Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome
Coronary Artery Disease
Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary
Coronary Artery Bypass
Fractional Flow Reserve, Myocardial
Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation
Blood Vessel Prosthesis
Angiography, Digital Subtraction
Autologous vein-coated stent for exclusion of a coronary artery aneurysm: case report with postimplantation intravascular ultrasound characteristics. (1/370)This report describes the successful use of an autologous cephalic vein-coated coronary stent to exclude an aneurysm of the distal right coronary artery. Post-implantation angiography confirmed successful exclusion of the aneurysm with no evidence of leakage. Intravascular ultrasonography showed complete apposition of the stent to the arterial wall proximal and distal to the aneurysm. The vein could be seen clearly around the stent. Symmetrical stent expansion (minimal luminal diameter, 2.8 mm) was verified. Increased echogenicity in the excluded aneurysm indicated early thrombus formation. Evidently, this is the 1st report of the successful use of an autologous cephalic vein-coated coronary stent to exclude an aneurysm of the distal right coronary artery. (+info)
Exercise-induced myocardial ischemia in isolated coronary artery ectasias and aneurysms ("dilated coronopathy"). (2/370)OBJECTIVES: The purpose of our study was to evaluate the clinical significance of isolated coronary artery ectasias or aneurysms (CEA). BACKGROUND: It has been postulated that altered coronary blood flow in CEA predisposes patients to the development of myocardial ischemia (CI) and infarction. METHODS: Sixty-seven patients with bilateral nonobstructive CEA without associated cardiac defects ("dilated coronaropathy") were derived from 16,341 cardiac catheterizations between 1986 and 1997. Ectasias were defined as luminal dilation of 1.5- to 2.0-fold, aneurysms of >2.0-fold of normal limits. Eleven of 25 patients presented with myocardial infarction due to an occlusion of the infarct vessel. In 42 patients without infarction (study group), exercise-induced CI was investigated. RESULTS: A corresponding CI was documented in 32 of 42 patients in a coronary sinus lactate study (reduced lactate extraction 5.6 +/- 4.1%) and in 29 of 40 patients in an ergometry (0.25 +/- 0.06 mV ST depressions). The results differed significantly from a control group of 29 patients without heart disease (p < 0.001). Nitroglycerin (0.8 mg) provoked a further significant deterioration of CI in the 32 of 42 developing a frank cardiac lactate production (-2.6 +/- 6.8%, p < 0.001). The metabolic extent of CI was significantly correlated to the coronary diameters of the proximal and middle segments of left anterior descending artery and the middle segment of left circumflex artery (r = 0.87, p < 0.001). Stigmata of an impaired coronary blood flow such as delayed antegrade filling, segmental backflow phenomenon and local deposition of dye were found significantly more often with increasing coronary diameters (p < 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: "Dilated coronaropathy" is an entity of nonobstructive, ischemic coronary artery disease. Nitroglycerin is of no therapeutic benefit but leads to an aggravation of exercise-induced CI. (+info)
Kawasaki disease: a maturational defect in immune responsiveness. (3/370)Kawasaki disease (KD), an acute febrile disease in children of unknown etiology, is characterized by a vasculitis that may result in coronary artery aneurysms (CAAs). In new patients with KD, a selective and prolonged T cell unresponsiveness to activation via the T cell antigen receptor CD3 was observed, whereas proliferation to other stimuli was intact. This "split T cell anergy" delineated KD from other pediatric infections and autoimmune diseases and correlated with CAA formation (P<.001). A transient immune dysfunction was also suggested by an incomplete responsiveness to measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination in patients with KD versus controls (P<.0001; odds ratio, 15.6; 95% confidence interval, 4.8-51.1), which was overcome by revaccination(s). The reduced responsiveness to MMR in patients with KD suggests a subtle and predetermining immune dysfunction. An inherent immaturity to clear certain antigens may be an important cause that precipitates KD and the immune dysregulation during acute disease. (+info)
Transthoracic echocardiography using second harmonic imaging: diagnostic alternative to transesophageal echocardiography for the detection of atrial right to left shunt in patients with cerebral embolic events. (4/370)OBJECTIVES: We sought to evaluate whether transthoracic contrast echocardiography using second harmonic imaging (SHI) is a diagnostic alternative to transesophageal contrast echocardiography (TEE) for the detection of atrial right to left shunt. BACKGROUND: Paradoxic embolism is considered to be the major cause of cerebral ischemic events in young patients. Contrast echocardiography using TEE has proven to be superior to transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) for the detection of atrial shunting, SHI is a new imaging modality that enhances the visualization of echocardiographic contrast agents. METHODS: We evaluated 111 patients with an ischemic cerebral embolic event for the presence of atrial right to left shunt using an intravenous (IV) contrast agent in combination with three different echocardiographic imaging modalities: 1) TTE using fundamental imaging (FI); 2) TTE using SHI; and 3) TEE. The severity of atrial shunting and the duration of contrast visibility within the left heart chambers were evaluated for each imaging modality. Image quality was assessed separately for each modality by semiquantitative scoring (0 = poor to 3 = excellent). Presence of atrial right to left shunt was defined as detection of contrast bubbles in the left atrium within the first three cardiac cycles after contrast appearance in the right atrium either spontaneously or after the Valsalva maneuver. RESULTS: A total of 57 patients showed evidence of atrial right to left shunt with either imaging modality. Fifty-one studies were positive with TEE, 52 studies were positive with SHI, and 32 were positive with FI (p<0.001 for FI vs. SHI and TEE). The severity of contrast passage was significantly larger using SHI (61.6+/-80.2 bubbles) compared to FI (53.7+/-69.6 bubbles; p<0.005 vs. SHI) but was not different compared to TEE (43.9+/-54.3 bubbles; p = NS vs. SHI). The duration of contrast visibility was significantly longer for SHI (17.4+/-12.4 s) compared to FI (13.1+/-9.7 s; p<0.001) and TEE (11.9+/-9.6 s; p<0.02). Mean image quality improved significantly from FI (1.5+/-0.8) to SHI (2.0+/-0.8; p<0.001 vs. FI) and TEE (2.5+/-0.7; p<0.001 vs. SHI). CONCLUSIONS: In combination with IV contrast injections, TEE and SHI have a comparable yield for the detection of atrial right to left shunt. Both modalities may miss patients with atrial shunting. In young patients with an unexplained cerebrovascular event and no clinical evidence of cardiac disease, a positive SHI study may obviate the need to perform a TEE study to search for cardiac sources of emboli. (+info)
The impact of untreated coronary dissections on acute and long-term outcome after intravascular ultrasound guided PTCA. (5/370)AIM: Vessel size adapted PTCA results in the use of larger balloons with an increased incidence of severe vascular dissections. The aim of our trial was (a) to evaluate the effect of severe dissections on the acute outcome and (b) to study the natural history of dissections after 1 year. METHODS AND RESULTS: One hundred and seventy-eight patients with 195 lesions underwent vessel size adapted PTCA using intravascular ultrasound. Clinical and angiographic 1 year follow-up was obtained for all patients. Intravascular ultrasound was performed before PTCA to measure the external elastic membrane diameter at the lesion site so that the balloon size could be adopted (external elastic membrane-10%) and post-interventionally to determine the procedural success and the incidence of intracoronary dissections. Stent implantation was reduced to persistently flow limiting dissections (TIMI I, II). Dissections were detected by intravascular ultrasound in 128/195 (66%) lesions (by angiography in 111/195 [58%] lesions) and classified by intravascular ultrasound criteria into four groups: group I: no dissection (67 lesions [34%]), group II: mild dissections (21 lesions [11%]), group III: medium dissections (19 lesions [10%]) and group IV: severe dissections (88 lesions [45%]). Because of threatened vessel closure, GPIIb/IIIa antagonists were used in eight (4.5%) patients and a stent was implanted in two (1. 1%) patients. The cumulative event rate after 1 year was 12% and the global angiographic restenosis rate was 19%. The post-interventional evidence of severe dissections was associated with a decrease in clinical events during long-term follow up (group I: 13 events [19%] vs group IV: seven events [7%];P=0.03). This was also true for the occurrence of restenosis which was significantly lower in patients with severe dissections (group I: 19 [28%] lesions vs group IV:10 [11%] lesions;P=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: According to the theory of 'therapeutic dissections', our data suggest that substantial dissections following PTCA, which do not diminish antegrade blood flow, do not lead to an increase in acute or long-term events. The natural history of vessel injury seems to provide favourable wound healing without increase of restenosis. Thus, stenting for treatment of large dissections without flow limitation does not seem to be mandatory. (+info)
