A family of low molcular-weight proteins that contain PROLINE-RICH PROTEIN DOMAINS. Members of this family play a role in the formation of an insoluble cornified envelope beneath the plasma membrane of stratified squamous epithelial cells.
A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.
A family of related proteins that associate with cytoskeletal elements and junctional complexes at INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS. Plakins share a common plakin domain or a plakin repeat domain.
The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).
Transglutaminases catalyze cross-linking of proteins at a GLUTAMINE in one chain with LYSINE in another chain. They include keratinocyte transglutaminase (TGM1 or TGK), tissue transglutaminase (TGM2 or TGC), plasma transglutaminase involved with coagulation (FACTOR XIII and FACTOR XIIIa), hair follicle transglutaminase, and prostate transglutaminase. Although structures differ, they share an active site (YGQCW) and strict CALCIUM dependence.
Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.
Protein domains that are enriched in PROLINE. The cyclical nature of proline causes the peptide bonds it forms to have a limited degree of conformational mobility. Therefore the presence of multiple prolines in close proximity to each other can convey a distinct conformational arrangement to a peptide chain.
Keratins that form into a beta-pleated sheet structure. They are principle constituents of the corneous material of the carapace and plastron of turtles, the epidermis of snakes and the feathers of birds.
Filaments 7-11 nm in diameter found in the cytoplasm of all cells. Many specific proteins belong to this group, e.g., desmin, vimentin, prekeratin, decamin, skeletin, neurofilin, neurofilament protein, and glial fibrillary acid protein.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A type of junction that attaches one cell to its neighbor. One of a number of differentiated regions which occur, for example, where the cytoplasmic membranes of adjacent epithelial cells are closely apposed. It consists of a circular region of each membrane together with associated intracellular microfilaments and an intercellular material which may include, for example, mucopolysaccharides. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The functions of the skin in the human and animal body. It includes the pigmentation of the skin.
A homologous group of endogenous CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS. The cystatins inhibit most CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES such as PAPAIN, and other peptidases which have a sulfhydryl group at the active site.
A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
The first enzyme of the proline degradative pathway. It catalyzes the oxidation of proline to pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid in the presence of oxygen and water. The action is not reversible. The specific activity of proline oxidase increases with age. EC 1.5.3.-.
A large class of structurally-related proteins that contain one or more LIM zinc finger domains. Many of the proteins in this class are involved in intracellular signaling processes and mediate their effects via LIM domain protein-protein interactions. The name LIM is derived from the first three proteins in which the motif was found: LIN-11, Isl1 and Mec-3.
Regions of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE similarity in the SRC-FAMILY TYROSINE KINASES that fold into specific functional tertiary structures. The SH1 domain is a CATALYTIC DOMAIN. SH2 and SH3 domains are protein interaction domains. SH2 usually binds PHOSPHOTYROSINE-containing proteins and SH3 interacts with CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The membrane system of the CELL NUCLEUS that surrounds the nucleoplasm. It consists of two concentric membranes separated by the perinuclear space. The structures of the envelope where it opens to the cytoplasm are called the nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
A common genetically determined, chronic, inflammatory skin disease characterized by rounded erythematous, dry, scaling patches. The lesions have a predilection for nails, scalp, genitalia, extensor surfaces, and the lumbosacral region. Accelerated epidermopoiesis is considered to be the fundamental pathologic feature in psoriasis.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
Highly keratinized processes that are sharp and curved, or flat with pointed margins. They are found especially at the end of the limbs in certain animals.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
A family of proline-rich proteins that constitute the majority of the protein component of SALIVA. Salivary proline-rich proteins occur as acidic, basic and glycosylated basic proteins. They perform a variety of functions such as adhering to the acquired ENAMEL PELLICLE, acting as lubricants and precipitating TANNINS.
The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.
Proteins and peptides found in SALIVA and the SALIVARY GLANDS. Some salivary proteins such as ALPHA-AMYLASES are enzymes, but their composition varies in different individuals.
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
Loss of water by diffusion through the skin and by evaporation from the respiratory tract.
Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Abrupt reduction in kidney function. Acute kidney injury encompasses the entire spectrum of the syndrome including acute kidney failure; ACUTE KIDNEY TUBULAR NECROSIS; and other less severe conditions.
Recombinases that insert exogenous DNA into the host genome. Examples include proteins encoded by the POL GENE of RETROVIRIDAE and also by temperate BACTERIOPHAGES, the best known being BACTERIOPHAGE LAMBDA.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.21.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).

Expression of differentiation markers during fetal skin development in humans: immunohistochemical studies on the precursor proteins forming the cornified cell envelope. (1/100)

The cornified cell envelope is formed during the terminal differentiation of epidermis through cross-linking of specific proteins by transglutaminases. The specific arrangement of individual protein in the cornified cell envelope and participation of individual protein in the cornified cell envelope at different regions of skin, i.e., palm, foreskin, lips, etc. are not clearly understood. In order to understand the pattern and expression schedule of each individual precursor protein during the differentiation and formation of cornified cell envelope, the expression of precursor proteins in developing human fetal skins from the first to the third trimester were examined by immunohistochemical studies. Involucrin was found in the periderm and intermediate layer from 14 wk estimated gestational age, while loricrin and small proline-rich protein 1 were found in the periderm from 16 wk estimated gestational age. Filaggrin and trichohyalin that are absent in the adult cornified cell envelope were found in the granular and horny layers from 24 wk estimated gestational age. The precursor proteins except trichohyalin did not change their patterns after the onset of initial expression during development. Trichohyalin was transiently expressed in the granular and horny layers of the epidermis from 24 wk estimated gestational age with peak expression at 27 wk estimated gestational age, but was not detected in adult skin. In hair follicles, trichohyalin expression was stable without change from 20 wk estimated gestational age. These findings suggest that fetal skin may have different sets of barriers from the second trimester; the immature cornified cell envelope is formed in the early second trimester and the mature cornified cell envelope is formed in the late second or early third trimester when filaggrin and trichohyalin appear.  (+info)

Periderm cells form cornified cell envelope in their regression process during human epidermal development. (2/100)

Terminally differentiated stratified squamous epithelium forms a lining of the plasma membrane called the cornified cell envelope, a thick layer of several covalently cross-linked precursor proteins including involucrin, small proline-rich proteins, and loricrin. Their cross-linking isodipeptide bonds are formed by epidermal transglutaminases 1-3. Material from lamellar granules is attached on the extracellular surface of corneocytes during the keratinization process. The formation of cornified cell envelope and sequential expression of major cornified cell envelope precursor proteins, transglutaminases, and 25 kDa lamellar granule-associated protein were studied in human embryonic and fetal skin. Ultrastructurally, membrane thickening has already started in periderm cells of the two-layered epidermis and an electron-dense, thickened cell envelope similar to cornified cell envelope in adult epidermis is observed in periderm cells at the three-layered and later stages of skin development. In the two-layered epidermis (49-65 d estimated gestational age), immunoreactivities of involucrin, small proline-rich proteins, all the transglutaminases, and lamellar granule-associated protein were present only in the periderm. In the three-layered epidermis and thereafter (66-160 d estimated gestational age), loricrin became positive in the periderm cells, transglutaminases extended to the entire epidermis, and lamellar granule-associated protein was detected in intermediate cells as well as periderm cells. Immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated that both major cornified cell envelope precursor proteins, involucrin and loricrin, were restricted to the cornified cell envelope in periderm cells at this stage of development. After 160 d estimated gestational age, the periderm had disappeared and cornified cell envelope proteins and lamellar granule-associated proteins were expressed in the spinous, granular, and cornified cells and transglutaminases were detected in the entire epidermis. These findings indicate that cornified cell envelope precursor proteins, transglutaminases, and lamellar granule-associated proteins are expressed in coordination in periderm cells during human epidermal development and suggest that periderm cells form cornified cell envelope in the process of regression.  (+info)

Decreased expression of retinoic acid receptors, transforming growth factor beta, involucrin, and cornifin in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. (3/100)

Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) I, II, and III represent a spectrum of premalignant epithelial changes and are ideal targets for application of chemoprevention strategies. Intermediate end point biomarkers are increasingly being used as surrogate end points to monitor clinical chemoprevention trials. To identify potential biomarkers in cervical epithelium, we analyzed the expression of nuclear retinoic acid receptor (RAR) mRNA by in situ hybridization, involucrin, cornifin, and transforming growth factors (TGFs) beta1 and beta2 by immunohistochemistry in cervical specimens, which contained adjacent normal epithelium and CIN lesions from 52 patients. These biomarkers were expressed in all adjacent normal cervical epithelia, whereas all CIN lesions including CIN I, CIN II, and CIN III exhibited decreased expression of RAR-alpha by 55.8%, RAR-beta by 64.7%, RAR-gamma by 54.9%, involucrin by 80.8%, cornifin by 88.5%, TGF-beta1 by 89.7%, and TGF-beta2 by 85.7%. Viewed as a whole, these biomarkers were down-regulated in 100% of the CIN lesions. Because all of these biomarkers can be modulated in vitro by retinoids, they may serve as intermediate biomarkers for retinoid chemoprevention trials in the patients with CIN lesions.  (+info)

Re-expression of SPR1 in breast cancer cells by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) or UV irradiation is mediated by the AP-1 binding site in the SPR1 promoter. (4/100)

