Lecithin Acyltransferase Deficiency
Corneal Dystrophies, Hereditary
Anterior Eye Segment
Lens Cortex, Crystalline
Phenotype of autosomal recessive congenital microphthalmia mapping to chromosome 14q32. (1/277)BACKGROUND: Congenital microphthalmia (OMIM: 309700) may occur in isolation or in association with a variety of systemic malformations. Isolated microphthalmia may be inherited as an autosomal dominant, an autosomal recessive, or an X linked trait. METHODS: Based on a whole genome linkage analysis, in a six generation consanguineous family with autosomal recessive inheritance, the first locus for isolated microphthalmia was mapped to chromosome 14q32. Eight members of this family underwent clinical examination to determine the nature of the microphthalmia phenotype associated with this locus. RESULTS: All affected individuals in this family suffered from bilateral microphthalmia in association with anterior segment abnormalities, and the best visual acuity achieved was "perception of light". Corneal changes included partial or complete congenital sclerocornea, and the later development of corneal vascularisation and anterior staphyloma. Intraocular pressure, as measured by Schiotz tonometry, was greatly elevated in many cases. CONCLUSIONS: This combination of ocular defects suggests an embryological disorder involving tissues derived from both the neuroectoderm and neural crest. Other families with defects in the microphthalmia gene located on 14q32 may have a similar ocular phenotype aiding their identification. (+info)
A first British case of fish-eye disease presenting at age 75 years: a double heterozygote for defined and new mutations affecting LCAT structure and expression. (2/277)Fish-eye disease is a familial syndrome with corneal opacification, major high density lipoprotein (HDL) deficiency in plasma, significant cholesterol esterification in plasma on non-HDL lipoproteins, generally without premature coronary disease. This first British male case from unrelated British parents had infarcts when aged 49 and 73 years but was asymptomatic at age 81 years, with plasma cholesterol 4.3-7.1 mmol/litre, triglycerides 1.8-2.2 mmol/litre, HDL cholesterol < 0.1 mmol/litre, apolipoprotein A-I < 0.16 g/litre, lipoprotein(a) 0.61 g/litre. Cholesterol esterification was impaired using HDL-3 and A-I proteoliposomes but not using VLDL/IDL/LDL. The findings are those of LCAT deficiency with the classic fish-eye disease defect. Most of the 22 reported cases were homozygous or heterozygous for a Thr-Ile mutation at codon 123 of the lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) gene. This patient was a double heterozygote for this mutation and a second new incompletely defined mutation affecting LCAT expression as defined by reduced mass and activity in plasma. (+info)
Functional human corneal equivalents constructed from cell lines. (3/277)Human corneal equivalents comprising the three main layers of the cornea (epithelium, stroma, and endothelium) were constructed. Each cellular layer was fabricated from immortalized human corneal cells that were screened for use on the basis of morphological, biochemical, and electrophysiological similarity to their natural counterparts. The resulting corneal equivalents mimicked human corneas in key physical and physiological functions, including morphology, biochemical marker expression, transparency, ion and fluid transport, and gene expression. Morphological and functional equivalents to human corneas that can be produced in vitro have immediate applications in toxicity and drug efficacy testing, and form the basis for future development of implantable tissues. (+info)
Persistent corneal haze after excimer laser photokeratectomy in plasminogen-deficient mice. (4/277)PURPOSE: Excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy creates a nonvascular wound of the cornea. Fibrin deposition and resolution after excimer laser photokeratectomy were investigated in relation to corneal repair and restoration of clarity in mice with a genetic deficiency of plasminogen. METHODS: A Summit Apex Laser (Summit, Waltham, MA) was used to perform 2-mm, 175-pulse, transepithelial photoablations that resulted in deep stromal keratectomies. Photokeratectomy was performed on the corneas of plasminogen-deficient (Plg-/-) mice and littermate control animals. Eyes were examined for re-epithelialization and clarity throughout the 21-day observational period. Histologic sections were taken during the observational period and fibrin(ogen) was detected immunohistochemically. RESULTS: Re-epithelialization was rapid and complete within 3 days in both control and Plg-/- animals. Exuberant corneal fibrin(ogen) deposition was noted in Plg-/- mice and sparse fibrin(ogen) deposition in control mice on days 1 and 3 after injury. Fibrin(ogen) deposits resolved in control mice but persisted in Plg-/- mice (74% of eyes at 21 days; P < 0.004). Corneal opacification, scarring, and the presence of anterior chamber fibrin(ogen) occurred in plasminogen-deficient mice but not in control mice. CONCLUSIONS: Fibrin(ogen) deposition occurs during corneal wound repair after photokeratectomy. Impaired fibrinolysis in Plg-/- mice caused persistent stromal fibrin deposits that correlated with the development of corneal opacity. (+info)