Greater late lumen loss after successful coronary balloon angioplasty in the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery is not explained by extent of vessel wall damage or plaque burden. (6/370)OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether the greater late lumen loss after coronary balloon angioplasty in the proximal left anterior descending artery (P-LAD) compared with that in other segments might be related to differences in vascular dimensions or morphology as determined by angiography and intravascular ultrasound imaging. BACKGROUND: The greater late lumen loss after angioplasty in the P-LAD that has been observed in several studies has not been explained. METHODS: We studied 178 patients and 194 coronary artery lesions by quantitative angiography and 30 MHz intravascular ultrasound imaging after successful balloon angioplasty. Vessel wall morphology was compared among three proximal and three nonproximal segments. Follow-up quantitative angiography for late lumen loss calculation was performed in 168 lesions. Multivariate analysis was used to determine predictors of late lumen loss. RESULTS: Absolute and relative late loss were significantly greater at the P-LAD compared with the pooled group of other segments (0.42 +/- 0.60 mm vs. 0.10 +/- 0.48 mm, p = 0.0008 and 0.14 +/- 0.24 vs. 0.03 +/- 0.17, p < 0.001). Also, a greater percentage of calcific lesions (65% vs. 44%, p = 0.034), a lower incidence of rupture (51% vs. 74%, p = 0.009) and a larger reference segment plaque area (5.4 +/- 2.2 mm2 vs. 4.7 +/- 1.9 mm2, p = 0.05) were found in the P-LAD. In multivariate analysis however, these variables were not predictive of late loss. CONCLUSIONS: Greater late lumen loss after coronary balloon angioplasty of the P-LAD is not explained by differences in atherosclerotic plaque burden or in vessel wall damage. (+info)
Long term consequences of regressed coronary aneurysms after Kawasaki disease: vascular wall morphology and function. (7/370)OBJECTIVES: To investigate the long term consequences of regressed aneurysms after Kawasaki disease, using follow up coronary angiography; to assess the vascular wall morphology at the site of the aneurysms by intravascular ultrasound imaging; and to evaluate the function of the affected vessels using intracoronary infusions of acetylcholine and isosorbide dinitrate. DESIGN: 33 patients were studied, 27 with previous Kawasaki disease and six with congenital heart disease. All Kawasaki disease patients were followed for more than 10 years from disease onset. The 33 patients comprised four groups: group 1 included 13 Kawasaki disease patients with a total of 23 sites of regressed large sized (>/= 4 mm) coronary aneurysms; group 2 included 13 Kawasaki disease patients with 22 sites of regressed small sized (< 4 mm) coronary aneurysms (four patients had sites of both large and small sized aneurysms); group 3 included a further five Kawasaki disease patients with 25 normal coronary angiography sites in the acute stage of Kawasaki disease; and group 4 comprised the six patients with congenital heart disease as controls, with a total of 27 normal coronary angiography sites. During coronary angiography, 15 microg of acetylcholine and 0.5 mg isosorbide dinitrate were infused into the coronary artery. The luminal diameter at the sites was measured using a cine-videodensitometric analyser, to assess the distensibility of the coronary artery wall. RESULTS: Coronary angiography in all 22 patients in groups 1 and 2 and in all the patients in group 3 was normal, with no stenoses and no irregularity of the arterial wall. However, the intravascular ultrasound imaging in groups 1 and 2 showed various degrees of the intimal thickening. In groups 1 and 2, there was significantly more vascular constriction with acetylcholine, and poorer dilatation with isosorbide dinitrate than in groups 3 or 4 (each p < 0.05, respectively). There was no difference between group 3 and group 4 in response to either acetylcholine or isosorbide dinitrate, CONCLUSIONS: There is evidence of persisting abnormal vascular wall morphology and vascular dysfunction at the site of regressed coronary aneurysms in patients with previous Kawasaki disease. These patients should be counselled to avoid potential risk factors for atherosclerosis, and long term follow up is needed into adult life. (+info)
Outcome from balloon induced coronary artery dissection after intracoronary beta radiation. (8/370)OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the healing of balloon induced coronary artery dissection in individuals who have received beta radiation treatment and to propose a new intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) dissection score to facilitate the comparison of dissection through time. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Tertiary referral centre. PATIENTS: 31 patients with stable angina pectoris, enrolled in the beta energy restenosis trial (BERT-1.5), were included. After excluding those who underwent stent implantation, the evaluable population was 22 patients. INTERVENTIONS: Balloon angioplasty and intracoronary radiation followed by quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) and IVUS. Repeat QCA and IVUS were performed at six month follow up. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: QCA and IVUS evidence of healing of dissection. Dissection classification for angiography was by the National Heart Lung Blood Institute scale. IVUS proven dissection was defined as partial or complete. The following IVUS defined characteristics of dissection were described in the affected coronary segments: length, depth, arc circumference, presence of flap, and dissection score. Dissection was defined as healed when all features of dissection had resolved. The calculated dose of radiation received by the dissected area in those with healed versus non-healed dissection was also compared. RESULTS: Angiography (type A = 5, B = 7, C = 4) and IVUS proven (partial = 12, complete = 4) dissections were seen in 16 patients following intervention. At six month follow up, six and eight unhealed dissections were seen by angiography (A = 2, B = 4) and IVUS (partial = 7, complete = 1), respectively. The mean IVUS dissection score was 5.2 (range 3-8) following the procedure, and 4.6 (range 3-7) at follow up. No correlation was found between the dose prescribed in the treated area and the presence of unhealed dissection. No change in anginal status was seen despite the presence of unhealed dissection. CONCLUSION: beta radiation appears to alter the normal healing process, resulting in unhealed dissection in certain individuals. In view of the delayed and abnormal healing observed, long term follow up is indicated given the possible late adverse effects of radiation. Although in this cohort no increase in cardiac events following coronary dissections was seen, larger populations are needed to confirm this phenomenon. Stenting of all coronary dissections may be warranted in patients scheduled for brachytherapy after balloon angioplasty. (+info)
Types of Coronary Aneurysms:
There are two main types of coronary artery aneurysms:
1. Fusiform aneurysm: This is the most common type of CAA and occurs when the artery bulges outward in a fusiform shape, similar to a balloon.