BACKGROUND: Invasive tumor cells are characterized by multiple phenotypic changes as a result of the large number of cDNAs being differentially expressed in tumor cells compared to normal progenitors. Expression genetics focuses on changes at the RNA level with the aim of identifying functionally important genes whose aberrant expression in cancer cells is regulated at the level of transcription. These genes were named class II genes and are distinguished from class I genes, which are characterized by genomic mutations, deletions, or other alterations. Reversal of the tumor cell phenotype accompanying normalization of the expression of such genes may be exploited therapeutically if gene expression can be specifically modulated by drugs or other treatments. Considering that genes are coordinately regulated in complex networks, it is likely that the expression of multiple genes can be simultaneously modulated in tumor cells by drugs acting on the signal transduction pathway that regulates their expression. The SPR1 gene is associated with differentiation and its expression is down-regulated or inactivated in malignant cells. Analysis of the SPR1 promoter showed that down-regulation of SPR1 expression in breast tumor cells occurs at the level of transcription. SPR1 presents an example of class II genes, since its expression was up-regulated in tumor cells by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) or by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The SPR1 gene was identified by differential display on the basis of its reduced or absent expression in human breast tumor cell lines compared to normal mammary epithelial cell strains. Differential expression was confirmed by Northern blot analysis employing multiple normal and tumor cell lines. The promoter region -619 to +15 of the SPR1 gene was sequenced and analyzed by CAT assays, deletion analysis, and mutagenesis. Up-regulation of SPR1 expression by PMA and UV irradiation was monitored by Northern analysis and analyzed by CAT assays. RESULTS: The mechanism of down-regulation of SPR1 expression in breast tumor cells was investigated. It was found that the -619 to +15 upstream promoter region is sufficient for SPR1 expression in normal breast cells, but it is transcriptionally silent in most breast tumor cell lines. By deletion analysis and mutagenesis, two upstream cis-acting promoter elements were identified. Our data indicate that the AP-1 element located between -139 and -133 acts as a major enhancer of SPR1 transcription only in normal mammary epithelial cells but not in corresponding tumor cells, whereas the sequences flanking the AP-1 site do not affect its promoter enhancing activity. In addition, a transcriptional repressor was identified that binds unknown factor(s) and is active in both normal and tumor breast cells. Inhibitor function was mapped to a 35-bp element located from -178 to -139 upstream of the human SPR1 mRNA start site. The expression of SPR1 could be induced in the 21MT-2 metastatic breast tumor cell line by PMA treatment or by short UV irradiation via a transcriptional mechanism. AP-1 is the cis element mediating the transcriptional activation of SPR1 by PMA, which induces the expression of AP-1 factors in 21MT-2 cells. Mutation of the AP-1 site abolishes the induction of SPR1 expression by PMA. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that loss of SPR1 expression in breast tumor cells results from impaired transactivation through the AP-1 site in the SPR1 promoter, as well as from the presence of a negative regulatory element active in both normal and tumor cells. Furthermore, our results provide a basis for therapeutic manipulation of down-regulated genes, such as SPR1, in human cancers.  (+info)

Characterization of ESE-2, a novel ESE-1-related Ets transcription factor that is restricted to glandular epithelium and differentiated keratinocytes. (5/100)

Epithelial cell differentiation is tightly controlled by distinct sets of transcription factors that regulate the expression of stage-specific genes. We recently isolated the first epithelium-specific Ets transcription factor (ESE-1). Here we describe the characterization of ESE-2, a second epithelium-restricted ESE-1-related Ets factor. Like ESE-1, ESE-2 is induced during keratinocyte differentiation. However, whereas ESE-1 is expressed in the majority of epithelial cell types, ESE-2 expression is restricted to differentiated keratinocytes and glandular epithelium such as salivary gland, prostate, mammary gland, and kidney. In contrast to ESE-1, full-length ESE-2 binds poorly to DNA due to the presence of a negative regulatory domain at the amino terminus. Furthermore, although ESE-1 and the amino-terminally deleted ESE-2 bind with similar affinity to the canonical E74 Ets site, ESE-2 and ESE-1 differ strikingly in their relative affinity toward binding sites in the c-MET and PSMA promoters. Similarly, ESE-1 and ESE-2 drastically differ in their ability to transactivate epithelium-specific promoters. Thus, ESE-2, but not ESE-1, transactivates the parotid gland-specific PSP promoter and the prostate-specific PSA promoter. In contrast, ESE-1 transactivates the keratinocyte-specific SPRR2A promoter Ets site and the prostate-specific PSMA promoter significantly better than ESE-2. Our results demonstrate the existence of a unique class of related epithelium-specific Ets factors with distinct functions in epithelial cell gene regulation.  (+info)

Transglutaminase crosslinking and structural studies of the human small proline rich 3 protein. (6/100)

The cell envelope (CE) is a vital structure for barrier function in terminally differentiated dead stratified squamous epithelia. It is assembled by transglutaminase (TGase) cross-linking of several proteins, including SPR3 in certain specialized epithelia normally subjected to mechanical trauma. We have expressed recombinant human SPR3 in order to study its cross-linking properties. It serves as a complete substrate for, and is cross-linked at similar efficiencies by, the three enzymes (TGases 1, 2 and 3) that are widely expressed in many epithelia. Multiple adjacent glutamines (4, 5, 16, 17, 18, 19 and 167) and lysines (6, 21, 164, 166 and 168) of only head and tail domain sequences are used for cross-linking. However, each enzyme preferentially uses certain residues on the head domain. Moreover, our in vitro data suggest a defined temporal order of cross-linking of SPR3 in vivo: It is first cross-linked by TGase 3 into short intra- and inter-chain oligomers which are later further cross-linked to the CE by TGase 1. To investigate the absence of cross-linking in the central domain (e.g. lysine in position 2 of each of the 16 repeats) we performed structural studies on recombinant SPR3 and on a synthetic peptide containing three repeats of the central domain. 2D H-1 NMR spectroscopy, TOCSY and ROESY, shows strong and medium intensity NOEs connectivities along the amino acid sequence with one weak long range NOE contact between Thr and Cys of subsequent repeats. Distance geometry computation on the basis of intensities of NOEs found generated 50 compatible structures grouped in three main families differing by the number of H-bonds. These measurements were repeated at different concentrations of trifluoroethanol (TFE)-water mixture, an alpha-helical promoting solvent, in order to check the stability of the conformations determined; no changes were observed up to 50% TFE in solution. Also temperature changes did not produce any variation in the ROESY spectrum in the same condition as above. The NMR and circular dichroism data strongly indicate the presence of an ordered (not alpha-helix nor beta-sheet) highly flexible structure in the eight amino acids repetitive units of SPR3, confirming the prediction of one possible beta-turn per each repeating unit. Thus, biochemical and biophysical data, strongly support SPR3 to function as a flexible cross-bridging protein to provide tensile strength or rigidity to the CE of the stratified squamous epithelia in which it is expressed.  (+info)

Initiation of assembly of the cell envelope barrier structure of stratified squamous epithelia. (7/100)

The cell envelope (CE) is a specialized structure that is important for barrier function in terminally differentiated stratified squamous epithelia. The CE is formed inside the plasma membrane and becomes insoluble as a result of cross-linking of constituent proteins by isopeptide bonds formed by transglutaminases. To investigate the earliest stages of assembly of the CE, we have studied human epidermal keratinocytes induced to terminally differentiate in submerged liquid culture as a model system for epithelia in general. CEs were harvested from 2-, 3-, 5-, or 7-d cultured cells and examined by 1) immunogold electron microscopy using antibodies to known CE or other junctional proteins and 2) amino acid sequencing of cross-linked peptides derived by proteolysis of CEs. Our data document that CE assembly is initiated along the plasma membrane between desmosomes by head-to-tail and head-to-head cross-linking of involucrin to itself and to envoplakin and perhaps periplakin. Essentially only one lysine and two glutamine residues of involucrin and two glutamines of envoplakin were used initially. In CEs of 3-d cultured cells, involucrin, envoplakin, and small proline-rich proteins were physically located at desmosomes and had become cross-linked to desmoplakin, and in 5-d CEs, these three proteins had formed a continuous layer extending uniformly along the cell periphery. By this time >15 residues of involucrin were used for cross-linking. The CEs of 7-d cells contain significant amounts of the protein loricrin, typically expressed at a later stage of CE assembly. Together, these data stress the importance of juxtaposition of membranes, transglutaminases, and involucrin and envoplakin in the initiation of CE assembly of stratified squamous epithelia.  (+info)

Distinct roles for amino- and carboxyl-terminal sequences of SPRR1 protein in the formation of cross-linked envelopes of conducting airway epithelial cells. (8/100)

