New blood vessels originating from the corneal veins and extending from the limbus into the adjacent CORNEAL STROMA. Neovascularization in the superficial and/or deep corneal stroma is a sequel to numerous inflammatory diseases of the ocular anterior segment, such as TRACHOMA, viral interstitial KERATITIS, microbial KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS, and the immune response elicited by CORNEAL TRANSPLANTATION.
Injury to any part of the eye by extreme heat, chemical agents, or ultraviolet radiation.
'Chemical burns' is a medical term that refers to injuries resulting from skin or eye contact with harmful substances, such as acids, alkalis, or irritants, which can cause damage ranging from mild irritation to severe necrosis and scarring.
A highly caustic substance that is used to neutralize acids and make sodium salts. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Formation of new blood vessels originating from the retinal veins and extending along the inner (vitreal) surface of the retina.
A pathological process consisting of the formation of new blood vessels in the CHOROID.
The administration of substances into the eye with a hypodermic syringe.
Usually a hydroxide of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium or cesium, but also the carbonates of these metals, ammonia, and the amines. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Agents and endogenous substances that antagonize or inhibit the development of new blood vessels.
A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.
The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.
Sterile solutions that are intended for instillation into the eye. It does not include solutions for cleaning eyeglasses or CONTACT LENS SOLUTIONS.
The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.
The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.
Inflammation of the cornea.
The application of a caustic substance, a hot instrument, an electric current, or other agent to control bleeding while removing or destroying tissue.
Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Stratified squamous epithelium that covers the outer surface of the CORNEA. It is smooth and contains many free nerve endings.
Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.
Agents that induce or stimulate PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS or PATHOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS.
A silver salt with powerful germicidal activity. It has been used topically to prevent OPHTHALMIA NEONATORUM.
The lamellated connective tissue constituting the thickest layer of the cornea between the Bowman and Descemet membranes.
Partial or total replacement of the CORNEA from one human or animal to another.
Disorder occurring in the central or peripheral area of the cornea. The usual degree of transparency becomes relatively opaque.
Inbred C57BL mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity and homozygosity, making them widely used for biomedical research, including studies on genetics, immunology, cancer, and neuroscience.
A family of angiogenic proteins that are closely-related to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR A. They play an important role in the growth and differentiation of vascular as well as lymphatic endothelial cells.
These growth factors are soluble mitogens secreted by a variety of organs. The factors are a mixture of two single chain polypeptides which have affinity to heparin. Their molecular weight are organ and species dependent. They have mitogenic and chemotactic effects and can stimulate endothelial cells to grow and synthesize DNA. The factors are related to both the basic and acidic FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS but have different amino acid sequences.
Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.
The mucous membrane that covers the posterior surface of the eyelids and the anterior pericorneal surface of the eyeball.
A superficial, epithelial Herpesvirus hominis infection of the cornea, characterized by the presence of small vesicles which may break down and coalesce to form dendritic ulcers (KERATITIS, DENDRITIC). (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Drugs that are pharmacologically inactive but when exposed to ultraviolet radiation or sunlight are converted to their active metabolite to produce a beneficial reaction affecting the diseased tissue. These compounds can be administered topically or systemically and have been used therapeutically to treat psoriasis and various types of neoplasms.
Visualization of a vascular system after intravenous injection of a fluorescein solution. The images may be photographed or televised. It is used especially in studying the retinal and uveal vasculature.
The blood vessels which supply and drain the RETINA.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).
Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.
Therapy using oral or topical photosensitizing agents with subsequent exposure to light.
Inbred BALB/c mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to be genetically identical to each other, making them useful for scientific research and experiments due to their consistent genetic background and predictable responses to various stimuli or treatments.
Angiostatic proteins that are formed from proteolytic cleavage of COLLAGEN TYPE XVIII.
Partial or total replacement of all layers of a central portion of the cornea.
An extracellular matrix glycoprotein from platelets and a variety of normal and transformed cells of both mesenchymal and epithelial origin. Thrombospondin-1 is believed to play a role in cell migration and proliferation, during embryogenesis and wound repair. Also, it has been studied for its use as a potential regulator of tumor growth and metastasis.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
A 200-230-kDa tyrosine kinase receptor for vascular endothelial growth factors found primarily in endothelial and hematopoietic cells and their precursors. VEGFR-2 is important for vascular and hematopoietic development, and mediates almost all endothelial cell responses to VEGF.
A 180-kDa VEGF receptor found primarily in endothelial cells that is essential for vasculogenesis and vascular maintenance. It is also known as Flt-1 (fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor-1). A soluble, alternatively spliced isoform of the receptor may serve as a binding protein that regulates the availability of various ligands for VEGF receptor binding and signal transduction.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Diseases of the cornea.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.
The thin, highly vascular membrane covering most of the posterior of the eye between the RETINA and SCLERA.
A group of compounds containing the porphin structure, four pyrrole rings connected by methine bridges in a cyclic configuration to which a variety of side chains are attached. The nature of the side chain is indicated by a prefix, as uroporphyrin, hematoporphyrin, etc. The porphyrins, in combination with iron, form the heme component in biologically significant compounds such as hemoglobin and myoglobin.
A family of closely related RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES that bind vascular endothelial growth factors. They share a cluster of seven extracellular Ig-like domains which are important for ligand binding. They are highly expressed in vascular endothelial cells and are critical for the physiological and pathological growth, development and maintenance of blood and lymphatic vessels.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A bilateral retinopathy occurring in premature infants treated with excessively high concentrations of oxygen, characterized by vascular dilatation, proliferation, and tortuosity, edema, and retinal detachment, with ultimate conversion of the retina into a fibrous mass that can be seen as a dense retrolental membrane. Usually growth of the eye is arrested and may result in microophthalmia, and blindness may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Tree-like, highly branched, polymeric compounds. They grow three-dimensionally by the addition of shells of branched molecules to a central core. The overall globular shape and presence of cavities gives potential as drug carriers and CONTRAST AGENTS.
The use of green light-producing LASERS to stop bleeding. The green light is selectively absorbed by HEMOGLOBIN, thus triggering BLOOD COAGULATION.
Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.
Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.
Nutrient blood vessels which supply the walls of large arteries or veins.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The administration of substances into the VITREOUS BODY of the eye with a hypodermic syringe.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)

In vivo significance of ICAM-1--dependent leukocyte adhesion in early corneal angiogenesis. (1/340)

PURPOSE: Numerous investigations have stressed the significance of leukocytes in early angiogenesis. Leukocytes invade the cornea, and the location of their extravasation corresponds to the site of vessel ingrowth. The interactions between leukocytes and vascular endothelium are mediated by various proteins, including adhesion molecules such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). In this study, the role of ICAM-1 during early corneal angiogenesis was evaluated in vivo. METHODS: Corneal neovascularization was induced in New Zealand White rabbits by use of intrastromal pellets containing 750 ng vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The fluorescent dye rhodamine 6G was used to stain leukocytes in vivo. Leukocyte adhesion and vessel growth were quantified in vivo by high-resolution fluorescence angiography. To inhibit ICAM-1 interactions a microemulsion containing anti-ICAM-1 antibody was applied topically. RESULTS: Limbal vessels showed increased leukocyte adhesion 24 hours after pellet implantation: The number of rolling and sticking leukocytes was significantly increased compared with the number in control animals (P < 0.01). Treatment with anti-ICAM-1 antibody resulted in reduced leukocyte sticking and increased leukocyte rolling. The area covered by new blood vessels was significantly diminished in eyes treated with anti-ICAM-1 (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The results support the hypothesis that ICAM-1-mediated leukocyte adhesion is a key event in early angiogenesis. This model may serve for investigation of the significance of adhesion molecules by in vivo observation and quantification.  (+info)

Suppression of angiogenesis and tumor growth by the inhibitor K1-5 generated by plasmin-mediated proteolysis. (2/340)

Proteolytic enzymes are involved in generation of a number of endogenous angiogenesis inhibitors. Previously, we reported that angiostatin, a potent angiogenesis inhibitor, is a proteolytic fragment containing the first four kringle modules of plasminogen. In this report, we demonstrate that urokinase-activated plasmin can process plasminogen to release an angiogenesis inhibitor, K1-5 (protease-activated kringles 1-5). K1-5 inhibits endothelial-cell proliferation with a half-maximal concentration of approximately 50 pM. This inhibitory effect is endothelial-cell-specific and appears to be at least approximately 50-fold greater than that of angiostatin. A synergistic efficacy of endothelial inhibition was observed when angiostatin and kringle 5 (K5) were coincubated with capillary endothelial cells. The synergistic effect is comparable to that produced by K1-5 alone. Systemic treatment of mice with K1-5 at a low dose significantly blocked the fibroblast growth factor-induced corneal neovascularization, whereas angiostatin had no effect at the same dose. K1-5 also suppressed angiogenesis in chicken embryos. Systemic administration of K1-5 at a low dose at which angiostatin was ineffective significantly suppressed the growth of a murine T241 fibrosarcoma in mice. The antitumor effect correlates with the reduced neovascularization. These findings suggest that the plasmin-mediated proteolysis may be involved in the negative switch of angiogenesis.  (+info)

Expression of cell adhesion molecules on limbal and neovascular endothelium in corneal inflammatory neovascularization. (3/340)

PURPOSE: To investigate the expression of cell-adhesion molecules on corneolimbal and neovascular endothelium and the associated leukocyte infiltration in an experimental model of inflammatory corneal neovascularization (NV). METHODS: Corneal NV was induced in BALB/c mice by placement of nylon sutures. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) was used topically to determine whether suppression of IL-1 could affect adhesion molecule expression and leukocytic infiltration. At set time points, corneal samples were analyzed immunohistochemically for expression of P-selectin, E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, vascular adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1, and platelet- endothelial adhesion molecule (PECAM)-1. Leukocytic infiltration at different time points was quantified histologically. In companion experiments mice deficient in ICAM-1 were investigated to determine the functional relevance of this molecule in corneal leukocyte infiltration. RESULTS: Significant enhanced expression of ICAM-1 was detected on the corneolimbal vascular endothelium as early as 8 hours and on the newly formed corneal NV by day 3, and treatment with IL-1ra led to significant suppression of this expression. IL-1ra-induced suppression of ICAM-1 expression was accompanied by a profound decrease in corneal leukocytic infiltration by 44.6% at day 1 (P < 0.003), 71.8% at day 3 (P < 0.001), 60.1% at day 7 (P < 0.001), and 63.8% at day 14 (P < 0.001), compared with control corneas. Similarly, in ICAM-1 knockout mice, the corneal leukocytic infiltration was 50.3%, 52.9%, and 36.4%, compared with wild-type control animals on day 1 (P < 0.001), day 7 (P < 0.005), and day 14 (P < 0.001), respectively. Expression of PECAM-1 was constitutively present on perilimbal vascular endothelium and had no response to IL-1ra treatment. No significant expression of P-selectin, E-selectin, or VCAM-1 was detected in this experimental model. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that leukocytic infiltration in this model of inflammatory corneal NV is closely associated with ICAM-1 expression, and that topical IL-1ra displays corneal anti-inflammatory effects, largely by suppressing ICAM-1 expression on vascular endothelial cells.  (+info)

VEGF contributes to postnatal neovascularization by mobilizing bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells. (4/340)

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been shown to promote neovascularization in animal models and, more recently, in human subjects. This feature has been assumed to result exclusively from its direct effects on fully differentiated endothelial cells, i.e. angiogenesis. Given its regulatory role in both angiogenesis and vasculogenesis during fetal development, we investigated the hypothesis that VEGF may modulate endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) kinetics for postnatal neovascularization. Indeed, we observed an increase in circulating EPCs following VEGF administration in vivo. VEGF-induced mobilization of bone marrow-derived EPCs resulted in increased differentiated EPCs in vitro and augmented corneal neovascularization in vivo. These findings thus establish a novel role for VEGF in postnatal neovascularization which complements its known impact on angiogenesis.  (+info)

Inhibition of rat corneal angiogenesis by 16-kDa prolactin and by endogenous prolactin-like molecules. (5/340)

PURPOSE: The cornea is an avascular organ, where induction of new blood vessels involves the turn-on of proangiogenic factors and/or the turn-off of antiangiogenic regulators. Prolactin (PRL) fragments of 14 kDa and 16 kDa bind to endothelial cell receptors and inhibit angiogenesis. This study was designed to determine whether antiangiogenic PRL-like molecules are involved in cornea avascularity. METHODS: Sixteen-kDa PRL and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) or anti-PRL antibodies were placed into rat cornea micropockets and neovascularization evaluated by the optical density associated with capillaries stained by the peroxidase reaction and by the number of vessels growing into the implants. Prolactin receptors in corneal epithelium were investigated by immunocytochemistry. RESULTS: bFGF induced a dose-dependent stimulation of corneal neovascularization. This effect was inhibited by coadministration of 16-kDa PRL, as indicated by a 65% reduction in vessel density and a 50% decrement in the incidence of angiogenic responses. Corneal angiogenic reactions of different intensities were induced by implantation of polyclonal and monoclonal anti-PRL antibodies. Corneal epithelial cells were labeled by several anti-PRL receptor monoclonal antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: These findings show that exogenous 16-kDa PRL inhibits bFGF-induced corneal neovascularization and suggest that PRL-like molecules with antiangiogenic actions function in the cornea. PRL receptors in the corneal epithelium may imply that PRL in the cornea derives from lacrimal PRL internalized through an intracellular pathway. These observations are consistent with the notion that members of the PRL family are potential regulators of corneal angiogenesis.  (+info)

