Coronary-Subclavian Steal Syndrome: A complication of INTERNAL MAMMARY-CORONARY ARTERY ANASTOMOSIS whereby an occlusion or stenosis of the proximal SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY causes a reversal of the blood flow away from the CORONARY CIRCULATION, through the grafted INTERNAL MAMMARY ARTERY (internal thoracic artery), and back to the distal subclavian distribution.Coronary Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Coronary Artery Disease: Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.Coronary Artery Bypass: Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.Coronary Circulation: The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.Coronary Stenosis: Narrowing or constriction of a coronary artery.Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary: Dilation of an occluded coronary artery (or arteries) by means of a balloon catheter to restore myocardial blood supply.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Angiography: Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Coronary Vasospasm: Spasm of the large- or medium-sized coronary arteries.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Coronary Aneurysm: Abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of CORONARY VESSELS. Most coronary aneurysms are due to CORONARY ATHEROSCLEROSIS, and the rest are due to inflammatory diseases, such as KAWASAKI DISEASE.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Cerebral Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Coronary Thrombosis: Coagulation of blood in any of the CORONARY VESSELS. The presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) often leads to MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Coronary Restenosis: Recurrent narrowing or constriction of a coronary artery following surgical procedures performed to alleviate a prior obstruction.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Coronary Occlusion: Complete blockage of blood flow through one of the CORONARY ARTERIES, usually from CORONARY ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Stents: Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.Angiography, Digital Subtraction: A method of delineating blood vessels by subtracting a tissue background image from an image of tissue plus intravascular contrast material that attenuates the X-ray photons. The background image is determined from a digitized image taken a few moments before injection of the contrast material. The resulting angiogram is a high-contrast image of the vessel. This subtraction technique allows extraction of a high-intensity signal from the superimposed background information. The image is thus the result of the differential absorption of X-rays by different tissues.Ultrasonography, Interventional: The use of ultrasound to guide minimally invasive surgical procedures such as needle ASPIRATION BIOPSY; DRAINAGE; etc. Its widest application is intravascular ultrasound imaging but it is useful also in urology and intra-abdominal conditions.Myocardial Ischemia: A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Calcinosis: Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A family of percutaneous techniques that are used to manage CORONARY OCCLUSION, including standard balloon angioplasty (PERCUTANEOUS TRANSLUMINAL CORONARY ANGIOPLASTY), the placement of intracoronary STENTS, and atheroablative technologies (e.g., ATHERECTOMY; ENDARTERECTOMY; THROMBECTOMY; PERCUTANEOUS TRANSLUMINAL LASER ANGIOPLASTY). PTCA was the dominant form of PCI, before the widespread use of stenting.Myocardial Revascularization: The restoration of blood supply to the myocardium. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Tomography, Spiral Computed: Computed tomography where there is continuous X-ray exposure to the patient while being transported in a spiral or helical pattern through the beam of irradiation. This provides improved three-dimensional contrast and spatial resolution compared to conventional computed tomography, where data is obtained and computed from individual sequential exposures.Radial Artery: The direct continuation of the brachial trunk, originating at the bifurcation of the brachial artery opposite the neck of the radius. Its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to the three regions in which the vessel is situated, the forearm, wrist, and hand.Cardiac Catheterization: Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.Coronary Vessel Anomalies: Malformations of CORONARY VESSELS, either arteries or veins. Included are anomalous origins of coronary arteries; ARTERIOVENOUS FISTULA; CORONARY ANEURYSM; MYOCARDIAL BRIDGING; and others.Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump: Coronary artery bypass surgery on a beating HEART without a CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS (diverting the flow of blood from the heart and lungs through an oxygenator).Angina Pectoris: The symptom of paroxysmal pain consequent to MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA usually of distinctive character, location and radiation. It is thought to be provoked by a transient stressful situation during which the oxygen requirements of the MYOCARDIUM exceed that supplied by the CORONARY CIRCULATION.Chest Pain: Pressure, burning, or numbness in the chest.Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Multidetector Computed Tomography: Types of spiral computed tomography technology in which multiple slices of data are acquired simultaneously improving the resolution over single slice acquisition technology.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Myocardial Perfusion Imaging: The creation and display of functional images showing where the blood is flowing into the MYOCARDIUM by following over time the distribution of tracers injected into the blood stream.Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.Angina, Unstable: Precordial pain at rest, which may precede a MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Carotid Arteries: Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.Mammary Arteries: Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles and mammary gland.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Femoral Artery: The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.Iopamidol: A non-ionic, water-soluble contrast agent which is used in myelography, arthrography, nephroangiography, arteriography, and other radiological procedures.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Fractional Flow Reserve, Myocardial: The ratio of maximum blood flow to the MYOCARDIUM with CORONARY STENOSIS present, to the maximum equivalent blood flow without stenosis. The measurement is commonly used to verify borderline stenosis of CORONARY ARTERIES.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Dipyridamole: A phosphodiesterase inhibitor that blocks uptake and metabolism of adenosine by erythrocytes and vascular endothelial cells. Dipyridamole also potentiates the antiaggregating action of prostacyclin. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p752)Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Collateral Circulation: Maintenance of blood flow to an organ despite obstruction of a principal vessel. Blood flow is maintained through small vessels.Coronary Care Units: The hospital unit in which patients with acute cardiac disorders receive intensive care.Cineangiography: Motion pictures of the passage of contrast medium through blood vessels.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Cerebral Arteries: The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.Thallium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of thallium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Tl atoms with atomic weights 198-202, 204, and 206-210 are thallium radioisotopes.Nitroglycerin: A volatile vasodilator which relieves ANGINA PECTORIS by stimulating GUANYLATE CYCLASE and lowering cytosolic calcium. It is also sometimes used for TOCOLYSIS and explosives.Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors: Drugs or agents which antagonize or impair any mechanism leading to blood platelet aggregation, whether during the phases of activation and shape change or following the dense-granule release reaction and stimulation of the prostaglandin-thromboxane system.