Relationship between structure and biochemical phenotype of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) mutants causing fish-eye disease. (5/277)In order to test the hypothesis that fish-eye disease (FED) is due to a deficient activation of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) by its co-factor apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, we overexpressed the natural mutants T123I, N131D, N391S, and other engineered mutants in Cos-1 cells. Esterase activity was measured on a monomeric phospholipid enelogue, phospholipase A(2) activity was measured on reconstituted high density lipoprotein (HDL), and acyltransferase activity was measured both on rHDL and on low density lipoprotein (LDL). The natural FED mutants have decreased phospholipase A(2) activity on rHDL, which accounts for the decreased acyltransferase activity previously reported. All mutants engineered at positions 131 and 391 had decreased esterase activity on a monomeric substrate and decreased acyltransferase activity on LDL. In contrast, mutations at position 123 preserved these activities and specifically decreased phospholipase A(2) and acyltransferase activites on rHDL. Mutations of hydrophilic residues in amphipathic helices alpha 3;-4 and alpha His to an alanine did not affect the mutants' activity on rHDL. Based upon the 3D model built for human LCAT, we designed a new mutant F382A, which had a biochemical phenotype similar to the natural T123I FED mutant. These data suggest that residues T123 and F382, located N-terminal of helices alpha 3-4 and alpha His, contribute specifically to the interaction of LCAT with HDL and possibly with its co-factor apoA-I. Residues N131 and N391 seem critical for the optimal orientation of the two amphipathic helices necessary for the recognition of a lipoprotein substrate by the enzyme. (+info)
Ocular changes in beagle dogs following oral administration of CGS 24565, a potential hypolipidemic agent. (6/277)(11R)-N,15-dideoxo-1-deoxy-1,15-epoxy-11-hydroxy-4-0methy l-8-0-(2, 2-dimethyl-1-oxopropyl)-3-[4- inverted question mark(2,4, 6-trimethylphenyl)methyl inverted question mark-1-piperazinyl]rifamycin has been evaluated as a potential hypolipidemic agent. As part of a safety evaluation program, a 3-month oral toxicity study was performed in which CGS 24565 was administered to beagle dogs via gelatin capsules at 10, 50, or 300 mg/kg/day. Ophthalmoscopic examinations (using focal illumination and indirect opthalmoscopy) on day 83 (week 12) revealed bilateral adnexal and corneal changes affecting 5 dogs (3 males, 2 females, 300 mg/kg/day). Ophthalmoscopically, dogs from the 300 mg/kg dose level exhibited the adnexal changes characterized as ptosis, conjunctivitis, episcleritis, and relaxed membrane nictitans, while the corneal changes were characterized as posterior stromal edema (cloudy, diffuse opacity usually accompanied by deep neovascularization; the diffuse edema masked the complete evaluation of other ocular structures) and stromal infiltrates in the area of Decement's membrane (appeared to be multifocal, polymorphic changes/alterations in Decement's membrane, or endothelial swelling). No changes from normal were seen clinically in the eyes of other dogs on this experiment. In those dogs affected by the ocular changes caused by CGS 24565, a visual deficit in acuity was suspected. The corneal changes, as manifested, were suggestive of permanent, irreversible corneal damage. Subsequent ophthalmoscopic examinations performed at established intervals during weeks 15 through 26, revealed abatement of the adnexal changes, while the corneal changes, as described above, remained generally unchanged, confirming irreversibility of the corneal changes within the recovery period of 13 weeks. Light microscopy confirmed irreversible corneal neovascularization, vacuolar degeneration of the keratocytes at 300 mg/kg, and polymorphic infiltrates in the region of Decement's membrane. The results demonstrate that the cornea was the target tissue of toxicity for CGS 24565, and indicated that the findings represent a significant toxic effect. The correlation of histopathological findings support the hypothesis of the diagnosis of interstitial stromal degeneration/atrophy. The potential for a similar result to the cornea of humans does exist. Due to these changes and other toxic effects associated with this class of compound, further development was terminated. (+info)
A simple method to evaluate the massive dose vitamin A prophylaxis program in preschool children. (7/277)A massive dose vitamin A prophylaxis program is currently in operation in several States of India. Evaluation of this program on a large scale has so far been difficult due to lack of baseline data on the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in children. In this study, a simple evaluation method which makes use of the linear relationship that exists between age on one hand and prevalence of ocular signs of vitamin A deficiency (Bitot's spots) on the other is described. Regression coefficients between age and prevalence of vitamin A deficiency of areas not covered by the program (control areas) were found to be significantly different both from zero and from regression coefficients of regularly covered areas (experimental areas). Also, all regression lines of control areas were found to be above the regression zone of experimental areas. These differences between the experimental and control areas which were significant, indicate the impact of the program in areas where the program is in operation. The regression coefficient calculated for one area where the program was discontinued after some time was found to be significantly different from zero, also it was different from the regression zone of the experimental areas. However, the regression coefficient of the discontinued area was found to be significantly different from the experimental areas only at 10% level, indicating a lesser degree of efficiency of the program in this area as compared to regularly fed areas. It is, therefore, suggested that evaluation of the massive dose prophylaxis program be done against the null hypothesis beta = 0.0065--the regression coefficient achievable under field conditions. (+info)