The small proline-rich protein, SPRR1, is a marker gene whose expression in conducting airway epithelium is elevated under a variety of conditions that enhance squamous differentiation. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the nature of the SPRR1 sequence involved in cross-linked envelope formation in a tissue/cell type, such as conducting airway epithelium, that normally does not express squamous function except after injury or maintenance in culture. For this, a Flag-SPRR1 fusion protein expression system has been developed. Using the liposome-mediated gene transfer technique on passage 1 culture of human tracheobronchial epithelial (TBE) cells, the Flag-SPRR1 fusion protein can be expressed and detected immunologically by both anti-Flag and anti-SPRR1 antibodies. The incorporation of Flag-SPRR1 fusion protein into cross-linked envelopes can be demonstrated when transfected human passage 1 TBE cultures are treated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and high calcium (1.5 mM). By deletion and site-directed mutagenesis, two distinct roles of the amino- and carboxyl-terminal sequences of SPRR1 have been demonstrated. First, we demonstrated that the amino-terminal sequence of SPRR1 protein is required for the incorporation of the fusion protein into cross-linked envelopes, whereas a deletion on the carboxyl-terminal region or on the middle repetitive unit has no effect. Interestingly, insertion of a 24-amino acid peptide of monkey MUC2 repetitive sequence in the amino-terminus of SPRR1 protein had a stimulatory effect. Site-directed mutagenesis on the following amino acid residues, Lys(7), Gln(88), and Lys(89), which were found previously to participate in the cross-linked envelope formation of keratinocytes, had no detrimental effect on the incorporation. However, mutations on Gln clusters, such as Gln(4)-Gln(6) and Gln(22)-Gln(25), had detrimental effects on the incorporation. These results suggest an amino-terminal sequence-dependent and multiple cross-linked sites for the incorporation of Flag-SPRR1 fusion protein into cross-linked envelopes of cultured human TBE cells. Second, we demonstrated that the carboxyl terminus of SPRR1 protein is required for a high level of Flag-fusion protein expression. A deletion in the carboxyl region or a mutation on the last lysine residue of the carboxyl end had a detrimental effect on the level of Flag-SPRR1 fusion protein expressed in transfected cells. In contrast, there was only a slight decrease in the level of expression if the amino-terminus was deleted. Interestingly, the efficiency for fusion protein to incorporate into cross-linked envelopes was elevated by the mutation at the carboxyl end. These results suggest distinct roles, perhaps coordinately, for both amino- and carboxyl-terminal sequences in the regulation of the life cycle of SPRR1 protein in cultured TBE cells.  (+info)