Nitric oxide synthase-II is expressed in severe corneal alkali burns and inhibits neovascularization. (6/340)

PURPOSE: Inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS-II) is expressed in many inflammatory conditions. The implication of nitric oxide (NO) in angiogenesis remains controversial. The role of NOS-II and its influence on angiogenesis in corneal neovascularization is unknown and was investigated in this study. METHODS: A mouse model of corneal neovascularization induced by chemical cauterization was used. NOS-II mRNA expression was analyzed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, and NOS-II protein was studied in situ by immunohistochemical analysis of the cornea. The influence of NOS-II on neovascularization was determined by comparison of vessel development in "normal" wild-type mice and mice with a targeted disruption of the NOS-II gene. RESULTS: NOS-II mRNA was induced to very high levels after corneal cauterization and remained upregulated throughout the disease. Migratory cells in the center of the cauterization area expressed NOS-II protein. The neovascular response in mice lacking the NOS-II gene was significantly stronger than in wild-type mice, and the difference increased over time. CONCLUSIONS: These data are the first evidence that NOS-II is expressed in this model of sterile corneal inflammation. NOS-II expression inhibited angiogenesis in severe corneal alkali burns.  (+info)

IFN-gamma-inducible protein-10 attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis via inhibition of angiogenesis. (7/340)

Few studies have addressed the importance of vascular remodeling in the lung during the development of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis (BPF). For fibroplasia and deposition of extracellular matrix to occur, there must be a geometric increase in neovascularization. We hypothesized that net angiogenesis during the pathogenesis of fibroplasia and deposition of extracellular matrix during BPF are dependent in part on a relative deficiency of the angiostatic CXC chemokine, IFN-gamma-inducible protein-10 (IP-10). To test this hypothesis, we measured IP-10 by specific ELISA in whole lung homogenates in either bleomycin-treated or control mice and correlated these levels with lung hydroxyproline. We found that lung tissue from mice treated with bleomycin, compared with that from saline-treated controls, demonstrated a decrease in the presence of IP-10 that was correlated to a greater angiogenic response and total lung hydroxyproline content. Systemic administration of IP-10 significantly reduced BPF without any alteration in lung lymphocyte or NK cell populations. This was also paralleled by a reduction in angiogenesis. Furthermore, IP-10 had no direct effect on isolated pulmonary fibroblasts. These results demonstrate that the angiostatic CXC chemokine, IP-10, inhibits fibroplasia and deposition of extracellular matrix by regulating angiogenesis.  (+info)

Effects of 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on Langerhans cell migration and corneal neovascularization in mice. (8/340)

PURPOSE: To examine the effects of 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1alpha,25[OH]2D3), a hormone that has immunosuppressive properties, on Langerhans cell (LC) migration and corneal neovascularization in mouse corneas. METHODS: Two 10-0 nylon interrupted sutures were placed in the center of 50 BALB/c mouse corneas to induce LC migration and corneal neovascularization. The mice were then randomly assigned to one of five groups. Three groups (n = 11, n = 11, n = 6) received topical 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 (at concentrations of 10(-7) M, 10(-)8 M, 10(-9) M), one group (n = 11) received vehicle only, and one group (n = 11) received no eye drops. Instillation (three times a day) began on the first day after suturing. Corneal neovascularization was assessed by slit lamp microscopy and scored according to the length of newly formed corneal vessels. Fourteen days after suturing, the number of LCs that had migrated into the central corneal epithelium was counted by an immunofluorescence assay using an anti-Ia antibody. RESULTS: The number of LCs in the central cornea was 21.9 +/- 2.8 cells/mm2 in the nontreated group and 17.8 +/- 3.9 cells/mm2 in the vehicle-only group. Significantly fewer LCs were detected in all groups that had received 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 compared with the vehicle only and nontreated groups (10(-7) M: 7.4 +/- 1.2 cells/mm2, 10(-8) M: 7.2 +/- 2.0 cells/mm2, 10(-9) M: 6.2 +/- 0.7 cells/mm2). Moderate inhibition of corneal vascularization was observed in the 10(-7) M 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 group, but not the other groups. CONCLUSIONS: Topical administration of 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 can be effective in suppressing ocular surface inflammation by inhibiting LC migration into mouse corneas.  (+info)

Corneal neovascularization is a medical condition that refers to the growth of new, abnormal blood vessels in the cornea, which is the clear, dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye. The cornea typically receives its nutrients from tears and oxygen in the air, so it does not have its own blood vessels. However, when the cornea is damaged or inflamed, it may trigger the growth of new blood vessels from the surrounding tissue into the cornea to promote healing.

Corneal neovascularization can occur due to various eye conditions such as infection, injury, inflammation, degenerative diseases, or contact lens wear. Excessive growth of blood vessels in the cornea can interfere with vision, cause scarring, and increase the risk of corneal transplant rejection. Treatment for corneal neovascularization depends on the underlying cause and may include topical medications, surgery, or other therapies to reduce inflammation, prevent further growth of blood vessels, and preserve vision.

Eye burns typically refer to injuries or damage to the eyes caused by exposure to harmful substances, extreme temperatures, or radiation. This can result in a variety of symptoms, including redness, pain, tearing, swelling, and blurred vision.

Chemical eye burns can occur when the eyes come into contact with strong acids, alkalis, or other irritants. These substances can cause damage to the cornea, conjunctiva, and other structures of the eye. The severity of the burn will depend on the type and concentration of the chemical, as well as the length of time it was in contact with the eye.

Thermal eye burns can result from exposure to hot or cold temperatures, such as steam, flames, or extreme cold. These types of burns can cause damage to the surface of the eye and may require medical attention to prevent further complications.

Radiation eye burns can occur after exposure to high levels of ultraviolet (UV) light, such as from welding torches, sun lamps, or tanning beds. Prolonged exposure to these sources can cause damage to the cornea and other structures of the eye, leading to symptoms like pain, redness, and sensitivity to light.

If you experience symptoms of an eye burn, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. Treatment may include flushing the eyes with water or saline solution, administering medication to relieve pain and inflammation, or in severe cases, surgery to repair damaged tissue.

Chemical burns are a type of tissue injury that results from exposure to strong acids, bases, or other corrosive chemicals. These substances can cause damage by reacting chemically with the skin or other tissues, leading to destruction of cells and potentially serious harm. The severity of a chemical burn depends on several factors, including the type and concentration of the chemical, the duration of exposure, and the amount of body surface area affected.

Chemical burns can occur through direct contact with the skin or eyes, inhalation of toxic fumes, or ingestion of harmful substances. Symptoms may include redness, pain, blistering, swelling, and irritation at the site of contact. In severe cases, chemical burns can lead to scarring, disability, or even death.

Immediate medical attention is required for chemical burns, as they can continue to cause damage until the source of the injury is removed, and appropriate first aid measures are taken. Treatment typically involves thorough cleaning and irrigation of the affected area, followed by administration of pain medication and other supportive care as needed. In some cases, skin grafting or other surgical interventions may be required to promote healing and minimize scarring.

Sodium hydroxide, also known as caustic soda or lye, is a highly basic anhydrous metal hydroxide with the chemical formula NaOH. It is a white solid that is available in pellets, flakes, granules, or as a 50% saturated solution. Sodium hydroxide is produced in large quantities, primarily for the manufacture of pulp and paper, alcohols, textiles, soaps, detergents, and drain cleaners. It is used in many chemical reactions to neutralize acids and it is a strong bases that can cause severe burns and eye damage.

The cornea is the clear, dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye. It plays a crucial role in focusing vision. The cornea protects the eye from harmful particles and microorganisms, and it also serves as a barrier against UV light. Its transparency allows light to pass through and get focused onto the retina. The cornea does not contain blood vessels, so it relies on tears and the fluid inside the eye (aqueous humor) for nutrition and oxygen. Any damage or disease that affects its clarity and shape can significantly impact vision and potentially lead to blindness if left untreated.

Retinal neovascularization is a medical condition characterized by the growth of new, abnormal blood vessels on the surface of the retina, which is the light-sensitive tissue located at the back of the eye. This condition typically occurs in response to an insufficient supply of oxygen and nutrients to the retina, often due to damage or disease, such as diabetic retinopathy or retinal vein occlusion.

The new blood vessels that form during neovascularization are fragile and prone to leakage, which can cause fluid and protein to accumulate in the retina, leading to distorted vision, hemorrhages, and potentially blindness if left untreated. Retinal neovascularization is a serious eye condition that requires prompt medical attention and management to prevent further vision loss.

Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is a medical term that refers to the growth of new, abnormal blood vessels in the choroid layer of the eye, which is located between the retina and the sclera. This condition typically occurs as a complication of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), although it can also be caused by other eye diseases or injuries.

In CNV, the new blood vessels that grow into the choroid layer are fragile and can leak fluid or blood, which can cause distortion or damage to the retina, leading to vision loss. Symptoms of CNV may include blurred or distorted vision, a blind spot in the center of the visual field, or changes in color perception.

Treatment for CNV typically involves medications that are designed to stop the growth of new blood vessels, such as anti-VEGF drugs, which target a protein called vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) that is involved in the development of new blood vessels. Laser surgery or photodynamic therapy may also be used in some cases to destroy the abnormal blood vessels and prevent further vision loss.

Intraocular injections are a type of medical procedure where medication is administered directly into the eye. This technique is often used to deliver drugs that treat various eye conditions, such as age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and endophthalmitis. The most common type of intraocular injection is an intravitreal injection, which involves injecting medication into the vitreous cavity, the space inside the eye filled with a clear gel-like substance called the vitreous humor. This procedure is typically performed by an ophthalmologist in a clinical setting and may be repeated at regular intervals depending on the condition being treated.

Alkalies are a type of basic compound that has a pH level greater than 7. They are also known as bases and can neutralize acids. Alkalies can react with acids to form salts and water. Some common alkalies include sodium hydroxide (lye), potassium hydroxide, and calcium hydroxide. When in solution, alkalies can increase the pH level of a substance, making it more basic or alkaline. They are widely used in various industries for different purposes such as cleaning, manufacturing, and processing.

Angiogenesis inhibitors are a class of drugs that block the growth of new blood vessels (angiogenesis). They work by targeting specific molecules involved in the process of angiogenesis, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors. By blocking these molecules, angiogenesis inhibitors can prevent the development of new blood vessels that feed tumors, thereby slowing or stopping their growth.

Angiogenesis inhibitors are used in the treatment of various types of cancer, including colon, lung, breast, kidney, and ovarian cancer. They may be given alone or in combination with other cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Some examples of angiogenesis inhibitors include bevacizumab (Avastin), sorafenib (Nexavar), sunitinib (Sutent), and pazopanib (Votrient).

It's important to note that while angiogenesis inhibitors can be effective in treating cancer, they can also have serious side effects, such as high blood pressure, bleeding, and damage to the heart or kidneys. Therefore, it's essential that patients receive careful monitoring and management of these potential side effects while undergoing treatment with angiogenesis inhibitors.

Pathologic neovascularization is the abnormal growth of new blood vessels in previously avascular tissue or excessive growth within existing vasculature, which occurs as a result of hypoxia, inflammation, or angiogenic stimuli. These newly formed vessels are often disorganized, fragile, and lack proper vessel hierarchy, leading to impaired blood flow and increased vascular permeability. Pathologic neovascularization can be observed in various diseases such as cancer, diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and chronic inflammation. This process contributes to disease progression by promoting tumor growth, metastasis, and edema formation, ultimately leading to tissue damage and organ dysfunction.

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A (VEGFA) is a specific isoform of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family. It is a well-characterized signaling protein that plays a crucial role in angiogenesis, the process of new blood vessel formation from pre-existing vessels. VEGFA stimulates the proliferation and migration of endothelial cells, which line the interior surface of blood vessels, thereby contributing to the growth and development of new vasculature. This protein is essential for physiological processes such as embryonic development and wound healing, but it has also been implicated in various pathological conditions, including cancer, age-related macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy. The regulation of VEGFA expression and activity is critical to maintaining proper vascular function and homeostasis.

Ophthalmic solutions are sterile, single-use or multi-dose preparations in a liquid form that are intended for topical administration to the eye. These solutions can contain various types of medications, such as antibiotics, anti-inflammatory agents, antihistamines, or lubricants, which are used to treat or prevent ocular diseases and conditions.

The pH and osmolarity of ophthalmic solutions are carefully controlled to match the physiological environment of the eye and minimize any potential discomfort or irritation. The solutions may be packaged in various forms, including drops, sprays, or irrigations, depending on the intended use and administration route.

It is important to follow the instructions for use provided by a healthcare professional when administering ophthalmic solutions, as improper use can lead to eye injury or reduced effectiveness of the medication.