Excimer laser phototherapeutic keratectomy: indications, results and its role in the Indian scenario. (8/277)PURPOSE: To report indications, technique, and results of excimer phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK), and describe possible reasons for the small numbers of such procedures performed in a referral institute in India. METHODS: Retrospective review of case records of 10 patients (11 eyes) who underwent excimer PTK at our institute between February 1994 and September 1997. RESULTS: Corneal scars were the most common indication for treatment. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) improved in 6 eyes (mean: 2 lines of Snellen acuity). All eyes had BCVA > or = 6/12 after treatment. None of the patients experienced loss of BCVA after treatment. Unaided visual acuity improved in 3 eyes and decreased in 2 eyes. Change in spherical equivalent refraction > or = 1 diopter occurred in 77.8% of eyes after treatment. Treating central corneal scars resulted in a significant hyperopic shift in refraction. CONCLUSIONS: Excimer PTK is a safe and effective procedure for the treatment of superficial corneal opacities. Post-treatment ametropia may require further correction with optical aids. Inappropriate referrals, deep corneal scars, and cost of the procedure could have contributed to the small numbers of PTK performed at our institute. Improved understanding of procedural strengths and limitations could lead to increased use of this procedure, with satisfying results in selected patients. (+info)
There are several possible causes of trichiasis, including:
* Eyelid defects or deformities
* Injury or trauma to the eyelid
* Certain medical conditions such as blepharitis or rosacea
* Infections such as conjunctivitis or blepharitis
* Poor eye hygiene or improper makeup application.
Symptoms of trichiasis may include:
* Itching or burning sensation in the eyes
* Redness and swelling of the eyelids
* Discharge or crusting around the eyes
* Blurred vision or sensitivity to light
* Excessive tearing or watering of the eyes.
If you suspect that you have trichiasis, it is important to seek medical attention from an eye care professional such as an ophthalmologist or optometrist. They can diagnose the condition and recommend appropriate treatment options. Treatment for trichiasis may include:
* Eyelid hygiene and care
* Antibiotic or anti-inflammatory medications
* Surgical procedures such as eyelid surgery or removal of the ingrown eyelashes.
It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of trichiasis, as leaving the condition untreated can lead to complications such as infection or scarring of the eyelids.
There are different types of cataracts, including:
1. Nuclear cataract: This is the most common type of cataract and affects the center of the lens.
2. Cortical cataract: This type of cataract affects the outer layer of the lens and can cause a "halo" effect around lights.
3. Posterior subcapsular cataract: This type of cataract affects the back of the lens and is more common in younger people and those with diabetes.
4. Congenital cataract: This type of cataract is present at birth and can be caused by genetic factors or other conditions.
Symptoms of cataracts can include:
* Blurred vision
* Double vision
* Sensitivity to light
* Difficulty seeing at night
* Fading or yellowing of colors
Cataracts can be diagnosed with a comprehensive eye exam, which includes a visual acuity test, dilated eye exam, and imaging tests such as ultrasound or optical coherence tomography (OCT).
Treatment for cataracts typically involves surgery to remove the clouded lens and replace it with an artificial one called an intraocular lens (IOL). The type of IOL used will depend on the patient's age, visual needs, and other factors. In some cases, cataracts may be removed using a laser-assisted procedure.
In addition to surgery, there are also non-surgical treatments for cataracts, such as glasses or contact lenses, which can help improve vision. However, these treatments do not cure the underlying condition and are only temporary solutions.
It's important to note that cataracts are a common age-related condition and can affect anyone over the age of 40. Therefore, it's important to have regular eye exams to monitor for any changes in vision and to detect cataracts early on.
In summary, cataracts are a clouding of the lens in the eye that can cause blurred vision, double vision, sensitivity to light, and other symptoms. Treatment typically involves surgery to remove the clouded lens and replace it with an artificial one, but non-surgical treatments such as glasses or contact lenses may also be used. Regular eye exams are important for detecting cataracts early on and monitoring vision health.