Human papillomavirus (HPV) does not induce lysis of infected keratinocytes, and the exact mechanisms of viral escape are not known. As keratinocytes differentiate, the cornified cell envelope (CCE) develops, providing a protective barrier to the host. Our prior studies have identified abnormalities in CCEs isolated from genital epithelium infected with HPV 11 (a low-risk HPV type) and HPV 59 (a high-risk HPV type). These abnormalities included reduced thickness and increased fragility compared to CCEs in healthy epithelium. Transcription of loricrin is also reduced in HPV 11- and 59-infected epithelium. In this study, uninfected and HPV 11- or 59-infected human genital epithelium were examined for expression of the small proline rich proteins (SPRs), which serve as cross-linking proteins within the CCE. Limiting cycle RT-PCR was performed to detect the various SPR transcripts in HPV 11- and 59-infected, or uninfected epithelium. Immunohistochemical analysis and immunoblot assays were p
Compare late cornified envelope 6A ELISA Kits from MyBioSource.com from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, and more.
The potential of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as nanosensors in detection of genes through a vibration analysis is investigated with molecular dynamics. The carbon nanotube based nanosensor under investigation is wrapped by a gene whose structure includes a single strand deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA) with a certain number of distinct nucleobases. Different genes are differentiated or detected by identifying a differentiable sensitivity index that is defined to be the shifts of the resonant frequency of the nanotube. Simulation results indicate that the nanosensor is able to differentiate distinct genes, i.e., small proline-rich protein 2 A, small proline-rich protein 2B, small proline-rich protein 2D, and small proline-rich protein 2E, with a recognizable sensitivity. The research provides a rapid, effective, and practical method for detection of genes.. ...
A structural component of the cornified envelope of the stratum corneum involved in innate cutaneous host defense (Probable). Possesses defensin-like antimicrobial activity against a broad spectrum of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, both aerobic and anaerobic species. Upon inflammation, may regulate skin barrier repair by shaping cutaneous microbiota composition and immune response to bacterial antigens (PubMed:28634035).
The KOMP Repository is located at the University of California Davis and Childrens Hospital Oakland Research Institute. Question? Comments? For Mice, Cells, and germplasm please contact us at [email protected], US 1-888-KOMP-MICE or International +1-530-752-KOMP, or for vectors [email protected] or +1-510-450-7917 ...
Complete information for SPRR4 gene (Protein Coding), Small Proline Rich Protein 4, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Complete information for SPRR2F gene (Protein Coding), Small Proline Rich Protein 2F, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
LCE1A, 0.4 ml. LCE1A belongs to the late cornified envelope (LCE) gene cluster within the epidermal differentiation complex (EDC) on chromosome 1.
TGM3 [ENSP00000370867]. Protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase E; Catalyzes the calcium-dependent formation of isopeptide cross-links between glutamine and lysine residues in various proteins, as well as the conjugation of polyamines to proteins. Involved in the formation of the cornified envelope (CE), a specialized component consisting of covalent cross-links of proteins beneath the plasma membrane of terminally differentiated keratinocytes. Catalyzes small proline-rich proteins (SPRR1 and SPRR2) and LOR cross-linking to form small interchain oligomers, which are further cross-linked by TGM1 onto the growing CE scaffold (By similarity). In hair follicles, involved in cross- linking structural proteins to hardening the inner root sheath; Transglutaminases. Synonyms: TGM3, TGM3p, hTGM3, Q08188, Q08188p .... Linkouts: STRING Pharos UniProt OMIM ...
Robinson NA، Lapic S، Welter JF، Eckert RL (1997). S100A11, S100A10, annexin I, desmosomal proteins, small proline-rich proteins, plasminogen activator inhibitor-2, and involucrin are components of the cornified envelope of cultured human epidermal keratinocytes.. J. Biol. Chem. 272 (18): 12035-46. PMID 9115270. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.18.12035. ...
Using a retinoic acid deficiency-induced squamous metaplasia model of HNECs, we observed a significant increase in the expression of PC5/6A, a PC member, and BMP-2, a candidate substrate for PC5/6A. Specific lentiviral shRNA-mediated PC5/6A knockdown decreased BMP-2 expression and maturation, decreased expression of squamous cell markers, and increased expression of ciliated cell markers. Dec-RVKR-CMK, a PC inhibitor, and LDN-193189, a BMP receptor inhibitor, suppressed squamous differentiation, promoted mucociliary differentiation, and down-regulated the BMP-2/Smad1/5/8/p38 signalling pathways. Dec-RVKR-CMK also decreased expression of PC5/6A, but not furin, another PC member, suggesting the involvement of PC5/6A in squamous differentiation of HNECs. Overexpression of PC5/6A and BMP-2 in the human nasal epithelial cell line RPMI-2650 demonstrated that PC5/6A can activate BMP-2. Under retinoic acid-sufficient culture conditions for mucociliary differentiation of HNECs, short-term expression of ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Here we demonstrate that TALE proteins have a key role in regulating regional epidermal barriers, at least partly through their differential regulation of LCE genes. Barrier qualities differ over the body surface, with the biggest measurable changes between internal epithelia that form the stratum corneum (e.g. tongue) and external skin (Marshall et al., 2000) (Fig. 1C). These differences probably permit the epithelia to respond appropriately to differences in aridity, microbial activity and requirement for flexibility in the different environments. However, these widely differing epithelia are derived from the same basal keratinocytes by region-specific differentiation programmes (Dhouailly et al., 2004). Based on work reported here, we propose that TALE proteins mediate these location-dependent barrier changes. In vitro, TALE proteins bind strongly to externally expressed LCE promoters but weakly to internally expressed LCE promoters. In vivo experiments confirm this result; we show that TALE ...
Freeze-substitution and Lowicryl HM20 embedding of fixed rat brain: suitability for immunogold ultrastructural localization of buy generic viagra neural antigens. The unique cellular enzymatic machinery of halophilic microbes allows them to thrive in extreme saline environments. Involucrin, a cornified envelope precursor, and the cross-linking enzyme transglutaminase, were increased at both the message level (2-7-fold) and the protein level (4-12-fold) by clofibric acid.. Deep cannulation of parent catheters was accomplished in all buy viagra three cases and complications such as vascular injury were not observed in the postprocedure angiograms. The experimental values used to determine this law were obtained for both parameters using only field measurements methods.. The 2008 CDC criteria did not predict outcomes, whereas VAE only identified very severe events. Immunohistochemical and serological characterization of membranous nephropathy in children and buy viagra online adolescents. Improving ...
A new arrangement of proteins and lipids of stratum corneum (SC) cornified envelope (CE) is proposed. The chemical analysis of CE revealed the presence of free fatty acids (FFA), ceramides (Cer), and important percentages of glutamic acid/glutamine (Glx) and serine (Ser) residues. The molecular structure of these components suggests the existence of covalent links not only between Cer and Glx but also between FFA and Ser. The protein distribution of extracellular surface of CE, i.e., the proteins that could be involved in the bonds with lipids, was studied using post- and preembedding immunolabeling electron microscopy. Some loricrin (protein rich in Ser) was detected in the outermost part of the CE protein layer. The external arrangement of some domains of this protein may give rise to form linkages with FFA, yielding further insight into the CE arrangement in which Cer-Glx bonds and FFA-Ser bonds would be involved. Although the importance of fatty acids in the cohesion and barrier function of ...
Squamous cell differentiation is a multistep process that requires the coordinated activation and repression of squamous cell-specific genes, and disruption of differentiation is an important characteristic of malignant tumors (30, 31). Human esophageal cancer exhibits a reduced degree of differentiation and defects in the terminal differentiation pathway (32, 33). A better understanding of the mechanisms regulating differentiation would offer the basis for identification of tumor biomarkers. Our previous study showed that S100A14 belongs to a subset of genes that are downregulated in esophageal cancers, and as one of many differentiation-associated genes, reduced S100A14 expression might contribute to esophageal carcinogenesis (17, 18). Furthermore, our study showed that S100A14 regulated cell proliferation and apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner via interaction with RAGE in ESCC (15). However, information is limited about the possible biologic significance of the altered expression of S100A14 ...
Irreversible growth arrest is an early and integral part of squamous cell differentiation in normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs) and is assumed to be linked to the control of expression of differentiation-specific genes. In this study, we examine the link between the molecular events associated with growth arrest and the expression of differentiation genes. NHEKs that have been induced to undergo growth arrest and differentiation by suspension culture contain populations in both G1 and G2/M of the cell cycle. The irreversible growth arrest state in NHEKs is characterized by an accumulation of the hypophosphorylated forms of Rb and p130, with subsequent down-regulation of levels of Rb, up-regulation of p130 and associated down-regulation of E2F-regulated genes such as cyclin A. These events correlate with an inhibition of G1 cdk activity, mediated in part by an increase in the cdk inhibitors p21(WAF1/Cip1), p27(Kip1) and p16(Ink4a). Flow cytometric and immunoblot analysis demonstrated ...
protein solubility in TCA - posted in Protein and Proteomics: Hi I am working with salivary proteins and I saw, several times, protocols in which the proline rich proteins are isolated by mixing the saliva sample with an equal volume of TCA 10%. I do not understand the basis for that. Can someone explain me why this type of proteins are soluble in TCA? What makes them different from the other proteins? Thank you ecsl
Zinc is an essential metal for all eukaryotes (ZIP) superfamily of metal ion transporters the human gene within chromosomal band 1q21 within the mouse EDC [epidermal differentiation complex], on mouse chromosome 3 similar to the demonstrated functions of human ZIP1 and ZIP2, zip1 mRNA is abundant in many mouse tissues whereas zip2 and zip3 mRNAs are very rare or moderately rare Slc39a1 pseudogene member 1. The gene encoding SLC41A1 is found on chromosome 1 (1q31-32) and the protein coding sequence and may serve as a gatekeeper for apart from X inactivation or X recessive putative transmembrane responsible for this Slc39a observation is found on 10 exons (NCBI Gene 194642...to PMID: 11438993) homologous to the integral membrane part of the bacterial MgtE protein family and of a wide range of conditions, includes two distinct domains and R and S allele frequency disequilibrium. According to function locus 1p21-p13.3 translocation encoded by the MK3 gene (OMIM 176263) encoding 3 human cDNA ...
Purified anti-Loricrin Antibody - Loricrin is a major protein component of the cornified cell envelope found in terminally differentiated epidermal cells.