2. Saccular aneurysm: This type of CAA occurs when there is a small outpouching or sac in the artery wall.
Causes and Risk Factors:
The exact cause of coronary artery aneurysms is not fully understood, but several risk factors have been identified, including:
1. Atherosclerosis: The buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries can lead to an aneurysm.
2. High blood pressure: Hypertension can put additional strain on the coronary arteries, increasing the risk of an aneurysm.
3. Heart disease: People with heart disease, such as coronary artery disease or heart failure, are at higher risk for developing a CAA.
4. Genetics: Some people may be more susceptible to CAA due to genetic factors.
5. Infections: Certain infections, such as endocarditis, can cause aneurysms in the coronary arteries.
Symptoms and Diagnosis:
Coronary artery aneurysms may not produce any symptoms, or they may cause mild chest pain or discomfort. In some cases, a CAA may be detected incidentally during a diagnostic test for another condition. Diagnosis is typically made using imaging tests such as:
1. Echocardiography: This non-invasive test uses sound waves to create images of the heart and can help identify any abnormalities in the coronary arteries.
2. Cardiac catheterization: During this test, a thin tube is inserted into the coronary arteries through a blood vessel in the arm or leg to evaluate blood flow and pressure within the heart.
3. Computed tomography (CT) angiography: This test uses X-rays and computer technology to create detailed images of the coronary arteries.
4. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA): This non-invasive test uses magnetic fields and radio waves to create detailed images of the coronary arteries.
Treatment and Management:
The treatment and management of CAA depend on several factors, including the size and location of the aneurysm, the patient's overall health, and the presence of any other medical conditions. Treatment options may include:
1. Monitoring: Small aneurysms that are not causing symptoms may not require immediate treatment and can be monitored with regular check-ups.
2. Medications: Medications such as beta blockers, ACE inhibitors, or calcium channel blockers may be prescribed to control blood pressure, reduce stress on the aneurysm, and prevent complications.
3. Endovascular repair: In this minimally invasive procedure, a small tube is inserted through a blood vessel in the leg and guided to the site of the aneurysm. Once there, the tube expands and secures the aneurysm with a mesh-like device.
4. Open surgical repair: In this surgical procedure, the surgeon makes an incision in the chest to access the aneurysm and repair it with a synthetic graft.
5. Heart transplantation: In severe cases of CAA that are not responding to other treatments, heart transplantation may be considered.
While there is no cure for coronary artery aneurysms, making lifestyle changes can help manage symptoms and improve overall health. These changes may include:
1. Quitting smoking: Smoking is a major risk factor for CAA, so quitting can help reduce the risk of complications.
2. Exercise regularly: Regular physical activity can help improve cardiovascular health and reduce stress on the aneurysm.
3. Eating a healthy diet: A heart-healthy diet that is low in saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium can help manage risk factors such as high blood pressure and high cholesterol.
4. Reducing stress: Stress can increase blood pressure and worsen CAA symptoms. Practicing stress-reducing techniques such as meditation or deep breathing can be helpful.
5. Limiting alcohol consumption: Excessive alcohol consumption can worsen CAA symptoms, so it is important to limit or avoid alcohol altogether.
In conclusion, coronary artery aneurysms are a serious condition that can lead to complications such as heart failure, arrhythmias, and stroke. While there is no cure for CAA, early detection and proper management can help reduce the risk of complications and improve quality of life. Treatment options may include medications, endovascular repair, open surgical repair, or heart transplantation, depending on the severity of the condition. Lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking, exercising regularly, eating a healthy diet, reducing stress, and limiting alcohol consumption can also help manage symptoms and improve cardiovascular health.
The symptoms of MCNS typically appear in infancy or early childhood and may include:
* Skin rashes and lesions
* Mucosal lesions (e.g., in the mouth, nose, and eyes)
* Enlarged lymph nodes
* Respiratory problems
The exact cause of MCNS is not known, but it is believed to be related to an abnormal immune response. The disorder is usually inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, which means that a child must inherit two copies of the mutated gene (one from each parent) to develop the condition.
There is no cure for MCNS, but treatment may involve medications to manage symptoms and prevent complications. Corticosteroids, immunosuppressive drugs, and antibiotics may be used to reduce inflammation and prevent infection. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove affected tissue or repair deformities.
Prognosis for MCNS varies depending on the severity of the disorder and the presence of any complications. Some individuals with MCNS may experience mild symptoms and have a good quality of life, while others may have more severe symptoms and require ongoing medical care. With appropriate treatment, many individuals with MCNS can lead active and fulfilling lives.
Intracranial aneurysms are relatively rare but can have serious consequences if they rupture and cause bleeding in the brain.