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Constriction, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.Fluorescein Angiography: Visualization of a vascular system after intravenous injection of a fluorescein solution. The images may be photographed or televised. It is used especially in studying the retinal and uveal vasculature.Renal Artery: A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome: An acute, febrile, mucocutaneous condition accompanied by swelling of cervical lymph nodes in infants and young children. The principal symptoms are fever, congestion of the ocular conjunctivae, reddening of the lips and oral cavity, protuberance of tongue papillae, and edema or erythema of the extremities.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Computer systems or networks designed to provide radiographic interpretive information.Dobutamine: A catecholamine derivative with specificity for BETA-1 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS. It is commonly used as a cardiotonic agent after CARDIAC SURGERY and during DOBUTAMINE STRESS ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY.Myocardial Bridging: A malformation that is characterized by a muscle bridge over a segment of the CORONARY ARTERIES. Systolic contractions of the muscle bridge can lead to narrowing of coronary artery; coronary compression; MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and SUDDEN CARDIAC DEATH.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Ergonovine: An ergot alkaloid (ERGOT ALKALOIDS) with uterine and VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE contractile properties.Sinus of Valsalva: The dilatation of the aortic wall behind each of the cusps of the aortic valve.Vascular Patency: The degree to which BLOOD VESSELS are not blocked or obstructed.Cardiovascular Agents: Agents that affect the rate or intensity of cardiac contraction, blood vessel diameter, or blood volume.Adenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.Graft Occlusion, Vascular: Obstruction of flow in biological or prosthetic vascular grafts.Echocardiography, Stress: A method of recording heart motion and internal structures by combining ultrasonic imaging with exercise testing (EXERCISE TEST) or pharmacologic stress.Ventricular Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Carotid Artery Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi: A technetium imaging agent used to reveal blood-starved cardiac tissue during a heart attack.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Basilar Artery: The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.Angina, Stable: Persistent and reproducible chest discomfort usually precipitated by a physical exertion that dissipates upon cessation of such an activity. The symptoms are manifestations of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA.Vertebral Artery: The first branch of the SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY with distribution to muscles of the NECK; VERTEBRAE; SPINAL CORD; CEREBELLUM; and interior of the CEREBRUM.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Angina Pectoris, Variant: A clinical syndrome characterized by the development of CHEST PAIN at rest with concomitant transient ST segment elevation in the ELECTROCARDIOGRAM, but with preserved exercise capacity.Angiocardiography: Radiography of the heart and great vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Iohexol: An effective non-ionic, water-soluble contrast agent which is used in myelography, arthrography, nephroangiography, arteriography, and other radiographic procedures. Its low systemic toxicity is the combined result of low chemotoxicity and low osmolality.Carotid Artery, Internal: Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.Plaque, Atherosclerotic: Lesions formed within the walls of ARTERIES.Mesenteric Arteries: Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Vascular Calcification: Deposition of calcium into the blood vessel structures. Excessive calcification of the vessels are associated with ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES formation particularly after MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION (see MONCKEBERG MEDIAL CALCIFIC SCLEROSIS) and chronic kidney diseases which in turn increase VASCULAR STIFFNESS.Arterio-Arterial Fistula: Abnormal communication between two ARTERIES that may result from injury or occur as a congenital abnormality.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Myocardial Reperfusion: Generally, restoration of blood supply to heart tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. Reperfusion can be induced to treat ischemia. Methods include chemical dissolution of an occluding thrombus, administration of vasodilator drugs, angioplasty, catheterization, and artery bypass graft surgery. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Saphenous Vein: The vein which drains the foot and leg.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Iliac Artery: Either of two large arteries originating from the abdominal aorta; they supply blood to the pelvis, abdominal wall and legs.Internal Mammary-Coronary Artery Anastomosis: Direct myocardial revascularization in which the internal mammary artery is anastomosed to the right coronary artery, circumflex artery, or anterior descending coronary artery. The internal mammary artery is the most frequent choice, especially for a single graft, for coronary artery bypass surgery.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Arterial Occlusive Diseases: Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Stroke Volume: The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Triiodobenzoic Acids: Triiodo-substituted derivatives of BENZOIC ACID.Brachial Artery: The continuation of the axillary artery; it branches into the radial and ulnar arteries.Radionuclide Angiography: The measurement of visualization by radiation of any organ after a radionuclide has been injected into its blood supply. It is used to diagnose heart, liver, lung, and other diseases and to measure the function of those organs, except renography, for which RADIOISOTOPE RENOGRAPHY is available.Cardiac-Gated Imaging Techniques: Timing the acquisition of imaging data to specific points in the cardiac cycle to minimize image blurring and other motion artifacts.Diabetic Angiopathies: VASCULAR DISEASES that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS.Fistula: Abnormal communication most commonly seen between two internal organs, or between an internal organ and the surface of the body.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Thoracic Arteries: Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles, mammary gland and the axillary aspect of the chest wall.Dilatation, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being dilated beyond normal dimensions.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Ventricular Dysfunction, Left: A condition in which the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the left ventricular wall.Aspirin: The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)Thrombolytic Therapy: Use of infusions of FIBRINOLYTIC AGENTS to destroy or dissolve thrombi in blood vessels or bypass grafts.Radiation Dosage: The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Subclavian Artery: Artery arising from the brachiocephalic trunk on the right side and from the arch of the aorta on the left side. It distributes to the neck, thoracic wall, spinal cord, brain, meninges, and upper limb.Ulnar Artery: The larger of the two terminal branches of the brachial artery, beginning about one centimeter distal to the bend of the elbow. Like the RADIAL ARTERY, its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to their locations in the forearm, wrist, and hand.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Angioscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery performed on the interior of blood vessels.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Cardiopulmonary Bypass: Diversion of the flow of blood from the entrance of the right atrium directly to the aorta (or femoral artery) via an oxygenator thus bypassing both the heart and lungs.Angioplasty, Balloon: Use of a balloon catheter for dilation of an occluded artery. It is used in treatment of arterial occlusive diseases, including renal artery stenosis and arterial occlusions in the leg. For the specific technique of BALLOON DILATION in coronary arteries, ANGIOPLASTY, BALLOON, CORONARY is available.