Coronary Artery Disease: Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Coronary Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Coronary Artery Bypass: Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.Coronary Circulation: The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.Coronary Stenosis: Narrowing or constriction of a coronary artery.Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary: Dilation of an occluded coronary artery (or arteries) by means of a balloon catheter to restore myocardial blood supply.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Angina Pectoris: The symptom of paroxysmal pain consequent to MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA usually of distinctive character, location and radiation. It is thought to be provoked by a transient stressful situation during which the oxygen requirements of the MYOCARDIUM exceed that supplied by the CORONARY CIRCULATION.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Myocardial Ischemia: A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Coronary Vasospasm: Spasm of the large- or medium-sized coronary arteries.Myocardial Revascularization: The restoration of blood supply to the myocardium. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.Calcinosis: Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Coronary Aneurysm: Abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of CORONARY VESSELS. Most coronary aneurysms are due to CORONARY ATHEROSCLEROSIS, and the rest are due to inflammatory diseases, such as KAWASAKI DISEASE.Myocardial Perfusion Imaging: The creation and display of functional images showing where the blood is flowing into the MYOCARDIUM by following over time the distribution of tracers injected into the blood stream.Stents: Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Dipyridamole: A phosphodiesterase inhibitor that blocks uptake and metabolism of adenosine by erythrocytes and vascular endothelial cells. Dipyridamole also potentiates the antiaggregating action of prostacyclin. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p752)Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Thallium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of thallium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Tl atoms with atomic weights 198-202, 204, and 206-210 are thallium radioisotopes.Cardiac Catheterization: Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump: Coronary artery bypass surgery on a beating HEART without a CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS (diverting the flow of blood from the heart and lungs through an oxygenator).Coronary Restenosis: Recurrent narrowing or constriction of a coronary artery following surgical procedures performed to alleviate a prior obstruction.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Carotid Arteries: Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.Ultrasonography, Interventional: The use of ultrasound to guide minimally invasive surgical procedures such as needle ASPIRATION BIOPSY; DRAINAGE; etc. Its widest application is intravascular ultrasound imaging but it is useful also in urology and intra-abdominal conditions.Coronary Thrombosis: Coagulation of blood in any of the CORONARY VESSELS. The presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) often leads to MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Dobutamine: A catecholamine derivative with specificity for BETA-1 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS. It is commonly used as a cardiotonic agent after CARDIAC SURGERY and during DOBUTAMINE STRESS ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Mammary Arteries: Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles and mammary gland.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Carotid Artery Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Chest Pain: Pressure, burning, or numbness in the chest.Coronary Occlusion: Complete blockage of blood flow through one of the CORONARY ARTERIES, usually from CORONARY ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Angina, Unstable: Precordial pain at rest, which may precede a MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A family of percutaneous techniques that are used to manage CORONARY OCCLUSION, including standard balloon angioplasty (PERCUTANEOUS TRANSLUMINAL CORONARY ANGIOPLASTY), the placement of intracoronary STENTS, and atheroablative technologies (e.g., ATHERECTOMY; ENDARTERECTOMY; THROMBECTOMY; PERCUTANEOUS TRANSLUMINAL LASER ANGIOPLASTY). PTCA was the dominant form of PCI, before the widespread use of stenting.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi: A technetium imaging agent used to reveal blood-starved cardiac tissue during a heart attack.Echocardiography, Stress: A method of recording heart motion and internal structures by combining ultrasonic imaging with exercise testing (EXERCISE TEST) or pharmacologic stress.Femoral Artery: The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Coronary Vessel Anomalies: Malformations of CORONARY VESSELS, either arteries or veins. Included are anomalous origins of coronary arteries; ARTERIOVENOUS FISTULA; CORONARY ANEURYSM; MYOCARDIAL BRIDGING; and others.Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors: Drugs or agents which antagonize or impair any mechanism leading to blood platelet aggregation, whether during the phases of activation and shape change or following the dense-granule release reaction and stimulation of the prostaglandin-thromboxane system.Cardiovascular Agents: Agents that affect the rate or intensity of cardiac contraction, blood vessel diameter, or blood volume.Radial Artery: The direct continuation of the brachial trunk, originating at the bifurcation of the brachial artery opposite the neck of the radius. Its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to the three regions in which the vessel is situated, the forearm, wrist, and hand.Nitroglycerin: A volatile vasodilator which relieves ANGINA PECTORIS by stimulating GUANYLATE CYCLASE and lowering cytosolic calcium. It is also sometimes used for TOCOLYSIS and explosives.Ventricular Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.Stroke Volume: The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Angina, Stable: Persistent and reproducible chest discomfort usually precipitated by a physical exertion that dissipates upon cessation of such an activity. The symptoms are manifestations of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Ventricular Dysfunction, Left: A condition in which the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the left ventricular wall.Brachial Artery: The continuation of the axillary artery; it branches into the radial and ulnar arteries.Renal Artery: A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.Diabetic Angiopathies: VASCULAR DISEASES that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Collateral Circulation: Maintenance of blood flow to an organ despite obstruction of a principal vessel. Blood flow is maintained through small vessels.Cholesterol, LDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Cerebral Arteries: The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.Multidetector Computed Tomography: Types of spiral computed tomography technology in which multiple slices of data are acquired simultaneously improving the resolution over single slice acquisition technology.Diabetes Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.Cholesterol, HDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Cineangiography: Motion pictures of the passage of contrast medium through blood vessels.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Mesenteric Arteries: Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Fractional Flow Reserve, Myocardial: The ratio of maximum blood flow to the MYOCARDIUM with CORONARY STENOSIS present, to the maximum equivalent blood flow without stenosis. The measurement is commonly used to verify borderline stenosis of CORONARY ARTERIES.Adenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.Plaque, Atherosclerotic: Lesions formed within the walls of ARTERIES.Angiography: Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Thallium: A heavy, bluish white metal, atomic number 81, atomic weight [204.382; 204.385], symbol Tl.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Thoracic Arteries: Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles, mammary gland and the axillary aspect of the chest wall.Vascular Calcification: Deposition of calcium into the blood vessel structures. Excessive calcification of the vessels are associated with ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES formation particularly after MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION (see MONCKEBERG MEDIAL CALCIFIC SCLEROSIS) and chronic kidney diseases which in turn increase VASCULAR STIFFNESS.Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Aspirin: The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)Cardiotonic Agents: Agents that have a strengthening effect on the heart or that can increase cardiac output. They may be CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES; SYMPATHOMIMETICS; or other drugs. They are used after MYOCARDIAL INFARCT; CARDIAC SURGICAL PROCEDURES; in SHOCK; or in congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).Atherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.Basilar Artery: The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Arteriosclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Iliac Artery: Either of two large arteries originating from the abdominal aorta; they supply blood to the pelvis, abdominal wall and legs.Constriction, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Hypercholesterolemia: A condition with abnormally high levels of CHOLESTEROL in the blood. It is defined as a cholesterol value exceeding the 95th percentile for the population.Lipoprotein(a): A lipoprotein that resembles the LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS but with an extra protein moiety, APOPROTEIN (A) also known as APOLIPOPROTEIN (A), linked to APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100 on the LDL by one or two disulfide bonds. High plasma level of lipoprotein (a) is associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.Drug-Eluting Stents: Stents that are covered with materials that are embedded with chemicals that are gradually released into the surrounding milieu.Hyperlipidemias: Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Tomography, Spiral Computed: Computed tomography where there is continuous X-ray exposure to the patient while being transported in a spiral or helical pattern through the beam of irradiation. This provides improved three-dimensional contrast and spatial resolution compared to conventional computed tomography, where data is obtained and computed from individual sequential exposures.Peripheral Arterial Disease: Lack of perfusion in the EXTREMITIES resulting from atherosclerosis. It is characterized by INTERMITTENT CLAUDICATION, and an ANKLE BRACHIAL INDEX of 0.9 or less.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Heart Transplantation: The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.Adrenergic beta-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Vertebral Artery: The first branch of the SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY with distribution to muscles of the NECK; VERTEBRAE; SPINAL CORD; CEREBELLUM; and interior of the CEREBRUM.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Acute Coronary Syndrome: An episode of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA that generally lasts longer than a transient anginal episode that ultimately may lead to MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome: An acute, febrile, mucocutaneous condition accompanied by swelling of cervical lymph nodes in infants and young children. The principal symptoms are fever, congestion of the ocular conjunctivae, reddening of the lips and oral cavity, protuberance of tongue papillae, and edema or erythema of the extremities.Ticlopidine: An effective inhibitor of platelet aggregation commonly used in the placement of STENTS in CORONARY ARTERIES.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Carotid Artery, Internal: Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Hyperemia: The presence of an increased amount of blood in a body part or an organ leading to congestion or engorgement of blood vessels. Hyperemia can be due to increase of blood flow into the area (active or arterial), or due to obstruction of outflow of blood from the area (passive or venous).Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Heart Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.Asymptomatic Diseases: Diseases that do not exhibit symptoms.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Carotid Artery, Common: The two principal arteries supplying the structures of the head and neck. They ascend in the neck, one on each side, and at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, each divides into two branches, the external (CAROTID ARTERY, EXTERNAL) and internal (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL) carotid arteries.Angiocardiography: Radiography of the heart and great vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Saphenous Vein: The vein which drains the foot and leg.Peripheral Vascular Diseases: Pathological processes involving any one of the BLOOD VESSELS in the vasculature outside the HEART.Subclavian Artery: Artery arising from the brachiocephalic trunk on the right side and from the arch of the aorta on the left side. It distributes to the neck, thoracic wall, spinal cord, brain, meninges, and upper limb.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Vascular Patency: The degree to which BLOOD VESSELS are not blocked or obstructed.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Coronary Care Units: The hospital unit in which patients with acute cardiac disorders receive intensive care.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Death, Sudden, Cardiac: Unexpected rapid natural death due to cardiovascular collapse within one hour of initial symptoms. It is usually caused by the worsening of existing heart diseases. The sudden onset of symptoms, such as CHEST PAIN and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS, particularly VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA, can lead to the loss of consciousness and cardiac arrest followed by biological death. (from Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, 7th ed., 2005)TriglyceridesDilatation, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being dilated beyond normal dimensions.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Angina Pectoris, Variant: A clinical syndrome characterized by the development of CHEST PAIN at rest with concomitant transient ST segment elevation in the ELECTROCARDIOGRAM, but with preserved exercise capacity.Organotechnetium Compounds: Organic compounds that contain technetium as an integral part of the molecule. These compounds are often used as radionuclide imaging agents.Myocardial Stunning: Prolonged dysfunction of the myocardium after a brief episode of severe ischemia, with gradual return of contractile activity.Sinus of Valsalva: The dilatation of the aortic wall behind each of the cusps of the aortic valve.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Pericardium: A conical fibro-serous sac surrounding the HEART and the roots of the great vessels (AORTA; VENAE CAVAE; PULMONARY ARTERY). Pericardium consists of two sacs: the outer fibrous pericardium and the inner serous pericardium. The latter consists of an outer parietal layer facing the fibrous pericardium, and an inner visceral layer (epicardium) resting next to the heart, and a pericardial cavity between these two layers.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Vasomotor System: The neural systems which act on VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE to control blood vessel diameter. The major neural control is through the sympathetic nervous system.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Arterial Occlusive Diseases: Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Internal Mammary-Coronary Artery Anastomosis: Direct myocardial revascularization in which the internal mammary artery is anastomosed to the right coronary artery, circumflex artery, or anterior descending coronary artery. The internal mammary artery is the most frequent choice, especially for a single graft, for coronary artery bypass surgery.Gated Blood-Pool Imaging: Radionuclide ventriculography where scintigraphic data is acquired during repeated cardiac cycles at specific times in the cycle, using an electrocardiographic synchronizer or gating device. Analysis of right ventricular function is difficult with this technique; that is best evaluated by first-pass ventriculography (VENTRICULOGRAPHY, FIRST-PASS).Anticholesteremic Agents: Substances used to lower plasma CHOLESTEROL levels.Nitrogen Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of nitrogen that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. N atoms with atomic weights 12, 13, 16, 17, and 18 are radioactive nitrogen isotopes.Cardiopulmonary Bypass: Diversion of the flow of blood from the entrance of the right atrium directly to the aorta (or femoral artery) via an oxygenator thus bypassing both the heart and lungs.Heart Function Tests: Examinations used to diagnose and treat heart conditions.JapanEchocardiography, Doppler: Measurement of intracardiac blood flow using an M-mode and/or two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiogram while simultaneously recording the spectrum of the audible Doppler signal (e.g., velocity, direction, amplitude, intensity, timing) reflected from the moving column of red blood cells.Isosorbide Dinitrate: A vasodilator used in the treatment of ANGINA PECTORIS. Its actions are similar to NITROGLYCERIN but with a slower onset of action.Carotid Stenosis: Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 822-3)Graft Occlusion, Vascular: Obstruction of flow in biological or prosthetic vascular grafts.Angioplasty, Balloon: Use of a balloon catheter for dilation of an occluded artery. It is used in treatment of arterial occlusive diseases, including renal artery stenosis and arterial occlusions in the leg. For the specific technique of BALLOON DILATION in coronary arteries, ANGIOPLASTY, BALLOON, CORONARY is available.Microvascular Angina: ANGINA PECTORIS or angina-like chest pain with a normal coronary arteriogram and positive EXERCISE TEST. The cause of the syndrome is unknown. While its recognition is of clinical importance, its prognosis is excellent. (Braunwald, Heart Disease, 4th ed, p1346; Jablonski Dictionary of Syndromes & Eponymic Diseases, 2d ed). It is different from METABOLIC SYNDROME X, a syndrome characterized by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA, that has increased risk for cardiovascular disease.Tunica Intima: The innermost layer of an artery or vein, made up of one layer of endothelial cells and supported by an internal elastic lamina.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Radionuclide Ventriculography: Imaging of a ventricle of the heart after the injection of a radioactive contrast medium. The technique is less invasive than cardiac catheterization and is used to assess ventricular function.Ergonovine: An ergot alkaloid (ERGOT ALKALOIDS) with uterine and VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE contractile properties.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Thrombosis: Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.Diastole: Post-systolic relaxation of the HEART, especially the HEART VENTRICLES.Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)

Constitutional, biochemical and lifestyle correlates of fibrinogen and factor VII activity in Polish urban and rural populations. (1/8418)

