • Coronary artery bypass grafting for selected patients confers excellent early outcomes. (ahajournals.org)
  • The patients were divided into 2 groups on the basis of ACh testing: one with coronary spastic angina (CSA) and one with non-CSA. (cdc.gov)
  • Background: Our aim was to investigate the differences in postoperative hearing thresholds in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with (Group I, n=20) or without (Group II, n=17) extracorporeal circulation. (medeniyet.edu.tr)
  • Background- Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a nonatherosclerotic acute coronary syndrome for which optimal management remains undefined. (ahajournals.org)
  • Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is a cause of acute coronary syndrome for which optimal management remains uncertain. (ahajournals.org)
  • Adenosine is a potent vasodilator used extensively to study the coronary circulation of animals. (umn.edu)
  • We investigated in humans the effects of adenosine, administered by intracoronary bolus (2-16 μg), intracoronary infusion (10-240 μg/min), or intravenous infusion (35-140 μg/kg/min) on coronary and systemic hemodynamics and the electrocardiogram. (umn.edu)
  • We examined whether PON1 polymorphism influences endothelium-dependent coronary vasomotor responses. (cdc.gov)
  • Most investigations on the haemodynamic effects of the endothelin system in humans were carried out in relation to systemic or pulmonary vascular beds, 9 13 while there are few data about coronary vascular effects in normal or diseased human hearts. (bmj.com)
  • Interaction of the chemoreflex and the pulmonary inflation reflex in the regulation of coronary circulation in conscious dogs. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The interaction of chemoreflex and pulmonary inflation reflex control of the coronary circulation was examined in conscious dogs by comparing the responses to chemoreflex stimulation (intracarotid injection of nicotine) when ventilation was allowed to increase with those when ventilation was controlled. (semanticscholar.org)
  • There are 2 primary circulatory loops in the human body: the pulmonary circulation loop and the systemic circulation loop . (innerbody.com)
  • Pulmonary circulation transports deoxygenated blood from the right side of the heart to the lungs , where the blood picks up oxygen and returns to the left side of the heart. (innerbody.com)
  • The pumping chambers of the heart that support the pulmonary circulation loop are the right atrium and right ventricle. (innerbody.com)
  • See also pulmonary circulation. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In my opinion, I think that this case may be a sugammadex hypersensitivity event, similar to Kounis syndrome, rather than acute coronary syndrome, as the authors had described [ 2 ]. (ekja.org)
  • Importantly, coronary artery anomalies are a cause of sudden death in young athletes in the absence of additional heart abnormalities. (medscape.com)
  • An anterior view of the heart shows the right coronary artery and the anterior descending branch of the left coronary artery. (bionity.com)
  • Physical Examination of the Heart and Circulation. (annals.org)
  • An evaluation and improvement of an in vitro heart phantom of the hearts coronary circulation. (diva-portal.org)
  • Systemic circulation carries highly oxygenated blood from the left side of the heart to all of the tissues of the body (with the exception of the heart and lungs). (innerbody.com)
  • Systemic circulation removes wastes from body tissues and returns deoxygenated blood to the right side of the heart. (innerbody.com)
  • The left atrium and left ventricle of the heart are the pumping chambers for the systemic circulation loop. (innerbody.com)
  • The right coronary artery generally supplies the right heart, whereas the left coronary artery supplies the left. (slideplayer.com)
  • The Cx coronary artery courses along the left AV groove, around the obtuse margin, and posteriorly toward the crux of the heart. (medscape.com)
  • The vasoconstrictive responses of the epicardial coronary artery to ACh were comparable between the Q/Q + Q/R and R/R groups. (cdc.gov)
  • Considering that diseases of the coronary circulation are the commonest cause of premature death, it is surprising that so few books have appeared on the subject. (annals.org)
  • Shiina et al conclude that despite these limitations, their results "suggest that cacao flavonoid has acute positive effects on coronary circulation. (innateresponse.com)
  • Splenic venous blood drains into the portal vein and passes through the liver before re-entering the general circulation. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The Hepatic Portal Circulation is the system which consist of the veins the stomach and intestines. (healthlifemedia.com)
  • Nitric oxide activity in the human coronary circulation. (jci.org)
  • Its use in humans, however, has been hampered by lack of knowledge about its effects on the human coronary circulation and by concern about its safety. (umn.edu)
  • The left coronary artery ends in the left anterior descending (LAD) and ramus (RM) branches. (ahajournals.org)
  • We present a case of a right middle lobe sequestration deriving its branches from the left coronary artery. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Summary: Inadequate coronary reserve is present in left ventricular hypertrophy secondary to hypertension. (elsevier.com)
  • Inter = intermedius branch of the left coronary artery. (medscape.com)
  • There is balanced/ right dominant/left dominant coronary artery circulation. (scribd.com)
  • The left coronary artery divides into the left circumflex and the left anterior descending artery. (medicowesome.com)
  • Left coronary artery visible at left. (wikipedia.org)
  • Left coronary artery is at upper right in the image. (wikipedia.org)
  • In approximately 2% of people, the vascular supply to the atrioventricular node arises from both the right coronary artery and the left circumflex branch. (wikipedia.org)
  • The diagonal branches of the left anterior descending coronary artery in ten pigs were ligated for 5, 15, 30, 60 and 120 minutes. (elsevier.com)
  • Understanding the pathophysiology is important in guiding management because variations in coronary anatomy are common. (medscape.com)
  • We conclude that the taxonomy of stable CAD could improve to better reflect the heterogeneous pathophysiology of the coronary circulation. (bmj.com)
  • In this article, we reappraise the causes of angina based on new insights into coronary pathophysiology. (bmj.com)
  • In an attempt to reduce CPB-inherent side effects, a minimal extracorporeal circulation (MECC) system was developed and it is evaluated in clinical practice. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This review, therefore, will present basic principles relevant to understanding commonly employed metrics of the physiological status of the coronary circulation, potential strengths and weaknesses, and hopefully an improved appreciation of the clinical information provided by each. (springermedizin.de)
  • This review summarizes recent attempts to stimulate the growth of the coronary vasculature and discusses their potential in clinical application. (eurekaselect.com)
  • We focus on disorders of coronary artery function and their clinical relevance. (bmj.com)