Cornified Envelope Proline-Rich Proteins: A family of low molcular-weight proteins that contain PROLINE-RICH PROTEIN DOMAINS. Members of this family play a role in the formation of an insoluble cornified envelope beneath the plasma membrane of stratified squamous epithelial cells.Proline: A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.Plakins: A family of related proteins that associate with cytoskeletal elements and junctional complexes at INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS. Plakins share a common plakin domain or a plakin repeat domain.Epidermis: The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).Transglutaminases: Transglutaminases catalyze cross-linking of proteins at a GLUTAMINE in one chain with LYSINE in another chain. They include keratinocyte transglutaminase (TGM1 or TGK), tissue transglutaminase (TGM2 or TGC), plasma transglutaminase involved with coagulation (FACTOR XIII and FACTOR XIIIa), hair follicle transglutaminase, and prostate transglutaminase. Although structures differ, they share an active site (YGQCW) and strict CALCIUM dependence.Keratinocytes: Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.Proline-Rich Protein Domains: Protein domains that are enriched in PROLINE. The cyclical nature of proline causes the peptide bonds it forms to have a limited degree of conformational mobility. Therefore the presence of multiple prolines in close proximity to each other can convey a distinct conformational arrangement to a peptide chain.beta-Keratins: Keratins that form into a beta-pleated sheet structure. They are principle constituents of the corneous material of the carapace and plastron of turtles, the epidermis of snakes and the feathers of birds.Protein PrecursorsIntermediate Filament Proteins: Filaments 7-11 nm in diameter found in the cytoplasm of all cells. Many specific proteins belong to this group, e.g., desmin, vimentin, prekeratin, decamin, skeletin, neurofilin, neurofilament protein, and glial fibrillary acid protein.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Desmosomes: A type of junction that attaches one cell to its neighbor. One of a number of differentiated regions which occur, for example, where the cytoplasmic membranes of adjacent epithelial cells are closely apposed. It consists of a circular region of each membrane together with associated intracellular microfilaments and an intercellular material which may include, for example, mucopolysaccharides. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Skin Physiological Phenomena: The functions of the skin in the human and animal body. It includes the pigmentation of the skin.Cystatins: A homologous group of endogenous CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS. The cystatins inhibit most CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES such as PAPAIN, and other peptidases which have a sulfhydryl group at the active site.Keratins: A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Proline Oxidase: The first enzyme of the proline degradative pathway. It catalyzes the oxidation of proline to pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid in the presence of oxygen and water. The action is not reversible. The specific activity of proline oxidase increases with age. EC 1.5.3.-.LIM Domain Proteins: A large class of structurally-related proteins that contain one or more LIM zinc finger domains. Many of the proteins in this class are involved in intracellular signaling processes and mediate their effects via LIM domain protein-protein interactions. The name LIM is derived from the first three proteins in which the motif was found: LIN-11, Isl1 and Mec-3.src Homology Domains: Regions of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE similarity in the SRC-FAMILY TYROSINE KINASES that fold into specific functional tertiary structures. The SH1 domain is a CATALYTIC DOMAIN. SH2 and SH3 domains are protein interaction domains. SH2 usually binds PHOSPHOTYROSINE-containing proteins and SH3 interacts with CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Nuclear Envelope: The membrane system of the CELL NUCLEUS that surrounds the nucleoplasm. It consists of two concentric membranes separated by the perinuclear space. The structures of the envelope where it opens to the cytoplasm are called the nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Malaria, Falciparum: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Psoriasis: A common genetically determined, chronic, inflammatory skin disease characterized by rounded erythematous, dry, scaling patches. The lesions have a predilection for nails, scalp, genitalia, extensor surfaces, and the lumbosacral region. Accelerated epidermopoiesis is considered to be the fundamental pathologic feature in psoriasis.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Plasmodium falciparum: A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.Cross-Linking Reagents: Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.Hoof and Claw: Highly keratinized processes that are sharp and curved, or flat with pointed margins. They are found especially at the end of the limbs in certain animals.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.

Expression of differentiation markers during fetal skin development in humans: immunohistochemical studies on the precursor proteins forming the cornified cell envelope. (1/100)

The cornified cell envelope is formed during the terminal differentiation of epidermis through cross-linking of specific proteins by transglutaminases. The specific arrangement of individual protein in the cornified cell envelope and participation of individual protein in the cornified cell envelope at different regions of skin, i.e., palm, foreskin, lips, etc. are not clearly understood. In order to understand the pattern and expression schedule of each individual precursor protein during the differentiation and formation of cornified cell envelope, the expression of precursor proteins in developing human fetal skins from the first to the third trimester were examined by immunohistochemical studies. Involucrin was found in the periderm and intermediate layer from 14 wk estimated gestational age, while loricrin and small proline-rich protein 1 were found in the periderm from 16 wk estimated gestational age. Filaggrin and trichohyalin that are absent in the adult cornified cell envelope were found in the granular and horny layers from 24 wk estimated gestational age. The precursor proteins except trichohyalin did not change their patterns after the onset of initial expression during development. Trichohyalin was transiently expressed in the granular and horny layers of the epidermis from 24 wk estimated gestational age with peak expression at 27 wk estimated gestational age, but was not detected in adult skin. In hair follicles, trichohyalin expression was stable without change from 20 wk estimated gestational age. These findings suggest that fetal skin may have different sets of barriers from the second trimester; the immature cornified cell envelope is formed in the early second trimester and the mature cornified cell envelope is formed in the late second or early third trimester when filaggrin and trichohyalin appear.  (+info)

Periderm cells form cornified cell envelope in their regression process during human epidermal development. (2/100)

Terminally differentiated stratified squamous epithelium forms a lining of the plasma membrane called the cornified cell envelope, a thick layer of several covalently cross-linked precursor proteins including involucrin, small proline-rich proteins, and loricrin. Their cross-linking isodipeptide bonds are formed by epidermal transglutaminases 1-3. Material from lamellar granules is attached on the extracellular surface of corneocytes during the keratinization process. The formation of cornified cell envelope and sequential expression of major cornified cell envelope precursor proteins, transglutaminases, and 25 kDa lamellar granule-associated protein were studied in human embryonic and fetal skin. Ultrastructurally, membrane thickening has already started in periderm cells of the two-layered epidermis and an electron-dense, thickened cell envelope similar to cornified cell envelope in adult epidermis is observed in periderm cells at the three-layered and later stages of skin development. In the two-layered epidermis (49-65 d estimated gestational age), immunoreactivities of involucrin, small proline-rich proteins, all the transglutaminases, and lamellar granule-associated protein were present only in the periderm. In the three-layered epidermis and thereafter (66-160 d estimated gestational age), loricrin became positive in the periderm cells, transglutaminases extended to the entire epidermis, and lamellar granule-associated protein was detected in intermediate cells as well as periderm cells. Immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated that both major cornified cell envelope precursor proteins, involucrin and loricrin, were restricted to the cornified cell envelope in periderm cells at this stage of development. After 160 d estimated gestational age, the periderm had disappeared and cornified cell envelope proteins and lamellar granule-associated proteins were expressed in the spinous, granular, and cornified cells and transglutaminases were detected in the entire epidermis. These findings indicate that cornified cell envelope precursor proteins, transglutaminases, and lamellar granule-associated proteins are expressed in coordination in periderm cells during human epidermal development and suggest that periderm cells form cornified cell envelope in the process of regression.  (+info)

Decreased expression of retinoic acid receptors, transforming growth factor beta, involucrin, and cornifin in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. (3/100)

Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) I, II, and III represent a spectrum of premalignant epithelial changes and are ideal targets for application of chemoprevention strategies. Intermediate end point biomarkers are increasingly being used as surrogate end points to monitor clinical chemoprevention trials. To identify potential biomarkers in cervical epithelium, we analyzed the expression of nuclear retinoic acid receptor (RAR) mRNA by in situ hybridization, involucrin, cornifin, and transforming growth factors (TGFs) beta1 and beta2 by immunohistochemistry in cervical specimens, which contained adjacent normal epithelium and CIN lesions from 52 patients. These biomarkers were expressed in all adjacent normal cervical epithelia, whereas all CIN lesions including CIN I, CIN II, and CIN III exhibited decreased expression of RAR-alpha by 55.8%, RAR-beta by 64.7%, RAR-gamma by 54.9%, involucrin by 80.8%, cornifin by 88.5%, TGF-beta1 by 89.7%, and TGF-beta2 by 85.7%. Viewed as a whole, these biomarkers were down-regulated in 100% of the CIN lesions. Because all of these biomarkers can be modulated in vitro by retinoids, they may serve as intermediate biomarkers for retinoid chemoprevention trials in the patients with CIN lesions.  (+info)