BACKGROUND: Fibrinogen and factor VII activity are known to be related to atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease, but population differences in clotting factors and modifiable characteristics that influence their levels have not been widely explored. METHODS: This paper examines correlates of plasma fibrinogen concentration and factor VII activity in 2443 men and women aged 35-64 in random samples selected from the residents in two districts in urban Warsaw (618 men and 651 women) and from rural Tarnobrzeg Province (556 men and 618 women) screened in 1987-1988, and assesses which characteristics might explain urban-rural differences. Fibrinogen and factor VII activity were determined using coagulation methods. RESULTS: Fibrinogen was 12.9 mg/dl higher in men and 14.1 mg/dl higher in women in Tarnobrzeg compared to Warsaw. Factor VII activity was higher in Warsaw (9.2% in men and 15.3% in women). After adjustment for selected characteristics, fibrinogen was higher in smokers compared to non-smokers by 28 mg/dl in men and 22 mg/dl in women. In women, a 15 mg/dl increase in HDL-cholesterol was associated with a 10 mg/dl decrease in fibrinogen (P < 0.01). After adjustment for other variables, a higher factor VII activity in Warsaw remained significant (a difference of 9.4% in men and 14.8% in women). Lower fibrinogen in Warsaw remained significant only in women (15.4 mg/dl difference). CONCLUSIONS: The study confirmed that sex, age, BMI, smoking and blood lipids are related to clotting factors. However, with the exception of gender differences and smoking, associations between clotting factors and other variables were small and of questionable practical importance.  (+info)

Combined carotid endarterectomy and coronary artery bypass graft. (2/8418)

Atherosclerosis is a generalized disease which afflicts a considerable number of patients in both the carotid and coronary arteries. Although the risk of stroke or death use to combined carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) is thought to be higher than that of each individual operation, the combined procedure is generally preferred over staged operations to treat such patients. We performed the combined procedure safely with the aid of intraoperative portable digital subtraction angiography (DSA). This report describes our experience with the operative strategy of simultaneous CEA and CABG. Ninety CEA and 404 CABG were carried out between January 1989 and December 1997. A total of six patients received the combined procedure with the aid of intraoperative DSA; they were studied retrospectively. Postoperative mortality and morbidity after the combined procedure was 0%. In the combined procedure, neurological complications are difficult to detect after CEA because the patient must be maintained under general anesthesia and extracorporeal circulation during the subsequent CABG. However, intraoperative DSA can confirm patency of the internal carotid artery and absence of flap formation after CEA, and the CABG can be performed safely. Intraoperative portable DSA between CEA and CABG is helpful in preventing perioperative stroke in the combined procedure.  (+info)

Macroscopic distribution of coronary atherosclerotic lesions in cholesterol-fed rabbits. (3/8418)

In the present study we macroscopically examined a change in the distribution of coronary atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Rabbits were fed a cholesterol-enriched diet for 15 weeks, then replaced by a normal diet, and were sacrificed at 15, 24, 32 and 42 weeks after the start of the experiment. The coronary atherosclerosis in the cholesterol-fed rabbits was distributed more densely in the proximal portion than in the middle and distal portions, and the lesions were severe at 24 and 32 weeks after the start of the experiment. comparison of lesions in the three portions at these time points showed that the percentages of lesion areas in the proximal portion, the middle portion and the distal portion were approximately 51%, 21 to 25% and 0.2 to 3.7%, respectively. Macroscopic observation of the coronary atherosclerotic lesions showed that the lesions formed over the vessel lumen in the proximal portion within the range of approximately 5 mm from the orifice of the left coronary artery. In the middle portion, the lesions formed predominantly around the orifices of branches as small patchy lesions from 1 to 3 mm in diameter. These findings support previous histopathological reports that suggested that the incidence of stenosis in the proximal portion was high, and the incidence of lesion occurrence in the middle and the distal portions varied. The method, macroscopical investigation of the coronary artery, is useful for analyzing coronary atherosclerosis in the rabbit.  (+info)

Age-related changes in blood coagulation and fibrinolysis in mice fed on a high-cholesterol diet. (4/8418)

To investigate the pathogenesis of hyperlipidemia-induced atherosclerosis, we examined age-dependent changes in platelet activity, blood coagulation and fibrinolysis in susceptibility to a high cholesterol diet (HCD) feeding in male ICR mice. Pretreatment of platelet-rich-plasma from HCD feeding mice for 3 days with epinephrine (300 microM) resulted in a marked enhancement of adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP: 0.1 microM) or collagen (0.7 microgram/ml)-stimulated aggregation compared with the same in control mice. Yohimbine as alpha 2-adrenergic blocker antagonized these aggregations in a dose-dependent manner. A significant increase in plasma total cholesterol and VLDL (very low-density lipoprotein)-LDL (low-density lipoprotein)-cholesterol and the liver/body weight ratio was observed in mice fed on HCD for 3 months (3-month HCD mice). In the early phase of this experiment, a significant increase in fibrinogen was observed. In the middle phase, increases in the activity of antithrombin III (ATIII) and alpha 2-plasmin inhibitor (alpha 2-Pl) followed. Plasminogen content gradually decreased in both normal diet and HCD mice throughout the experiment. The activity of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) decreased in 3-month HCD mice. Morphological observation of the aortic arch from 3-month HCD mice revealed apparent atheromatous plaques not seen in control mice. These results suggest that 3-month HCD mice can be a convenient hyperlipidemia-induced atherosclerotic model and the changes in platelet activity, coagulation and fibrinolysis in the early phase may be a cause of pathologic changes in this model.  (+info)

2-Isopropylidenehydrazono-4-oxo-thiazolidin-5-ylacetanilide (OPB-9195) treatment inhibits the development of intimal thickening after balloon injury of rat carotid artery: role of glycoxidation and lipoxidation reactions in vascular tissue damage. (5/8418)

We have pursued the hypothesis that the carbonyl modification of proteins by glycoxidation and lipoxidation reactions plays a role in atherogenesis. Human atherosclerotic tissues with fatty streaks and uremic arteriosclerotic tissues were examined, with specific antibodies, to detect protein adducts formed with carbonyl compounds by glycoxidation or lipoxidation reactions, i.e. advanced glycation end products (AGEs) or glycoxidation products, such as carboxymethyllysine (CML) and pentosidine, and lipoxidation products, such as malondialdehyde (MDA)-lysine and 4-hydroxy-nonenal (HNE)-protein adduct. All the four adducts were identified in the proliferative intima and in macrophage-rich fatty streaks. If the carbonyl modification is not a mere result but is a contributor to atherogenesis, inhibition of glycoxidation and lipoxidation reactions might prevent vascular tissue damage. We tested this hypothesis in rats following balloon injury of their carotid arteries, a model exhibiting a remarkable intimal thickening, which are stained positive for all the four adducts. Oral administration of 2-isopropylidenehydrazono-4-oxo-thiazolidin-5-ylacetanili de (OPB-9195), an inhibitor of both glycoxidation and lipoxidation reactions, in rats following balloon injury effectively prevented the intimal thickening. These data suggest a role for the carbonyl modification of proteins by glycoxidation and lipoxidation reactions in most, if not all, types of vascular tissue damage ('carbonyl stress'), and the usefulness of inhibitors of carbonyl reactions for the treatment of vascular tissue damage.  (+info)

Association of dietary protein intake and coffee consumption with serum homocysteine concentrations in an older population. (6/8418)

BACKGROUND: Elevated blood concentrations of total homocysteine (tHcy) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Previous studies identified suboptimal nutritional status and dietary intake of folate, vitamin B-6, and vitamin B-12 as determinants of elevated tHcy. OBJECTIVE: We identified other nutritional factors associated with tHcy in 260 retired schoolteachers in the Baltimore metropolitan area. DESIGN: We performed observational analyses of baseline and 2-4-mo follow-up data collected in a study designed to test the feasibility of conducting a large-scale clinical trial of vitamin supplements by mail. The study population consisted of 151 women and 109 men with a median age of 64 y. At baseline, each participant completed a food-frequency questionnaire. At follow-up, fasting serum tHcy was measured. RESULTS: In multivariable linear regression and generalized linear models, there was an independent, inverse dose-response relation between dietary protein and In tHcy (P = 0.002) and a positive, significant dose-response relation between coffee consumption and In tHcy (P for trend = 0.01). Other significant predictors of In tHcy were creatinine (positive; P = 0.0001) and prestudy use of supplemental B vitamins (inverse; P = 0.03). In stratified analyses restricted to persons receiving standard multivitamin therapy, the association of 1n tHcy with dietary protein and coffee persisted. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the hypothesis that increased protein intake and decreased coffee consumption may reduce tHcy and potentially prevent atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and other disease outcomes.  (+info)

Tenascin-C is expressed in macrophage-rich human coronary atherosclerotic plaque. (7/8418)

BACKGROUND: Tenascin is a large extracellular matrix glycoprotein generally found in adult tissues undergoing active remodeling such as healing wounds and tumors. To determine the potential role of tenascin-C (TN-C) in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis, we investigated the pattern of expression of TN-C in human coronary atherosclerotic plaques. METHODS AND RESULTS: Immunohistochemical staining and in situ hybridization demonstrated minimal and random expression of TN-C in fibrotic but lipid-poor atherosclerotic plaques. In contrast, all plaques with an organized lipid core or ruptured intimal surface strongly expressed TN-C, which was preferentially concentrated around the lipid core, shoulder regions, and ruptured area of the plaques but not in the fibrous cap. TN-C was not detected in normal arterial tissue. To identify the cellular source of TN-C, the plaques were stained with smooth muscle cell- and macrophage-specific antibodies. TN-C expression correlated with the infiltration of macrophages. Northern blot and immunoprecipitation analysis showed that macrophages expressed 7. 0-kb TN-C mRNA and 220-kDa protein. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction of total RNA derived from macrophages showed that they express the small isoform of TN-C. Zymogram analysis revealed that macrophages markedly increased MMP-9 expression. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that the level of TN-C expression correlates with the degree of inflammation present, not with plaque size. In addition, cultured macrophages have the capacity to express the TN-C gene. These findings suggest the significance of macrophages in the remodeling of atherosclerotic plaque matrix composition.  (+info)

Prior cytomegalovirus infection and the risk of restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary balloon angioplasty. (8/8418)

BACKGROUND: Restenosis is a common problem after all revascularization procedures in atherosclerotic coronary arteries. Reactivated human cytomegalovirus (CMV) has been detected in tissues of restenotic vascular lesions and was hypothesized to be a contributing pathogenic factor. Recent data suggest an association of restenosis after optimal coronary atherectomy with CMV serostatus, and a possible role of antiviral therapy was discussed. We therefore tested the hypothesis that prior CMV infection might be a risk factor for restenosis after conventional coronary balloon angioplasty (PTCA). METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed 92 consecutive patients who had been admitted for control angiography after previous PTCA within a mean interval of 6 months. Anti-CMV antibodies were measured as an indicator of prior CMV infection and latency. The coronary angiograms before PTCA, directly after, and 6 months later were analyzed quantitatively. Sixty-five percent of the patients were CMV-positive. Before PTCA, the degree (mean+/-SD) of stenosis was 69+/-10% in CMV-positive and 68+/-8.3% in CMV-negative subjects. PTCA resulted in a residual stenosis of 39% in both groups. After 6 months, the late losses of luminal diameter in the CMV-positive and -negative groups were 11+/-13% and 12+/-15%, respectively (P=0.658). In an ANCOVA with 25 potential risk factors for restenosis, CMV serostatus was not significantly associated with restenosis development. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that prior CMV infection, in contrast to optimal atherectomy, is not associated with chronic restenosis after conventional coronary balloon angioplasty. The results do not support a possible benefit from antiviral therapy.  (+info)