Topical administration refers to a route of administering a medication or treatment directly to a specific area of the body, such as the skin, mucous membranes, or eyes. This method allows the drug to be applied directly to the site where it is needed, which can increase its effectiveness and reduce potential side effects compared to systemic administration (taking the medication by mouth or injecting it into a vein or muscle).

Topical medications come in various forms, including creams, ointments, gels, lotions, solutions, sprays, and patches. They may be used to treat localized conditions such as skin infections, rashes, inflammation, or pain, or to deliver medication to the eyes or mucous membranes for local or systemic effects.

When applying topical medications, it is important to follow the instructions carefully to ensure proper absorption and avoid irritation or other adverse reactions. This may include cleaning the area before application, covering the treated area with a dressing, or avoiding exposure to sunlight or water after application, depending on the specific medication and its intended use.

Physiologic neovascularization is the natural and controlled formation of new blood vessels in the body, which occurs as a part of normal growth and development, as well as in response to tissue repair and wound healing. This process involves the activation of endothelial cells, which line the interior surface of blood vessels, and their migration, proliferation, and tube formation to create new capillaries. Physiologic neovascularization is tightly regulated by a balance of pro-angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors, ensuring that it occurs only when and where it is needed. It plays crucial roles in various physiological processes, such as embryonic development, tissue regeneration, and wound healing.

Keratitis is a medical condition that refers to inflammation of the cornea, which is the clear, dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye. The cornea plays an essential role in focusing vision, and any damage or infection can cause significant visual impairment. Keratitis can result from various causes, including bacterial, viral, fungal, or parasitic infections, as well as trauma, allergies, or underlying medical conditions such as dry eye syndrome. Symptoms of keratitis may include redness, pain, tearing, sensitivity to light, blurred vision, and a feeling of something foreign in the eye. Treatment for keratitis depends on the underlying cause but typically includes antibiotics, antivirals, or anti-fungal medications, as well as measures to alleviate symptoms and promote healing.

Cautery is a medical term that refers to the use of heat, electricity, or chemicals to burn and destroy abnormal or unwanted tissue. This procedure is used to stop bleeding, destroy cancer cells, or remove benign growths such as warts or skin tags. The tool used for cauterization is called a cautery, which can be in the form of a hot iron, electrical current, or chemical substance.

The process of cauterization involves applying heat or a chemical substance to the affected area, causing the tissue to coagulate and eventually die. This results in the formation of an eschar, or scab, that covers the wound and helps prevent infection while the tissue heals. Cautery can be performed as a standalone procedure or as part of a larger surgical intervention.

Cauterization is used for various medical purposes, including:

1. Hemostasis: To control bleeding by sealing off blood vessels in the affected area.
2. Destruction of abnormal tissue: To remove unwanted tissue such as warts, skin tags, or cancerous growths.
3. Prevention of infection: To seal off wounds and prevent bacteria from entering the body.
4. Pain relief: To destroy nerve endings in the affected area, reducing pain and discomfort.

While cautery is a relatively safe procedure, it can have some risks and complications, such as infection, scarring, or damage to surrounding tissue. Therefore, it should only be performed by trained medical professionals in a sterile environment.

Eye injuries refer to any damage or trauma caused to the eye or its surrounding structures. These injuries can vary in severity and may include:

1. Corneal abrasions: A scratch or scrape on the clear surface of the eye (cornea).
2. Chemical burns: Occurs when chemicals come into contact with the eye, causing damage to the cornea and other structures.
3. Eyelid lacerations: Cuts or tears to the eyelid.
4. Subconjunctival hemorrhage: Bleeding under the conjunctiva, the clear membrane that covers the white part of the eye.
5. Hyphema: Accumulation of blood in the anterior chamber of the eye, which is the space between the cornea and iris.
6. Orbital fractures: Breaks in the bones surrounding the eye.
7. Retinal detachment: Separation of the retina from its underlying tissue, which can lead to vision loss if not treated promptly.
8. Traumatic uveitis: Inflammation of the uvea, the middle layer of the eye, caused by trauma.
9. Optic nerve damage: Damage to the optic nerve, which transmits visual information from the eye to the brain.

Eye injuries can result from a variety of causes, including accidents, sports-related injuries, violence, and chemical exposure. It is important to seek medical attention promptly for any suspected eye injury to prevent further damage and potential vision loss.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

The corneal epithelium is the outermost layer of the cornea, which is the clear, dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye. It is a stratified squamous epithelium, consisting of several layers of flat, scale-like cells that are tightly packed together. The corneal epithelium serves as a barrier to protect the eye from microorganisms, dust, and other foreign particles. It also provides a smooth surface for the refraction of light, contributes to the maintenance of corneal transparency, and plays a role in the eye's sensitivity to touch and pain. The corneal epithelium is constantly being renewed through the process of cell division and shedding, with new cells produced by stem cells located at the limbus, the border between the cornea and the conjunctiva.

CD31 (also known as PECAM-1 or Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1) is a type of protein that is found on the surface of certain cells in the body, including platelets, endothelial cells (which line the blood vessels), and some immune cells.

CD31 functions as a cell adhesion molecule, meaning it helps cells stick together and interact with each other. It plays important roles in various physiological processes, such as the regulation of leukocyte migration, angiogenesis (the formation of new blood vessels), hemostasis (the process that stops bleeding), and thrombosis (the formation of a blood clot inside a blood vessel).

As an antigen, CD31 is used in immunological techniques to identify and characterize cells expressing this protein. Antigens are substances that can be recognized by the immune system and stimulate an immune response. In the case of CD31, antibodies specific to this protein can be used to detect its presence on the surface of cells, providing valuable information for research and diagnostic purposes.

Angiogenesis inducing agents are substances or drugs that stimulate the growth of new blood vessels, a process known as angiogenesis. This process is essential for the growth and development of tissues and organs in the body, including wound healing and the formation of blood vessels in the placenta during pregnancy. However, abnormal angiogenesis can also contribute to various diseases, such as cancer, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration.

Angiogenesis inducing agents are being studied for their potential therapeutic benefits in a variety of medical conditions. For example, they may be used to promote wound healing or tissue repair after injury or surgery. In cancer treatment, angiogenesis inhibitors are often used to block the growth of new blood vessels and prevent tumors from growing and spreading. However, angiogenesis inducing agents can have the opposite effect and may potentially be used to enhance the delivery of drugs to tumors or improve the effectiveness of other cancer treatments.

Examples of angiogenesis inducing agents include certain growth factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). These substances can be administered as drugs to stimulate angiogenesis in specific contexts. Other substances, such as hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) and prostaglandins, can also induce angiogenesis under certain conditions.

Silver nitrate is defined as an inorganic compound with the chemical formula AgNO3. It is a white or colorless crystalline solid that is highly soluble in water. Silver nitrate is commonly used in medicine as a topical antiseptic and caustic, particularly for the treatment of wounds, ulcers, and warts. When applied to skin or mucous membranes, it can help to destroy bacteria, viruses, and fungi, and promote healing. However, it can also cause irritation and tissue damage if used inappropriately, so it should be used with caution and under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

The corneal stroma, also known as the substantia propria, is the thickest layer of the cornea, which is the clear, dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye. The cornea plays a crucial role in focusing vision.

The corneal stroma makes up about 90% of the cornea's thickness and is composed of parallel bundles of collagen fibers that are arranged in regular, repeating patterns. These fibers give the cornea its strength and transparency. The corneal stroma also contains a small number of cells called keratocytes, which produce and maintain the collagen fibers.

Disorders that affect the corneal stroma can cause vision loss or other eye problems. For example, conditions such as keratoconus, in which the cornea becomes thin and bulges outward, can distort vision and make it difficult to see clearly. Other conditions, such as corneal scarring or infection, can also affect the corneal stroma and lead to vision loss or other eye problems.

Corneal transplantation, also known as keratoplasty, is a surgical procedure in which all or part of a damaged or diseased cornea is replaced with healthy corneal tissue from a deceased donor. The cornea is the clear, dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye that plays an important role in focusing vision. When it becomes cloudy or misshapen due to injury, infection, or inherited conditions, vision can become significantly impaired.

During the procedure, the surgeon carefully removes a circular section of the damaged cornea and replaces it with a similarly sized piece of donor tissue. The new cornea is then stitched into place using very fine sutures that are typically removed several months after surgery.

Corneal transplantation has a high success rate, with more than 90% of procedures resulting in improved vision. However, as with any surgical procedure, there are risks involved, including infection, rejection of the donor tissue, and bleeding. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor for any signs of complications and ensure proper healing.

Corneal opacity refers to a condition in which the cornea, the clear front part of the eye, becomes cloudy or opaque. This can occur due to various reasons such as injury, infection, degenerative changes, or inherited disorders. As a result, light is not properly refracted and vision becomes blurred or distorted. In some cases, corneal opacity can lead to complete loss of vision in the affected eye. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause and may include medication, corneal transplantation, or other surgical procedures.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors (VEGFs) are a family of signaling proteins that stimulate the growth and development of new blood vessels, a process known as angiogenesis. They play crucial roles in both physiological and pathological conditions, such as embryonic development, wound healing, and tumor growth. Specifically, VEGFs bind to specific receptors on the surface of endothelial cells, which line the interior surface of blood vessels, triggering a cascade of intracellular signaling events that promote cell proliferation, migration, and survival. Dysregulation of VEGF signaling has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, age-related macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy.

Endothelial growth factors (ECGFs or EGFs) are a group of signaling proteins that stimulate the growth, proliferation, and survival of endothelial cells, which line the interior surface of blood vessels. These growth factors play crucial roles in various physiological processes, including angiogenesis (the formation of new blood vessels), wound healing, and vascular development during embryogenesis.

One of the most well-studied EGFs is the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family, which consists of several members like VEGFA, VEGFB, VEGFC, VEGFD, and placental growth factor (PlGF). These factors bind to specific receptors on the surface of endothelial cells, leading to a cascade of intracellular signaling events that ultimately result in cell proliferation, migration, and survival.

Other EGFs include fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β). Dysregulation of endothelial growth factors has been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as cancer, diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, understanding the functions and regulation of EGFs is essential for developing novel therapeutic strategies to treat these disorders.

Lymphokines are a type of cytokines that are produced and released by activated lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell, in response to an antigenic stimulation. They play a crucial role in the regulation of immune responses and inflammation. Lymphokines can mediate various biological activities such as chemotaxis, activation, proliferation, and differentiation of different immune cells including lymphocytes, monocytes, macrophages, and eosinophils. Examples of lymphokines include interleukins (ILs), interferons (IFNs), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and colony-stimulating factors (CSFs).

The conjunctiva is the mucous membrane that lines the inner surface of the eyelids and covers the front part of the eye, also known as the sclera. It helps to keep the eye moist and protected from irritants. The conjunctiva can become inflamed or infected, leading to conditions such as conjunctivitis (pink eye).

Herpetic keratitis is a specific type of keratitis (inflammation of the cornea) that is caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. It is further divided into two types: dendritic and disciform keratitis. Dendritic keratitis is characterized by the development of branching ulcers on the surface of the cornea, while disciform keratitis involves inflammation and opacity in the stroma (middle layer) of the cornea. Both types of herpetic keratitis can cause symptoms such as eye pain, redness, sensitivity to light, tearing, and blurred vision. If left untreated, herpetic keratitis can lead to serious complications, including blindness.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Rabbits" is a common name used to refer to the Lagomorpha species, particularly members of the family Leporidae. They are small mammals known for their long ears, strong legs, and quick reproduction.

However, if you're referring to "rabbits" in a medical context, there is a term called "rabbit syndrome," which is a rare movement disorder characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements of the fingers, resembling those of a rabbit chewing. It is also known as "finger-chewing chorea." This condition is usually associated with certain medications, particularly antipsychotics, and typically resolves when the medication is stopped or adjusted.

Photosensitizing agents are substances that, when exposed to light, particularly ultraviolet or visible light, can cause chemical reactions leading to the production of reactive oxygen species. These reactive oxygen species can interact with biological tissues, leading to damage and a variety of phototoxic or photoallergic adverse effects.

Photosensitizing agents are used in various medical fields, including dermatology and oncology. In dermatology, they are often used in the treatment of conditions such as psoriasis and eczema, where a photosensitizer is applied to the skin and then activated with light to reduce inflammation and slow the growth of skin cells.

In oncology, photosensitizing agents are used in photodynamic therapy (PDT), a type of cancer treatment that involves administering a photosensitizer, allowing it to accumulate in cancer cells, and then exposing the area to light. The light activates the photosensitizer, which produces reactive oxygen species that damage the cancer cells, leading to their death.

Examples of photosensitizing agents include porphyrins, chlorophyll derivatives, and certain antibiotics such as tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones. It is important for healthcare providers to be aware of the potential for photosensitivity when prescribing these medications and to inform patients of the risks associated with exposure to light.

Fluorescein angiography is a medical diagnostic procedure used in ophthalmology to examine the blood flow in the retina and choroid, which are the inner layers of the eye. This test involves injecting a fluorescent dye, Fluorescein, into a patient's arm vein. As the dye reaches the blood vessels in the eye, a specialized camera takes rapid sequences of photographs to capture the dye's circulation through the retina and choroid.