Re-expression of SPR1 in breast cancer cells by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) or UV irradiation is mediated by the AP-1 binding site in the SPR1 promoter. (4/100)

BACKGROUND: Invasive tumor cells are characterized by multiple phenotypic changes as a result of the large number of cDNAs being differentially expressed in tumor cells compared to normal progenitors. Expression genetics focuses on changes at the RNA level with the aim of identifying functionally important genes whose aberrant expression in cancer cells is regulated at the level of transcription. These genes were named class II genes and are distinguished from class I genes, which are characterized by genomic mutations, deletions, or other alterations. Reversal of the tumor cell phenotype accompanying normalization of the expression of such genes may be exploited therapeutically if gene expression can be specifically modulated by drugs or other treatments. Considering that genes are coordinately regulated in complex networks, it is likely that the expression of multiple genes can be simultaneously modulated in tumor cells by drugs acting on the signal transduction pathway that regulates their expression. The SPR1 gene is associated with differentiation and its expression is down-regulated or inactivated in malignant cells. Analysis of the SPR1 promoter showed that down-regulation of SPR1 expression in breast tumor cells occurs at the level of transcription. SPR1 presents an example of class II genes, since its expression was up-regulated in tumor cells by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) or by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The SPR1 gene was identified by differential display on the basis of its reduced or absent expression in human breast tumor cell lines compared to normal mammary epithelial cell strains. Differential expression was confirmed by Northern blot analysis employing multiple normal and tumor cell lines. The promoter region -619 to +15 of the SPR1 gene was sequenced and analyzed by CAT assays, deletion analysis, and mutagenesis. Up-regulation of SPR1 expression by PMA and UV irradiation was monitored by Northern analysis and analyzed by CAT assays. RESULTS: The mechanism of down-regulation of SPR1 expression in breast tumor cells was investigated. It was found that the -619 to +15 upstream promoter region is sufficient for SPR1 expression in normal breast cells, but it is transcriptionally silent in most breast tumor cell lines. By deletion analysis and mutagenesis, two upstream cis-acting promoter elements were identified. Our data indicate that the AP-1 element located between -139 and -133 acts as a major enhancer of SPR1 transcription only in normal mammary epithelial cells but not in corresponding tumor cells, whereas the sequences flanking the AP-1 site do not affect its promoter enhancing activity. In addition, a transcriptional repressor was identified that binds unknown factor(s) and is active in both normal and tumor breast cells. Inhibitor function was mapped to a 35-bp element located from -178 to -139 upstream of the human SPR1 mRNA start site. The expression of SPR1 could be induced in the 21MT-2 metastatic breast tumor cell line by PMA treatment or by short UV irradiation via a transcriptional mechanism. AP-1 is the cis element mediating the transcriptional activation of SPR1 by PMA, which induces the expression of AP-1 factors in 21MT-2 cells. Mutation of the AP-1 site abolishes the induction of SPR1 expression by PMA. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that loss of SPR1 expression in breast tumor cells results from impaired transactivation through the AP-1 site in the SPR1 promoter, as well as from the presence of a negative regulatory element active in both normal and tumor cells. Furthermore, our results provide a basis for therapeutic manipulation of down-regulated genes, such as SPR1, in human cancers.  (+info)

Characterization of ESE-2, a novel ESE-1-related Ets transcription factor that is restricted to glandular epithelium and differentiated keratinocytes. (5/100)

Epithelial cell differentiation is tightly controlled by distinct sets of transcription factors that regulate the expression of stage-specific genes. We recently isolated the first epithelium-specific Ets transcription factor (ESE-1). Here we describe the characterization of ESE-2, a second epithelium-restricted ESE-1-related Ets factor. Like ESE-1, ESE-2 is induced during keratinocyte differentiation. However, whereas ESE-1 is expressed in the majority of epithelial cell types, ESE-2 expression is restricted to differentiated keratinocytes and glandular epithelium such as salivary gland, prostate, mammary gland, and kidney. In contrast to ESE-1, full-length ESE-2 binds poorly to DNA due to the presence of a negative regulatory domain at the amino terminus. Furthermore, although ESE-1 and the amino-terminally deleted ESE-2 bind with similar affinity to the canonical E74 Ets site, ESE-2 and ESE-1 differ strikingly in their relative affinity toward binding sites in the c-MET and PSMA promoters. Similarly, ESE-1 and ESE-2 drastically differ in their ability to transactivate epithelium-specific promoters. Thus, ESE-2, but not ESE-1, transactivates the parotid gland-specific PSP promoter and the prostate-specific PSA promoter. In contrast, ESE-1 transactivates the keratinocyte-specific SPRR2A promoter Ets site and the prostate-specific PSMA promoter significantly better than ESE-2. Our results demonstrate the existence of a unique class of related epithelium-specific Ets factors with distinct functions in epithelial cell gene regulation.  (+info)

Transglutaminase crosslinking and structural studies of the human small proline rich 3 protein. (6/100)

The cell envelope (CE) is a vital structure for barrier function in terminally differentiated dead stratified squamous epithelia. It is assembled by transglutaminase (TGase) cross-linking of several proteins, including SPR3 in certain specialized epithelia normally subjected to mechanical trauma. We have expressed recombinant human SPR3 in order to study its cross-linking properties. It serves as a complete substrate for, and is cross-linked at similar efficiencies by, the three enzymes (TGases 1, 2 and 3) that are widely expressed in many epithelia. Multiple adjacent glutamines (4, 5, 16, 17, 18, 19 and 167) and lysines (6, 21, 164, 166 and 168) of only head and tail domain sequences are used for cross-linking. However, each enzyme preferentially uses certain residues on the head domain. Moreover, our in vitro data suggest a defined temporal order of cross-linking of SPR3 in vivo: It is first cross-linked by TGase 3 into short intra- and inter-chain oligomers which are later further cross-linked to the CE by TGase 1. To investigate the absence of cross-linking in the central domain (e.g. lysine in position 2 of each of the 16 repeats) we performed structural studies on recombinant SPR3 and on a synthetic peptide containing three repeats of the central domain. 2D H-1 NMR spectroscopy, TOCSY and ROESY, shows strong and medium intensity NOEs connectivities along the amino acid sequence with one weak long range NOE contact between Thr and Cys of subsequent repeats. Distance geometry computation on the basis of intensities of NOEs found generated 50 compatible structures grouped in three main families differing by the number of H-bonds. These measurements were repeated at different concentrations of trifluoroethanol (TFE)-water mixture, an alpha-helical promoting solvent, in order to check the stability of the conformations determined; no changes were observed up to 50% TFE in solution. Also temperature changes did not produce any variation in the ROESY spectrum in the same condition as above. The NMR and circular dichroism data strongly indicate the presence of an ordered (not alpha-helix nor beta-sheet) highly flexible structure in the eight amino acids repetitive units of SPR3, confirming the prediction of one possible beta-turn per each repeating unit. Thus, biochemical and biophysical data, strongly support SPR3 to function as a flexible cross-bridging protein to provide tensile strength or rigidity to the CE of the stratified squamous epithelia in which it is expressed.  (+info)

Initiation of assembly of the cell envelope barrier structure of stratified squamous epithelia. (7/100)

The cell envelope (CE) is a specialized structure that is important for barrier function in terminally differentiated stratified squamous epithelia. The CE is formed inside the plasma membrane and becomes insoluble as a result of cross-linking of constituent proteins by isopeptide bonds formed by transglutaminases. To investigate the earliest stages of assembly of the CE, we have studied human epidermal keratinocytes induced to terminally differentiate in submerged liquid culture as a model system for epithelia in general. CEs were harvested from 2-, 3-, 5-, or 7-d cultured cells and examined by 1) immunogold electron microscopy using antibodies to known CE or other junctional proteins and 2) amino acid sequencing of cross-linked peptides derived by proteolysis of CEs. Our data document that CE assembly is initiated along the plasma membrane between desmosomes by head-to-tail and head-to-head cross-linking of involucrin to itself and to envoplakin and perhaps periplakin. Essentially only one lysine and two glutamine residues of involucrin and two glutamines of envoplakin were used initially. In CEs of 3-d cultured cells, involucrin, envoplakin, and small proline-rich proteins were physically located at desmosomes and had become cross-linked to desmoplakin, and in 5-d CEs, these three proteins had formed a continuous layer extending uniformly along the cell periphery. By this time >15 residues of involucrin were used for cross-linking. The CEs of 7-d cells contain significant amounts of the protein loricrin, typically expressed at a later stage of CE assembly. Together, these data stress the importance of juxtaposition of membranes, transglutaminases, and involucrin and envoplakin in the initiation of CE assembly of stratified squamous epithelia.  (+info)