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Arteriosclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.Microcirculation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.Isosorbide Dinitrate: A vasodilator used in the treatment of ANGINA PECTORIS. Its actions are similar to NITROGLYCERIN but with a slower onset of action.Hyperemia: The presence of an increased amount of blood in a body part or an organ leading to congestion or engorgement of blood vessels. Hyperemia can be due to increase of blood flow into the area (active or arterial), or due to obstruction of outflow of blood from the area (passive or venous).Ticlopidine: An effective inhibitor of platelet aggregation commonly used in the placement of STENTS in CORONARY ARTERIES.Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Heart Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.Cardiotonic Agents: Agents that have a strengthening effect on the heart or that can increase cardiac output. They may be CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES; SYMPATHOMIMETICS; or other drugs. They are used after MYOCARDIAL INFARCT; CARDIAC SURGICAL PROCEDURES; in SHOCK; or in congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).Vasomotor System: The neural systems which act on VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE to control blood vessel diameter. The major neural control is through the sympathetic nervous system.Injections, Intra-Arterial: Delivery of drugs into an artery.Intracranial Aneurysm: Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)Preoperative Care: Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Acute Coronary Syndrome: An episode of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA that generally lasts longer than a transient anginal episode that ultimately may lead to MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Cardiology: The study of the heart, its physiology, and its functions.Swine, Miniature: Genetically developed small pigs for use in biomedical research. There are several strains - Yucatan miniature, Sinclair miniature, and Minnesota miniature.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Atherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.Patient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Heart Transplantation: The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Carotid Stenosis: Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 822-3)Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Microvascular Angina: ANGINA PECTORIS or angina-like chest pain with a normal coronary arteriogram and positive EXERCISE TEST. The cause of the syndrome is unknown. While its recognition is of clinical importance, its prognosis is excellent. (Braunwald, Heart Disease, 4th ed, p1346; Jablonski Dictionary of Syndromes & Eponymic Diseases, 2d ed). It is different from METABOLIC SYNDROME X, a syndrome characterized by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA, that has increased risk for cardiovascular disease.Sirolimus: A macrolide compound obtained from Streptomyces hygroscopicus that acts by selectively blocking the transcriptional activation of cytokines thereby inhibiting cytokine production. It is bioactive only when bound to IMMUNOPHILINS. Sirolimus is a potent immunosuppressant and possesses both antifungal and antineoplastic properties.Diabetes Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy: A transient left ventricular apical dysfunction or ballooning accompanied by electrocardiographic (ECG) T wave inversions. This abnormality is associated with high levels of CATECHOLAMINES, either administered or endogenously secreted from a tumor or during extreme stress.Aneurysm, Dissecting: Aneurysm caused by a tear in the TUNICA INTIMA of a blood vessel leading to interstitial HEMORRHAGE, and splitting (dissecting) of the vessel wall, often involving the AORTA. Dissection between the intima and media causes luminal occlusion. Dissection at the media, or between the media and the outer adventitia causes aneurismal dilation.Echocardiography, Doppler: Measurement of intracardiac blood flow using an M-mode and/or two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiogram while simultaneously recording the spectrum of the audible Doppler signal (e.g., velocity, direction, amplitude, intensity, timing) reflected from the moving column of red blood cells.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Thrombosis: Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.Renal Artery Obstruction: Narrowing or occlusion of the RENAL ARTERY or arteries. It is due usually to ATHEROSCLEROSIS; FIBROMUSCULAR DYSPLASIA; THROMBOSIS; EMBOLISM, or external pressure. The reduced renal perfusion can lead to renovascular hypertension (HYPERTENSION, RENOVASCULAR).Vascular Fistula: An abnormal passage between two or more BLOOD VESSELS, between ARTERIES; VEINS; or between an artery and a vein.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Fibrinolytic Agents: Fibrinolysin or agents that convert plasminogen to FIBRINOLYSIN.Embolization, Therapeutic: A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.Cholesterol, LDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Carotid Artery, Common: The two principal arteries supplying the structures of the head and neck. They ascend in the neck, one on each side, and at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, each divides into two branches, the external (CAROTID ARTERY, EXTERNAL) and internal (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL) carotid arteries.Hospital Mortality: A vital statistic measuring or recording the rate of death from any cause in hospitalized populations.Papaverine: An alkaloid found in opium but not closely related to the other opium alkaloids in its structure or pharmacological actions. It is a direct-acting smooth muscle relaxant used in the treatment of impotence and as a vasodilator, especially for cerebral vasodilation. The mechanism of its pharmacological actions is not clear, but it apparently can inhibit phosphodiesterases and it may have direct actions on calcium channels.Catheters: A flexible, tubular device that is used to carry fluids into or from a blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity.Radiographic Image Enhancement: Improvement in the quality of an x-ray image by use of an intensifying screen, tube, or filter and by optimum exposure techniques. Digital processing methods are often employed.Tunica Intima: The innermost layer of an artery or vein, made up of one layer of endothelial cells and supported by an internal elastic lamina.Postoperative Period: The period following a surgical operation.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Arteriovenous Fistula: An abnormal direct communication between an artery and a vein without passing through the CAPILLARIES. An A-V fistula usually leads to the formation of a dilated sac-like connection, arteriovenous aneurysm. The locations and size of the shunts determine the degree of effects on the cardiovascular functions such as BLOOD PRESSURE and HEART RATE.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.
Coronary angiography is used to determine the patency and configuration of the coronary artery lumens. Transthoracic ... "Assessment of Agatston Coronary Artery Calcium Score Using Contrast-Enhanced CT Coronary Angiography". American Journal of ... A coronary CT calcium scan is a computed tomography (CT) scan of the heart for the assessment of severity of coronary artery ... Specifically, it looks for calcium deposits in the coronary arteries that can narrow arteries and increase the risk of heart ...
"Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography as a Screening Tool for the Detection of Occult Coronary Artery Disease in ... including a lack of family history of premature coronary artery disease, should not be screened with this test. Coronary ... Coronary artery calcium scoring is a diagnosic test in the field of cardiovascular x-ray computed tomography. It is used to ... Additionally, this test rarely provides insight which cannot be gained from coronary artery calcium scoring. Overscreening has ...