The images produced by fluorescein angiography can help doctors identify any damage to the blood vessels, leakage, or abnormal growth of new blood vessels. This information is crucial in diagnosing and managing various eye conditions such as age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, retinal vein occlusions, and inflammatory eye diseases.

It's important to note that while fluorescein angiography is a valuable diagnostic tool, it does carry some risks, including temporary side effects like nausea, vomiting, or allergic reactions to the dye. In rare cases, severe adverse reactions can occur, so patients should discuss these potential risks with their healthcare provider before undergoing the procedure.

Retinal vessels refer to the blood vessels that are located in the retina, which is the light-sensitive tissue that lines the inner surface of the eye. The retina contains two types of blood vessels: arteries and veins.

The central retinal artery supplies oxygenated blood to the inner layers of the retina, while the central retinal vein drains deoxygenated blood from the retina. These vessels can be visualized during a routine eye examination using an ophthalmoscope, which allows healthcare professionals to assess their health and any potential abnormalities.

Retinal vessels are essential for maintaining the health and function of the retina, and any damage or changes to these vessels can affect vision and lead to various eye conditions such as diabetic retinopathy, retinal vein occlusion, and hypertensive retinopathy.

Endothelial cells are the type of cells that line the inner surface of blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and heart chambers. They play a crucial role in maintaining vascular homeostasis by controlling vasomotor tone, coagulation, platelet activation, and inflammation. Endothelial cells also regulate the transport of molecules between the blood and surrounding tissues, and contribute to the maintenance of the structural integrity of the vasculature. They are flat, elongated cells with a unique morphology that allows them to form a continuous, nonthrombogenic lining inside the vessels. Endothelial cells can be isolated from various tissues and cultured in vitro for research purposes.

The Fluorescent Antibody Technique (FAT), Indirect is a type of immunofluorescence assay used to detect the presence of specific antigens in a sample. In this method, the sample is first incubated with a primary antibody that binds to the target antigen. After washing to remove unbound primary antibodies, a secondary fluorescently labeled antibody is added, which recognizes and binds to the primary antibody. This indirect labeling approach allows for amplification of the signal, making it more sensitive than direct methods. The sample is then examined under a fluorescence microscope to visualize the location and amount of antigen based on the emitted light from the fluorescent secondary antibody. It's commonly used in diagnostic laboratories for detection of various bacteria, viruses, and other antigens in clinical specimens.

Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 (FGF-2), also known as basic fibroblast growth factor, is a protein involved in various biological processes such as cell growth, proliferation, and differentiation. It plays a crucial role in wound healing, embryonic development, and angiogenesis (the formation of new blood vessels). FGF-2 is produced and secreted by various cells, including fibroblasts, and exerts its effects by binding to specific receptors on the cell surface, leading to activation of intracellular signaling pathways. It has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, where it can contribute to tumor growth and progression.

Monoclonal antibodies are laboratory-produced proteins that mimic the immune system's ability to fight off harmful antigens such as viruses and cancer cells. They are created by fusing a single B cell (the type of white blood cell responsible for producing antibodies) with a tumor cell, resulting in a hybrid cell called a hybridoma. This hybridoma can then be cloned to produce a large number of identical cells, all producing the same antibody, hence "monoclonal."

Humanized monoclonal antibodies are a type of monoclonal antibody that have been genetically engineered to include human components. This is done to reduce the risk of an adverse immune response in patients receiving the treatment. In this process, the variable region of the mouse monoclonal antibody, which contains the antigen-binding site, is grafted onto a human constant region. The resulting humanized monoclonal antibody retains the ability to bind to the target antigen while minimizing the immunogenicity associated with murine (mouse) antibodies.

In summary, "antibodies, monoclonal, humanized" refers to a type of laboratory-produced protein that mimics the immune system's ability to fight off harmful antigens, but with reduced immunogenicity due to the inclusion of human components in their structure.

Photochemotherapy is a medical treatment that combines the use of drugs and light to treat various skin conditions. The most common type of photochemotherapy is PUVA (Psoralen + UVA), where the patient takes a photosensitizing medication called psoralen, followed by exposure to ultraviolet A (UVA) light.

The psoralen makes the skin more sensitive to the UVA light, which helps to reduce inflammation and suppress the overactive immune response that contributes to many skin conditions. This therapy is often used to treat severe cases of psoriasis, eczema, and mycosis fungoides (a type of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma). It's important to note that photochemotherapy can increase the risk of skin cancer and cataracts, so it should only be administered under the close supervision of a healthcare professional.

BALB/c is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The strain was developed at the Institute of Cancer Research in London by Henry Baldwin and his colleagues in the 1920s, and it has since become one of the most commonly used inbred strains in the world.

BALB/c mice are characterized by their black coat color, which is determined by a recessive allele at the tyrosinase locus. They are also known for their docile and friendly temperament, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory.

One of the key features of BALB/c mice that makes them useful for research is their susceptibility to certain types of tumors and immune responses. For example, they are highly susceptible to developing mammary tumors, which can be induced by chemical carcinogens or viral infection. They also have a strong Th2-biased immune response, which makes them useful models for studying allergic diseases and asthma.

BALB/c mice are also commonly used in studies of genetics, neuroscience, behavior, and infectious diseases. Because they are an inbred strain, they have a uniform genetic background, which makes it easier to control for genetic factors in experiments. Additionally, because they have been bred in the laboratory for many generations, they are highly standardized and reproducible, making them ideal subjects for scientific research.

Endostatin is a naturally occurring protein that inhibits the growth of new blood vessels, a process known as angiogenesis. It is derived from collagen type XVIII, which is found in the basement membrane of blood vessels. Endostatin has been studied for its potential use in treating various diseases, including cancer, because tumors need to form new blood vessels to grow and spread. By inhibiting this process, endostatin may be able to slow or stop tumor growth. It has also been investigated for its potential role in the treatment of age-related macular degeneration, a leading cause of blindness, due to its ability to inhibit the growth of new blood vessels in the eye.

Penetrating keratoplasty (PK) is a type of corneal transplant surgery where the entire thickness of the host's damaged or diseased cornea is removed and replaced with a similar full-thickness portion of a healthy donor's cornea. The procedure aims to restore visual function, alleviate pain, and improve the structural integrity of the eye. It is typically performed for conditions such as severe keratoconus, corneal scarring, or corneal ulcers that cannot be treated with other, less invasive methods. Following the surgery, patients may require extended recovery time and rigorous postoperative care to minimize the risk of complications and ensure optimal visual outcomes.

Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) is a multifunctional glycoprotein that is involved in various biological processes, including cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, differentiation, and angiogenesis. It is primarily produced by platelets, endothelial cells, and smooth muscle cells. TSP-1 is a large molecule composed of several domains, including an N-terminal domain that binds to calcium, a region that interacts with various extracellular matrix proteins, and a C-terminal domain that mediates its interaction with cell surface receptors.

TSP-1 plays a critical role in the regulation of coagulation and thrombosis by interacting with components of the coagulation cascade and promoting platelet aggregation. It also has anti-angiogenic properties, as it can inhibit the proliferation and migration of endothelial cells and induce their apoptosis. TSP-1 has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including atherosclerosis, tumor growth and metastasis, and fibrosis.

The endothelium is a thin layer of simple squamous epithelial cells that lines the interior surface of blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and heart chambers. The vascular endothelium, specifically, refers to the endothelial cells that line the blood vessels. These cells play a crucial role in maintaining vascular homeostasis by regulating vasomotor tone, coagulation, platelet activation, inflammation, and permeability of the vessel wall. They also contribute to the growth and repair of the vascular system and are involved in various pathological processes such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, and diabetes.

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) is a tyrosine kinase receptor that is primarily expressed on vascular endothelial cells. It is a crucial regulator of angiogenesis, the process of new blood vessel formation from pre-existing vessels. VEGFR-2 is activated by binding to its ligand, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A (VEGF-A), leading to receptor dimerization and autophosphorylation. This activation triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling events that promote endothelial cell proliferation, migration, survival, and vascular permeability, all essential steps in the angiogenic process.

VEGFR-2 plays a significant role in physiological and pathological conditions associated with angiogenesis, such as embryonic development, wound healing, tumor growth, and retinopathies. Inhibition of VEGFR-2 signaling has been an attractive target for anti-angiogenic therapies in various diseases, including cancer and age-related macular degeneration.

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1 (VEGFR-1), also known as Flt-1 (Fms-like tyrosine kinase-1), is a receptor tyrosine kinase that plays a crucial role in the regulation of angiogenesis, vasculogenesis, and lymphangiogenesis. It is primarily expressed on vascular endothelial cells, hematopoietic stem cells, and monocytes/macrophages. VEGFR-1 binds to several ligands, including Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A (VEGF-A), VEGF-B, and Placental Growth Factor (PlGF). The binding of these ligands to VEGFR-1 triggers intracellular signaling cascades that modulate various cellular responses, such as proliferation, migration, survival, and vascular permeability. While VEGFR-1 is known to have a role in promoting angiogenesis under certain conditions, it primarily acts as a negative regulator of angiogenesis by sequestering VEGF-A, preventing its binding to the more proangiogenic VEGFR-2 receptor. Dysregulation of VEGFR-1 signaling has been implicated in various pathological conditions, including cancer, inflammation, and vascular diseases.

Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to amplify and detect specific DNA sequences. This technique is particularly useful for the detection and quantification of RNA viruses, as well as for the analysis of gene expression.

The process involves two main steps: reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In the first step, reverse transcriptase enzyme is used to convert RNA into complementary DNA (cDNA) by reading the template provided by the RNA molecule. This cDNA then serves as a template for the PCR amplification step.

In the second step, the PCR reaction uses two primers that flank the target DNA sequence and a thermostable polymerase enzyme to repeatedly copy the targeted cDNA sequence. The reaction mixture is heated and cooled in cycles, allowing the primers to anneal to the template, and the polymerase to extend the new strand. This results in exponential amplification of the target DNA sequence, making it possible to detect even small amounts of RNA or cDNA.

RT-PCR is a sensitive and specific technique that has many applications in medical research and diagnostics, including the detection of viruses such as HIV, hepatitis C virus, and SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19). It can also be used to study gene expression, identify genetic mutations, and diagnose genetic disorders.

Corneal diseases are a group of disorders that affect the cornea, which is the clear, dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye. The cornea plays an important role in focusing vision, and any damage or disease can cause significant visual impairment or loss. Some common types of corneal diseases include:

1. Keratoconus: A progressive disorder in which the cornea thins and bulges outward into a cone shape, causing distorted vision.
2. Fuchs' dystrophy: A genetic disorder that affects the inner layer of the cornea called the endothelium, leading to swelling, cloudiness, and decreased vision.
3. Dry eye syndrome: A condition in which the eyes do not produce enough tears or the tears evaporate too quickly, causing discomfort, redness, and blurred vision.
4. Corneal ulcers: Open sores on the cornea that can be caused by infection, trauma, or other factors.
5. Herpes simplex keratitis: A viral infection of the cornea that can cause recurrent episodes of inflammation, scarring, and vision loss.
6. Corneal dystrophies: Inherited disorders that affect the structure and clarity of the cornea, leading to visual impairment or blindness.
7. Bullous keratopathy: A condition in which the endothelium fails to pump fluid out of the cornea, causing it to swell and form blisters.
8. Corneal trauma: Injury to the cornea caused by foreign objects, chemicals, or other factors that can lead to scarring, infection, and vision loss.

Treatment for corneal diseases varies depending on the specific condition and severity of the disease. Options may include eyedrops, medications, laser surgery, corneal transplantation, or other treatments.

Cell movement, also known as cell motility, refers to the ability of cells to move independently and change their location within tissue or inside the body. This process is essential for various biological functions, including embryonic development, wound healing, immune responses, and cancer metastasis.

There are several types of cell movement, including:

1. **Crawling or mesenchymal migration:** Cells move by extending and retracting protrusions called pseudopodia or filopodia, which contain actin filaments. This type of movement is common in fibroblasts, immune cells, and cancer cells during tissue invasion and metastasis.
2. **Amoeboid migration:** Cells move by changing their shape and squeezing through tight spaces without forming protrusions. This type of movement is often observed in white blood cells (leukocytes) as they migrate through the body to fight infections.
3. **Pseudopodial extension:** Cells extend pseudopodia, which are temporary cytoplasmic projections containing actin filaments. These protrusions help the cell explore its environment and move forward.
4. **Bacterial flagellar motion:** Bacteria use a whip-like structure called a flagellum to propel themselves through their environment. The rotation of the flagellum is driven by a molecular motor in the bacterial cell membrane.
5. **Ciliary and ependymal movement:** Ciliated cells, such as those lining the respiratory tract and fallopian tubes, have hair-like structures called cilia that beat in coordinated waves to move fluids or mucus across the cell surface.

Cell movement is regulated by a complex interplay of signaling pathways, cytoskeletal rearrangements, and adhesion molecules, which enable cells to respond to environmental cues and navigate through tissues.