Distinct roles for amino- and carboxyl-terminal sequences of SPRR1 protein in the formation of cross-linked envelopes of conducting airway epithelial cells. (8/100)

The small proline-rich protein, SPRR1, is a marker gene whose expression in conducting airway epithelium is elevated under a variety of conditions that enhance squamous differentiation. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the nature of the SPRR1 sequence involved in cross-linked envelope formation in a tissue/cell type, such as conducting airway epithelium, that normally does not express squamous function except after injury or maintenance in culture. For this, a Flag-SPRR1 fusion protein expression system has been developed. Using the liposome-mediated gene transfer technique on passage 1 culture of human tracheobronchial epithelial (TBE) cells, the Flag-SPRR1 fusion protein can be expressed and detected immunologically by both anti-Flag and anti-SPRR1 antibodies. The incorporation of Flag-SPRR1 fusion protein into cross-linked envelopes can be demonstrated when transfected human passage 1 TBE cultures are treated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and high calcium (1.5 mM). By deletion and site-directed mutagenesis, two distinct roles of the amino- and carboxyl-terminal sequences of SPRR1 have been demonstrated. First, we demonstrated that the amino-terminal sequence of SPRR1 protein is required for the incorporation of the fusion protein into cross-linked envelopes, whereas a deletion on the carboxyl-terminal region or on the middle repetitive unit has no effect. Interestingly, insertion of a 24-amino acid peptide of monkey MUC2 repetitive sequence in the amino-terminus of SPRR1 protein had a stimulatory effect. Site-directed mutagenesis on the following amino acid residues, Lys(7), Gln(88), and Lys(89), which were found previously to participate in the cross-linked envelope formation of keratinocytes, had no detrimental effect on the incorporation. However, mutations on Gln clusters, such as Gln(4)-Gln(6) and Gln(22)-Gln(25), had detrimental effects on the incorporation. These results suggest an amino-terminal sequence-dependent and multiple cross-linked sites for the incorporation of Flag-SPRR1 fusion protein into cross-linked envelopes of cultured human TBE cells. Second, we demonstrated that the carboxyl terminus of SPRR1 protein is required for a high level of Flag-fusion protein expression. A deletion in the carboxyl region or a mutation on the last lysine residue of the carboxyl end had a detrimental effect on the level of Flag-SPRR1 fusion protein expressed in transfected cells. In contrast, there was only a slight decrease in the level of expression if the amino-terminus was deleted. Interestingly, the efficiency for fusion protein to incorporate into cross-linked envelopes was elevated by the mutation at the carboxyl end. These results suggest distinct roles, perhaps coordinately, for both amino- and carboxyl-terminal sequences in the regulation of the life cycle of SPRR1 protein in cultured TBE cells.  (+info)

*Loricrin

1999). "Transglutaminase cross-linking properties of the small proline-rich 1 family of cornified cell envelope proteins. ... 2000). "Small proline-rich protein 1 is the major component of the cell envelope of normal human oral keratinocytes". FEBS Lett ... Loricrin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LOR gene. Loricrin is a major protein component of the cornified cell ... 2001). "Transglutaminase 5 cross-links loricrin, involucrin, and small proline-rich proteins in vitro". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (37 ...

*SPRR1A

... small proline-rich proteins, plasminogen activator inhibitor-2, and involucrin are components of the cornified envelope of ... "Transglutaminase cross-linking properties of the small proline-rich 1 family of cornified cell envelope proteins. Integration ... "Small proline-rich protein 1 is the major component of the cell envelope of normal human oral keratinocytes". FEBS Letters. 477 ... "Structural organization and regulation of the small proline-rich family of cornified envelope precursors suggest a role in ...

*SPRR3

"Small proline-rich proteins are cross-bridging proteins in the cornified cell envelopes of stratified squamous epithelia". ... Small proline-rich protein 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SPRR3 gene, which is found within the epidermal ... "Structural organization and regulation of the small proline-rich family of cornified envelope precursors suggest a role in ... a group of small proline rich-related cornified envelope precursors with bifunctional capabilities in isopeptide bond formation ...

*TGM5

... and small proline-rich proteins, in the formation of the cornified cell envelope in the biogenesis of the stratum corneum, the ... a variety of structural proteins in the terminal differentiation of the epidermis to form the cornified cell envelope. An ... This study identifies the first causative gene in this heterogeneous group of skin disorders and demonstrates that the protein ... Transglutaminases (TGs) are involved in protein cross-linking by catalyzing the formation of gamma-glutamyl-lysine isodipeptide ...

*Involucrin

... small proline-rich proteins, plasminogen activator inhibitor-2, and involucrin are components of the cornified envelope of ... "Small proline-rich protein 1 is the major component of the cell envelope of normal human oral keratinocytes". FEBS Letters. 477 ... As one of the precursor proteins of the cornified cell envelope, involucrin is markedly increased in inflammatory skin diseases ... and small proline-rich proteins in vitro". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 (37): 35014-23. doi:10.1074/jbc.M010157200 ...

*SPRR1B

... small proline-rich proteins, plasminogen activator inhibitor-2, and involucrin are components of the cornified envelope of ... 2000). "Small proline-rich protein 1 is the major component of the cell envelope of normal human oral keratinocytes". FEBS Lett ... 1995). "The pancornulins: a group of small proline rich-related cornified envelope precursors with bifunctional capabilities in ... "Entrez Gene: SPRR1B small proline-rich protein 1B (cornifin)". Fornace AJ (1993). "Mammalian genes induced by radiation; ...

*Envoplakin

... small proline-rich proteins, plasminogen activator inhibitor-2, and involucrin are components of the cornified envelope of ... 2000). "Small proline-rich protein 1 is the major component of the cell envelope of normal human oral keratinocytes". FEBS Lett ... "Ceramides are bound to structural proteins of the human foreskin epidermal cornified cell envelope". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (28): ... Ruhrberg, C; Hajibagheri M A; Parry D A; Watt F M (Dec 1997). "Periplakin, a novel component of cornified envelopes and ...

*Keratin

... production of keratin production of small proline-rich (SPRR) proteins and transglutaminase which eventually form a cornified ... cell envelope beneath the plasma membrane terminal differentiation loss of nuclei and organelles, in the final stages of ... During the process of epithelial differentiation, cells become cornified as keratin protein is incorporated into longer keratin ... "Proteins: Three-Dimensional Structure" (PDF). Fundamentals of Biochemistry. p. 158. Retrieved 2010-10-01. Fibrous proteins are ...