The symptoms of an unruptured intracranial aneurysm may include headaches, seizures, and visual disturbances.
If an intracranial aneurysm ruptures, it can lead to a subarachnoid hemorrhage (bleeding in the space around the brain), which is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment.
Diagnosis of an intracranial aneurysm typically involves imaging tests such as CT or MRI scans, and may also involve catheter angiography.
Treatment for intracranial aneurysms usually involves surgical clipping or endovascular coiling, depending on the size, location, and severity of the aneurysm.
Preventing rupture of intracranial aneurysms is important, as they can be difficult to treat once they have ruptured.
Endovascular coiling is a minimally invasive procedure in which a catheter is inserted into the affected artery and a small coil is inserted into the aneurysm, causing it to clot and preventing further bleeding.
Surgical clipping involves placing a small metal clip across the base of the aneurysm to prevent further bleeding.
In addition to these treatments, medications such as anticonvulsants and antihypertensives may be used to manage symptoms and prevent complications.
There are several types of aneurysms, including:
1. Thoracic aneurysm: This type of aneurysm occurs in the chest cavity and is usually caused by atherosclerosis or other conditions that affect the aorta.
2. Abdominal aneurysm: This type of aneurysm occurs in the abdomen and is usually caused by high blood pressure or atherosclerosis.
3. Cerebral aneurysm: This type of aneurysm occurs in the brain and can cause symptoms such as headaches, seizures, and stroke.
4. Peripheral aneurysm: This type of aneurysm occurs in the peripheral arteries, which are the blood vessels that carry blood to the arms and legs.
Symptoms of an aneurysm can include:
1. Pain or discomfort in the affected area
2. Swelling or bulging of the affected area
3. Weakness or numbness in the affected limb
4. Shortness of breath or chest pain (in the case of a thoracic aneurysm)
5. Headaches, seizures, or stroke (in the case of a cerebral aneurysm)
If an aneurysm is not treated, it can lead to serious complications such as:
1. Rupture: This is the most serious complication of an aneurysm and occurs when the aneurysm sac bursts, leading to severe bleeding and potentially life-threatening consequences.
2. Stroke or brain damage: If a cerebral aneurysm ruptures, it can cause a stroke or brain damage.
3. Infection: An aneurysm can become infected, which can lead to serious health problems.
4. Blood clots: An aneurysm can form blood clots, which can break loose and travel to other parts of the body, causing blockages or further complications.
5. Kidney failure: If an aneurysm is not treated, it can cause kidney failure due to the pressure on the renal arteries.
6. Heart problems: An aneurysm in the aorta can lead to heart problems such as heart failure or cardiac arrest.
7. Sepsis: If an aneurysm becomes infected, it can lead to sepsis, which is a life-threatening condition that can cause organ failure and death.
Treatment options for an aneurysm include:
1. Observation: Small aneurysms that are not causing any symptoms may not require immediate treatment and can be monitored with regular check-ups to see if they are growing or changing.
2. Surgery: Open surgery or endovascular repair are two common methods for treating aneurysms. In open surgery, the surgeon makes an incision in the abdomen to repair the aneurysm. In endovascular repair, a small tube is inserted into the affected blood vessel through an incision in the groin, and then guided to the site of the aneurysm where it is expanded to fill the aneurysm sac and seal off the aneurysm.
3. Embolization: This is a minimally invasive procedure where a small catheter is inserted into the affected blood vessel through an incision in the groin, and then guided to the site of the aneurysm where it releases tiny particles or coils that fill the aneurysm sac and seal off the aneurysm.
4. Medications: Certain medications such as antibiotics and blood thinners may be prescribed to treat related complications such as infection or blood clots.
It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of an aneurysm, such as sudden severe headache, vision changes, difficulty speaking, weakness or numbness in the face or limbs, as prompt treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.
Infection in an aneurysm can occur through bacteria entering the bloodstream and traveling to the site of the aneurysm. This can happen during surgery or other medical procedures, or as a result of a skin infection or other illness. Once the bacteria have entered the aneurysm, they can cause inflammation and potentially destroy the blood vessel wall, leading to further complications.
Symptoms of an infected aneurysm may include fever, chills, weakness, and pain in the affected limb or organ. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to clear the infection and repair or replace the damaged blood vessel. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the infected tissue and prevent further complications.
Early detection and treatment of an infected aneurysm are important to prevent serious complications and improve outcomes for patients.
The buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries is often caused by high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, smoking, high blood pressure, diabetes, and a family history of heart disease. The plaque can also rupture, causing a blood clot to form, which can completely block the flow of blood to the heart muscle, leading to a heart attack.
CAD is the most common type of heart disease and is often asymptomatic until a serious event occurs. Risk factors for CAD include:
* Age (men over 45 and women over 55)
* Gender (men are at greater risk than women, but women are more likely to die from CAD)
* Family history of heart disease
* High blood pressure
* High cholesterol
* Lack of exercise
Diagnosis of CAD typically involves a physical exam, medical history, and results of diagnostic tests such as:
* Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG)
* Stress test
* Coronary angiography
Treatment for CAD may include lifestyle changes such as a healthy diet, regular exercise, stress management, and quitting smoking. Medications such as beta blockers, ACE inhibitors, and statins may also be prescribed to manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. In severe cases, surgical intervention such as coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) may be necessary.
Prevention of CAD includes managing risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and diabetes, quitting smoking, maintaining a healthy weight, and getting regular exercise. Early detection and treatment of CAD can help to reduce the risk of complications and improve quality of life for those affected by the disease.
The symptoms of an aortic aneurysm can vary depending on its size and location. Small aneurysms may not cause any symptoms at all, while larger ones may cause:
* Pain in the abdomen or back
* Pulsatile abdominal mass that can be felt through the skin
* Numbness or weakness in the legs
* Difficulty speaking or swallowing (if the aneurysm is pressing on the vocal cords)
* Sudden, severe pain if the aneurysm ruptures.
If you suspect that you or someone else may have an aortic aneurysm, it is important to seek medical attention right away. Aortic aneurysms can be diagnosed with imaging tests such as CT or MRI scans, and treated with surgery to repair or replace the affected section of the aorta.
In this article, we will discuss the causes and risk factors for aortic aneurysms, the symptoms and diagnosis of this condition, and the treatment options available. We will also cover the prognosis and outlook for patients with aortic aneurysms, as well as any lifestyle changes that may help reduce the risk of developing this condition.