Ischemia is the medical term used to describe a lack of blood flow to a part of the body, often due to blocked or narrowed blood vessels. This can lead to a shortage of oxygen and nutrients in the tissues, which can cause them to become damaged or die. Ischemia can affect many different parts of the body, including the heart, brain, legs, and intestines. Symptoms of ischemia depend on the location and severity of the blockage, but they may include pain, cramping, numbness, weakness, or coldness in the affected area. In severe cases, ischemia can lead to tissue death (gangrene) or organ failure. Treatment for ischemia typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the blocked blood flow, such as through medication, surgery, or lifestyle changes.

The choroid is a layer of the eye that contains blood vessels that supply oxygen and nutrients to the outer layers of the retina. It lies between the sclera (the white, protective coat of the eye) and the retina (the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye). The choroid is essential for maintaining the health and function of the retina, particularly the photoreceptor cells that detect light and transmit visual signals to the brain. Damage to the choroid can lead to vision loss or impairment.

Porphyrins are complex organic compounds that contain four pyrrole rings joined together by methine bridges (=CH-). They play a crucial role in the biochemistry of many organisms, as they form the core structure of various heme proteins and other metalloproteins. Some examples of these proteins include hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes, and catalases, which are involved in essential processes such as oxygen transport, electron transfer, and oxidative metabolism.

In the human body, porphyrins are synthesized through a series of enzymatic reactions known as the heme biosynthesis pathway. Disruptions in this pathway can lead to an accumulation of porphyrins or their precursors, resulting in various medical conditions called porphyrias. These disorders can manifest as neurological symptoms, skin lesions, and gastrointestinal issues, depending on the specific type of porphyria and the site of enzyme deficiency.

It is important to note that while porphyrins are essential for life, their accumulation in excessive amounts or at inappropriate locations can result in pathological conditions. Therefore, understanding the regulation and function of porphyrin metabolism is crucial for diagnosing and managing porphyrias and other related disorders.

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors are a type of cell surface receptor that play crucial roles in the process of angiogenesis, which is the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones. These receptors bind to VEGF proteins, leading to a cascade of intracellular signaling events that ultimately result in the proliferation, migration, and survival of endothelial cells, which line the interior surface of blood vessels. There are three main types of VEGF receptors: VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2, and VEGFR-3. These receptors have distinct roles in angiogenesis, with VEGFR-2 being the primary mediator of this process. Dysregulation of VEGF signaling has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, age-related macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy, making VEGF receptors important targets for therapeutic intervention.

Western blotting is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to detect and quantify specific proteins in a mixture of many different proteins. This technique is commonly used to confirm the expression of a protein of interest, determine its size, and investigate its post-translational modifications. The name "Western" blotting distinguishes this technique from Southern blotting (for DNA) and Northern blotting (for RNA).

The Western blotting procedure involves several steps:

1. Protein extraction: The sample containing the proteins of interest is first extracted, often by breaking open cells or tissues and using a buffer to extract the proteins.
2. Separation of proteins by electrophoresis: The extracted proteins are then separated based on their size by loading them onto a polyacrylamide gel and running an electric current through the gel (a process called sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or SDS-PAGE). This separates the proteins according to their molecular weight, with smaller proteins migrating faster than larger ones.
3. Transfer of proteins to a membrane: After separation, the proteins are transferred from the gel onto a nitrocellulose or polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane using an electric current in a process called blotting. This creates a replica of the protein pattern on the gel but now immobilized on the membrane for further analysis.
4. Blocking: The membrane is then blocked with a blocking agent, such as non-fat dry milk or bovine serum albumin (BSA), to prevent non-specific binding of antibodies in subsequent steps.
5. Primary antibody incubation: A primary antibody that specifically recognizes the protein of interest is added and allowed to bind to its target protein on the membrane. This step may be performed at room temperature or 4°C overnight, depending on the antibody's properties.
6. Washing: The membrane is washed with a buffer to remove unbound primary antibodies.
7. Secondary antibody incubation: A secondary antibody that recognizes the primary antibody (often coupled to an enzyme or fluorophore) is added and allowed to bind to the primary antibody. This step may involve using a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated or alkaline phosphatase (AP)-conjugated secondary antibody, depending on the detection method used later.
8. Washing: The membrane is washed again to remove unbound secondary antibodies.
9. Detection: A detection reagent is added to visualize the protein of interest by detecting the signal generated from the enzyme-conjugated or fluorophore-conjugated secondary antibody. This can be done using chemiluminescent, colorimetric, or fluorescent methods.
10. Analysis: The resulting image is analyzed to determine the presence and quantity of the protein of interest in the sample.

Western blotting is a powerful technique for identifying and quantifying specific proteins within complex mixtures. It can be used to study protein expression, post-translational modifications, protein-protein interactions, and more. However, it requires careful optimization and validation to ensure accurate and reproducible results.

Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) is a potentially sight-threatening proliferative retinal vascular disorder that primarily affects prematurely born infants, particularly those with low birth weight and/or young gestational age. It is characterized by the abnormal growth and development of retinal blood vessels due to disturbances in the oxygen supply and metabolic demands during critical phases of fetal development.

The condition can be classified into various stages (1-5) based on its severity, with stages 4 and 5 being more severe forms that may lead to retinal detachment and blindness if left untreated. The pathogenesis of ROP involves an initial phase of vessel loss and regression in the central retina, followed by a secondary phase of abnormal neovascularization, which can cause fibrosis, traction, and ultimately, retinal detachment.

ROP is typically managed with a multidisciplinary approach involving ophthalmologists, neonatologists, and pediatricians. Treatment options include laser photocoagulation, cryotherapy, intravitreal anti-VEGF injections, or even surgical interventions to prevent retinal detachment and preserve vision. Regular screening examinations are crucial for early detection and timely management of ROP in at-risk infants.

Wound healing is a complex and dynamic process that occurs after tissue injury, aiming to restore the integrity and functionality of the damaged tissue. It involves a series of overlapping phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling.

1. Hemostasis: This initial phase begins immediately after injury and involves the activation of the coagulation cascade to form a clot, which stabilizes the wound and prevents excessive blood loss.
2. Inflammation: Activated inflammatory cells, such as neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages, infiltrate the wound site to eliminate pathogens, remove debris, and release growth factors that promote healing. This phase typically lasts for 2-5 days post-injury.
3. Proliferation: In this phase, various cell types, including fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and keratinocytes, proliferate and migrate to the wound site to synthesize extracellular matrix (ECM) components, form new blood vessels (angiogenesis), and re-epithelialize the wounded area. This phase can last up to several weeks depending on the size and severity of the wound.
4. Remodeling: The final phase of wound healing involves the maturation and realignment of collagen fibers, leading to the restoration of tensile strength in the healed tissue. This process can continue for months to years after injury, although the tissue may never fully regain its original structure and function.

It is important to note that wound healing can be compromised by several factors, including age, nutrition, comorbidities (e.g., diabetes, vascular disease), and infection, which can result in delayed healing or non-healing chronic wounds.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

Dendrimers are a type of synthetic, nanoscale polymer structures with a well-defined, highly branched, and regularly repeating architecture. They consist of a central core, an inner layer of repetitive branches, and an outer surface that can be functionalized with various groups. Dendrimers have unique properties such as monodispersity, a high degree of symmetry, and the ability to encapsulate or conjugate drugs, genes, and imaging agents, making them useful in drug delivery, gene therapy, diagnostics, and other biomedical applications.

Laser coagulation, also known as laser photocoagulation, is a medical procedure that uses a laser to seal or destroy abnormal blood vessels or tissue. The laser produces a concentrated beam of light that can be precisely focused on the target area. When the laser energy is absorbed by the tissue, it causes the temperature to rise, which leads to coagulation (the formation of a clot) or destruction of the tissue.

In ophthalmology, laser coagulation is commonly used to treat conditions such as diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and retinal tears or holes. The procedure can help to seal leaking blood vessels, reduce fluid leakage, and prevent further vision loss. It is usually performed as an outpatient procedure and may be repeated if necessary.

In other medical specialties, laser coagulation may be used to control bleeding, destroy tumors, or remove unwanted tissue. The specific technique and parameters of the laser treatment will depend on the individual patient's needs and the condition being treated.

"Intraperitoneal injection" is a medical term that refers to the administration of a substance or medication directly into the peritoneal cavity, which is the space between the lining of the abdominal wall and the organs contained within it. This type of injection is typically used in clinical settings for various purposes, such as delivering chemotherapy drugs, anesthetics, or other medications directly to the abdominal organs.

The procedure involves inserting a needle through the abdominal wall and into the peritoneal cavity, taking care to avoid any vital structures such as blood vessels or nerves. Once the needle is properly positioned, the medication can be injected slowly and carefully to ensure even distribution throughout the cavity.

It's important to note that intraperitoneal injections are typically reserved for situations where other routes of administration are not feasible or effective, as they carry a higher risk of complications such as infection, bleeding, or injury to surrounding organs. As with any medical procedure, it should only be performed by trained healthcare professionals under appropriate clinical circumstances.

Visual acuity is a measure of the sharpness or clarity of vision. It is usually tested by reading an eye chart from a specific distance, such as 20 feet (6 meters). The standard eye chart used for this purpose is called the Snellen chart, which contains rows of letters that decrease in size as you read down the chart.

Visual acuity is typically expressed as a fraction, with the numerator representing the testing distance and the denominator indicating the smallest line of type that can be read clearly. For example, if a person can read the line on the eye chart that corresponds to a visual acuity of 20/20, it means they have normal vision at 20 feet. If their visual acuity is 20/40, it means they must be as close as 20 feet to see what someone with normal vision can see at 40 feet.

It's important to note that visual acuity is just one aspect of overall vision and does not necessarily reflect other important factors such as peripheral vision, depth perception, color vision, or contrast sensitivity.

The vasa vasorum are small blood vessels that supply larger blood vessels, such as the arteries and veins, with oxygen and nutrients. They are located in the outer layers (the adventitia and media) of these larger vessels and form a network of vessels that surround and penetrate the walls of the larger vessels. The vasa vasorum are particularly important in supplying blood to the thicker walls of larger arteries, such as the aorta, where diffusion from the lumen may not be sufficient to meet the metabolic needs of the vessel wall.

A "knockout" mouse is a genetically engineered mouse in which one or more genes have been deleted or "knocked out" using molecular biology techniques. This allows researchers to study the function of specific genes and their role in various biological processes, as well as potential associations with human diseases. The mice are generated by introducing targeted DNA modifications into embryonic stem cells, which are then used to create a live animal. Knockout mice have been widely used in biomedical research to investigate gene function, disease mechanisms, and potential therapeutic targets.

An intravitreal injection is a medical procedure in which medication is delivered directly into the vitreous cavity of the eye, which is the clear, gel-like substance that fills the space between the lens and the retina. This type of injection is typically used to treat various eye conditions such as age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, retinal vein occlusion, and uveitis. The medication administered in intravitreal injections can help to reduce inflammation, inhibit the growth of new blood vessels, or prevent the formation of abnormal blood vessels in the eye.

Intravitreal injections are usually performed in an outpatient setting, and the procedure typically takes only a few minutes. Before the injection, the eye is numbed with anesthetic drops to minimize discomfort. The medication is then injected into the vitreous cavity using a small needle. After the injection, patients may experience some mild discomfort or a scratchy sensation in the eye, but this usually resolves within a few hours.

While intravitreal injections are generally safe, there are some potential risks and complications associated with the procedure, including infection, bleeding, retinal detachment, and increased intraocular pressure. Patients who undergo intravitreal injections should be closely monitored by their eye care provider to ensure that any complications are promptly identified and treated.

An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is a type of analytical biochemistry assay used to detect and quantify the presence of a substance, typically a protein or peptide, in a liquid sample. It takes its name from the enzyme-linked antibodies used in the assay.

In an ELISA, the sample is added to a well containing a surface that has been treated to capture the target substance. If the target substance is present in the sample, it will bind to the surface. Next, an enzyme-linked antibody specific to the target substance is added. This antibody will bind to the captured target substance if it is present. After washing away any unbound material, a substrate for the enzyme is added. If the enzyme is present due to its linkage to the antibody, it will catalyze a reaction that produces a detectable signal, such as a color change or fluorescence. The intensity of this signal is proportional to the amount of target substance present in the sample, allowing for quantification.

ELISAs are widely used in research and clinical settings to detect and measure various substances, including hormones, viruses, and bacteria. They offer high sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility, making them a reliable choice for many applications.

Intercellular signaling peptides and proteins are molecules that mediate communication and interaction between different cells in living organisms. They play crucial roles in various biological processes, including cell growth, differentiation, migration, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). These signals can be released into the extracellular space, where they bind to specific receptors on the target cell's surface, triggering intracellular signaling cascades that ultimately lead to a response.

Peptides are short chains of amino acids, while proteins are larger molecules made up of one or more polypeptide chains. Both can function as intercellular signaling molecules by acting as ligands for cell surface receptors or by being cleaved from larger precursor proteins and released into the extracellular space. Examples of intercellular signaling peptides and proteins include growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, hormones, neurotransmitters, and their respective receptors.