Coronary CT angiography (CTA): the use of CT to assess the coronary arteries of the heart. The subject receives an intravenous ... "Assessment of Agatston Coronary Artery Calcium Score Using Contrast-Enhanced CT Coronary Angiography". American Journal of ... allowing radiologists to assess the extent of occlusion in the coronary arteries, usually in order to diagnose coronary artery ... Coronary CT calcium scan: also used for the assessment of severity of coronary artery disease. Specifically, it looks for ...
For reference, current coronary artery angiography imaging is usually performed at 30 frames/second or 0.033 seconds/frame; EBT ... specifically to detect coronary calcium. The heart never stops moving, and some important structures, such as arteries, move ... Peebles, C R (1 June 2003). "Non-invasive coronary imaging: computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging?". Heart. 89 (6 ...
Asymptomatic Coronary Artery disease in patients with symptomatic peripheral vascular disease - detected by dobutamine stress ... echo and coronary angiography. Studies on homocysteine demonstrating its significance as a possible tool for differential ...
... of the coronary arteries that has been previously identified either by standard coronary angiography or CT coronary angiography ... investigated with an other imaging modality to directly image the coronary arteries such as invasive coronary angiography. In ... To screen patients who have chest pain and risk factors for coronary artery disease, to assess for ischaemia which may be ... It is becoming increasingly established as a marker of prognosis in patients with coronary artery disease. There are two main ...
... especially when given via the arteries prior to studies such as catheter coronary angiography. Non-ionic contrast agents, which ...
... or a blood clot is found in a coronary artery by angiography and/or at autopsy, but where blood samples could not be obtained, ... Calcium deposits in the coronary arteries can be detected with CT scans. Calcium seen in coronary arteries can provide ... In people with blockages of multiple coronary arteries and diabetes, coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) may be recommended ... The gradual buildup of cholesterol and fibrous tissue in plaques in the wall of the coronary arteries or other arteries, ...
FFR has certain advantages over other techniques to evaluate narrowed coronary arteries, such as coronary angiography, ... is a technique used in coronary catheterization to measure pressure differences across a coronary artery stenosis (narrowing, ... During coronary catheterization, a catheter is inserted into the femoral (groin) or radial arteries (wrist) using a sheath and ... June 1996). "Measurement of fractional flow reserve to assess the functional severity of coronary-artery stenoses". N. Engl. J ...
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a major healthcare problem worldwide, being the leading cause of death (more than 8 million ... Patients are sometimes referred even to invasive coronary angiography as a result of false positive stress ECG and imaging ... Changes in high-frequency QRS components are more sensitive than ST-segment deviation for detecting acute coronary artery ... High frequency electrocardiography of three orthogonal leads in dogs during a coronary artery occlusion. Pacing Clin ...
After percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs), such as the placement of a coronary artery stent, a U.S. Agency for ... Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and ... Hall SL, Lorenc T (February 2010). "Secondary prevention of coronary artery disease". American Family Physician. 81 (3): 289-96 ... in someone with documented or suspected coronary artery disease, much lower doses are taken once daily.[82] ...
... may be the result of coronary artery disease, and its prognosis depends in part on the ability of the coronary ... Angiography[edit]. Angiography is the X-ray imaging of blood vessels which is done by injecting contrast agents into the ... Common causes of heart failure include coronary artery disease including a previous myocardial infarction (heart attack), high ... Ischemic cardiomyopathy implies that the cause of muscle damage is coronary artery disease. Dilated cardiomyopathy implies that ...
Coronary artery bypass graft patency was studied through computed tomography angiography. 92% of patients were free from angina ... Minimally Invasive Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: An Alternative Approach to Perform Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting on the ... Ruel M, Shariff M, Lapierre H, Goyal N, Sohmer B, McGinn J. Final Results of the Minimally Invasive Coronary Artery Bypass ... Ruel M, Une D, Bonatti J, McGinn JT (November 2013). "Minimally invasive coronary artery bypass grafting: is it time for the ...
After percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs), such as the placement of a coronary artery stent, a U.S. Agency for ... Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and ... For the prevention of myocardial infarction (MI) in someone with documented or suspected coronary artery disease, much lower ... Hall, SL; Lorenc, T (1 February 2010). "Secondary prevention of coronary artery disease". American Family Physician. 81 (3): ...
For people who undergo coronary artery bypass grafting, coronary imaging (completion angiography) for the routine evaluation of ... Thus hybrid coronary revascularization and MIDCAB (minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass surgery) have been ... Surgical bypass grafting and percutaneous coronary artery revascularization are traditionally considered isolated options. A ... Again, 3D imaging using rotational angiography should be the concept of choice. Completion angiography in a hybrid OR may even ...
... work on creating catheters that were specially shaped to reach the coronary arteries to perform selective coronary angiography ... "SYNTAX Study: TAXUS Drug-Eluting Stent Versus Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery for the Treatment of Narrowed Arteries". U.S. ... RITA Investigators (1993). "Coronary angioplasty versus coronary artery bypass surgery: the Randomized Intervention Treatment ... cardiology is the overlapping roles of PCI and coronary artery bypass surgery for individuals with coronary artery disease. ...
Madani Heart Center serves as the main hospital for Angiography, Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI), Coronary Artery ... heart emergency care section and Coronary Care Unit (CCU). Madanai Heart Center was a part of Imam Khomeini Hospital before ...
Angiography History of invasive and interventional cardiology Coronary catheterization Cardiac catheterization Uterine artery ...
The infarct was believed to have been caused by a problem during a coronary angiography, which is a test to show the insides of ... an individual's coronary arteries. H.J. suffered difficulties with creating a steady beat, an inability to distinguish between ...
... returning the following day for angiography, which disclosed multiple vessel coronary artery disease. He was transferred to ... where he underwent a successful on-pump quadruple coronary artery bypass surgery on September 6, 2004. The medical team stated ... It was determined he did not suffer a coronary infarction, and he was sent home, ... and had two coronary stents implanted in his heart. He has since recovered and become a vegan. In the course of the 2008 ...
Hall, SL; Lorenc, T. Secondary prevention of coronary artery disease. American family physician. 2010-02-01, 81 (3): 289-96. ... Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and ... Aspirin Resistance in Patients with Stable Coronary Artery Disease with and without a History of Myocardial Infarction. Annals ... National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC). 2011 ACCF/AHA/SCAI guideline for percutaneous coronary artery intervention. A report of ...