*SPRR2A

Small proline-rich protein 2A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SPRR2A gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... 2006). "Expression and Regulation of Cornified Envelope Proteins in Human Corneal Epithelium". Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47 ... "Entrez Gene: SPRR2A small proline-rich protein 2A". Gregory SG, Barlow KF, McLay KE, et al. (2006). "The DNA sequence and ... 2004). "Estrogen regulates the expression of the small proline-rich 2 gene family in the mouse uterus". Mol. Cells. 17 (3): 477 ...
Compare late cornified envelope 6A ELISA Kits from MyBioSource.com from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, and more.
The potential of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as nanosensors in detection of genes through a vibration analysis is investigated with molecular dynamics. The carbon nanotube based nanosensor under investigation is wrapped by a gene whose structure includes a single strand deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA) with a certain number of distinct nucleobases. Different genes are differentiated or detected by identifying a differentiable sensitivity index that is defined to be the shifts of the resonant frequency of the nanotube. Simulation results indicate that the nanosensor is able to differentiate distinct genes, i.e., small proline-rich protein 2 A, small proline-rich protein 2B, small proline-rich protein 2D, and small proline-rich protein 2E, with a recognizable sensitivity. The research provides a rapid, effective, and practical method for detection of genes.. ...
The KOMP Repository is located at the University of California Davis and Childrens Hospital Oakland Research Institute. Question? Comments? For Mice, Cells, and germplasm please contact us at [email protected], US 1-888-KOMP-MICE or International +1-530-752-KOMP, or for vectors [email protected] or +1-510-450-7917 ...
Complete information for SPRR4 gene (Protein Coding), Small Proline Rich Protein 4, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Complete information for SPRR2F gene (Protein Coding), Small Proline Rich Protein 2F, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
LCE1A, 0.4 ml. LCE1A belongs to the late cornified envelope (LCE) gene cluster within the epidermal differentiation complex (EDC) on chromosome 1.
Using a retinoic acid deficiency-induced squamous metaplasia model of HNECs, we observed a significant increase in the expression of PC5/6A, a PC member, and BMP-2, a candidate substrate for PC5/6A. Specific lentiviral shRNA-mediated PC5/6A knockdown decreased BMP-2 expression and maturation, decreased expression of squamous cell markers, and increased expression of ciliated cell markers. Dec-RVKR-CMK, a PC inhibitor, and LDN-193189, a BMP receptor inhibitor, suppressed squamous differentiation, promoted mucociliary differentiation, and down-regulated the BMP-2/Smad1/5/8/p38 signalling pathways. Dec-RVKR-CMK also decreased expression of PC5/6A, but not furin, another PC member, suggesting the involvement of PC5/6A in squamous differentiation of HNECs. Overexpression of PC5/6A and BMP-2 in the human nasal epithelial cell line RPMI-2650 demonstrated that PC5/6A can activate BMP-2. Under retinoic acid-sufficient culture conditions for mucociliary differentiation of HNECs, short-term expression of ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Here we demonstrate that TALE proteins have a key role in regulating regional epidermal barriers, at least partly through their differential regulation of LCE genes. Barrier qualities differ over the body surface, with the biggest measurable changes between internal epithelia that form the stratum corneum (e.g. tongue) and external skin (Marshall et al., 2000) (Fig. 1C). These differences probably permit the epithelia to respond appropriately to differences in aridity, microbial activity and requirement for flexibility in the different environments. However, these widely differing epithelia are derived from the same basal keratinocytes by region-specific differentiation programmes (Dhouailly et al., 2004). Based on work reported here, we propose that TALE proteins mediate these location-dependent barrier changes. In vitro, TALE proteins bind strongly to externally expressed LCE promoters but weakly to internally expressed LCE promoters. In vivo experiments confirm this result; we show that TALE ...
Freeze-substitution and Lowicryl HM20 embedding of fixed rat brain: suitability for immunogold ultrastructural localization of buy generic viagra neural antigens. The unique cellular enzymatic machinery of halophilic microbes allows them to thrive in extreme saline environments. Involucrin, a cornified envelope precursor, and the cross-linking enzyme transglutaminase, were increased at both the message level (2-7-fold) and the protein level (4-12-fold) by clofibric acid.. Deep cannulation of parent catheters was accomplished in all buy viagra three cases and complications such as vascular injury were not observed in the postprocedure angiograms. The experimental values used to determine this law were obtained for both parameters using only field measurements methods.. The 2008 CDC criteria did not predict outcomes, whereas VAE only identified very severe events. Immunohistochemical and serological characterization of membranous nephropathy in children and buy viagra online adolescents. Improving ...
A new arrangement of proteins and lipids of stratum corneum (SC) cornified envelope (CE) is proposed. The chemical analysis of CE revealed the presence of free fatty acids (FFA), ceramides (Cer), and important percentages of glutamic acid/glutamine (Glx) and serine (Ser) residues. The molecular structure of these components suggests the existence of covalent links not only between Cer and Glx but also between FFA and Ser. The protein distribution of extracellular surface of CE, i.e., the proteins that could be involved in the bonds with lipids, was studied using post- and preembedding immunolabeling electron microscopy. Some loricrin (protein rich in Ser) was detected in the outermost part of the CE protein layer. The external arrangement of some domains of this protein may give rise to form linkages with FFA, yielding further insight into the CE arrangement in which Cer-Glx bonds and FFA-Ser bonds would be involved. Although the importance of fatty acids in the cohesion and barrier function of ...
Squamous cell differentiation is a multistep process that requires the coordinated activation and repression of squamous cell-specific genes, and disruption of differentiation is an important characteristic of malignant tumors (30, 31). Human esophageal cancer exhibits a reduced degree of differentiation and defects in the terminal differentiation pathway (32, 33). A better understanding of the mechanisms regulating differentiation would offer the basis for identification of tumor biomarkers. Our previous study showed that S100A14 belongs to a subset of genes that are downregulated in esophageal cancers, and as one of many differentiation-associated genes, reduced S100A14 expression might contribute to esophageal carcinogenesis (17, 18). Furthermore, our study showed that S100A14 regulated cell proliferation and apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner via interaction with RAGE in ESCC (15). However, information is limited about the possible biologic significance of the altered expression of S100A14 ...
Irreversible growth arrest is an early and integral part of squamous cell differentiation in normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs) and is assumed to be linked to the control of expression of differentiation-specific genes. In this study, we examine the link between the molecular events associated with growth arrest and the expression of differentiation genes. NHEKs that have been induced to undergo growth arrest and differentiation by suspension culture contain populations in both G1 and G2/M of the cell cycle. The irreversible growth arrest state in NHEKs is characterized by an accumulation of the hypophosphorylated forms of Rb and p130, with subsequent down-regulation of levels of Rb, up-regulation of p130 and associated down-regulation of E2F-regulated genes such as cyclin A. These events correlate with an inhibition of G1 cdk activity, mediated in part by an increase in the cdk inhibitors p21(WAF1/Cip1), p27(Kip1) and p16(Ink4a). Flow cytometric and immunoblot analysis demonstrated ...
protein solubility in TCA - posted in Protein and Proteomics: Hi I am working with salivary proteins and I saw, several times, protocols in which the proline rich proteins are isolated by mixing the saliva sample with an equal volume of TCA 10%. I do not understand the basis for that. Can someone explain me why this type of proteins are soluble in TCA? What makes them different from the other proteins? Thank you ecsl
Zinc is an essential metal for all eukaryotes (ZIP) superfamily of metal ion transporters the human gene within chromosomal band 1q21 within the mouse EDC [epidermal differentiation complex], on mouse chromosome 3 similar to the demonstrated functions of human ZIP1 and ZIP2, zip1 mRNA is abundant in many mouse tissues whereas zip2 and zip3 mRNAs are very rare or moderately rare Slc39a1 pseudogene member 1. The gene encoding SLC41A1 is found on chromosome 1 (1q31-32) and the protein coding sequence and may serve as a "gatekeeper" for apart from X inactivation or X recessive putative transmembrane responsible for this Slc39a observation is found on 10 exons (NCBI Gene 194642...to PMID: 11438993) homologous to the integral membrane part of the bacterial MgtE protein family and of a wide range of conditions, includes two distinct domains and R and S allele frequency disequilibrium. According to function locus 1p21-p13.3 translocation encoded by the MK3 gene (OMIM 176263) encoding 3 human cDNA ...
involucrin: soluble precursor protein of cross-linked envelope characteristic of epidermal s. corneum synthesized by keratinocytes in natural & cultured human epithelia; see also related records for prekeratin & stratum corneum basic protein precursor
Fast delivery of LCE1F knockout Human Cell Lines for the study of gene function. Created by CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing. Includes matched wildtype control.
Fast delivery of LCE1A knockout Human Cell Lines for the study of gene function. Created by CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing. Includes matched wildtype control.
Pill with imprint LCE 200 is Red, Elliptical / Oval and has been identified as Stalevo 200 50 mg / 200 mg / 200 mg. It is supplied by Novartis Pharmaceuticals.
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Marenholz I, Bauerfeind A, Esparza-Gordillo J, Kerscher T, Granell R, Nickel R, Lau S, Henderson J, and Lee YA. The eczema risk variant on chromosome 11q13 (rs7927894) in the population-based ALSPAC cohort: a novel susceptibility factor for asthma and hay fever. Hum Mol Genet 2011: 20, 2443-2449.. Marenholz I, Rivera VA, Esparza-Gordillo J, Bauerfeind A, Lee-Kirsch MA, Ciechanowicz A, Kurek M, Piskackova T, Macek M, and Lee YA. Association screening in the Epidermal Differentiation Complex (EDC) identifies an SPRR3 repeat number variant as a risk factor for eczema. J Invest Dermatol 2011: 131, 1644-1649.. Moffatt MF, Gut IG, Demenais F, Strachan DP, Bouzigon E, Heath S, von Mutius E, Farrall M, Lathrop M, Cookson WO, and GABRIEL consortium. A large-scale, consortium-based genomewide association study of asthma. N Engl J Med 2010: 363, 1211-1221.. Esparza-Gordillo J, Marenholz I, and Lee YA. Genome-wide approaches to the etiology of eczema. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2010: 10, ...
Published on 1/1/2014. Mardaryev AN, Gdula MR, Yarker JL, Emelianov VU, Emelianov VN, Poterlowicz K, Sharov AA, Sharova TY, Scarpa JA, Joffe B, Solovei I, Chambon P, Botchkarev VA, Fessing MY. p63 and Brg1 control developmentally regulated higher-order chromatin remodelling at the epidermal differentiation complex locus in epidermal progenitor cells. Development. 2014 Jan; 141(1):101-11. PMID: 24346698.. Read at: PubMed ...
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Essential for normal cell-cell adhesion in the cornified cell layers (PubMed:29758285). Important for proper integrity and mechanical strength of the stratum corneum of the epidermis (PubMed:29505760).
Involucrin (Squamous Cell Terminal Differentiation Marker) Antibody - Without BSA and Azide, Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [Clone SY5 ] validated in IHC-P, IF, FC (AH10541-100), Abgent
The dental pellicle, or acquired pellicle, is a protein film that forms on the surface enamel by selective binding of glycoproteins from saliva that prevents continuous deposition of salivary calcium phosphate. It forms in seconds after a tooth is cleaned or after chewing. It protects the tooth from the acids produced by oral microorganisms after consuming carbohydrates. Plaque is a biofilm composed of several different kinds of bacteria and their products that develop over the enamel on a layer known as pellicle. The process of plaque formation takes several days to weeks and will cause the surrounding environment to become acidic if not removed. The surface of enamel attracts salivary glycoproteins and bacterial products creating the pellicle layer. This thin layer forms on the surface of the enamel within minutes of its exposure. These glycoproteins include proline rich proteins that allow bacterial adhesion. The first bacteria to attach to these pellicle glycoproteins are gram positive ...