These molecules contribute to maintaining homeostasis within an organism by coordinating cellular activities across tissues and organs. Dysregulation of intercellular signaling pathways has been implicated in various diseases, such as cancer, autoimmune disorders, and neurodegenerative conditions. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms underlying intercellular signaling is essential for developing targeted therapies to treat these disorders.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

A hindlimb, also known as a posterior limb, is one of the pair of extremities that are located distally to the trunk in tetrapods (four-legged vertebrates) and include mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians. In humans and other primates, hindlimbs are equivalent to the lower limbs, which consist of the thigh, leg, foot, and toes.

The primary function of hindlimbs is locomotion, allowing animals to move from one place to another. However, they also play a role in other activities such as balance, support, and communication. In humans, the hindlimbs are responsible for weight-bearing, standing, walking, running, and jumping.

In medical terminology, the term "hindlimb" is not commonly used to describe human anatomy. Instead, healthcare professionals use terms like lower limbs or lower extremities to refer to the same region of the body. However, in comparative anatomy and veterinary medicine, the term hindlimb is still widely used to describe the corresponding structures in non-human animals.

... (CNV) is the in-growth of new blood vessels from the pericorneal plexus into avascular corneal ... If the cornea is inflamed via corneal neovascularization, the suppression of enzymes can block CNV by compromising with corneal ... Maintaining avascularity of the corneal stroma is an important aspect of corneal pathophysiology as it is required for corneal ... Corneal neovascularization has become more common worldwide with an estimated incidence rate of 1.4 million cases per year, ...
Choroidal neovascularization Corneal neovascularization Revascularization Rubeosis iridis Inosculation Neely, Kimberly A.; ... Corneal neovascularization is a condition where new blood vessels invade into the cornea from the limbus. It is triggered when ... Neovascularization in the eye can cause a type of glaucoma (neovascularization glaucoma) if the new blood vessels' bulk blocks ... "Treatment of Corneal Neovascularization". EyeNet Magazine. American Academy of Ophthalmology: 35-6. Retrieved 14 July 2020. ...
"Corneal Neovascularization: An Anti-VEGF Therapy Review". Survey of Ophthalmology. 57 (5): 415-429. doi:10.1016/j.survophthal. ...
Hayashi A, Popovich KS, Kim HC, de Juan E (1997). "Role of protein tyrosine phosphorylation in rat corneal neovascularization ...
... such as corneal neovascularization. "International Nonproprietary Names for Pharmaceutical Substances (INN). Recommended ... "NK1 receptor antagonists as a new treatment for corneal neovascularization". Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science. 55 ( ...
"NK1 receptor antagonists as a new treatment for corneal neovascularization". Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science. 55 ( ... has however continued to be researched for other possible applications such as treatment of corneal neovascularization. ...
The sequelae of corneal hypoxia include punctate keratitis, corneal neovascularization and epithelial microcysts. Intrauterine ... Although corneal hypoxia can arise from any of several causes, it is primarily attributable to the prolonged use of contact ...
Besides, reduced tearing with erosion and neovascularization of the cornea leads to corneal opacification and perforation. ...
The sign is an indication of interstitial (or parenchymatous) keratitis, causing corneal neovascularisation. Blood vessels ...
... and neovascularization. In these severe and infrequent cases, corneal transplantation has been used as a treatment option. ... Extreme ocular exposure to mustard gas vapors may result in corneal ulceration, anterior chamber scarring, ...
This result suggests that EP4 activation contributes to corneal neovascularization and that EP4 antagonists may be useful for ... A selective EP4 antagonists significantly reduced corneal neovascularization in rats caused by oxygen-induced retinopathy or ... corneal endothelium, corneal keratocytes, trabecular cells, ciliary epithelium, conjunctival stromal cells, and iridal stromal ...
... corneal neovascularization, and ulceration. Patients with an inflammatory eyelid lesion that appears suspicious of malignancy ... This serves as a primary indication of regional dryness in the pre-corneal tear film after fluorescein injections. If TBUT is ... Other signs may include telangiectasia on the anterior eyelid, collarettes encircling the lash base, and corneal changes. ... and corneal ulcer or irritation. The lids may become red and may have ulcerate, non-healing areas that may lead to bleeding. ...
... sometimes resulting in corneal neovascularization-the growth of blood vessels into the cornea. This causes a slight lengthening ... Both the depth of the corneal incisions and the degree of central corneal flattening correlated with the laser energy applied. ... Those with Fuchs' corneal endothelial dystrophy, corneal epithelial basement membrane dystrophy, retinal tears, autoimmune ... are made of materials with greater oxygen permeability that help reduce the risk of corneal neovascularization, patients ...
Corneal neovascularization (H18.5) Fuchs' dystrophy - cloudy morning vision (H18.6) Keratoconus - degenerative disease: the ... Corneal ulcer / Corneal abrasion - loss of the surface epithelial layer of the eye's cornea (H16.1) Snow blindness / Arc eye - ... a rare congenital eye condition leading to underdevelopment or even absence of the iris of the eye Endophthalmitis Corneal ...
Interstitial and deep keratitis 370.6 Corneal neovascularization 370.8 Other forms of keratitis 370.9 Unspecified 371 Corneal ... cornea 371.0 Corneal scars and opacities 371.1 Corneal pigmentations and deposits 371.2 Corneal oedema 371.3 Changes of corneal ... membranes 371.4 Corneal degenerations 371.5 Hereditary corneal dystrophies 371.6 Keratoconus 371.7 Other corneal deformities ... one eye 369.9 Unspecified visual loss 370 Keratitis 370.0 Corneal ulcer 370.1* Dendritic keratitis (054.4†) 370.2 Other ...
In mice models of stromal keratitis and corneal neovascularization (HSV ocular disease), a small RNR2 C-terminal analog BILD ...
Phase III in progressive corneal neovascularisation in patients with infectious keratitis and on the waiting list for Corneal ... including progressive corneal neovascularization in patients with infectious keratitis and wet age related macular degeneration ... "GS-101 antisense oligonucleotide eye drops inhibit corneal neovascularization: interim results of a randomized phase II trial" ... "Aganirsen antisense oligonucleotide eye drops inhibit keratitis-induced corneal neovascularization and reduce need for ...
... corneal edema MeSH C11.204.290 - corneal neovascularization MeSH C11.204.299 - corneal opacity MeSH C11.204.299.070 - arcus ... corneal ulcer MeSH C11.294.354 - eye infections, bacterial MeSH C11.294.354.220 - conjunctivitis, bacterial MeSH C11.294. ... corneal dystrophies, hereditary MeSH C11.270.162.438 - Fuchs' endothelial dystrophy MeSH C11.270.235 - duane retraction ... retinal neovascularization MeSH C11.768.740 - retinal perforations MeSH C11.768.757 - retinal vasculitis MeSH C11.768.760 - ...
... such as corneal neovascularization, in a rabbit model without showing a noticeable side effect over current standard therapies ... All-printed corneal electrodes on soft contact lenses for noninvasive recording of human electroretinogram, Nature ...
... has potent angiogenic activity upon endothelial cells and induces neovascularization, first demonstrated in a corneal ... enhances physiological adaptation of retinal vessels and reduces pathological neovascularization associated with ischemic ...
... choroidal neovascularization) CNV (corneal neovascularization) NVD (neovascularization of the disc) "rubeosis iridis" at ... Once the neovascularization has been longstanding, the new vessels recruit fibrous tissue, and as this forms and contracts, the ... Rubeosis iridis is a medical condition of the iris of the eye in which new abnormal blood vessels (formed by neovascularization ... If caught early, the neovascularization can be reversed with prompt panretinal photocoagulation (PRP), or injection of anti- ...
Corneal epithelial infiltrates Keratitis Corneal ulcer Corneal stroma Corneal neovascularisation Corneal oedema Corneal ... Ptosis Giant papillary conjunctivitis Superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis Epithelium Corneal abrasion Corneal erosion Contact ... infiltrates Corneal endothelium Endothelial polymegathism Effects of long-term contact lens wear on the cornea (Contact lenses) ...
... but also neovascularization (formation of new blood vessels), which can lead to a loss of corneal transparency. Therefore, the ... Corneal nerves serve as a form of defense by detecting the presence of foreign bodies on the corneal surface. This leads to ... Corneal epithelial cells present a physical barrier to prevent microbes from reaching the interior of the eye chamber, which is ... Tears bathe corneal epithelial cells in a moist environment, preventing them from drying out and weakening. However, the liquid ...
Corneal neovascularization - excessive ingrowth of blood vessels from the limbal vascular plexus into the cornea, caused by ... Corneal pachymetry Corneal reflex Corneal tattooing Corneal topography Eye disease Keratometry List of keratins expressed in ... For corneal epithelial diseases such as Stevens Johnson Syndrome, persistent corneal ulcer etc., the autologous contralateral ( ... There is a global shortage of corneal donations, severely limiting the availability of corneal transplants across most of the ...
... and reduced the severity of corneal inflammation and neovascularization. cell-SCC retained the capacity to suppress corneal ... in mouse and tree shrew wounded corneas prevented the formation of corneal scarring, increased corneal re-epithelialization and ... Corneal scarring Human Muse cells, collected from lipoaspirate, were activated by forming spheroid in the dynamic rotary cell ... These activated Muse spheroids enabled ready differentiation into corneal stromal cells (CSCs) expressing characteristic marker ...
... corneal ulcers and corneal neovascularization-this latter condition, once it sets in, cannot be reversed and will eventually ... corneal edema, descemetocele, corneal ectasia, Mooren's ulcer, anterior corneal dystrophy, and neurotrophic ... The most prominent risks associated with long-term, chronic low oxygen to the cornea include corneal neovascularization, ... "The Corneal Lens", The Optician, 2 September 1949, pp. 141-144. "Corneal Contact Lenses", The Optician, 9 September 1949, p. ...
The corneal layers show edema and striae. There is mild anterior uveitis. A cherry-red spot may be seen in the macula, along ... The condition leads to neovascularization in various eye tissues due to the ischemia. The eye pressure may become high due to ... general ocular ischemia may result in retinal neovascularization, rubeosis iridis, cells and flare, iris necrosis, and cataract ...
Neovascularisation (growth of new abnormal vessels) is possible and any eye surgery, such as cataract surgery, can cause ... and keratitic precipitates on the posterior corneal surface. Patients are often asymptomatic and the disease is often ...
... corneal ulceration (sterile and infected), corneal neovascularization, corneal scarring, corneal thinning, and even corneal ... Some severe cases result in thickening of the corneal surface, corneal erosion, punctate keratopathy, epithelial defects, ... in which the corneal nerves which stimulate tear secretion are cut during the creation of a corneal flap. Dry eye caused by ... Tear osmolarity may be a more sensitive method of diagnosing and grading the severity of dry eye compared to corneal and ...
High expression is observed in suprabasal cells of the corneal epithelium in the mouse model, along with expression in mouse ... miR-184 has been implicated in ischemia-induced retinal neovascularization. Dysregulation of miRNA expression is thought to ... In mammals, mature miR-184 is particularly enriched in the brain and testis, along with the corneal epithelium. Depolarization ... Finally, a recent study identified miR-184 as essential for embryonic corneal commitment of pluripotent stem cells. • A single ...
Corneal neovascularization (CNV) is the in-growth of new blood vessels from the pericorneal plexus into avascular corneal ... If the cornea is inflamed via corneal neovascularization, the suppression of enzymes can block CNV by compromising with corneal ... Maintaining avascularity of the corneal stroma is an important aspect of corneal pathophysiology as it is required for corneal ... Corneal neovascularization has become more common worldwide with an estimated incidence rate of 1.4 million cases per year, ...
Ocular insult, including infectious keratitis, immunological conditions, corneal trauma, alkali injury, and contact lens wear ( ... CL), can encourage new blood vessels to grow from the limbus and, hence, neovascularization (NV). ... encoded search term (Neovascularization%2C Corneal%2C CL-related) and Neovascularization, Corneal, CL-related What to Read Next ... Neovascularization, Corneal, CL-related. Updated: Sep 21, 2023 * Author: Barry A Weissman, OD, PhD, FAAO; Chief Editor: Hampton ...
... graph shows changes in the area of corneal neovascularization. The diagnosis of the condition, corneal neovascularization is ... Corneal neovascularization (CNV) is the in-growth of new blood vessels from the pericorneal plexus into avascular corneal ... If the cornea is inflamed via corneal neovascularization, the suppression of enzymes can block CNV by compromising with corneal ... "Corneal Neovascularization - EyeWiki". eyewiki.org. Archived from the original on 15 July 2022. Retrieved 14 July 2022.. ...
... attenuate the inflammatory response and lessen corneal neovascularization by scavenging excess ... Ctively attenuate alkali burn-induced ROS generation and minimize corneal neovascularization as a consequence of alkali burns [ ... AIP1 can attenuate corneal neovascularization through the NOX4-NLRP3/NLRP6IL-1-VEGFa pathway, acting in the same manner as ... Ctively attenuate alkali burn-induced ROS generation and decrease corneal neovascularization due. achr inhibitor ...