CAUSES AND RISK FACTORS:
Aortic aneurysms are caused by weaknesses in the wall of the aorta, which can be due to genetic or acquired factors. Some of the known risk factors for developing an aortic aneurysm include:
* Age (the risk increases with age)
* Gender (men are more likely to develop an aortic aneurysm than women)
* Family history of aneurysms
* High blood pressure
* Atherosclerosis (the buildup of plaque in the arteries)
* Connective tissue disorders such as Marfan syndrome or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
* Previous heart surgery or radiation therapy to the chest
In many cases, aortic aneurysms do not cause any symptoms in the early stages. However, as the aneurysm grows and puts pressure on nearby blood vessels or organs, patients may experience some of the following symptoms:
* Abdominal pain or discomfort
* Back pain
* Shortness of breath
* Dizziness or lightheadedness
* Confusion or weakness
Aortic aneurysms are typically diagnosed using imaging tests such as CT or MRI scans. These tests can provide detailed images of the aorta and help doctors identify any abnormalities or dilations. Other diagnostic tests may include echocardiography, ultrasound, or angiography.
The treatment for an aortic aneurysm will depend on the size and location of the aneurysm, as well as the patient's overall health. Some options may include:
* Monitoring: Small aneurysms that are not causing any symptoms may not require immediate treatment. Instead, doctors may recommend regular check-ups to monitor the aneurysm's size and progression.
* Surgery: If the aneurysm is large or growing rapidly, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace the affected section of the aorta. This may involve replacing the aneurysm with a synthetic tube or sewing a patch over the aneurysm to reinforce the aortic wall.
* Endovascular repair: In some cases, doctors may use a minimally invasive procedure called endovascular repair to treat the aneurysm. This involves inserting a small tube (called a stent) into the affected area through a small incision in the groin. The stent is then expanded to reinforce the aortic wall and prevent further growth of the aneurysm.
The prognosis for aortic aneurysms is generally good if they are detected and treated early. However, if left untreated, aortic aneurysms can lead to serious complications, such as:
* Aneurysm rupture: This is the most severe complication of aortic aneurysms and can be life-threatening. If the aneurysm ruptures, it can cause massive internal bleeding and potentially lead to death.
* Blood clots: Aortic aneurysms can increase the risk of blood clots forming in the affected area. These clots can break loose and travel to other parts of the body, causing further complications.
* Heart problems: Large aortic aneurysms can put pressure on the heart and surrounding vessels, leading to heart problems such as heart failure or coronary artery disease.
There is no guaranteed way to prevent aortic aneurysms, but there are several factors that may reduce the risk of developing one. These include:
* Family history: If you have a family history of aortic aneurysms, your doctor may recommend more frequent monitoring and check-ups to detect any potential problems early.
* High blood pressure: High blood pressure is a major risk factor for aortic aneurysms, so managing your blood pressure through lifestyle changes and medication can help reduce the risk.
* Smoking: Smoking is also a major risk factor for aortic aneurysms, so quitting smoking can help reduce the risk.
* Healthy diet: Eating a healthy diet that is low in salt and fat can help reduce the risk of developing high blood pressure and other conditions that may increase the risk of aortic aneurysms.
Aortic aneurysms are typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and imaging tests. These may include:
* Physical examination: Your doctor may check for any signs of an aneurysm by feeling your pulse and listening to your heart with a stethoscope. They may also check for any swelling or tenderness in your abdomen.
* Medical history: Your doctor will ask about your medical history, including any previous heart conditions or surgeries.
* Imaging tests: Imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI can be used to confirm the diagnosis and measure the size of the aneurysm.
The treatment for aortic aneurysms depends on the size of the aneurysm and how quickly it is growing. For small aneurysms that are not growing, doctors may recommend regular monitoring with imaging tests to check the size of the aneurysm. For larger aneurysms that are growing rapidly, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace the aorta.
There are several surgical options for repairing an aortic aneurysm, including:
* Open surgery: This is the traditional method of repairing an aortic aneurysm, where the surgeon makes an incision in the abdomen to access the aorta and repair the aneurysm.
* Endovascular repair: This is a minimally invasive procedure where the surgeon uses a catheter to insert a stent or graft into the aorta to repair the aneurysm.
After surgery, you will be monitored in the intensive care unit for several days to ensure that there are no complications. You may have a drainage tube inserted into your chest to remove any fluid that accumulates during and after surgery. You will also have various monitors to check your heart rate, blood pressure, and oxygen levels.
The recovery time for aortic aneurysm repair can vary depending on the size of the aneurysm and the type of surgery performed. In general, patients who undergo endovascular repair have a faster recovery time than those who undergo open surgery. You may need to take medications to prevent blood clots and manage pain after surgery. You will also need to follow up with your doctor regularly to check on the healing of the aneurysm and the functioning of the heart.
The long-term outlook for patients who undergo aortic aneurysm repair is generally good, especially if the surgery is successful and there are no complications. However, patients with large aneurysms or those who have had complications during surgery may be at higher risk for long-term health problems. Some potential long-term complications include:
* Infection of the incision site or graft
* Inflammation of the aorta (aortitis)
* Blood clots forming in the graft or legs
* Narrowing or blockage of the aorta
* Heart problems, such as heart failure or arrhythmias.
It is important to follow up with your doctor regularly to monitor your condition and address any potential complications early on.
After undergoing aortic aneurysm repair, you may need to make some lifestyle changes to help manage the condition and reduce the risk of complications. These may include:
* Avoiding heavy lifting or bending
* Taking regular exercise to improve cardiovascular health
* Eating a healthy diet that is low in salt and fat
* Quitting smoking, if you are a smoker
* Managing high blood pressure and other underlying medical conditions.
It is important to discuss any specific lifestyle changes with your doctor before making any significant changes to your daily routine. They can provide personalized guidance based on your individual needs and condition.
Undergoing aortic aneurysm repair can be a stressful and emotional experience, both for the patient and their loved ones. It is important to seek emotional support during this time to help cope with the challenges of the procedure and recovery. This may include:
* Talking to family and friends about your feelings and concerns
* Joining a support group for patients with aortic aneurysms or other cardiovascular conditions
* Seeking counseling or therapy to manage stress and anxiety
* Connecting with online resources and forums to learn more about the condition and share experiences with others.
Remember, it is important to prioritize your mental health and well-being during this time, as well as your physical health. Seeking emotional support can be an important part of the recovery process and can help you feel more supported and empowered throughout the journey.