Po obdržení celního razítka je nutné zaslat, v předplacené obálce, orazítkovaný formulář společně s účtenkami zpět do Global Blue. K tomu slouží Global Blue Mailbox, který najdete na letišti u výplatního místa. V případě nedoručení orazítkovaného formuláře do 21 dní, je turistovi z kreditní karty stržena refundační částka společně s poplatkem 15 % (z refundované částky).. * Po dobu jednoho týdne bude turistovi blokována částka 1 € z důvodu ověření platnosti ...
1. Sharova TY, Poterlowicz K, Botchkareva NV, Kondratiev NA, Aziz A, Spiegel JH, Botchkarev VA, Sharov AA. Complex changes in the apoptotic and cell differentiation programs during initiation of the hair follicle response to chemotherapy. J Invest Dermatol, 2014 (accepted for publication).. 2. Lewis CJ, Mardaryev AN, Poterlowicz K, Sharova TY, Aziz A, Sharpe DT, Botchkareva NV, Sharov AA. Bone morphogenetic protein signaling suppresses wound-induced skin repair by inhibiting keratinocyte proliferation and migration. J Invest Dermatol, 2014 134:827-37. PMID: 24126843; PMCID: PMC3945401. 3. Mardaryev AN, Gdula MR, Yarker JL, Emelianov VN, Poterlowicz K, Sharov AA, Sharova TY, Scarpa JA, Chambon P, Botchkarev VA, Fessing MY. p63 and Brg1 control developmentally regulated higher-order chromatin remodelling at the epidermal differentiation complex locus in epidermal progenitor cells. Development, 2014; 141:101-11 PMID: 24346698.. 4. Gdula MR, Poterlowicz K, Mardaryev AN, Sharov AA, Peng Y, Fessing ...
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PRR7 - PRR7 (untagged)-Human proline rich 7 (synaptic) (PRR7) transcript variant 2 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Protor 1 antibody (proline rich 5 (renal)) for IHC-P, WB. Anti-Protor 1 pAb (GTX124179) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
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Německo vynalezlo socialismus. Karel Marx a Bedřich Engels byli Němci. Sociálně demokratické hnutí, které zformovalo moderní evropský sociální stát, také pochází z Německa. Přestože pro zemi její opětovné začlenění do světové obchodní soustavy po druhé světové válce znamenalo obrovský přínos, Německo se nikdy skutečně nevyrovnalo s anglosaským kapitalismem, který stále obklopuje hluboká skepse. Dnes, když už německé hospodářství nefunguje hladce, kapitál se přesouvá za hranice a nezaměstnanost roste, získává kritika kapitalismu opět na síle. Veřejnost je rozezlena platy vrcholných manažerů a skutečností, že velké německé společnosti propouštějí navzdory zaznamenaným ziskům. Vláda zareagovala naléháním na manažery, aby zveřejnili své příjmy, a zrušením zákonů vymezujících bankovní tajemství, jež kdysi bývaly nedotknutelné. Tato nová kritika kapitalismu nedávno vyvrcholila sérií útoků lídra ...
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There are various factors that alter physiological characteristics in skin. Elucidating the underlying mechanism of transcriptional alterations by intrinsic and extrinsic factors may lead us to understand the aging process of skin. To identify the transcriptomic changes of the aging skin, we analyzed publicly available RNA sequencing data from Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project. GTEx provided RNA sequencing data of suprapubic (n=228) and lower leg (n=349) skins, which are photo-protected and photo-damaged. Using differentially expressed gene analysis and weighted gene co-expression network analysis, we characterized transcriptomic changes due to UV exposure and aging. Genes involved in skin development such as epidermal differentiation complex component (SPRR and LCE families), vasculature development (TGFBR1, TGFBR2, TGFBR3, KDR, FGF2, and VEGFC), and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP2, MMP3, MMP8, MMP10, and MMP13) were up
Atopic dermatitis, commonly known as eczema, is a common chronic, relapsing skin disease characterized by pruritus, disrupted epidermal barrier function, and immunoglobulin E-mediated sensitization to food and environmental allergens. Atopic dermatitis is a complex disease that arises from interactions between genes and the environment. Loci on several chromosomes have been identified, including a family of epithelium-related genes called the epidermal differentiation complex on chromosome 1q21. Mutations in filaggrin, a key protein in epidermal differentiation, have also been identified in early-onset and severe atopic dermatitis. There are 3 classical stages of eczema: infantile, childhood, and adulthood. The spectrum of eczema presentation varies widely from a variant that only affect the hand to major forms where a patient presents with erythroderma. The acute and subacute lesions of atopic dermatitis are often characterized by intensely pruritic, erythematous papules and vesicles with ...
Human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma exhibits a reduced degree of differentiation, as evidenced by the decreased capacity to form cross-linked envelopes, thus suggesting that these tumor cells frequently display a defect in the terminal differentiation pathway (3) . Involucrin is a major component of the cornified envelope and is considered to be an appropriate marker for terminal differentiation. The results described above demonstrate that adenovirus-mediated transfer of the p21sdi1 gene up-regulates involucrin protein expression and induces terminal differentiation in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells, thereby leading to sequential apoptotic cell death.. Adenovirus-mediated gene transfer is a highly efficient gene delivery system. We used a recombinant adenovirus to overexpress p21sdi1 in normal and neoplastic squamous cells. Preliminary titration studies showed that transient transgene expression in most populations of infected cells can be expected at an MOI of 100. In ...
Briefly, eyes and lids from mice in each group (n = 3 per group) were surgically excised and embedded in OCT compound (VWR, Swannee, GA) and flash frozen in liquid nitrogen. Sagittal 8-μm sections were cut with a cryostat (HM 500; Micron, Waldorf, Germany) and placed on glass slides that were stored at −80°C. They were fixed with either cold acetone (involucrin, Sprr-2, and Tg-1) at −20°C for 5 minutes or with methanol (Sprr-1a, and Muc5AC+Sprr-1a) at 4°C for 5 minutes and then permeabilized with PBS containing 0.1% Triton X-100 for 10 minutes. After blocking with 20% normal goat serum in PBS for 60 minutes (except for involucrin and Muc5AC where 20% horse normal serum was used), primary polyclonal antibodies (dilution 1:100 for all of them, except for involucrin, which was 1:20) were applied, and the sections were incubated for 1 hour at RT. When dual labeling was intended, Alexa-Fluor 488-conjugated goat anti-rabbit IgG and Alexa-Fluor 633-conjugated donkey anti-goat IgG (1:300) ...
mám v plánu dietu (něco jako kdybych šel na prkna s tím, že nejspíš nepůjdu), prostě pořádně to sesekat, ať konečně vypadám jako sportující člověk. Mám dotaz ohledně před a potréninkového napoje. Bohužel nemám prachy na to, abych si koupil amina + bcaa + protein/hydro, proto se ptám jestli si vystačím jen s hydrem (alespoň v prní půlce diety, kdy jsou S konstantní, vyhodí se kraviny z jídelníčku a přidá se pohyb) a jestli mám vzít jen hydro nebo např. Ultra Speed 80 Fair Power ®, co je podle Vás lepší ...
Involucrin兔多克隆抗体(ab53112)可与小鼠, 人样本反应并经WB, ELISA, IHC, ICC/IF实验严格验证,被3篇文献引用并得到3个独立的用户反馈。
Gene target information for PRRT3 - proline rich transmembrane protein 3 (human). Find diseases associated with this biological target and compounds tested against it in bioassay experiments.
Definition of salivary proline-rich proteins in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of salivary proline-rich proteins. What does salivary proline-rich proteins mean? Information and translations of salivary proline-rich proteins in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
Electron Microscopy reveals absent or abnormal lamellar granules within the granular layer keratinocytes. Lamellae are absent in the intercellular spaces between the granular cell layer and the cornified cell layer. Densely packed lipid droplets and vacuoles are seen within the cytoplasm of the aberrantly cornified cells of the stratum corneum. These lipid inclusions involve the entire skin surface but are more evident on the palms and the soles. Keratohyalin granules may be absent, normal, or abnormally small and globular. Keratin intermediate filaments within granular cells may have reduced density ...
For Research Use Only. Not for diagnostic use. Refer to appropriate regulations. RNAscope is a registered trademark; and HybEZ, EZ-Batch and DNAscope are trademarks of Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Inc. in the United States and other countries. All rights reserved. ©2016 Advanced Cell Diagnostics, Inc.. ...
Obsahem této práce je studium chirální separace enantiomerů omeprazolu. Pět různých monosubstituovaných derivátů α- a β-cyklodextrínů, z toho dva kationické a tři anionické, bylo použito jako chirální selektory v různých pufrech o různých pH. Byly studovány vlivy koncentrace CD a koncentrace pufru na chirální separaci. Všechna měření byla prováděna při napětí 25 kV s UV detekcí v rozmezí vlnových délek 202 - 303 nm a konstantní teplotě 20 řC. Koncentrace CD byla v rozmezí 0 - 7 mmol.l-1 . Jako separační byla využita křemenná kapilára o vnitřním průměru 50 µm, vnějším průměru 375 µm, celkové délce 48,5 cm a efektivní délce 40 cm. Koncentrace omeprazolu použitá při separacích byla 0,1 mmol.l-1 . Jako organické rozpouštědlo zásobního roztoku omeprazolu byl použit dimethylformamid, který sloužil zároveň jako indikátor EOF. Chirální separace omeprazolu proběhla úspěšně v 2-O- karboxymethyl-β-Cyklodextrínu ...
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The binding of the STAR protein GLD-1 to an element SEP53 gene appears to have been subject to adaptive evolution of a type that is commonly (though not exclusively) associated with coevolutionary arms races. Given the role of transglutaminase-3 (78 kDa) and a recently cloned oesophageal-specific gene [epithelium of the cervix, esophagus, foreskin and larynx], the protein calcium elevation neutralizes the protective effects of SEP53 protein Cornulins [NCBI Gene 49860] responses or barely detectable responses of the cornified cell envelope, have evolved in part as a mechanism to protect cells from the toxic effects of environmental damaging agents, the structure-function relationship of the chaperonin complex molecular biology and biochemistry of life in extreme environments. These findings boosted research in other areas beyond the archaea persistent calcium current and without the loss of vibratory and propriocetion and most C1orf10 afferents found in all eurokytes contain guide RNAs and ...
As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
A family of proline-rich proteins that constitute the majority of the protein component of SALIVA. Salivary proline-rich proteins occur as acidic, basic and glycosylated basic proteins. They perform a variety of functions such as adhering to the acquired ENAMEL PELLICLE, acting as lubricants and precipitating TANNINS ...
View Notes - Study_Guide_for_Lab_Competency_ExamF06Fi from BS 111 at Michigan State University. Study Guide for Lab Competency Exam Lab Competency Exam (LCE) Dec 4 -7 (during your scheduled lab
Diestrous Phase. Stringy mucous, white blood cells (not many in this photo), nucleated epithelial cells. Proestrous. Mostly nucleated epithelial cells. Early Estrous. Relatively even distribution of nucleated epithelial cells and cornified epithelial cells. Estrous. Slideshow 160179 by...
ESMO is a Swiss-registered not-for-profit organisation. All funding for this site is provided directly by ESMO or via grants from the sponsors and supporters.. Via L. Taddei 4, 6962 Viganello - Lugano - CH © Copyright 2017 European Society for Medical Oncology All rights reserved worldwide.. ...
Nalijme si ist ho v na! S takov m heslem jde do eurovoleb Strana venkova - spojen ob ansk s ly. Nen divu: jej m l drem je f Vinohradsk a vina sk unie Ji Sedlo. Jsme jedinou stranou v t to zemi, kter se stav za na e zem d lce, venkov jako celek, zd raz uje.
A hemorragia intracerebral (HIC) é uma das principais causas de mortalidade em todo mundo, desencadeando eventos adversos e déficits neurológicos graves. A partir disso, essa tese teve como objetivo avaliar as respostas celulares e suas interações envolvidas na HIC e investigar os possíveis mecanismos que contribuem para os déficits sensório-motores relacionados, principalmente, à habilidade dos membros anteriores dos animais. Para isso foram realizados dois experimentos. Em ambos os animais de 90 dias foram submetidos à HIC induzida por colagenase no estriado dorsolateral. No primeiro experimento, após 24h, 72h e 7 dias os animais foram avaliados funcionalmente, e histologicamente quanto ao volume da lesão. Ainda, durante 6h, 24h, 72h e 7 dias, o estriado e o córtex foram avaliados quanto ao número de células neuronais, gliais, e em apoptose; a expressão de GFAP e S100B, no estriado e no córtex, a secreção de S100B, no soro e líquido cérebro-espinhal (LCE). A HIC provocou ...
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Late cornified envelope-like proline-rich protein 1 (IPR026076) | InterPro | EMBL-EBILate cornified envelope-like proline-rich protein 1 (IPR026076) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI

We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ... Small proline-rich protein/late cornified envelope protein (IPR026075) *Late cornified envelope-like proline-rich protein 1 ( ... Late cornified envelope-like proline-rich protein 1 (IPR026076). Short name: Lelp1 ...
more infohttp://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/entry/IPR026076

Proteome-wide changes in primary skin keratinocytes exposed to diesel particulate extract-A role for antioxidants in skin...Proteome-wide changes in primary skin keratinocytes exposed to diesel particulate extract-A role for antioxidants in skin...

Cornified Envelope Proline-Rich Proteins * Oxidative Phosphorylation * Oxidative Stress * Proteins * Environmental Pollution ... Mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics led to identification 4490 proteins of which 201 and 374 proteins were ... Mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics led to identification 4490 proteins of which 201 and 374 proteins were ... Mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics led to identification 4490 proteins of which 201 and 374 proteins were ...
more infohttps://mayoclinic.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/proteome-wide-changes-in-primary-skin-keratinocytes-exposed-to-di

Loricrin - WikipediaLoricrin - Wikipedia

1999). "Transglutaminase cross-linking properties of the small proline-rich 1 family of cornified cell envelope proteins. ... 2000). "Small proline-rich protein 1 is the major component of the cell envelope of normal human oral keratinocytes". FEBS Lett ... Loricrin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LOR gene. Loricrin is a major protein component of the cornified cell ... 2001). "Transglutaminase 5 cross-links loricrin, involucrin, and small proline-rich proteins in vitro". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (37 ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Loricrin

SPRR1A - WikipediaSPRR1A - Wikipedia

... small proline-rich proteins, plasminogen activator inhibitor-2, and involucrin are components of the cornified envelope of ... "Transglutaminase cross-linking properties of the small proline-rich 1 family of cornified cell envelope proteins. Integration ... "Small proline-rich protein 1 is the major component of the cell envelope of normal human oral keratinocytes". FEBS Letters. 477 ... "Structural organization and regulation of the small proline-rich family of cornified envelope precursors suggest a role in ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SPRR1A