Recent studies have reported an association between elevated myeloperoxidase levels and the severity of coronary artery disease ... and C-reactive protein have combined utility for long-term prediction of cardiovascular mortality after coronary angiography". ... "Association between myeloperoxidase levels and risk of coronary artery disease". JAMA. 286 (17): 2136-42. doi:10.1001/jama. ...
Lopid Coronary Angiography Trial". Atherosclerosis. 139 (1): 49-56. doi:10.1016/S0021-9150(98)00053-7. PMID 9699891. de Maat MP ... gene predicts progression of angiographically determined coronary artery disease in men in the LOCAT gemfibrozil study. ... such as progressive coronary atherosclerosis. The -1171 5A/6A variant has also been associated with congenital anomalies such ... "Progression of coronary atherosclerosis is associated with a common genetic variant of the human stromelysin-1 promoter which ...
It is important to note that the coronary arteries are not accessed during a right heart catheterization. Main page: Coronary ... such as coronary angiography and left ventricle angiography. Once the catheter is in place, it can be used to perform a number ... Subsets of this technique are mainly coronary catheterization, involving the catheterization of the coronary arteries, and ... coronary angiography is a diagnostic procedure that allows the interventional cardiologist to visualize the coronary vessels. ...
These may include angiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and/or computed tomography (CT scan). The coronary arteries ... if the circumflex coronary artery branches from the right coronary artery, the circumflex coronary artery will be distorted if ... The coronary arteries are transplanted from the aorta/neo-pulmonary artery to the pulmonary artery/neo-aorta. Length of ... The circumflex coronary artery may originate from the same coronary sinus as, rather than directly from, the right coronary ...
... is a rare disease that occurs in only 0.3-4.9% of people in North America. Coronary artery ectasia is characterized by the enlargement of a coronary artery to 1.5 times or more than its normal diameter. The disease is commonly asymptomatic and is normally discovered when performing tests for other conditions such as coronary artery disease, stable angina and other acute coronary syndromes. Coronary artery ectasia occurs 4 times more frequently in males than in females and in people who have risk factors for heart disease such as smokers. While the disease is commonly found in patients with atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease, it can occur by itself and in both cases it can cause health problems. The disease can ...
... is an abnormal dilatation of part of the coronary artery. Acquired causes include atherosclerosis, Kawasaki disease and coronary catheterization. It can also be congenital. It is often found coincidentally on coronary angiography. Generally, it has a good prognosis. In Kawasaki's disease, untreated, there is a 1-2% death rate, from cardiac causes. Nichols L, Lagana S, Parwani A (May 2008). "Coronary artery aneurysm: a review and hypothesis regarding etiology". Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 132 (5): 823-8. doi:10.1043/1543-2165(2008)132[823:CAAARA]2.0.CO;2. PMID 18466032. Fukazawa R, Ikegam E, Watanabe M, et al. (May 2007). "Coronary artery aneurysm induced by Kawasaki disease in children show features typical senescence". Circ. J. 71 (5): 709-15. doi:10.1253/circj.71.709. ...
... (PCI) is a non-surgical procedure used to treat narrowing (stenosis) of the coronary arteries of the heart found in coronary artery disease. After accessing the blood stream through the femoral or radial artery, the procedure uses coronary catheterization to visualise the blood vessels on X-ray imaging. After this, an interventional cardiologist can perform a coronary angioplasty, using a balloon catheter in which a deflated balloon is advanced into the obstructed artery and inflated to relieve the narrowing; certain devices such as stents can be deployed to keep the blood vessel open. Various other procedures can also be performed. Primary PCI is the very urgent use of PCI in people with acute myocardial infarction (heart attack), especially where there is evidence of severe heart damage on the electrocardiogram (ST ...
... (FFR) is a technique used in coronary catheterization to measure pressure differences across a coronary artery stenosis (narrowing, usually due to atherosclerosis) to determine the likelihood that the stenosis impedes oxygen delivery to the heart muscle (myocardial ischemia). FFR is a novel and potentially clinically useful mathematical solution for estimation of stenotic coronary artery atherosclerosis. Reliability/collaborative measurement between capable laboratories in measuring this essential metric appears muddled in a proprietary race to claim cardiac mathematics dedicated to risk in ischemic cardiac disease. Proprietary claims of cardiac mathematics have not been previously argued in patent law. Fractional flow reserve is defined as the pressure after (distal to) a stenosis relative to the pressure before the stenosis. The result is an absolute number; an FFR of ...
... (heart cath) is the insertion of a catheter into a chamber or vessel of the heart. This is done both for diagnostic and interventional purposes. Subsets of this technique are mainly coronary catheterization, involving the catheterization of the coronary arteries, and catheterization of cardiac chambers and valves of the cardiac system. "Cardiac catheterization" is a general term for a group of procedures that are performed using this method, such as coronary angiography and left ventricle angiography. Once the catheter is in place, it can be used to perform a number of procedures including, coronary angioplasty, balloon septostomy, electrophysiology study or catheter ablation. Procedures can be diagnostic or therapeutic. For example, coronary angiography is a diagnostic procedure that ...
... (cardiac MRI perfusion, CMRI perfusion), also known as stress CMR perfusion, is a clinical magnetic resonance imaging test performed on patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease to determine if there are perfusion defects in the myocardium of the left ventricle that are caused by narrowing of one or more of the coronary arteries. CMR perfusion is increasingly used in cardiac imaging to test for inducible myocardial ischaemia and has been well validated against other imaging modalities such as invasive angiography or FFR. Several recent large-scale studies have shown non-inferiority or superiority to SPECT imaging. It is becoming increasingly established as a marker of prognosis in patients with coronary artery disease. There are two main reasons for doing this test: To assess the significance of a stenosis (narrowing) in one or more of ...