The primary symptom of LCAT deficiency is a high level of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, also known as "bad" cholesterol, in the blood. This can lead to the development of cholesterol deposits in the skin, eyes, and other tissues, which can cause a range of health problems including xanthomas (yellowish patches on the skin), corneal arcus (a cloudy ring around the cornea of the eye), and xanthelasma (yellowish patches on the eyelids).
Treatment for LCAT deficiency typically involves a combination of dietary changes, such as reducing intake of saturated fats and cholesterol, and medication to lower cholesterol levels. In some cases, liver transplantation may be necessary.
Prevention of LCAT deficiency is not possible, as it is a genetic disorder that is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. This means that a child must inherit two copies of the mutated LCAT gene, one from each parent, to develop the condition. However, early detection and treatment can help manage the symptoms and prevent complications.
The diagnosis of LCAT deficiency is based on a combination of clinical features, laboratory tests, and genetic analysis. Laboratory tests may include measurements of lipid levels in the blood, as well as assays for LCAT enzyme activity. Genetic testing can identify the presence of mutations in the LCAT gene that cause the condition.
Overall, LCAT deficiency is a rare and potentially serious genetic disorder that affects the body's ability to metabolize cholesterol and other fats. Early diagnosis and treatment can help manage the symptoms and prevent complications, but there is currently no cure for the condition.
1. Keratoconus: This is a progressive thinning of the cornea that can cause it to bulge into a cone-like shape, leading to blurred vision and sensitivity to light.
2. Fuchs' dystrophy: This is a condition in which the cells in the innermost layer of the cornea become damaged, leading to clouding and blurred vision.
3. Bullous keratopathy: This is a condition in which there is a large, fluid-filled bubble on the surface of the cornea, which can cause blurred vision and discomfort.
4. Corneal ulcers: These are open sores on the surface of the cornea that can be caused by infection or other conditions.
5. Dry eye syndrome: This is a condition in which the eyes do not produce enough tears, leading to dryness, irritation, and blurred vision.
6. Corneal abrasions: These are scratches on the surface of the cornea that can be caused by injury or other conditions.
7. Trachoma: This is an infectious eye disease that can cause scarring and blindness if left untreated.
8. Ocular herpes: This is a viral infection that can cause blisters on the surface of the cornea and lead to scarring and vision loss if left untreated.
9. Endophthalmitis: This is an inflammation of the inner layer of the eye that can be caused by bacterial or fungal infections, and can lead to severe vision loss if left untreated.
10. Corneal neovascularization: This is the growth of new blood vessels into the cornea, which can be a complication of other conditions such as dry eye syndrome or ocular trauma.
These are just a few examples of the many different types of corneal diseases that can affect the eyes. It's important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms such as pain, redness, or blurred vision in one or both eyes. Early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and preserve vision.
Treatment options for entropion include:
* Eyelid hygiene and warm compresses to reduce inflammation and clean the eyelids
* Prescription medications such as antibiotics, anti-inflammatory eye drops or ointments, or steroids to reduce swelling and infection
* Surgical procedures like eyelid surgery (blepharoplasty) or entropion repair to correct the position of the eyelid and remove any damaged tissue.
It is important to seek medical attention if you experience symptoms of entropion, as it can lead to complications such as corneal ulcers or vision loss if left untreated. A comprehensive diagnosis and appropriate treatment plan from an eye care professional are necessary for effective management of this condition.
There are several types of hereditary corneal dystrophies, each with different clinical features and modes of inheritance. Some of the most common forms include:
1. Keratoconus: This is a progressive thinning of the cornea, which can cause irregular astigmatism and visual distortion. It is the most common form of corneal dystrophy and usually affects both eyes.
2. Familial Corneal Dystrophy Type 1 (FCD1): This is an autosomal dominant disorder that affects the central cornea, causing progressive opacification and visual loss.
3. Familial Corneal Dystrophy Type 2 (FCD2): This is an autosomal recessive disorder that affects both eyes and causes progressive opacification of the peripheral cornea.
4. Granular Corneal Dystrophy (GCD): This is a rare form of corneal dystrophy characterized by the accumulation of granular material in the cornea, leading to vision loss.
5. Avellar Corneal Dystrophy: This is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that affects both eyes and causes progressive opacification of the central cornea.
The diagnosis of hereditary corneal dystrophies is based on a combination of clinical examination, imaging studies (such as optical coherence tomography), and genetic testing. Treatment options vary depending on the specific type of dystrophy and the severity of symptoms, but may include glasses or contact lenses, corneal transplantation, or phototherapeutic keratectomy.
In conclusion, hereditary corneal dystrophies are a group of genetic disorders that affect the cornea and can cause significant vision loss and blindness. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent or slow down the progression of these diseases. Ophthalmologists play a key role in the diagnosis and management of hereditary corneal dystrophies, and genetic testing may be useful in identifying the specific type of dystrophy and guiding treatment decisions.