involucrin: soluble precursor protein of cross-linked envelope characteristic of epidermal s. corneum synthesized by keratinocytes in natural & cultured human epithelia; see also related records for prekeratin & stratum corneum basic protein precursor
Fast delivery of LCE1A knockout Human Cell Lines for the study of gene function. Created by CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing. Includes matched wildtype control.
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There is increasing evidence of the importance of copy number variants (CNV) in genetic diversity among individuals and populations, as well as in some common genetic diseases. We previously characterized a common 32-kb insertion/deletion variant of the PSORS4 locus at chromosome 1q21 that harbours the LCE3C and LCE3B genes. This variant allele (LCE3C_LCE3B-del) is common in patients with psoriasis and other autoimmune disorders from certain ethnic groups. Using array-CGH (Agilent 244 K) in samples from the HapMap and Human Genome Diversity Panel (HGDP) collections, we identified 54 regions showing population differences in comparison to Africans. We provided here a comprehensive population-genetic analysis of one of these regions, which involves the 32-kb deletion of the PSORS4 locus. By a PCR-based genotyping assay we characterised the profiles of the LCE3C_LCE3B-del and the linkage disequilibrium (LD) pattern between the variant allele and the tag SNP rs4112788. Our results show that most populations
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Marenholz I, Bauerfeind A, Esparza-Gordillo J, Kerscher T, Granell R, Nickel R, Lau S, Henderson J, and Lee YA. The eczema risk variant on chromosome 11q13 (rs7927894) in the population-based ALSPAC cohort: a novel susceptibility factor for asthma and hay fever. Hum Mol Genet 2011: 20, 2443-2449.. Marenholz I, Rivera VA, Esparza-Gordillo J, Bauerfeind A, Lee-Kirsch MA, Ciechanowicz A, Kurek M, Piskackova T, Macek M, and Lee YA. Association screening in the Epidermal Differentiation Complex (EDC) identifies an SPRR3 repeat number variant as a risk factor for eczema. J Invest Dermatol 2011: 131, 1644-1649.. Moffatt MF, Gut IG, Demenais F, Strachan DP, Bouzigon E, Heath S, von Mutius E, Farrall M, Lathrop M, Cookson WO, and GABRIEL consortium. A large-scale, consortium-based genomewide association study of asthma. N Engl J Med 2010: 363, 1211-1221.. Esparza-Gordillo J, Marenholz I, and Lee YA. Genome-wide approaches to the etiology of eczema. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2010: 10, ...
Published on 1/1/2014. Mardaryev AN, Gdula MR, Yarker JL, Emelianov VU, Emelianov VN, Poterlowicz K, Sharov AA, Sharova TY, Scarpa JA, Joffe B, Solovei I, Chambon P, Botchkarev VA, Fessing MY. p63 and Brg1 control developmentally regulated higher-order chromatin remodelling at the epidermal differentiation complex locus in epidermal progenitor cells. Development. 2014 Jan; 141(1):101-11. PMID: 24346698.. Read at: PubMed ...
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Inability of keratinocytes lacking their specific transglutaminase to form cross-linked envelopes: absence of envelopes as a simple diagnostic test for lamellar
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Essential for normal cell-cell adhesion in the cornified cell layers (PubMed:29758285). Important for proper integrity and mechanical strength of the stratum corneum of the epidermis (PubMed:29505760).
TY - JOUR. T1 - Involvement of c-JUN in the regulation of terminal differentiation genes in normal and malignant keratinocytes. AU - Lohman, Frans P.. AU - Gibbs, Susan. AU - Fischer, David F.. AU - Borgstein, Anne Marijke B.. AU - Van De Putte, Pieter. AU - Backendorf, Claude. PY - 1997/1/1. Y1 - 1997/1/1. N2 - In stratifying cultures of human keratinocytes, expression of the proto-oncoprotein c-JUN and the small proline rich 2 (SPRR2) protein, a precursor of the cornified cell envelope, are inversely related, Whereas c-JUN is typically found in basal proliferating cells, SPRR2 is restricted to suprabasal differentiating layers. Malignant keratinocytes (derived from squamous cell carcinoma, SCC) have reduced sprr2 expression, consistent with their low potential to differentiate, and express c-jun at higher levels than normal keratinocytes. A direct relation between c-jun and sprr2 expression was shown in several ways: transient ectopic expression of c-jun inhibits sprr2a promoter activity in ...
Involucrin (Squamous Cell Terminal Differentiation Marker) Antibody - Without BSA and Azide, Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [Clone SY5 ] validated in IHC-P, IF, FC (AH10541-100), Abgent
TY - JOUR. T1 - Overexpression of bcl-2 protein inhibits terminal differentiation of oral keratinocytes in vitro. AU - Harada, Hidemitsu. AU - Mitsuyasu, Takeshi. AU - Seta, Yuji. AU - Maruoka, Yuka. AU - Toyoshima, Kuniaki. AU - Yasumoto, Shigeru. PY - 1998/1. Y1 - 1998/1. N2 - The bcl-2 proto-oncogene is a known inhibitor of apoptosis; in normal human stratified squamous epithelium, its expression is restricted to the basal cell layer. To investigate the functional role of bcl-2 protein in the process of differentiation of oral keratinocytes, bcl-2 expression vector was transfected into SCC-25 cells, which normally undergo squamous cell differentiation in vitro while expressing specific differentiation markers, e.g., keratin 10/11 and involucrin. In bcl-2 transfected SCC-25 cells, the expression of these differentiation markers was markedly suppressed. The bcl-2 proto-oncogene may play a critical role in opposing the commitment to terminal differentiation and apoptosis of oral ...
The dental pellicle, or acquired pellicle, is a protein film that forms on the surface enamel by selective binding of glycoproteins from saliva that prevents continuous deposition of salivary calcium phosphate. It forms in seconds after a tooth is cleaned or after chewing. It protects the tooth from the acids produced by oral microorganisms after consuming carbohydrates. Plaque is a biofilm composed of several different kinds of bacteria and their products that develop over the enamel on a layer known as pellicle. The process of plaque formation takes several days to weeks and will cause the surrounding environment to become acidic if not removed. The surface of enamel attracts salivary glycoproteins and bacterial products creating the pellicle layer. This thin layer forms on the surface of the enamel within minutes of its exposure. These glycoproteins include proline rich proteins that allow bacterial adhesion. The first bacteria to attach to these pellicle glycoproteins are gram positive ...
During cornification, the process whereby living keratinocytes are transformed into non-living corneocytes, the cell membrane is replaced by a layer of ceramides which become covalently linked to an envelope of structural proteins (the cornified envelope).[3][4] This complex surrounds cells in the stratum corneum and contributes to the skins barrier function. Corneodesmosomes (modified desmosomes) facilitate cellular adhesion by linking adjacent cells within this epidermal layer. These complexes are degraded by proteases, eventually permitting cells to be shed at the surface. Desquamation and formation of the cornified envelope are both required for the maintenance of skin homeostasis. A failure to correctly regulate these processes leads to the development of skin disorders.[3] Cells of the stratum corneum contain a dense network of keratin, a protein that helps keep the skin hydrated by preventing water evaporation. These cells can also absorb water, further aiding in hydration. In addition, ...
The differentiation of keratinocytes involves numerous steps including the formation of the cornified envelope and the aggregation of keratin filaments by filaggrin monomer molecules. In this study, we investigated whether mu-calpain is involved in the processing of profilaggrin to filaggrin monomer …
Perform reliable PCR with Bio-Rads SPRR3 primer pair, for Human. Designed for EvaGreen-based detection with digital PCR (ddPCR).
Perform reliable PCR with Bio-Rads LCE3D primer pair, for Human. Designed for EvaGreen-based detection with digital PCR (ddPCR).
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1. Sharova TY, Poterlowicz K, Botchkareva NV, Kondratiev NA, Aziz A, Spiegel JH, Botchkarev VA, Sharov AA. Complex changes in the apoptotic and cell differentiation programs during initiation of the hair follicle response to chemotherapy. J Invest Dermatol, 2014 (accepted for publication).. 2. Lewis CJ, Mardaryev AN, Poterlowicz K, Sharova TY, Aziz A, Sharpe DT, Botchkareva NV, Sharov AA. Bone morphogenetic protein signaling suppresses wound-induced skin repair by inhibiting keratinocyte proliferation and migration. J Invest Dermatol, 2014 134:827-37. PMID: 24126843; PMCID: PMC3945401. 3. Mardaryev AN, Gdula MR, Yarker JL, Emelianov VN, Poterlowicz K, Sharov AA, Sharova TY, Scarpa JA, Chambon P, Botchkarev VA, Fessing MY. p63 and Brg1 control developmentally regulated higher-order chromatin remodelling at the epidermal differentiation complex locus in epidermal progenitor cells. Development, 2014; 141:101-11 PMID: 24346698.. 4. Gdula MR, Poterlowicz K, Mardaryev AN, Sharov AA, Peng Y, Fessing ...
Terminal differentiation in relation to TJs. When SG3 cells differentiate into SG2 cells, they form TJs (i) and begin to secrete lamellar granules from their apical membranes (ii). SG1 cells appear to lose their TJs (iii) and then undergo final cornification (iv). Mature corneocytes are encapsulated in the cornified envelope (dark brown; v), and their intercellular spaces are filled with lipid lamellae (brown). Corneodesmosomes (green squares; vi) mediate intercorneocyte adhesion. KLKs secreted into the extracellular space are strictly limited to the extra-TJ environment. As the pH becomes acidic in the upper layers of the SC, KLKs are released from LEKTI and proteolyze corneodesmosomes, initiating desquamation (vii). Profilaggrin is a component of keratohyalin granules in the SG, is degraded into filaggrin monomers, possibly in SG1 cells, and is further degraded into NMFs in the upper SC (viii ...
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Německo vynalezlo socialismus. Karel Marx a Bedřich Engels byli Němci. Sociálně demokratické hnutí, které zformovalo moderní evropský sociální stát, také pochází z Německa. Přestože pro zemi její opětovné začlenění do světové obchodní soustavy po druhé světové válce znamenalo obrovský přínos, Německo se nikdy skutečně nevyrovnalo s anglosaským kapitalismem, který stále obklopuje hluboká skepse. Dnes, když už německé hospodářství nefunguje hladce, kapitál se přesouvá za hranice a nezaměstnanost roste, získává kritika kapitalismu opět na síle. Veřejnost je rozezlena platy vrcholných manažerů a skutečností, že velké německé společnosti propouštějí navzdory zaznamenaným ziskům. Vláda zareagovala naléháním na manažery, aby zveřejnili své příjmy, a zrušením zákonů vymezujících bankovní tajemství, jež kdysi bývaly nedotknutelné. Tato nová kritika kapitalismu nedávno vyvrcholila sérií útoků lídra ...
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"Small proline-rich proteins are cross-bridging proteins in the cornified cell envelopes of stratified squamous epithelia". ... Small proline-rich protein 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SPRR3 gene, which is found within the epidermal ... "Structural organization and regulation of the small proline-rich family of cornified envelope precursors suggest a role in ... a group of small proline rich-related cornified envelope precursors with bifunctional capabilities in isopeptide bond formation ...
... and Small Proline-rich Proteins 1 and 2 Are Isodipeptide Cross-linked Components of the Human Epidermal Cornified Cell Envelope ... At the same time, the inner side of the cell membrane thickens forming the cornified cell envelope. After the release of the ... the process of the formation of epidermal cornified cell envelope. During the keratinocyte differentiation, these granules ... Keratohyalin is a protein structure found in cytoplasmic granules of the keratinocytes in the stratum granulosum of the ...