... or arteriography is a medical imaging technique used to visualize the inside, or lumen, of blood vessels and organs of the body, with particular interest in the arteries, veins and the heart chambers. This is traditionally done by injecting a radio-opaque contrast agent into the blood vessel and imaging using X-ray based techniques such as fluoroscopy. The word itself comes from the Greek words ἀγγεῖον angeion, "vessel", and γράφειν graphein, "to write" or "record". The film or image of the blood vessels is called an angiograph, or more commonly an angiogram. Though the word can describe both an arteriogram and a venogram, in everyday usage the terms angiogram and arteriogram are often used synonymously, whereas the term venogram is used more precisely. The term angiography has been applied to radionuclide angiography and newer vascular imaging techniques such as CT angiography and MR angiography. The term isotope ...
Left heart catheterization allows for direct intervention in cases of coronary artery occlusion. This technique is also used to assess the amount of occlusion (or blockage) in a coronary artery, often described as a percentage of occlusion. A thin, flexible wire is inserted into either the femoral artery or the radial artery and threaded toward the heart until it is in the ascending aorta. Radial access is not associated with an increased risk of stroke over femoral access.[7] At this point, a catheter is guided over the wire into the ascending aorta, where it can be maneuvered into the coronary arteries through the coronary ostia.[5] In this position, the interventional cardiologist can inject contrast and visualize the flow through the vessel. If necessary, the physician can utilize percutaneous ...
A coronary care unit (CCU) or cardiac intensive care unit (CICU) is a hospital ward specialized in the care of patients with heart attacks, unstable angina, cardiac dysrhythmia and (in practice) various other cardiac conditions that require continuous monitoring and treatment. The main feature of coronary care is the availability of telemetry or the continuous monitoring of the cardiac rhythm by electrocardiography. This allows early intervention with medication, cardioversion or defibrillation, improving the prognosis. As arrhythmias are relatively common in this group, patients with myocardial infarction or unstable angina are routinely admitted to the coronary care unit. For other indications, such as atrial fibrillation, a specific indication is generally necessary, while for others, such as heart block, coronary care unit admission is standard. In the United States, ...
... techniques include coronary catheterization, echocardiogram, Intravascular ultrasound, Cardiac PET scan, Cardiac CT scan and Cardiac MRI. A physician may recommend cardiac imaging to support a diagnosis of a heart condition. Medical specialty professional organizations discourage the use of routine cardiac imaging during pre-operative assessment for patients about to undergo low or mid-risk non-cardiac surgery because the procedure carries risks and is unlikely to result in the change of a patient's management. Stress cardiac imaging is discouraged in the evaluation of patients without cardiac symptoms or in routine follow-ups. Coronary catheterization uses pressure monitoring and blood sampling through a catheter inserted into the heart through blood vessels in the leg to determine the functioning of the heart, and, following injections of radiocontrast dye, uses X-ray fluoroscopy, typically at 30 frames per second, to visualize the ...
冠狀動脈疾病(英语:coronary artery disease, CAD)又稱為缺血性心臟病或簡稱冠心病(英语:ischemic heart disease, IHD)[13]、冠狀動脈粥狀硬化心臟病[14]、冠狀動脈粥狀硬化心血管疾病(英语:coronary atherosclerotic heart disease, CAHD)[15]和冠狀動脈心臟病(英语:coronary heart disease)[16],是一群包含穩定型心絞痛、非穩定型心絞痛(英语:Unstable ...
Most heart attacks are caused by Coronary Artery Disease (CAD). In coronary artery disease, a wax-like material called plaque builds up on the inside walls of arteries in the heart. This is called atherosclerosis. Plaque is made of cholesterol and other cells. The amount of plaque increases slowly. As more plaque builds up, the insides of the heart's blood vessels get narrower. This means that less blood can flow through the blood vessels. This can cause platelets (which make the blood clot) to build up in front of the plaque. This causes a blood clot in the blood vessel. If the clot breaks free and gets stuck in part of the blood vessel made narrower by the plaque, the plaque and the clot together block the blood vessel completely. This makes it impossible for blood to get to part of the heart, and causes a heart attack. A person can lower their chances of getting coronary ...
... s are often classified by their tissue types or locations. For example, a "skin lesion" or a "brain lesion" are named for the tissue where they are found. If there is an added significance to regions within the tissue-such as in neural injuries where different locations correspond to different neurological deficits-they are further classified by location. For example, a lesion in the central nervous system is called a central lesion, and a lesion in the peripheral nervous system is called a peripheral lesion[1] A myocardial lesion results from damage to the heart muscle, and a coronary lesion is a subtype that describes a lesion in the coronary arteries. Coronary lesions are then further classified according to the side of the heart that is affected and the diameter of the artery in which they form.[2] ...
coronary-pulmonary artery fistula. *CT coronary angiography. *congenital anomalies of coronary arteries ... Coronary-pulmonary artery fistula is an uncommon cardiac anomaly, usually congenital. Most coronary-pulmonary artery fistulas ... This report describes a case of complex coronary-pulmonary artery fistula with two feeding vessels of separate origins: one ... from the proximal part of the left anterior descending artery and another arising from the right aortic cusp. The complex ...
Computed tomography and coronary angiography showed that the aneurysm and coronary-pulmonary artery fistula had completely ... Chest computed tomography and coronary angiography revealed a giant aneurysm and coronary-pulmonary artery fistula originating ... A Case of Coronary-Pulmonary Artery Fistula with a Giant Aneurysm. (Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Iwate Prefectural ... from both the proximal left anterior descending and the right coronary artery. The fistula was ligated and the aneurysm was ...
Cardiac Angiography[5]. The test will show normal coronary arteries in patients with TC. ... Coronary Artery Vasospasm. Case Reports/ Case Studies. Metzl MD, Altman EJ, Spevack DM, Doddamani S, Travin MI, Ostfeld RJ. A ... Absence of obstructive coronary artery or angiographic evidence of acute plaque rupture • New EKG abnormalities or elevated ... The dysfunction can either be vasospasms or decreased coronary artery blood flow without any indication of atherosclerosis. The ...
Describing the detailed statistical anatomy of the coronary artery tree is important for determining the ætiology of heart ... Automatic coronary artery tree labeling in coronary computed tomographic angiography datasets. In: Computing in Cardiology, pp ... 2014) Construction of a Coronary Artery Atlas from CT Angiography. In: Golland P., Hata N., Barillot C., Hornegger J., Howe R ... A study on coronary arteries using 3D CT angiography. In: IEEE 12th Intl. Conf. on Computer Vision, pp. 2021-2028. IEEE (2009) ...