There are different types of blindness, including:
1. Congenital blindness: Blindness that is present at birth, often due to genetic mutations or abnormalities in the development of the eye and brain.
2. Acquired blindness: Blindness that develops later in life due to injury, disease, or other factors.
3. Amblyopia: A condition where one eye has reduced vision due to misalignment or other causes.
4. Glaucoma: A group of eye conditions that can damage the optic nerve and lead to blindness if left untreated.
5. Retinitis pigmentosa: A degenerative disease that affects the retina and can cause blindness.
6. Cataracts: A clouding of the lens in the eye that can impair vision and eventually cause blindness if left untreated.
7. Macular degeneration: A condition where the macula, a part of the retina responsible for central vision, deteriorates and causes blindness.
There are various treatments and therapies for blindness, depending on the underlying cause. These may include medications, surgery, low vision aids, and assistive technology such as braille and audio books, screen readers, and voice-controlled software. Rehabilitation programs can also help individuals adapt to blindness and lead fulfilling lives.
Trachoma affects the conjunctiva and cornea, causing inflammation and scarring that can lead to blindness if left untreated. The disease is transmitted through direct contact with eye discharge from an infected person, or through shared items such as towels or clothes.
The symptoms of trachoma include:
1. Inflammation of the conjunctiva (conjunctivitis)
2. Eye discharge and crusting around the eyelids
3. Redness and swelling of the conjunctiva
4. Blindness or vision loss if left untreated
Trachoma is diagnosed through a physical examination of the eyes, and laboratory tests to confirm the presence of the bacteria. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to kill the bacteria, and surgery to remove any scar tissue that has developed. Prevention measures include good hygiene practices such as washing hands regularly, and avoiding sharing items with infected individuals.
Trachoma is a significant public health problem in many developing countries, where it affects millions of people and causes substantial blindness and disability. The World Health Organization (WHO) has included trachoma on its list of neglected tropical diseases, and there are ongoing efforts to control and eliminate the disease through improved access to healthcare and sanitation, as well as mass drug administration programs to prevent and treat the infection.
Some common types of eyelid diseases include:
1. Blepharitis: Inflammation of the eyelids, often caused by bacterial infection or allergies.
2. Chalazion: A small, usually painless lump on the eyelid, caused by a blockage of the oil gland in the eyelid.
3. Stye: A red, tender bump on the eyelid caused by a bacterial infection.
4. Entropion: A condition in which the eyelid turns inward and the eyelashes rub against the cornea.
5. Ectropion: A condition in which the eyelid turns outward and the cornea is exposed.
6. Cancer: Malignant growths on the eyelid, including basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma.
7. Ptosis: A condition in which the upper eyelid droops or falls, often caused by nerve damage or muscle weakness.
8. Dacryostenosis: A blockage of the tear ducts, which can cause tears to overflow and create a crusty discharge around the eyes.
9. Meibomian gland dysfunction: A condition in which the glands in the eyelids that produce the oily substance meibum become clogged or inflamed.
Eyelid diseases can be diagnosed through a comprehensive eye exam, which may include a visual examination of the eyelids, as well as tests to assess tear production and the health of the eyelid glands. Treatment options for eyelid diseases depend on the specific condition and may include antibiotics, surgery, or other therapies.
There are many different types of eye diseases, including:
1. Cataracts: A clouding of the lens in the eye that can cause blurry vision and blindness.
2. Glaucoma: A group of diseases that damage the optic nerve and can lead to vision loss and blindness.
3. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD): A condition that causes vision loss in older adults due to damage to the macula, the part of the retina responsible for central vision.
4. Diabetic retinopathy: A complication of diabetes that can cause damage to the blood vessels in the retina and lead to vision loss.
5. Detached retina: A condition where the retina becomes separated from the underlying tissue, leading to vision loss.
6. Macular hole: A small hole in the macula that can cause vision loss.
7. Amblyopia (lazy eye): A condition where one eye is weaker than the other and has reduced vision.
8. Strabismus (crossed eyes): A condition where the eyes are not aligned properly and point in different directions.
9. Conjunctivitis: An inflammation of the conjunctiva, the thin membrane that covers the white part of the eye and the inside of the eyelids.
10. Dry eye syndrome: A condition where the eyes do not produce enough tears, leading to dryness, itchiness, and irritation.
Eye diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, age, environmental factors, and certain medical conditions. Some eye diseases are inherited, while others are acquired through lifestyle choices or medical conditions.