Background: Coronary artery disease is sometimes associated with chronic conduction block. Our aim is to correlate between chronic conduction block and coronary artery disease. We performed ECG and coronary angiography of all patients who were admitted for permanent pacemaker implantation to find correlation between them. Methods: Coronary angiography was performed in all 160 patients of chronic conduction block during twenty four months of study period who were admitted for pacemaker implantation. We compared the coronary artery disease in different types of conduction block. Results: Among the study population 35(22%) patients are of single vessel coronary artery disease (CAD),13 (8%) patients had double vessel coronary artery disease, 6 (4%) patients had triple vessel coronary artery disease, 2 (1%) patients had left main disease and 104 (65%) patients had normal or insignificant coronary anatomy. Conclusion: Coronary artery disease is quite common in chronic conduction disorder. So there ...
Table of Contents. Table of Contents 2. List of Tables 8. List of Figures 9. Introduction 10. Global Markets Direct Report Coverage 10. Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) (Ischemic Heart Disease) Overview 11. Therapeutics Development 12. Pipeline Products for Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) (Ischemic Heart Disease)-Overview 12. Pipeline Products for Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) (Ischemic Heart Disease)-Comparative Analysis 13. Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) (Ischemic Heart Disease)-Therapeutics under Development by Companies 14. Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) (Ischemic Heart Disease)-Therapeutics under Investigation by Universities/Institutes 17. Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) (Ischemic Heart Disease)-Pipeline Products Glance 18. Late Stage Products 18. Clinical Stage Products 19. Early Stage Products 20. Unknown Stage Products 21. Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) (Ischemic Heart Disease)-Products under Development by Companies 22. Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) (Ischemic Heart Disease)-Products under ...
Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2014 Jan 21;10:55-62. doi: 10.2147/VHRM.S53557. eCollection 2014.. Roed T1, Kristoffersen US2, Knudsen A3, Wiinberg N4, Lebech AM1, Almdal T5, Thomsen RW6, Kjær A2, Weis N7.. Abstract. OBJECTIVE: Chronic hepatitis C is a global health problem and has been associated with coronary artery disease. Our aim was to examine the prevalence of coronary artery disease risk markers including endothelial biomarkers in patients with chronic hepatitis C and matched comparisons without manifest cardiovascular disease or diabetes in a cross-sectional design.. METHODS: Sixty patients with chronic hepatitis C (mean age 51 years) were recruited from the Department of Infectious Diseases at Copenhagen University Hospital, and compared with 60 age-matched non-hepatitis C virus-infected individuals from a general population survey. We examined traditional coronary artery disease risk factors, metabolic syndrome, carotid intima media thickness, and a range of endothelial biomarkers.. RESULTS: ...
Objectives: Higher coronary atherosclerotic burden has been associated with increased cardiovascular events including mortality. The SYNTAX score (SXs) reflects coronary atherosclerotic burden. Given the body of evidence implicating inflammation in atherosclerotic process, we hypothesized that procalcitonin (PCT) as an inflammatory marker may be related to coronary atherosclerotic burden. Thus, we aimed to investigate the relationship between serum PCT levels and SXs in patients with stable CAD. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Long-Term Prognosis of Vasospastic Angina without Significant Atherosclerotic Coronary Artery Disease. AU - Egashira, Kcnsuke. AU - Kikuchi, Yutaka. AU - Sagara, Tomohiko. AU - Sugihara, Masayoshi. AU - Nakamura, Motoomi. PY - 1987/1/1. Y1 - 1987/1/1. N2 - Long-term prognosis of 90 patients with vasospastic angina without significant coronary artery disease (less than 50% reduction in luminal diameter) was examined for a mean follow-up period of 4 years. All patients had episodes of angina at rest and were treated with calcium antagonists. One patient developed myocardial infarction and 2 died suddenly during the follow-up period. In the patient with myocardial infarction, there was an abrupt worsening of angina prior to the infarction despite therapy with a calcium antagonist. One of the sudden death patients discontinued his calcium antagonist before his death. Of the sudden death patients, one had ventricular tachycardia and the other had a complete atrioventricular block ...
BACKGROUND: Patients with obstructive left main coronary artery disease are usually treated with coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG). Randomized trials have suggested that drug-eluting stents may be an acceptable alternative to CABG in selected patients with left main coronary disease. METHODS: We randomly assigned 1905 eligible patients with left main coronary artery disease of low or intermediate anatomical complexity to undergo either percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with fluoropolymer-based cobalt-chromium everolimus-eluting stents (PCI group, 948 patients) or CABG (CABG group, 957 patients). Anatomic complexity was assessed at the sites and defined by a Synergy between Percutaneous Coronary Intervention with Taxus and Cardiac Surgery (SYNTAX) score of 32 or lower (the SYNTAX score reflects a comprehensive angiographic assessment of the coronary vasculature, with 0 as the lowest score and higher scores [no upper limit] indicating more complex coronary anatomy). The primary end point was
TY - JOUR. T1 - Metabolic syndrome and angiographic coronary artery disease prevalence in association with the framingham risk score. AU - Konstantinou, Dimitris M.. AU - Chatzizisis, Yiannis S.. AU - Louridas, George E.. AU - Giannoglou, George D.. PY - 2010/6/1. Y1 - 2010/6/1. N2 - Background: The association of metabolic syndrome with coronary artery disease (CAD) has been studied extensively. However, little is known about the effect of Framingham risk score (FRS) and metabolic syndrome components on the association of metabolic syndrome with angiographically significant CAD. Our aim was to investigate whether that relationship is influenced by individuals 10-year CAD risk profile as assessed by FRS. Furthermore, we sought to elucidate whether metabolic syndrome is associated with angiographically significant CAD independently of its individual components. Methods: We studied a consecutive sample of 150 patients undergoing coronary angiography for the evaluation of chest pain. Metabolic ...
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to ascertain the relationship of 9p21 locus with: 1) angiographic coronary artery disease (CAD) burden; and 2) myocardial infarction (MI) in individuals with underlying CAD. BACKGROUND: Chromosome 9p21 variants have been robustly associated with coronary heart disease, but questions remain on the mechanism of risk, specifically whether the locus contributes to coronary atheroma burden or plaque instability. METHODS: We established a collaboration of 21 studies consisting of 33,673 subjects with information on both CAD (clinical or angiographic) and MI status along with 9p21 genotype. Tabular data are provided for each cohort on the presence and burden of angiographic CAD, MI cases with underlying CAD, and the diabetic status of all subjects. RESULTS: We first confirmed an association between 9p21 and CAD with angiographically defined cases and control subjects (pooled odds ratio [OR]: 1.31, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.20 to 1.43). Among subjects with angiographic CAD (n
TY - JOUR. T1 - Internal pudendal artery stenoses and erectile dysfunction. T2 - Correlation with angiographic coronary artery disease. AU - Rogers, Jason H. AU - Karimi, Houshang. AU - Kao, John. AU - Link, Daniel P. AU - Javidan, Javid. AU - Yamasaki, Dwayne S.. AU - Dolan, Mark. AU - Laird, John R.. AU - Low, Reginald. PY - 2010/11/15. Y1 - 2010/11/15. N2 - Objectives: To describe the angiographic characteristics of pelvic arterial disease in patients with erectile dysfunction (ED) nonresponsive to phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (PDE5i) and suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). Background: ED and CAD share common risk factors which can result in endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerosis and flow-limiting stenoses in the coronary and internal pudendal arteries. Methods: Ten patients undergoing cardiac catheterization with ED and a history of unsatisfactory response to a PDE5i were studied. ED severity was quantified using the International Index of ED scoring system. We performed angiography ...
Thesis, English, Role of monocyte chemotactic protein 1|(mcp1)in diagnosis of patients with atherosclerotic coronary artery disease for Ebraheem Dalia El Morsy
Archbold Hosts Health Talk on Coronary Artery Disease Wednesday, February 11, 2015 Coronary artery disease, also known as coronary heart disease...
Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) is an antioxidant enzyme, that resides on high-density lipoprotein (HDL). PON1-activity, is heavily influenced by the PON1-Q192R polymorphism. PON1 is considered to protect against atherosclerosis, but it is unclear whether this relation is independent of its carrier, HDL. In order to evaluate the atheroprotective potential of PON1, we assessed the relationships among PON1-genotype, PON1-activity and risk of future coronary artery disease (CAD), in a large prospective case-control study. Methodology/Principal Findings: Cases (n = 1138) were apparently healthy men and women aged 45-79 years who developed fatal or nonfatal CAD during a mean follow-up of 6 years. Controls (n = 2237) were matched by age, sex and enrollment time. PON1-activity was similar in cases and controls (60.7 +/- 645.3 versus 62.6 +/- 645.8 U/L, p = 0.3) and correlated with HDL-cholesterol levels (r = 0.16, p , 0.0001). The PON1-Q192R polymorphism had a profound impact on PON1-activity, but did not predict ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Algorithm to predict triple-vessel/left main coronary artery disease in patients without myocardial infarction. T2 - An international cross validation. AU - Detrano, Robert. AU - Jánosi, A.. AU - Steinbrunn, Walter. AU - Pfisterer, Matthias. AU - Schmid, Johann Jakob. AU - Maggie Meyer, M.. AU - Guppy, Kern H.. AU - Abi-Mansour, Pierre. PY - 1991. Y1 - 1991. N2 - Logistic regression was applied to the clinical, risk factor, and exercise data of consecutive angiographic referrals without prior myocardial infarction to determine an algorithm predicting the probability of triple-vessel/left main coronary artery disease. These data were obtained from a total of 1,074 such subjects from patient populations at four centers (Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio; Hungarian Institute of Cardiology, Budapest, Hungary; the university hospitals, Zurich and Basel, Switzerland; and the Veterans Administration Medical Center, Long Beach, Calif.) and used to derive four separate ...
... Rev Cardiovasc Med. 2011;12(2):e77-83. Authors: Lee MS, Nguyen J. Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is the gold standard for the treatment of left main disease, whereas percutaneous coronary intervention is a viable option for patients who are candidates for revascularization but ineligible for CABG. CABG is limited by extended hospital stay followed by rehabilitation and mediocre long-term patency of saphenous vein grafts. Drug-eluting stents decrease the restenosis rates compared with bare metal stents and provide comparable clinical outcomes with those of CABG. Patients with isolated left main disease limited to the ostium or midbody are most likely to have good clinical outcomes with low restenosis and stent thrombosis rates. The results of the ongoing EXCEL trial, which compares left main percutaneous coronary intervention with drug-eluting stents and CABG, will provide insight regarding the ideal revascularization ...
Association of epicardial fat, hypertension, subclinical coronary artery disease, and metabolic syndrome with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction
TY - JOUR. T1 - ACR appropriateness criteria chronic chest pain - Low to intermediate probability of coronary artery disease. AU - Woodard, Pamela K.. AU - White, Richard D.. AU - Abbara, Suhny. AU - Araoz, Philip A.. AU - Cury, Ricardo C.. AU - Dorbala, Sharmila. AU - Earls, James P.. AU - Hoffmann, Udo. AU - Hsu, Joe Y.. AU - Jacobs, Jill E.. AU - Javidan-Nejad, Cylen. AU - Krishnamurthy, Rajesh. AU - Mammen, Leena. AU - Martin, Edward T.. AU - Ryan, Thomas. AU - Shah, Amar B.. AU - Steiner, Robert M.. AU - Vogel-Claussen, Jens. AU - White, Charles S.. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - Chronic chest pain can arise from a variety of etiologies. However, of those potential causes, the most life-threatening include cardiac disease. Chronic cardiac chest pain may be caused either by ischemia or atherosclerotic coronary artery disease or by other cardiac-related etiologies, such as pericardial disease. To consider in patients, especially those who are at low risk for coronary artery disease, are ...
The global Coronary Artery Disease Therapeutics Market report offers precise analytical information about the Coronary Artery Disease Therapeutics market. The market experts and proficient analysts generate the information based on the past and current situation of Coronary Artery Disease Therapeutics market, various factors affecting the growth trajectory, global sales, demand, total revenue generated, and capitalization of the market. Moreover, the report delivers a summarized assessment of the impact of federal policies and regulations on market operations. It also comprises detailed information pertaining to the Coronary Artery Disease Therapeutics markets current dynamics. The global Coronary Artery Disease Therapeutics market acts as a huge platform that offers several opportunities for many reputed firms, organizations, manufacturers, vendors, and suppliers AstraZeneca, Gilead, Novartis, Pfizer, Bayer, Bristol-Myers Squibb, GlaxoSmithKline, Merck, Mylan, Teva Pharmaceutical Industries ...
Abstract:. Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is often associated with severe Coronary artery disease (CAD). Since patients with higher risk of severe disease are likely to get better benefit from aggressive management, it is essential to identify factors which are associated with severe macrovascular disease. We looked at the possibility of hyperinsulinemia being a marker for severe and complex coronary artery disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus, to select patients who would benefit from aggressive treatment. Methods: A cross sectional study of 290 type 2 diabetic patients, who underwent coronary angiogram for the evaluation of clinically suspected CAD at a tertiary care hospital were recruited. Biochemical and anthropometric parameters were analysed. Insulin resistance was measured by homeostasis model assessment method. Angiographically measured syntax score of more than 22 is considered to be severe and complex CAD. Receiver operating curve characteristic was performed to find out the ...
Abstract:. Background: Non-communicable diseases constitute about 68% of global death annually. Among NCD deaths, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) ranks first with a share of 46.2% amounting to 17.5 million deaths. First degree relatives of patients with coronary heart disease have a higher risk of getting cardiovascular events due to interplay between genetic as well as environmental factors. The aim of this research WAS to assess the prevalence of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) risk factors and to estimate the cardiovascular risk among first degree relatives of CAD patients. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was performed in first degree relatives of coronary artery disease patients in cardiology ward of JIPMER a tertiary care hospital in Puducherry. Overall 218 first degree relatives aged ≥18 were involved in study. The desired information was obtained using a pre-tested questionnaire and participants were also subjected to anthropometric measurements and laboratory investigations. WHO/ISH ...
Physical Therapeutic Instrument For Coronary Artery Disease directory ☆ Physical Therapeutic Instrument For Coronary Artery Disease manufacturers, suppliers ☆ Physical Therapeutic Instrument For Coronary Artery Disease buyers, importers, wholesalers, distributors
Background. Diverse ethnic groups may differ regarding the risk factors and severity of coronary artery disease (CAD). This study sought to assess the association between ethnicity and CAD risk and severity in six major Iranian ethnic groups.. Methods. In this study, 20,165 documented coronary artery disease patients who underwent coronary angiography at a tertiary referral heart center were recruited. The demographic, laboratory, clinical, and risk factor data of all the patients were retrieved. The Gensini score (an indicator of CAD severity) was calculated for all, and the risk factors and severity of CAD were compared between the ethnical groups, using adjusted standardized residuals, Kruskal-Wallis test, and multivariable regression analysis.. Results. The mean age of the participants (14,131 [70.1%] men and 6034 [29.9%] women) was 60.7 ± 10.8 years. The Fars (8.7%) and Gilak (8.6%) ethnic groups had the highest prevalence of ≥4 simultaneous risk factors. The mean Gensini score was the ...
Coronary arteries supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle. Coronary artery disease results from atherosclerosis, a buildup of fatty deposits and plaque in the lining of a coronary artery, which narrows the artery and causes a decrease in blood flow to the heart muscle.. When a coronary artery suddenly becomes blocked and blood flow to an area of heart muscle stops, it is called a heart attack. A heart attack can permanently damage heart muscle and cause the affected area of the heart not to pump properly.. Common symptoms of coronary artery disease include shortness of breath and angina (pain or a feeling of increased pressure in the chest). Less common symptoms include nausea, sweating, fatigue, dizziness and decreased exercise tolerance.. In addition to diet, exercise, medication therapy and coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery there are a number of minimally invasive procedures that can restore blood flow through a blocked coronary artery. These procedures include:. ...