Corneal Neovascularization / drug therapy* * Corneal Neovascularization / metabolism * Corneal Neovascularization / pathology * ... Methods: The corneal epithelia of SOD-1-deficient mice or wild-type (WT) mice were removed after application of 0.15 N NaOH to ... Hydrogen and N-acetyl-L-cysteine rescue oxidative stress-induced angiogenesis in a mouse corneal alkali-burn model Invest ... Pretreatment with the specific NF-κB inhibitor DHMEQ or the antioxidant NAC significantly reduced corneal angiogenesis by ...
Neovascularization at corneal margin, anterior uveitis. Jos-9‡. 3 y 6 mo/M. 20. 6.71 × 106. Conjunctival and peripheral corneal ... Anterior uvea, peripheral corneal endothelium. ++. Neovascularization at corneal margin, mild conjunctivitis. Jos-4‡. 2 y 4 mo/ ... Conjunctival and peripheral corneal endothelium and anterior uvea. ++. Mild neovascularization at corneal margin, minimal ... Mild neovascularization at corneal margin. Jos-7‡. 3 y 7 mo/F. 23. 5.23 × 106. Conjunctival endothelium and anterior uvea. ++. ...
Cannabinoid (JWH-133) therapy could be effective for treatment of corneal neovascularization. Iranian Journal of Medical ... Inhibition of corneal neovascularization with propolis extract. Archives of Medical Research 2009;40(1):59-61. https://doi.org/ ... Time- and stimulus-dependent characteristics of innate immune cells in organ-cultured human corneal tissue. Journal of Innate ... Secreted phosphoprotein 1 expression in retinal mononuclear phagocytes links murine to human choroidal neovascularization. ...
Role of CD4+CD25+ Regulatory T Cells in Corneal Neovascularization T. Usui; S. Yamagami; S. Kishimoto; T. Mimura; K. Ono; S. ... Reconstruction of Corneal Stroma With Gelatin and Multipotent Precursor Cells From Human Corneal Stroma ... TAGS: cauda equina syndrome, cesium, corneal endothelium, oryctolagus cuniculus, immunocytochemistry, cornea, descemets ... Glucocorticoids Enhance the Expression of Sodium Bicarbonate Co-Transporter (NBC) in Cultured Human Corneal Endothelial Cells ...
Figure 2. Alkali-induced corneal neovascularization and macrophage infiltration. A: The macroscopic appearances of WT, CCL3-KO ... B: Corneal tissues were obtained from WT, CCR1-KO, and CCL3-KO mice two weeks after the injury. Tissues were stained with ...
Keratitis, corneal ectasia, keratomalacia, and corneal neovascularization Eyelid complications may include the following:. * ...
... corneal neovascularization and dry eye syndromes.. Researchers receive $6.7 million in federal grants to develop technology to ...
Long-term outcomes of Fine Needle Diathermy for established corneal neovascularisation - P. Hossain, S. Trikha, Clive Osmond ... Is accelerated corneal collagen cross-linking for keratoconus the way forward? No. - C. Macgregor, M. Tsatos and Parwez Hossain ... Primary human corneal fibroblasts release specific matrix metalloproteinases in response to live Pseudomonas aeruginosa ... Pseudomonas aeruginosa activates components of the inflammasome complex in human corneal fibroblast - Maria del mar DM Cendra ...
TAGS: angiogram, corneal neovascularization, diagnostic imaging, fluorescence, optical coherence tomography, cornea Invest. ... Imaging of Corneal Neovascularization: Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography and Fluorescence Angiography PDF ... The effect of anterior chamber pressure and corneal drying on corneal thickness in preparation for descemet stripping ... TAGS: cornea, genes, genotype-phenotype associations, hereditary corneal dystrophy, keratoconus, keratocytes, mutation, ...
Corneal neovascularization (CNV) leads to the loss of corneal transparency and vision impairment, and can ultimately cause ... of dexamethasone sodium phosphate with biodegradable nanoparticles for preventing experimental corneal neovascularization. ...
Rarely, corneal neovascularization regresses completely without treatment, and corneal transparency is restored. With treatment ... In resource-rich nations a corneal transplant Corneal Transplantation Corneal transplantations are done for several reasons: To ... Later, corneal neovascularization and scarring of the conjunctiva, cornea, and eyelids occur. Diagnosis is usually clinical. ... Lymphoid follicles on the tarsal plate or along the corneal limbus, linear conjunctival scarring, and corneal pannus are ...
... corneal neovascularization (seven days), and corneal ulceration (14 days) were also observed. The iris could not be inspected ... other: corneal neovascularization. Basis:. mean. Time point:. other: 7d. Reversibility:. not fully reversible within: 21d. ... other: corneal ulceration. Basis:. mean. Time point:. other: 4h. Reversibility:. not fully reversible within: 21d. Remarks on ... Corneal damage occurred within one hour of treatment, becoming moderately to severely opaque and affecting almost all cornea. ...
The Effect of Interleukin 38 on Inflammation-induced Corneal Neovascularization [ Vol. 19 , Issue. 8 ] ... by topical administration of IL-38 to the injured corneas in a mouse model of alkali-induced corneal neovascularization (CNV). ... Angiogenesis, cytokine, interleukin, inflammation, IL-38, neovascularization. Affiliation:. The Third Affiliated Hospital of ...
MMP12 Inhibits Corneal Neovascularization and Inflammation through Regulation of CCL2.. Scientific reports ... Corneal Repair Models in Mice: Epithelial/Mechanical Versus Stromal/Chemical Injuries.. Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, ... Effects of MMP12 on cell motility and inflammation during corneal epithelial repair.. Experimental eye research ... Novel Mechanisms Guide Innovative Molecular-Based Therapeutic Strategies for Fuchs Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy.. Cornea ...
... corneal neovascularisation (growth of new blood vessels into the cornea to increase oxygen supply), inflammation, and ...
Corneal Neovascularization Market Size will Escalate Rapidly in the Near Future. Zaraki Kenpachi - August 19, 2021. 0 ...
Corneal neovascularization [10] * Night blindness [10] * Cataracts [10] * Normocytic normochromic anemia [4] ...
Corneal neovascularization [10] * Night blindness [10] * Cataracts [10] * Normocytic normochromic anemia [4] ...
Neovascularization, Corneal, CL-related * Colorectal Cancer Guidelines Recommendations. * 2001. First Guideline to Say Colon ...
Abstract: Corneal neovascularization (NV) is one of the major sight-threatening pathological changes caused by corneal diseases ... Lu Y, Zheng Y, Ai J, Xu X. Therapeutic effects of a novel pigf-1 derived peptide, zy-1, on corneal neovascularization in vitro ... Therapeutic effects of a novel PIGF-1 derived peptide, ZY-1, on corneal neovascularization in vitro and in vivo ... on corneal NV by topical administration, and to investigate its safety profile after long-term treatment. CCK-8 assay and tube ...
On examination, there is a corneal ulcer and neovascularization. What is the most likely diagnosis? ...
... and retinal neovascularization. The role of VEGF in inflammatory corneal neovascularization is unknown and was investigated in ... abstract:PURPOSE:Corneal neovascularization remains an unsolved therapeutic problem. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is ... The role of PDGF receptor inhibitors and PI3-kinase signaling in the pathogenesis of corneal neovascularization. ... Requirement for vascular endothelial growth factor in wound- and inflammation-related corneal neovascularization. abstract: ...
Corneal neovascularization after excimer keratectomy wounds in matrilysin-deficient mice. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003 Jan; ... "Epithelium, Corneal" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Epithelium, Corneal" by people in this website by year, and ... Phototherapeutic keratectomy for the treatment of subepithelial fibrosis and anterior corneal scarring after descemet stripping ...
... corneal neovascularization, retinal neovascularization, particularly wherein the eyes diseases are cataract, corneal clouding ( ... corneal neovascularization, retinal neovascularization, particularly wherein the eyes diseases are cataract, corneal clouding ( ... corneal neovascularization, retinal neovascularization, etc.. In a particular embodiment of the invention, the present ... corneal neovascularization, retinal neovascularization, in particular diabetic retinopathy, such as diabetic macular edema, ...
... corneal neovascularization, 0.53%; microbial keratitis, 0.45%; and limbal stem cell deficiency, 0.20%. This study design ... It is possible that the clinical course worsens in a few days with a corneal perforation as a result. In these cases a timely ... The effect was mediated by the ß2-adrenergic receptor (ß2-AR) in the corneal epithelium. The ß2-AR blockage by the NE ... Survey-Based Estimation of Corneal Complications Associated with Scleral Lens Wear. Schornack, Muriel M; Nau, Cherie B; Harthan ...
Imaging of Corneal Neovascularization: Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography and Fluorescence Angiography. Investigative ... An inferior corneal and conjunctival epithelial defect is noted (A,B) at presentation which heals over the course of two weeks ... A-L) These images show the progressive healing of the corneal and conjunctival epithelial defects in the inferior part of the ... In a mice model, both OCTA and FA were used to study the limbal and corneal vasculature in acute burns [32]. Both devices ...
  • Common causes of CNV within the cornea include trachoma, corneal ulcers, phlyctenular keratoconjunctivitis, rosacea keratitis, interstitial keratitis, sclerosing keratitis, chemical burns, and wearing contact lenses for over-extended periods of time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Continuous wear contact lenses are designed to be worn for up to 30 days and although safe and healthy for your eyes they can increase the risk of infection, corneal neovascularisation (growth of new blood vessels into the cornea to increase oxygen supply), inflammation, and irritation. (contactlenses.co.uk)
  • Continuous renewal of corneal epithelium is provided by a population of adult stem/progenitor cells residing in the limbus, the transitional zone between the vascular conjunctiva, and the avascular transparent cornea. (touchophthalmology.com)
  • Due to the damage in the limbus, the barrier between the vascular conjunctiva and the avascular cornea is impaired and conjunctival epithelial cells migrate toward the corneal surface, accompanied by ingrowth of blood vessels. (touchophthalmology.com)
  • The clinical signs of LSCD, resulted from conjunctivalization of the cornea, include persistent epithelial defects, corneal vascularization, and chronic stromal inflammation leading to functional impairment and visual loss. (touchophthalmology.com)
  • The most common features of this syndrome are the movement of endothelial cells off the cornea onto the iris leading to corneal swelling, distortion of the iris, and variable degrees of distortion of the pupil. (bvsalud.org)
  • The human cornea borders with the sclera at the corneal limbus . (detailedpedia.com)
  • Lymphoid follicles on the tarsal plate or along the corneal limbus, linear conjunctival scarring, and corneal pannus are considered diagnostic in the appropriate clinical setting. (msdmanuals.com)
  • 1-7 At the limbus, the corneal epithelial stem cells (ESC) reside within the basal layer of the epithelium. (touchophthalmology.com)
  • METHODS: Six patients who developed Candida keratitis following penetrating and endothelial keratoplasty, were referred to Tianjin Medical University Eye Hospital between 2018 to 2021.The diagnosis was established following cultures of either corneal scraping or biopsy. (bvsalud.org)
  • Corneal neovascularization (CNV) is the in-growth of new blood vessels from the pericorneal plexus into avascular corneal tissue as a result of oxygen deprivation. (wikipedia.org)
  • This results in hemorrhaging and can lead to neovascularization (growth of fragile blood vessels). (eyetheory.com)
  • Corneal neovascularization is a sight-threatening condition that can be caused by inflammation related to infection, chemical injury, autoimmune conditions, immune hypersensitivity, post-corneal transplantation, and traumatic conditions among other ocular pathologies. (wikipedia.org)
  • When ocular inflammation occurs, corneal epithelial and endothelial cells, macrophages and certain inflammatory cells produce angiogenic growth factors, namely vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Homeostasis of corneal epithelium is essential for the maintenance of healthy ocular surface as well as for corneal transparency and accurate vision. (touchophthalmology.com)
  • Fundus fluorescein angiography showing peripapillary staining and blockage from choroidal neovascularization in an eye with presumed ocular tuberculosis. (reviewofophthalmology.com)
  • Diseases surgical technique developed since the start of the involving the corneal endothelium can be controlled twentieth century for the realization of corneal with endothelial or penetrating keratoplasties, and transplantation (CT). (bvsalud.org)
  • CT is the most common type those diseases that involve both the endothelium and of tissue transplantation made around the world, the corneal stroma generally require PK when there is substitution of all corneal layers (the (REINHART, 2011). (bvsalud.org)
  • Modern rigid gas permeable and silicon hydrogel contact lenses have a much higher level of oxygen transmissibility, making them effective alternatives to help prevent corneal neovascularization. (wikipedia.org)
  • The patient had already developed significant corneal scarring and visual debilitation by the time topical steroids were initiated, and his final corrected visual acuity with rigid gas permeable contact lenses was 20/50 and 20/80 in the right and left eye, respectively. (bvsalud.org)
  • Corneal epithelium is continuous with the conjunctival epithelium, and is composed of about 6 layers of cells which are shed constantly on the exposed layer and are regenerated by multiplication in the basal layer. (detailedpedia.com)
  • Irregularity or edema of the corneal epithelium disrupts the smoothness of the air/tear-film interface, the most significant component of the total refractive power of the eye, thereby reducing visual acuity. (detailedpedia.com)
  • Maintaining avascularity of the corneal stroma is an important aspect of corneal pathophysiology as it is required for corneal transparency and optimal vision. (wikipedia.org)
  • when discussed in lieu of a subepithelial basement membrane, Bowman's Layer is a tough layer composed of collagen (mainly type I collagen fibrils), laminin , nidogen , perlecan and other HSPGs that protects the corneal stroma. (detailedpedia.com)