Symptoms of eye diseases can include blurry vision, double vision, eye pain, sensitivity to light, and redness or inflammation in the eye. Treatment options for eye diseases depend on the specific condition and can range from medication, surgery, or lifestyle changes.
Regular eye exams are important for detecting and managing eye diseases, as many conditions can be treated more effectively if caught early. If you experience any symptoms of eye disease or have concerns about your vision, it is important to see an eye doctor as soon as possible.
Symptoms of keratoconjunctivitis may include redness and discharge in both eyes, itching or burning sensations in the eyes, blurred vision, and sensitivity to light. Treatment options for keratoconjunctivitis depend on the underlying cause, but may include antibiotic eye drops, anti-inflammatory medication, or topical creams or ointments.
In severe cases, keratoconjunctivitis can lead to complications such as corneal ulcers, glaucoma, or vision loss if left untreated. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of keratoconjunctivitis.
* Pupillary anomalies: Abnormalities in the size, shape, or position of the pupil.
* Pupillary block: A condition where the pupil is unable to open properly due to a blockage or obstruction.
* Pupillary dilation: The widening of the pupil, which can be a sign of certain medical conditions.
* Pupillary constriction: The narrowing of the pupil, which can be a sign of other medical conditions.
* Difficulty seeing or blurred vision
* Sensitivity to light
* Eye pain or discomfort
* Redness or swelling of the eye
* Difficulty moving the eyes
* Comprehensive eye exam
* Pupillary reactivity test: Measures how responsive the pupils are to light.
* Ophthalmoscopy: Examines the interior of the eye, including the retina and optic nerve.
* Glasses or contact lenses to correct refractive errors
* Medication to treat underlying conditions such as infection or inflammation
* Surgery to remove blockages or repair damaged tissue
* Pupillary dilators to widen the pupil and improve vision.
There are several types of eye burns, including:
1. Chemical burns: These occur when the eye comes into contact with a corrosive substance, such as bleach or drain cleaner.
2. Thermal burns: These occur when the eye is exposed to heat or flames, such as from a fire or a hot surface.
3. Ultraviolet (UV) burns: These occur when the eye is exposed to UV radiation, such as from the sun or a tanning bed.
4. Radiation burns: These occur when the eye is exposed to ionizing radiation, such as from a nuclear accident or cancer treatment.
Symptoms of eye burns can include:
* Pain and redness in the eye
* Discharge or crusting around the eye
* Blurred vision or sensitivity to light
* Swelling of the eyelids or the surface of the eye
* Increased tearing or dryness
Treatment for eye burns depends on the cause and severity of the injury. Mild cases may require only topical medications, such as antibiotic ointments or anti-inflammatory drops. More severe cases may require more aggressive treatment, such as oral medications, patching, or even surgery. In some cases, eye burns can lead to long-term vision problems or scarring, so it is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
A burn that is caused by direct contact with a chemical substance or agent, such as a strong acid or base, and results in damage to the skin and underlying tissues. Chemical burns can be particularly severe and may require extensive treatment, including surgery and skin grafting.
Examples of how Burns, Chemical is used in medical literature:
1. "The patient sustained a chemical burn on her hand when she spilled a beaker of sulfuric acid."
2. "The burn team was called in to treat the victim of a chemical explosion, who had suffered extensive burns, including chemical burns to his face and arms."
3. "The patient was admitted with severe chemical burns on her legs and feet, caused by exposure to a corrosive substance at work."
4. "Chemical burns can be difficult to treat, as they may require specialized equipment and techniques to remove the damaged tissue and promote healing."
5. "The patient required multiple debridements and skin grafting procedures to treat her chemical burns, which had resulted in extensive scarring and disfigurement."
CNV can cause vision loss and blindness if left untreated. It can also increase the risk of complications such as cataracts, glaucoma, and corneal ulcers.
There are several treatment options for CNV, including:
1. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections: These medications can help reduce the growth of new blood vessels and preserve vision.
2. Photodynamic therapy: This involves the use of a light-sensitive medication and low-intensity laser to damage and shrink the new blood vessels.
3. Corneal transplantation: In severe cases, a corneal transplant may be necessary to replace the damaged or diseased cornea with a healthy one.
4. Surgical removal of the neovascularized tissue: This can be done through a surgical procedure called vitrectomy, where the new blood vessels are removed and the eye is filled with a gas or oil bubble.
Early detection and treatment of CNV are crucial to prevent vision loss and improve outcomes. Ophthalmologists use a range of diagnostic tests such as imaging studies and visual acuity assessments to diagnose and monitor the progression of the condition.
Also known as: Corneal inflammation, Eye inflammation, Keratoconjunctivitis, Ocular inflammation.