... and small proline-rich proteins, in the formation of the cornified cell envelope in the biogenesis of the stratum corneum, the ... a variety of structural proteins in the terminal differentiation of the epidermis to form the cornified cell envelope. An ... This study identifies the first causative gene in this heterogeneous group of skin disorders and demonstrates that the protein ... Transglutaminases (TGs) are involved in protein cross-linking by catalyzing the formation of gamma-glutamyl-lysine isodipeptide ...
... small proline-rich proteins, plasminogen activator inhibitor-2, and involucrin are components of the cornified envelope of ... 2000). "Small proline-rich protein 1 is the major component of the cell envelope of normal human oral keratinocytes.". FEBS ... 1995). "The pancornulins: a group of small proline rich-related cornified envelope precursors with bifunctional capabilities in ... SPRR1B‏ (Small proline rich protein 1B) هوَ بروتين يُشَفر بواسطة جين SPRR1B في الإنسان.[1][2][3] ...
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ... Small proline-rich protein/late cornified envelope protein (IPR026075) *Late cornified envelope-like proline-rich protein 1 ( ... Late cornified envelope-like proline-rich protein 1 (IPR026076). Short name: Lelp1 ...
... keratinocytes proline-rich protein; KRT5, keratin-5; LCE, late cornified envelope; LOR, loricrin; SPRR, small proline-rich, ... Late cornified envelope (LCE) proteins are small proline-rich proteins that form part of skin stratum corneum (Brown et al., ... 2001). Structural organization and regulation of the small proline-rich family of cornified envelope precursors suggest a role ... These proteins form part of the matrix and envelope of cornified cells, and immunoreactivity to filaggrin persists in the ...
Protein Coding), Small Proline Rich Protein 2F, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. ... small proline rich protein 2F,precursor of cornified cell envelope,cornifin,clustered in the epidermal differentiation complex ... Protein Symbol:. Q96RM1-SPR2F_HUMAN. Recommended name:. Small proline-rich protein 2F Protein Accession:. Q96RM1. Secondary ... Structural organization and regulation of the small proline-rich family of cornified envelope precursors suggest a role in ...
Protein Coding), Small Proline Rich Protein 4, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. ... Structural organization and regulation of the small proline-rich family of cornified envelope precursors suggest a role in ... Protein Symbol:. Q96PI1-SPRR4_HUMAN. Recommended name:. Small proline-rich protein 4 Protein Accession:. Q96PI1. Secondary ... a novel cornified envelope precursor: UV-dependent epidermal expression and selective incorporation into fragile envelopes. ( ...
... small proline-rich proteins, plasminogen activator inhibitor-2, and involucrin are components of the cornified envelope of ... 2000). "Small proline-rich protein 1 is the major component of the cell envelope of normal human oral keratinocytes.". FEBS ... 1995). "The pancornulins: a group of small proline rich-related cornified envelope precursors with bifunctional capabilities in ... SPRR1B‏ (Small proline rich protein 1B) هوَ بروتين يُشَفر بواسطة جين SPRR1B في الإنسان.[1][2][3] ...
Catalyzes small proline-rich proteins (SPRR1 and SPRR2) and LOR cross-linking to form small interchain oligomers, which are ... as well as the conjugation of polyamines to proteins. Involved in the formation of the cornified envelope (CE), a specialized ... Protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase E; Catalyzes the calcium-dependent formation of isopeptide cross-links between ... and Lars Juhl Jensen from the Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Protein Research. ...
As keratinocytes differentiate, the cornified cell envelope (CCE) develops, providing a protective barrier to the host. Our ... or 59-infected human genital epithelium were examined for expression of the small proline rich proteins (SPRs), which serve as ... cross-linking proteins within the CCE. Limiting cycle RT-PCR was performed to detect the various SPR transcripts in HPV 11- and ...
Protein composition of cornified cell envelopes of epidermal keratinocytes. J Cell Sci 1994;107:693-700. ... and small proline-rich proteins (SPRR; refs. 24, 25). To characterize the expression pattern of S100A14 during the course of ... Participation of membrane-associated proteins in the formation of the cross-linked envelope of the keratinocyte. Cell 1984;36: ... Presence in human epidermal cells of a soluble protein precursor of the cross-linked envelope: activation of the cross-linking ...
"Small proline-rich proteins are cross-bridging proteins in the cornified cell envelopes of stratified squamous epithelia". ... Small proline-rich protein 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SPRR3 gene, which is found within the epidermal ... "Structural organization and regulation of the small proline-rich family of cornified envelope precursors suggest a role in ... a group of small proline rich-related cornified envelope precursors with bifunctional capabilities in isopeptide bond formation ...
Cornified Envelope Proline-Rich Proteins / genetics * Epidermal Cells * Epidermis / metabolism * Homeodomain Proteins / ... TALE homeodomain proteins regulate site-specific terminal differentiation, LCE genes and epidermal barrier J Cell Sci. 2011 May ... Perturbation of TALE protein expression in stratified squamous epithelia in mice produces external but not internal barrier ... The LCE multigene cluster encodes barrier proteins that are differentially expressed over the body surface, and perturbation of ...
... and Small Proline-rich Proteins 1 and 2 Are Isodipeptide Cross-linked Components of the Human Epidermal Cornified Cell Envelope ... At the same time, the inner side of the cell membrane thickens forming the cornified cell envelope. After the release of the ... the process of the formation of epidermal cornified cell envelope. During the keratinocyte differentiation, these granules ... Keratohyalin is a protein structure found in cytoplasmic granules of the keratinocytes in the stratum granulosum of the ...
Small proline-rich (SPR) proteins are structural components of the cornified cell envelope of stratified squamous epithelia. ...
Study of small proline-rich proteins (SPRRs) in health and disease: a review of the literature. Arch Dermatol Res. 2013;305(10 ... of proteins are induced during keratinocyte differentiation and provide structural integrity to the cornified cell envelope of ... This included the small proline-rich (Sprr) genes, such as Sprr2f. This family ... which showed absence of the FOXM1 protein and absence of the phospho-EGFR protein, confirming that the EGFR inhibition was in ...
LEP2; SPRL2A; late cornified envelope protein 1B; late envelope protein 2; small proline rich-like (epidermal differentiation ... Antigen standard for late cornified envelope 1B (LCE1B) is a lysate prepared from HEK293T cells transiently transfected with a ... Protein concentration was determined using a colorimetric assay. The antigen control carries a C-terminal Myc/DDK tag for ... Protein Labeling (optional):. -Selection-. Biotin. Fluorophores. Others. Note: There will be extra charge for optional service! ...
... the main protein of the keratohyalin granules; the specific target of the immune response in rheumatoid... ... n a protein found in skin cells Noun 1. filaggrin - ... and small proline-rich proteins.. Effects of in utero exposure ... highly cross-linked by transglutaminases with cornified envelope proteins such as loricrin, involucrin, filaggrin, ... Human chondrocyte glycoprotein 39 Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein Non-autoantigens Bacterial heat shock protein. Biomarkers ...
Small proline-rich (SPRR) proteins are structural components of the cornified cell envelope of stratified squamous epithelia. ... This entry represents SPRR2, a family of small proteins rich in proline, cysteine and glutamate. They contain a tandemly ... They are components of the cornified envelope of keratinocytes [ (PUBMED:11279051) ]. ...
... and small proline-rich proteins 1 and 2 are isodipeptide cross-linked components of the human epidermal cornified cell envelope ... Candi E, Schmidt R, Melino G (2005) The cornified envelope: a model of cell death in the skin. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 6(4):328- ... Harding CR, Scott IR (1983) Histidine-rich proteins (filaggrins): structural and functional heterogeneity during epidermal ... Protein Sci 5(6):1157-1164. doi:10.1002/pro.5560050618PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
... and small proline-rich proteins 1 and 2 are isodipeptide cross-linked components of the human epidermal cornified cell envelope ... A histidine-rich, keratin filament-aggregating protein. Biochim Biophys Acta 1983, 744:28-35.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Scott IR, Harding CR, Barrett JG: Histidine-rich protein of the keratohyalin granules. Source of the free amino acids, urocanic ... Harding CR, Scott IR: Histidine-rich proteins (filaggrins): structural and functional heterogeneity during epidermal ...
Cornified Envelope Proline-Rich Proteins * Oxidative Phosphorylation * Oxidative Stress * Proteins * Environmental Pollution ... Mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics led to identification 4490 proteins of which 201 and 374 proteins were ... Mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics led to identification 4490 proteins of which 201 and 374 proteins were ... Mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics led to identification 4490 proteins of which 201 and 374 proteins were ...
They catalyze the formation of an isopeptide bond between the acyl group at the end of the side chain of protein- or peptide- ... They catalyze the formation of an isopeptide bond between the acyl group at the end of the side chain of protein- or peptide- ... The transglutaminases are considered to be universal protein cross-linkers, and they play an essential role in a number of ... The transglutaminases are considered to be universal protein cross-linkers, and they play an essential role in a number of ...
... and small proline-rich proteins 1 and 2 are isodipeptide cross-linked components of the human epidermal cornified cell envelope ... such as stress proteins, cell cycle control proteins, signal transduction proteins, apoptosis, transcription factors, DNA ... and 2 genes involved in the formation and maintenance of the cornified cell envelope of stratified squamous epithelia (CSTA and ... Additional studies evaluating protein, RNA, and DNA in a larger number of cases, as well as confirmatory studies using RNA from ...
... small proline-rich proteins, plasminogen activator inhibitor-2, and involucrin are components of the cornified envelope of ... Expression and regulation of cornified envelope proteins in human corneal epithelium. Tong, L., Corrales, R.M., Chen, Z., ... Involucrin is one of the precursor proteins of the cornified cell envelope (CE) and is markedly increased in inflammatory skin ... Direct evidence that involucrin is a major early isopeptide cross-linked component of the keratinocyte cornified cell envelope. ...
... cornified envelope precursor proteins (involucrin, loricrin, and the small proline-rich proteins [SPRRs]); intermediate ... Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 5. IGF-binding proteins prolong the half-life of the IGFs and have been shown to ... filament-associated proteins (profilaggrin and trichohyalin), and calcium binding proteins (the S100As) [reviewed in [35]]. ...
Sprr2h, a member of the small proline rich (Sprr) protein family, is required to create an epidermal cornified cell envelope in ... and small proline-rich proteins 1 and 2 are isodipeptide cross-linked components of the human epidermal cornified cell envelope ... small proline-rich proteins, plasminogen activator inhibitor-2, and involucrin are components of the cornified envelope of ... The expression of epithelial keratinization marker genes, small proline-rich protein 2h (Sprr2h) and transglutaminase 1 (Tgm1 ...