Coronary Thrombosis can cause a range of symptoms including chest pain, shortness of breath, lightheadedness and fatigue. The severity of the symptoms depends on the location and size of the clot. In some cases, the condition may be asymptomatic and diagnosed incidentally during a medical examination or imaging test.
Diagnosis of Coronary Thrombosis is typically made using electrocardiogram (ECG), blood tests and imaging studies such as angiography or echocardiography. Treatment options include medications to dissolve the clot, surgery to open or bypass the blocked artery or other interventional procedures such as angioplasty or stenting.
Prevention of Coronary Thrombosis includes managing risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, smoking and diabetes through lifestyle changes and medications. Early detection and treatment can help reduce the risk of complications and improve outcomes for patients with this condition.
There are different types of heart aneurysms, including:
1. Left ventricular aneurysm: This is the most common type and occurs in the left lower chamber of the heart (left ventricle).
2. Right ventricular aneurysm: This type occurs in the right lower chamber of the heart (right ventricle).
3. Mitral valve aneurysm: This type occurs near the mitral valve, which separates the left atrium and left ventricle.
4. Tricuspid valve aneurysm: This type occurs near the tricuspid valve, which separates the right atrium and right ventricle.
Heart aneurysms can cause symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, and fatigue. In some cases, they may not cause any symptoms until they rupture, leading to life-threatening complications.
Diagnosis of a heart aneurysm is typically made through imaging tests such as echocardiography, cardiac MRI, or CT scans. Treatment options for heart aneurysms depend on the size and location of the aneurysm, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment may involve medications to control blood pressure and prevent further enlargement of the aneurysm, or in some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace the affected heart muscle or valve.
Prognosis for heart aneurysms varies depending on the size and location of the aneurysm, as well as the patient's overall health. In general, early detection and treatment can improve outcomes and reduce the risk of complications.
* Chest pain or discomfort
* Shortness of breath
* Coughing up blood
* Pain in the back or shoulders
* Dizziness or fainting
Diagnosis is typically made with imaging tests such as chest X-rays, CT scans, or MRI. Treatment may involve monitoring the aneurysm with regular imaging tests to check for growth, or surgery to repair or replace the affected section of the aorta.
This term is used in the medical field to identify a specific type of aneurysm and differentiate it from other types of aneurysms that occur in different locations.
The severity of coronary stenosis can range from mild to severe, with blockages ranging from 15% to over 90%. In mild cases, lifestyle changes and medication may be enough to manage symptoms. However, more severe cases typically require interventional procedures such as angioplasty or bypass surgery to improve blood flow to the heart.
Dissecting aneurysms are often caused by trauma, such as a car accident or fall, but they can also be caused by other factors such as atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) or inherited conditions. They can occur in any blood vessel, but are most common in the aorta, which is the main artery that carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body.
Symptoms of dissecting aneurysms can include sudden and severe pain, numbness or weakness, and difficulty speaking or understanding speech. If left untreated, a dissecting aneurysm can lead to serious complications such as stroke, heart attack, or death.
Treatment for dissecting aneurysms typically involves surgery to repair the damaged blood vessel. In some cases, endovascular procedures such as stenting or coiling may be used to treat the aneurysm. The goal of treatment is to prevent further bleeding and damage to the blood vessel, and to restore normal blood flow to the affected area.
Preventive measures for dissecting aneurysms are not always possible, but maintaining a healthy lifestyle, avoiding trauma, and managing underlying conditions such as hypertension or atherosclerosis can help reduce the risk of developing an aneurysm. Early detection and treatment are key to preventing serious complications and improving outcomes for patients with dissecting aneurysms.
There are different types of myocardial infarctions, including:
1. ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI): This is the most severe type of heart attack, where a large area of the heart muscle is damaged. It is characterized by a specific pattern on an electrocardiogram (ECG) called the ST segment.
2. Non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI): This type of heart attack is less severe than STEMI, and the damage to the heart muscle may not be as extensive. It is characterized by a smaller area of damage or a different pattern on an ECG.
3. Incomplete myocardial infarction: This type of heart attack is when there is some damage to the heart muscle but not a complete blockage of blood flow.
4. Collateral circulation myocardial infarction: This type of heart attack occurs when there are existing collateral vessels that bypass the blocked coronary artery, which reduces the amount of damage to the heart muscle.
Symptoms of a myocardial infarction can include chest pain or discomfort, shortness of breath, lightheadedness, and fatigue. These symptoms may be accompanied by anxiety, fear, and a sense of impending doom. In some cases, there may be no noticeable symptoms at all.
Diagnosis of myocardial infarction is typically made based on a combination of physical examination findings, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as an electrocardiogram (ECG), cardiac enzyme tests, and imaging studies like echocardiography or cardiac magnetic resonance imaging.
Treatment of myocardial infarction usually involves medications to relieve pain, reduce the amount of work the heart has to do, and prevent further damage to the heart muscle. These may include aspirin, beta blockers, ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, and statins. In some cases, a procedure such as angioplasty or coronary artery bypass surgery may be necessary to restore blood flow to the affected area.
Prevention of myocardial infarction involves managing risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, diabetes, and obesity. This can include lifestyle changes such as a healthy diet, regular exercise, and stress reduction, as well as medications to control these conditions. Early detection and treatment of heart disease can help prevent myocardial infarction from occurring in the first place.
Symptoms of an iliac aneurysm can include abdominal pain, back pain, and leg weakness or numbness. If the aneurysm ruptures, it can lead to life-threatening bleeding and emergency surgery is usually required. Treatment options for iliac aneurysms may include observation, endovascular repair, or open surgical repair, depending on the size and location of the aneurysm, as well as the patient's overall health.
Preventative measures to reduce the risk of developing an iliac aneurysm include maintaining a healthy blood pressure, managing any underlying medical conditions such as high blood pressure or atherosclerosis, and not smoking. Early detection and treatment of an iliac aneurysm can help to prevent complications and improve outcomes for patients with this condition.
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Coronary disease is often caused by a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, smoking, obesity, and a lack of physical activity. It can also be triggered by other medical conditions, such as diabetes and kidney disease.
The symptoms of coronary disease can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but may include:
* Chest pain or discomfort (angina)
* Shortness of breath
* Swelling of the legs and feet
* Pain in the arms and back
Coronary disease is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as electrocardiograms (ECGs), stress tests, and cardiac imaging. Treatment for coronary disease may include lifestyle changes, medications to control symptoms, and surgical procedures such as angioplasty or bypass surgery to improve blood flow to the heart.