Cx indicates circumflex artery; LAD, left anterior descending artery; and RCA, right coronary artery. ... In 6 patients with congenital anomalous coronary arteries, all coronary artery origins and courses were clearly demonstrated. ... Anomalous Coronary Arteries by Electron Beam Angiography. Wei Li, Colin Ferrett, Michael Henein ... that shows the left anterior descending artery originating from the main pulmonary artery trunk and the right coronary artery ...
Case report: anomalous origin of the left coronary artery: diagnosis by coronary MR angiography. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1995;164: ... Breathholding. The success of fast gradient-echo MR coronary angiography in depicting the coronary arteries depends on the ... Study design. Because the vast majority of coronary artery anomalies are found accidentally during coronary angiography and ... Respiratory-gated three-dimensional MR angiography of coronary arteries and comparison with x-ray contrast angiography. In: Pro ...
... is a noninvasive method to image the coronary arteries. Applications include the following: Diagnosis of coronary artery ... disease (CAD) Diagnosis of in-stent restenosis Evaluation of coronary bypass graft patency Clinical application in CAD Based on ... Coronary artery CTA: imaging of atherosclerosis in the coronary arteries and reporting of coronary artery CTA findings. Tech ... of coronary artery stents?. What is the accuracy of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) of coronary artery stents? ...
... Levitt K, Guo H, Wijeysundera HC, Ko DT, Natarajan MK, Feindel ... Background - Coronary angiograms are important in the diagnostic workup of patients with suspected coronary artery disease. ... Better selection criteria needed for patients with stable angina who undergo coronary angiograms: study. ... The authors determined predictors of normal coronary angiograms (0% coronary stenosis) and compared rates of patients with ...
... with the exception of the Coronary Evaluation Using Multidetector Spiral Computed Tomography Angiography using 64 Detectors [ ... Coronary artery CTA: imaging of atherosclerosis in the coronary arteries and reporting of coronary artery CTA findings. Tech ... Coronary CT Angiography Q&A What is the accuracy of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) in coronary artery disease ... in coronary artery disease (CAD)?) and What is the accuracy of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) in coronary ...
Coronary artery CTA: imaging of atherosclerosis in the coronary arteries and reporting of coronary artery CTA findings. Tech ... Oncel D, Oncel G, Tastan A. Effectiveness of dual-source CT coronary angiography for the evaluation of coronary artery disease ... Visual and automatic grading of coronary artery stenoses with 64-slice CT angiography in reference to invasive angiography. Eur ... Noninvasive coronary artery imaging: magnetic resonance angiography and multidetector computed tomography angiography: a ...
Hydration to prevent acute kidney injury after angiography: the AMACING trial Coronary Artery Disease28(8):629-631, December ... Coronary artery disease and transcatheter aortic valve replacement: current treatment paradigms * Endothelium-dependent ... Thought you might appreciate this item(s) I saw at Coronary Artery Disease.. ... Thought you might appreciate this item(s) I saw at Coronary Artery Disease.. ...
... angiography with traditional coronary angiography to identify proximal, and hence revascularizable, coronary artery disease in ... Study of Coronary Artery Disease by Two Types of Angiography. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... Study of Coronary Artery Disease by Two Types of Angiography. Official Title ICMJE Non-Invasive Detection of Revascularizable ... ray technique called CT angiography to identify significant narrowing of the coronary arteries compared to traditional coronary ...
In this work we explore the feasibility of reconstructing3D information of coronary arteries and their lesions fromcoronary ... Automatic Extraction and 3D Visualization of Coronary Arteries from Angiography Sequences M. Espinosa Sandoval, L. Altamirano ... In this work we explore the feasibility of reconstructing 3D information of coronary arteries and their lesions from coronary ... Coronary angiography, automatic extraction, 3D reconstruction, uncalibrated stereo system. Abstract. ...
Coronary artery disease in patients undergoing coronary angiography. 20:00 EDT 16 Aug 2017 , AAAS ... More From BioPortfolio on "Coronary artery disease in patients undergoing coronary angiography". *Related Companies *Related ... Percutaneous coronary intervention is a well-justified option also in severe coronary artery disease ... Study finds percutaneous coronary intervention as recommendable treatment for left main coronary artery disease ...
CT angiography (CTA) can be used to evaluate patients who have undergone coronary artery ... ... Coronary artery surgery study (CASS): A randomized trial of coronary artery bypass surgery. Quality of life in patients ... Evaluation of coronary artery bypass grafts and native coronary arteries using 64-slice multidetector computed tomography. Am ... Aneurysms and pseudoaneurysms of coronary arteries and saphenous vein coronary artery bypass grafts: A case report and ...
Learn more about Coronary Artery Angiography (Cardiac Catheterization) at Memorial Hospital function replaceEmbed(anmationName ...
Non-invasive coronary computed tomographic angiography for patients with suspected coronary artery disease: the Coronary ... Prognostic Value of Coronary Computed Tomographic Angiography in Diabetic Patients Without Known Coronary Artery Disease. ... Prognostic Value of Coronary Computed Tomographic Angiography in Diabetic Patients Without Known Coronary Artery Disease ... Prognostic Value of Coronary Computed Tomographic Angiography in Diabetic Patients Without Known Coronary Artery Disease ...
Radial artery access for coronary angiography and interventions has been promoted for reducing hemostasis time and vascular ... Systematic review and cost-benefit analysis of radial artery access for coronary angiography and intervention.. Mitchell MD1, ... Systematic Review and Cost-Benefit Analysis of Radial Artery Access for Coronary Angiography and Intervention ... Systematic Review and Cost-Benefit Analysis of Radial Artery Access for Coronary Angiography and Intervention ...
Prevalence and characteristics of coronary artery anomalies detected by coronary computed tomography angiography in 5 634 ... Single coronary arteries, Bland-White-Garland syndrome, anomalous coronary arteries originating from the opposite site of the ... with single coronary arteries, 36 (24.8%) with ACAOS and an interarterial course, and 5 (3.5%) with coronary artery fistulas. ... course and ending of the coronary vessels with high spatial resolution, yielding an accurate depiction of coronary artery ...