Ling Jun Chen, Mercer University College of Pharmacy Coronary artery disease leads to the narrowing of coronary arteries and is associated with risk factors that include cigarette smoking, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes. [1] European and U.S. guidelines have declared that patients with coronary artery disease have an increased risk of developing ischemia and infarction. Coronary-artery…
Polymorphisms in paraoxonase 1 (PON1) coding for PON1 enzyme have been studied as genetic markers of coronary artery disease (CAD). PON1 Q192R and PON1 L55M polymorphisms have been analyzed extensively, but data on association and role of these polymorphisms in the etiology of CAD are conflicting. In this study, we tested the genetic association between PON1 Q192R and PON1 L55M polymorphisms and CAD among north Indians. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred eighty-five angiographically proven patients with coronary artery disease and 200 sex-matched and ethnically matched controls were genotyped for 2 PON1 polymorphisms by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. Genotype/ allele frequencies were compared in patients and controls using the chi-square test. RESULTS: At PON1-192 locus, there were significant differences between patients and controls (P, 0.05), leading to significant odds ratios for RR genotype (OR= 1.92, CI: 1.19-3.10) and *R allele ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Usefulness of myocardial perfusion echocardiography to identify obstructive coronary artery disease in patients with abnormal ventricular septal motion. AU - Spevack, Daniel M.. AU - Shoyeb, Abu. AU - Yoon, Andrew J.. AU - Gordon, Garet M.. AU - Matros, Todd. AU - Reynolds, Harmony A.. AU - Shah, Alan. AU - Tunick, Paul A.. AU - Kronzon, Itzhak. PY - 2005/4/1. Y1 - 2005/4/1. N2 - Twenty-three patients who had septal wall motion abnormalities and who underwent angiography within 2 weeks were evaluated by myocardial perfusion echocardiography. Mean perfusion score (plateau video intensity times the wash-in rate) was lower in segments that were supplied by obstructed coronary arteries in real time (7.5 vs 22.6 dB/s, p ,0.005) and with end-systolic triggering (8.6 vs 20.9 dB/s, p ,0.001). Lower mean septal perfusion scores (,12 dB/s) were seen in 14 of 16 patients who had obstructive septal coronary artery disease, and normal mean septal perfusion scores were seen in 6 of 7 patients ...
Insulin-resistance is associated with cardiovascular disease but it is not used as a marker for disease in clinical practice. To study the association between the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR) and triglyceride/HDLc ratio (TG/HDLc) with the presence of coronary artery disease in patients submitted to cardiac catheterization. In a cross-sectional study, 131 patients (57.0 ± 10 years-old, 51.5% men) underwent clinical, laboratory and angiographic evaluation and were classified as No CAD (absence of coronary artery disease) or CAD (stenosis of more than 30% in at least one major coronary artery). Prevalence of coronary artery disease was 56.7%. HOMA-IR and TG/HDLc index were higher in the CAD vs No CAD group, respectively: HOMA-IR: 3.19 (1.70-5.62) vs. 2.33 (1.44-4.06), p = 0.015 and TG/HDLc: 3.20 (2.38-5.59) vs. 2.80 (1.98-4.59) p = 0.045) - median (p25-75). After a ROC curve analysis, cut-off values were selected based on the best positive predictive value for each variable: HOMA-IR = 6.0, TG
Insulin-resistance is associated with cardiovascular disease but it is not used as a marker for disease in clinical practice. To study the association between the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR) and triglyceride/HDLc ratio (TG/HDLc) with the presence of coronary artery disease in patients submitted to cardiac catheterization. In a cross-sectional study, 131 patients (57.0 ± 10 years-old, 51.5% men) underwent clinical, laboratory and angiographic evaluation and were classified as No CAD (absence of coronary artery disease) or CAD (stenosis of more than 30% in at least one major coronary artery). Prevalence of coronary artery disease was 56.7%. HOMA-IR and TG/HDLc index were higher in the CAD vs No CAD group, respectively: HOMA-IR: 3.19 (1.70-5.62) vs. 2.33 (1.44-4.06), p = 0.015 and TG/HDLc: 3.20 (2.38-5.59) vs. 2.80 (1.98-4.59) p = 0.045) - median (p25-75). After a ROC curve analysis, cut-off values were selected based on the best positive predictive value for each variable: HOMA-IR = 6.0, TG
Coronary calcium score is an independent predictor of risk of significant coronary artery disease. It may refine overall risk of coronary artery disease estimated with conventional risk factors. It is based on CT examination and calculation of the Agatston score from the images.
Medical Management Of Stable Coronary Artery Disease ,Stable Coronary Artery Disease (Management patients with stable known or suspected
In this 2-center study of 2,583 consecutive patients without prior known CAD and without obstructive CAD, nonobstructive coronary artery plaque presence and extent as identified by 64-detector row CCTA are associated with heightened mortality risk in a 3-year follow-up period. The CCTA nonobstructive plaque assessment added significant risk prediction beyond patient demographic data, traditional CAD risk factors, and Framingham risk score.. The results of the present study suggest a potential utility for diagnosis of nonobstructive CAD by CCTA. Such patients experience heightened mortality risk, even though they represent a patient population for whom functional stress testing would be expected to be negative and who might not be referred for evaluation by invasive coronary angiography (ICA) after CCTA. Our results confirm prior observations of a high negative predictive value of a normal CCTA for later adverse clinical events but are additive to the prior published reports by identifying a ...
The use of non-invasive imaging to identify ruptured or high-risk coronary atherosclerotic plaques would represent a major clinical advance for prevention and treatment of coronary artery disease. We used combined PET and CT to identify ruptured and
Change in R wave amplitude (mean delta R) was measured sequentially during and after 12 lead maximal treadmill exercise tests in 14 subjects with normal coronary arteries and 62 patients with coronary artery disease. In normal subjects mean delta R decreased maximally one minute after exercise and returned to control levels within three minutes. In contrast, mean delta R increased in patients with coronary artery disease, the greatest change occurring in patients with either triple vessel or left main disease or those with an akinetic region on the left ventriculogram. R wave amplitude returned to resting levels in five minutes. Increase in R wave amplitude was not directly related to changes in the ST segment. Changes in R wave amplitude during maximal treadmill exercise may improve the discrimination between patients with and without coronary artery disease and may help to identify those patients with abnormal left ventricular function. ...
BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and is a consequence of acute thrombotic events involving activation of platelets and coagulation proteins. Factor Xa inhibitors and aspirin each reduce thrombotic events but have not yet been tested in combination or against each other in patients with stable coronary artery disease. METHODS: In this multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, outpatient trial, patients with stable coronary artery disease or peripheral artery disease were recruited at 602 hospitals, clinics, or community centres in 33 countries. This paper reports on patients with coronary artery disease. Eligible patients with coronary artery disease had to have had a myocardial infarction in the past 20 years, multi-vessel coronary artery disease, history of stable or unstable angina, previous multi-vessel percutaneous coronary intervention, or previous multi-vessel coronary artery bypass graft surgery. After a 30-day run ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dietary supplementation and engaging in physical activity as predictors of coronary artery disease among middle-aged women. AU - Tsai, Ching Ching. AU - Hsieh, Ming Hsiung. AU - Li, Ai Hsien. AU - Chen, Ping Ling. AU - Jeng, Chii. PY - 2013/9. Y1 - 2013/9. N2 - Aim and objectives: To explore risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) among middle-aged women in Taiwan. Background: Coronary artery disease is a leading cause of death among females. Risk factors for CAD vary due to differences in ethnicity, gender and age. However, few studies have documented risk factors among middle-aged women. Design: We employed a cross-sectional, comparative study design. Methods: Sixty-five middle-aged women who were suspected of having CAD and who received cardiac catheterisation were purposively sampled and divided into a CAD group (with at least one coronary artery with , 50% stenosis) and a control group, according to the results of catheterisation. Individual questionnaires regarding ...
Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is the most commonly performed treatment for coronary atherosclerosis. It is associated with a higher incidence of repeat revascularization procedures compared to coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. Recent results indicate that PCI is only cost-effective for a subset of patients. Estimating risks of treatment options would be an effort toward personalized treatment strategy for coronary atherosclerosis. In this paper, we propose to model clinical knowledge about the treatment of coronary atherosclerosis to identify patient-subgroup-specific classifiers to predict the risk of adverse events of different treatment options. We constructed one model for each patient subgroup to account for subgroup-specific interpretation and availability of features and hierarchically aggregated these models to cover the entire data. In addition, we deviated from the current clinical workflow only for patients with high probability of benefiting from an alternative treatment,
Coronary artery disease and heart failure are both highly prevalent diseases with a global prevalence of 93 million and 40 million. These patients are at increased risk of morbidity and mortality. The management of these patients involves medical therapy, and both diseases can be treated using the heart rate-lowering drug ivabradine. However, the evidence regarding the use of ivabradine in the treatment of coronary artery disease and/or heart failure is unclear. Our objective is to assess the beneficial and harmful effects of ivabradine in the treatment of coronary artery disease and/or heart failure. This protocol for a systematic review was undertaken using the recommendations of The Cochrane Collaboration, the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P), and the eight-step assessment procedure suggested by Jakobsen and colleagues. We plan to include all relevant randomised clinical trials assessing the use of ivabradine in the treatment of coronary artery
Previous studies have shown that traditional risk factors such as hypercholesterolemia and hypertension account for only a small proportion of the dramatically increased risk of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, in these studies, exposure to risk factors was measured only at baseline. In this study, our objective was to compare measures of cumulative exposure with remote and recent values for each of total cholesterol (TC), systolic (SBP), and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure in terms of ability to quantify risk of atherosclerotic CAD in patients with SLE. Patients in the Toronto lupus cohort had TC and BP measured at each clinic visit and were followed up prospectively for the occurrence of CAD. For each patient, arithmetic mean, time-adjusted mean (AM) and area-under-the-curve (AUC) were calculated for serial TC, SBP, and DBP measurements. Proportional hazards regression models were used to compare these summary measures with recent and first
Methods and Results-To examine any association between rosiglitazone use and cardiovascular events among patients with diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease, we analyzed events among 2368 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease in the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D) trial. Total mortality, composite death, myocardial infarction, and stroke, and the individual incidence of death, myocardial infarction, stroke, congestive heart failure, and fractures, were compared during 4.5 years of follow-up among patients treated with rosiglitazone versus patients not receiving a thiazolidinedione by use of Cox proportional hazards and Kaplan-Meier analyses that included propensity matching. After multivariable adjustment, among patients treated with rosiglitazone, mortality was similar (hazard ratio [HR], 0.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.58-1.18), whereas there was a lower incidence of composite death, myocardial infarction, and ...
In this paper, 37 patients (23 males-14 females) undergoing aortocoronary bypass surgery and 20 cases (10 males-10 females) as a control group, were studied for their total plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), apolipoprotein A1(Apo A1) and apolipoprotein B (Apo B) levels. The predictive value of these levels in coronary artery disease were assessed angiographically and peroperatively in the number of stennosed wessels, extent of atherosclerosis (coronary score) and internal diameters of the bypassed coronary arteries.. In both sexes, no correlation was found between coronary artery disease and the levels of triglycerides and LDL.. Cholesterol and Apo 1 levels in men, were significantly lower than that of control group, Also, the levels of Apo 1 and the internal diameter of the bypassed coronary arteries, were correlated in men.. There was a significant correlation between the levels of Apo 1 and B, and the extent of coronary artery ...
Although atherosclerosis is a systemic disease, plaque progression and complications occur in a focal, patchy pattern. It remains challenging to predict which segments of a given coronary artery will show accelerated progression of atherosclerosis.. Coronary endothelial dysfunction, characterized by a segmental vasoconstrictive response to the endothelium-dependent vasodilator acetylcholine, is considered the earliest stage of atherosclerosis in patients with angiographically nonobstructive coronary arteries. Therefore, sites with endothelial dysfunction may signal future progression of segmental coronary atherosclerosis (1). Using serial intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging, we tested the hypothesis that coronary segments with endothelial dysfunction are associated with plaque progression in patients with nonobstructive coronary artery disease.. In this prospective study, 22 patients underwent coronary angiography with coronary endothelial function assessment and IVUS for clinical purposes ...
The coronary arteries are the main blood vessels that supply the heart with blood, nutrients and oxygen. When they become damaged or diseased, usually due to a buildup of plaque, the result is coronary arterial disease. This buildup can narrow your coronary arteries over time, causing the heart to receive less blood and can eventually lead to causing chest pain (angina), shortness of breath or other uncomfortable symptoms.. A complete blockage, caused either by accumulated plaques or a ruptured plaque, can result in heart attack (an injury to the heart muscle that results from a loss of blood supply). Since coronary arterial disease can often take decades to develop, it can go virtually unnoticed until it produces a heart attack.. Uncontrolled risk factors ...
Left main coronary artery (LMCA) disease has been reported in up to 10% of all patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and in the majority of cases are associated with severe three-vessel CAD. Among patients with chronic coronary syndrome revascularization of significant LMCA disease improves prognosis, while there is a debate about which revascularization strategy, CABG surgery or percutaneous coronary interventions to use. We do a review of the available evidence about the impact of LMCA lesions on patient prognosis according to CAD extension and clinical presentation, the outcome after percutaneous or surgical revascularization, the procedural challenges of LMCA PCI and the available armamentarium to optimally treat this relevant population.. ...
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Ischemic stroke (IS) and coronary artery disease (CAD) share several risk factors and each has a substantial heritability. We conducted a genome-wide analysis to evaluate the extent of shared genetic determination of the two diseases. METHODS: Genome-wide association data were obtained from the METASTROKE, Coronary Artery Disease Genome-wide Replication and Meta-analysis (CARDIoGRAM), and Coronary Artery Disease (C4D) Genetics consortia. We first analyzed common variants reaching a nominal threshold of significance (P|0.01) for CAD for their association with IS and vice versa. We then examined specific overlap across phenotypes for variants that reached a high threshold of significance. Finally, we conducted a joint meta-analysis on the combined phenotype of IS or CAD. Corresponding analyses were performed restricted to the 2167 individuals with the ischemic large artery stroke (LAS) subtype. RESULTS: Common variants associated with CAD at P|0.01 were associated with a
Inflammation plays an important role in coronary artery disease from the initiation of endothelial dysfunction to plaque formation to final rupture of the plaque. In this study, we investigated the potential pathophysiological and clinical relevance of novel cytokines secreted from various cells including adipocytes, endothelial cells, and inflammatory cells, in predicting coronary artery disease (CAD) in asymptomatic subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We enrolled a total of 70 asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients without a documented history of cardiovascular disease, and determined serum levels of chemerin, omentin-1, YKL-40, and sCD26. We performed coronary computed tomographic angiography (cCTA) in all subjects, and defined coronary artery stenosis ≥ 50 % as significant CAD in this study. Subjects were classified into two groups: patients with suspected coronary artery stenosis on cCTA (group I, n = 41) and patients without any evidence of stenosis on cCTA (group II, n = 29). Group I showed