Some common types of eye abnormalities include:
1. Refractive errors: These are errors in the way the eye focuses light, causing blurry vision. Examples include myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia (farsightedness), astigmatism, and presbyopia (age-related loss of near vision).
2. Amblyopia: This is a condition where the brain favors one eye over the other, causing poor vision in the weaker eye.
3. Cataracts: A cataract is a clouding of the lens in the eye that can cause blurry vision and increase the risk of glaucoma.
4. Glaucoma: This is a group of eye conditions that can damage the optic nerve and lead to vision loss.
5. Macular degeneration: This is a condition where the macula, the part of the retina responsible for central vision, deteriorates, leading to vision loss.
6. Diabetic retinopathy: This is a complication of diabetes that can damage the blood vessels in the retina and lead to vision loss.
7. Retinal detachment: This is a condition where the retina becomes separated from the underlying tissue, leading to vision loss.
8. Corneal abnormalities: These are irregularities in the shape or structure of the cornea, such as keratoconus, that can cause blurry vision.
9. Optic nerve disorders: These are conditions that affect the optic nerve, such as optic neuritis, that can cause vision loss.
10. Traumatic eye injuries: These are injuries to the eye or surrounding tissue that can cause vision loss or other eye abnormalities.
Eye abnormalities can be diagnosed through a comprehensive eye exam, which may include visual acuity tests, refraction tests, and imaging tests such as retinal photography or optical coherence tomography (OCT). Treatment for eye abnormalities depends on the specific condition and may include glasses or contact lenses, medication, surgery, or other therapies.
Low vision is not the same as blindness, but it does affect an individual's ability to perform daily activities such as reading, driving, and recognizing faces. The condition can be treated with low vision aids such as specialized glasses, telescopes, and video magnifiers that enhance visual acuity and improve the ability to see objects and details more clearly.
In the medical field, Low Vision is often used interchangeably with the term "visual impairment" which refers to any degree of vision loss that cannot be corrected by regular glasses or contact lenses. Visual impairment can range from mild to severe and can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life.
Low Vision is a common condition among older adults, with approximately 20% of people over the age of 65 experiencing some degree of visual impairment. However, Low Vision can also affect younger individuals, particularly those with certain eye conditions such as retinitis pigmentosa or other inherited eye disorders.
Overall, Low Vision is a condition that affects an individual's ability to see clearly and perform daily activities, and it is important for individuals experiencing vision loss to seek medical attention to determine the cause of their symptoms and explore available treatment options.
A type of keratitis caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV). It is characterized by the presence of small, discrete ulcers on the surface of the cornea, along with inflammation and edema. The lesions are usually self-limiting but can be painful and may lead to scarring or perforation of the cornea if left untreated.
Synonyms: herpetic keratitis, HSV keratitis
See also: bacterial keratitis, fungal keratitis, avulsive keratitis, neurotrophic keratitis
Source: Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA)
Note: This term is used in the medical field to describe a specific type of inflammation of the cornea caused by the herpes simplex virus. It is important to note that this term is not a diagnosis, but rather a descriptor of the cause of the inflammation. A proper diagnosis can only be made by a qualified medical professional through a comprehensive examination and appropriate testing.
Some common types of vision disorders include:
1. Myopia (nearsightedness): A condition where close objects are seen clearly, but distant objects appear blurry.
2. Hyperopia (farsightedness): A condition where distant objects are seen clearly, but close objects appear blurry.
3. Astigmatism: A condition where the cornea or lens of the eye is irregularly shaped, causing blurred vision at all distances.
4. Presbyopia: A condition that occurs as people age, where the lens of the eye loses flexibility and makes it difficult to focus on close objects.
5. Amblyopia (lazy eye): A condition where one eye has reduced vision due to abnormal development or injury.
6. Strabismus (crossed eyes): A condition where the eyes are misaligned and point in different directions.
7. Color blindness: A condition where people have difficulty perceiving certain colors, usually red and green.
8. Retinal disorders: Conditions that affect the retina, such as age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, or retinal detachment.
9. Glaucoma: A group of conditions that damage the optic nerve, often due to increased pressure in the eye.
10. Cataracts: A clouding of the lens in the eye that can cause blurred vision and sensitivity to light.
Vision disorders can be diagnosed through a comprehensive eye exam, which includes a visual acuity test, refraction test, and dilated eye exam. Treatment options for vision disorders depend on the specific condition and may include glasses or contact lenses, medication, surgery, or a combination of these.