The authors used a retrospective randomized medical record review to determine the appropriateness of use of coronary artery ... Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty, and Coronary Angiography in New York State. by Lucian L. Leape, Lee H. Hilborne ... Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty, and Coronary Angiography in New York State, Journal of the American Medical ... Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty, and Coronary Angiography in New York State. Journal of the American Medical ...
Learn more about Coronary Artery Angiography (Cardiac Catheterization) at Sky Ridge Medical Center function replaceEmbed( ...
It begins by showing the buildup of plaque in an artery wall of the heart, blocking the flow of blood. Aftewards, the patient ... lies on a testing table while contrast dye is injected into the arteries of the heart, showing the location of the blockage. ... This 3D medical animation depicts a coronary angiography procedure. ... Coronary Artery Stent Placement through Right Femoral Artery - ANS00356. Medical Animation. Add to my lightbox. Find More Like ...
Intracoronary transluminal attenuation gradient in coronary CT angiography for determining coronary artery stenosis. JACC ... Diagnostic performance of 64-multidetector row coronary computed tomographic angiography for evaluation of coronary artery ... coronary CT angiography (CCTA) has developed into an accurate non-invasive method for direct visualisation of coronary arteries ... Multicenter Evaluation of Coronary Dual Source CT Angiography in Patients With Intermediate Risk of Coronary Artery Stenoses) ...
Prevalence Of Internal Pudendal Artery Disease In Patients With Erectile Dysfunction Undergoing Diagnostic Coronary Angiography ... Prevalence Of Internal Pudendal Artery Disease In Patients With Erectile Dysfunction Undergoing Diagnostic Coronary Angiography ... Subjects in this study have recently had or are scheduled for a coronary angiography as part of their normal, routine medical ... Assess the Presence of Internal Pudendal Artery Disease in Patients With Erectile Dysfunction Undergoing Coronary Angiography ...
C Virus Seropositivity and Its Impact on Coronary Artery Disease among Egyptian Patients Referred for Coronary Angiography. ... C Virus Seropositivity and Its Impact on Coronary Artery Disease among Egyptian Patients Referred for Coronary Angiography," ...
  • Yet, the evaluation of coronary artery stents is challenging due to artifacts like beam hardening and partial volume effects caused by the metal of the stent struts and sporadically by the stents' radio-opaque markers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Decramer I, Vanhoenacker PK, Sarno G, Van Hoe L, Bladt O, Wijns W. Effects of sublingual nitroglycerin on coronary lumen diameter and number of visualized septal branches on 64-MDCT angiography. (medscape.com)
  • The main outcome was coronary CTA inaccuracy defined as the deviation of minimum lumen area within the calcification measured with coronary CTA from that measured with IVUS, in both absolute (mm 2 ) and relative (%) terms. (onlinejacc.org)
  • The relative (%) inaccuracy of coronary CTA was independently correlated to total calcium length (p = 0.004), total calcium volume (p = 0.008), cross section calcium thickness (p = 0.023), cross section calcium area (p = 0.023), and cross section lumen area (p = 0.001). (onlinejacc.org)
  • Patients with ≥ 1 segment with ≥ 50% lumen narrowing or inconclusive results (because of coronary calcification or severe motion artifact) were considered to have a positive test. (acpjc.org)
  • In conclusion, coronary IVUS is feasible and safe and even for a limited range of coronary arterial narrowing, significant correlations between IVUS and QCA measurements of minimal lumen diameter were found. (kuleuven.be)
  • Therefore, in a per-protocol analysis according to actual IVUS usage, minimum lumen diameter was larger (2.58 vs. 2.51 mm, p = 0.04), and MACE rates were lower: 4.0% in the IVUS-guided arm versus 8.1% in the angiography-guided arm (p = 0.048). (onlinejacc.org)
  • As the applied technical approach is not suitable for daily routine, we assessed the capability of the 256-MSCT and its different reconstruction kernels for the coronary stent lumen visualization employing a clinically applicable technique in a phantom study. (biomedcentral.com)
  • First attempts to visualize the lumen of coronary artery stents using CT were made about 20 years ago using electron beam CT without reaching an image quality that was sufficient for analysis [ 8 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 25% lumen obstruction) and moderate CAD (25-50% lumen obstruction) detected by coronary CTA had an impaired postprandial metabolism, with a delayed TG clearance, when compared to individuals with no CAD. (usp.br)
  • The FAME (Fractional Flow Reserve Versus Angiography for Multivessel Evaluation) study showed that routine FFR in addition to angiography improves outcomes of PCI at 1 year. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Conclusions: Sinoatrial node artery originating from distal RCA is very rare. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Conclusions From a true patient perspective, without exclusion of smaller coronary artery segments, CTCA allows safe patient management. (bmj.com)
  • Conclusions: Among the different non-modifiable variables, gender, age, and a family history of CAD and among the modifiable variables, smoking, hypertension, and a reduced HDL-C level increased the risk for coronary involvement. (org.ir)
  • Sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive value, and accuracy of the individualized algorithm for predicting coronary revascularization was 93.3%, 96.0%, 96.0%, 93.3% and 95.0% on a per-patient base. (escardio.org)
  • In addition, atypical ischemic symptoms or no symptoms, the absence of diabetes, hyperlipidemia, smoking history, peripheral vascular disease, and angiography performed at a nonteaching site were associated with higher rates of normal catheterization. (ices.on.ca)
  • 2014 ACC/AHA/AATS/PCNA/SCAI/STS focused update of the guideline for the diagnosis and management of patients with stable ischemic heart disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines, and the American Association for Thoracic Surgery, Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The percutaneous thrombin injection of femoral artery pseudoaneurysms in 13 consecutive patients, most of whom were receiving antiplatelet/anticoagulant treatment (aspirin 11, heparin 4, clopidogrel 6), is reported. (bmj.com)
  • At the same time, Dr. Melvin Judkins designs preformed catheters, which bear his name, for coronary angiography by using the femoral artery approach simplifying the procedure so it had a rapid adoption, a method that was Extends to the present day [1, (imedpub.com)
  • During angiography, a small incision is made in the groin in order to gain access to the femoral artery. (blausen.com)