TY - JOUR. T1 - Radiation-induced coronary artery disease in Hodgkins disease. AU - Miltényi, Zsófia. AU - Keresztes, Katalin. AU - Garai, Ildikó. AU - Édes, István. AU - Galajda, Zoltán. AU - Tóth, László. AU - Illés, Árpád. PY - 2004/1/1. Y1 - 2004/1/1. N2 - Purpose Secondary malignant tumours and cardiovascular complications are of great importance among the late complications after treatment for Hodgkins disease (HD) because they may significantly reduce the patients life expectancy. We report on coronary artery disease (CAD) after treatment for HD. Methods and Materials We present the case of two female patients with HD who received mediastinal irradiation after which complete remission was achieved. In 12 and 19 years after the onset of the disease, control examinations revealed ischaemic heart disease, which was confirmed by coronary arteriography and solved by stent implantation in one of the patients and bypass surgery in the other one. Conclusions Ischaemic heart disease ...
In this issue of iJACC, Silverman et al. (1) report the relationship of baseline Agatston coronary artery calcium (CAC) score and coronary calcium distribution with future incident coronary revascularization in 6,540 MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) participants. The primary findings of this novel analysis is that baseline calcium score and the number of vessels with CAC were each independently predictive of future coronary revascularizations over a median follow-up of 8.5 years. Additionally, among subjects who underwent revascularization, those with more diffuse baseline CAC were at higher risk to undergo coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) versus percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Specifically, adjusted for overall CAC score, individuals with 3- and 4-vessel CAC were 3 to 4 times more likely to undergo coronary revascularization than were patients with CAC in a single vessel, and ≥3 vessel CAC was strongly predictive of the risk for future CABG, particularly when ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Myocardium perfusion scintigraphy in evaluation of endovascular treatment results of coronary artery disease. AU - Lishmanov, Yu B.. AU - Vesoina, J. V.. AU - Rybalchenko, E. V.. AU - Krylov, A. L.. PY - 2004. Y1 - 2004. N2 - Purpose: To determine abilities and principal features of prospective scintigraphic evaluation of endovascular treatment results of coronary artery disease (CAD) using thallium-199 perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography. Material and methods: Forty CAD patients were investigated by perfusion scintigraphy before and 2-3 weeks, 3-6 months and 1-2 years after coronary artery stenting. The character and size of perfusion defects and presence of the reverse radionuclide redistribution phenomenon were estimated. Results: The coronary stenting almost results to the 80 % decrease of mean size of transitory ischemic zones. The presence of reversible perfusion defects after operation was bound up with the incomplete revascularization or with X-syndrome. ...
In patients with left main coronary artery disease and low or intermediate SYNTAX scores by site assessment, PCI with everolimus-eluting stents was noninferior to CABG with respect to the rate of the composite end point of death, stroke, or myocardial infarction at 3 years. (Funded by Abbott Vascula …
The subject has any condition which could interfere with or for which the treatment might interfere with the conduct of the study, or which would, in the opinion of the Investigator increase the risk of the subjects participation in the study. This would include, but is not limited to alcoholism, drug dependency or abuse, psychiatric disease, epilepsy or any unexplained blackouts, previous hypersensitivity to drugs, and severe asthma ...
The subject has any condition which could interfere with or for which the treatment might interfere with the conduct of the study, or which would, in the opinion of the Investigator increase the risk of the subjects participation in the study. This would include, but is not limited to alcoholism, drug dependency or abuse, psychiatric disease, epilepsy or any unexplained blackouts, previous hypersensitivity to drugs, and severe asthma ...
Coronary Artery Disease - A Guide for Cardiology Rotation and USMLE, COMLEX I, II (1) (English Edition) [Edición Kindle] PDF By author Cardiology Review last download was at 2017-02-05 09:05:43. This book is good alternative for Coronary Artery Disease (DK Home Medical Guides). Download now for free or you can read online Coronary Artery Disease - A Guide for Cardiology Rotation and USMLE, COMLEX I, II (1) (English Edition) [Edición Kindle] book ...
Coronary Artery Disease - A Guide for Cardiology Rotation and USMLE, COMLEX I, II (1) (English Edition) [Edición Kindle] PDF By author Cardiology Review last download was at 2016-01-15 21:54:57. This book is good alternative for Coronary Artery Disease (DK Home Medical Guides). Download now for free or you can read online Coronary Artery Disease - A Guide for Cardiology Rotation and USMLE, COMLEX I, II (1) (English Edition) [Edición Kindle] book ...
Another name for Coronary Artery Disease is Coronary Artery Disease. Prevention is the key to managing the risk for coronary artery disease. Other conditions ...
Another name for Coronary Artery Disease is Coronary Artery Disease. It is important to follow a healthy diet if you have coronary artery disease. Dietary ...
Description anursing care plan coronary artery disease Description bnursing care plan coronary artery disease, Description cnursing care plan coronary artery disease Description d
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to evaluate, in low-to-intermediate pre-test probability patients who were referred for coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) and did not show obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD), whether an intramural course of a coronary artery is associated with worse outcome compared with patients without an intramural course of the coronary arteries. BACKGROUND: The prognostic value of an intramural course of the coronary arteries on coronary CTA in patients without obstructive CAD is not well-known. METHODS: The study population consisted of 947 patients with a low-to-intermediate pre-test probability who were referred for coronary CTA and who did not have obstructive CAD. During follow-up, the occurrence of unstable angina pectoris that required hospitalization, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and all-cause mortality was evaluated. Results : On coronary CTA, 210 patients (22%) had an intramural course of a coronary artery. The median depth of the ...
Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) type 2 have a high prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD), as diabetes is implicated in the formation of atherosclerotic plaque. Hyperglycemia, elevated free fatty acid, increased amount of circulating end-glucosylated serum products and insulin resistance are the main mechanisms involved in the accelerated atherosclerotic process observed in type 2 DM patients. Novel treatments have been proposed to prevent and treat CAD in patients with diabetes, mainly in those with diabetes type 2. Several clinical trials have been designed in order to examine the effectiveness of these agents, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers, glitazones, statins and antioxidants, but the results are still controversial.
Cardiac computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) has emerged as a powerful imaging modality for the detection and prognostication of individuals with suspected coronary artery disease. Because calcification of coronary plaque occurs in proportion to the total atheroma volume, the initial diagnostic potential of CCTA focused on the identification and quantification of coronary calcium in low- to intermediate-risk individuals, a finding that tracks precisely with the risk of incident adverse clinical events. Beyond noncontrast detection of coronary calcium, CCTA using iodinated contrast yields incremental information about the degree and distribution of coronary plaques and stenosis, as well as vessel wall morphology and atherosclerotic plaque features. This additive information offers the promise of CCTA to provide a more comprehensive view of total atherosclerotic burden because it relates to myocardial ischemia and future adverse clinical events. Furthermore, emerging data suggest the prognostic ...
Coronary artery disease is currently the leading cause of death and disability in the United States. Doctors have identified risk factors for treating and delaying cardiac disease, and testing has increasingly become more sophisticated. One of these tests that doctors order and assess carefully is the coronary artery calcium score, or CAC. While it is an independent predictor of coronary artery disease, the score is combined with information from conventional cardiac risk factors to provide very useful information.. In coronary artery disease, a fatty material called plaque narrows the coronary artery diameters and limits blood flow crossing the heart. This most common cause of heart disease in both women and men leads to chest pain, heart attack, arrhythmia, and in advanced cases, heart failure. Coronary artery calcium screening is done with an electron beam CT scan which looks for coronary calcium on the cardiac vessel walls. Calcification within the arteries can be one of the earliest signs ...
The Predictive Value of the Syntax Score in Patients With Chronic Coronary Artery Disease Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention or Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: A Pilot Study
The Predictive Value of the Syntax Score in Patients With Chronic Coronary Artery Disease Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention or Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: A Pilot Study
Youre right, Dr. Reynolds. When a persons body mass index, or BMI rises, so does their risk for a variety of conditions, including heart disease. One of the most common is coronary artery disease.. Coronary artery disease, often referred to as CAD, is the leading cause of death in the United States, in both men and women. CAD is a condition involving a waxy substance called plaque that can build up inside the coronary arteries, which are the blood vessels that carry oxygen-rich blood to the heart.. This plaque buildup is called atherosclerosis. When this buildup occurs, the coronary arteries become narrowed or even blocked, reducing the blood flow to the heart muscle. This can cause either angina, which is chest pain or discomfort, or a heart attack.. Over time, CAD can also weaken the heart muscle and contribute to heart failure and arrhythmias. Heart failure means the heart cant pump blood well to the rest of the body. Arrhythmias are changes in the normal beating rhythm of the ...
Coronary artery disease happens when fatty deposits called plaque (say "plak") build up inside your coronary arteries. This process of plaque buildup is called atherosclerosis.. Coronary arteries are the blood vessels that supply blood and oxygen to your heart. Plaque buildup may reduce the amount of blood that gets to your heart. Coronary artery disease can cause angina symptoms, such as chest pain or pressure. It can lead to a heart attack. ...
CAD was assessed using coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA). To assess differences in CAD between patients and controls they were matched in a one to three fashion by age, gender, diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, family history of coronary artery disease, and smoking status.. Patients were 45 years old on average and the presence of cardiovascular risk factors was low overall. Just 42% of patients had no atherosclerosis on coronary CTA compared to 64% of controls.. Regarding the extent and severity of CAD, Hodgkin patients had significantly more multi-vessel CAD: 10% had two-vessel disease and 24% had three-vessel disease compared to 6% and 9% of controls, respectively. The segment involvement score (which measures overall coronary plaque distribution) and the segment stenosis score (which measures overall coronary plaque extent and severity) were significantly higher for patients compared with controls.. Regarding the location of CAD, patients had significantly more ...
Contemporary multidetector row computed tomography (CT) scanners permit the acquisition of non-invasive coronary angiograms with good diagnostic accuracy for the detection of coronary stenosis. Early studies have demonstrated that, in addition to the depiction of luminal narrowing, CT also allows visualisation of coronary atherosclerotic plaque.1 2 However, given the small dimensions of coronary atherosclerotic lesions, further characterisation of coronary atherosclerosis and the exact quantification of plaque volumes has remained challenging. Correlation of plaque volumes determined by CT and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) has been reported early.1 2 However, margins of agreement have been wide because the accuracy of CT plaque volume quantification has been hampered by insufficient spatial resolution, calcium blooming artefacts, the presence of motion artefacts and image noise. Nevertheless, as CT technology has matured and image acquisition protocols have been improved, newer studies have ...
Drawn from more than 1,900 patients undergoing unprotected LM PCI, the present analysis represents the largest study to assess the impact of operator experience on clinical outcomes after LM PCI. The main findings of our study are as follows: 1) patients treated by experienced, high-volume operators have a significantly reduced risk for cardiac death at short- and long-term follow-up after LM PCI, despite having more extensive and complex coronary artery disease at baseline; 2) operator experience was a strong independent predictor of cardiac death after LM PCI; and 3) incorporating operator experience and volume in an already validated stratification model such as the SYNTAX score and the SYNTAX score II improved the discrimination capability of these score algorithms.. PCI is an alternative to CABG for patients with LM disease who have low (1,2) or intermediate (3,4) SYNTAX scores and/or lesion anatomy that is deemed suitable for PCI (1,2,5). LM PCI is also a good alternative for patients with ...
Identify your risk for coronary artery disease (CAD) by answering 10 questions about the current state of your heart health with this health evaluator quiz. Early detection is key because CAD is the most common type of heart disease and the leading cause of death in the U.S.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Associations between genetic variants and angiographic characteristics in patients with coronary artery disease. AU - Lee, Ji Young. AU - Kim, Gwangsil. AU - Park, Sungha. AU - Kang, Seok Min. AU - Jang, Yangsoo. AU - Lee, Sang Hak. PY - 2015/1/1. Y1 - 2015/1/1. N2 - Aim: In this study, we investigated the genetic determinants of lesion characteristics and the severity of coronary artery disease (CAD. using a genome-wide association study (GWAS. and replication genotyping. Methods: The discovery set for GWAS consisted of 667 patients exhibiting angiographically diagnosed CAD with symptoms. For replication genotyping, 837 age-and sex-matched CAD patients were selected. Genetic determinants of lesion characteristics (diffuse vs. non-diffuse lesions), the number of diseased vessels (multi-vessel vs. single vessel disease. and the modified Duke score (high vs. low), which indicates the severity of CAD, were analyzed after adjusting for confounding factors. Results: Single nucleotide ...
Coronary artery disease (CAD) may have a connection with iron deficiency. Learn more about how low levels of iron and anemia affect heart disease.
A new technique, which could eventually be used to identify patients with suspected coronary artery disease, has been discovered.
The prevalence and cineangiographic correlates of exercise-induced inversion of U waves were studied in 248 patients. Exercise-induced U-wave inversion was observed in 36 patients (15%), of whom 35 had greater than or equal to 75% stenosis in one or more of the major coronary arteries. The proximal left anterior descending or left main coronary artery was involved in 33 of these patients, including 24 patients with no electrocardiographic evidence of anterior myocardial infarction. Exercise-induced U-wave inversion was observed in the absence of an abnormal resting 12-lead ECG. Only one of the 82 patients (1.2%) without significant coronary artery disease demonstrated exercise-induced U-wave inversion, and this patient had a primary cardiomyopathy. We conclude that exercise-induced inversion of the U-wave is highly predictiveof significant coronary artery disease and, more specifically, of disease of the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery. ...
In group 1 we found just over a fifth had ED compared to nearly two-thirds in group 3 (22% versus 65%) and the control group had an ED rate similar to group 1 (24%). Group 2s ED rate was significantly different from group 1 with over half (55%) having ED. In fact, it was similar to group 3, which suggests that despite the two ACS groups having a similar clinical presentation the ED rate in ACS differs according to the extent of the coronary artery disease. So, if more than one vessel is affected in those with acute coronary syndrome, their rate of ED is actually more like that of men with chronic coronary syndrome.". Dr Montorsi said: "Age, multi-vessel coronary involvement, and CCS, were independent predictors of ED. Conversely, we were able to evaluate whether ED could predict coronary artery involvement in acute coronary syndrome and found it was associated with a four-fold risk of having multi-vessel disease as opposed to single vessel disease, independently of other conventional risk ...
In a study to be published in the open-access journal PLoS Genetics on September 22nd, an international consortium of scientists report the discovery of five new genes that affect risk of developing coronary artery disease (CAD) and heart attacks.. Coronary artery disease is the commonest cause of premature death and disability in the world. The findings could, in the future, help in developing new treatments and improve prediction of CAD.. The Consortium examined 49,094 genetic variants in ~ 2100 genes of cardiovascular relevance, in 15,596 CAD cases and 34,992 controls (11,202 cases and 30,733 controls of European descent / 4,394 cases and 4,259 controls of South Asian origin) and replicated their principal findings in an additional 17,121 CAD cases and 40,473 controls. The study was funded by the British Heart Foundation and the National Institute for Health Research in the UK with additional funding from the NIH in the USA and from other funding sources in Europe. The work was also supported ...