  • A decrease in corneal transparency causes visual acuity deterioration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rarely, corneal neovascularization regresses completely without treatment, and corneal transparency is restored. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The same study found that the tissue from twenty percent of corneas examined during corneal transplantations had some degree of neovascularization, negatively impacting the prognosis for individuals undergoing keratoplasty procedures. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the development of new surgical techniques, instrumentation and pharmacological advances, corneal transplant procedures can undergo changes directly in the clinical profile of patients with the indication for penetrating keratoplasty technique. (bvsalud.org)
  • For contact lenses related hypoxia, ceasing the use of contact lenses is the first step until corneal neovascularization is addressed by a physician. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the most common causes of corneal neovascularization is iatrogenic pathology from extended contact lens wear. (wikipedia.org)
  • Corneal tissue is avascular in nature and the presence of vascularization, which can be deep or superficial, is always pathologically related. (wikipedia.org)
  • When visual potential is unclear due to inability to visualize the posterior segment, endoscopy for diagnostic purposes and to assess prognosis may be considered prior to committing to corneal transplant. (vitbucklesociety.org)
  • Puede accidentalmente dañar los ojos de los humanos por su naturaleza cáustica, causando conjuntivitis, queratitis, uveítis, estafiloma anterior y cicatrización corneal en pacientes no tratados. (bvsalud.org)
  • Treatments for corneal neovascularization are predominately off-lab with a multitude of complications as a result. (wikipedia.org)
  • NV is believed to result from an inflammatory or hypoxic disruption of an exquisitely balanced corneal immune system. (medscape.com)
  • Corneal neovascularization has become more common worldwide with an estimated incidence rate of 1.4 million cases per year, according to a 1998 study by the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary. (wikipedia.org)
  • Silicone hydrogel CLs with oxygen permeabilities approaching 100-200 Fatt Dk units have decreased the incidence of corneal NV among CL users. (medscape.com)
  • Incidence of subsequent corneal graft rejection is estimated by one study to be 1.7 times higher in a setting of vascularized rather than nonvascularized host corneas. (medscape.com)
  • In advanced stages, corneal neovascularization can threaten eyesight, which is why routine (annual) eye exams are recommended for contact lens patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • The desired results from medical therapy may not always occur, ergo an invasive procedure may be needed to prevent further decrease in corneal avascularity. (wikipedia.org)
  • ReLEx SMILE, for example, is a cutting-edge Laser Vision Correction method that minimizes the risk of corneal weakness or dry eye post-surgery. (360eyecare.ca)
  • RESULTS: The cultures of corneal scrapings (4 cases) or biopsies (2 cases) were all positive for Candida spp. (bvsalud.org)
  • 7. Inhibition of corneal angiogenesis by local application of vasostatin. (nih.gov)
  • However, neovascularization can also develop in the cornea of laboratory rodents fed diets deficient in certain nutrients. (nih.gov)
  • Eye, Cornea - Neovascularization in a male F344/N rat from a chronic study. (nih.gov)
  • Abstract: Cornea being the outer most tissue in the eye suffers regular injuries from corneal abrasions, puncture wounds, chemical and thermal burns that induce corneal inflammation. (nih.gov)
  • With oxygen transmissibility at Dk/t 150 , more oxygen is allowed to pass through the lenses quickly to the cornea, effectively preventing hypoxia-related complications, such as redness, corneal neovascularization and corneal epithelium-aging. (uniqso.com)
  • Over time, many patients with scarring and neovascularization (growth of vessels) will see a clearing of the cornea as a result of the moisture protection of the scleral lens. (youreyesinfocus.com)
  • According to Dr. Cursiefen, epithelial and stromal wound-healing problems, including neurotrophic keratopathy, and altered corneal immune responses have all been reported with off-label intravitreal bevacizumab. (medscape.com)
  • Ultrastructural features of contact lens-induced deep corneal neovascularization and associated stromal leukocytes. (medscape.com)
  • Corn1 is characterized by early, irregular thickening of the corneal epithelium, development of stromal neovascularization by 20 days of age, and cataract by 48 days of age. (nih.gov)
  • Corn1 mice, with genetically determined corneal epithelial hyperplasia and stromal neovascularization, may be particularly useful in studies of neovascularization and corneal surface proliferative disease. (nih.gov)
  • Corneal epithelial defects, stromal opacity, and neovascularization were evaluated after the injury . (bvsalud.org)
  • CXCR3 deletion aggravates corneal neovascularization in a corneal alkali-burn model. (nih.gov)
  • 11. A peptide derived from type 1 thrombospondin repeat-containing protein WISP-1 inhibits corneal and choroidal neovascularization. (nih.gov)
  • Tumstatin inhibits Choroidal Neovascularization by Inhibiting MMP-2 activation in-vitro and in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • Inhibition of corneal neovascularization after alkali burn: Comparison of different doses of bevacizumab in monotherapy or associated with dexamethasone. (nih.gov)
  • 9. Inhibition of corneal neovascularization by rapamycin. (nih.gov)
  • 12. Inhibition of ocular neovascularization by a novel peptide derived from human placenta growth factor-1. (nih.gov)
  • There was no significant difference between the groups in the rate of epithelial healing or corneal opacification. (bvsalud.org)
  • 4. Inhibitory effect of rapamycin on corneal neovascularization in vitro and in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • 16. In vivo and in vitro inhibitory effect of amniotic extraction on neovascularization. (nih.gov)
  • 17. Inhibitory effect of curcumin on corneal neovascularization in vitro and in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • We anticipate our study will ultimately translate in to human augmentative dietary supplement of n-3 PUFAs to help balance the inflammation and improve the resolution and wound-healing in the corneas that are prone to develop scar and NV due to underlying genetic causes, contact lens wearing or corneal transplantation surgery and thus will prevent formation of permanent scar and blindness. (nih.gov)
  • By using the nanoparticles to control the release of the medicine over time, patients would require only one injection right after the corneal transplantation surgery without the frequent eye drops. (nih.gov)
  • Up to one fourth of all cases of blindness worldwide are attributable to corneal opacities generated by scarring, or fibrosis, representing a huge economic and societal burden. (nih.gov)
  • The primary cause of corneal fibrosis development is defective wound healing process due to imbalances in the inflammation and its resolution. (nih.gov)
  • We hypothesize that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) from Fish Oil dietary supplementation will inhibit corneal fibrosis and NV by reducing chronic inflammation and augmenting resolution and wound-healing. (nih.gov)
  • 20. Potential anti-angiogenic role of Slit2 in corneal neovascularization. (nih.gov)
  • CD36 is required for the anti-angiogenic effects of thrombospondin1 in the corneal neovascularization assay. (biovisi.com)
  • In a rabbit CoNV model, Gel 2_1&Eylea significantly reduces the density of neovascularization with no adverse effects on normal corneoscleral limbal vessels, demonstrating high efficacy and biocompatibility. (bvsalud.org)
  • Clinical evaluation and characterisation of corneal vascularisation. (medscape.com)
  • Keratitis includes diagnosis codes indicating keratitis, including corneal ulcer, other and unspecified superficial keratitis without conjunctivitis, keratoconjunctivitis, corneal neovascularization, or other or unspecified forms of keratitis. (cdc.gov)
  • The presence and severity of corneal NV was ascertained based on slit lamp photographs. (bmj.com)
  • Baseline characteristics including the rabbits ' weight and the severity of corneal injury were comparable in two groups. (bvsalud.org)
  • When neovascularization occurs without concurrent inflammation, it should be diagnosed and assigned a severity grade. (nih.gov)
  • November 11, 2008 (Atlanta, Georgia) - GS-101 eye-drop therapy results in a significant regression of corneal neovascularization, whereas treatment with placebo shows an increase in new vessels in all patients, according to the findings of a new phase 2 study. (medscape.com)
  • A dose of 86 µg/day produced significant regression of corneal neovascularization. (medscape.com)
  • Regression of corneal vascularization during silicone contact lens wear and the relationship to contact lens-induced anterior chamber hypoxia. (medscape.com)
  • Clinical and microscopic corneal neovascularization was observed in one eye (20%) in the treatment group and two eyes (40%) in the control group (P = 0.49). (bvsalud.org)
  • La neovascularización en el estroma corneal superficial, profundo o ambos es una secuela de numerosas enfermedades inflamatorias del segmento anterior del ojo, como tracoma, QUERATITIS intersticial vírica, QUERATOCONJUNTIVITIS microbiana y la respuesta inmunitaria que se produce por un TRASPLANTE DE CÓRNEA. (bvsalud.org)
  • progression leads to eyelid and corneal damage and sometimes blindness. (msdmanuals.com)
  • We propose to determine the efficacy of dietary supplementation of n-3 PUFA from OmegaRx2 Fish Oil (Zone Labs) to prevent corneal scar and NV in mouse model of corneal injuries. (nih.gov)
  • The research team's studies have shown that when using this method the medication maintains its efficacy for six months on a corneal graft rejection model. (nih.gov)
  • 5. Comparative study of the effects of recombinant human epidermal growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor on corneal epithelial wound healing and neovascularization in vivo and in vitro. (nih.gov)
  • 13. Effects of amniotic membrane suspension in human corneal wound healing in vitro. (nih.gov)
  • Imbalances in inflammation and improper wound-healing (resolution) causes corneal scar and neovascularization (NV) that leads to blindness. (nih.gov)
  • Currently, there is no FDA-approved drug that facilitates proper corneal wound healing. (nih.gov)
  • GS-101 is an antisense oligonucleotide against insulin-receptor substrate (IRS)-1 that is being evaluated for the treatment of neovascularization as a preconditioning to corneal-graft replacement. (medscape.com)
  • Filipec M, Hycl J, Kraus H. [Does vascularization and the graft diameter affect the rejection reaction in corneal transplantation? (medscape.com)
  • Researchers at Virginia Commonwealth University and Johns Hopkins University used a nanoparticle-encapsulated eye medication to decrease the risk of corneal graft rejection in animal models. (nih.gov)
  • In an interim analysis of a multicenter double-blind randomized phase 2 study, researchers assessed corneal neovascularization in 40 patients with progressive corneal neovascularization due to different underlying diseases, including herpetic or bacterial keratitis, chemical burn, and contact-lens-induced keratitis. (medscape.com)
  • In most cases of neovascularization, the primary insult is inflammation resulting from various causes. (nih.gov)
  • Corneal inflammation is also integral to genetic diseases like keratoconus, long-term wearing of contact lenses, and surgical corneal transplantation. (nih.gov)
  • Induction of neovascularization by activated human monocytes. (medscape.com)
  • We are all excited about the potential application of these new anti-VEGF agents for the treatment of new corneal neovascularization," said session moderator Terry Kim, MD, associate professor of ophthalmology at Duke University Eye Center, in Durham, North Carolina. (medscape.com)
  • Clinical correlates of common corneal neovascular diseases: a literature review. (medscape.com)
  • Although substantial research data is available regarding the benefits of n-3 PUFAs (DHA and EPA) in many human systemic diseases, the role of n-3 PUFAs in corneal healing and restoration of vision has not been studied. (nih.gov)
  • The nanoparticle approach reversed signs of early rejection and maintained corneal grafts for six months without rejection. (nih.gov)
  • Corneal vascularization due to corneal contact lenses: the clinical picture. (medscape.com)
  • Mean time interval from surgery to development of corneal NV was 12.8±16.2 months, with 68.9% of cases occurring before complete suture removal. (bmj.com)
  • Potential risk factors for corneal NV were evaluated using the Cox proportional hazards model. (bmj.com)
  • Conclusions The risk of corneal NV is higher in the first year following DALK. (bmj.com)
  • The effect of corneal trephination on neovascularization. (medscape.com)
  • 15. Effect of Amniotic Membrane Suspension (AMS) and Amniotic Membrane Homogenate (AMH) on Human Corneal Epithelial Cell Viability, Migration and Proliferation In Vitro. (nih.gov)
  • Time to complete corneal re-epithelialization was 37 days in the treatment group and 45 days in the control group (P = 0.83). (bvsalud.org)
  • To describe a new mouse model of corneal surface disease and neovascularization. (nih.gov)
  • The corneal epithelia of SOD-1-deficient mice or wild-type (WT) mice were removed after application of 0.15 N NaOH to establish the animal model of alkali burn. (nih.gov)
  • Results The cumulative incidence of corneal NV was 8.7% at 1 year after surgery and 13.2% at 5 years. (bmj.com)
  • Corneal epithelial cell kinetics demonstrated prominent labelling of corn1 mice at 30 days of age compared to the control mice. (nih.gov)
  • This is especially crucial in patients with Stevens-Johnson syndrome patients who have very compromised corneal surfaces and a lot of dryness. (youreyesinfocus.com)
  • Imre G. The role of increased lactic acid concentration in neovascularizations. (medscape.com)
  • An evaluation of the role of leukocytes in the pathogenesis of experimentally induced corneal vascularization. (medscape.com)
  • Results were expressed as labeled cells per linear millimeter of corneal epithelium. (nih.gov)
  • 10. Suppression of corneal neovascularization by PEDF release from human amniotic membranes. (nih.gov)