Cornified Envelope Proline-Rich Proteins * Tretinoin * Skin * Tissue * Epithelium * Multiple mechanisms: the example of vitamin ... Retinoic acid down-regulation of fibronectin and retinoic acid receptor α proteins in NIH-3T3 cells: Block of this response by ... and metabolism of retinol delivered to primary mouse keratinocytes either free or bound to rat serum retinol-binding protein. ...
A relationship exists between sensitive skin and skin barrier proteins and lipids, as the author shows here. While formulations ... Association of a chromosome 1q21 locus in close proximity to a late cornified envelope-like proline-rich 1 (LELP1) gene with ... small proline rich proteins (SPRRs), S100 family and desmosomal proteins. These proteins regulate and dictate structural ... In particular, a complex based on oat hydrolysate has been shown to stimulate the synthesis of cornified envelope proteins such ...
... the Late Cornified Envelope Group 3 genes (Lce3 symbols), and the Cornifins, also known as small proline-rich region proteins ( ... especially a homolog of small proline-rich proteins (Sprr) and a trichohyalin-like gene [7]. Interestingly, the Sprr genes are ... In mammals, genes involved in the synthesis of the insoluble cornified envelope (CE) epithelial layer are found in a large gene ... genes associated with the cornified envelope [38,39,40]. Together, these results suggest the molecular basis of this ...
late cornified envelope 1A. protein-coding. LRRC72. leucine rich repeat containing 72. protein-coding. ... proline-rich proteoglycan 2-like. protein-coding. LRRTM4. leucine rich repeat transmembrane neuronal 4. protein-coding. ... putative POM121-like protein 1-like. protein-coding. LRIG2. leucine rich repeats and immunoglobulin like domains 2. protein- ... leucine rich repeat, Ig-like and transmembrane domains 3. protein-coding. LOC100130451. uncharacterized LOC100130451. protein- ...
Real time PCR evaluated the expression of cornified envelope (CE) precursor proteins (involucrin, small proline-rich [Sprr] ... Exposure to desiccating stress stimulates ocular surface epithelia to produce of cornified envelope precursors and the tissue ... This is accompanied by loss of mucin-filled goblet cells and entrapment of mucin contents in remaining ones by cornifying cells ... the effects of desiccating stress on conjunctival goblet cell density and morphology and expression of cornified envelope ...
... loricrin and small proline-rich proteins (SPRs). These reactions result in formation of the cornified envelope (CE), a ... Format: 100ug, Protein A-purified, lyophilized, 0.1M Tris, 0.1M glycine, 2% sucrose, 1mg/ml. ... During keratinocyte differentiation, TG1 and TG3 appear to act cooperatively in the cross-linking of proteins, including ... Furthermore, TG3 in hair follicles is involved in cross-linking structural proteins such as trichohyalin and keratin ...
Half of these genes encoded RNA-binding proteins or DNA/RNA-binding proteins, which were recently recognized as a new class of ... poorly investigated simple sarcoma with a low frequency of genetic deregulation other than an Ewing sarcoma RNA binding protein ... keratin-associated protein; LCE, late cornified envelope; SPRR, small proline-rich protein; CRCT1, cysteine-rich C-terminal 1; ... late cornified envelope (LCE, 18 genes) gene family, small proline-rich protein family (SPRR, 11 genes), and cysteine rich C- ...
CXCR6 protein, human. *Cornified Envelope Proline-Rich Proteins. *DSG1 protein, human. *Desmoglein 1 ...
Cornified Envelope Proline-Rich Proteins Medicine & Life Sciences * Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Agriculture & Biology ... Small proline rich protein 2a in benign and malignant liver disease. Mizuguchi, Y., Isse, K., Specht, S., Lunz, J. G., Corbitt ...
  • S100A11, S100A10, annexin I, desmosomal proteins, small proline-rich proteins, plasminogen activator inhibitor-2, and involucrin are components of the cornified envelope of cultured human epidermal keratinocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2000). "Small proline-rich protein 1 is the major component of the cell envelope of normal human oral keratinocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Involved in the formation of the cornified envelope (CE), a specialized component consisting of covalent cross-links of proteins beneath the plasma membrane of terminally differentiated keratinocytes. (jensenlab.org)
  • Catalyzes small proline-rich proteins (SPRR1 and SPRR2) and LOR cross-linking to form small interchain oligomers, which are further cross-linked by TGM1 onto the growing CE scaffold (By similarity). (jensenlab.org)
  • Catalyzes the calcium-dependent formation of isopeptide cross-links between glutamine and lysine residues in various proteins, as well as the conjugation of polyamines to proteins. (jensenlab.org)
  • 1992). "An unusual expression of a squamous cell marker, small proline-rich protein gene, in tracheobronchial epithelium: differential regulation and gene mapping. (wikipedia.org)
  • SPRR1B ‏ ( Small proline rich protein 1B ) هوَ بروتين يُشَفر بواسطة جين SPRR1B في الإنسان . (wikipedia.org)
  • 1995). "The pancornulins: a group of small proline rich-related cornified envelope precursors with bifunctional capabilities in isopeptide bond formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Real time PCR evaluated the expression of cornified envelope (CE) precursor proteins (involucrin, small proline-rich [Sprr] protein 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b, 2f, and 2g), the cross-linking transglutaminase 1 enzyme (Tg-1) and Muc5AC mRNA transcripts by the ocular surface epithelia. (dryeyezone.com)
  • During keratinocyte differentiation, TG1 and TG3 appear to act cooperatively in the cross-linking of proteins, including involucrin, loricrin and small proline-rich proteins (SPRs). (qedbio.com)
  • The current model of cornified envelope (CE) formation suggests that crosslinking between envoplakin (EVPL), periplakin (PPL), involucrin (IVL) and small proline-rich proteins (SPRs) results in the formation of a layer along the entire inner surface of the plasma membrane, including desmosomes, forming a scaffold to which other precursors are added to form the mature CE (Steinert & Marekov 1999, Kalinin et al. (reactome.org)
  • The FLG-KIF linkage occurs primarily through a specific lysine residue on the head domain of type II keratin chains, which can crosslink with several CE proteins including loricrin, SPRs, envoplakin and involucrin (Dale et al. (reactome.org)
  • The expression and distribution of occludin, involucrin, and small proline-rich protein 2 were determined with immunohistology analysis on whole mounted corneas. (molvis.org)
  • Involucrin and small proline-rich protein 2 labeling of whole mounted corneas revealed upregulation of their expression in the groups, which received no treatment or PBS instillation compared to the ICES+TT group. (molvis.org)
  • At the same time, the inner side of the cell membrane thickens forming the cornified cell envelope. (wikipedia.org)
  • Keratohyalin granules (KHG) mainly consist of keratin, profilaggrin, loricrin and trichohyalin proteins which contribute to cornification or keratinization, the process of the formation of epidermal cornified cell envelope. (wikipedia.org)
  • Loricrin (LOR) cross-linking to other protein partners appears later. (reactome.org)
  • There was reduced expression of genes encoding the basement membrane proteins FRAS1 and collagen VII, as well as the skin barrier-associated small proline-rich proteins 1A and 4, late cornified envelope protein 5A, hornerin, and lipid transporters including ALOX15B. (dundee.ac.uk)
  • Perturbation of TALE protein expression in stratified squamous epithelia in mice produces external but not internal barrier abnormalities. (nih.gov)
  • Small proline-rich (SPR) proteins are structural components of the cornified cell envelope of stratified squamous epithelia. (nih.gov)
  • The expression of epithelial keratinization marker genes, small proline-rich protein 2h (Sprr2h) and transglutaminase 1 (Tgm1), were also increased in NHE8−/− eyes. (physiology.org)
  • Differentially regulated genes were validated at the level of gene and protein expression, with genes identified as estrogen-regulated in human confirmed as estrogen-dependent in young estrogen depleted mice in vivo . (beds.ac.uk)
  • Half of these genes encoded RNA-binding proteins or DNA/RNA-binding proteins, which were recently recognized as a new class of DDR players. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The hallmark of DSRCT is the specific t(1;22)(p13;q12) translocation that leads to the fusion of the Ewing sarcoma RNA binding protein 1 ( EWSR1 ) and Wilm's tumor suppressor ( WT1 ) genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Examination of hepatic gene expression profiles of Fxr null ( Fxr −/− ) and wild-type mice [ 8 ], and comparison with the expression of selected genes in a cholestatic mouse model (dietary cholic acid [CA]-administration), revealed that periplakin (PPL) is a unique protein central to FXR and cholestasis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Many proteins encoded by EDC genes contain glutamine and lysine-rich sequence motifs and some of them also have a high cysteine content around 15% [ 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The HLA-DQ proteins that our immune system produce function as cell surface receptors for peptide antigens (gluten proteins concerning these genes) and antigen-presenting cells, presenting them to T helper cells. (fixyourgut.com)
  • The up-regulated included the members of S100A protein family such as S100A8 and S100A9, small proline-rich protein 2 (Sprr2) such as Sprr2e, Sprr2g and Sprr2d, late cornified envelope-3 (LCE) genes such as LCE3d, LCE3e and LCE3f. (madridge.org)
  • The transcriptome analysis shows that 69% of all human proteins (n= 19628 ) are expressed in the esophagus and 254 of these genes show an elevated expression in esophagus compared to other tissue types. (proteinatlas.org)
  • These proteins regulate and dictate structural stability, mechanical resistance and elasticity, but they also are involved as the major amino acids source for the natural moisturizing factor to maintain skin osmolarity. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • Furthermore, TG3 in hair follicles is involved in cross-linking structural proteins such as trichohyalin and keratin intermediate to hardening the inner root sheath. (qedbio.com)
  • Keratin ( / ˈ k ɛr ə t ɪ n / [1] [2] ) is one of a family of fibrous structural proteins . (hitchhikersgui.de)
  • Among these mRNAs, 25 encode structural proteins including keratins, small proline-rich and late cornified envelope proteins, 20 are related to metabolism and 16 encode proteases, peptidases, and their inhibitors including kallikrein-related peptidases (KLKs), and serine protease inhibitors (SERPINs). (saladgaffe.cf)
  • Specifically, transglutaminase 5 forms strong bonds, called cross-links, between the structural proteins that make up the cornified cell envelope. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This process is called keratinization, and involves the production of specialized structural proteins, secretion of lipids, and the formation of a cellular envelope of cross-linked proteins. (mdpi.com)
  • It is a keratinocyte protein that first appears in the cell cytosol, but ultimately becomes cross-linked to membrane proteins by transglutaminase. (genecards.org)
  • Cross-linked to membrane proteins by transglutaminase. (genecards.org)
  • Exposure to desiccating stress stimulates ocular surface epithelia to produce of cornified envelope precursors and the tissue transglutaminase enzyme that cross links them. (dryeyezone.com)
  • In contrast, the terminally differentiated apical epidermal cells in mammalian skin are lined with a 10-nm-thick layer of proteins called the cornified cell envelope (CE), which forms inside the plasma membrane and becomes insoluble as the result of the cross-linking of constituent proteins by transglutaminase (Tg) enzymes. (arvojournals.org)