SPRR2F Gene - GeneCards | SPR2F Protein | SPR2F AntibodySPRR2F Gene - GeneCards | SPR2F Protein | SPR2F Antibody

Protein Coding), Small Proline Rich Protein 2F, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. ... small proline rich protein 2F,precursor of cornified cell envelope,cornifin,clustered in the epidermal differentiation complex ... Protein Symbol:. Q96RM1-SPR2F_HUMAN. Recommended name:. Small proline-rich protein 2F Protein Accession:. Q96RM1. Secondary ... Structural organization and regulation of the small proline-rich family of cornified envelope precursors suggest a role in ...
more infohttp://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=SPRR2F

Mouse Sprr2 genes: a clustered family of genes showing differential expression in epithelial tissues.  - PubMed - NCBIMouse Sprr2 genes: a clustered family of genes showing differential expression in epithelial tissues. - PubMed - NCBI

Small proline-rich (SPR) proteins are structural components of the cornified cell envelope of stratified squamous epithelia. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9888996?dopt=Abstract

SPRR4 Gene - GeneCards | SPRR4 Protein | SPRR4 AntibodySPRR4 Gene - GeneCards | SPRR4 Protein | SPRR4 Antibody

Protein Coding), Small Proline Rich Protein 4, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. ... Structural organization and regulation of the small proline-rich family of cornified envelope precursors suggest a role in ... Protein Symbol:. Q96PI1-SPRR4_HUMAN. Recommended name:. Small proline-rich protein 4 Protein Accession:. Q96PI1. Secondary ... a novel cornified envelope precursor: UV-dependent epidermal expression and selective incorporation into fragile envelopes. ( ...
more infohttp://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=SPRR4

Deletion of the late cornified envelope LCE3B and LCE3C genes as a susceptibility factor for psoriasis.  - PubMed - NCBIDeletion of the late cornified envelope LCE3B and LCE3C genes as a susceptibility factor for psoriasis. - PubMed - NCBI

Cornified Envelope Proline-Rich Proteins. *HLA-C Antigens. *HLA-C*06 antigen ... Deletion of the late cornified envelope LCE3B and LCE3C genes as a susceptibility factor for psoriasis.. de Cid R1, Riveira- ... Deletion of the late cornified envelope (LCE) 3B and 3C genes as a susceptibility factor for psoriasis ... Deletion of the late cornified envelope (LCE) 3B and 3C genes as a susceptibility factor for psoriasis ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19169253

TALE homeodomain proteins regulate site-specific terminal differentiation, LCE genes and epidermal barrier | Journal of Cell...TALE homeodomain proteins regulate site-specific terminal differentiation, LCE genes and epidermal barrier | Journal of Cell...

... keratinocytes proline-rich protein; KRT5, keratin-5; LCE, late cornified envelope; LOR, loricrin; SPRR, small proline-rich, ... Late cornified envelope (LCE) proteins are small proline-rich proteins that form part of skin stratum corneum (Brown et al., ... 2001). Structural organization and regulation of the small proline-rich family of cornified envelope precursors suggest a role ... These proteins form part of the matrix and envelope of cornified cells, and immunoreactivity to filaggrin persists in the ...
more infohttp://jcs.biologists.org/content/124/10/1681

Filaggrin - definition of filaggrin by The Free DictionaryFilaggrin - definition of filaggrin by The Free Dictionary

... the main protein of the keratohyalin granules; the specific target of the immune response in rheumatoid... ... n a protein found in skin cells Noun 1. filaggrin - ... and small proline-rich proteins.. Effects of in utero exposure ... highly cross-linked by transglutaminases with cornified envelope proteins such as loricrin, involucrin, filaggrin, ... Human chondrocyte glycoprotein 39 Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein Non-autoantigens Bacterial heat shock protein. Biomarkers ...
more infohttp://www.thefreedictionary.com/filaggrin

Expression of SPRR3 is associated with tumor cell proliferation in less advanced stages of breast cancer | SpringerLinkExpression of SPRR3 is associated with tumor cell proliferation in less advanced stages of breast cancer | SpringerLink

... a member of the SPRR family of cornified envelope precursor proteins, is a marker for terminal squamous cell differentiation. ... Small proline rich repeat protein 3 (SPRR3), a member of the SPRR family of cornified envelope precursor proteins, is a marker ... De Heller-Milev M, Huber M, Panizzon R, Hohl D (2000) Expression of small proline rich proteins in neoplastic and inflammatory ... Tesfaigzi J, Thng J, Hotchkiss JA, Harkema JR, Wright PS (1996) A small proline-rich protein, SPRR1, is upregulated early ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10549-011-1868-5

SPRR1B - ويكيبيديا، الموسوعة الحرةSPRR1B - ويكيبيديا، الموسوعة الحرة

... small proline-rich proteins, plasminogen activator inhibitor-2, and involucrin are components of the cornified envelope of ... 2000). "Small proline-rich protein 1 is the major component of the cell envelope of normal human oral keratinocytes.". FEBS ... 1995). "The pancornulins: a group of small proline rich-related cornified envelope precursors with bifunctional capabilities in ... SPRR1B‏ (Small proline rich protein 1B) هوَ بروتين يُشَفر بواسطة جين SPRR1B في الإنسان.[1][2][3] ...
more infohttps://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/SPRR1B

Characterization of the global profile of genes expressed in cervical epithelium by Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) |...Characterization of the global profile of genes expressed in cervical epithelium by Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) |...

... cornified envelope precursor proteins (involucrin, loricrin, and the small proline-rich proteins [SPRRs]); intermediate ... Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 5. IGF-binding proteins prolong the half-life of the IGFs and have been shown to ... filament-associated proteins (profilaggrin and trichohyalin), and calcium binding proteins (the S100As) [reviewed in [35]]. ...
more infohttps://bmcgenomics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2164-6-130

Recombinant Human LCE1B 293 Cell Lysate LCE1B-4808HCL - Creative BioMartRecombinant Human LCE1B 293 Cell Lysate LCE1B-4808HCL - Creative BioMart

LEP2; SPRL2A; late cornified envelope protein 1B; late envelope protein 2; small proline rich-like (epidermal differentiation ... Antigen standard for late cornified envelope 1B (LCE1B) is a lysate prepared from HEK293T cells transiently transfected with a ... Protein concentration was determined using a colorimetric assay. The antigen control carries a C-terminal Myc/DDK tag for ... Protein Labeling (optional):. -Selection-. Biotin. Fluorophores. Others. Note: There will be extra charge for optional service! ...
more infohttps://www.creativebiomart.net/description_406474_318.htm

Abnormal skin barrier in the etiopathogenesis of atopic dermatitis | SpringerLinkAbnormal skin barrier in the etiopathogenesis of atopic dermatitis | SpringerLink

... and small proline-rich proteins 1 and 2 are isodipeptide cross-linked components of the human epidermal cornified cell envelope ... A histidine-rich, keratin filament-aggregating protein. Biochim Biophys Acta 1983, 744:28-35.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Scott IR, Harding CR, Barrett JG: Histidine-rich protein of the keratohyalin granules. Source of the free amino acids, urocanic ... Harding CR, Scott IR: Histidine-rich proteins (filaggrins): structural and functional heterogeneity during epidermal ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11882-009-0037-y

Epithelial Cells: Immunological AspectsEpithelial Cells: Immunological Aspects

... and the small prolinerich proteins result in a tough, insoluble sac called the cornified envelope surrounding the keratin ... cornified envelope precursors, S100 proteins and the fused genes family. Experimental Dermatology 21 (9): 643-649. ... Candi E, Schmidt R and Melino G (2005) The cornified envelope: a model of cell death in the skin. Nature Reviews. Molecular and ... Miajlovic H, Fallon PG, Irvine AD and Foster TJ (2010) Effect of filaggrin breakdown products on growth of and protein ...
more infohttp://www.els.net/WileyCDA/ElsArticle/refId-a0001127.html

Abstract: Desiccating stress and mucin deficiency - The Dry Eye ZoneAbstract: Desiccating stress and mucin deficiency - The Dry Eye Zone

Real time PCR evaluated the expression of cornified envelope (CE) precursor proteins (involucrin, small proline-rich [Sprr] ... Exposure to desiccating stress stimulates ocular surface epithelia to produce of cornified envelope precursors and the tissue ... This is accompanied by loss of mucin-filled goblet cells and entrapment of mucin contents in remaining ones by cornifying cells ... the effects of desiccating stress on conjunctival goblet cell density and morphology and expression of cornified envelope ...
more infohttps://www.dryeyezone.com/dryeyeblog/2011/04/abstract-desiccating-stress-and-mucin.html

JCI -
FOXM1 drives proximal tubule proliferation during repair from acute ischemic kidney injuryJCI - FOXM1 drives proximal tubule proliferation during repair from acute ischemic kidney injury

Study of small proline-rich proteins (SPRRs) in health and disease: a review of the literature. Arch Dermatol Res. 2013;305(10 ... of proteins are induced during keratinocyte differentiation and provide structural integrity to the cornified cell envelope of ... This included the small proline-rich (Sprr) genes, such as Sprr2f. This family ... which showed absence of the FOXM1 protein and absence of the phospho-EGFR protein, confirming that the EGFR inhibition was in ...
more infohttps://jci.org/articles/view/125519

The genomics of desmoplastic small round cell tumor reveals the deregulation of genes related to DNA damage response,...The genomics of desmoplastic small round cell tumor reveals the deregulation of genes related to DNA damage response,...