Author(s): Weng, Li; Kavaslar, Nihan; Ustaszewska, Anna; Doelle, Heather; Schackwitz, Wendy; Hebert, Sybil; Cohen, Jonathan; McPherson, Ruth; Pennacchio, Len A. | Abstract: Mutations in MEF2A have been implicated in an autosomal dominant form of coronary artery disease (adCAD1). In this study we sought to determine whether severe mutations in MEF2A might also explain sporadic cases of coronary artery disease (CAD). To do this, we resequenced the coding sequence and splice sites of MEF2A in ~;300 patients with premature CAD and failed to find causative mutations in the CAD cohort. However, we did identify the 21 base pair (bp) MEF2A coding sequence deletion originally implicated in adCAD1 in one of 300 elderly control subjects without CAD. Further screening of an additional ~;1,500 non-CAD patients revealed two more subjects with the MEF2A 21 bp deletion. Genotyping of 19 family members of the three probands with the 21 bp deletion in MEF2A revealed that the mutation did not co-segregate with
Coronary Artery Calcium Imaging and Scoring (CAC Score). Coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring is an easy, convenient, painless, non-invasive imaging technique to detect and evaluate the amount of calcium deposition in the coronary arteries (i.e. blood vessels supplying the heart muscle). It gives an idea of whether early cholesterol plaque have begun to infiltrate the coronary arteries despite the lack of any symptoms and will likely to progress in the years to come.. The degree of calcium deposition corresponds to the severity of the atheromatous plaque and the likelihood of a heart attack (see table 1). The higher the calcium score, the greater the risk and is used by cardiologists as one of the tools to assess and correlate with the risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Although not directly correlated - the higher the calcium score (termed the calcium burden), the greater the chance of more severe narrowing of the coronary arteries. Conversely a low calcium score although suggests a low ...
Diabetes mellitus (DM), low ejection fraction (EF), and the extent of coronary artery disease (CAD) have all been identified as predictors of cardiovascular eve...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 1A1, cigarette smoking and risk of coronary artery disease. AU - Yeh, Chih Ching. AU - Sung, Fung Chang. AU - Kuo, Li Tang. AU - Hsu, Wan Ping. AU - Chu, Hsiang Y.. PY - 2009/7/10. Y1 - 2009/7/10. N2 - Epidemiological evidence has demonstrated a strong relationship between cigarette smoking and coronary artery disease (CAD). Cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) is a key enzyme that metabolizes the cigarette toxin relevant to smoking-induced atherogenesis. This case-control study examined the role of CYP1A1 polymorphisms, CYP1A1*2A (T6235C) and CYP1A1*2C (A4889G), in susceptibility to smoking-related CAD. We recruited 481 patients with 50% or more luminal obstructions in the coronary artery and 228 normal subjects at a medical center in Taiwan. Information on socio-demographic and smoking status was obtained using a self-administered questionnaire. Genotypes of CYP1A1*2A and CYP1A1*2C polymorphisms were determined by polymerase chain reaction or in ...
Study says patients with hypertension, diabetes and coronary artery disease who maintained their systolic blood pressure at less than 130 mm Hg did not have improved cardiovascular outcomes
Coronary artery disease happens when fatty deposits called plaque (say plak) build up inside your coronary arteries. Those are the blood vessels that supply blood and oxygen to your heart muscle. Plaque buildup may reduce the amount of blood that gets to your heart. Coronary artery disease can cause angina symptoms...
The present study provides evidence that elevated plasma levels of IL-8 are associated with an increased risk of incident CAD in apparently healthy individuals, such that people in the highest IL-8 quartile had a fully adjusted OR of 1.77 (95% CI, 1.21 to 2.60) compared with those in the lowest quartile (P=0.001). This relationship was independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and also independent of CRP levels.. Recruitment of peripheral blood monocytes into the arterial wall is one of the earliest steps in atherosclerosis. The vascular wall itself orchestrates this process by modulating the expression of a wide variety of cytokines that attract leukocytes, enable rolling leukocytes to adhere to the endothelium, and facilitate transendothelial immigration into the subendothelial space.24 Endothelial cells can be stimulated to express cytokines, such as IL-8 and MCP-1, by triggers such as high glucose,25 modified LDL cholesterol,26 homocysteine,27 and nitric oxide.28 If triggered by ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Correlation of severity of coronary artery disease with insulin resistance. AU - Srinivasan, Mukund P.. AU - Kamath, Padmanabh K.. AU - Manjrekar, Poornima A.. AU - Unnikrishnan, B.. AU - Ullal, Aishwarya. AU - Kotekar, Mohammed Faheem. AU - Mahabala, Chakrapani. PY - 2013/10. Y1 - 2013/10. N2 - Background: Insulin resistance (IR) has known to be associated with coronary artery disease (CAD), but the assessment of severity of the CAD based on IR in type 2 diabetes mellitus has not been established in detail. Aims: The aim of our study was to establish the correlation between IR and the severity of CAD in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study design, 61 consecutive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who underwent coronary angiogram for the evaluation of CAD were recruited. Fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin levels, systolic blood pressure and total cholesterol/high density lipoprotein-cholesterol ratio were determined. Homeostasis ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Correlation of severity of coronary artery disease with insulin resistance. AU - Prathivadibhayankaram, Mukund. AU - Kamath, Padmanabh K.. AU - Manjrekar, Poornima A.. AU - Unnikrishnan, B.. AU - Ullal, Aishwarya. AU - Kotekar, Mohammed Faheem. AU - Mahabala, Chakrapani. PY - 2013/10/1. Y1 - 2013/10/1. N2 - Background: Insulin resistance (IR) has known to be associated with coronary artery disease (CAD), but the assessment of severity of the CAD based on IR in type 2 diabetes mellitus has not been established in detail. Aims: The aim of our study was to establish the correlation between IR and the severity of CAD in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study design, 61 consecutive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who underwent coronary angiogram for the evaluation of CAD were recruited. Fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin levels, systolic blood pressure and total cholesterol/high density lipoprotein-cholesterol ratio were determined. ...
WOMEN -- Health & hygiene. Abstract:Discusses research being done on the association between fish intake and the progression of coronary artery atherosclerosis in women with coronary artery disease. Reference to a study by A. T. Erkkila, A. H. Lichtenstein, D. Mozaffarian, D. M. Herrington, published in a 2004 issue of the "American Journal of Clinical Nutrition"; Method used to evaluate changes in the mean minimum coronary artery diameter, the mean percentage of stenosis and the development of new coronary lesions; Food servings with which smaller increases in the percentage of stenosis was associated.. ...
BRILINTA reduced cardiovascular events in these patients with no prior heart attack or stroke. The Phase III THEMIS trial met its primary endpoint which demonstrated that BRILINTA® (ticagrelor) tablets, taken in conjunction with aspirin, showed a statistically-significant reduction in major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE, a composite of cardiovascular death, heart attack and stroke) compared to aspirin alone.. THEMIS was conducted in over 19,000 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and type-2 diabetes (T2D) with no prior heart attack or stroke. Preliminary safety results were consistent with the known profile of BRILINTA. A full evaluation of the THEMIS data will be presented at a forthcoming medical meeting.. Elisabeth Björk, Senior Vice President, Head of late Cardiovascular, Renal and Metabolism, R&D BioPharmaceuticals, said: "Approaches to help reduce cardiovascular morbidity further in patients with coronary artery disease and type-2 diabetes are urgently needed. The positive ...
This document outlines the usefulness of available diagnostic imaging for patients without known coronary artery disease and at low probability for having coronary artery disease who do not present with classic signs, symptoms, or electrocardiographi
This CME/CE program, derived from content presented at the 2019 American Heart Association Scientific Sessions in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, will highlight advanced strategies for improving cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes in patients with chronic coronary artery disease (CAD) and peripheral artery disease (PAD). The expert faculty, chaired by Dr. Christopher P. Cannon, will first provide an introduction and state of the science of CAD and PAD, and transition into a review of the role of anticoagulants in preventive cardiology. Recent clinical trial data, particularly that of anticoagulants and aspirin combination therapeutic strategies, will be reviewed as it relates to clinical decision making for healthcare professionals. Finally, the interactive panel will cover the role of the interprofessional team in providing optimal, tailored treatment plans to improve CVD outcomes and quality of life for patients with CAD and PAD.. ...
The prevailing views concerning the rôle of coronary artery disease in the etiology of auricular fibrillation appear contradictory. Although its ultimate cause remains obscure, this arrhythmia is known to be associated with certain clinico-pathological states to which a greater or lesser degree of etiological significance is generally ascribed and among which coronary artery disease is frequently included.1, 2 On the other hand, it is well known that auricular fibrillation and angina pectoris of coronary origin occur together but rarely, and it has been suggested that these two conditions are more or less incompatible.1, 2, 3 Furthermore, although transient auricular fibrillation ...
In replyRegarding the comments by Peter and colleagues, we compared therapeutic strategies in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD), not stable ang
OBJECTIVES: With the increase in life expectancy occurred in recent decades, it has been noted the concomitant increase in the prevalence of aortic stenosis and degenerative disease of atherosclerotic coronary artery. This study aims to evaluate the influence of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease in patients with critical aortic stenosis undergoing isolated or combined implant valve prosthesis and coronary artery by pass grafting. METHODS: In the period of January 2001 to March 2006, there were analyzed 448 patients undergoing isolated implant aortic valve prosthesis (Group I) and 167 patients undergoing aortic valve prosthesis implant combined with coronary artery bypass grafting (Group II). Pre- and intra-operative variables elected for analysis were: age, gender, body mass index, stroke, diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, rheumatic fever, hypertension, endocarditis, acute myocardial infarction, smoking, Fraction of the left ventricular ejection, critical ...
We studied the diagnostic accuracy of 64-slice computed tomography for the diagnosis of significant coronary artery disease (CAD) compared with conventional coronary angiography (CA) in patients with chronic aortic regurgitation (AR) referred for elective aortic valve surgery. Fifty consecutive patients with chronic AR (38 men, mean age 54 +/- 14 years) scheduled for valve surgery underwent 64-slice computed tomographic (CT) coronary angiography and CA. Significant stenosis was defined as a luminal diameter decrease ,50%. Mean heart rate during CT scanning was 65.5 +/- 7.4 beats/min. Mean Agatston score was 136 +/- 278 (range 0 to 1207); prevalence of significant CAD in the study population was 26% (13 of 50 patients). Thirteen of 742 segments (1.8%) in 3 patients were considered nondiagnostic with computed tomography because of motion artifacts (n = 9) or calcium (n = 4). In a patient-based analysis taking nonevaluative segments as falsely positive, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and ...
Aim: To describe presence of risk indicators of recurrence 6 months after hospitalisation due to coronary artery disease at a university clinic. Methods: The presence of risk indicators, including tobacco use, lipid levels, blood pressure and glucometabolic status, including 24-hour blood pressure monitoring and an oral glucose-tolerance test, was analysed. Results: Of 1465 patients who were screened, 402 took part in the survey (50% previous myocardial infarction and 50% angina pectoris). Mean age was 64 years (range 40-85 years) and 23% were women. Present medications were: lipid lowering drugs (statins; 94%), beta-blockers (85%), aspirin or warfarin (100%) and ACE-inhibitors or angiotensin II blockers (66%). Values above target levels recommended in guidelines were: a) low density lipoprotein (LDL) in 40%; b) mean blood pressure (day or night) in 38% and c) smoking in 13%. Of all patients, 66% had at least one risk factor (LDL or blood pressure above target levels or current smoking). An ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Exercise and Inflammation in Coronary Artery Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomised Trials. AU - Thompson, Gareth. AU - Davison, Gareth. AU - Crawford, Jacqui. AU - Hughes, Ciara. PY - 2019/10/24. Y1 - 2019/10/24. N2 - Current evidence suggests that chronic inflammation contributes to the development and progression of coronary artery disease (CAD). Interestingly, exercise may constitute a method of reducing inflammation in this patient population. As such, this systematic review and meta-analysis examined the evidence generated by randomised studies that investigated the effect of exercise on inflammatory biomarkers in CAD. Literature was sought from various sources. Outcomes were pooled in a random-effects model to calculate standardised mean differences (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Twenty-five studies were reviewed; post-intervention C-reactive protein (SMD: -0.55 (95% CI: -0.93, -0.16), P= 0.005), fibrinogen (SMD: -0.52 (95% CI: -0.74, ...
What powers the heart? Because the heart is a muscle that works continuously to feed oxygenated blood to the body, it needs its own supply of oxygen-rich blood to power its contractions. The heart receives its blood supply through vessels called coronary arteries arising from the base of the main artery to the body, the aorta ...
Recent human genetic studies suggest that allelic variants of leukotriene pathway genes influence the risk of clinical and subclinical atherosclerosis. We sequenced the promoter, exonic, and splice site regions of ALOX5 and ALOX5AP and then genotyped 7 SNPs in ALOX5 and 6 SNPs in ALOX5AP in 1,552 cases with clinically significant coronary artery disease (CAD) and 1,583 controls from Kaiser Permanente including a subset of participants of the coronary artery risk development in young adults study. A nominally significant association was detected between a promoter SNP in ALOX5 (rs12762303) and CAD in our subset of white/European subjects (adjusted odds ratio per minor allele, log-additive model, 1.32; P = 0.002). In this race/ethnic group, rs12762303 has a minor allele frequency of 15% and is tightly linked to variation at the SP1 variable tandem repeat promoter polymorphism. However, the association between CAD and rs12762303 could not be reproduced in the atherosclerosis risk in communities ...
Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) is the leading cause of death for both men and women in the U.S.A. Learn about coronary artery disease and how you can reverse it
Obesity is associated with high Ayurvedic Herbs To Reduce Blood Pressure Coronary Artery Disease blood pressure high cholesterol and diabetes - three well-known risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Ayurvedic Herbs To Reduce Blood Pressure Coronary Artery Disease stress & High Blood Pressure (LifeClinic.com Links) Panic attacks more common in people with high blood pressure. Dosage and treatment duration may vary as per the patient profile. Other symptoms of deficiency can include muscle weakness numbness and tingling in the lower extremities nausea vomiting confusion and irritability.. Online Kamagra Fight Against The Impotency. For a convenient walk-in routine DOT physical exam contact HealthCARE Express. Six years ago we only had two artists on label today we have 11 in our good garlic marinade for shrimp donna hay garlic prawns pasta family! We started as Ukrainian label today we also have roots in Italy and Portugal. The DASH diet Follow this eating approach for better blood ...
Despite the growing body of evidence supporting the benefit of DES in different patients/lesion subsets, information regarding their differential safety/efficacy profile in patients with stable versus unstable angina is scanty and in part contradictory. Patients undergoing coronary intervention for unstable atherosclerotic coronary lesions are known to present with a smaller atherosclerotic (18) but larger thrombotic burden as compared with patients who have stable angina. This justifies the need to evaluate whether these devices may perform differently in these 2 patient subsets. In the RESEARCH (Randomized Evaluation of Salvage Angioplasty with Combined Utilization of End points) registry, where 52% of the population presented with ACS, patients with and without ACS benefited equally from SES implantation, with a relative risk reduction in the need for target vessel revascularization at 1 year in both groups when compared with BMS of 70% and 61%, respectively (6).. Similar information has been ...