  • In the epidermis, transglutaminase 5 is involved in the formation of the cornified cell envelope, which is a structure that surrounds cells and helps the skin form a protective barrier between the body and its environment. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Most of the mutations change single protein building blocks (amino acids) in transglutaminase 5, including the most common mutation in people of European ancestry, which replaces the amino acid glycine with the amino acid cysteine at position 113 (written as Gly113Cys or G113C). (medlineplus.gov)
  • A shortage of transglutaminase 5 impairs protein cross-linking, which weakens the cornified cell envelope and allows the outermost cells of the epidermis to separate easily from the underlying skin and peel off. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Band 4.2, a major membrane skeletal protein in erythrocyte, is transglutaminase-like molecule that is catalytically inactive. (biologiedelapeau.fr)
  • Small proline-rich protein 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SPRR3 gene, which is found within the epidermal differentiation complex (EDC). (wikipedia.org)
  • We concluded that some important proteins were associated with cell adhesion, cell motility, keratinocyte differentiation, cytoskeleton organization, osteoblast differentiation, and fatty acid metabolism during horn bud development. (biomedcentral.com)
  • All that results in the formation of an insoluble envelope beneath the plasma membrane (By similarity). (genecards.org)
  • Boil the mixture for 10 min before loading (for membrane protein lysates, incubate the mixture at room temperature for 30 min). (creativebiomart.net)
  • Immunohistochemistry staining located NHE8 protein at the plasma membrane of the epithelial cells in the conjunctiva, the cornea, and the lacrimal gland both in human and mouse. (physiology.org)
  • sodium/hydrogen exchangers (NHEs) are a group of membrane proteins that exchange extracellular Na + for intracellular H + , and they display broad tissue distribution. (physiology.org)
  • Membrane Fusion Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (umassmed.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Membrane Fusion Proteins" by people in this website by year, and whether "Membrane Fusion Proteins" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (umassmed.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Membrane Fusion Proteins" by people in Profiles. (umassmed.edu)
  • It is a ubiquitously-expressed protein that plays a role in anchoring the CYTOSKELETON to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. (harvard.edu)
  • Imposition of salinity stress during early germination imposes a secondary oxidative stress in 120-hr-old Amaranthus lividus seedlings (measured in terms of accumulation of reactive oxygen species, antioxidative defense system and oxidative membrane lipid and protein damages). (bvsalud.org)
  • Triadimefon treatment significantly reduces the membrane lipid peroxidation and the loss of membrane protein thiol level in salinity stressed Amaranthus seedlings. (bvsalud.org)
  • Serricchio M, Vissa A, Kim PK, Yip CM, McQuibban GA. Cardiolipin synthesizing enzymes form a complex that interacts with cardiolipin-dependent membrane organizing proteins. (sickkids.ca)
  • Integral membrane proteins and essential components of the gamma-secretase complex that catalyzes the cleavage of membrane proteins such as NOTCH RECEPTORS and AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES precursors. (uchicago.edu)
  • Laminin, an extracellular protein, is a major component of the basement membrane. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • There is strong evidence for body-site-dependent dermal programming of epidermal differentiation in which the epidermis responds by altering expression of key barrier proteins, but the underlying mechanisms have not been defined. (nih.gov)
  • Here we show that TALE proteins are abundant in the differentiating epidermis. (biologists.org)
  • Perturbation of TALE proteins in transgenic mouse epidermis substantially alters external but not internal stratum corneum and produces external skin barrier defects. (biologists.org)
  • Transglutaminases 1, 3, and 5 are mainly expressed in the skin epidermis and participate in cornified envelope formation. (biologiedelapeau.fr)
  • Lelp1 is a novel small proline rich protein (SPRR) still uncharacterised [ PMID: 17387579 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • DNA microarray analysis showed that several members of small proline rich proteins (SPRR) were up-regulated by KD of MALAT-1 lncRNA in TSCC cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Knock down of MALAT-1 in TSCCs leads to the up-regulation of certain SPRR proteins, which influenced the distant metastasis of TSCC cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • He recently has focused on a specific skin-barrier protein called filaggrin , which is broken down into a molecule called urocanic acid the most potent absorber of UVB light in the skin, according to Elias. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • They contain keratin filaments, filaggrin (protein surrounding keratin filaments) and the natural moisturizing factor (NMF), elements that confer flexibility and mechanical resilience to the SC. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Defects of filaggrin-like proteins in both lesional and nonlesional atopic skin. (cdc.gov)
  • During cornification, a network of keratin intermediate filaments (KIF) and filaggrin (FLG) becomes crosslinked to the cornified envelope (CE). (reactome.org)
  • To evaluate the effects of desiccating stress on conjunctival goblet cell density and morphology and expression of cornified envelope precursors by the ocular surface epithelia. (dryeyezone.com)
  • The apical portion of remaining conjunctival goblet cells became entrapped by adjacent stratified apical epithelia expressing increased levels of cornified envelope precursors. (dryeyezone.com)
  • This approximately 25 cm long tube consists of outer layers of striated and smooth muscle, for mechanical propulsion of food, and an inner mucosa lined by non-cornified squamous epithelia. (proteinatlas.org)
  • Protein-glutamine γ-glutamyltransferases (transglutaminases, Tgs) belong to the class of transferases. (frontiersin.org)
  • Transglutaminases (EC 2.3.2.13) (Tg), i.e., protein-glutamine γ-glutamyltransferases, belong to the class of transferases. (frontiersin.org)
  • Transglutaminases are enzymes responsible for cross-linking between proteins. (biologiedelapeau.fr)
  • As the loss is a critical disease, its exposure involves the entry of a electrochemical protein, a formation that is innovative from autosomal heat respiration lipids( Carlsson & Simonsen 2015). (erik-mill.de)
  • The anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) is known to be associated with the susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis (RA), as well as the severity of the disease. (termsreign.gq)
  • Description: This is Double-antibody Sandwich Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Human S-Phase Kinase Associated Protein 1 (SKP1) in Tissue homogenates, cell lysates and other biological fluids. (tuberculosistest.net)
  • Description: This is Double-antibody Sandwich Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Human Huntingtin Interacting Protein 2 (HIP2) in Tissue homogenates, cell lysates and other biological fluids. (wildpalm.net)
  • The microtiter plate provided in this kit has been pre-coated with an antibody specific to Huntingtin Interacting Protein 2 (HIP2). (wildpalm.net)
  • A broad spectrum of recombinant peptides and proteins are used in daily practice, eg, insulin and insulin analogues. (saladgaffe.cf)
  • One hundred differentially abundant proteins (DAPs) were identified. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Laser scanning confocal microscopy evaluated the expression of CE precursor proteins, Tg-1 and Muc5AC in cryosections. (dryeyezone.com)
  • Interestingly, the human esophageal epithelium is not normally cornified and expresses differentiation markers distinct from the skin ( 5 - 8 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • LCA5 encodes a protein that is thought to be involved in centrosomal or ciliary functions. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • however, the recent discovery of a primary epithelial barrier defect linked to the cornified envelope has anticipated the immunological cause. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • Keratin is also the protein that protects epithelial cells from damage or stress. (hitchhikersgui.de)
  • They catalyze the formation of an isopeptide bond between the acyl group at the end of the side chain of protein- or peptide-bound glutamine residues and the first order 𝜀-amine groups of protein- or peptide-bound lysine. (frontiersin.org)
  • Peptide with sequence C-KDEIDEFANSPSE, from the internal region of the protein sequence according to NP_060250.2. (mybiosource.com)
  • Both detected bands were successfully blocked by incubation with the immunizing peptide (and BLAST results with the immunizing peptide sequence did not identify any other proteins to explain the additional bands). (mybiosource.com)
  • They catalyze inter-protein bond formation by forming a thiolester acyl-enzyme intermediate and subsequently transferring the acyl residue to a primary amine (Folk & Finlayson 1977, Folk 1980). (reactome.org)
  • Hung HF, Hehnly H, Doxsey S. The Mother Centriole Appendage Protein Cenexin Modulates Lumen Formation through Spindle Orientation. (umassmed.edu)
  • Catalyzes the calcium-dependent formation of isopeptide cross-links between glutamine and lysine residues in various proteins, as well as the conjugation of polyamines to proteins. (jensenlab.org)
  • This reaction causes either the formation of covalent isopeptide bonds within or between polypeptides or incorporation of primary amines into substrate proteins. (biologiedelapeau.fr)
  • Intermediate Filament Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (ouhsc.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Intermediate Filament Proteins" by people in Profiles. (ouhsc.edu)
  • This is accompanied by loss of mucin-filled goblet cells and entrapment of mucin contents in remaining ones by cornifying cells that block egress of mucin contents to the ocular surface. (dryeyezone.com)
  • Cysteine-rich keratin-associated proteins (KRTAPs) are important components of hair whereas the molecular components of feathers have remained incompletely known. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Avian EDCRPs contain a species-specific number of sequence repeats with the consensus sequence CCDPCQ(K/Q)(S/P)V, thus resembling mammalian cysteine-rich KRTAPs which also contain sequence repeats of similar sequence. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The process of intracellular protein cross-linking involves either transglutamination, the covalent connection of glutamine and lysine residues, or disulfide bonding, that is, the covalent connection of cysteine residues. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The amine acceptor is generally provided by the epsilon-amino group of a protein-bound lysine and the link formed is an N6-(gamma-glutamyl)lysine isopeptide bond. (reactome.org)
  • Description: A competitive ELISA for quantitative measurement of Human S phase kinase associated protein 1(SKP1) in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. (tuberculosistest.net)
  • The recent identification of mutations in the genetic coding for some of these proteins would predispose individuals to develop abnormal cornified cell envelopes with subsequent predispositions to skin barrier damage. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • Biallelic truncating mutations in FMN2, encoding the actin-regulatory protein Formin 2, cause nonsyndromic autosomal-recessive intellectual disability. (sickkids.ca)
  • inflammatory protein and slope of ODC is organ of mutations. (evakoch.com)
  • Description: A sandwich ELISA kit for detection of Huntingtin Interacting Protein 2 from Human in samples from blood, serum, plasma, cell culture fluid and other biological fluids. (wildpalm.net)