Half of these genes encoded RNA-binding proteins or DNA/RNA-binding proteins, which were recently recognized as a new class of ... poorly investigated simple sarcoma with a low frequency of genetic deregulation other than an Ewing sarcoma RNA binding protein ... keratin-associated protein; LCE, late cornified envelope; SPRR, small proline-rich protein; CRCT1, cysteine-rich C-terminal 1; ... late cornified envelope (LCE, 18 genes) gene family, small proline-rich protein family (SPRR, 11 genes), and cysteine rich C- ...
more infohttps://cancercommun.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40880-018-0339-3

Plus itPlus it

Sprr2h, a member of the small proline rich (Sprr) protein family, is required to create an epidermal cornified cell envelope in ... and small proline-rich proteins 1 and 2 are isodipeptide cross-linked components of the human epidermal cornified cell envelope ... small proline-rich proteins, plasminogen activator inhibitor-2, and involucrin are components of the cornified envelope of ... The expression of epithelial keratinization marker genes, small proline-rich protein 2h (Sprr2h) and transglutaminase 1 (Tgm1 ...
more infohttp://ajpcell.physiology.org/content/308/1/C79

Frontiers | Transglutaminases in Dysbiosis As Potential Environmental Drivers of Autoimmunity | MicrobiologyFrontiers | Transglutaminases in Dysbiosis As Potential Environmental Drivers of Autoimmunity | Microbiology

They catalyze the formation of an isopeptide bond between the acyl group at the end of the side chain of protein- or peptide- ... They catalyze the formation of an isopeptide bond between the acyl group at the end of the side chain of protein- or peptide- ... The transglutaminases are considered to be universal protein cross-linkers, and they play an essential role in a number of ... The transglutaminases are considered to be universal protein cross-linkers, and they play an essential role in a number of ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2017.00066/full

5-Lipoxygenase-Activating Proteins | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard Catalyst5-Lipoxygenase-Activating Proteins | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard Catalyst

Cornified Envelope Proline-Rich Proteins. *Dystrophin. *Dystrophin-Associated Proteins. *Electron Transport Chain Complex ... "5-Lipoxygenase-Activating Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ... Scaffolding proteins that play an important role in the localization and activation of 5-LIPOXYGENASE. ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "5-Lipoxygenase-Activating Proteins" by people in Harvard ...
more infohttps://connects.catalyst.harvard.edu/Profiles/display/Concept/5-Lipoxygenase-Activating%20Proteins

Membrane Fusion Proteins | Profiles RNSMembrane Fusion Proteins | Profiles RNS

Cornified Envelope Proline-Rich Proteins. *Dystrophin. *Dystrophin-Associated Proteins. *Electron Transport Chain Complex ... "Membrane Fusion Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Membrane Fusion Proteins" by people in this website by year, ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Membrane Fusion Proteins" by people in Profiles. ...
more infohttps://profiles.umassmed.edu/display/112348

Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy  on KeratinHitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy on Keratin

production of small proline-rich (SPRR) proteins and transglutaminase which eventually form a cornified cell envelope beneath ... Keratin filaments are abundant in keratinocytes in the cornified layer of the epidermis; these are proteins which have ... "Proteins: Three-Dimensional Structure" (PDF). Fundamentals of Biochemistry. p. 158. Retrieved 2010-10-01. Fibrous proteins are ... During the process of epithelial differentiation, cells become cornified as keratin protein is incorporated into longer keratin ...
more infohttp://hitchhikersgui.de/Keratin

Patterns of host gene expression associated with harboring a foregut microbial community | BMC Genomics | Full TextPatterns of host gene expression associated with harboring a foregut microbial community | BMC Genomics | Full Text

... the Late Cornified Envelope Group 3 genes (Lce3 symbols), and the Cornifins, also known as small proline-rich region proteins ( ... especially a homolog of small proline-rich proteins (Sprr) and a trichohyalin-like gene [7]. Interestingly, the Sprr genes are ... In mammals, genes involved in the synthesis of the insoluble cornified envelope (CE) epithelial layer are found in a large gene ... genes associated with the cornified envelope [38,39,40]. Together, these results suggest the molecular basis of this ...
more infohttps://bmcgenomics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12864-017-4101-z
  • SPRR1B ‏ ( Small proline rich protein 1B ) هوَ بروتين يُشَفر بواسطة جين SPRR1B في الإنسان . (wikipedia.org)
  • Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a rare, aggressive, and poorly investigated simple sarcoma with a low frequency of genetic deregulation other than an Ewing sarcoma RNA binding protein 1 ( EWSR1 )-Wilm's tumor suppressor ( WT1 ) translocation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Protein-glutamine γ-glutamyltransferases (transglutaminases, Tgs) belong to the class of transferases. (frontiersin.org)
  • Transglutaminases (EC 2.3.2.13) (Tg), i.e., protein-glutamine γ-glutamyltransferases, belong to the class of transferases. (frontiersin.org)
  • Boil the mixture for 10 min before loading (for membrane protein lysates, incubate the mixture at room temperature for 30 min). (creativebiomart.net)
  • Keratin ( / ˈ k ɛr ə t ɪ n / ) is one of a family of fibrous structural proteins . (hitchhikersgui.de)
  • Furthermore, TG3 in hair follicles is involved in cross-linking structural proteins such as trichohyalin and keratin intermediate to hardening the inner root sheath. (qedbio.com)
  • This is accompanied by loss of mucin-filled goblet cells and entrapment of mucin contents in remaining ones by cornifying cells that block egress of mucin contents to the ocular surface. (dryeyezone.com)
  • They catalyze the formation of an isopeptide bond between the acyl group at the end of the side chain of protein- or peptide-bound glutamine residues and the first order 𝜀-amine groups of protein- or peptide-bound lysine. (frontiersin.org)
  • They catalyze inter-protein bond formation by forming a thiolester acyl-enzyme intermediate and subsequently transferring the acyl residue to a primary amine (Folk & Finlayson 1977, Folk 1980). (reactome.org)
  • The amine acceptor is generally provided by the epsilon-amino group of a protein-bound lysine and the link formed is an N6-(gamma-glutamyl)lysine isopeptide bond. (reactome.org)
  • He recently has focused on a specific skin-barrier protein called filaggrin , which is broken down into a molecule called urocanic acid the most potent absorber of UVB light in the skin, according to Elias. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • They contain keratin filaments, filaggrin (protein surrounding keratin filaments) and the natural moisturizing factor (NMF), elements that confer flexibility and mechanical resilience to the SC. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In addition, treatment with an antioxidant like vitamin E partially restores expression of proteins altered upon exposure to DPE/DPE vapor. (elsevier.com)
  • By analysis of the primary structures of these keratins and other intermediate filament proteins, Hanukoglu and Fuchs suggested a model that keratins and intermediate filament proteins contain a central ~310 residue domain with four segments in α-helical conformation that are separated by three short linker segments predicted to be in beta-turn conformation. (hitchhikersgui.de)
  • 5-Lipoxygenase-Activating Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • Membrane Fusion Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (umassmed.edu)
  • Both deamidation and transamidation reactions are the hallmark of post-translational modification of proteins (PTMP) performed by Tgs. (frontiersin.org)
  • The Tgs are considered to be universal protein cross-linkers, and they play an essential role in a number of human diseases. (frontiersin.org)