How can I help a loved one who has coronary artery disease? If you have a family member or other loved one who has coronary artery disease (CAD) or has just returned home from the hospital due to a complication of CAD, you may want to know what you can do to help. Your loved one may be able to do fewer normal...
How can I help a loved one who has coronary artery disease? If you have a family member or other loved one who has coronary artery disease (CAD) or has just returned home from the hospital due to a complication of CAD, you may want to know what you can do to help. Your loved one may be able to do fewer normal...
What is the principal sign of coronary artery disease - What is the principal sign of coronary artery disease? Angina. At early stages it may not cause symptoms. Once blockages become more significant, chest pain and/or shortness of breath occur, usually worse with activity.
Coronary artery disease[edit]. The primary health risk identified for trans fat consumption is an elevated risk of coronary ... the main artery of the heart, thereby raising risk of coronary artery disease.[63] ... Although trans fats are edible, consuming trans fats has been shown to increase the risk of coronary artery disease in part by ... This is because any incremental increase in trans fat intake increases the risk of coronary artery disease.[55] ...
coronary artery disease. *use of monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Drug Interactions[edit]. *Monoamine oxidase inhibitors ...
Coronary Artery Disease. 23 (6): 368-374. doi:10.1097/MCA.0b013e3283564930. PMID 22735090. Oliveira, André G.; Marques, Pedro E ... In Alzheimer's disease (AD), the expression of A1 and A2A receptors in the frontal cortex of the human brain is increased, ... Following tissue injury in patients with Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), ATP is released into the pertioneal fluid. It binds ... Istradefylline - Antagonist of the adenosine A2A receptor, used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease as an adjunct to L-DOPA ...
Severe coronary artery disease. *Aggressive breast, uterine or ovarian cancer. Relative contraindications[edit]. *Migraine ... Coronary heart disease events. ( non-fatal myocardial infarction. , death. ). 1.29 (1.02-1.63). 1.32 (1.02-1.72). 1.18 (0.70- ... The WHI reported statistically significant increases in rates of breast cancer, coronary heart disease, strokes and pulmonary ... A subset of the events was combined in a "global index", defined as the earliest occurrence of coronary heart disease events, ...
Meanwhile, he is diagnosed with coronary artery disease. In his attempt to standby his principle, he wages war against the ...
Padmanaban, P.; Toora, B. (2011). "Hemoglobin: Emerging marker in stable coronary artery disease". Chronicles of Young ... A recent study done in Pondicherry, India, shows its importance in coronary artery disease.[83] ... The best known hemoglobinopathy is sickle-cell disease, which was the first human disease whose mechanism was understood at the ... Role in disease[edit]. Hemoglobin deficiency can be caused either by a decreased amount of hemoglobin molecules, as in anemia, ...
Desai, Chintan S.; Blumenthal, Roger S.; Greenland, Philip (2014). "Screening low-risk individuals for coronary artery disease ... It thus has potential for screening for coronary artery disease,[17] although no evidence-based recommendations can be made ... Detection of peripheral artery disease. The ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI) or ankle-brachial index (ABI) is the ratio of ... lower blood pressure in the leg suggests blocked arteries due to peripheral artery disease (PAD). The ABPI is calculated by ...
Cerebrovascular or coronary artery disease (current or history). *Valvular heart disease with thrombogenic complications ...
... additional accuracy in identifying patients at risk of acute heart failure in acute coronary syndrome". Coronary Artery Disease ... Indeed, a rising CA-125 level may precede clinical evidence of disease relapse by an interval of 3 to 6 months. Prognosis ... with the duration of disease-free survival correlating with the rate of fall of CA-125) and for predicting a patient's ...
Gundu HR Rao, S Thanikachalam (2005). Coronary Artery Disease. Jaypee Publications. p. 324. ISBN 9788180614507. Retrieved ...
"Endothelial dysfunction and coronary artery disease". Coronary Artery Disease. 25 (8): 713-724. doi:10.1097/mca. ... "Coronary microvascular dysfunction is highly prevalent in women with chest pain in the absence of coronary artery disease: ... Endothelial dysfunction is a major pathophysiological mechanism that leads towards coronary artery disease, and other ... including coronary artery disease. Sirolimus eluting stents were previously used because they showed very low rates of in-stent ...
Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of death in the US general population. Hypercholesterolemia or high cholesterol is ... McCullough, P. A. (11 April 2007). "Coronary Artery Disease". Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. 2 (3): ... considered a major risk factor in coronary artery disease. Therefore, major efforts are focused toward understanding regulation ...
"Left anterior descending artery length in left and right coronary artery dominance". Coronary Artery Disease. Lippincott ...
2008). "Susceptibility to coronary artery disease and diabetes is encoded by distinct, tightly linked SNPs in the ANRIL locus ... October 2009). "Functional analysis of the chromosome 9p21.3 coronary artery disease risk locus". Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis ... genome-wide association studies identified a region associated with coronary artery disease that encompassed a long ncRNA, ... affected by atherosclerosis and its altered expression is associated with a high-risk haplotype for coronary artery disease. ...
"Interval training for patients with coronary artery disease: a systematic review". European Journal of Applied Physiology. 111 ... is some evidence that interval training is also beneficial for older individuals and for those with coronary artery disease, ... There is limited evidence that interval training assists in managing risk factors of many diseases, including metabolic ... Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases. 60 (1): 67-77. doi:10.1016/j.pcad.2017.03.006. ISSN 0033-0620. PMID 28385556.. ...
A 2014 meta-analysis concluded that cardiovascular disease, such as coronary artery disease and stroke, is less likely with ... Coronary Artery disease: 1. doi:10.1097/MCA.0000000000000397. PMID 27315099. Zhang Z, Hu G, Caballero B, Appel L, Chen L (June ... Moderate coffee consumption is not a risk factor for coronary heart disease. A 2012 meta-analysis concluded that people who ... "Coffee consumption and risk of coronary heart diseases: A meta-analysis of 21 prospective cohort studies". International ...
Coronary artery disease. *Deep vein thrombosis - can lead to pulmonary embolism. *Ischemic stroke ... Generally, the benefit of anticoagulation is prevention of or reduction of progression of a disease. Some indications for ... following acute coronary syndrome". European Heart Journal. 32 (20): 2541-54. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehr334. PMC 3295208. PMID ... In a meta-analysis studying the effects of warfarin use in patients with end stage renal disease and atrial fibrillation, there ...
Hall, SL; Lorenc, T. Secondary prevention of coronary artery disease. American family physician. 2010-02-01, 81 (3): 289-96. ... Aspirin Resistance in Patients with Stable Coronary Artery Disease with and without a History of Myocardial Infarction. Annals ... National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC). 2011 ACCF/AHA/SCAI guideline for percutaneous coronary artery intervention. A report of ... 先天(英語:Template:Diseases of myoneural junction and muscle) *腹部(英語:Template:Congenital diaphragm and abdominal wall defects) ...
Indians are at particularly high risk for atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease. This may be attributed to a genetic ... Diarrheal diseases are the primary causes of early childhood mortality. These diseases can be attributed to poor sanitation and ... Diseases such as dengue fever, hepatitis, tuberculosis, malaria and pneumonia continue to plague India due to increased ... The provision of clean drinking water and sanitation as one of the principal factors in control of diseases is well established ...
Patients suffering from coronary artery disease should avoid the use of SNRIs. Furthermore, due to some SNRIs' actions on ... However, regardless of the mechanism, the efficacy of these drugs in treating the diseases for which they have been indicated ... Duloxetine is contraindicated in patients with heavy alcohol use or chronic liver disease, as duloxetine can increase the ... People at risk for hypertension and heart disease should monitor their blood pressure.[17][46][47][8][48] ...
High levels of homocysteine are linked to cardiovascular disease and artherosclerosis, particularly coronary artery disease. ... "Homocysteine and coronary artery disease". In Carmel, Ralph; Jacobsen, Ralph Carmel. Homocysteine in Health and Disease. ... Refsum H, Ueland PM, Nygård O, Vollset SE (1998). "Homocysteine and cardiovascular disease". Annual Review of Medicine. 49: 31- ... has been linked to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. This substitution has also been linked to increased frequency of non- ...
"Atherothrombosis and Coronary Artery Disease". p. 8. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins "Lady Montagu and the Introduction of ... In his correspondence with Heberden, he wrote, "How much the heart must suffer from the coronary arteries not being able to ... Although the disease was declared eradicated, some pus samples still remain in laboratories in Centers for Disease Control and ... No disease followed. The boy was later challenged with variolous material and again showed no sign of infection. Donald Hopkins ...
... is a database of genes involved in coronary artery disease (CAD) . Coronary artery disease Liu, Hui; Liu Wei; Liao ... a comprehensive database for coronary artery disease genes". Nucleic Acids Res. England. 39 (Database issue): D991-6. doi: ...
Nwasokwa, ON (1 October 1995). "Coronary artery bypass graft disease". Annals of Internal Medicine. 123 (7): 528-45. PMID ... upper and lower extremity arteries: the Task Force on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Peripheral Artery Diseases of the European ... "Long-term patency of saphenous vein and left internal mammary artery grafts after coronary artery bypass surgery". Journal of ... "ESC Guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of peripheral artery diseases: Document covering atherosclerotic disease of ...
Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease, is responsible for 62 to 70 percent of all SCDs. CAD is a ... Current cigarette smokers with coronary artery disease were found to have a two to threefold increase in the risk of sudden ... The most common cause of cardiac arrest is coronary artery disease. Less common causes include major blood loss, lack of oxygen ... Structural heart disease not related to CAD (i.e. hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, congenital coronary artery anomalies, ...
2009). «Integrative predictive model of coronary artery calcification in atherosclerosis». Circulation. 120 (24): 2448-54. PMC ... Rosenbloom J (1984). «Elastin: relation of protein and gene structure to disease». Lab. Invest. 51 (6): 605-23. PMID 6150137. ... 2009). «Association of genetic variants with chronic kidney disease in individuals with different lipid profiles». Int. J. Mol ... 2010). «Genetic risk factors for hepatopulmonary syndrome in patients with advanced liver disease». Gastroenterology. 139 (1): ...
Coronary artery disease. Synonyms. Atherosclerotic heart disease,[1] atherosclerotic vascular disease,[2] coronary heart ... Typically, coronary artery disease occurs when part of the smooth, elastic lining inside a coronary artery (the arteries that ... have pain due to coronary artery disease.[24] Risk factors[edit]. Coronary artery disease has a number of well determined risk ... Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD),[13] refers to a group of diseases which includes ...
Learn what causes coronary artery disease (CAD) and how it is diagnosed. Get the facts from the CDC. ... What is coronary artery disease?. Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common type of heart disease in the United States. ... Coronary artery disease is caused by plaque buildup in the wall of the arteries that supply blood to the heart (called coronary ... Coronary artery disease is caused by plaque buildup in the wall of the arteries that supply blood to the heart (called coronary ...
Coronary artery disease is the buildup of plaque on the inside of the coronary arteries, the blood vessels that supply oxygen ... depends upon how far the disease has already progressed. ... Articles OnCoronary Artery Disease. Coronary Artery Disease ... Lifestyle changes are the first step for anyone with coronary artery disease. Healthy habits can slow or even stop the disease ... Heart Disease: Should I Have Angioplasty for Stable Angina? Heart Disease: Should I Have Bypass Surgery? ...
... is the most common type of heart disease. It can lead to angina and heart attack. Read about symptoms and tests. ... Coronary Artery Disease (American Academy of Family Physicians) Also in Spanish * Coronary Artery Disease - Coronary Heart ... Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common type of heart disease. It is the leading cause of death in the United States ... Coronary Artery Disease: Angioplasty or Bypass Surgery? (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) Also in Spanish ...
It is caused by atherosclerosis, an accumulation of fatty materials on the inner linings of arteries. ... Coronary Artery Disease Definition Coronary artery disease is a narrowing or blockage of the arteries and vessels that provide ... Coronary Artery Disease. Definition. Coronary artery disease is a narrowing or blockage of the arteries and vessels that ... Coronary Artery Disease. Definition. Coronary artery disease is a stenosis (narrowing) or blockage of the arteries and vessels ...
Wolters Kluwer Health may email you for journal alerts and information, but is committed to maintaining your privacy and will not share your personal information without your express consent. For more information, please refer to our Privacy Policy ...
Anemia and coronary artery disease: pathophysiology, prognosis, and treatment. Rymer, Jennifer A.; Rao, Sunil V. ... Recognizing excellence in coronary artery disease: the Sobel Distinguished Scholarship Award. Dauerman, Harold L. ... Thought you might appreciate this item(s) I saw at Coronary Artery Disease.. ... Rapidly growing coronary artery aneurysm associated with pericarditis. Mori, Hiroyoshi; Wakabayashi, Kohei; Suzuki, Hiroshi ...
Health Information on Coronary Artery Disease: MedlinePlus Multiple Languages Collection ... Coronary Artery Disease: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English Enfermedad de las arterias coronarias: Tema de salud de MedlinePlus ... Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) Bilingual PDF ... Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) - 繁體中文 (Chinese, Traditional (Cantonese dialect)) Bilingual PDF ...
Coronary artery disease describes a condition where the coronary arteries that supply the heart with oxygen and nutrients ... Patients with coronary artery disease may have one or more plaques in their coronary arteries and unless the blockages are ... Coronary artery disease describes a condition where the coronary arteries that supply the heart with oxygen and nutrients ... www.escardio.org/.../...Stable_Coronary_Artery_Disease_web_addenda.pdf. *www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Coronary-heart-disease/Pages/ ...
Blood supply through these arteries is critical for the heart. Coronary artery disease usually results from the build-up of ... The coronary arteries supply blood to the heart muscle itself. ... Coronary artery disease usually results from the build-up of ... The coronary arteries supply blood to the heart muscle itself. Blood supply through these arteries is critical for the heart. ... As the coronary arteries narrow, the flow of blood to the heart can slow or stop, causing chest pain (stable angina), shortness ...
... hardening and furring of the walls of the coronary arteries. ... disease is another term used for atherosclerotic heart disease ... Coronary artery disease kills millions worldwide each year. The symptoms of coronary artery disease are usually not evident ... The coronary arteries supply oxygen and nutrients to the muscles of the heart called the myocardium. Coronary artery disease is ... www.escardio.org/.../...Stable_Coronary_Artery_Disease_web_addenda.pdf. *www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Coronary-heart-disease/Pages/ ...
... or coronary heart disease, can lead to heart attack or death. Learn what causes this condition and how you can prevent it. ... What is coronary artery disease?. Coronary artery disease (CAD), also called coronary heart disease, is the most common type of ... What causes coronary artery disease?. Atherosclerosis, which involves the clogging and hardening of arteries, is the number one ... artery vasculitis (the inflammation of an artery). *a spontaneous coronary artery dissection (when there is a tear through the ...
There are several factors that raise a persons risk of developing coronary heart disease and its often life threatening ... www.escardio.org/.../...Stable_Coronary_Artery_Disease_web_addenda.pdf. *www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Coronary-heart-disease/Pages/ ... Coronary Artery Disease Risk Factors. News-Medical. 13 July 2020. ,https://www.news-medical.net/health/Coronary-Artery-Disease ... Coronary Artery Disease Risk Factors. News-Medical. https://www.news-medical.net/health/Coronary-Artery-Disease-Risk-Factors. ...
A persons risk of developing coronary artery disease is influenced by several non-modifiable factors such as family history, ... In coronary artery disease, fatty deposits called plaques start to form in the walls of the coronary arteries that supply the ... www.escardio.org/.../...Stable_Coronary_Artery_Disease_web_addenda.pdf. *www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Coronary-heart-disease/Pages/ ... Coronary Artery Disease and Aspirin. News-Medical. 13 July 2020. ,https://www.news-medical.net/health/Coronary-Artery-Disease- ...