Preventative measures for coronary disease include:
* Maintaining a healthy diet and exercise routine
* Quitting smoking and limiting alcohol consumption
* Managing high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, and other underlying medical conditions
* Reducing stress through relaxation techniques or therapy.
Example sentences for 'Aneurysm, False'
The patient was diagnosed with a false aneurysm after experiencing sudden severe pain in his leg following a fall.
The surgeon treated the false aneurysm by inserting a catheter into the affected blood vessel and using it to deliver a special coil that would seal off the dilated area.
Word Origin: From coronary (pertaining to the crown) + vasospasm (a spasmodic constriction of a blood vessel).
Symptoms of an aortic rupture may include sudden and severe chest pain, difficulty breathing, and coughing up blood. Diagnosis is typically made through imaging tests such as CT scans or echocardiograms. Treatment options range from medication to stabilize blood pressure to surgical repair of the aorta.
If left untreated, an aortic rupture can lead to catastrophic consequences, including bleeding to death, cardiac arrest, and stroke. Therefore, prompt medical attention is essential if symptoms of an aortic rupture are present.
Coronary restenosis is a common complication after coronary interventions, such as angioplasty or stenting. It is estimated that up to 20% of patients may experience restenosis within six months after treatment. If left untreated, restenosis can lead to chest pain, heart attack, or even death.
Treatment options for coronary restenosis include repeat angioplasty or stenting, medications such as beta blockers and calcium channel blockers, or bypass surgery. It is important for patients to work closely with their healthcare provider to monitor their symptoms and undergo regular follow-up appointments to prevent or diagnose restenosis early on.
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- The overall incidence of CAAs ranges from 1.5 to 5%, with a male preponderance and predilection for the right coronary artery 1 . (asiaintervention.org)
- In 2013, a 65-year-old gentleman with hypertension, obesity, effort angina and positive stress test, underwent a coronary angiogram which revealed an occluded mid right coronary artery (RCA) and critical stenosis of the proximal left circumflex artery. (asiaintervention.org)
- 11. Right coronary artery aneurysm with aneurysmal dilation and thrombosis of the sinoatrial nodal branch mimicking a right atrial mass. (nih.gov)
- 13. Giant right coronary artery aneurysm - A rare presentation. (nih.gov)
- Echocardiography performed in the acute phase of the illness demonstrated coronary artery dilatation, with a proximal left main internal luminal diameter of 6 mm (Figure 1, white arrowhead), and a right coronary artery internal luminal diameter of 7 mm (Figure 2, white arrow). (acc.org)
- Coronary artery aneurysm (CAA) is defined as coronary dilatation which exceeds the diameter of normal adjacent segments or the diameter of the patient's largest coronary vessel by 1.5 times 1 . (asiaintervention.org)
- 2. Bilateral coronary artery dilatation and supravalvular pulmonary stenosis in a child with noonan syndrome. (nih.gov)
- Three had transient mild dilatation and 9 had CA aneurysms, with subsequent normalization in 4 patients, persistent mild dilatation in 3, persistent aneurysm in 2, and there were 3 cases (2 with CA aneurysm, 1 with mild CA dilatation) without follow-up echocardiography. (nih.gov)
- In children, angiographic abnormality, with aneurism or dilatation, narrowing, occlusion, or thickening of the aorta or its main branches, is a mandatory criterion for the diagnosis. (hindawi.com)
- Abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of CORONARY VESSELS . (nih.gov)
- Similar to patients with classic Kawasaki disease, patients with incomplete disease are at risk for cardiovascular complications including coronary artery aneurysm and dilatation, systolic dysfunction, and arrhythmia. (acc.org)
- Follow-up cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, performed months later, demonstrated persistent coronary artery dilatation (Figures 3 and 4, white arrows). (acc.org)
Giant coronary aneurysms1
- 4. Surgical management of giant coronary aneurysms in Noonan syndrome. (nih.gov)
- 3. A case report of Noonan's syndrome with pulmonary valvar stenosis and coronary aneurysms. (nih.gov)
- 15. Coronary aneurysms and stenosis detected with magnetic resonance coronary angiography in a patient with Kawasaki disease. (nih.gov)
- Over and Under PCS is indicated for treatment of bypass stenosis, aneurysms and for emergency situations such as perforations. (salesandmarketingnetwork.com)
- Encouragingly, no delayed diagnosis and treatment of KD was found, and all patients received conservative therapy for GS, without intravenous immunoglobulin resistance, coronary artery lesions, and neurological impairment. (biomedcentral.com)
- Folks across the country are paying hard cash for total body scans, abdominal aortic aneurysm testing, CAT coronary artery scans and carotid artery evaluations to prevent disease or find important lesions early. (kevinmd.com)
- Over and Under PCS is especially suitable for patients with degenerated SVG where the lesions are less calcified than those in native coronaries," says Efri Argaman, CEO of ITGI Medical. (salesandmarketingnetwork.com)
- Over and Under is the first among series of heterologous covered stents designed to treat coronary lesions and aneurysms. (salesandmarketingnetwork.com)
- METHODS--63 patients undergoing limited risk coronary angioplasty of 72 lesions were studied. (bmj.com)
- Various studies have evaluated the possibilities of surgical repair of mycotic aortic aneurysms (MAAs). (intechopen.com)
- Infected aortic aneurysms, also known as "mycotic aortic aneurysms" (or microbial arteritis with aneurysms) are most commonly caused by bacterial infections. (intechopen.com)
- Although the prevalence of mycotic aortic aneurysms (MAAs) is low, its clinical impact may be severe and represents one of the most difficult arterial diseases to treat successfully. (intechopen.com)
- Other findings showed that in the group invited to screening there was a large increase in use of antiplatelet medication (HR, 3.12) and in lipid lowering agents (HR, 2.54), but no difference in use of anticoagulants, antihypertensives, and diabetes drugs or in coronary or aortic revascularization. (medscape.com)
- Other heart-related causes of right-sided chest pain include coronary artery disease, pericarditis, and a dissecting aortic aneurysm. (verywellhealth.com)
- The principal goal of treatment is to prevent coronary artery disease. (medscape.com)
- Coronary artery aneurysms (CAA) remain an important complication of Kawasaki disease (KD), the most common form of pediatric acquired heart disease in developed countries. (nih.gov)
- 7. Coronary artery disease in adults with Noonan syndrome: Case series and literature review. (nih.gov)
- 14. Evaluation of Kawasaki's disease-associated coronary artery aneurysms with 3D CT cinematic rendering. (nih.gov)