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- Corneal Edema and Keratoplasty: Risk Factors in Eyes With Previous Glaucoma Drainage Devices. (harvard.edu)
- A Patient With Glaucoma With Corneal Edema. (harvard.edu)
- The leading causes of chronic blindness include cataract, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, corneal opacities, diabetic retinopathy, trachoma, and eye conditions in children (e.g. caused by vitamin A deficiency). (who.int)
- It is either congenital or acquired (due to ageing, diabetes, injury) and corresponds to opacity of the lens, gradually leading to diminished vision. (who.int)
- After his experience in Basra, Hardan says that within the next two years he expects to see significant rises in congenital cataracts, anopthalmia, microphthalmia, corneal opacities and coloboma of the iris - and that is just in people's eyes. (aljazeera.com)
- Surgical treatment options for congenital/infantile corneal opacities and anterior segment dysgenesis]. (bvsalud.org)
- With the development of new surgical techniques, instrumentation and pharmacological advances, corneal transplant procedures can undergo changes directly in the clinical profile of patients with the indication for penetrating keratoplasty technique. (bvsalud.org)
- Some patients with markedly elevated IOP often have severe eye pain associated with corneal edema. (medscape.com)
- Other ocular disturbances (eg, photophobia, colored halos) may be associated with acute iridocyclitis and corneal edema, respectively. (medscape.com)
- Corneal epithelial edema associated with acutely elevated IOP may give rise to a steamy appearance. (medscape.com)
- Corneal Edema" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
- This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Corneal Edema" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Corneal Edema" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
- Below are the most recent publications written about "Corneal Edema" by people in Profiles. (harvard.edu)
- Corneal Edema in a Gardener. (harvard.edu)
- Brillouin Microscopy Visualizes Centralized Corneal Edema in Fuchs Endothelial Dystrophy. (harvard.edu)
- Others include corneal opacities (from infections, inflammations, injury and toxic medication), Diabetic retinopathy, Trachoma (a chronic eye infection linked to poor sanitary conditions) and Age-related macular degeneration. (vanguardngr.com)
- A scoring scale for Palpebral Conjunctival Irritation, Eyelid Irritation, Lachrymation, Subjective Irritation, Bulbar Conjunctival Irritation, Corneal Abnormalities, Palpebral and Bulbar Conjunctival, Caruncular, and Corneal Fluorescein Ophthalmic Staining was designed by Kanengiser & observations are interpreted graphically. (ijpsr.com)
- Ocular manifestations of herpes simplex virus have been classified in accordance with the site of the corneal involvement and the presence or absence of associated uveitis, including herpetic superficial keratitis, disciform keratitis, disciform keratouveitis, and necrotic stromal keratitis. (medscape.com)
- Injury prevention at work and play reduces corneal scarring and traumatic cataracts. (vanguardngr.com)
- Diseases surgical technique developed since the start of the involving the corneal endothelium can be controlled twentieth century for the realization of corneal with endothelial or penetrating keratoplasties, and transplantation (CT). (bvsalud.org)
- CT is the most common type those diseases that involve both the endothelium and of tissue transplantation made around the world, the corneal stroma generally require PK when there is substitution of all corneal layers (the (REINHART, 2011). (bvsalud.org)
- Caution with traditional eye medications and self-medication for red eyes will reduce corneal blindness from scarring. (vanguardngr.com)
- The prevalence of corneal opacity also increased with increasing concentration of total amines. (cdc.gov)
- The first video in the series focuses on the Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability assay - a replacement for the Draize eye irritation test that utilizes live rabbits. (iivs.org)
- The area of corneal fluorescein staining was judged on a 0 to +4 scale using the same terminology as for corneal cloudiness (Draize). (ijpsr.com)
- The statistical analysis of correlation between subjective irritation levels and area levels of corneal staining demonstrated better correlation for Kanengiser's scoring system (r = 0.82) than for Draize's scoring system (r = 0.74). (ijpsr.com)
- According to our clinical routine, we performed HSV-1 and VZV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on all excised corneal buttons regardless of the primary clinical diagnosis. (mdpi.com)
- Another group that may sometimes contend with dry eye are those who've undergone refractive surgery such as LASIK (laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis) , in which a flap is made and tissue is removed beneath it to reshape the clear corneal dome. (verywellhealth.com)
- The risk of corneal opacity rose with increasing exposure to total amines. (cdc.gov)
- To evaluate the clinical usefulness of anterior segment (AS) optical coherence tomography (OCT) in diagnosis and follow-up of children with congenital corneal opacities. (nih.gov)
- In addition to basic outpatient examination, eyes were imaged using AS OCT. Anterior segment structures and corneal thicknesses were evaluated from the images. (nih.gov)
- Anterior segment OCT was a valuable method in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with congenital corneal opacities. (nih.gov)
- It is either congenital or acquired (due to ageing, diabetes, injury) and corresponds to opacity of the lens, gradually leading to diminished vision. (who.int)
- Corneal opacities or scars that cover any part of the pupil impair the patient's vision. (medscape.com)