Coronary heart disease (CHD)-also sometimes called coronary artery disease-is the most common form of cardiovascular disease, a ... Coronary heart disease (CHD)-also sometimes called coronary artery disease-is the most common form of cardiovascular disease, a ... A mammary artery or a vein taken from the leg is grafted onto the damaged coronary artery to circumvent a narrowed or blocked ... A coronary angiography is performed to determine the presence of narrowing of the coronary arteries. In this procedure a tiny ...
Find Coronary Artery Disease information, treatments for Coronary Artery Disease and Coronary Artery Disease symptoms. ... MedHelps Coronary Artery Disease Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for Coronary Artery Disease ... condition or disease; or a recommendation for a specific test, doctor, care provider, procedure, treatment plan, product, or ...
By checking this box, youll stay logged in until you logout. Youll get easier access to your articles, collections, media, and all your other content, even if you close your browser or shut down your computer.. To protect your most sensitive data and activities (like changing your password), well ask you to re-enter your password when you access these services.. What if Im on a computer that I share with others? ...
A common heart disease characterized by reduced or absent blood flow in one or more of the arteries that encircle and supply ... Disease - Coronary artery disease. Basket 0. (max 400 entries)x. Your basket is currently empty. i ,p>When browsing through ...
Your account has been temporarily locked Your account has been temporarily locked due to incorrect sign in attempts and will be automatically unlocked in 30 mins. For immediate assistance, contact Customer Service: 800-638-3030 (within USA), 301-223-2300 (international) [email protected] ...
... Coronary arteries supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle. Coronary artery disease results from ... minimally invasive coronary artery bypass surgery. *Hybrid minimally invasive coronary artery bypass and coronary artery stent ... Common symptoms of coronary artery disease include shortness of breath and angina (pain or a feeling of increased pressure in ... a buildup of fatty deposits and plaque in the lining of a coronary artery, which narrows the artery and causes a decrease in ...
Coronary artery disease and rheumatoid arthritis.. Goodson N1.. Author information. 1. Arthritis Research Campaign, ... It is not clear why rheumatoid patients have higher rates of coronary disease. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors do not ... It may be that these new cardiovascular risk factors are responsible for accelerating coronary heart disease in patients with ... This article reviews recent literature relating to the epidemiology of cardiovascular disease in the context of RA. ...
Extracellular vesicles in coronary artery disease.. Boulanger CM1,2, Loyer X1,2, Rautou PE1,3,4, Amabile N1,5. ... This Review summarizes current knowledge on the role of extracellular vesicles in coronary artery disease, and their emerging ... valuable biological information for biomarker discovery in primary and secondary prevention of coronary artery disease. ...
Damage to or blockage of a coronary artery can result in injury to the heart. Normally, blood flows through a coronary artery ... The coronary arteries supply blood to the heart muscle itself. ... The coronary arteries supply blood to the heart muscle itself. ... Damage to or blockage of a coronary artery can result in injury to the heart. Normally, blood flows through a coronary artery ... If the inner wall of a coronary artery becomes damaged, the inner contents of plaque can be exposed to the bloodstream and the ...
Its known as hardening of the arteries, too. Arteries carry blood and oxygen to your heart. ... Coronary Heart Disease is plaque buildup in your arteries. ... Coronary Artery Disease (CAD). Coronary artery disease is also ... Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the most common type of heart disease. It is also called coronary artery disease (CAD). CHD is ... What causes coronary heart disease?. Coronary heart disease develops over time. It occurs as your arteries become blocked from ...
Coronary Artery Anomaly. My grandson, age 10, had aorta surgery when he was 1 wk old and was also born with a VSD, that will ... They say this artery is going directly into the middle of the heart.They explained to me about the 3rd artery..they said this ... They say this artery is going directly into the middle of the heart.They explained to me about the 3rd artery..they said this ... During his annual cardiology visit this year they discovered a 3rd coronary artery, via a cardioechogram and other tests. ...
  • The results showed that her LAD (left anterior descending) artery had a very long blockage, which the cardiologist felt could not be treated effectively with angioplasty or a stent. (medtronic.com)
  • Some argue that only left main- or proximal-left anterior descending artery disease is relevant to the diagnostic criteria for ischemic cardiomyopathy. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, a "speck" of coronary calcification in the left anterior descending artery measures 4 square millimeters and has a peak density of 270 HU. (wikipedia.org)
  • aka Left internal thoracic artery, Left ITA) to bypass the left anterior descending artery (LAD), which is termed as Left IMA-LAD, as a preferable anastamosis whenever indicated and technically feasible (Loop et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using these diagnostic methods, it has been discovered that the disease normally occurs most often in the right coronary artery, followed by the left anterior descending artery, and finally the left anterior circumflex artery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clinical practitioners are recommended to prescribe low dose aspirin to be taken daily, especially in adults who are at increased risk for coronary artery disease. (news-medical.net)
  • ABSORB III - A Clinical Evaluation of Absorb™ BVS, the Everolimus Eluting Bioresorbable Vascular Scaffold in the Treatment of Subjects with de novo Native Coronary Artery Lesions Absorb™ is an investigational bioabsorbable vascular scaffold manufactured by Abbott. (centerwatch.com)
  • The Coronary Artery Disease Clinic integrates cardiac catheterization procedures into a clinical setting. (mayoclinic.org)
  • This Review discusses the clinical features of cardiovascular disease in patients with HIV infection, including the mechanisms underlying HIV-associated atherosclerosis and approaches to reduce the cardiovascular risk. (nature.com)
  • During one of Dennis's follow-up appointments for the clinical trial, his cardiologist found another blockage in a different artery. (medtronic.com)
  • Clinical observations have documented substantial differences in the extent of collateralization among patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), with some individuals demonstrating marked abundance and others showing nearly complete absence of these vessels. (ahajournals.org)
  • Clinical investigations suggest that a significant minority of CAD patients present with or develop in the course of their illness extra-arterial conduits, termed coronary collaterals, which link proximal and distal parts of the arterial tree bypassing areas of stenosis and/or occlusion. (ahajournals.org)
  • The majority of industry-sponsored drugs in active clinical development for coronary artery disease are in Phase II. (reportlinker.com)
  • The distribution of clinical trials across Phase I-IV indicates that the majority of trials for coronary artery disease have been in the late phases of development, with 52% of trials in Phase III-IV, and 48% in Phase I-II. (reportlinker.com)
  • The US has a substantial lead in the number of coronary artery disease clinical trials globally. (reportlinker.com)
  • Clinical trial activity in the coronary artery disease space is dominated by completed trials. (reportlinker.com)
  • Pfizer has the highest number of completed clinical trials for coronary artery disease, with 96 trials. (reportlinker.com)
  • Prevalence and predictors of nonobstructive coronary artery disease identified with coronary angiography in contemporary clinical practice. (springer.com)
  • Indeed, a rising CA-125 level may precede clinical evidence of disease relapse by an interval of 3 to 6 months. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clinical studies indicate that moderate coffee consumption is benign or mildly beneficial in healthy adults, with continuing research on whether long-term consumption lowers the risk of some diseases, although there is generally poor quality of such studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, a multi-locus genetic risk score study, based on a combination of 27 loci including the SORT1 gene, identified individuals at increased risk for both incident and recurrent coronary artery disease events, as well as an enhanced clinical benefit from statin therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clinical practice guidelines advise physicians to screen early to detect diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • In April 2014 there were 315 open clinical trials under way to understand and treat Alzheimer's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several potential treatments for Alzheimer's disease are under investigation, including several compounds being studied in phase 3 clinical trials. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most important clinical research is focused on potentially treating the underlying disease pathology, for which reduction of amyloid beta is a common target of compounds under investigation. (wikipedia.org)
  • A gamma secretase inhibitor, semagacestat, failed to show any benefit to Alzheimer's disease patients in clinical trials. (wikipedia.org)
  • The research group of Landmesser characterizes vascular function and the role of lipids in coronary disease and could show, that high-density lipoprotein (HDL), the so-called "good cholesterol" loses important vasoprotective properties in patients with coronary disease or chronic kidney disease, that can help to explain why raising of HDL-C was not effective in reducing cardiovascular risk in several recent large clinical trials. (wikipedia.org)
  • He specialises in cardiac imaging, clinical hypertension, coronary artery disease and diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Int J Cardio, 130, 335-343 Hartnell, G.G., Parnell, B.M. and Pridie, R.B. (1985) Coronary artery ectasia: its prevalence and clinical significance in 4993 patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, a multi-locus genetic risk score study, based on a combination of 27 loci including the PPAP2B gene, identified individuals at increased risk for both incident and recurrent coronary artery disease events, as well as an enhanced clinical benefit from statin therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • To date, mutations or variants have not been identified in any clinical diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cardiac catheterization checks your arteries for flow and blockage. (familydoctor.org)
  • The experienced staff in the Coronary Artery Disease Clinic diagnoses your condition, offers rapid access to cardiac catheterization and provides consultation with other specialists when needed. (mayoclinic.org)
  • In the Coronary Artery Disease Clinic, you may consult with doctors and be treated in Mayo's Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory soon after your consultation. (mayoclinic.org)
  • The next day, his cardiologist, Dr. Remington, performed a diagnostic cardiac catheterization, which confirmed that Dante had numerous blockages in his coronary arteries. (medtronic.com)
  • Both coronary CT angiography and invasive angiography via cardiac catheterization yield similar diagnostic accuracy when both are being compared to a third reference standard such as intravascular ultrasound or fractional flow reserve. (wikipedia.org)
  • A persistently uncontrolled high level of blood sugar is a risk factor for the development of coronary artery disease. (news-medical.net)
  • HDL (high density lipoprotein) has a protective effect over development of coronary artery disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mayo Clinic doctors in the Chest Pain and Coronary Physiology Clinic at Mayo Clinic's campus in Minnesota treat people with challenging chest pain syndromes. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Bernie Sanders, independent candidate of Vermont, was rushed into surgery for a blocked coronary artery after he experienced chest pains during a campaign event on Tuesday. (sandrarose.com)
  • Coronary microvascular dysfunction is highly prevalent in women with chest pain in the absence of coronary artery disease: results from the NHLBI WISE study. (springer.com)
  • This group exposed anesthetised open-chest dogs to four periods of 5 minute coronary artery occlusions followed by a 5-minute period of reperfusion before the onset of a 40-minute sustained occlusion of the coronary artery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chest pain is a major indication of coronary ischemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chest pain radiating down the left arm is also a symptom of coronary ischemia and the pain can also be radiating directly to the back in some instances. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prinzmetal's angina - Chest pain is caused by coronary vasospasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, according to a randomized controlled trial, males having chest pain with normal or non diagnostic ECG are at higher risk for having acute coronary syndrome than women. (wikipedia.org)
  • People with more risk factors are more likely to develop coronary artery disease. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Type A personality - People with a type A personality are twice as likely to develop coronary artery disease than any other personality types. (news-medical.net)
  • The United States Coronary Artery Disease Treatment Devices Industry 2017 Market Research Report is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the Coronary Artery Disease Treatment Devices industry. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • The analyst estimates that in 2017, there were approximately 327.9 million prevalent cases of coronary artery disease worldwide, and forecasts that number to increase to 365.9 million prevalent cases by 2026. (reportlinker.com)
  • This is caused by the build up of fatty deposits called plaques within the endothelial lining of the arteries. (news-medical.net)
  • Circulating vesicles released from platelets, erythrocytes, leukocytes, and endothelial cells contain potential valuable biological information for biomarker discovery in primary and secondary prevention of coronary artery disease. (nih.gov)
  • Allelic polymorphism in the endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene in coronary artery diseases," Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine , vol. 37, pp. 700-708, 2009. (hindawi.com)
  • Lack of association between endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphisms and risk of premature coronary artery disease in the Greek population," Acta Cardiologica , vol. 63, no. 5, pp. 609-614, 2008. (hindawi.com)
  • For people who suffer with endothelial dysfunction, their arteries are unable to dilate correctly for many different reasons. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the problem with this assertion in terms of the flow-mediated response indicator of endothelial dysfunction is that a morphological characteristic of atherosclerosis (baseline artery size) is inherent in the calculation of percentage flow-mediated dilation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Landmesser returned to Hannover and qualified as lecturer on the subject of Oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction in cardiovascular diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Voros, Dr. Zhen Qian and their team introduced this concept where each individual calcified lesion is characterized and precisely measured using parameters including but not limited to the width, length, density, and distance from the entrance of the major coronary arteries. (wikipedia.org)
  • The NEJM published results from two genome-wide association studies for coronary artery disease . (genomeweb.com)
  • Genome-wide association studies have identified around 60 genetic susceptibility loci for coronary artery disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein has been associated with coronary artery disease and migraines through genome-wide association studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, genome-wide association studies have linked PHACTR1 to coronary artery disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, PPAP2B emerged as 1 of 13 new loci associated with coronary artery disease by genome-wide association studies (GWAS). (wikipedia.org)
  • This paradox is a focus of the current review, which also evaluates other major determinants of coronary artery disease (CAD) in type 1 diabetes, including the roles of insulin resistance, cytokines, inflammatory biomarkers, and, briefly, genetic factors. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Garn produced a large body of work on many areas of human biology, beginning with human hair and eventually contributing research on determinants of coronary artery disease, somatotype, human races, dental development, skeletal development, nutrition, obesity and bone mineralization, among other subjects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent studies have reported an association between elevated myeloperoxidase levels and the severity of coronary artery disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • To discover the extent and severity of coronary artery ectasia there are a variety of diagnostic tools used. (wikipedia.org)
  • The subendocardium is the region that is most susceptible to ischemia because it is the most distant from the epicardial coronary arteries. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hormone plays a role in the suppression of the metabolic derangements that may result in type 2 diabetes, obesity, atherosclerosis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and an independent risk factor for metabolic syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mayo Clinic Q and A: Coronary artery disease -- prevention and early warning signs Nov. 23, 2018, 10:00 p.m. (mayoclinic.org)