- 18. Coronary CT angiography and MR angiography of Kawasaki disease. (nih.gov)
- 20. Demonstration of coronary arteries and major cardiac vascular structures in congenital heart disease by cardiac multidetector computed tomography angiography. (nih.gov)
- Kawasaki disease can cause inflammation of blood vessels in the arteries, especially the coronary arteries. (medlineplus.gov)
- We nistration of intravenous immunoglobulin undertook a retrospective review of the (IVIG) within the first 10 days of illness medical records of all cases with Kawasaki decreases the prevalence of coronary ar- disease referred, treated or discharged tery abnormalities (CAA) to 2%-5% [ 5-7 ]. (who.int)
- Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common type of heart disease and is the leading cause of death in the United States in women and men. (verywellhealth.com)
- Who's at Risk for Coronary Artery Disease? (verywellhealth.com)
- Most coronary aneurysms are due to CORONARY ATHEROSCLEROSIS , and the rest are due to inflammatory diseases, such as KAWASAKI DISEASE . (nih.gov)
- Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute vasculitis that causes coronary artery aneurysms (CAA) in young children. (ucl.ac.uk)
- You can have a normal EKG performed weekly, but this will not prevent a heart attack or exclude significant coronary artery disease. (kevinmd.com)
- A pilot study of coronary angioplasty in outpatients. (bmj.com)
- BACKGROUND--Is it safe to discharge patients from hospital on the same day as percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA)? (bmj.com)
- After coronary angioplasty patients with angiographic evidence of dissection and/or thrombus and with complications were assigned to an inpatient group and those in whom PTCA had achieved a good angiographic result were assigned to an outpatient group. (bmj.com)
- CONCLUSIONS--Coronary angioplasty with miniature equipment passed through the brachial artery was a safe procedure with a high initial success rate. (bmj.com)
- Fifteen patients had coronary artery (CA) abnormalities before infliximab therapy. (nih.gov)
- We aimed to study long-term cardiovascular status after KD by examining the relationship between coronary artery (CA) status, endothelial injury, systemic inflammatory markers, cardiovascular risk factors (CRF), pulse-wave velocity (PWV) and carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) after KD. (ucl.ac.uk)
- Management of abdominal aorta aneurysms. (escardio.org)
- Over and Under is a stent 100% covered with a heterologous tissue, designed to set a barrier between the coronary blood vessel wall and its lumen. (salesandmarketingnetwork.com)
- Tests such as ECG and echocardiography are done to look for signs of myocarditis , pericarditis , and inflammation of the coronary arteries. (medlineplus.gov)
- 8. Expanding the cardiac spectrum of Noonan syndrome with RIT1 variant: Left main coronary artery atresia causing sudden death. (nih.gov)
- 10. Coronary Artery Anomalies: Diagnosis and Classification based on Cardiac CT and MRI (CMR) - from ALCAPA to Anomalies of Termination. (nih.gov)
- Such a patient can easily slide, or be pushed, down a medical cascade that may include cardiac catheterization, or even stenting of a coronary artery that was not responsible for the patient's symptoms, and should have been left alone. (kevinmd.com)
- Given its predilection for the coronary arteries, there is a potential for the development of coronary artery aneurysms (CAAs) and thus sudden death. (medscape.com)
- HIV-Positive Patient With Non-Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI)-Amenable Left Coronary Artery Aneurysms Presenting With ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI). (bvsalud.org)
- In this case report , we aim to highlight a rare, complicated case of an HIV -positive patient with coronary artery aneurysms complicated by an ST-elevation myocardial infarction ( STEMI ). (bvsalud.org)
- CT coronary angiography looks at your blood vessels for damage, signs of inflammation, blockages, or aneurysms. (nih.gov)
- Untreated, roughly one-quarter of children with KD develop coronary artery aneurysms - balloon-like bulges of heart vessels - that may ultimately result in heart attacks, congestive heart failure or sudden death. (newswise.com)
- Noncoronary artery aneurysms (NCAA) in extraparenchymal, muscular arteries occur in a minority of patients with KD who also have CAA, yet little is understood about their formation and remodeling. (nih.gov)
- Prevention of coronary artery aneurysms associated with Kawasaki syndrome in pediatric patients. (nih.gov)
- Mazandaran admit and care for paediatric ease affects the coronary arteries in 20%- patients (1 university teaching hospital and 25% of untreated patients [ 3,4 ]. (who.int)
- Atypical or incomplete KD has been described in which patients not strictly meeting the diagnostic criteria but have coronary artery changes. (sid.ir)
- We postulated that activation of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) pathway in KD may influence formation and remodeling of aneurysms in iliac, femoral, and axillary arteries, the most common sites for NCAA. (nih.gov)
- In accordance with guidelines, the patient was maintained on indefinite low-dose aspirin to prevent further coronary complications. (acc.org)
- Viral myocarditis could certainly cause cardiovascular collapse in a young, otherwise healthy patient but would not cause the diffuse coronary enlargement seen on noninvasive imaging. (acc.org)
- Treatment must be started right away to prevent damage to the coronary arteries and heart. (medlineplus.gov)
- that supply blood to the heart muscle (coronary artery aneurysms) or other damage to the coronary arteries, which can be life-threatening. (nih.gov)
- We hope this will lead us to the genetic pathways that result in damage to the coronary arteries, which in turn will suggest new therapies to target those pathways. (newswise.com)
- Even with standard treatment, up to 1 in 4 children may still develop problems in their coronary arteries. (medlineplus.gov)
- About 80% of children in the multistate study had heart-related problems, which included coronary aneurysms - a bulge in a heart artery that can be fatal. (lex18.com)
- Around 1% of arterial aneurysms may be associated with an arterial infection. (intechopen.com)
- Pathological examination suggested that abscess formation played an important role regarding the disruption of the ventricular wall and development of the ventricular aneurysm and tachycardia. (nih.gov)
- Late development of scaffold strut discontinuity and the resultant outward displacement of struts may result in aneurysm formation. (asiaintervention.org)
- 1. Development of bilateral coronary artery aneurysms in a child with Noonan syndrome. (nih.gov)
- In case reports, the time to aneurysm formation in BVS varies from 6 to 32 months. (asiaintervention.org)
- A coronary angiogram and OCT of the RCA were carried out five years later, as part of the study. (asiaintervention.org)
- 9. Massive left main coronary aneurysm presenting as trepopnoea. (nih.gov)
- Management of thoracic aorta aneurysms. (escardio.org)